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Sample records for test site ground

  1. Chemistry and movement of ground water, Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoff, S.L.; Moore, J.E.

    1964-01-01

    Three chemical types of ground water are distinguished at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity. A sodium-potassium water is related to tuff (in part zeolitized) and to alluvium containing detrital tuff. A calcium-magnesium water is related to limestone and dolomite, or to alluvium containing detritus of these rock types. A mixed chemical type, containing about as much sodium and potassium as calcium and magnesium, may result from the addition of one of the first two types of water to the other; to passage of water first through tuff and then through carbonate rock, or vice versa; and to ion-exchange during water travel. Consideration of the distribution of these water types, together with the distribution of sodium in the water and progressive changes in the dissolved solids, suggests that the ground water in the Nevada Test Site probably moves toward the Amargosa Desert, not into Indian Spring Valley and thence southeastward toward Las Vegas. The low dissolved solids content of ground-water reservoirs in alluvium and tuff of the enclosed basins indicates that recharge is local in origin.

  2. Environmental assessment of SP-100 ground engineering system test site: Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to modify an existing reactor containment building (decommissioned Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) 309 Building) to provide ground test capability for the prototype SP-100 reactor. The 309 Building (Figure 1.1) is located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requires that Federal agencies assess the potential impacts that their actions may have on the environment. This Environmental Assessment describes the consideration given to environmental impacts during reactor concept and test site selection, examines the environmental effects of the DOE proposal to ground test the nuclear subsystem, describes alternatives to the proposed action, and examines radiological risks of potential SP-100 use in space. 73 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Effects of effluent spray irrigation on ground water at a test site near Tarpon Springs, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    Secondary-treated effluent was applied to a 7.2-acre test site near Tarpon Springs, Fla., for about 1 year at an average rate of 0.06 million gallons per day and 3 years at 0.11 million gallons per day. Chemical fertilizer was applied periodically to the test site and adjacent areas. Periodic mounding of the water table occurred due to effluent irrigation, inducing radial flow from the test site. Physical, geochemical, biochemical processes effectively reduced total nitrogen concentration 90% and total phosphorous concentration more than 95% in the ground water of the surficial aquifer about 300 feet downgradient from the test site from that of the applied effluent. Downgradient, total nitrogen averaged 2.4 milligrams per liter and total phosphorus averaged 0.17 milligrams per liter. Substantial increases in total phosphorus were observed when the pH of the ground water increased. Total coliform bacteria in the ground water of the surficial aquifer were generally less than 100 colonies per 100 milliliters. Fecal coliform bacteria were generally less than 25 colonies per 100 milliliters at the test site and were not detected downgradient or near the test site. Fecal streptococcal bacteria were generally less than 100 colonies per 100 milliliters at the test site, but were detected on three occasions near the test site. (USGS)

  4. AN OPEN-SOURCE COMMUNITY WEB SITE TO SUPPORT GROUND-WATER MODEL TESTING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A community wiki wiki web site has been created as a resource to support ground-water model development and testing. The Groundwater Gourmet wiki is a repository for user supplied analytical and numerical recipes, how-to's, and examples. Members are encouraged to submit analyti...

  5. Ground penetrating radar and direct current resistivity evaluation of the desiccation test cap, Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, D.E.; Cumbest, R.J.

    1996-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has a variety of waste units that may be temporarily or permanently stabilized by closure using an impermeable cover to prevent groundwater infiltration. The placement of an engineered kaolin clay layer over a waste unit is an accepted and economical technique for providing an impermeable cover but the long term stability and integrity of the clay in non-arid conditions is unknown. A simulated kaolin cap has been constructed at the SRA adjacent to the Burial Ground Complex. The cap is designed to evaluate the effects of desiccation on clay integrity, therefore half of the cap is covered with native soil to prevent drying, while the remainder of the cap is exposed. Measurements of the continuing impermeability of a clay cap are difficult because intrusive techniques may locally compromise the structure. Point measurements made to evaluate clay integrity, such as those from grid sampling or coring and made through a soil cover, may miss cracks, joints or fissures, and may not allow for mapping of the lateral extent of elongate features. Because of these problems, a non-invasive technique is needed to map clay integrity, below a soil or vegetation cover, which is capable of moderate to rapid investigation speeds. Two non-intrusive geophysical techniques, direct current resistivity and ground penetrating radar (GPR), have been successful at the SRS in geologically mapping shallow subsurface clay layers. The applicability of each technique in detecting the clay layer in the desiccation test cap and associated anomalies was investigated.

  6. An Open-source Community Web Site To Support Ground-Water Model Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, S. R.; Bakker, M.; Craig, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    A community wiki wiki web site has been created as a resource to support ground-water model development and testing. The Groundwater Gourmet wiki is a repository for user supplied analytical and numerical recipes, howtos, and examples. Members are encouraged to submit analytical solutions, including source code and documentation. A diversity of code snippets are sought in a variety of languages, including Fortran, C, C++, Matlab, Python. In the spirit of a wiki, all contributions may be edited and altered by other users, and open source licensing is promoted. Community accepted contributions are graduated into the library of analytic solutions and organized into either a Strack (Groundwater Mechanics, 1989) or Bruggeman (Analytical Solutions of Geohydrological Problems, 1999) classification. The examples section of the wiki are meant to include laboratory experiments (e.g., Hele Shaw), classical benchmark problems (e.g., Henry Problem), and controlled field experiments (e.g., Borden landfill and Cape Cod tracer tests). Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendation for use.

  7. Summary of ground motion prediction results for Nevada Test Site underground nuclear explosions related to the Yucca Mountain project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walck, M.C.

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes available data on ground motions from underground nuclear explosions recorded on and near the Nevada Test Site, with emphasis on the ground motions recorded at stations on Yucca Mountain, the site of a potential high-level radioactive waste repository. Sandia National Laboratories, through the Weapons Test Seismic Investigations project, collected and analyzed ground motion data from NTS explosions over a 14-year period, from 1977 through 1990. By combining these data with available data from earlier, larger explosions, prediction equations for several ground motion parameters have been developed for the Test Site area for underground nuclear explosion sources. Also presented are available analyses of the relationship between surface and downhole motions and spectra and relevant crustal velocity structure information for Yucca Mountain derived from the explosion data. The data and associated analyses demonstrate that ground motions at Yucca Mountain from nuclear tests have been at levels lower than would be expected from moderate to large earthquakes in the region; thus nuclear explosions, while located relatively close, would not control seismic design criteria for the potential repository.

  8. JPL field measurements at the Finney County, Kansas, test site, October 1976: Ground-based microwave radiometric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoku, E. G.; Yamane, N. I.

    1977-01-01

    Microwave brightness temperature measurements were made as part of the Joint Soil Moisture Experiment. These measurements are reported with a description of the JPL microwave radiometry van facility. The data will be used with ground truth data from the test site and microwave data from aircraft overflights to investigate the potential of microwave radiometry for soil moisture remote sensing under field conditions.

  9. Evaluation of Nevada Test Site Ground Motion and Rock Property Data to Bound Ground Motions at the Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L J; Foxall, W; Rambo, J; Wagoner, J L

    2005-02-14

    Yucca Mountain licensing will require estimation of ground motions from probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA) with annual probabilities of exceedance on the order of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} per year or smaller, which correspond to much longer earthquake return periods than most previous PSHA studies. These long return periods for the Yucca Mountain PSHA result in estimates of ground motion that are extremely high ({approx} 10 g) and that are believed to be physically unrealizable. However, there is at present no generally accepted method to bound ground motions either by showing that the physical properties of materials cannot maintain such extreme motions, or the energy release by the source for such large motions is physically impossible. The purpose of this feasibility study is to examine recorded ground motion and rock property data from nuclear explosions to determine its usefulness for studying the ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The premise is that nuclear explosions are an extreme energy density source, and that the recorded ground motion will provide useful information about the limits of ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The data were categorized by the source and rock properties, and evaluated as to what extent non-linearity in the material has affected the recordings. They also compiled existing results of non-linear dynamic modeling of the explosions carried out by LLNL and other institutions. They conducted an extensive literature review to outline current understanding of extreme ground motion. They also analyzed the data in terms of estimating maximum ground motions at Yucca Mountain.

  10. Evaluation of Nevada Test Site Ground Motion and Rock Property Data to Bound Ground Motions at the Yucca Mountain Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L H; Foxall, W; Rambo, J; Wagoner, J L

    2005-03-09

    Yucca Mountain licensing will require estimation of ground motions from probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA) with annual probabilities of exceedance on the order of 10{sup -6} to 10{sup -7} per year or smaller, which correspond to much longer earthquake return periods than most previous PSHA studies. These long return periods for the Yucca Mountain PSHA result in estimates of ground motion that are extremely high ({approx} 10 g) and that are believed to be physically unrealizable. However, there is at present no generally accepted method to bound ground motions either by showing that the physical properties of materials cannot maintain such extreme motions, or the energy release by the source for such large motions is physically impossible. The purpose of this feasibility study is to examine recorded ground motion and rock property data from nuclear explosions to determine its usefulness for studying the ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The premise is that nuclear explosions are an extreme energy density source, and that the recorded ground motion will provide useful information about the limits of ground motion from extreme earthquakes. The data were categorized by the source and rock properties, and evaluated as to what extent non-linearity in the material has affected the recordings. They also compiled existing results of non-linear dynamic modeling of the explosions carried out by LLNL and other institutions. They conducted an extensive literature review to outline current understanding of extreme ground motion. They also analyzed the data in terms of estimating maximum ground motions at Yucca Mountain.

  11. Ground-based vicarious radiometric calibration of Landsat 7 ETM+ and Terra MODIS using an automated test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czapla-Myers, J.; Leisso, N.

    2010-12-01

    The Remote Sensing Group at the University of Arizona has operated the Radiometric Calibration Test Site (RadCaTS) at Railroad Valley, Nevada, since 2004. It is an approach to ground-based vicarious calibration that does not require on-site personnel to make surface and atmospheric measurements during a satellite overpass. It was originally developed in 2002 in an attempt to increase the amount of data collected throughout the year while maintaining the accuracy of in-situ measurements. RadCaTS currently consists of four ground-viewing radiometers to measure surface reflectance, a Cimel sun photometer to make atmospheric measurements, and a weather station to measure ambient conditions. The data from these instruments are used in MODTRAN 5 to determine the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiance for a given overpass time, and the results are compared to the sensor under test. The work presented here describes the RadCaTS instrumentation suite and automated processing scheme used to determine the surface reflectance and TOA spectral radiance. The instruments used to measure surface and atmospheric properties are presented, followed by a discussion of their spatial layout and their radiometric calibration. The RadCaTS ground-based results are compared to those from Aqua and Terra MODIS overpasses in 2008, and Landsat 7 ETM+ overpasses in 2009.

  12. Summary of hydrogeologic controls on ground-water flow at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laczniak, R.J.; Cole, J.C.; Sawyer, D.A.; Trudeau, D.A.

    1996-07-01

    The underground testing of nuclear devices has generated substantial volumes of radioactive and other chemical contaminants below ground at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Many of the more radioactive contaminants are highly toxic and are known to persist in the environment for thousands of years. In response to concerns about potential health hazards, the US Department of Energy, under its Environmental Restoration Program, has made NTS the subject of a long-term investigation. Efforts will assess whether byproducts of underground testing pose a potential hazard to the health and safety of the public and, if necessary, will evaluate and implement steps to remediate any of the identified dangers. Ground-water flow is the primary mechanism by which contaminants can be transported significant distances away from the initial point of injection. Flow paths between contaminant sources and potential receptors are separated by remote areas that span tens of miles. The diversity and structural complexity of the rocks along these flow paths complicates the hydrology of the region. Although the hydrology has been studied in some detail, much still remains uncertain about flow rates and directions through the fractured-rock aquifers that transmit water great distances across this arid region. Unique to the hydrology of NTS are the effects of underground testing, which severely alter local rock characteristics and affect hydrologic conditions throughout the region. This report summarizes what is known and inferred about ground-water flow throughout the NTS region. The report identifies and updates what is known about some of the major controls on ground-water flow, highlights some of the uncertainties in the current understanding, and prioritizes some of the technical needs as related to the Environmental Restoration Program. 113 refs.

  13. Snowpack ground truth: Radar test site, Steamboat Springs, Colorado, 8-16 April 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, S.; Jones, E. B.; Leaf, C. F.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-truth data taken at Steamboat Springs, Colorado is presented. Data taken during the period April 8, 1976 - April 16, 1976 included the following: (1) snow depths and densities at selected locations (using a Mount Rose snow tube); (2) snow pits for temperature, density, and liquid water determinations using the freezing calorimetry technique and vertical layer classification; (3) snow walls were also constructed of various cross sections and documented with respect to sizes and snow characteristics; (4) soil moisture at selected locations; and (5) appropriate air temperature and weather data.

  14. Space-Borne and Ground-Based InSAR Data Integration: The Åknes Test Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Bardi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work concerns a proposal of the integration of InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar data acquired by ground-based (GB and satellite platforms. The selected test site is the Åknes rockslide, which affects the western Norwegian coast. The availability of GB-InSAR and satellite InSAR data and the accessibility of a wide literature make the landslide suitable for testing the proposed procedure. The first step consists of the organization of a geodatabase, performed in the GIS environment, containing all of the available data. The second step concerns the analysis of satellite and GB-InSAR data, separately. Two datasets, acquired by RADARSAT-2 (related to a period between October 2008 and August 2013 and by a combination of TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X (acquired between July 2010 and October 2012, both of them in ascending orbit, processed applying SBAS (Small BAseline Subset method, are available. GB-InSAR data related to five different campaigns of measurements, referred to the summer seasons of 2006, 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2012, are available, as well. The third step relies on data integration, performed firstly from a qualitative point of view and later from a semi-quantitative point of view. The results of the proposed procedure have been validated by comparing them to GPS (Global Positioning System data. The proposed procedure allowed us to better define landslide sectors in terms of different ranges of displacements. From a qualitative point of view, stable and unstable areas have been distinguished. In the sector concerning movement, two different sectors have been defined thanks to the results of the semi-quantitative integration step: the first sector, concerning displacement values higher than 10 mm, and the 2nd sector, where the displacements did not exceed a 10-mm value of displacement in the analyzed period.

  15. Site-specific ground response analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L. GovindaRaju; G. V. Ramana; C. HanumanthaRao; T. G. Sitharam

    2004-01-01

    ... modifications to the underlying motion. We highlight the engineering importance of site-specific ground response analysis and difficulties faced in conducting a complete ground response analysis...

  16. The Las Vegas Valley Seismic Response Project: Ground Motions in Las Vegas Valley from Nuclear Explosions at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, A; Tkalcic, H; McCallen, D

    2005-03-18

    Between 2001-2004 the Las Vegas Seismic Response Project has sought to understand the response of Las Vegas Valley (LVV) to seismic excitation. In this study, the author report the findings of this project with an emphasis on ground motions in LVV from nuclear explosions at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). These ground motions are used to understand building structural response and damage as well as human perception. Historical nuclear explosion observations are augmented with earthquake recordings from a temporary deployment of seismometers to improve spatial coverage of LVV. The nuclear explosions were conducted between 1968 and 1989 and were recorded at various sites within Las Vegas. The data from past nuclear tests were used to constrain ground motions in LVV and to gain a predictive capability of ground motions for possible future nuclear tests at NTS. Analysis of ground motion data includes peak ground motions (accelerations and velocities) and amplification of basin sites relative to hard rock sites (site response). Site response was measured with the Standard Spectral Ratios (SSR) technique relative to hard rock reference sites on the periphery of LVV. The site response curves indicate a strong basin amplification of up to a factor of ten at frequencies between 0.5-2 Hz. Amplifications are strongest in the central and northern portions of LVV, where the basin is deeper than 1 km based on the reported basin depths of Langenheim et al (2001a). They found a strong correlation between amplification and basin depth and shallow shear wave velocities. Amplification below 1 Hz is strongly controlled by slowness-averaged shear velocities to depths of 30 and 100 meters. Depth averaged shear velocities to 10 meters has modest control of amplifications between 1-3 Hz. Modeling reveals that low velocity material in the shallow layers (< 200 m) effectively controls amplification. They developed a method to scale nuclear explosion ground motion time series to sites around LVV

  17. Two-dimensional, steady-state model of ground-water flow, Nevada Test Site and vicinity, Nevada-California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    A two-dimensional, steady-state model of ground-water flow beneath the Nevada Test Site and vicinity has been developed using inverse techniques. The area is underlain by clastic and carbonate rocks of Precambrian and Paleozoic age and by volcanic rocks and alluvium of Tertiary and Quaternary age that have been juxtaposed by normal and strike-slip faulting. Aquifers are composed of carbonate and volcanic rocks and alluvium. Characteristics of the flow system are determined by distribution of low-conductivity rocks (barriers); by recharge originating in the Spring Mountains, Pahranagat, Timpahute, and Sheep Ranges, and in Pahute Mesa; and by underflow beneath Pahute Mesa from Gold Flat and Kawich Valley. Discharge areas (Ash Meadows, Oasis Valley, Alkali Flat, and Furnace Creek Ranch) are upgradient from barriers. Sensitivities of simulated hydraulic heads and fluxes to variations in model parameters were calculated to guide field studies and to help estimate errors in predictions from transport modeling. Hydraulic heads and fluxes are very sensitive to variations in the greater magnitude recharge/discharge terms. Transmissivity at a location may not be the most important transmissivity for determining flux there. Transmissivities and geometries of large barriers that impede flow from Pahute Mesa have major effects on fluxes elsewhere; as their transmissivities are decreased, flux beneath western Jackass Flats and Yucca Mountains is increased as water is diverted around the barriers. Fortymile Canyon is underlain by highly transmissive rocks that cause potentiometric contours to vee upgradient; increasing their transmissivity increases flow through them, and decreases it beneath Yucca Mountain. (USGS)

  18. Geology, water supply, and waste disposal at sites II and IIA, burial ground D, and vicinity, national reactor testing station, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voegeli, P. T.; Deutson, M.

    1953-06-01

    The problems of geology, water-supply, and waste disposal at the National Reactor Testing Station (NRTS), Idaho are studied. The geologic and hydrologic information about sites II and IIA are summarized. Information about the physical properties of geologic materials is summarized. Information obtained from deep test holes and wells near the mapped area and data from test pits and shallow test holes within the area are included. Chemical analysis of samples of ground water was performed. Ion exchange tests of sediments were also performed. These results are included. (DC)

  19. Measurement of ground motion in various sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialowons, W.; Amirikas, R.; Bertolini, A.; Kruecker, D.

    2007-04-15

    Ground vibrations may affect low emittance beam transport in linear colliders, Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and synchrotron radiation facilities. This paper is an overview of a study program to measure ground vibrations in various sites which can be used for site characterization in relation to accelerator design. Commercial broadband seismometers have been used to measure ground vibrations and the resultant database is available to the scientific community. The methodology employed is to use the same equipment and data analysis tools for ease of comparison. This database of ground vibrations taken in 19 sites around the world is first of its kind. (orig.)

  20. SIR-C/X-SAR data calibration and ground truth campaign over the NASA-CB1 test-site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notarnicola, C.; Posa, F.; Refice, A.; Sergi, R.; Smacchia, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica della Materia and Dipartimento Interateneo di Fisica, Bari (Italy); Casarano, D. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondella, MT (Italy); De Carolis, G.; Mattia, F. [Istituto di Tecnologia Informatica Spaziale-Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Centro di Geodesia Spaziale G. Colombo, Terlecchia, MT (Italy); Schena, V.D. [Alenia Spazio, Rome (Italy)

    2001-02-01

    During the Space Shuttle Endeavour mission in October 1994, a remote-sensing campaign was carried out with the objectives of both radiometric and polarimetric calibration and ground truth data acquisition of bare soils. This paper presents the results obtained in the experiment. Polarimetric cross-talk and channel imbalance values, as well as radiometric calibration parameters, have been found to be within the science requirements for SAR images. Regarding ground truth measurements, a wide spread in the height rms values and correlation lengths has been observed, which was motivated a critical revisiting of surface parameters descriptors.

  1. Hanford site ground water protection management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    Ground water protection at the Hanford Site consists of preventative and remedial measures that are implemented in compliance with a variety of environmental regulations at local, state, and federal levels. These measures seek to ensure that the resource can sustain a broad range of beneficial uses. To effectively coordinate and ensure compliance with applicable regulations, the U.S. Department of Energy has issued DOE Order 5400.1 (DOE 1988a). This order requires all U.S. Department of Energy facilities to prepare separate ground water protection program descriptions and plans. This document describes the Ground Water Protection Management Plan (GPMP) for the Hanford Site located in the state of Washington. DOE Order 5400.1 specifies that the GPMP covers the following general topical areas: (1) documentation of the ground water regime; (2) design and implementation of a ground water monitoring program to support resource management and comply with applicable laws and regulations; (3) a management program for ground water protection and remediation; (4) a summary and identification of areas that may be contaminated with hazardous waste; (5) strategies for controlling hazardous waste sources; (6) a remedial action program; and (7) decontamination, decommissioning, and related remedial action requirements. Many of the above elements are currently covered by existing programs at the Hanford Site; thus, one of the primary purposes of this document is to provide a framework for coordination of existing ground water protection activities. The GPMP provides the ground water protection policy and strategies for ground water protection/management at the Hanford Site, as well as an implementation plan to improve coordination of site ground water activities.

  2. Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chakraborty, Sudipta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chebahtah, Justin [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); Wang, Trudie [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); McCarty, Michael [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2015-08-12

    This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient overvoltages created by several commercial PV inverters during ground fault conditions. For this work, a test plan developed by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Load rejection overvoltage test results were reported previously in a separate technical report.

  3. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation at the Norbo Underground Nuclear Test in U8c, Nevada Nuclear Security Site, and the Impact on Stability of the Ground Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawloski, G A

    2012-06-18

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Containment Program performed a review of nuclear test-related data for the Norbo underground nuclear test in U8c to assist in evaluating this legacy site as a test bed for application technologies for use in On-Site Inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. This request is similar to one made for the Salut site in U8c (Pawloski, 2012b). Review of the Norbo site is complicated because the test first exhibited subsurface collapse, which was not unusual, but it then collapsed to the surface over one year later, which was unusual. Of particular interest is the stability of the ground surface above the Norbo detonation point. Proposed methods for on-site verification include radiological signatures, artifacts from nuclear testing activities, and imaging to identify alteration to the subsurface hydrogeology due to the nuclear detonation. Aviva Sussman from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has also proposed work at this site. Both proposals require physical access at or near the ground surface of specific underground nuclear test locations at the Nevada Nuclear Security Site (NNSS), formerly the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and focus on possible activities such as visual observation, multispectral measurements, and shallow and deep geophysical surveys.

  4. Site Selection for Hvdc Ground Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, P. F.; Pereira, S. Y.

    2014-12-01

    High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission systems are composed of a bipole transmission line with a converter substation at each end. Each substation may be equipped with a HVDC ground electrode, which is a wide area (up to 1 km Ø) and deep (from 3 to 100m) electrical grounding. When in normal operation, the ground electrode will dissipate in the soil the unbalance of the bipole (~1.5% of the rated current). When in monopolar operation with ground return, the HVDC electrode will inject in the soil the nominal pole continuous current, of about 2000 to 3000 Amperes, continuously for a period up to a few hours. HVDC ground electrodes site selection is a work based on extensive geophysical and geological surveys, in order to attend the desired design requirements established for the electrodes, considering both its operational conditions (maximum soil temperature, working life, local soil voltage gradients etc.) and the interference effects on the installations located up to 50 km away. This poster presents the geophysical investigations conducted primarily for the electrodes site selection, and subsequently for the development of the crust resistivity model, which will be used for the interference studies. A preliminary site selection is conducted, based on general geographical and geological criteria. Subsequently, the geology of each chosen area is surveyed in detail, by means of electromagnetic/electrical geophysical techniques, such as magnetotelluric (deep), TDEM (near-surface) and electroresistivity (shallow). Other complementary geologic and geotechnical surveys are conducted, such as wells drilling (for geotechnical characterization, measurement of the water table depth and water flow, and electromagnetic profiling), and soil and water sampling (for measurement of thermal parameters and evaluation of electrosmosis risk). The site evaluation is a dynamic process along the surveys, and some sites will be discarded. For the two or three final sites, the

  5. A ground-based magnetic survey of Frenchman Flat, Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada: data release and preliminary interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Burton, Bethany L.; Curry-Elrod, Erika; Drellack, Sigmund

    2014-01-01

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) is located in southern Nevada approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas. Frenchman Flat is a sedimentary basin located on the eastern edge of NNSS and extending eastward into the adjacent Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR).

  6. Evaluation of Cavity Collapse and Surface Crater Formation at the Salut Underground Nuclear Test in U20ak, Nevada National Security Site, and the Impact of Stability of the Ground Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawloski, G A

    2012-04-25

    At the request of Jerry Sweeney, the LLNL Containment Program performed a review of nuclear test-related data for the Salut underground nuclear test in U20ak to assist in evaluating this legacy site as a test bed for application technologies for use in On-Site Inspections (OSI) under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Review of the Salut site is complicated because the test experienced a subsurface, rather than surface, collapse. Of particular interest is the stability of the ground surface above the Salut detonation point. Proposed methods for on-site verification include radiological signatures, artifacts from nuclear testing activities, and imaging to identify alteration to the subsurface hydrogeologogy due to the nuclear detonation. Sweeney's proposal requires physical access at or near the ground surface of specific underground nuclear test locations at the Nevada Nuclear Test Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site), and focuses on possible activities such as visual observation, multispectral measurements, and shallow, and deep geophysical surveys.

  7. 2011 Ground Testing Highlights Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Buchholz, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two tests supporting development of the launch abort system for the Orion MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle were run in the NASA Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnel last year. The first test used a fully metric model to examine the stability and controllability of the Launch Abort Vehicle during potential abort scenarios for Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 2.5. The aerodynamic effects of the Abort Motor and Attitude Control Motor plumes were simulated using high-pressure air flowing through independent paths. The aerodynamic effects of the proximity to the launch vehicle during the early moments of an abort were simulated with a remotely actuated Service Module that allowed the position relative to the Crew Module to be varied appropriately. The second test simulated the acoustic environment around the Launch Abort Vehicle caused by the plumes from the 400,000-pound thrust, solid-fueled Abort Motor. To obtain the proper acoustic characteristics of the hot rocket plumes for the flight vehicle, heated Helium was used. A custom Helium supply system was developed for the test consisting of 2 jumbo high-pressure Helium trailers, a twelve-tube accumulator, and a 13MW gas-fired heater borrowed from the Propulsion Simulation Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test provided fluctuating surface pressure measurements at over 200 points on the vehicle surface that have now been used to define the ground-testing requirements for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle.

  8. Desert Test Site Uniformity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerola, Dana X.; Bruegge, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    Desert test sites such as Railroad Valley (RRV) Nevada, Egypt-1, and Libya-4 are commonly targeted to assess the on-orbit radiometric performance of sensors. Railroad Valley is used for vicarious calibration experiments, where a field-team makes ground measurements to produce accurate estimates of top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiances. The Sahara desert test sites are not instrumented, but provide a stable target that can be used for sensor cross-comparisons, or for stability monitoring of a single sensor. These sites are of interest to NASA's Atmospheric Carbon Observation from Space (ACOS) and JAXA's Greenhouse Gas Observation SATellite (GOSAT) programs. This study assesses the utility of these three test sites to the ACOS and GOSAT calibration teams. To simulate errors in sensor-measured radiance with pointing errors, simulated data have been created using MODIS Aqua data. MODIS data are further utilized to validate the campaign data acquired from June 22 through July 5, 2009. The first GOSAT vicarious calibration experiment was conducted during this timeframe.

  9. Large Payload Ground Transportation and Test Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    Many spacecraft concepts under consideration by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Evolvable Mars Campaign take advantage of a Space Launch System payload shroud that may be 8 to 10 meters in diameter. Large payloads can theoretically save cost by reducing the number of launches needed--but only if it is possible to build, test, and transport a large payload to the launch site in the first place. Analysis performed previously for the Altair project identified several transportation and test issues with an 8.973 meters diameter payload. Although the entire Constellation Program—including Altair—has since been canceled, these issues serve as important lessons learned for spacecraft designers and program managers considering large payloads for future programs. A transportation feasibility study found that, even broken up into an Ascent and Descent Module, the Altair spacecraft would not fit inside available aircraft. Ground transportation of such large payloads over extended distances is not generally permitted, so overland transportation alone would not be an option. Limited ground transportation to the nearest waterway may be possible, but water transportation could take as long as 67 days per production unit, depending on point of origin and acceptance test facility; transportation from the western United States would require transit through the Panama Canal to access the Kennedy Space Center launch site. Large payloads also pose acceptance test and ground processing challenges. Although propulsion, mechanical vibration, and reverberant acoustic test facilities at NASA’s Plum Brook Station have been designed to accommodate large spacecraft, special handling and test work-arounds may be necessary, which could increase cost, schedule, and technical risk. Once at the launch site, there are no facilities currently capable of accommodating the combination of large payload size and hazardous processing such as hypergolic fuels

  10. HANFORD SITE ENVIRONMENTAL DATA FOR CALENDAR YEAR 1989 - GROUND WATER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryce, R. W.; Gorst, W. R.

    1990-12-01

    In a continuing effort for the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site, near Richland, Washington. This document contains the data listing of monitoring results obtained by PNL and Westinghouse Hanford Company during the period January through December 1989. Samples taken during 1989 were analyzed and reported by United States Testing Company, Inc., Richland, Washington. The data listing contains all chemical results (above contractual reporting limits) and radiochemical results (for which the result is larger than two times the total error).

  11. Analysis of Ground-Water Levels and Associated Trends in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, 1951-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Fenelon

    2005-10-05

    depressurization following nuclear testing. The magnitude of the overall water-level change for wells with anthropogenic trends can be large, ranging from several feet to hundreds of feet. Vertical water-level differences at 27 sites in Yucca Flat with multiple open intervals were compared. Large vertical differences were noted in volcanic rocks and in boreholes where water levels were affected by nuclear tests. Small vertical differences were noted within the carbonate-rock and valley-fill aquifers. Vertical hydraulic gradients generally are downward in volcanic rocks and from pre-Tertiary clastic rocks toward volcanic- or carbonate-rock units.

  12. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Thorne, P.D.; Luttrell, S.P. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1994 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiologic and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1994 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1993 and June 1994. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal.

  13. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Ground Test History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P.

    2014-01-01

    allowed to be release in open air and successfully demonstrated a scrubber concept with the NF-1. The ETS stand was the only one with a high altitude test chamber used for XE'. The ETS and other test cells showed the effects the engine's radiation had on the facility materials and instrumentation as well as side effects the ground test facility has back on the engine operation. The breakdown of Phoebus 1A at test cell C showed how the site was cleaned up and back to operation for five more engines before the program was cancelled.

  14. Site Specific Ground Response Analysis for Quantifying Site Amplification at A Regolith Site

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang Setiawan

    2017-01-01

    DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.3.159-167A numerical model has demonstrated that it can simulate reasonably well earthquake motions at the ground level during a seismic event. The most widely used model is an equivalent linear approach. The equivalent linear model was used to compute the free-field response of Adelaide regolith during the 1997 Burra earthquake. The aim of this study is to quantify the amplification at the investigated site. The model computed the ground response of horizontally layered ...

  15. Patterns of roost site selection and use by Southern Ground ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different habitats may be used for the needs of various aspects of an animal's life. Southern Ground-Hornbill Bucorvus leadbeateri groups announce their presence within year-round territories by calling at dawn from their overnight roost sites. Knowledge on ground-hornbill roosting habits is limited. Groups roost in large ...

  16. Advanced Testing Method for Ground Thermal Conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL; Clemenzi, Rick [Geothermal Design Center Inc.; Liu, Su [University of Tennessee (UT)

    2017-04-01

    A new method is developed that can quickly and more accurately determine the effective ground thermal conductivity (GTC) based on thermal response test (TRT) results. Ground thermal conductivity is an important parameter for sizing ground heat exchangers (GHEXs) used by geothermal heat pump systems. The conventional GTC test method usually requires a TRT for 48 hours with a very stable electric power supply throughout the entire test. In contrast, the new method reduces the required test time by 40%–60% or more, and it can determine GTC even with an unstable or intermittent power supply. Consequently, it can significantly reduce the cost of GTC testing and increase its use, which will enable optimal design of geothermal heat pump systems. Further, this new method provides more information about the thermal properties of the GHEX and the ground than previous techniques. It can verify the installation quality of GHEXs and has the potential, if developed, to characterize the heterogeneous thermal properties of the ground formation surrounding the GHEXs.

  17. Uncertainty of site amplification derived from ground response analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Afshari, K; Stewart, JP

    2015-01-01

    Site-specific geotechnical ground response analyses (GRAs) are typically performed to evaluate stress and strain demands within soil profiles and/or to improve the estimation of site response relative to generic site terms from empirical prediction equations. Implementation of GRA results in probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) requires knowledge of the mean and standard deviation of site amplification from GRA. We provide expressions for evaluating within-event standard deviations of...

  18. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dresel, P.E.; Luttrell, S.P.; Evans, J.C. [and others

    1994-09-01

    This report presents the results of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project monitoring for calendar year 1993 on the Hanford Site, Washington. Hanford Site operations from 1943 onward produced large quantities of radiological and chemical waste that have impacted ground-water quality on the Site. Monitoring of water levels and ground-water chemistry is performed to track the extent of contamination and trends in contaminant concentrations. The 1993 monitoring was also designed to identify emerging ground-water quality problems. The information obtained is used to verify compliance with applicable environmental regulations and to evaluate remedial actions. Data from other monitoring and characterization programs were incorporated to provide an integrated assessment of Site ground-water quality. Additional characterization of the Site`s geologic setting and hydrology was performed to support the interpretation of contaminant distributions. Numerical modeling of sitewide ground-water flow also supported the overall project goals. Water-level monitoring was performed to evaluate ground-water flow directions, to track changes in water levels, and to relate such changes to changes in site disposal practices. Water levels over most of the Hanford Site continued to decline between June 1992 and June 1993. The greatest declines occurred in the 200-West Area. These declines are part of the continued response to the cessation of discharge to U Pond and other disposal facilities. The low permeability in this area which enhanced mounding of waste-water discharge has also slowed the response to the reduction of disposal. Water levels remained nearly constant in the vicinity of B Pond, as a result of continued disposal to the pond. Water levels measured from wells in the unconfined aquifer north and east of the Columbia River indicate that the primary source of recharge is irrigation practices.

  19. System Testing of Ground Cooling System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensey, Tyler Steven

    2014-01-01

    This internship focused primarily upon software unit testing of Ground Cooling System (GCS) components, one of the three types of tests (unit, integrated, and COTS/regression) utilized in software verification. Unit tests are used to test the software of necessary components before it is implemented into the hardware. A unit test determines that the control data, usage procedures, and operating procedures of a particular component are tested to determine if the program is fit for use. Three different files are used to make and complete an efficient unit test. These files include the following: Model Test file (.mdl), Simulink SystemTest (.test), and autotest (.m). The Model Test file includes the component that is being tested with the appropriate Discrete Physical Interface (DPI) for testing. The Simulink SystemTest is a program used to test all of the requirements of the component. The autotest tests that the component passes Model Advisor and System Testing, and puts the results into proper files. Once unit testing is completed on the GCS components they can then be implemented into the GCS Schematic and the software of the GCS model as a whole can be tested using integrated testing. Unit testing is a critical part of software verification; it allows for the testing of more basic components before a model of higher fidelity is tested, making the process of testing flow in an orderly manner.

  20. Characteristics of ground motion at permafrost sites along the Qinghai-Tibet railway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Wu, Z.; Sun, Jielun; Liu, Xiuying; Wang, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Based on 14 typical drilling holes distributed in the permafrost areas along the Qinghai-Tibet railway, the distribution of wave velocities of soils in the permafrost regions were determined. Using results of dynamic triaxial tests, the results of dynamic triaxiality test and time histories of ground motion acceleration in this area, characteristics of ground motion response were analyzed for these permafrost sites for time histories of ground accelerations with three exceedance probabilities (63%, 10% and 2%). The influence of ground temperature on the seismic displacement, velocity, acceleration and response spectrum on the surface of permafrost were also studied. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The PLATO Antarctic site testing observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, J. S.; Allen, G. R.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Bonner, C.; Bradley, S.; Cui, X.; Everett, J. R.; Feng, L.; Gong, X.; Hengst, S.; Hu, J.; Jiang, Z.; Kulesa, C. A.; Li, Y.; Luong-Van, D.; Moore, A. M.; Pennypacker, C.; Qin, W.; Riddle, R.; Shang, Z.; Storey, J. W. V.; Sun, B.; Suntzeff, N.; Tothill, N. F. H.; Travouillon, T.; Walker, C. K.; Wang, L.; Yan, J.; Yang, J.; Yang, H.; York, D.; Yuan, X.; Zhang, X. G.; Zhang, Z.; Zhou, X.; Zhu, Z.

    2008-07-01

    Over a decade of site testing in Antarctica has shown that both South Pole and Dome C are exceptional sites for astronomy, with certain atmospheric conditions superior to those at existing mid-latitude sites. However, the highest point on the Antarctic plateau, Dome A, is expected to experience colder atmospheric temperatures, lower wind speeds, and a turbulent boundary layer that is confined closer to the ground. The Polar Research Institute of China, who were the first to visit the Dome A site in January 2005, plan to establish a permanently manned station there within the next decade. As part of this process they conducted a second expedition to Dome A, arriving via overland traverse in January 2008. This traverse involved the delivery and installation of the PLATeau Observatory (PLATO). PLATO is an automated self-powered astrophysical site testing observatory, developed by the University of New South Wales. A number of international institutions have contributed site testing instruments measuring turbulence, optical sky background, and sub-millimetre transparency. In addition, a set of science instruments are providing wide-field high time resolution optical photometry and terahertz imaging of the Galaxy. We present here an overview of the PLATO system design and instrumentation suite.

  2. Site Specific Ground Response Analysis for Quantifying Site Amplification at A Regolith Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Setiawan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.4.3.159-167A numerical model has demonstrated that it can simulate reasonably well earthquake motions at the ground level during a seismic event. The most widely used model is an equivalent linear approach. The equivalent linear model was used to compute the free-field response of Adelaide regolith during the 1997 Burra earthquake. The aim of this study is to quantify the amplification at the investigated site. The model computed the ground response of horizontally layered soil deposits subjected to transient and vertically propagating shear waves through a one-dimensional-soil column. Each soil layer was assumed to be homogeneous, visco-elastic, and infinite in the horizontal extent. The results of this study were compared to other studies and forward computation of the geotechnical dynamic parameters of the investigated site. The amplification triggered by the 1997 Burra seismic event was deduced. This study reveals the amplification factor up to 3.6 at the studied site.

  3. EPA True NO2 ground site measurements – multiple sites, TCEQ ground site measurements of meteorological and air pollution parameters – multiple sites ,GeoTASO NO2 Vertical Column

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA True NO2 ground site measurements – multiple sites - http://www-air.larc.nasa.gov/cgi-bin/ArcView/discover-aq.tx-2013; TCEQ ground site measurements of...

  4. Nevada Test Site closure program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenk, D.P.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the history, design and development, procurement, fabrication, installation and operation of the closures used as containment devices on underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. It also addresses the closure program mothball and start-up procedures. The Closure Program Document Index and equipment inventories, included as appendices, serve as location directories for future document reference and equipment use.

  5. TC-13 Mod 0 and Mod 2 Steam Catapult Test Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located on 11,000 feet of test runway, the TC-13 Mod 0 and Mod 2 Steam Catapult Test Site has in-ground catapults identical to those aboard carriers. This test site...

  6. 30 CFR 56.12028 - Testing grounding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing grounding systems. 56.12028 Section 56.12028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL....12028 Testing grounding systems. Continuity and resistance of grounding systems shall be tested...

  7. Topographic gradient based site characterization in India complemented by strong ground-motion spectral attributes

    KAUST Repository

    Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2013-12-01

    We appraise topographic-gradient approach for site classification that employs correlations between 30. m column averaged shear-wave velocity and topographic gradients. Assessments based on site classifications reported from cities across India indicate that the approach is reasonably viable at regional level. Additionally, we experiment three techniques for site classification based on strong ground-motion recordings, namely Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (HVSR), Response Spectra Shape (RSS), and Horizontal-to-Vertical Response Spectral Ratio (HVRSR) at the strong motion stations located across the Himalayas and northeast India. Statistical tests on the results indicate that these three techniques broadly differentiate soil and rock sites while RSS and HVRSR yield better signatures. The results also support the implemented site classification in the light of strong ground-motion spectral attributes observed in different parts of the globe. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Integrated ground-water monitoring strategy for NRC-licensed facilities and sites: Case study applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, V.; Temples, T.; Hodges, R.; Dai, Z.; Watkins, D.; Imrich, J.

    2007-01-01

    This document discusses results of applying the Integrated Ground-Water Monitoring Strategy (the Strategy) to actual waste sites using existing field characterization and monitoring data. The Strategy is a systematic approach to dealing with complex sites. Application of such a systematic approach will reduce uncertainty associated with site analysis, and therefore uncertainty associated with management decisions about a site. The Strategy can be used to guide the development of a ground-water monitoring program or to review an existing one. The sites selected for study fall within a wide range of geologic and climatic settings, waste compositions, and site design characteristics and represent realistic cases that might be encountered by the NRC. No one case study illustrates a comprehensive application of the Strategy using all available site data. Rather, within each case study we focus on certain aspects of the Strategy, to illustrate concepts that can be applied generically to all sites. The test sites selected include:Charleston, South Carolina, Naval Weapons Station,Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, New York,The USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site in Nevada,Rocky Flats in Colorado,C-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina, andThe Hanford 300 Area.A Data Analysis section provides examples of detailed data analysis of monitoring data.

  9. 30 CFR 57.12028 - Testing grounding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Testing grounding systems. 57.12028 Section 57.12028 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Surface and Underground § 57.12028 Testing grounding systems. Continuity and resistance of grounding...

  10. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-05-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site.

  11. Nevada Test Site Wetlands Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen

    1997-05-01

    This report identifies 16 Nevada Test Site (NTS) natural water sources that may be classified by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as jurisdictional wetlands and identifies eight water sources that may be classified as waters of the United States. These water sources are rare, localized habitats on the NTS that are important to regional wildlife and to isolated populations of water tolerant plants and aquatic organisms. No field investigations on the NTS have been conducted in the past to identify those natural water sources which would be protected as rare habitats and which may fall under regulatory authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1997. This report identifies and summarizes previous studies of NTS natural water sources, and identifies the current DOE management practices related to the protection of NTS wetlands. This report also presents management goals specific for NTS wetlands that incorporate the intent of existing wetlands legislation, the principles of ecosystem management, and the interests of regional land managers and other stakeholders.

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-10-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site in Lake view, Oregon evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site.

  13. 30 CFR 36.40 - Test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test site. 36.40 Section 36.40 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.40 Test site. Tests shall be conducted at MSHA's Diesel Testing Laboratory or other...

  14. 30 CFR 33.30 - Test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test site. 33.30 Section 33.30 Mineral... MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN COAL MINES Test Requirements § 33.30 Test site. Tests shall be conducted at an appropriate location determined by MSHA. ...

  15. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  16. Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator Ground Test Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Corso, Jospeh A.; Hughes, Stephen; Cheatwood, Neil; Johnson, Keith; Calomino, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology readiness levels have been incrementally matured by NASA over the last thirteen years, with most recent support from NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Game Changing Development Program (GCDP). Recently STMD GCDP has authorized funding and support through fiscal year 2015 (FY15) for continued HIAD ground developments which support a Mars Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) study. The Mars study will assess the viability of various EDL architectures to enable a Mars human architecture pathfinder mission planned for mid-2020. At its conclusion in November 2014, NASA's first HIAD ground development effort had demonstrated success with fabricating a 50 W/cm2 modular thermal protection system, a 400 C capable inflatable structure, a 10-meter scale aeroshell manufacturing capability, together with calibrated thermal and structural models. Despite the unquestionable success of the first HIAD ground development effort, it was recognized that additional investment was needed in order to realize the full potential of the HIAD technology capability to enable future flight opportunities. The second HIAD ground development effort will focus on extending performance capability in key technology areas that include thermal protection system, lifting-body structures, inflation systems, flight control, stage transitions, and 15-meter aeroshell scalability. This paper presents an overview of the accomplishments under the baseline HIAD development effort and current plans for a follow-on development effort focused on extending those critical technologies needed to enable a Mars Pathfinder mission.

  17. Subscale Validation of the Subsurface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) Approach to the NTP Ground Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, William M.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Bulman, Mel; Joyner, Russell; Martin, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) has been recognized as an enabling technology for missions to Mars and beyond. However, one of the key challenges of developing a nuclear thermal rocket is conducting verification and development tests on the ground. A number of ground test options are presented, with the Sub-surface Active Filtration of Exhaust (SAFE) method identified as a preferred path forward for the NTP program. The SAFE concept utilizes the natural soil characteristics present at the Nevada National Security Site to provide a natural filter for nuclear rocket exhaust during ground testing. A validation method of the SAFE concept is presented, utilizing a non-nuclear sub-scale hydrogen/oxygen rocket seeded with detectible radioisotopes. Additionally, some alternative ground test concepts, based upon the SAFE concept, are presented. Finally, an overview of the ongoing discussions of developing a ground test campaign are presented.

  18. Controlled Archaeological Test Site (CATS) Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — CATS facility is at the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL), Champaign, IL. This 1-acre test site includes a variety of subsurface features carefully...

  19. Well installation, single-well testing, and particle-size analysis for selected sites in and near the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, north-central Colorado, 2003-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jennifer A.; Paschke, Suzanne S.; Arnold, L. Rick

    2011-01-01

    This report describes results from a groundwater data-collection program completed in 2003-2004 by the U.S. Geological Survey in support of the South Platte Decision Support System and in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board. Two monitoring wells were installed adjacent to existing water-table monitoring wells. These wells were installed as well pairs with existing wells to characterize the hydraulic properties of the alluvial aquifer and shallow Denver Formation sandstone aquifer in and near the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin. Single-well tests were performed in the 2 newly installed wells and 12 selected existing monitoring wells. Sediment particle size was analyzed for samples collected from the screened interval depths of each of the 14 wells. Hydraulic-conductivity and transmissivity values were calculated after the completion of single-well tests on each of the selected wells. Recovering water-level data from the single-well tests were analyzed using the Bouwer and Rice method because test data most closely resembled those obtained from traditional slug tests. Results from the single-well test analyses for the alluvial aquifer indicate a median hydraulic-conductivity value of 3.8 x 10-5 feet per second and geometric mean hydraulic-conductivity value of 3.4 x 10-5 feet per second. Median and geometric mean transmissivity values in the alluvial aquifer were 8.6 x 10-4 feet squared per second and 4.9 x 10-4 feet squared per second, respectively. Single-well test results for the shallow Denver Formation sandstone aquifer indicate a median hydraulic-conductivity value of 5.4 x 10-6 feet per second and geometric mean value of 4.9 x 10-6 feet per second. Median and geometric mean transmissivity values for the shallow Denver Formation sandstone aquifer were 4.0 x 10-5 feet squared per second and 5.9 x 10-5 feet squared per second, respectively. Hydraulic-conductivity values for the alluvial aquifer in and near the Lost Creek Designated

  20. Prototype space erectable radiator system ground test article development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, Joseph P.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype heat rejecting system is being developed by NASA-JSC for possible space station applications. This modular system, the Space-Erectable Radiator System Ground Test Article (SERS-GTA) with high-capacity radiator panels, can be installed and replaced on-orbit. The design, fabrication and testing of a representative ground test article are discussed. Acceptance test data for the heat pipe radiator panel and the whiffletree clamping mechanism have been presented.

  1. Colloid research for the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, E.A.

    1992-05-01

    Research is needed to understand the role of particulates in the migration of radionuclides away from the sites of nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. The process of testing itself may produce a reservoir of particles to serve as vectors for the transport of long-lived radionuclides in groundwater. Exploratory experiments indicate the presence of numerous particulates in the vicinity of the Cambric test but a much lower loading in a nearby well that has been pumped continuously for 15 years. Recent groundwater colloid research is briefly reviewed to identify sampling and characterization methods that may be applicable at the Nevada Test Site.

  2. Optimization Review: Ogallala Ground Water Contamination Superfund Site, Operable Unit 2 (Tip Top Cleaners), Ogallala, Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ogallala Ground Water Contamination Superfund site was identified in 1989 through municipal well sampling. Tetrachloroethene (PCE), a solvent commonly used in dry cleaner operations, was the primary ground water target chemical of concern (COC) that..

  3. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005, Attachment A - Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-10-01

    This appendix to the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005'', dated October 2006 (DOE/NV/11718--1214; DOE/NV/25946--007) expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction. Included are subsections that summarize the site?s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This appendix complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  4. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    This appendix expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 2008). Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  5. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  6. DC-10 composite vertical stabilizer ground test program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, J. M., Jr.; Stephens, C. O.; Sutton, J. O.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the structural configuration and ground test program is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on the testing of a full-scale stub box test subcomponent and full span ground test unit. The stub box subcomponent was tested in an environmental chamber under ambient, cold/wet, and hot/wet conditions. The test program included design limit static loads, fatigue spectrum loading to approximately two service lifetimes (with and without damage), design limit damage tolerance tests, and a final residual strength test to a structural failure. The first full-scale ground test unit was tested under ambient conditions. The test unit was to have undergone static, fatigue, and damage tolerance tests but a premature structural failure occurred at design limit load during the third limit load test. A failure theory was developed which explains the similarity in types of failure and the large load discrepancy at failure between the two test articles. The theory attributes both failures to high stress concentrations at the edge of the lower rear spar access opening. A second full-scale ground test unit has been modified to incorporate the various changes resulting from the premature failure. The article has been assembled and is active in the test program.

  7. Double tracks test site characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of site characterization activities performed at the Double Tracks Test Site, located on Range 71 North, of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in southern Nevada. Site characterization activities included reviewing historical data from the Double Tracks experiment, previous site investigation efforts, and recent site characterization data. The most recent site characterization activities were conducted in support of an interim corrective action to remediate the Double Tracks Test Site to an acceptable risk to human health and the environment. Site characterization was performed using a phased approach. First, previously collected data and historical records sere compiled and reviewed. Generalized scopes of work were then prepared to fill known data gaps. Field activities were conducted and the collected data were then reviewed to determine whether data gaps were filled and whether other areas needed to be investigated. Additional field efforts were then conducted, as required, to adequately characterize the site. Characterization of the Double Tracks Test Site was conducted in accordance with the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER).

  8. Seismic ground motion variations resulting from site conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Silacheva

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Amplification of seismic ground motions in the territory of Almaty city is evaluated by using different methods. The pattern and probable causes of ground motion variations in different engineering-geological conditions are characterized. An expeditious application of these techniques within a complex methodical approach for Almaty city microzonation is considered.

  9. GVT-Based Ground Flutter Test without Wind Tunnel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc (ZONA) and Arizona State University (ASU) propose a R&D effort to further develop the ground flutter testing system in place of a wind...

  10. GVT-Based Ground Flutter Test without Wind Tunnel Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ZONA Technology, Inc (ZONA) and Arizona State University (ASU) propose a R&D effort to develop a ground flutter testing system without wind tunnel, called the...

  11. Effects of Permafrost and Seasonally Frozen Ground on the Seismic Response of Transportation Infrastructure Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    This interdisciplinary project combined seismic data recorded at bridge sites with computer models to identify how highway bridges built on permanently and seasonally frozen ground behave during an earthquake. Two sites one in Anchorage and one in...

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium.

  13. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009, Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009. Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  14. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2009a). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  15. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2003 was prepared by Bechtel Nevada to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy and the information needs of the public. This report is meant to be useful to members of the public, public officials, regulators, and Nevada Test Site contractors. The Executive Summary strives to present in a concise format the purpose of the document, the NTS mission and major programs, a summary of radiological releases and doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of non-radiological releases, and an overview of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Management System. The Executive Summary, combined with the following Compliance Summary, are written to meet all the objectives of the report and to be stand-alone sections for those who choose not to read the entire document.

  16. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-10-01

    The ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004'' was prepared by Bechtel Nevada (BN) to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of non-radiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2004''. It was produced this year to provide a more cost-effective and wider distribution of a hardcopy summary of the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004'' to interested DOE stakeholders.

  17. Complex Resistivity 3D Imaging for Ground Reinforcement Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, J.; Kim, J.; Park, S.

    2012-12-01

    Induced polarization (IP) method is used for mineral exploration and generally classified into two categories, time and frequency domain method. IP method in frequency domain measures amplitude and absolute phase to the transmitted currents, and is often called spectral induced polarization (SIP) when measurement is made for the wide-band frequencies. Our research group has been studying the modeling and inversion algorithms of complex resistivity method since several years ago and recently started to apply this method for various field applications. We already completed the development of 2/3D modeling and inversion program and developing another algorithm to use wide-band data altogether. Until now complex resistivity (CR) method was mainly used for the surface or tomographic survey of mineral exploration. Through the experience, we can find that the resistivity section from CR method is very similar with that of conventional resistivity method. Interpretation of the phase section is generally well matched with the geological information of survey area. But because most of survey area has very touch and complex terrain, 2D survey and interpretation are used generally. In this study, the case study of 3D CR survey conducted for the site where ground reinforcement was done to prevent the subsidence will be introduced. Data was acquired with the Zeta system, the complex resistivity measurement system produced by Zonge Co. using 8 frequencies from 0.125 to 16 Hz. 2D survey was conducted for total 6 lines with 5 m dipole spacing and 20 electrodes. Line length is 95 meter for every line. Among these 8 frequency data, data below 1 Hz was used considering its quality. With the 6 line data, 3D inversion was conducted. Firstly 2D interpretation was made with acquired data and its results were compared with those of resistivity survey. Resulting resistivity image sections of CR and resistivity method were very similar. Anomalies in phase image section showed good agreement

  18. Microbial Community Analysis of Naturally Durable Wood in an Above Ground Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.T. Kirker; S.V. Diehl; P.K. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of an above ground field test wherein eight naturally durable wood species were exposed concurrently at two sites in North America. Surface samples were taken at regular intervals from non-durable controls and compared to their more durable counterparts. Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism was performed to...

  19. Intensive Archaeological Testing of the Lins Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-04-01

    Site, Ottawa County, Ohio. Healed Humeral Fracture in a Wild-Shot Black Crown Night Heron (with C. Owen Lovejoy and K. G. Heiple)- Analysis of the...than limited test excavations. The closest excavated sites of Aruhaic cultural affiliation lie ap- proximately 145 km. (90 miles) to the north in...long-bone fragments from other units exhibit torsion fractures of a tyre which suggests that the boner , ere t-wisted tn remove the marrow. The only

  20. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) 2008 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ NTSERs are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  1. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) 2008 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ NTSERs are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  2. Nevada Test Site seismic: telemetry measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, J N; Parker, L E; Horton, E H

    1983-08-01

    The feasibility and limitations of surface-to-tunnel seismic telemetry at the Nevada Test Site were explored through field measurements using current technology. Range functions for signaling were determined through analysis of monofrequency seismic signals injected into the earth at various sites as far as 70 km (43 mi) from installations of seismometers in the G-Tunnel complex of Rainier Mesa. Transmitted signal power at 16, 24, and 32 Hz was measured at two locations in G-Tunnel separated by 670 m (2200 ft). Transmissions from 58 surface sites distributed primarily along three azimuths from G-Tunnel were studied. The G-Tunnel noise environment was monitored over the 20-day duration of the field tests. Noise-power probability functions were calculated for 20-s and 280-s seismic-record populations. Signaling rates were calculated for signals transmitted from superior transmitter sites to G-Tunnel. A detection threshold of 13 dB re 1 nm/sup 2/ displacement power at 95% reliability was demanded. Consideration of field results suggests that even for the frequency range used in this study, substantially higher signaling rates are likely to be obtained in future work in view of the present lack of information relevant to hardware-siting criteria and the seismic propagation paths at the Nevada Test Site. 12 references.

  3. Nevada Test Site annual site environmental report, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wruble, D T; McDowell, E M [eds.

    1990-11-01

    Prior to 1989 annual reports of environmental monitoring and assessment results for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were prepared in two separate parts. Onsite effluent monitoring and environmental monitoring results were reported in an onsite report prepared by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Results of the offsite radiological surveillance program conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada, were reported separately by that Agency. Beginning with this 1989 annual Site environmental report for the NTS, these two documents are being combined into a single report to provide a more comprehensive annual documentation of the environmental protection program conducted for the nuclear testing program and other nuclear and non-nuclear activities at the Site. The two agencies have coordinated preparation of this combined onsite and offsite report through sharing of information on environmental releases and meteorological, hydrological, and other supporting data used in dose-estimate calculations. 57 refs., 52 figs., 65 tabs.

  4. Interim site characterization report and ground-water monitoring program for the Hanford site solid waste landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruland, R.M.; Hagan, R.A.; Cline, C.S.; Bates, D.J.; Evans, J.C.; Aaberg, R.L.

    1989-07-01

    Federal and state regulations governing the operation of landfills require utilization of ground-water monitoring systems to determine whether or not landfill operations impact ground water at the point of compliance (ground water beneath the perimeter of the facility). A detection-level ground-water monitoring system was designed, installed, and initiated at the Hanford Site Solid Waste Landfill (SWL). Chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected at the beginning of the ground-water monitoring program and continue to be detected more than 1 year later. The most probable source of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is washwater discharged to the SWL between 1985 and 1987. This is an interim report and includes data from the characterization work that was performed during well installation in 1987, such as field observations, sediment studies, and geophysical logging results, and data from analyses of ground-water samples collected in 1987 and 1988, such as field parameter measurements and chemical analyses. 38 refs., 27 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase I), and the Ground Water Project (phase II). For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado (the Naturita site), phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado, about 13 road miles (mi) (21 kilometers [km]) to the northwest. No uranium mill tailings are involved because the tailings were removed from the Naturita site and placed at Coke Oven, Colorado, during 1977 to 1979. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health or the environment; and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has received contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment is conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  6. Space Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Ground Testing Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Flight Experiment (FE) Project in which a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS- 128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour for STS-134, a significant ground test campaign was completed. The primary goals of the test campaign were to provide ground test data to support the planning and safety certification efforts required to fly the flight experiment as well as validation for the collected flight data. These test included Arcjet testing of the tile protuberance, aerothermal testing to determine the boundary layer transition behavior and resultant surface heating and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) testing in order to gain a better understanding of the flow field characteristics associated with the flight experiment. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project ground testing. High-level overviews of the facilities, models, test techniques and data are presented, along with a summary of the insights gained from each test.

  7. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Riverton, Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This Risk Assessment evaluated potential impacts to public health or the environment caused by ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. In the first phase of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project, the tailing and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell near the Gas Hills Plant in 1990. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document to evaluate potential health and environmental risks for the Riverton site under the Ground Water Project; it will help determine whether remedial actions are needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  8. Nevada Test Site Summary 2006 (Volume 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is the nation's historical testing site for nuclear weapons from 1951 through 1992 and is currently the nation's unique site for ongoing national-security-related missions and high-risk operations. NNSA/NSO strives to provide to the public an understanding of the current activities on the NTS, including environmental monitoring and compliance activities aimed at protecting the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. This document is a summary of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) for calendar year 2006 (see attached compact disc on inside back cover). The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and its satellite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. To provide an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER, this summary report is produced. This summary does not include detailed data tables, monitoring methods or design, a description of the NTS environment, or a discussion of all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  9. Nevada Test Site Environmental Summary Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2007-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is the nation's historical testing site for nuclear weapons from 1951 through 1992 and is currently the nation's unique site for ongoing national-security related missions and high-risk operations. NNSA/NSO strives to provide to the public an understanding of the current activities on the NTS, including environmental monitoring and compliance activities aimed at protecting the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. This document is a summary of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) for calendar year 2006 (see attached compact disc on inside back cover). The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and its satellite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. To provide an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER, this summary report is produced. This summary does not include detailed data tables, monitoring methods or design, a description of the NTS environment, or a discussion of all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  10. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2007. This NTSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting. Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NTS Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This report meets these objectives for the NTS and three offsite Nevada facilities mentioned in this report.

  11. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is the nation's historical testing site for nuclear weapons from 1951 through 1992 and is currently the nation's unique site for ongoing national-security related missions and high-risk operations. NNSA/NSO strives to provide to the public an understanding of the current activities on the NTS, including environmental monitoring and compliance activities aimed at protecting the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. This document is a summary of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) for calendar year 2007 (see attached compact disc on inside back cover). The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and offsite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. To provide an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER, this summary report is produced. This summary does not include detailed data tables, monitoring methods or design, a description of the NTS environment, or a discussion of all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  12. CLPX-Ground: ISA Corner Site Meteorological Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains meteorological observations at 36 sites throughout the Small Regional Study Area (SRSA) of the NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment...

  13. CLPX-Ground: ISA Corner Site Meteorological Data, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains meteorological observations at 36 sites throughout the Small Regional Study Area (SRSA) of the NASA Cold Land Processes Field Experiment...

  14. Overview of Ground-Motion Issues for Cascadia Megathrust Events: Simulation of Ground-Motions and Earthquake Site Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Ghofrani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground motions for earthquakes of M7.5 to 9.0 on the Cascadia subduction interface are simulated based on a stochastic finite-fault model and used to estimate average response spectra for reference firm soil conditions. The simulations are first validated by modeling the wealth of ground-motion data from the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake of Japan. Adjustments to the calibrated model are then made to consider average source, attenuation and site parameters for the Cascadia region. This includes an evaluation of the likely variability in stress drop for large interface earthquakes and an assessment of regional attenuation and site effects. We perform best-estimate simulations for a preferred set of input parameters. Typical results suggest mean values of 5%-damped pseudoacceleration in the range from about 100 to 200 cm/s2, at frequencies from 1 to 4 Hz, for firm-ground conditions in Vancouver. Uncertainty in most-likely value of the parameter representing stress drop causes variability in simulated response spectra of about ±50%. Uncertainties in the attenuation model produce even larger variability in response spectral amplitudes—a factor of about two at a closest distance to the rupture plane (Rcd of 100 km, becoming even larger at greater distances. It is thus important to establish the regional attenuation model for ground-motion simulations and to bound the source properties controlling radiation of ground motion. We calculate theoretical one-dimensional spectral amplification estimates for four selected Fraser River Delta sites to show how the presence of softer sediments in the region may alter the predicted ground motions. The amplification functions are largely consistent with observed spectral amplification at Fraser River delta sites, suggesting amplification by factors of 2.5–5 at the peak frequency of the site; we note that deep sites in the delta have a low peak frequency, ∼0.3 Hz. This work will aid in seismic hazard

  15. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs) are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NTSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1A, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NTSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2009 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL)-Nellis. It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  16. Human in the Loop Integrated Life Support Systems Ground Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henninger, Donald L.; Marmolejo, Jose A.; Seaman, Calvin H.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will be long duration with abort scenarios of days to months. This necessitates provisioning the crew with all the things they will need to sustain themselves while carrying out mission objectives. Systems engineering and integration is critical to the point where extensive integrated testing of life support systems on the ground is required to identify and mitigate risks. Ground test facilities (human-rated altitude chambers) at the Johnson Space Center are being readied to integrate all the systems for a mission along with a human test crew. The relevant environment will include deep space habitat human accommodations, sealed atmosphere capable of 14.7 to 8 psi total pressure and 21 to 32% oxygen concentration, life support systems (food, air, and water), communications, crew accommodations, medical, EVA, tools, etc. Testing periods will approximate those of the expected missions (such as a near Earth asteroid, Earth-Moon L2 or L1, the moon, Mars). This type of integrated testing is needed for research and technology development as well as later during the mission design, development, test, and evaluation (DDT&E) phases of an approved program. Testing will evolve to be carried out at the mission level fly the mission on the ground . Mission testing will also serve to inform the public and provide the opportunity for active participation by international, industrial and academic partners.

  17. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for April through June 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Mitchell, P.J.; Dennison, D.I.

    1988-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site. Results for monitoring by PNL and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) during April-June 1987 show that certain regulated hazardous materials and radionuclides exist in Hanford Site ground waters. The presence of regulated constituents in the ground water derives both from site operations and from natural sources. The major contamination problems defined by recent monitoring activities are carbon tetrachloride in the 200 West Area; cyanide in and north of the 200 East Area; hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100B, 100D, 100K, and 100H areas; chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Central Landfill; uranium at the 216-U-1 and 216-U-2 cribs in the 200 West Area; tritium across the site; and nitrate across the site. The distribution of hazardous materials related to site operations is more limited than the distribution of tritium and nitrate. 8 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. A summary of ecological investigations at the burial ground complex, Savannah River Site - 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friday, G.P.; Hartman, G.D.; Mackey, H.E. Jr.; Riley, R.S.; Roach, J.L.; Specht, W.L.; Westbury, H.M.; Wike, L.D.

    1994-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of three ecological investigations that were conducted in 1994 at the Burial Ground Complex (BGC) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The three topics of study included remote sensing, aquatic toxicity testing, and qualitative surveys of herpetofauna and small mammals. Interim reports from each investigation are included in the appendices (A, B, and C). The objectives of the remote sensing effort were to compile historical aerial photography of the BGC and to develop a land use/cover map of the complex using recent aerial imagery. The goal of the aquatic toxicity testing was to determine if surface waters were toxic to aquatic biota whereas the objectives of the vertebrate surveys were to identify the species diversity and relative abundances of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals inhabiting the study area.

  19. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-10-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  20. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  1. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NTS Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts.

  2. West Africa: a testing ground for regional solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Blocher

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available West Africa has a very mobile population and high vulnerability to natural hazards. It also, however, has a number of regional cooperation agreements and may therefore be a useful testing ground for addressing cross-border disaster displacement.

  3. Site response zones and short-period earthquake ground motion ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by Cramer (2006) for similar purposes in a study of the seismic response of the Mississippi Embayment. For deep sediments, site response analyses are complicated by ambiguity in defining the soil- bedrock interface and uncertainty in defining dynamic soil properties at great depth (e.g., Luke and Liu 2007). To address the ...

  4. Orion Pad Abort 1 Flight Test - Ground and Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackenbergy, Davis L.; Hicks, Wayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the ground and flight operations aspects to the Pad Abort 1 launch. The paper details the processes used to plan all operations. The paper then discussions the difficulties of integration and testing, while detailing some of the lessons learned throughout the entire launch campaign. Flight operational aspects of the launc are covered in order to provide the listener with the full suite of operational issues encountered in preparation for the first flight test of the Orion Launch Abort System.

  5. Review of analytical results from the proposed agent disposal facility site, Aberdeen Proving Ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, K.L.; Reed, L.L.; Myers, S.W.; Shepard, L.T.; Sydelko, T.G.

    1997-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory reviewed the analytical results from 57 composite soil samples collected in the Bush River area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. A suite of 16 analytical tests involving 11 different SW-846 methods was used to detect a wide range of organic and inorganic contaminants. One method (BTEX) was considered redundant, and two {open_quotes}single-number{close_quotes} methods (TPH and TOX) were found to lack the required specificity to yield unambiguous results, especially in a preliminary investigation. Volatile analytes detected at the site include 1, 1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene, all of which probably represent residual site contamination from past activities. Other volatile analytes detected include toluene, tridecane, methylene chloride, and trichlorofluoromethane. These compounds are probably not associated with site contamination but likely represent cross-contamination or, in the case of tridecane, a naturally occurring material. Semivolatile analytes detected include three different phthalates and low part-per-billion amounts of the pesticide DDT and its degradation product DDE. The pesticide could represent residual site contamination from past activities, and the phthalates are likely due, in part, to cross-contamination during sample handling. A number of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives were detected and were probably naturally occurring compounds. 4 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  6. Comparison of Equivalent Linear and Non Linear Methods on Ground Response Analysis: Case Study at West Bangka Site

    OpenAIRE

    Iswanto, Eko Rudi; Yee, Eric

    2016-01-01

    COMPARISON OF EQUIVALENT LINEAR AND NON LINEAR METHODS ON GROUND RESPONSE ANALYSIS: CASE STUDY AT WEST BANGKA SITE. Within the framework of identifying NPP sites, site surveys are performed in West Bangka (WB), Bangka-Belitung Island Province. Ground response analysis of a potential site has been carried out using peak strain profiles and peak ground acceleration. The objective of this research is to compare Equivalent Linear (EQL) and Non Linear (NL) methods of ground response analysis on th...

  7. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 395: AREA 19 SPILL SITES, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 395, Area 19 Spill Sites, consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 19 of the Nevada Test Site. Closure activities performed at each CAS include: (1) CAS 19-19-04, Concrete Spill: A concrete spill could not be located at the site. Therefore, no further action was taken. (2) CAS 19-25-03, Oil Spills: Approximately five cubic yards of hydrocarbon-impacted soil and various used oil filters were removed from the site and transported to the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill for disposal. (3) CAS 19-44-02, Fuel Spill: Less than 0.5 cubic feet of hydrocarbon-impacted soil was removed from a concrete pad and transported to the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill for disposal. (4) CAS 19-44-04, U-19bk Drill Site Release: Approximately four cubic yards of hydrocarbon-impacted soil were removed from the site and transported to the Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill for disposal. (5) CAS 19-44-05, U-19bh Drill Site Release: Evidence of an oil spill could not be found at the site. Therefore, no further action was taken. (6) CAS 19-99-05, Pile; Unknown Material: Based on previous sampling activities by International Technology (IT) Corporation the material was determined to be non-hazardous. Due to the remote location of the material and the determination that removal of the material would constitute an unnecessary ground disturbance as defined in the Sectored Housekeeping Work Plan, the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) and Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) agreed that the site would be closed by taking no further action. (7) CAS 19-99-07, Cement Spill: Based on previous sampling activities by IT Corporation the material was determined to be non-hazardous. Due to the remote location of the material and the determination that removal of the material would constitute an unnecessary ground disturbance as defined in the Sectored Housekeeping Work Plan, the NNSA/NSO and

  8. Geology, hydrology, and ground-water quality at the Byron Superfund site near Byron, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Robert T.; Yeskis, Douglas J.; Bolen, William J.; Rauman, James R.; Prinos, Scott T.

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to define the geohydrology and contaminant distribution at a Superfund site near Byron, Illinois. Geologic units of interest beneath the site are the St. Peter Sandstone; the shale, dolomite and sandstone of the Glenwood Formation; the dolomite of the Platteville and Galena Groups; and sands, gravels, tills and loess of Quaternary age. The hydrologic units of interest are the unconsolidated aquifer, Galena-Platteville aquifer, Harmony Hill Shale semiconfining unit, and the St. Peter aquifer. Ground-water flow generally is from the upland areas northwest and southwest toward the Rock River. Water levels indicate the potential for downward ground-water flow in most of the area except near the Rock River. The Galena-Platteville aquifer can be subdivided into four zones characterized by differing water-table altitudes, hydraulic gradients, and vertical and horizontal permeabilities. Geophysical, hydraulic, and aquifer-test data indicate that lithology, stratigraphy, and tectonic structures affect the distribution of primary and secondary porosity of dolomite in the Galena and Platteville Groups, which affects the permeability distribution in the Galena-Platteville aquifer. The distribution of cyanide, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, and aromatic hydrocarbons in ground water indicates that these contaminants are derived from multiple sources in the study area. Contaminants in the northern part of this area migrate northwest to the Rock River. Contaminants in the central and southern parts of this area appear to migrate to the southwest in the general direction of the Rock River.

  9. SITE-94. Geochemical characterization of Simpevarp ground waters near the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glynn, P.D.; Voss, C.I. [US Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States)

    1999-09-01

    evidence remains to be found to prove or to disprove that deep penetration of oxygenated ground waters occurred during the last Pleistocene glaciation. Amorphous Fe-oxyhydroxides and goethites have been observed at great depths at several SKB sites in Sweden. These phases may have formed as a result of the intrusion of oxygenated glacial melt waters. The recommendations for future geochemical characterization of potential nuclear waste disposal sites made by the present report generally complement recommendations made earlier by Andrews based on the international program of hydrochemical work at the Stripa mine. In addition to better sampling techniques and protocols, future characterization efforts should place greater emphasis on the measurement of conservative constituents (Cl, Br, {sup 2}H, {sup 18}O) that may provide information on the origin of ground waters and also on the hydrologic disturbances induced by sampling, testing and excavation activities. (abstract truncated)

  10. Site acceptance test, W-030 MICON system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, L.F., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-10

    Monitoring and control of the W-030 ventilation upgrade is provided by a distributed control system (DCS) furnished by MICON Corporation. After shipment to the Hanford Site, the site acceptance test (SAT) for this system was conducted in a laboratory environment over a six month period, involving four distinct phases and numerous hardware and software modifications required to correct test exceptions. The final results is a system which is not fully compliant with procurement specifications but is determined to meet minimum Project W-030 safety and functional requirements. A negotiated settlement was reached with the supplier to establish a `path forward` for system implementation. This report documents the `as-run` status of the SAT. The SAT was completed in August of 1995. It was later followed by comprehensive acceptance testing of the W-030 control-logic configuration software; results are documented in WHC-SD-W030-ATR-011. Further testing is reported as part of process system startup operational testing, performed after the MICON installation.

  11. Deep Resistivity Structure of Mid Valley, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Erin L.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. From 1951 to 1992, 828 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site northwest of Las Vegas (DOE UGTA, 2003). Most of these tests were conducted hundreds of feet above the ground-water table; however, more than 200 of the tests were near, or within, the water table. This underground testing was limited to specific areas of the Nevada Test Site including Pahute Mesa, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM), Frenchman Flat, and Yucca Flat. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) (National Security Technologies, 2007). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO collected and processed data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat (YF) to help define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of the pre-Tertiary confining units. We collected 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) stations for that research (Williams and others, 2005a, 2005b, 2005c, 2005d, 2005e, and 2005f). In early 2005 we extended that research with 26 additional MT data stations (Williams and others, 2006) located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM). The new stations extended the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat, further refining what is known about the pre

  12. Radiological status of the ground water beneath the Hanford Site, January-December 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eddy, P. A.; Wilbur, J. S.

    1981-04-01

    Operations at the Hanford Site since 1944 have resulted in the discharge to the ground of large volumes of process cooling water and low-level liquid radioactive waste. Radioactivity and chemical substances have been carried with these discharges and have reached the Hanford ground water. For many years wells have been used as ground-water sampling structures to gather data on the distribution and movement of these discharges as they interact with the unconfined ground water beneath the Hanford Site. During 1980, 317 such structures were sampled at various times for radionuclide and chemical contaminants. Data collected during 1980 describe the movement of tritium and ruthenium-106 and the nonradioactive nitrate plume as well as their response to the influences of ground-water flow, ionic dispersion, and radioactive decay.

  13. Ground Operations Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen Initial Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Johnson, W. L.; Swanger, A. M.; Tomsik, T.

    2015-01-01

    NASA operations for handling cryogens in ground support equipment have not changed substantially in 50 years, despite major technology advances in the field of cryogenics. NASA loses approximately 50% of the hydrogen purchased because of a continuous heat leak into ground and flight vessels, transient chill down of warm cryogenic equipment, liquid bleeds, and vent losses. NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) needs to develop energy-efficient cryogenic ground systems to minimize propellant losses, simplify operations, and reduce cost associated with hydrogen usage. The GODU LH2 project has designed, assembled, and started testing of a prototype storage and distribution system for liquid hydrogen that represents an advanced end-to-end cryogenic propellant system for a ground launch complex. The project has multiple objectives including zero loss storage and transfer, liquefaction of gaseous hydrogen, and densification of liquid hydrogen. The system is unique because it uses an integrated refrigeration and storage system (IRAS) to control the state of the fluid. This paper will present and discuss the results of the initial phase of testing of the GODU LH2 system.

  14. Hanford Site ground-water model: Geographic information system linkages and model enhancements, FY 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurstner, S.K.; Devary, J.L.

    1993-12-01

    Models of the unconfined aquifer are important tools that are used to (1) identify and quantify existing, emerging, or potential ground-water quality problems, (2) predict changes in ground-water flow and contaminant transport as waste-water discharge operations change, and (3) assess the potential for contaminants to migrate from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site through the ground water. Formerly, most of the numerical models developed at the Hanford Site were two-dimensional. However, contaminant concentrations cannot be accurately predicted with a two-dimensional model, which assumes a constant vertical distribution of contaminants in the aquifer. Development of two- and three-dimensional models of ground-water flow based on the Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport (CFEST) code began in the mid- 1980s. The CFEST code was selected because of its ability to simulate both ground-water flow and contaminant transport. Physical processes that can be modeled by CFEST include aquifer geometry, heterogeneity, boundary conditions, and initial conditions. The CFEST ground-water modeling library has been integrated with the commercially available geographic information system (GIS) ARC/INFO. The display and analysis capabilities of a GIS are well suited to the size and diversity of databases being generated at the Hanford Site. The ability to visually inspect large databases through a graphical analysis tool provides a stable foundation for site assessments and ground-water modeling studies. Any ground-water flow model being used by an ongoing project should be continually updated and refined to reflect the most current knowledge of the system. The two-dimensional ground-water flow model being used in support of the Ground-Water Surveillance Project has recently been updated and enhanced. One major enhancement was the extension of the model area to include North Richland.

  15. Multidisciplinary study of Wyoming test sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, R. S. (Principal Investigator); Marrs, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Comparisons between ERTS-1 and EREP 70 mm images revealed that the EREP S-190A imagery is superior to ERTS-1 in spacial resolution but lacks tonal fidelity. However, tests of the S-192 screening film indicate that it will provide the necessary tonal fidelity for color additive work. No resolution comparisons were made with the S-192 imagery because the screening film, the only S-192 data currently available, does not represent an optimum quality product. Correlative ground truth data and aircraft imagery have been gathered for each of the EREP data passes. These data will not only serve as a primary means of calibrating EREP data and checking interpretations, but also aid in making decisions about optimum band combinations for S-190A and S-192.

  16. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) directs the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NNSA/NSO prepares the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) to provide the public an understanding of the environmental monitoring and compliance activities that are conducted on the NTS to protect the public and the environment from radiation hazards and from nonradiological impacts. The NTSER is a comprehensive report of environmental activities performed at the NTS and offsite facilities over the previous calendar year. It is prepared annually to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the information needs of NNSA/NSO stakeholders. This summary provides an abbreviated and more readable version of the NTSER. It does not contain detailed descriptions or presentations of monitoring designs, data collection methods, data tables, the NTS environment, or all environmental program activities performed throughout the year. The reader may obtain a hard copy of the full NTSER as directed on the inside front cover of this summary report.

  17. Shaking-Table Tests for Immersed Tunnels at Different Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjun Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Immersed tunnels are typically built in areas subjected to ground motion. Therefore, an evaluation of the seismic performance of the soil-tunnel system is essential. A series of shaking-table tests was conducted to study the influences of the site soil and overlying water layer on the seismic responses of soil deposits and an immersed tunnel. Detailed information on the experiment setup is provided with special focus on the similitude relationship, fabrication of the model system, measurement setup, and loading procedures for a simulation of the seismic waves. Three groups of tests at different sites in dry sand, saturated sand, and saturated sand with an overlying water layer were carried out using the same seismic excitations. The seismic responses of the soil deposits and the dynamic responses of the tunnel model were obtained. The experiment results indicate that, when considering only horizontal earthquake excitations, soil liquefaction significantly influences the propagation of seismic waves and the dynamic responses of the tunnel, whereas the water layer has no obvious effects on the dynamic performance of the ground or tunnel. Furthermore, the acceleration responses of the tunnel elements were analyzed qualitatively, and the joints are deemed important elements in an antiseismic immersed tunnel design.

  18. Cryogenic actuator testing for the SAFARI ground calibration setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, C.; Eggens, M.; Nieuwenhuizen, A. C. T.; Detrain, A.; Smit, H.; Dieleman, P.

    2012-09-01

    For the on-ground calibration setup of the SAFARI instrument cryogenic mechanisms are being developed at SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, including a filter wheel, XYZ-scanner and a flipmirror mechanism. Due to the extremely low background radiation requirement of the SAFARI instrument, all of these mechanisms will have to perform their work at 4.5 Kelvin and low-dissipative cryogenic actuators are required to drive these mechanisms. In this paper, the performance of stepper motors, piezoelectric actuators and brushless DC-motors as cryogenic actuators are compared. We tested stepper motor mechanical performance and electrical dissipation at 4K. The actuator requirements, test setup and test results are presented. Furthermore, design considerations and early performance tests of the flipmirror mechanism are discussed. This flipmirror features a 102 x 72 mm aluminum mirror that can be rotated 45°. A Phytron stepper motor with reduction gearbox has been chosen to drive the flipmirror. Testing showed that this motor has a dissipation of 49mW at 4K with a torque of 60Nmm at 100rpm. Thermal modeling of the flipmirror mechanism predicts that with proper thermal strapping the peak temperature of the flipmirror after a single action will be within the background level requirements of the SAFARI instrument. Early tests confirm this result. For low-duty cycle operations commercial stepper motors appear suitable as actuators for test equipment in the SAFARI on ground calibration setup.

  19. Buried Treasure: Using Distributed Ground Temperature Sensors to Test Remote Sensing of Fractional Snow Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raleigh, M. S.; Rittger, K. E.; Lundquist, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Despite being the dominant source of streamflow in many mountainous regions around the world, seasonal snow cover is poorly sampled by most ground-based observational networks. Satellite remote sensing supplements spatiotemporal knowledge of snow conditions in these rugged locations where ground observations are sparse or absent. However, the low density of ground-based observations also detracts from the value of remote sensing, as few ground-based datasets exist with sufficient spatial density to test remotely sensed snow cover across heterogeneous mountain terrain. Datasets with high spatial density are needed to test remote sensing because snow processes exhibit considerable spatial variability due to topographic and vegetation effects. Where ground-based observation stations exist, they are typically located in flat clearings, which are not likely to represent conditions in neighboring sloped and forested terrain. Forests cover as much as 40% to 50% of the seasonal snow zone in North America, and thus the accuracy of remote sensing in a major portion of the snow zone has been ill-quantified. Continued testing with ground-based observations adds value and confidence to remotely sensed snow cover, but dense ground observations are needed. Here we demonstrate that daily fractional snow covered area (fSCA) data can be derived in a study area with a network of buried temperature sensors. 37 to 90 self-logging temperature sensors were buried shallowly (MODSCAG) algorithm and find that the selected vegetation correction approach impacts MODSCAG accuracy. We also show the limitations of using single snow pillows for validation of remote sensing, as these point measurement typically did not represent the areal timing of snow disappearance observed by the ground temperature sensors at the study sites. Future satellite validation studies may benefit from this dataset or from application of this measurement technique.

  20. Evaluation of soil radioactivity data from the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Since 1951, 933 nuclear tests have been conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and test areas on the adjacent Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR). Until the early 1960s. the majority of tests were atmospheric, involving detonation of nuclear explosive devices on the ground or on a tower, suspended from a balloon or dropped from an airplane. Since the signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty in 1963, most tests have been conducted underground, although several shallow subsurface tests took place between 1962 and 1968. As a result of the aboveground and near-surface nuclear explosions, as well as ventings of underground tests, destruction of nuclear devices with conventional explosives, and nuclear-rocket engine tests, the surface soil on portions of the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides. Relatively little consideration was given to the environmental effects of nuclear testing during the first two decades of operations at the NTS. Since the early 1970s, however, increasingly strict environmental regulations have forced greater attention to be given to contamination problems at the site and how to remediate them. One key element in the current environmental restoration program at the NTS is determining the amount and extent of radioactivity in the surface soil. The general distribution of soil radioactivity on the NTS is already well known as a result of several programs carried out in the 1970s and 1980s. However, questions have been raised as to whether the data from those earlier studies are suitable for use in the current environmental assessments and risk analyses. The primary purpose of this preliminary data review is to determine to what extent the historical data collected at the NTS can be used in the characterization/remediation process.

  1. Review of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Ground Test Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, David J.; Power, Kevin P.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen

    2015-01-01

    High efficiency rocket propulsion systems are essential for humanity to venture beyond the moon. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a promising alternative to conventional chemical rockets with relatively high thrust and twice the efficiency of highest performing chemical propellant engines. NTP utilizes the coolant of a nuclear reactor to produce propulsive thrust. An NTP engine produces thrust by flowing hydrogen through a nuclear reactor to cool the reactor, heating the hydrogen and expelling it through a rocket nozzle. The hot gaseous hydrogen is nominally expected to be free of radioactive byproducts from the nuclear reactor; however, it has the potential to be contaminated due to off-nominal engine reactor performance. NTP ground testing is more difficult than chemical engine testing since current environmental regulations do not allow/permit open air testing of NTP as was done in the 1960's and 1970's for the Rover/NERVA program. A new and innovative approach to rocket engine ground test is required to mitigate the unique health and safety risks associated with the potential entrainment of radioactive waste from the NTP engine reactor core into the engine exhaust. Several studies have been conducted since the ROVER/NERVA program in the 1970's investigating NTP engine ground test options to understand the technical feasibility, identify technical challenges and associated risks and provide rough order of magnitude cost estimates for facility development and test operations. The options can be divided into two distinct schemes; (1) real-time filtering of the engine exhaust and its release to the environment or (2) capture and storage of engine exhaust for subsequent processing.

  2. DOUBLE TRACKS Test Site interim corrective action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The DOUBLE TRACKS site is located on Range 71 north of the Nellis Air Force Range, northwest of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). DOUBLE TRACKS was the first of four experiments that constituted Operation ROLLER COASTER. On May 15, 1963, weapons-grade plutonium and depleted uranium were dispersed using 54 kilograms of trinitrotoluene (TNT) explosive. The explosion occurred in the open, 0.3 m above the steel plate. No fission yield was detected from the test, and the total amount of plutonium deposited on the ground surface was estimated to be between 980 and 1,600 grams. The test device was composed primarily of uranium-238 and plutonium-239. The mass ratio of uranium to plutonium was 4.35. The objective of the corrective action is to reduce the potential risk to human health and the environment and to demonstrate technically viable and cost-effective excavation, transportation, and disposal. To achieve these objectives, Bechtel Nevada (BN) will remove soil with a total transuranic activity greater then 200 pCI/g, containerize the soil in ``supersacks,`` transport the filled ``supersacks`` to the NTS, and dispose of them in the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site. During this interim corrective action, BN will also conduct a limited demonstration of an alternative method for excavation of radioactive near-surface soil contamination.

  3. VSTOL ground effects testing with flow visualization and image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegelman, Jerome T.; Johns, Albert L.

    1991-01-01

    A remotely controlled high-energy fiber-optic light delivery technique is employed to examine the implementation of a laser-light-sheet flow-visualization system. During testing, video data are enhanced in real time using digital image processing techniques. A summary of test results for an advanced VSTOL configuration in ground effect, and techniques for the generation of 3D reconstructions for the flowfield are outlined. The system performed well during all phases of the test and proved to be an extremely useful asset to the overall test program. The most useful application of the flow visualization system was the interactive real-time flow field analysis made during the actual testing.

  4. Visibility Analysis of Domestic Satellites on Proposed Ground Sites for Optical Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyun Jo1

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to analyze the satellite visibility at the randomly established ground sites, to determine the five optimal ground sites to perform the optical surveillance and tracking of domestic satellites, and to verify the acquisition of the optical observation time sufficient to maintain the precise ephemeris at optimal ground sites that have been already determined. In order to accomplish these objectives, we analyzed the visibility for sun-synchronous orbit satellites, low earth orbit satellites, middle earth orbit satellites and domestic satellites as well as the continuous visibility along with the fictitious satellite ground track, and calculate the effective visibility. For the analysis, we carried out a series of repetitive process using the satellite tool kit simulation software developed by Analytical Graphics Incorporated. The lighting states of the penumbra and direct sun were set as the key constraints of the optical observation. The minimum of the observation satellite elevation angle was set to be 20 degree, whereas the maximum of the sun elevation angle was set to be -10 degree which is within the range of the nautical twilight. To select the candidates for the optimal optical observation, the entire globe was divided into 84 sectors in a constant interval, the visibility characteristics of the individual sectors were analyzed, and 17 ground sites were arbitrarily selected and analyzed further. Finally, five optimal ground sites (Khurel Togoot Observatory, Assy-Turgen Observatory, Tubitak National Observatory, Bisdee Tier Optical Astronomy Observatory, and South Africa Astronomical Observatory were determined. The total observation period was decided as one year. To examine the seasonal variation, the simulation was performed for the period of three days or less with respect to spring, summer, fall and winter. In conclusion, we decided the optimal ground sites to perform the optical surveillance and tracking

  5. Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing of Manned Spacecraft: Historical Precedent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Paul R.; Tuma, Margaret L.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    For the first time in nearly 30 years, NASA is developing a new manned space flight launch system. The Ares I will carry crew and cargo to not only the International Space Station, but onward for the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Ares I control system and structural designs use complex computer models for their development. An Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT) will validate the efficacy of these computer models. The IVGVT will reduce the technical risk of unexpected conditions that could place the vehicle or crew in jeopardy. The Ares Project Office's Flight and Integrated Test Office commissioned a study to determine how historical programs, such as Saturn and Space Shuttle, validated the structural dynamics of an integrated flight vehicle. The study methodology was to examine the historical record and seek out members of the engineering community who recall the development of historic manned launch vehicles. These records and interviews provided insight into the best practices and lessons learned from these historic development programs. The information that was gathered allowed the creation of timelines of the historic development programs. The timelines trace the programs from the development of test articles through test preparation, test operations, and test data reduction efforts. These timelines also demonstrate how the historical tests fit within their overall vehicle development programs. Finally, the study was able to quantify approximate staffing levels during historic development programs. Using this study, the Flight and Integrated Test Office was able to evaluate the Ares I Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test schedule and workforce budgets in light of the historical precedents to determine if the test had schedule or cost risks associated with it.

  6. Ali Observatory in Tibet: a unique northern site for future CMB ground-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Meng

    2015-08-01

    Ground-based CMB observations have been performed at the South Pole and the Atacama desert in Chile. However, a significant fraction of the sky can not be observed from just these two sites. For a full sky coverage from the ground in the future, a northern site for CMB observation, in particular CMB polarization, is required. Besides the long-thought site in Greenland, the high altitude Tibet plateau provides another opportunity. I will describe the Ali Observatory in Tibet, located at N32°19', E80°01', as a potential site for ground-based CMB observations. The new site is located on almost 5100m mountain, near Gar town, where is an excellent site for both infrared and submillimeter observations. Study with the long-term database of ground weather stations and archival satellite data has been performed. The site has enough relative height on the plateau and is accessible by car. The Shiquanhe town is 40 mins away by driving, and a recently opened airport with 40 mins driving, the site also has road excess, electricity, and optical fiber with fast internet. Preliminary measurement of the Precipitable Water Vapor is ~one quarter less than 0.5mm per year and the long term monitoring is under development. In addition, surrounding higher sites are also available and could be further developed if necessary. Ali provides unique northern sky coverage and together with the South Pole and the Atacama desert, future CMB observations will be able to cover the full sky from ground.

  7. CRYogenic Orbital TEstbed Ground Test Article Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piryk, David; Schallhorn, Paul; Walls, Laurie; Stopnitzky, Benny; Rhys, Noah; Wollen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to anchor thermal and fluid system models to CRYOTE ground test data. The CRYOTE ground test artide was jointly developed by Innovative Engineering Solutions, United Launch Alliance and NASA KSC. The test article was constructed out of a titanium alloy tank, Sapphire 77 composite skin (similar to G10), an external secondary payload adapter ring, thermal vent system, multi layer insulation and various data acquisition instrumentation. In efforts to understand heat loads throughout this system, the GTA (filled with liquid nitrogen for safety purposes) was subjected to a series of tests in a vacuum chamber at Marshall Space Flight Center. By anchoring analytical models against test data, higher fidelity thermal environment predictions can be made for future flight articles which would eventually demonstrate critical cryogenic fluid management technologies such as system chilldown, transfer, pressure control and long term storage. Significant factors that influenced heat loads included radiative environments, multi-layer insulation performance, tank fill levels and pressures and even contact conductance coefficients. This report demonstrates how analytical thermal/fluid networks were established and includes supporting rationale for specific thermal responses.

  8. Identification of the source of nitrate contamination in ground water below an agricultural site, Jeungpyeong, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Seong-Chun; Bae, Gwang-Ok; Lee, Kang-Kun; Chung, Hyung-Jae

    2005-01-01

    This study applied hydrogeological characterization and isotope investigation to identify source locations and to trace a plume of ground water contaminated by nitrate. Most of the study site is agricultural fields with the remainder being residential. A poultry farm is also within the study area, so that potential point and nonpoint sources were present. Estimates of seasonal ground water recharge from irrigation and precipitation, leakage of sewage, and the regional ground water flow were linked to the seasonal changes in isotopic values. Ground water recharge largely occurred in spring and summer following precipitation or irrigation, depending on the locations. Natural and fertilized soils were identified as nonpoint sources of nitrate contamination in this area, while septic and animal wastes were identified as small point sources. The seasonal changes in the relative impact of these sources on ground water contamination were related to such factors as source distribution, the aquifer confining condition, precipitation rate, infiltration capacity, recharge rate, and the land use pattern.

  9. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The ground water project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. This report is a site specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. Currently, no one is using the ground water and therefore, no one is at risk. However, the land will probably be developed in the future and so the possibility of people using the ground water does exist. This report examines the future possibility of health hazards resulting from the ingestion of contaminated drinking water, skin contact, fish ingestion, or contact with surface waters and sediments.

  10. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Slick Rock, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    Two UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project sites are near Slick Rock, Colorado: the North Continent site and the Union Carbide site. Currently, no one uses the contaminated ground water at either site for domestic or agricultural purposes. However, there may be future land development. This risk assessment evaluates possible future health problems associated with exposure to contaminated ground water. Since some health problems could occur, it is recommended that the contaminated ground water not be used as drinking water.

  11. An Iterative Approach to Ground Penetrating Radar at the Maya Site of Pacbitun, Belize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheldon Skaggs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground penetrating radar (GPR surveys provide distinct advantages for archaeological prospection in ancient, complex, urban Maya sites, particularly where dense foliage or modern debris may preclude other remote sensing or geophysical techniques. Unidirectional GPR surveys using a 500 MHz shielded antenna were performed at the Middle Preclassic Maya site of Pacbitun, Belize. The survey in 2012 identified numerous linear and circular anomalies between 1 m and 2 m deep. Based on these anomalies, one 1 m × 4 m unit and three smaller units were excavated in 2013. These test units revealed a curved plaster surface not previously found at Pacbitun. Post-excavation, GPR data were reprocessed to best match the true nature of excavated features. Additional GPR surveys oriented perpendicular to the original survey confirmed previously detected anomalies and identified new anomalies. The excavations provided information on the sediment layers in the survey area, which allowed better identification of weak radar reflections of the surfaces of a burnt, Middle Preclassic temple in the northern end of the survey area. Additional excavations of the area in 2014 and 2015 revealed it to be a large square structure, which was named El Quemado.

  12. Integrated Mapping and Imaging at a Legacy Test Site (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A. J.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Kelley, R. E.; Sweeney, J. J.; Vigil, S.; DiBenedetto, J.; Chipman, V.

    2013-12-01

    A team of multi-disciplinary geoscientists was tasked to characterize and evaluate a legacy nuclear detonation site in order to develop research locations with the long-term goal of improving treaty monitoring, verification, and other national security applications. There was a test at the site of interest that was detonated on June 12, 1985 in a vertical emplacement borehole at a depth of 608m below the surface in rhyolites. With announced yield of 20-150 kt, the event did not collapse to the surface and form a crater, but rather experienced a subsurface collapse with more subtle surface expressions of deformation. This result provides the team with an opportunity to evaluate a number of surface and subsurface inspection technologies in a broad context. The team collected ground-based visual observation, ground penetrating radar, electromagnetic, ground-based and airborne LiDAR, ground-based and airborne hyperspectral, gravity and magnetics, dc and induction electrical methods, and active seismic data during field campaigns in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Detection of features was performed using various approaches that were assessed for accuracy, efficiency and diversity of target features. For example, whereas the primary target of the ground-based visual observation survey was to map the surface features, the target of the gravity survey was to attempt the detection of a possible subsurface collapse zone which might be located as little as 200 meters below the surface. The datasets from surveys described above are integrated into a geographical information system (GIS) database for analysis and visualization. Other presentations during this session provide further details as to some of the work conducted. Work by Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration Award No. DE-AC52-06NA25946/NST10-NCNS-PD00. Work by National Security Technologies, LLC, was performed under

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This risk assessment evaluates the possibility of health and environmental risks from contaminated ground water at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. The former uranium processing site`s contaminated soil and material were removed and placed at a disposal site located in Body Canyon, Colorado, during 1986--1991 by the US Departments of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach similar to that used by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The first step is to determine what site-related contaminants are found in ground water samples. The next step in the risk assessment is to determine how much of these contaminants people might ingest if they got their drinking water from a well on the site. In accordance with standard practice for this type of risk assessment, the highest contaminant concentrations from the most contaminated wells are used. The risk assessment then explains the possible health problems that could result from this amount of contamination.

  14. Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) Resource Management Plan (RMP) describes the NTS Stewardship Mission and how its accomplishment will preserve the resources of the ecoregion while accomplishing the objectives of the mission. The NTS Stewardship Mission is to manage the land and facilities at the NTS as a unique and valuable national resource. The RMP has defined goals for twelve resource areas based on the principles of ecosystem management. These goals were established using an interdisciplinary team of DOE/NV resource specialists with input from surrounding land managers, private parties, and representatives of Native American governments. The overall goal of the RMP is to facilitate improved NTS land use management decisions within the Great Basin and Mojave Desert ecoregions.

  15. An aerial radiological survey of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, T J; Riedhauser, S R

    1999-12-01

    A team from the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an aerial radiological survey of the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site including three neighboring areas during August and September 1994. The survey team measured the terrestrial gamma radiation at the Nevada Test Site to determine the levels of natural and man-made radiation. This survey included the areas covered by previous surveys conducted from 1962 through 1993. The results of the aerial survey showed a terrestrial background exposure rate that varied from less than 6 microroentgens per hour (mR/h) to 50 mR/h plus a cosmic-ray contribution that varied from 4.5 mR/h at an elevation of 900 meters (3,000 feet) to 8.5 mR/h at 2,400 meters (8,000 feet). In addition to the principal gamma-emitting, naturally occurring isotopes (potassium-40, thallium-208, bismuth-214, and actinium-228), the man-made radioactive isotopes found in this survey were cobalt-60, cesium-137, europium-152, protactinium-234m an indicator of depleted uranium, and americium-241, which are due to human actions in the survey area. Individual, site-wide plots of gross terrestrial exposure rate, man-made exposure rate, and americium-241 activity (approximating the distribution of all transuranic material) are presented. In addition, expanded plots of individual areas exhibiting these man-made contaminations are given. A comparison is made between the data from this survey and previous aerial radiological surveys of the Nevada Test Site. Some previous ground-based measurements are discussed and related to the aerial data. In regions away from man-made activity, the exposure rates inferred from the gamma-ray measurements collected during this survey agreed very well with the exposure rates inferred from previous aerial surveys.

  16. Classification of groundwater at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    Groundwater occurring at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) has been classified according to the ``Guidelines for Ground-Water Classification Under the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Ground-Water Protection Strategy`` (June 1988). All of the groundwater units at the NTS are Class II, groundwater currently (IIA) or potentially (IIB) a source of drinking water. The Classification Review Area (CRA) for the NTS is defined as the standard two-mile distance from the facility boundary recommended by EPA. The possibility of expanding the CRA was evaluated, but the two-mile distance encompasses the area expected to be impacted by contaminant transport during a 10-year period (EPA,s suggested limit), should a release occur. The CRA is very large as a consequence of the large size of the NTS and the decision to classify the entire site, not individual areas of activity. Because most activities are located many miles hydraulically upgradient of the NTS boundary, the CRA generally provides much more than the usual two-mile buffer required by EPA. The CRA is considered sufficiently large to allow confident determination of the use and value of groundwater and identification of potentially affected users. The size and complex hydrogeology of the NTS are inconsistent with the EPA guideline assumption of a high degree of hydrologic interconnection throughout the review area. To more realistically depict the site hydrogeology, the CRA is subdivided into eight groundwater units. Two main aquifer systems are recognized: the lower carbonate aquifer system and the Cenozoic aquifer system (consisting of aquifers in Quaternary valley fill and Tertiary volcanics). These aquifer systems are further divided geographically based on the location of low permeability boundaries.

  17. ASTAMIDS minefield detection performance at Aberdeen Proving Ground test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksymonko, George B.; Breiter, Karin

    1997-07-01

    The airborne standoff minefield detection systems (ASTAMIDS) is an airborne imaging system designed for deployment as a modular mission payload on an unmanned aerial vehicle and capable of detecting surface and buried anti-tank mines under all-weather, day/night conditions. Its primary mission is to support a forward maneuver unit with real time intelligence regarding the existence and extent of minefields in their operational area. The ASTAMIDS development effort currently consists of two parallel technical approaches, passive thermal IR sensor technology in one case and an active multi-channel sensor utilizing passive thermal IR coregistered with a near IR laser polarization data for the other case. The minefield detection capability of this system is a result of signal processing of image data. Due to the large quantities of data generated by an imaging sensor even at modest speeds of an unmanned aerial vehicle, manual exploitation of this data is not feasible in a real time tactical environment and therefore computer aided target feature extraction is a necessity to provide detection cues. Our development efforts over the past several years have concentrated on mine and minefield detection algorithms, the hardware necessary to execute these algorithms in real time, and the tools with which to measure detection performance.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Shiprock, New Mexico. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This baseline risk assessment at the former uranium mill tailings site near Shiprock, New Mexico, evaluates the potential impact to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an on-site disposal cell in 1986 through the US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. There are no domestic or drinking water wells in the contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the contaminated ground water in the San Juan River floodplain alluvium below the site and the contaminated ground water in the terrace alluvium area where the disposal cell is located. Because no one is drinking the affected ground water, there are currently no health or environmental risks directly associated with the contaminated ground water. However, there is a potential for humans, domestic animals, and wildlife to the exposed to surface expressions of ground water in the seeps and pools in the area of the San Juan River floodplain below the site. For these reasons, this risk assessment evaluates potential exposure to contaminated surface water and seeps as well as potential future use of contaminated ground water.

  19. Material Response Models and Ground Motion Calculations for High Explosive Tests in G-Tunnel Tuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-25

    through the use of a viscoelastic model in the form of a standard linear solid. 2.2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES Physical properties from five G- Tunnel , U12G -OT...34Determination of In Situ Stress in U12g Tunnel , Rainier Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,’ U.S. Geological Survey, USGS-474-219, January 1976. 7. Patch, D. F...A -’"’- "’ " [ N • HilM61 AD-A151 737 DNA-TR-84-124 MATERIAL RESPONSE MODELS AND GROUND MOTION CALCULATIONS FOR HIGH EXPLOSIVE TESTS IN G- TUNNEL TUFF

  20. Hanford Site ground-water monitoring for January through June 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.C.; Bryce, R.W.; Sherwood, D.R.

    1989-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory monitors ground-water quality at the Hanford Site for the US Department of Energy to assess the impact of Site operations on the environment. Work undertaken between January and June 1988 included monitoring ground-water elevations across the Site, and monitoring hazardous chemicals and radionuclides in ground water. Water levels continued to rise in areas receiving increased recharge (e.g., beneath B Pond) and decline in areas where the release of water to disposal facilities has been terminated (e.g., U Pond). The major areas of ground-water contamination defined by monitoring activities are (1) carbon tetrachloride in the 200-West Area; (2) cyanide in and north of the 200-East and 200-West Areas; (3) hexavalent chromium contamination in the 100-B, 100-D, 100-F, 100-H, 100-K, and 200-West Areas; (4) chlorinated hydrocarbons in the vicinity of the Solid Waste Landfill and 300 Area; (5) uranium in the 100-F, 100-H, 200-West, and 300 Areas; and (6) tritium and nitrate across the Site. In addition, several new analytical initiatives were undertaken during this period. These include cyanide speciation in the BY Cribs plume, inductively coupled argon plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) measurements on a broad selection of samples from the 100, 200, 300, and 600 Areas, and high sensitivity gas chromatography measurements performed at the Solid Waste Landfill-Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill. 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  1. Soil Physical and Environmental Conditions Controlling Patterned-Ground Variability at a Continuous Permafrost Site, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watanabe, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Norikazu; Christiansen, Hanne Hvidtfeldt

    2017-01-01

    This study examines soil physical and environmental conditions controlling patterned-ground variability on an alluvial fan in a continuous permafrost landscape, at Adventdalen, Svalbard. On-site monitoring of ground temperature, soil moisture and snow depth, laboratory analyses of soil physical...... properties and principal component analysis indicate that the distribution of patterned ground depends primarily on soil texture, soil moisture and the winter ground thermal regime associated with snow cover. Mudboils and composite patterns (mudboils surrounded by small polygons) occupy well-drained areas...... composed of clay-rich aeolian sediments. Compared to mudboils, composite patterns show a sharper contrast in soil texture between barren centres and vegetated rims. Hummocks filled with organic materials develop on poorly drained lowlands associated with a shallow water table. Ice-wedge polygons...

  2. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Guidelines for determining design basis ground motions. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-18

    This report develops and applies a methodology for estimating strong earthquake ground motion. The motivation was to develop a much needed tool for use in developing the seismic requirements for structural designs. An earthquake`s ground motion is a function of the earthquake`s magnitude, and the physical properties of the earth through which the seismic waves travel from the earthquake fault to the site of interest. The emphasis of this study is on ground motion estimation in Eastern North America (east of the Rocky Mountains), with particular emphasis on the Eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Eastern North America is a stable continental region, having sparse earthquake activity with rare occurrences of large earthquakes. While large earthquakes are of interest for assessing seismic hazard, little data exists from the region to empirically quantify their effects. The focus of the report is on the attributes of ground motion in Eastern North America that are of interest for the design of facilities such as nuclear power plants. This document, Volume II, contains Appendices 2, 3, 5, 6, and 7 covering the following topics: Eastern North American Empirical Ground Motion Data; Examination of Variance of Seismographic Network Data; Soil Amplification and Vertical-to-Horizontal Ratios from Analysis of Strong Motion Data From Active Tectonic Regions; Revision and Calibration of Ou and Herrmann Method; Generalized Ray Procedure for Modeling Ground Motion Attenuation; Crustal Models for Velocity Regionalization; Depth Distribution Models; Development of Generic Site Effects Model; Validation and Comparison of One-Dimensional Site Response Methodologies; Plots of Amplification Factors; Assessment of Coupling Between Vertical & Horizontal Motions in Nonlinear Site Response Analysis; and Modeling of Dynamic Soil Properties.

  3. Ground-dwelling ant fauna of sites with high levels of copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Diehl

    Full Text Available Richness and diversity of ant species are related to environmental factors such as vegetation, soil, presence of heavy metals, and insecticides, which allow the use of the assemblage members as terrestrial indicators of environmental conservation status. This study presents the results of ground ants surveyed in Minas do Camaquã in the municipality of Caçapava do Sul (Camaquã Basin, State of Rio Grande do Sul. Collections were performed in four sites, with high levels of copper in the soil, three of which - a mine, a liquid reject, and a solid reject -, had sparse or no plant cover, and one site where Pinus has been used for rehabilitation. Parque das Guaritas was the control site, since it presented normal levels of copper and a dense savanna cover. For each site, three transect lines extending 100 m were draw, and at each 10 m sardine baits were distributed; after two hours the ants present were collected. Hand collections in all five sites were performed during one hour (capture effort. A total of 51 species belonging to 17 genera were collected. The control site was the richest in ant species (r = 45. Sites with high level of copper and poor plant cover presented the lowest richness: mine (r = 14, solid reject (r = 15, and liquid reject (r = 16. In contrast, the site planted with Pinus presented an increment in richness (r = 24 of ground-dwelling ants, suggesting a reahabilitation process.

  4. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Slick Rock, Colorado, evaluates potential public health and environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former North Continent (NC) and Union Carbide (UC) uranium mill processing sites. The tailings at these sites will be placed in a disposal cell at the proposed Burro Canyon, Colorado, site. The US Department of Energy (DOE) anticipates the start of the first phase remedial action by the spring of 1995 under the direction of the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project will evaluate ground water contamination. This baseline risk assessment is the first site-specific document for these sites under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the compliance strategy for contaminated ground water at the site. In addition, surface water and sediment are qualitatively evaluated in this report.

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

  6. Ground-state properties of the two-site Hubbard-Holstein model: an exact solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuyu; Wang Xiaoguang [Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 321004 (China); Liu Tao; Wang Kelin [Department of Physics, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Chen Qinghu, E-mail: qhchen@zju.edu.c [Center for Statistical and Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China)

    2009-10-14

    We study the two-site Hubbard-Holstein model by using an extended phonon coherent state. For the nontrivial singlet bipolarons, the double occupancy probability, the fidelity and the entanglement entropy are calculated to characterize the ground-state properties in both two-site and single-site bipolaron-dominated regimes. We use the localized minimum of the fidelity to define a crossover and plot the bipolaron phase diagram, which separates the large and small entanglement region. Furthermore, the relation between the bipolaron entanglement and the correlation functions demonstrates that the large entanglement corresponds to the large magnitude of lattice deformations induced by electrons.

  7. Environmental assessment for double tracks test site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), with appropriate approvals from the U.S. Air Force (USAF), proposes to conduct environmental restoration operations at the Double Tracks test site located on the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in Nye County, Nevada. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental consequences of four alternative actions for conducting the restoration operation and of the no action alternative. The EA also identifies mitigation measures, where appropriate, designed to protect natural and cultural resources and reduce impacts to human health and safety. The environmental restoration operation at the Double Tracks test site would serve two primary objectives. First, the proposed work would evaluate the effectiveness of future restoration operations involving contamination over larger areas. The project would implement remediation technology options and evaluate how these technologies could be applied to the larger areas of contaminated soils on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), and the NAFR. Second, the remediation would provide for the removal of plutonium contamination down to or below a predetermined level which would require cleanup of 1 hectare (ha) (2.5 acres), for the most likely case, or up to 3.0 ha (7.4 acres) of contaminated soil, for the upper bounding case.

  8. Results from the Cold Atom Laboratory's ground test bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Ethan; CAL Team

    2017-04-01

    We describe validation and development of critical technologies in the Cold Atom Laboratory's (CAL) ground test bed, including the demonstration of the first microwave evaporation and generation of dual-species quantum gas mixtures on an atom chip. CAL is a multi-user facility developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to provide the first persistent quantum gas platform in the microgravity environment of space. The CAL instrument will be operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and utilize a compact atom chip trap loaded from a dual-species magneto optical trap of rubidium and potassium. In the unique environment of microgravity, the confining potentials necessary to the process of cooling atoms can be arbitrarily relaxed, enabling production of gases down to pikoKelvin temperatures and ultra-low densities. Complete removal of the confining potential allows for ultracold clouds that can float virtually fixed relative to the CAL apparatus. This new parameter regime enables ultracold atom research with broad applications in fundamental physics and inertial sensing. Results from the Cold Atom Laboratory's ground testbed.

  9. 78 FR 12259 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program AGENCY: Federal... be levied on the Unmanned Aircraft Systems Test Site operators, but prior to the close of the comment... stakeholders regarding the proposed privacy approach for the unmanned aircraft systems test site program. The...

  10. Interpreting Results from the Standardized UXO Test Sites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    May, Michael; Tuley, Michael

    2007-01-01

    ...) and the Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESCTP) to complete a detailed analysis of the results of testing carried out at the Standardized Unexploded Ordnance (UXO) Test Sites...

  11. [Study on Tritium Content in Soil at Sites of Nuclear Explosions on the Territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonova, L V; Lyakhova, O N; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O

    2015-01-01

    As a result of investigations carried out on the territory of Semipalatinsk Test Site, tritium was found in different environmental objects--surface and ground waters, vegetation, air environment, and snow cover. The analysis of the data obtained has shown that contamination of environmental objects at the Semipalatinsk Test Site with tritium is associated with the places where underground nuclear tests were performed. Since tritium can originate from an activation reaction and be trapped by pock particles during a test, it was decided to examine the soil in the sites where surface and excavation tests took place. It was found that the concentration of tritium in soil correlates with the concentration of europium. Probably, the concentration of tritium in the soil depends on the character and yield of the tests performed. Findings of the study have revealed that tritium can be found in soil in significant amounts not only in sites where underground nuclear tests took place but also in sites where surface and excavation nuclear tests were carried out.

  12. NASA Boeing 757 HIRF test series low power on-the-ground tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poggio, A.J.; Pennock, S.T.; Zacharias, R.A.; Avalle, C.A.; Carney, H.L. [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley AFB, VA (United States). Langley Research Center

    1996-08-01

    The data acquisition phase of a program intended to provide data for the validation of computational, analytical, and experimental techniques for the assessment of electromagnetic effects in commercial transports; for the checkout of instrumentation for following test programs; and for the support of protection engineering of airborne systems has been completed. Funded by the NASA Fly-By-Light/ Power-By-Wire Program, the initial phase involved on-the-ground electromagnetic measurements using the NASA Boeing 757 and was executed in the LESLI Facility at the USAF Phillips Laboratory. The major participants in this project were LLNL, NASA Langley Research Center, Phillips Laboratory, and UIE, Inc. The tests were performed over a five week period during September through November, 1994. Measurements were made of the fields coupled into the aircraft interior and signals induced in select structures and equipment under controlled illumination by RF fields. A characterization of the ground was also performed to permit ground effects to be included in forthcoming validation exercises. This report and the associated test plan that is included as an appendix represent a definition of the overall on-the-ground test program. They include descriptions of the test rationale, test layout, and samples of the data. In this report, a detailed description of each executed test is provided, as is the data identification (data id) relating the specific test with its relevant data files. Samples of some inferences from the data that will be useful in protection engineering and EM effects mitigation are also presented. The test plan which guided the execution of the tests, a test report by UIE Inc., and the report describing the concrete pad characterization are included as appendices.

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Durango, Colorado (the Durango site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1986 to 1991. An evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. Exposure could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. In addition, environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water, or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Durango site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Durango site will be used to determine what is necessary to protect public health and the environment, and to comply with the EPA standards.

  14. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition.

  15. Unforeseen effects of supplementary feeding: ungulate baiting sites as hotspots for ground-nest predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Nuria; Berezowska-Cnota, Teresa; Elguero-Claramunt, Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity and magnitude of food provision to wildlife, our understanding of its ecological effects and conservation implications is very limited. Supplementary feeding of ungulates, still one of the main paradigms of game management in Europe, occurs in natural areas on an enormous scale. We investigated the indirect effects of this practice on nest predation risk in the Polish Eastern Carpathians (Bieszczady Mountains). We hypothesized that the predators attracted to ungulate baiting sites would also forage for alternative prey nearby, increasing the nest predation risk for ground-nesting birds in the vicinity. We conducted a paired experiment by placing artificial nests (N=120) in feeding and control sites (N=12) at different distances from the ungulate feeding site. We also documented the use of three ungulate feeding sites by potential nest predators with automatic cameras. The proportion of depredated nests was 30% higher in the vicinity of feeding sites than at control sites (65%± 31.5 vs 35%± 32.1). The probability of a nest being depredated significantly increased with time and at shorter distances from the feeding site. We predicted that the area within 1-km distance from the feeding site would have a high risk (>0.5) of nest predation. We recorded 13 species of potential ground-nest predators at ungulate baiting sites. Most frequent were Eurasian jays Garrulus glandarius, mice and voles Muroidea, ravens Corvus corax, brown bears Ursus arctos, and wild boar Sus scrofa. Nest predators made most use of supplementary feeding sites (82% pictures with predators vs 8% with ungulates, the target group). Our study alerts of the impacts of ungulate feeding on alternative prey; this is of special concern when affecting protected species. We urge for a sensible management of ungulate feeding, which considers potential indirect effects on other species and the spatial and temporal components of food provision.

  16. Unforeseen effects of supplementary feeding: ungulate baiting sites as hotspots for ground-nest predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Selva

    Full Text Available Despite the ubiquity and magnitude of food provision to wildlife, our understanding of its ecological effects and conservation implications is very limited. Supplementary feeding of ungulates, still one of the main paradigms of game management in Europe, occurs in natural areas on an enormous scale. We investigated the indirect effects of this practice on nest predation risk in the Polish Eastern Carpathians (Bieszczady Mountains. We hypothesized that the predators attracted to ungulate baiting sites would also forage for alternative prey nearby, increasing the nest predation risk for ground-nesting birds in the vicinity. We conducted a paired experiment by placing artificial nests (N=120 in feeding and control sites (N=12 at different distances from the ungulate feeding site. We also documented the use of three ungulate feeding sites by potential nest predators with automatic cameras. The proportion of depredated nests was 30% higher in the vicinity of feeding sites than at control sites (65%± 31.5 vs 35%± 32.1. The probability of a nest being depredated significantly increased with time and at shorter distances from the feeding site. We predicted that the area within 1-km distance from the feeding site would have a high risk (>0.5 of nest predation. We recorded 13 species of potential ground-nest predators at ungulate baiting sites. Most frequent were Eurasian jays Garrulus glandarius, mice and voles Muroidea, ravens Corvus corax, brown bears Ursus arctos, and wild boar Sus scrofa. Nest predators made most use of supplementary feeding sites (82% pictures with predators vs 8% with ungulates, the target group. Our study alerts of the impacts of ungulate feeding on alternative prey; this is of special concern when affecting protected species. We urge for a sensible management of ungulate feeding, which considers potential indirect effects on other species and the spatial and temporal components of food provision.

  17. Vision-based Ground Test for Active Debris Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Min Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the continuous space development by mankind, the number of space objects including space debris in orbits around the Earth has increased, and accordingly, difficulties of space development and activities are expected in the near future. In this study, among the stages for space debris removal, the implementation of a vision-based approach technique for approaching space debris from a far-range rendezvous state to a proximity state, and the ground test performance results were described. For the vision-based object tracking, the CAM-shift algorithm with high speed and strong performance, and the Kalman filter were combined and utilized. For measuring the distance to a tracking object, a stereo camera was used. For the construction of a low-cost space environment simulation test bed, a sun simulator was used, and in the case of the platform for approaching, a two-dimensional mobile robot was used. The tracking status was examined while changing the position of the sun simulator, and the results indicated that the CAM-shift showed a tracking rate of about 87% and the relative distance could be measured down to 0.9 m. In addition, considerations for future space environment simulation tests were proposed.

  18. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Looney

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site, which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte, and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius. Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    For the UMTRA Project site located near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania (the Canonsburg site), the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1983 to 1985, and involved removing the uranium processing mill tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials from their original locations and placing them in a disposal cell located on the former Canonsburg uranium mill site. This disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The Ground Water Project will evaluate the nature and the extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing at the former Canonsburg uranium mill site, and will determine a ground water strategy for complying with the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Canonsburg site, an evaluation was made to determine whether exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing could affect people`s health. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Canonsburg site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Canonsburg site will be used to determine how to protect public health and the environment, and how to comply with the EPA standards.

  1. Long-Term Durability of Pressure-Treated Wood in a Severe Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow; Bessie Woodward; Grant Kirker; Patricia Lebow

    2013-01-01

    Improved estimates of the long-term durability of treated wood products are needed to guide choices about construction materials and allow estimates of design life. This report summarizes the long-term decay and insect resistance of treated wood post and lumber specimens placed in ground contact at a test site of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service,...

  2. Air/ground wind shear information integration: Flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, David A.

    1992-01-01

    An element of the NASA/FAA wind shear program is the integration of ground-based microburst information on the flight deck, to support airborne wind shear alerting and microburst avoidance. NASA conducted a wind shear flight test program in the summer of 1991 during which airborne processing of Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) data was used to derive microburst alerts. High level microburst products were extracted from TDWR, transmitted to a NASA Boeing 737 in flight via data link, and processed to estimate the wind shear hazard level (F-factor) that would be experienced by the aircraft in the core of each microburst. The microburst location and F-factor were used to derive a situation display and alerts. The situation display was successfully used to maneuver the aircraft for microburst penetrations, during which in situ 'truth' measurements were made. A total of 19 penetrations were made of TDWR-reported microburst locations, resulting in 18 airborne microburst alerts from the TDWR data and two microburst alerts from the airborne in situ measurements. The primary factors affecting alerting performance were spatial offset of the flight path from the region of strongest shear, differences in TDWR measurement altitude and airplane penetration altitude, and variations in microburst outflow profiles. Predicted and measured F-factors agreed well in penetrations near microburst cores. Although improvements in airborne and ground processing of the TDWR measurement would be required to support an airborne executive-level alerting protocol, the feasibility of airborne utilization of TDWR data link data has been demonstrated.

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site Salt Lake City, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of groundwater contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah, evaluates potential public health or environmental impacts resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium ore processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell located at Clive, Utah, in 1987 by the US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate residual ground water contamination at the former uranium processing site, known as the Vitro processing site. This risk assessment is the first site-specific document under the Ground Water Project. It will help determine the appropriate remedial action for contaminated ground water at the site.

  4. The VUV instrument SPICE for Solar Orbiter: performance ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Martin E.; Morris, Nigel; Griffin, Douglas K.; Eccleston, Paul; Anderson, Mark; Pastor Santos, Carmen; Bruzzi, Davide; Tustain, Samuel; Howe, Chris; Davenne, Jenny; Grundy, Timothy; Speight, Roisin; Sidher, Sunil D.; Giunta, Alessandra; Fludra, Andrzej; Philippon, Anne; Auchere, Frederic; Hassler, Don; Davila, Joseph M.; Thompson, William T.; Schuehle, Udo H.; Meining, Stefan; Walls, Buddy; Phelan, P.; Dunn, Greg; Klein, Roman M.; Reichel, Thomas; Gyo, Manfred; Munro, Grant J.; Holmes, William; Doyle, Peter

    2017-08-01

    SPICE is an imaging spectrometer operating at vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) wavelengths, 70.4 - 79.0 nm and 97.3 - 104.9 nm. It is a facility instrument on the Solar Orbiter mission, which carries 10 science instruments in all, to make observations of the Sun's atmosphere and heliosphere, at close proximity to the Sun, i.e to 0.28 A.U. at perihelion. SPICE's role is to make VUV measurements of plasma in the solar atmosphere. SPICE is designed to achieve spectral imaging at spectral resolution >1500, spatial resolution of several arcsec, and two-dimensional FOV of 11 x16arcmins. The many strong constraints on the instrument design imposed by the mission requirements prevent the imaging performance from exceeding those of previous instruments, but by being closer to the sun there is a gain in spatial resolution. The price which is paid is the harsher environment, particularly thermal. This leads to some novel features in the design, which needed to be proven by ground test programs. These include a dichroic solar-transmitting primary mirror to dump the solar heat, a high in-flight temperature (60deg.C) and gradients in the optics box, and a bespoke variable-line-spacing grating to minimise the number of reflective components used. The tests culminate in the systemlevel test of VUV imaging performance and pointing stability. We will describe how our dedicated facility with heritage from previous solar instruments, is used to make these tests, and show the results, firstly on the Engineering Model of the optics unit, and more recently on the Flight Model. For the keywords, select up to 8 key terms for a search on your manuscript's subject.

  5. Solar Array at Very High Temperatures: Ground Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayner, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Solar array design for any spacecraft is determined by the orbit parameters. For example, operational voltage for spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is limited by significant differential charging due to interactions with low temperature plasma. In order to avoid arcing in LEO, solar array is designed to generate electrical power at comparatively low voltages (below 100 volts) or to operate at higher voltages with encapsulation of all suspected discharge locations. In Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) differential charging is caused by energetic electrons that produce differential potential between the coverglass and the conductive spacecraft body in a kilovolt range. In such a case, the weakly conductive layer over coverglass, indium tin oxide (ITO) is one of the possible measures to eliminate dangerous discharges on array surface. Temperature variations for solar arrays in both orbits are measured and documented within the range of minus150 degrees Centigrade to plus 1100 degrees Centigrade. This wide interval of operational temperatures is regularly reproduced in ground tests with radiative heating and cooling inside a shroud with flowing liquid nitrogen. The requirements to solar array design and tests turn out to be more complicated when planned trajectory crosses these two orbits and goes closer to the Sun. The conductive layer over coverglass causes a sharp increase in parasitic current collected from LEO plasma, high temperature may cause cracks in encapsulating (Room Temperature Vulcanizing (RTV) material; radiative heating of a coupon in vacuum chamber becomes practically impossible above 1500 degrees Centigrade; conductivities of glass and adhesive go up with temperature that decrease array efficiency; and mechanical stresses grow up to critical magnitudes. A few test arrangements and respective results are presented in current paper. Coupons were tested against arcing in simulated LEO and GEO environments under elevated temperatures up to 2000 degrees

  6. Motor sport in France: testing-ground for the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofaigh, Eamon O

    2011-01-01

    The birth of the automobile in the late nineteenth century was greeted with a mixture of awe, scepticism and sometimes even disdain from sections of the European public. In this article, the steps taken in France to pioneer and promote this new invention are examined. Unreliable and noisy, the early automobile owes a debt of gratitude to the French aristocracy who organised and codified motor racing in an effort to test these new inventions while at the same time introduce them to a wider public. City-to-city races demonstrated the potential of the automobile before the initiative of Gordon Bennett proved to be the catalyst for the birth of international motor sport as we recognise it today. Finally this article looks at the special connection between Le Mans and the automobile. Le Mans has, through its 24-hour race, maintained a strong link with the development of everyday automobile tourism and offers the enthusiast an alternative to the machines that reach incredible speeds on modern-day closed circuits. This article examines how French roads were veritable testing grounds for the earliest cars and how the public roads of Le Mans maintain the tradition to this day.

  7. Microbial degradative activity in ground water at a chemical waste disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, H.M. (Jackson State Univ., MS (United States)); Hodson, R.E. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (United States)); Lewis, D.L. (Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA (United States)); Scholze, R. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States))

    1993-06-01

    This study was designed to examine the microbiological fate and effects of toxic organic chemicals at the ambient concentration in leachates derived from a waste disposal landfill site. Analyses revealed that ground water downslope from the burial site contained high levels of certain dissolved hazardous chemicals such as toluene, xylene, benzene, and methylene chloride. To study the fate of these compounds in such systems, the use of simplified laboratory studies of the biodegradation of individual compounds is often inappropriate in that complex interactions between and among the various chemicals can result in either enhancement or inhition of the biodegradation of particular compounds. 13 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Guidelines for determining design basis ground motions. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-18

    This report develops and applies a methodology for estimating strong earthquake ground motion. The motivation was to develop a much needed tool for use in developing the seismic requirements for structural designs. An earthquake`s ground motion is a function of the earthquake`s magnitude, and the physical properties of the earth through which the seismic waves travel from the earthquake fault to the site of interest. The emphasis of this study is on ground motion estimation in Eastern North America (east of the Rocky Mountains), with particular emphasis on the Eastern United States and southeastern Canada. Eastern North America is a stable continental region, having sparse earthquake activity with rare occurrences of large earthquakes. While large earthquakes are of interest for assessing seismic hazard, little data exists from the region to empirically quantify their effects. Therefore, empirically based approaches that are used for other regions, such as Western North America, are not appropriate for Eastern North America. Moreover, recent advances in science and technology have now made it possible to combine theoretical and empirical methods to develop new procedures and models for estimating ground motion. The focus of the report is on the attributes of ground motion in Eastern North America that are of interest for the design of facilities such as nuclear power plants. Specifically considered are magnitudes M from 5 to 8, distances from 0 to 500 km, and frequencies from 1 to 35 Hz.

  9. Coral recruitment to two vessel grounding sites off southeast Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L. Moulding

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, more than 10 major vessel groundings have occurred on coral reefs offshore southeast Florida. Lack of any published information on coral settlement, post-settlement survival, and juvenile coral growth in the southeast Florida region inhibits efforts to determine if coral populations will be able to effectively re-establish themselves. The goal of this study was to examine these processes to obtain background data needed to determine the potential for natural recovery. Over a three year period annual coral recruitment, juvenile growth, and mortality rates were measured in 20 permanent quadrats at each of two ship grounding and two control sites. The density of new recruits was generally low, ranging from 0.2±0.1 (SE to 7.1±1.0 recruits m-2. Although the density of coral recruits was generally higher at the grounding sites, mortality rates were high at all sites during the study period. Growth rates of individual colonies were highly variable, and many of the colonies shrank in size due to partial mortality. Results indicate that corals are able to recruit to the damaged reefs but that slow growth rates and high mortality rates may keep these areas in a perpetual cycle of settlement and mortality with little or extremely slow growth to larger size classes, thus inhibiting recovery.

  10. Embracing Safe Ground Test Facility Operations and Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Steven C.; Green, Donald R.

    2010-01-01

    Conducting integrated operations and maintenance in wind tunnel ground test facilities requires a balance of meeting due dates, efficient operation, responsiveness to the test customer, data quality, effective maintenance (relating to readiness and reliability), and personnel and facility safety. Safety is non-negotiable, so the balance must be an "and" with other requirements and needs. Pressure to deliver services faster at increasing levels of quality in under-maintained facilities is typical. A challenge for management is to balance the "need for speed" with safety and quality. It s especially important to communicate this balance across the organization - workers, with a desire to perform, can be tempted to cut corners on defined processes to increase speed. Having a lean staff can extend the time required for pre-test preparations, so providing a safe work environment for facility personnel and providing good stewardship for expensive National capabilities can be put at risk by one well-intending person using at-risk behavior. This paper documents a specific, though typical, operational environment and cites management and worker safety initiatives and tools used to provide a safe work environment. Results are presented and clearly show that the work environment is a relatively safe one, though still not good enough to keep from preventing injury. So, the journey to a zero injury work environment - both in measured reality and in the minds of each employee - continues. The intent of this paper is to provide a benchmark for others with operational environments and stimulate additional sharing and discussion on having and keeping a safe work environment.

  11. Long-term ground-water monitoring program and performance-evaluation plan for the extraction system at the former Nike Missile Battery Site, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senus, Michael P.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents lithologic and ground-water-quality data collected during April and May 2000 in the remote areas of the tidal wetland of West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Contamination of the Canal Creek aquifer with volatile organic compounds has been documented in previous investigations of the area. This study was conducted to investigate areas that were previously inaccessible because of deep mud and shallow water, and to support ongoing investigations of the fate and transport of volatile organic compounds in the Canal Creek aquifer. A unique vibracore drill rig mounted on a hovercraft was used for drilling and ground-water sampling. Continuous cores of the wetland sediment and of the Canal Creek aquifer were collected at five sites. Attempts to sample ground water were made by use of a continuous profiler at 12 sites, without well installation, at a total of 81 depths within the aquifer. Of those 81 attempts, only 34 sampling depths produced enough water to collect samples. Ground-water samples from two sites had the highest concentrations of volatile organic compounds?with total volatile organic compound concentrations in the upper part of the aquifer ranging from about 15,000 to 50,000 micrograms per liter. Ground-water samples from five sites had much lower total volatile organic compound concentrations (95 to 2,100 micrograms per liter), whereas two sites were essentially not contaminated, with total volatile organic compound concentrations less than or equal to 5 micrograms per liter.

  12. 78 FR 68360 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Site Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-14

    ...--news helicopters, aerial surveys, film/television production, law enforcement, etc.--the FAA is not... surveillance and privacy; Require Test Site operators to design the sites--including the creation of ``fake...

  13. Test site experiments with a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persico, Raffaele; Matera, Loredana; Piro, Salvatore; Rizzo, Enzo; Capozzoli, Luigi

    2016-04-01

    In this contribution, some new possibilities offered by a reconfigurable stepped frequency GPR system are exposed. In particular, results achieved from a prototypal system achieved in two scientific test sites will be shown together with the results achieved in the same test sites with traditional systems. Moreover a novel technique for the rejection of undesired interferences is shown, with the use of interferences caused on purpose. Key words GPR, reconfigurable stepped frequency. Introduction A reconfigurable GPR system is meant as a GPR where some parameter can be changed vs. the frequency (if the system is stepped frequency) or vs. the time (if the system is pulsed) in a programmable way. The programming should then account for the conditions met in the scenario at hand [1]. Within the research project AITECH (http://www.aitechnet.com/ibam.html), the Institute for Archaeological and Monumental Heritage, together with the University of Florence and the IDS corporation have implemented a prototype, that has been used in sites of cultural interest in Italy [2], but also abroad in Norway and Malta. The system is a stepped frequency GPR working in the frequency range 50-1000 MHz, and its reconfigurability consists in three properties. The first one is the fact that the length of the antennas can be modulated by the aperture and closure of two electronic switches present along the arms of the antennas, so that the antennas can become electrically (and electronically) longer or shorter, so becoming more suitable to radiate some frequencies rather than some other. In particular, the system can radiate three different bands in the comprehensive range between 50-1000 MHz, so being suitable for different depth range of the buried targets, and the three bands are gathered in a unique "going through" because for each measurement point the system can sweep the entire frequency range trhee times, one for each configuration of the switchres on the arms. The second property is

  14. Testing Pearl Model In Three European Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouraoui, F.; Bidoglio, G.

    The Plant Protection Product Directive (91/414/EEC) stresses the need of validated models to calculate predicted environmental concentrations. The use of models has become an unavoidable step before pesticide registration. In this context, European Commission, and in particular DGVI, set up a FOrum for the Co-ordination of pes- ticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS). In a complementary effort, DG research supported the APECOP project, with one of its objective being the validation and im- provement of existing pesticide fate models. The main topic of research presented here is the validation of the PEARL model for different sites in Europe. The PEARL model, actually used in the Dutch pesticide registration procedure, was validated in three well- instrumented sites: Vredepeel (the Netherlands), Brimstone (UK), and Lanna (Swe- den). A step-wise procedure was used for the validation of the PEARL model. First the water transport module was calibrated, and then the solute transport module, using tracer measurements keeping unchanged the water transport parameters. The Vrede- peel site is characterised by a sandy soil. Fourteen months of measurements were used for the calibration. Two pesticides were applied on the site: bentazone and etho- prophos. PEARL predictions were very satisfactory for both soil moisture content, and pesticide concentration in the soil profile. The Brimstone site is characterised by a cracking clay soil. The calibration was conducted on a time series measurement of 7 years. The validation consisted in comparing predictions and measurement of soil moisture at different soil depths, and in comparing the predicted and measured con- centration of isoproturon in the drainage water. The results, even if in good agreement with the measuremens, highlighted the limitation of the model when the preferential flow becomes a dominant process. PEARL did not reproduce well soil moisture pro- file during summer months, and also under-predicted the arrival of

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  16. Active Thermal Control Experiments for LISA Ground Verification Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Sei; DeBra, Daniel B.

    2006-11-01

    The primary mission goal of LISA is detecting gravitational waves. LISA uses laser metrology to measure the distance between proof masses in three identical spacecrafts. The total acceleration disturbance to each proof mass is required to be below 3 × 10-15 m/s2√Hz . Optical path length variations on each optical bench must be kept below 40 pm/√Hz over 1 Hz to 0.1 mHz. Thermal variations due to, for example, solar radiation or temperature gradients across the proof mass housing will distort the spacecraft causing changes in the mass attraction and sensor location. We have developed a thermal control system developed for the LISA gravitational reference sensor (GRS) ground verification testing which provides thermal stability better than 1 mK/√Hz to f control for the LISA spacecraft to compensate solar irradiation. Thermally stable environment is very demanded for LISA performance verification. In a lab environment specifications can be met with considerable amount of insulation and thermal mass. For spacecraft, the very limited thermal mass calls for an active control system which can meet disturbance rejection and stability requirements simultaneously in the presence of long time delay. A simple proportional plus integral control law presently provides approximately 1 mK/√Hz of thermal stability for over 80 hours. Continuing development of a model predictive feed-forward algorithm will extend performance to below 1 mK/√Hz at f < 1 mHz and lower.

  17. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project, and the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site located near Naturita, Colorado, phase I involves the removal of radioactively contaminated soils and materials and their transportation to a disposal site at Union Carbide Corporation`s Upper Burbank Repository at Uravan, Colorado. The surface cleanup will reduce radon and other radiation emissions from the former uranium processing site and prevent further site-related contamination of ground water. Phase II of the project will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and its effect on human health and the environment, and will determine site-specific ground water compliance strategies in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. Human health risks could occur from drinking water pumped from a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated ground water area. Environmental risks may result if plants or animals are exposed to contaminated ground water or surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water. Therefore, a risk assessment was conducted for the Naturita site. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the Ground Water Project at the Naturita site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in a disposal cell on the site in 1989 by the US DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. Currently, UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination in this risk assessment.

  19. Prediction of earthquake ground motion at rock sites in Japan: evaluation of empirical and stochastic approaches for the PEGASOS Refinement Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Benjamin; Fäh, Donat

    2017-11-01

    Strong ground-motion databases used to develop ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and calibrate stochastic simulation models generally include relatively few recordings on what can be considered as engineering rock or hard rock. Ground-motion predictions for such sites are therefore susceptible to uncertainty and bias, which can then propagate into site-specific hazard and risk estimates. In order to explore this issue we present a study investigating the prediction of ground motion at rock sites in Japan, where a wide range of recording-site types (from soil to very hard rock) are available for analysis. We employ two approaches: empirical GMPEs and stochastic simulations. The study is undertaken in the context of the PEGASOS Refinement Project (PRP), a Senior Seismic Hazard Analysis Committee (SSHAC) Level 4 probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of Swiss nuclear power plants, commissioned by swissnuclear and running from 2008 to 2013. In order to reduce the impact of site-to-site variability and expand the available data set for rock and hard-rock sites we adjusted Japanese ground-motion data (recorded at sites with 110 m s-1 simulation method was tested, allowing the direct incorporation of site-specific Fourier amplification information in forward simulations. We use an adjusted version of the model developed for Switzerland during the PRP. The median simulation prediction at true rock and hard-rock sites (Vs30 > 800 m s-1) was found to be comparable (within expected levels of epistemic uncertainty) to predictions using an empirical GMPE, with reduced residual misfit. As expected, due to including site-specific information in the simulations, the reduction in misfit could be isolated to a reduction in the site-related within-event uncertainty. The results of this study support the use of finite or pseudo-finite fault stochastic simulation methods in estimating strong ground motions in regions of weak and moderate seismicity, such as central and northern

  20. 77 FR 14319 - Unmanned Aircraft System Test Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Unmanned Aircraft System Test Sites AGENCY: Federal... test ranges/sites to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS... integrate unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace system at six test ranges. In establishing...

  1. Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) of the Hanford Nuclear Site in south-central Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S; Labonte, James R

    2014-01-01

    Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity.

  2. Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan: Annual summary, January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan published in December of 1998 (DOE/NV--518) describes the Nevada Test Site stewardship mission and how its accomplishment will preserve the resources of the ecoregion while accomplishing the objectives of the mission. As part of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, DOE Nevada Operations Office has committed to perform and publish an annual summary review of DOE Nevada Operations' stewardship of the Nevada Test Site. This annual summary includes a description of progress made toward the goals of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, pertinent monitoring data, actions that were taken to adapt to changing conditions, and any other changes to the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan.

  3. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Grand Junction, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the EPA. the first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the contaminants of potential concern in the ground water are arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, sulfate, uranium, vanadium, zinc, and radium-226. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if they drank from a well installed in the contaminated ground water at the former processing site.

  4. Integrated Ground Operations Demonstration Units Testing Plans and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Robert G.; Notardonato, William U.; Currin, Kelly M.; Orozco-Smith, Evelyn M.

    2012-01-01

    Cryogenic propellant loading operations with their associated flight and ground systems are some of the most complex, critical activities in launch operations. Consequently, these systems and operations account for a sizeable portion of the life cycle costs of any launch program. NASA operations for handling cryogens in ground support equipment have not changed substantially in 50 years, despite advances in cryogenics, system health management and command and control technologies. This project was developed to mature, integrate and demonstrate advancement in the current state of the art in these areas using two distinct integrated ground operations demonstration units (GODU): GODU Integrated Refrigeration and Storage (IRAS) and GODU Autonomous Control

  5. Guide to ground water remediation at CERCLA response action and RCRA corrective action sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This Guide contains the regulatory and policy requirements governing remediation of ground water contaminated with hazardous waste [including radioactive mixed waste (RMW)], hazardous substances, or pollutants/contaminants that present (or may present) an imminent and substantial danger. It was prepared by the Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-413), to assist Environmental Program Managers (ERPMs) who often encounter contaminated ground water during the performance of either response actions under CERCLA or corrective actions under Subtitle C of RCRA. The Guide begins with coverage of the regulatory and technical issues that are encountered by ERPM`s after a CERCLA Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/SI) or the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) have been completed and releases into the environment have been confirmed. It is based on the assumption that ground water contamination is present at the site, operable unit, solid waste management unit, or facility. The Guide`s scope concludes with completion of the final RAs/corrective measures and a determination by the appropriate regulatory agencies that no further response action is necessary.

  6. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Cane Valley, Arizona. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impact to public health or the environment from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site in Cane Valley near Monument Valley, Arizona. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has relocated and stabilized this site`s tailings and other contaminated material in a disposal cell at Mexican Hat, Utah. The second phase of the UMTRA Project is to evaluate ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project that evaluates potential health and environmental risks. It will help determine the approach required to address contaminated ground water at the site.

  7. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Annual progress report for 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, S.H.

    1988-09-01

    This report describes progress during 1987 of five Hanford Site ground water monitoring projects. Four of these projects are being conducted according to regulations based on the federal Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 and the state Hazardous Waste Management Act. The fifth project is being conducted according to regulations based on the state Solid Waste Management Act. The five projects discussed herein are: 300 Area Process Trenches; 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins; 200 Areas Low-Level Burial Grounds; Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste Landfill; Solid Waste Landfill. For each of the projects, there are included, as applicable, discussions of monitoring well installations, water-table measurements, background and/or downgradient water quality and results of chemical analysis, and extent and rate of movement of contaminant plumes. 14 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. Hysteresis and Soil Site Dependent Input and Hysteretic Energy Spectra for Far-Source Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mebrahtom Gebrekirstos Mezgebo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake input energy spectra for four soil site classes, four hysteresis models, and five ductility levels are developed for far-source ground motion effect. These energy spectra are normalized by a quantity called velocity index (VI. The use of VI allows for the creation of dimensionless spectra and results in smaller coefficients of variation. Hysteretic energy spectra are then developed to address the demand aspect of an energy-based seismic design of structures with 5% critical damping and ductility that ranges from 2 to 5. The proposed input and hysteretic energy spectra are then compared with response spectra generated using nonlinear time history analyses of real ground motions and are found to produce reasonably good results over a relatively large period range.

  9. HIV/AIDS testing sites and locator services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The HIV Testing Sites & Care Services Locator is a first-of-its-kind, location-based search tool that allows you to search for testing services, housing...

  10. Site correction of a high-frequency strong-ground-motion simulation based on an empirical transfer function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jyun-Yan; Wen, Kuo-Liang; Lin, Che-Min; Kuo, Chun-Hsiang; Chen, Chun-Te; Chang, Shuen-Chiang

    2017-05-01

    In this study, an empirical transfer function (ETF), which is the spectrum difference in Fourier amplitude spectra between observed strong ground motion and synthetic motion obtained by a stochastic point-source simulation technique, is constructed for the Taipei Basin, Taiwan. The basis stochastic point-source simulations can be treated as reference rock site conditions in order to consider site effects. The parameters of the stochastic point-source approach related to source and path effects are collected from previous well-verified studies. A database of shallow, small-magnitude earthquakes is selected to construct the ETFs so that the point-source approach for synthetic motions might be more widely applicable. The high-frequency synthetic motion obtained from the ETF procedure is site-corrected in the strong site-response area of the Taipei Basin. The site-response characteristics of the ETF show similar responses as in previous studies, which indicates that the base synthetic model is suitable for the reference rock conditions in the Taipei Basin. The dominant frequency contour corresponds to the shape of the bottom of the geological basement (the top of the Tertiary period), which is the Sungshan formation. Two clear high-amplification areas are identified in the deepest region of the Sungshan formation, as shown by an amplification contour of 0.5 Hz. Meanwhile, a high-amplification area was shifted to the basin's edge, as shown by an amplification contour of 2.0 Hz. Three target earthquakes with different kinds of source conditions, including shallow small-magnitude events, shallow and relatively large-magnitude events, and deep small-magnitude events relative to the ETF database, are tested to verify site correction. The results indicate that ETF-based site correction is effective for shallow earthquakes, even those with higher magnitudes, but is not suitable for deep earthquakes. Finally, one of the most significant shallow large-magnitude earthquakes (the

  11. Assessment of the Nevada Test Site as a Site for Distributed Resource Testing and Project Plan: March 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horgan, S.; Iannucci, J.; Whitaker, C.; Cibulka, L.; Erdman, W.

    2002-05-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as a location for performing dedicated, in-depth testing of distributed resources (DR) integrated with the electric distribution system. In this large scale testing, it is desired to operate multiple DRs and loads in an actual operating environment, in a series of controlled tests to concentrate on issues of interest to the DR community. This report includes an inventory of existing facilities at NTS, an assessment of site attributes in relation to DR testing requirements, and an evaluation of the feasibility and cost of upgrades to the site that would make it a fully qualified DR testing facility.

  12. The Periglacial Landscape and Ground Ice at the Mars Phoenix Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, M. T.; Arvidson, R. E.; Malin, M. C.; Lemmon, M. T.; Heet, T.; Marshall, J.; Sizemore, H. G.; Searls, M. L.; Phoenix Science Team

    2008-12-01

    The Phoenix spacecraft landed in a high-latitude region of Mars rich in subsurface water ice and geologic landforms that evolved in the presence of this ice. Ground ice (subsurface ice and icy soil) at depths of a few centimeters has been found by excavation at the landing site. These ice-table depths are largely in line with pre-landing predictions. As expected, the ice-table depth exhibits some variability due to topographic and surface material effects, though other processes may play a role. The frozen ground is generally densely cemented by ice and widespread under and around the spacecraft. These ice-table characteristics and the current martian climate are ideal for formation of polygonally-patterned ground by seasonal thermal- contraction cracking. Indeed, polygonal ground is ubiquitous throughout the region and northern plains of Mars as seen from orbit. Surface imaging by the Phoenix spacecraft provides the first close up view of these well developed features. These polygons are characterized by perimeter troughs and central mounds. The trough depths range from centimeter to a couple-of-decimeter scale. The dominant polygons outlined by these troughs are small relative to typical terrestrial forms, only a few meters across. As on Earth, small centimeter-scale furrows created by surface fines infiltrating into sub-surface cracks, strongly suggest that the polygon-forming processes are currently active. Variability of the depth along individual troughs and small furrows cross cutting polygon mounds indicate a complex history of polygon formation on more than one size scale. While rock abundances are low, heterogeneously-scattered small rocks are common. Rock distributions suggest that rocks are preferentially concentrated in polygon troughs, consistent with thermal- contraction-based cryoturbation. Few ventifacts are observed suggesting that aeolian erosion of the surface is slower than cryoturbation. The size, morphological characteristics, and development

  13. Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Final environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-09-01

    This environmental statement for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) considers underground nuclear detonations with yields of one megaton or less, along with the preparations necessary for such detonations. The testing activities considered also include other continuing and intermittent activities, both nuclear and nonnuclear, which can best be conducted in the remote and controlled area of the Nevada Test Site. These activities are listed, with emphasis on weapons testing programs which do not remain static.

  14. CHEMISTRY OF PLANTS AND RECLAIMED GROUNDS ON SODA WASTE SITE AT JANIKOWO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Siuta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the state of soda waste dumping site prior to reclamation, including the initial vegetation and properties of local grounds, the chemistry of plants colonizing the alkaline grounds in 2013 as well as the comparison of mineral element contents in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the soda waste site in the years 2000 and 2013. The paper consists an integral part of a wider work concerning the effectiveness of sewage sludge application for bioremediation of highly saline and alkaline waste at the Janikowo Soda Plant. The spontaneous vegetation on soda waste in 2000 was scarce and patchy, its development conditioned by local microrelief where depressions provided water for plant establishment. The main species entering the site included grasses (Lolium perenne, Calamagrostis epigeios and herbs (Reseda lutea, Tussilago farfara and Picris hieracioides. The physico-chemical properties of waste grounds varied widely both horizontally and spatially. In 2013, the reclaimed dumping site was covered by a well-established meadow-likevegetation and the soil top layer (0–5 cm contained 9.2–13.9% Ca and 15–161 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.6–7.8. The underlying 10–20 cm layer contained 21.1–63.3% Ca and 204–3110 mg Cl/kg, at pH 7.93–9.04. In the deeper 40-60 cm layer there was found 30.0-37.5% Ca and 9 920-16 320 mg Cl/kg, at pH 11.5–12.1. The vegetation growing in the vicinity of soil profiles contained: 1.65–3.36% N; 0.25–0.43% P; 1.38–2.95% K; 0.33–1.10 % Ca and 0.13–0.54% Mg. The contents of heavy metals in plants approximated the average amounts found in meadow clippings in Poland. The contents of main nutrients in leaves of trees spontaneously growing on the waste site were significantly higher in 2013 (2.70–3.21% N; 0.25–0.34% P and 0.98–1.75% K than in the year 2000 (1.70–2.04% N; 0.11–0.21% P and 0.54–0.80% K. The application of sewage sludge and subsequent fertilization of vegetation on waste

  15. On-site cell field test support program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniunas, J. W.; Merten, G. P.

    1982-09-01

    Utility sites for data monitoring were reviewed and selected. Each of these sites will be instrumented and its energy requirements monitored and analyzed for one year prior to the selection of 40 Kilowatt fuel cell field test sites. Analyses in support of the selection of sites for instrumentation shows that many building sectors offered considerable market potential. These sectors include nursing home, health club, restaurant, industrial, hotel/motel and apartment.

  16. Genetic testing by cancer site: endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilarski, Robert; Nagy, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Numerous hereditary syndromes, caused by mutations in multiple tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, can cause tumors in organs of the endocrine system. The primary syndromes (and genes) addressed here include multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2 (MEN1 and RET genes), Cowden syndrome (PTEN), hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes (multiple genes), and von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). Clinical genetic testing is available for each of these syndromes and is generally directed to individuals with endocrine or other tumors and additional features suggestive of a hereditary syndrome. However, for some endocrine tumors, the proportion because of heredity is so high that genetic testing may be appropriate for all affected individuals. Management for hereditary cases typically involves aggressive screening and/or surgical protocols, starting at young ages to minimize morbidity and mortality. Endocrine tumors can be less commonly seen in a number of other hereditary syndromes (eg, neurofibromatosis), which are not reviewed in this section.

  17. The Road Side Unit for the A270 Test Site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passchier, I.; Driessen, B.J.F.; Heijligers, B.M.R.; Netten, B.D.; Schackmann, P.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    The design and implementation of the Road Side Unit for the A270 Test Site is presented. It consists of a sensor platform and V2I communication platform with full coverage of the test site. A service platform enables applications to make use of these facilities. The RSU will be used both for the

  18. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria, December 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This document establishes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office waste acceptance criteria. The waste acceptance criteria provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed waste for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites for storage or disposal.

  19. Design and analysis of a natural-gradient ground-water tracer test in a freshwater tidal wetland, West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Lisa D.; Tenbus, Frederick J.

    2005-01-01

    A natural-gradient ground-water tracer test was designed and conducted in a tidal freshwater wetland at West Branch Canal Creek, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The objectives of the test were to characterize solute transport at the site, obtain data to more accurately determine the ground-water velocity in the upper wetland sediments, and to compare a conservative, ionic tracer (bromide) to a volatile tracer (sulfur hexafluoride) to ascertain whether volatilization could be an important process in attenuating volatile organic compounds in the ground water. The tracer test was conducted within the upper peat unit of a layer of wetland sediments that also includes a lower clayey unit; the combined layer overlies an aquifer. The area selected for the test was thought to have an above-average rate of ground-water discharge based on ground-water head distributions and near-surface detections of volatile organic compounds measured in previous studies. Because ground-water velocities in the wetland sediments were expected to be slow compared to the underlying aquifer, the test was designed to be conducted on a small scale. Ninety-seven ?-inch-diameter inverted-screen stainless-steel piezometers were installed in a cylindrical array within approximately 25 cubic feet (2.3 cubic meters) of wetland sediments, in an area with a vertically upward hydraulic gradient. Fluorescein dye was used to qualitatively evaluate the hydrologic integrity of the tracer array before the start of the tracer test, including verifying the absence of hydraulic short-circuiting due to nonnatural vertical conduits potentially created during piezometer installation. Bromide and sulfur hexafluoride tracers (0.139 liter of solution containing 100,000 milligrams per liter of bromide ion and 23.3 milligrams per liter of sulfur hexafluoride) were co-injected and monitored to generate a dataset that could be used to evaluate solute transport in three dimensions. Piezometers were sampled 2 to 15 times

  20. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (Phase 2). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment.

  1. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibration and Test Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, P. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count rate data expressed in counts per second (cps) needs to be converted to the terrestrial component of the exposure rate 1 m above ground, or surface activity of isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, as the production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish very early into the event a common calibration line. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements. This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  2. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibrations and Test Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, Piotr T. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-12-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima NPP accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination, a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count data, expressed in counts per second (cps), need to be converted to a terrestrial component of the exposure rate at 1 meter (m) above ground, or surface activity of the isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large-scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, because production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish a common calibration line very early into the event. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and that are potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  3. Site-specific uniform hazard spectrum in Eastern Turkey based on simulated ground motions including near-field directivity and detailed site effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari Sisi, Aida; Askan, Ayşegül; Erberik, Murat Altuğ

    2017-04-01

    In this study, stochastic earthquake catalog of the Erzincan region in Turkey is generated based on synthetic ground motions. Monte Carlo simulation method is used to identify the spatial and temporal distribution of events. Ground motion time histories are generated using stochastic simulation methodology. Annual exceedance rate of each ground motion amplitude is calculated through statistical distribution of the complete set of ground motions. The results are compared with classical probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA). Classical PSHA generally produces larger spectral amplitudes than the proposed study due to wide range of aleatory variability. The effects of near-field forward directivity and detailed site response are also investigated on the results.

  4. A site evaluation campaign for a ground based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Aurelian Andrei; Angelescu, Tatiana; Curtef, Valentin; Delia, Florin; Felea, Daniel; Goia, Ioana; Haşegan, Dumitru; Lucaschi, Bogdan; Manea, Ancuta; Popa, Vlad; Raliţă, Ioan; Văcăreanu, Radu

    2012-07-01

    Around the world, several scientific projects share the interest of a global network of small Cherenkov telescopes for monitoring observations of the brightest blazars—the DWARF network. A small, ground based, imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope of last generation is intended to be installed and operated in Romania as a component of the DWARF network. To prepare the construction of the observatory, two support projects have been initiated. Within the framework of these projects, we have assessed a number of possible sites where to settle the observatory. In this paper we submit a brief report on the general characteristics of the best four sites selected after the local infrastructure, the nearby facilities and the social impact criteria have been applied.

  5. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Riverton, Wyoming. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the Surface Project and the Ground Water Project. At the UMTRA Project site near Riverton, Wyoming, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1990. Tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were taken from the Riverton site to a disposal cell in the Gas Hills area, about 60 road miles (100 kilometers) to the east. The surface cleanup reduces radon and other radiation emissions and minimizes further ground water contamination. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, will evaluate the nature and extent of ground water contamination at the Riverton site that has resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. Such evaluations are used at each site to determine a strategy for complying with UMTRA ground water standards established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and if human health risks could result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could hypothetically occur if drinking water were pumped from a well drilled in an area where ground water contamination might have occurred. Human health and environmental risks may also result if people, plants, or animals are exposed to surface water that has mixed with contaminated ground water.

  6. Phoenix Test Sample Site in Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This color image, acquired by NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 7, the seventh day of the mission (June 1, 2008), shows the so-called 'Knave of Hearts' first-dig test area to the north of the lander. The Robotic Arm's scraping blade left a small horizontal depression above where the sample was taken. Scientists speculate that white material in the depression left by the dig could represent ice or salts that precipitated into the soil. This material is likely the same white material observed in the sample in the Robotic Arm's scoop. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. The development and testing of pulsed detonation engine ground demonstrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panicker, Philip Koshy

    2008-10-01

    The successful implementation of a PDE running on fuel and air mixtures will require fast-acting fuel-air injection and mixing techniques, detonation initiation techniques such as DDT enhancing devices or a pre-detonator, an effective ignition system that can sustain repeated firing at high rates and a fast and capable, closed-loop control system. The control system requires high-speed transducers for real-time monitoring of the PDE and the detection of the detonation wave speed. It is widely accepted that the detonation properties predicted by C-J detonation relations are fairly accurate in comparison to experimental values. The post-detonation flow properties can also be expressed as a function of wave speed or Mach number. Therefore, the PDE control system can use C-J relations to predict the post-detonation flow properties based on measured initial conditions and compare the values with those obtained from using the wave speed. The controller can then vary the initial conditions within the combustor for the subsequent cycle, by modulating the frequency and duty cycle of the valves, to obtain optimum air and fuel flow rates, as well as modulate the energy and timing of the ignition to achieve the required detonation properties. Five different PDE ground demonstrators were designed, built and tested to study a number of the required sub-systems. This work presents a review of all the systems that were tested, along with suggestions for their improvement. The PDE setups, ranged from a compact PDE with a 19 mm (3/4 in.) i.d., to two 25 mm (1 in.) i.d. setups, to a 101 mm (4 in.) i.d. dual-stage PDE setup with a pre-detonator. Propane-oxygen mixtures were used in the smaller PDEs. In the dual-stage PDE, propane-oxygen was used in the pre-detonator, while propane-air mixtures were used in the main combustor. Both rotary valves and solenoid valve injectors were studied. The rotary valves setups were tested at 10 Hz, while the solenoid valves were tested at up to 30 Hz

  8. Earthquake Strong Ground Motion Scenario at the 2008 Olympic Games Sites, Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L.; Rohrbach, E. A.; Chen, Q.; Chen, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Historic earthquake record indicates mediate to strong earthquakes have been frequently hit greater Beijing metropolitan area where is going to host the 2008 summer Olympic Games. For the readiness preparation of emergency response to the earthquake shaking for a mega event in a mega city like Beijing in summer 2008, this paper tries to construct the strong ground motion scenario at a number of gymnasium sites for the 2008 Olympic Games. During the last 500 years (the Ming and Qing Dynasties) in which the historic earthquake record are thorough and complete, there are at least 12 earthquake events with the maximum intensity of VI or greater occurred within 100 km radius centered at the Tiananmen Square, the center of Beijing City. Numerical simulation of the seismic wave propagation and surface strong ground motion is carried out by the pseudospectral time domain methods with viscoelastic material properties. To improve the modeling efficiency and accuracy, a multi-scale approach is adapted: the seismic wave propagation originated from an earthquake rupture source is first simulated by a model with larger physical domain with coarser grids. Then the wavefield at a given plane is taken as the source input for the small-scale, fine grid model for the strong ground motion study at the sites. The earthquake source rupture scenario is based on two particular historic earthquake events: One is the Great 1679 Sanhe-Pinggu Earthquake (M~8, Maximum Intensity XI at the epicenter and Intensity VIII in city center)) whose epicenter is about 60 km ENE of the city center. The other one is the 1730 Haidian Earthquake (M~6, Maximum Intensity IX at the epicenter and Intensity VIII in city center) with the epicentral distance less than 20 km away from the city center in the NW Haidian District. The exist of the thick Tertiary-Quaternary sediments (maximum thickness ~ 2 km) in Beijing area plays a critical role on estimating the surface ground motion at the Olympic Games sites, which

  9. Evaluation of chemical sensors for in situ ground-water monitoring at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, E.M.; Hostetler, D.D.

    1989-03-01

    This report documents a preliminary review and evaluation of instrument systems and sensors that may be used to detect ground-water contaminants in situ at the Hanford Site. Three topics are covered in this report: (1) identification of a group of priority contaminants at Hanford that could be monitored in situ, (2) a review of current instrument systems and sensors for environmental monitoring, and (3) an evaluation of instrument systems that could be used to monitor Hanford contaminants. Thirteen priority contaminants were identified in Hanford ground water, including carbon tetrachloride and six related chlorinated hydrocarbons, cyanide, methyl ethyl ketone, chromium (VI), fluoride, nitrate, and uranium. Based on transduction principles, chemical sensors were divided into four classes, ten specific types of instrument systems were considered: fluorescence spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), spark excitation-fiber optic spectrochemical emission sensor (FOSES), chemical optrodes, stripping voltammetry, catalytic surface-modified ion electrode immunoassay sensors, resistance/capacitance, quartz piezobalance and surface acoustic wave devices. Because the flow of heat is difficult to control, there are currently no environmental chemical sensors based on thermal transduction. The ability of these ten instrument systems to detect the thirteen priority contaminants at the Hanford Site at the required sensitivity was evaluated. In addition, all ten instrument systems were qualitatively evaluated for general selectivity, response time, reliability, and field operability. 45 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs.

  10. The Park 51/Ground Zero Controversy and Sacred Sites as Contested Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Halgren Kilde

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Park 51 controversy swept like wildfire through the media in late August of 2010, fueled by Islamophobes who oppose all advance of Islam in America. Yet the controversy also resonated with many who were clearly not caught up in the fear of Islam. This article attempts to understand the broader concern that the Park 51 project would somehow violate the Ground Zero site, and, thus, as a sign of "respect" should be moved to a different location, an argument that was invariably articulated in “spatial language” as groups debated the physical and spatial presence of the buildings in question, their relative proximity, and even the shadows they cast. This article focuses on three sets of spatial meanings that undergirded these arguments: the site as sacred ground created through trauma, rebuilding as retaliation for the attack, and the assertion of American civil religion. The article locates these meanings within a broader civic discussion of liberty and concludes that the spatialization of the controversy opened up discursive space for repressive, anti-democratic views to sway even those who believe in religious liberty, thus evidencing a deep ambivalence regarding the legitimate civic membership of Muslim Americans.

  11. PSP SAR interferometry monitoring of ground and structure deformations in the archeological site of Pompeii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Mario; Francioni, Elena; Paglia, Luca; Minati, Federico; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla; De Nigris, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    The "Major Project Pompeii" (MPP) is a great collective commitment of different institututions and people to set about solving the serious problem of conservation of the largest archeological sites in the world. The ancient city of Pompeii with its 66 hectares, 44 of which are excaveted, is divided into 9 regiones (district), subdivided in 118 insulae (blocks) and almost 1500 domus (houses), and is Unesco site since 1996. The Italian Ministry for Heritage and Cultural Activities and Tourism (MiBACT) and Finmeccanica Group have sealed an agreement whereby the Finmeccanica Group will donate innovative technologies and services for monitoring and protecting the archaeological site of Pompeii. Moreover, the Italian Institute for Environment Protection and Research (ISPRA) - Geological Survey of Italy, was also involved to support the ground based analysis and interpretation of the measurements provided by the industrial team, in order to promote an interdisciplinary approach. In this work, we will focus on ground deformation measurements obtained by satellite SAR interferometry and on their interpretation. The satellite monitoring service is based on the processing of COSMO-SkyMed Himage data by the e-Geos proprietary Persistent Scatterer Pair (PSP) SAR interferometry technology. The PSP technique is a proven SAR interferometry method characterized by the fact of exploiting in the processing only the relative properties between close points (pairs) in order to overcome atmospheric artifacts (which are one of the main problems of SAR interferometry). Validations analyses showed that this technique applied to COSMO-SkyMed Himage data is able to retrieve very dense (except of course on vegetated or cultivated areas) millimetric deformation measurements with sub-metric localization. By means of the COSMO-SkyMed PSP SAR interferometry processing, a historical analysis of the ground and structure deformations occurred over the entire archaeological site of Pompeii in the

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination of the uranium mill tailings site near Falls City, Texas, evaluates potential impact to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former Susquehanna Western, Inc. (SWI), uranium mill processing site. This document fulfills the following objectives: determine if the site presents immediate or potential future health risks, determine the need for interim institutional controls, serve as a key input to project planning and prioritization, and recommend future data collection efforts to more fully characterize risk. The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has begun its evaluation of ground water contamination at the Falls City site. This risk assessment is one of the first documents specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. The first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at or near the site. Evaluation of these data show the main contaminants in the Dilworth ground water are cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, nickel, sulfate, and uranium. The data also show high levels of arsenic and manganese occur naturally in some areas.

  13. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Salt Lake City, Utah. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of two phases: the first is the Surface Project, and the second is the Ground Water Project. For the UMTRA Project site known as the Vitro site, near Salt Lake City, Utah, Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1985 to 1987. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. A risk assessment is the process of describing a source of contamination and showing how that contamination may reach people and the environment. The amount of contamination people or the environment may be exposed to is calculated and used to characterize the possible health or environmental effects that may result from this exposure. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Vitro site. The results of this report and further site characterization of the Vitro site will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  14. Site Transfer Functions of Three-Component Ground Motion in Western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur Kurtulmus, Tevfik; Akyol, Nihal; Camyildiz, Murat; Gungor, Talip

    2015-04-01

    Because of high seismicity accommodating crustal deformation and deep graben structures, on which have, urbanized and industrialized large cities in western Turkey, the importance of site-specific seismic hazard assessments becomes more crucial. Characterizing source, site and path effects is important for both assessing the seismic hazard in a specific region and generation of the building codes/or renewing previous ones. In this study, we evaluated three-component recordings for micro- and moderate-size earthquakes with local magnitudes ranging between 2.0 and 5.6. This dataset is used for site transfer function estimations, utilizing two different spectral ratio approaches 'Standard Spectral Ratio-(SSR)' and 'Horizontal to Vertical Spectral Ratio-(HVSR)' and a 'Generalized Inversion Technique-(GIT)' to highlight site-specific seismic hazard potential of deep basin structures of the region. Obtained transfer functions revealed that the sites located near the basin edges are characterized by broader HVSR curves. Broad HVSR peaks could be attributed to the complexity of wave propagation related to significant 2D/3D velocity variations at the sediment-bedrock interface near the basin edges. Comparison of HVSR and SSR estimates for the sites located on the grabens showed that SSR estimates give larger values at lower frequencies which could be attributed to lateral variations in regional velocity and attenuation values caused by basin geometry and edge effects. However, large amplitude values of vertical component GIT site transfer functions were observed at varying frequency ranges for some of the stations. These results imply that vertical component of ground motion is not amplification free. Contamination of HVSR site transfer function estimates at different frequency bands could be related to complexities in the wave field caused by deep or shallow heterogeneities in the region such as differences in the basin geometries, fracturing and fluid saturation along

  15. Ground Testing a Nuclear Thermal Rocket: Design of a sub-scale demonstration experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Bedsun; Debra Lee; Margaret Townsend; Clay A. Cooper; Jennifer Chapman; Ronald Samborsky; Mel Bulman; Daniel Brasuell; Stanley K. Borowski

    2012-07-01

    In 2008, the NASA Mars Architecture Team found that the Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) was the preferred propulsion system out of all the combinations of chemical propulsion, solar electric, nuclear electric, aerobrake, and NTR studied. Recently, the National Research Council committee reviewing the NASA Technology Roadmaps recommended the NTR as one of the top 16 technologies that should be pursued by NASA. One of the main issues with developing a NTR for future missions is the ability to economically test the full system on the ground. In the late 1990s, the Sub-surface Active Filtering of Exhaust (SAFE) concept was first proposed by Howe as a method to test NTRs at full power and full duration. The concept relied on firing the NTR into one of the test holes at the Nevada Test Site which had been constructed to test nuclear weapons. In 2011, the cost of testing a NTR and the cost of performing a proof of concept experiment were evaluated.

  16. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Sites near Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to prevent further ground water contamination. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from the uranium ore processing activities. Two UMTRA Project sites are near Rifle, Colorado: the Old Rifle site and the New Rifle site. Surface cleanup at the two sites is under way and is scheduled for completion in 1996. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. A risk assessment identifies a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the environment may be exposed, and the health or environmental effects that could result from that exposure. This report is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. This evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine if action is needed to protect human health or the environment. Human health risk may result from exposure to ground water contaminated from uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur from drinking water obtained from a well placed in the areas of contamination. Furthermore, environmental risk may result from plant or animal exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water.

  17. China radiometric calibration sites ground-based automatic observing systems for CAL/VAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Xin; Rong, Zhiguo; Zhang, Lijun; Hu, Xiuqing; Ba, Xiutian

    2015-10-01

    A brand-new field observing station has been built up in the China radiometric calibration sites (CRCS) of Dunhuang Gobi for CAL/VAL, include house, observing field, power supply, tower crane, et al. Many automatic observation instruments designed and manufactured by Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanical Chinese Academy of Sciences were deployed in CRCS Dunhuang Site and introduced deeply in this paper. Followed with the finishing of the basic constructions of the field observing station, it will be an open field test and exchange platform for sharing of test data, research and infrastructure, promote exchanges and cooperation between the relevant disciplines and units.

  18. Final safety analysis report for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This document is the first volume of a 3 volume safety analysis report on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The GTA program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the major element of the national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program, which is supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A principal goal of the national NPB program is to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen and deuterium neutral particle beams outside the Earth`s atmosphere. The main effort of the NPB program at Los Alamos concentrates on developing the GTA. The GTA is classified as a low-hazard facility, except for the cryogenic-cooling system, which is classified as a moderate-hazard facility. This volume consists of an introduction, summary/conclusion, site description and assessment, description of facility, and description of operation.

  19. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Monument Valley uranium mill tailings site Cane Valley, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, radioactive contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the Monument Valley UMTRA Project site near Cane Valley, Arizona, was completed in 1994. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Adverse ecological and agricultural effects may also result from exposure to contaminated ground water. For example, livestock should not be watered with contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site investigations will be used to determine a compliance strategy to comply with the UMTRA ground water standards.

  20. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Low Impact Soil Sites' and consists of the following 15 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt; CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2); CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm; CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area; CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area; CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area; CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area; CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a; CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site; CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil; CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10; and CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky). Closure activities were conducted from February through April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996; as amended February 2008) and Revision 1 of the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 107 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2009). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized.

  1. Strategies for Ground Based Testing of Manned Lunar Surface Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Jeff; Peacock, Mike; Gill, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Integrated testing (such as Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT)) is critical to reducing risks and minimizing problems encountered during assembly, activation, and on-orbit operation of large, complex manned spacecraft. Provides the best implementation of "Test Like You Fly:. Planning for integrated testing needs to begin at the earliest stages of Program definition. Program leadership needs to fully understand and buy in to what integrated testing is and why it needs to be performed. As Program evolves and design and schedules mature, continually look for suitable opportunities to perform testing where enough components are together in one place at one time. The benefits to be gained are well worth the costs.

  2. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 and Site Description (Volume 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2007-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2006 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2006 produced to be a more cost-effective means of distributing information contained in the NTSER to interested DOE stakeholders.

  3. Site testing study based on weather balloons measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristidi, E.; Agabi, A.; Azouit, M.; Fossat, E.; Vernin, J.; Sadibekova, T.; Travouillon, T.; Lawrence, J. S.; Halter, B.; Roth, W. L.; Walden, V. P.

    We present wind and temperature profiles at Dome C measured during the polar summer by balloon born sonds. Data from 197 flights have been processed for 4 campaigns between 2000 and 2004. We show the exceptionnal wind conditions at Dome C: averaged ground wind speed is 3.6 m s-1. We noticed in mid-november the presence of high altitude strong winds (40 m s-1) probably due to the polar vortex which disappear in summer. These winds seem to have no effect on seeing measurements made with a DIMM at the same period. Temperature profiles exhibit a minimum at height 5500 m (over the snow surface) that defines the tropopause. Surface layer temperature profile has negative gradient in the first 50 m above ground in the afternoon and a strong inversion layer (5°C over 50 m) around midnight. Wind profiles are compared with other astronomical sites, and with a meteorological model from Meteo France.

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 139 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-35-01, Burn Pit; (2) 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; (3) 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; (4) 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; (5) 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; (6) 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and (7) 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives with the exception of CASs 09-23-01 and 09-34-01. Regarding these two CASs, CAS 09-23-01 is a gravel gertie where a zero-yield test was conducted with all contamination confined to below ground within the area of the structure, and CAS 09-34-01 is an underground detection station where no contaminants are present. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for the other five CASs where information is insufficient. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 4, 2006, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and Bechtel Nevada. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 139.

  5. Hydraulic characterization of overpressured tuffs in central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Keith J.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2005-01-01

    A sequence of buried, bedded, air-fall tuffs has been used extensively as a host medium for underground nuclear tests detonated in the central part of Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site. Water levels within these bedded tuffs have been elevated hundreds of meters in areas where underground nuclear tests were detonated below the water table. Changes in the ground-water levels within these tuffs and changes in the rate and distribution of land-surface subsidence above these tuffs indicate that pore-fluid pressures have been slowly depressurizing since the cessation of nuclear testing in 1992. Declines in ground-water levels concurrent with regional land subsidence are explained by poroelastic deformation accompanying ground-water flow as fluids pressurized by underground nuclear detonations drain from the host tuffs into the overlying water table and underlying regional carbonate aquifer. A hydraulic conductivity of about 3 x 10-6 m/d and a specific storage of 9 x 10-6 m-1 are estimated using ground-water flow models. Cross-sectional and three-dimensional ground-water flow models were calibrated to measured water levels and to land-subsidence rates measured using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar. Model results are consistent and indicate that about 2 million m3 of ground water flowed from the tuffs to the carbonate rock as a result of pressurization caused by underground nuclear testing. The annual rate of inflow into the carbonate rock averaged about 0.008 m/yr between 1962 and 2005, and declined from 0.005 m/yr in 2005 to 0.0005 m/yr by 2300.

  6. Software Development and Test Methodology for a Distributed Ground System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, George; Guillebeau, Pat; McNair, Ann R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Center (POC) ground system has evolved over a period of about 10 years. During this time the software processes have migrated from more traditional to more contemporary development processes in an effort to minimize unnecessary overhead while maximizing process benefits. The Software processes that have evolved still emphasize requirements capture, software configuration management, design documenting, and making sure the products that have been developed are accountable to initial requirements. This paper will give an overview of how the Software Processes have evolved, highlighting the positives as well as the negatives. In addition, we will mention the COTS tools that have been integrated into the processes and how the COTS have provided value to the project.

  7. A blind test of nondestructive underground void detection by ground penetrating radar (GPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wallace W. L.; Chang, Ray K. W.; Sham, Janet F. C.

    2018-02-01

    Blind test/experiment is widely adopted in various scientific disciplines like medicine drug testing/clinical trials/psychology, but not popular in nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDTE) nor near-surface geophysics (NSG). This paper introduces a blind test of nondestructive underground void detection in highway/pavement using ground penetrating radar (GPR). Purpose of which is to help the Highways Department (HyD) of the Hong Kong Government to evaluate the feasibility of large-scale and nationwide application, and examine the ability of appropriate service providers to carry out such works. In the past failure case of such NDTE/NSG based on lowest bid price, it is not easy to know which part(s) in SWIMS (S - service provider, i.e. people; W - work procedure; I - instrumentation; M - materials in the complex underground; S - specifications by client) fails, and how it/they fail(s). This work attempts to carry out the blind test by burying fit balls (as voids) under a site with reinforced concrete road and paving block by PolyU team A. The blind test about the void centroid, spread and cover depth was then carried out by PolyU team B without prior information given. Then with this baseline, a marking scheme, acceptance criteria and passing mark were set to test six local commercial service providers, determine their scores and evaluate the performance. A pass is a prerequisite of the award of a service contract of similar nature. In this first attempt of the blind test, results were not satisfactory and it is concluded that 'S-service provider' and 'W-work procedure' amongst SWIMS contributed to most part of the unsatisfactory performance.+

  8. Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) Extended Test Range (ETR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Steller’s eiders and endangered short-tailed albatross offshore would also be outside the range of site preparation noise levels and are not...bird populations. Waterfowl would quickly resume feeding and other normal behavior patterns after a launch is completed. GMD ETR Final EIS es...mammal. No significant long-term adverse impacts are anticipated to seabirds and shorebirds, Guadalupe fur seals, California sea lions, northern

  9. Interpretation of Ground Penetrating Radar data at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, K. A.; Mitchell, T. H.; Kunk, J. R.

    1993-07-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is being used extensively during characterization and remediation of chemical and radioactive waste sites at the Hanford Site in Washington State. Time and money for GPR investigations are often not included during the planning and budgeting phase. Therefore GPR investigations must be inexpensive and quick to minimize impact on already established budgets and schedules. An approach to survey design, data collection, and interpretation has been developed which emphasizes speed and budget with minimal impact on the integrity of the interpretation or quality of the data. The following simple rules of thumb can be applied: (1) Assemble as much pre-survey information as possible, (2) Clearly define survey objectives prior to designing the survey and determine which combination of geophysical methods will best meet the objectives, (3) Continuously communicate with the client, before, during and after the investigation, (4) Only experienced GPR interpreters should acquire the field data, (5) Use real-time monitoring of the data to determine where and how much data to collect and assist in the interpretation, (6) Always 'error' in favor of collecting too much data, (7) Surveys should have closely spaced (preferably 5 feet, no more than 10 feet), orthogonal profiles, and (8) When possible, pull the antenna by hand.

  10. Verification test for three WindCube WLS7 LiDARs at the Høvsøre test site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschall, Julia; Courtney, Michael

    The report describes the procedure of testing ground-based WindCube lidars (manufactured by the French company Leosphere) at the Høvsøre test site in comparison to reference sensors mounted at a meteorological mast. Results are presented for three tested units – in detail for unit WLS7-0062, and ......-0062, and in a summary for units WLS7-0064 and WLS7-0066. The verification test covers the evaluation of measured mean wind speeds, wind directions and wind speed standard deviations. The data analysis is basically performed in terms of different kinds of regression analyses.......The report describes the procedure of testing ground-based WindCube lidars (manufactured by the French company Leosphere) at the Høvsøre test site in comparison to reference sensors mounted at a meteorological mast. Results are presented for three tested units – in detail for unit WLS7...

  11. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (Phase I) and the Ground Water Project (Phase II). Under the UMTRA Surface Project, tailings, contaminated soil, equipment, and materials associated with the former uranium ore processing at UMTRA Project sites are placed into disposal cells. The cells are designed to reduce radon and other radiation emissions and to minimize further contamination of ground water. Surface cleanup at the UMTRA Project site near Lakeview, Oregon, was completed in 1989. The mill operated from February 1958 to November 1960. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Ecological risks to plants or animals may result from exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the ecological environment.

  12. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at the New Rifle Site, Rifle, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-18

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between the shallow aquifer and the Colorado River.

  13. V S30, slope, H 800 and f 0: performance of various site-condition proxies in reducing ground-motion aleatory variability and predicting nonlinear site response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derras, Boumédiène; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Cotton, Fabrice

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the ability of various site-condition proxies (SCPs) to reduce ground-motion aleatory variability and evaluate how SCPs capture nonlinearity site effects. The SCPs used here are time-averaged shear-wave velocity in the top 30 m ( V S30), the topographical slope (slope), the fundamental resonance frequency ( f 0) and the depth beyond which V s exceeds 800 m/s ( H 800). We considered first the performance of each SCP taken alone and then the combined performance of the 6 SCP pairs [ V S30- f 0], [ V S30- H 800], [ f 0-slope], [ H 800-slope], [ V S30-slope] and [ f 0- H 800]. This analysis is performed using a neural network approach including a random effect applied on a KiK-net subset for derivation of ground-motion prediction equations setting the relationship between various ground-motion parameters such as peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and pseudo-spectral acceleration PSA ( T), and M w, R JB, focal depth and SCPs. While the choice of SCP is found to have almost no impact on the median ground-motion prediction, it does impact the level of aleatory uncertainty. V S30 is found to perform the best of single proxies at short periods ( T site terms for soft sites and that the most relevant loading parameter for characterising nonlinear site response is the "stiff" spectral ordinate at the considered period.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar for Hydrogeologic Characterization at the P Reactor Area, Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, A. E.; Knapp, C. C.; Addison, A.; Waddell, M.

    2006-12-01

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) techniques were implemented at Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, in order to develop new approaches for hydrogeophysical characterization in heterogeneous environments. The study site is the P Reactor Area located within the Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain, with clastic sediments ranging from Late Cretaceous to Miocene age. Lithologies consist of sand, clayey sand, and clay with minor amounts of calcareous minerals. Increasing interest in the P Reactor Area in recent years is the result of the presence of several contaminant plumes including trichloroethylene (TCE) that originates from the northwest section of the reactor facility and discharges into nearby Steel Creek. Here, we present the results from subsurface characterization using the GPR technique involving the PulseEKKO 100 GPR system with 50, 100, and 200 MHz antennas. Data acquisition included (1) several regional 2D common-offset GPR transects for general stratigraphic characterization, (2) a series of common-mid point (CMP) profiles for velocity estimation, (3) a set of vertical radar profiles (VRP) at an existing borehole in the vicinity of the study area, and (4) a 3D GPR survey for detailed subsurface lithostratigraphic characterization collected with the 50 MHz antenna. The ongoing GPR processing will map key dielectric interfaces from the ground surface to ~20 meters, and will be integrated with co-located surface and vertical seismic reflection data as well as with lithologic information obtained from Cone Penetrometer Technology (CPT) tests performed at the study area. This lithosptratigraphic zonation will provide the framework for subsequent hydrological parameter estimation, which will be performed using borehole hydrogeological and crosshole seismic and GPR methods. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-06ER64210.

  15. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Lakeview, Oregon. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    Surface cleanup at the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site near Lakeview, Oregon was completed in 1989. The Ground Water Project evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination that resulted from the uranium ore processing activities. The Ground Water Project is in its beginning stages. Human health may be at risk from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium ore processing. Exposure could occur by drinking water pumped out of a hypothetical well drilled in the contaminated areas. Ecological risks to plants or animals may result from exposure to surface water and sediment that have received contaminated ground water. A risk assessment describes a source of contamination, how that contamination reaches people and the environment, the amount of contamination to which people or the ecological environment may be exposed, and the health or ecological effects that could result from that exposure. This risk assessment is a site-specific document that will be used to evaluate current and potential future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will determine whether any action is needed to protect human health or the ecological environment.

  16. Ground tests confirm the promise of hypersonic propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Griffin Y.; Bencze, Daniel P.; Sanders, Bobby W.

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of developing a hypersonic hydrogen-fueled airbreathing vehicle capable of Mach 8 is examined. A modular dual-mode scramjet concept integrated with the airframe has been proposed. The research involved in the formation of this design is discussed. Particular attention is given to studies concerned with airframe integration; the evaluation of hypersonic inlets; and the analysis of viscous phenomena. The injector and combustor configurations of the modular engine, which is designed to operate as a ramjet and scramjet, are analyzed. The engine thrust performance of subscale engine modules was tested, and positive results were obtained. Simulation testing of a full-size model is being planned.

  17. Coral recruitment to two vessel grounding sites off southeast Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison L. Moulding

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, more than 10 major vessel groundings have occurred on coral reefs offshore southeast Florida. Lack of any published information on coral settlement, post-settlement survival, and juvenile coral growth in the southeast Florida region inhibits efforts to determine if coral populations will be able to effectively re-establish themselves. The goal of this study was to examine these processes to obtain background data needed to determine the potential for natural recovery. Over a three year period annual coral recruitment, juvenile growth, and mortality rates were measured in 20 permanent quadrats at each of two ship grounding and two control sites. The density of new recruits was generally low, ranging from 0.2±0.1 (SE to 7.1±1.0 recruits m-2. Although the density of coral recruits was generally higher at the grounding sites, mortality rates were high at all sites during the study period. Growth rates of individual colonies were highly variable, and many of the colonies shrank in size due to partial mortality. Results indicate that corals are able to recruit to the damaged reefs but that slow growth rates and high mortality rates may keep these areas in a perpetual cycle of settlement and mortality with little or extremely slow growth to larger size classes, thus inhibiting recovery.En las dos últimas décadas, más de10 grandes encallamientos de embarcaciones se han producido en los arrecifes de coral mar afuera en el sureste de Florida. La falta de información publicada sobre el asentamiento de corales y sobrevivencia post-asentamiento y de los corales juveniles que crecen en la región, limita los esfuerzos para determinar si las poblaciones de coral serán capaces de restablecerse por ellas mismas. El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar estos procesos para obtener la información necesaria para determinar el potencial de recuperación natural. Se midió el reclutamiento anual de coral joven, el crecimiento y las

  18. Indexing method for assessment of pollution potential of leachate from non-engineered landfill sites and its effect on ground water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Rishi; Ganguly, Rajiv; Gupta, Ashok Kumar

    2017-12-26

    Dumping of solid waste in a non-engineered landfill site often leads to contamination of ground water due to leachate percolation into ground water. The present paper assesses the pollution potential of leachate generated from three non-engineered landfill sites located in the Tricity region (one each in cities of Chandigarh, Mohali and Panchkula) of Northern India and its possible effects of contamination of groundwater. Analysis of physico-chemical properties of leachate from all the three landfill sites and the surrounding groundwater samples from five different downwind distances from each of the landfill sites were collected and tested to determine the leachate pollution index (LPI) and the water quality index (WQI). The Leachate Pollution Index values of 26.1, 27 and 27.8 respectively for landfill sites of Chandigarh (CHD), Mohali (MOH) and Panchkula (PKL) cities showed that the leachate generated are contaminated. The average pH values of the leachate samples over the sampling period (9.2 for CHD, 8.97 for MOH and 8.9 for PKL) show an alkaline nature indicating that all the three landfill sites could be classified as mature to old stage. The WQI calculated over the different downwind distances from the contamination sites showed that the quality of the groundwater improved with an increase in the downwind distance. Principal component analysis (PCA) carried out established major components mainly from natural and anthropogenic sources with cumulative variance of 88% for Chandigarh, 87.1% for Mohali and 87.8% for Panchkula. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) identifies three distinct cluster types for the groundwater samples. These clusters corresponds to a relatively low pollution, moderate pollution and high pollution regions. It is suggested that all the three non-engineered landfill sites be converted to engineered landfill sites to prevent groundwater contamination and also new sites be considered for construction of these engineered landfill sites as

  19. On-site test for cannabinoids in oral fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Lee, Dayong; Schwope, David M; Milman, Garry; Barnes, Allan J; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2012-10-01

    Oral fluid (OF) testing offers noninvasive sample collection for on-site drug testing; however, to date, test performance for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) detection has had unacceptable diagnostic sensitivity. On-site tests must accurately identify cannabis exposure because this drug accounts for the highest prevalence in workplace drug testing and driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) programs. Ten cannabis smokers (9 males, 1 female) provided written informed consent to participate in this institutional review board-approved study and smoked 1 6.8%-THC cigarette ad libitum. OF was collected with the Draeger DrugTest(®) 5000 test cassette and Quantisal™ device 0.5 h before and up to 22 h after smoking. Test cassettes were analyzed within 15 min (n = 66), and Quantisal GC-MS THC results obtained within 24 h. Final THC detection times and test performances were assessed at different cannabinoid cutoffs. Diagnostic sensitivity, diagnostic specificity, and efficiency at DrugTest 5000's 5 μg/L screening cutoff and various THC confirmation cutoffs were 86.2-90.7, 75.0-77.8, and 84.8-87.9%, respectively. Last detection times were >22 h, longer than previously suggested. Confirmation of 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC, absent in THC smoke, minimized the potential for passive OF contamination and still provided 22-h windows of detection, appropriate for workplace drug testing, whereas confirmation of cannabidiol, and/or cannabinol yielded shorter 6-h windows of detection, appropriate for DUID OF testing. The DrugTest 5000 on-site device provided high diagnostic sensitivity for detection of cannabinoid exposure, and the selection of OF confirmation analytes and cutoffs provided appropriate windows of detection to meet the goals of different drug testing programs. © 2012 American Association for Clinical Chemistry

  20. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Progress Report for the Period July 1 to September 30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the progress of four Hanford Site ground-water monitoring projects for the period from July 1 to September 310, 1987. The four disposal facilities are the 300 Area Process Trenches, 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds, and Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste (NRDW) Landfill. This report is the fifth in a series of periodic status reports. During this reporting period, field activities consisted of completing repairs on five monitoring wells originally present around the 183-H Basins and completing construction of 25 monitoring wells around the 200 Area Burial Grounds. The 14 wells in the 200 East Area were completed by Kaiser Engineers Hanford (KEH) and the 11 wells in the 200 West Area were compelted by ONWEGO Well Drilling. The NRDW Landfill interim characterization report was submitted to the WDOE and the USEPA in August 1987. Analytical results for the 300 Area, 183-H, and the NRDW Landfill indicate no deviations from previously established trends. Results from the NRDW Land-fill indiate that the facility has no effect on the ground-water quality beneath the facility, except for the detection of coliform bacteria. A possible source of this contamination is the solid-waste lanfill (SWL) adjacent to the NRDW Landfill. Ground-water monitoring data for the NRDW and SWL will be evaluated together in the future. Aquifer testing was completed in the 25 new wells surrounding the 200 Area buiral grounds. 13 refs., 19 refs., 13 tabs.

  1. Load control system. [for space shuttle external tank ground tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, J. C.

    1977-01-01

    The load control system developed for the shuttle external structural tests is described. The system consists of a load programming/display module, and a load control module along with the following hydraulic system components: servo valves, dump valves, hydraulic system components, and servo valve manifold blocks. One load programming/display subsystem can support multiple load control subsystem modules.

  2. Joint ACE ground penetrating radar antenna test facility at the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph; Meincke, Peter; Sarri, A.

    2005-01-01

    A ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna test facility, established within the ACE network at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), is described. Examples of results from the facility obtained from measurements of eight different GPR antennas are presented.......A ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna test facility, established within the ACE network at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU), is described. Examples of results from the facility obtained from measurements of eight different GPR antennas are presented....

  3. Hydrogeologic framework, ground-water quality, and simulation of ground-water flow at the Fair Lawn Well Field Superfund site, Bergen County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Brown, Jean C.; Rice, Donald E.; Rosman, Robert; Smith, Nicholas P.

    2005-01-01

    Production wells in the Westmoreland well field, Fair Lawn, Bergen County, New Jersey (the 'Fair Lawn well field Superfund site'), are contaminated with volatile organic compounds, particularly trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. In 1983, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) placed the Westmoreland well field on its National Priority List of Superfund sites. In an effort to determine ground-water flow directions, contaminant-plume boundaries, and contributing areas to production wells in Fair Lawn, and to evaluate the effect of present pump-and-treat systems on flowpaths of contaminated ground water, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the USEPA, developed a conceptual hydrogeologic framework and ground-water flow model of the study area. MODFLOW-2000, the USGS three-dimensional finite-difference model, was used to delineate contributing areas to production wells in Fair Lawn and to compute flowpaths of contaminated ground water from three potential contaminant sources to the Westmoreland well field. Straddle-packer tests were used to determine the hydrologic framework of, distribution of contaminants in, and hydrologic properties of water-bearing and confining units that make up the fractured-rock aquifer underlying the study area. The study area consists of about 15 square miles in and near Fair Lawn. The area is underlain by 6 to 100 feet of glacial deposits and alluvium that, in turn, are underlain by the Passaic Formation. In the study area, the Passaic Formation consists of brownish-red pebble conglomerate, medium- to coarse-grained feldspathic sandstone, and micaceous siltstone. The bedrock strata strike N. 9o E. and dip 6.5o to the northwest. The bedrock consists of alternating layers of densely fractured rocks and sparsely fractured rocks, forming a fractured-rock aquifer. Ground-water flow in the fractured-rock aquifer is anisotropic as a result of the interlayering of dipping water-bearing and

  4. Scanning Long-wave Optical Test System: a new ground optical surface slope test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianquan; Park, Won Hyun; Parks, Robert E.; Su, Peng; Burge, James H.

    2011-09-01

    The scanning long-wave optical test system (SLOTS) is under development at the University of Arizona to provide rapid and accurate measurements of aspherical optical surfaces during the grinding stage. It is based on the success of the software configurable optical test system (SCOTS) which uses visible light to measure surface slopes. Working at long wave infrared (LWIR, 7-14 μm), SLOTS measures ground optical surface slopes by viewing the specular reflection of a scanning hot wire. A thermal imaging camera collects data while motorized stages scan the wire through the field. Current experiments show that the system can achieve a high precision at micro-radian level with fairly low cost equipment. The measured surface map is comparable with interferometer for slow optics. This IR system could be applied early in the grinding stage of fabrication of large telescope mirrors to minimize the surface shape error imparted during processing. This advantage combined with the simplicity of the optical system (no null optics, no high power carbon dioxide laser) would improve the efficiency and shorten the processing time.

  5. Design of the primary pre-TRMM and TRMM ground truth site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garstang, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective of the Tropical Rain Measuring Mission (TRMM) were to: integrate the rain gage measurements with radar measurements of rainfall using the KSFC/Patrick digitized radar and associated rainfall network; delineate the major rain bearing systems over Florida using the Weather Service reported radar/rainfall distributions; combine the integrated measurements with the delineated rain bearing systems; use the results of the combined measurements and delineated rain bearing systems to represent patterns of rainfall which actually exist and contribute significantly to the rainfall to test sampling strategies and based on the results of these analyses decide upon the ground truth network; and complete the design begun in Phase 1 of a multi-scale (space and time) surface observing precipitation network centered upon KSFC. Work accomplished and in progress is discussed.

  6. Site characterization data from the Area 5 science boreholes, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blout, D.O.; Hammermeister, P.; Zukosky, K.A.

    1995-02-01

    The Science Borehole Project consists of eight boreholes that were drilled (from 45.7 m [150 ft] to 83.8 m [275 ft] depth) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, on behalf of the US Department of Energy. These boreholes are part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program developed to meet data needs associated with regulatory requirements applicable to the disposal of low-level and mixed waste at this site. This series of boreholes was specifically designed to characterize parameters controlling near-surface gas transport and to monitor changes in these and liquid flow-related parameters over time. These boreholes are located along the four sides of the approximately 2.6-km{sup 2} (1-mi{sup 2}) Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site to provide reasonable spatial coverage for sampling and characterization. Laboratory testing results of samples taken from core and drill cuttings are reported.

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 396: Area 20 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 396, Area 20 Spill Sites, is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 396 is listed in Appendix II of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 20 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 20-25-01, Oil Spills (2); CAS 20-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 20-25-03, Oil Spill; CAS 20-99-08, Spill. Closure activities for CAU 396 were conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 396.

  8. Artificial intelligence techniques for ground test monitoring of rocket engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Moonis; Gupta, U. K.

    1990-01-01

    An expert system is being developed which can detect anomalies in Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) sensor data significantly earlier than the redline algorithm currently in use. The training of such an expert system focuses on two approaches which are based on low frequency and high frequency analyses of sensor data. Both approaches are being tested on data from SSME tests and their results compared with the findings of NASA and Rocketdyne experts. Prototype implementations have detected the presence of anomalies earlier than the redline algorithms that are in use currently. It therefore appears that these approaches have the potential of detecting anomalies early eneough to shut down the engine or take other corrective action before severe damage to the engine occurs.

  9. A Hydrogen Containment Process for Nuclear Thermal Engine Ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Stewart, Eric; Canabal, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose a new total hydrogen containment process to enable the testing required for NTP engine development. This H2 removal process comprises of two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a shell-and-tube type of heat exchanger. This new process is demonstrated by simulation of the steady state operation of the engine firing at nominal conditions.

  10. Inverted Outflow Ground Testing of Cryogenic Propellant Liquid Acquisition Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chato, David J.; Hartwig, Jason W.; Rame, Enrique; McQuillen, John B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing propulsion system concepts for human exploration. These propulsion concepts will require the vapor free acquisition and delivery of the cryogenic propellants stored in the propulsion tanks during periods of microgravity to the exploration vehicles engines. Propellant management devices (PMD's), such as screen channel capillary liquid acquisition devices (LAD's), vanes and sponges have been used for earth storable propellants in the Space Shuttle Orbiter and other spacecraft propulsion systems, but only very limited propellant management capability currently exists for cryogenic propellants. NASA is developing PMD technology as a part of their cryogenic fluid management (CFM) project. System concept studies have looked at the key factors that dictate the size and shape of PMD devices and established screen channel LADs as an important component of PMD design. Modeling validated by normal gravity experiments is examining the behavior of the flow in the LAD channel assemblies (as opposed to only prior testing of screen samples) at the flow rates representative of actual engine service (similar in size to current launch vehicle upper stage engines). Recently testing of rectangular LAD channels has included inverted outflow in liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This paper will report the results of liquid oxygen testing compare and contrast them with the recently published hydrogen results; and identify the sensitivity of these results to flow rate and tank internal pressure.

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 540: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, Lloyd

    2006-10-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 540: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the 'Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 540 is located within Areas 12 and 19 of the Nevada Test Site and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-44-01, ER 12-1 Well Site Release; CAS 12-99-01, Oil Stained Dirt; CAS 19-25-02, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-04, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-05, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-06, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-07, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-08, Oil Spills (3); and CAS 19-44-03, U-19bf Drill Site Release. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting recommendations of no further action for the CASs within CAU 540. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: (1) Reviewed the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination; (2) Performed closure activities to address the presence of substances regulated by 'Nevada Administrative Code' 445A.2272 (NAC, 2002); and (3) Documented Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 540 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  12. How Usability Testing Resulted in Improvements to Ground Collision Software for General Aviation: Improved Ground Collision Avoidance System (IGCAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarr, Michael; Chinske, Chris; Williams, Ethan; Law, Cameron; Skoog, Mark; Sorokowski, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The NASA improved Ground Collision Avoidance System (iGCAS) team conducted an onsite usability study at Experimental Aircraft Association (EAA) Air Venture in Oshkosh, Wisconsin from July 19 through July 26, 2015. EAA Air Venture had approximately 550,000 attendees from which the sample pool of pilots were selected. The objectives of this study were to assess the overall appropriateness and acceptability of iGCAS as a warning system for General Aviation aircraft, usability of the iGCAS displays and audio cues, test terrain avoidance characteristics, performance, functionality, pilot response time, and correlate terrain avoidance performance and pilot response time data.

  13. The solar corona - A testing ground for plasma astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R.

    1982-01-01

    The extension of solar surface activity models to the domain of stellar activity, and the possibility of testing such extensions, are discussed. The extrapolation of three canonical solar activity indicators, sunspots, Ca II emission, and solar flares, to other stars is considered. The use of satellites to study stellar activity at wavelengths at which surface activity is most prominent is briefly reviewed. The correlation of stellar activity with intrinsic stellar parameters, especially those relating to rotation, is briefly considered, and the use of phenomenological models of stellar coronal X-ray emission to deduce the magnetic flux production rate for observed stars as a function of rotation rate is discussed.

  14. Natural Environment Corrosion Testing at the Kennedy Space Center Beachside Atmospheric Corrosion Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of how NASA has been conducting corrosion testing in the Natural Marine Environment at the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, U.S. The following questions will be addressed: What factors should be considered when selecting and constructing a test site? What are the attributes of a good test site? Is more severe always better? What environmental parameters should be monitored? How frequently? What factors should be considered when designing test specimens? Are current test standards sufficient? How do diurnal, annual and other fluctuations in corrosivity influence tests? How are test results interpreted? Can they be quantified?

  15. The Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site: Through My Own Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    births. Infant mortality in the oblast equals 34 per 1,000; for the Republic it is 27 per 1,000. 31 6.0 CRISIS OF CONFIDENCE The newspaper...me) statistical digression. 1.2 TEST SITES OF OTHER NATIONS Today five countries (Great Britain, the U.S., France, China , and the USSR) conduct...overall number of explosions is close to 180. China has conducted significantly fewer tests, 34 in all, beginning in 1964. However, what signals alarm

  16. Land utilization and water resource inventories over extended test sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, R. M.

    1972-01-01

    In addition to the work on the corn blight this year, several other analysis tests were completed which resulted in significant findings. These aspects are discussed as follows: (1) field spectral measurements of soil conditions; (2) analysis of extended test site data; this discussion involves three different sets of data analysis sequences; (3) urban land use analysis, for studying water runoff potentials; and (4) thermal data quality study, as an expansion of our water resources studies involving temperature calibration techniques.

  17. Mitigative techniques and analysis of generic site conditions for ground-water contamination associated with severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, J.M.; Oberlander, P.L.; Skaggs, R.L.

    1984-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques to control radionuclide migration following a severe commercial nuclear power reactor accident. The two types of severe commercial reactor accidents investigated are: (1) containment basemat penetration of core melt debris which slowly cools and leaches radionuclides to the subsurface environment, and (2) containment basemat penetration of sump water without full penetration of the core mass. Six generic hydrogeologic site classifications are developed from an evaluation of reported data pertaining to the hydrogeologic properties of all existing and proposed commercial reactor sites. One-dimensional radionuclide transport analyses are conducted on each of the individual reactor sites to determine the generic characteristics of a radionuclide discharge to an accessible environment. Ground-water contaminant mitigation techniques that may be suitable, depending on specific site and accident conditions, for severe power plant accidents are identified and evaluated. Feasible mitigative techniques and associated constraints on feasibility are determined for each of the six hydrogeologic site classifications. The first of three case studies is conducted on a site located on the Texas Gulf Coastal Plain. Mitigative strategies are evaluated for their impact on contaminant transport and results show that the techniques evaluated significantly increased ground-water travel times. 31 references, 118 figures, 62 tables.

  18. Probabilistic Description of a Clay Site using CPTU tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sarah; Lauridsen, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2012-01-01

    A clay site at the harbour of Aarhus, where numerous cone penetration tests have been conducted, is assessed. The upper part of the soil deposit is disregarded, and only the clay sections are investigated. The thickness of the clay deposit varies from 5 to 6 meters, and is sliced into sections of 1...

  19. Smallpox Vaccination of Laboratory Workers at US Variola Testing Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medcalf, Sharon; Bilek, Laura; Hartman, Teresa; Iwen, Peter C; Leuschen, Patricia; Miller, Hannah; O'Keefe, Anne; Sayles, Harlan; Smith, Philip W

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the need to revaccinate laboratory workers against smallpox, we assessed regular revaccination at the US Laboratory Response Network's variola testing sites by examining barriers to revaccination and the potential for persistence of immunity. Our data do not provide evidence to suggest prolonging the recommended interval for revaccination.

  20. Test-Site Evaluation of ICU/PLANIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, Terry J.

    Test-site evaluation of the Instructor's Computer Utility/Programing Language of Interactive Teaching (ICU/PLANIT) was conducted. Goals included: 1) analysis of the operation of ICU/PLANIT; 2) development of two PLANIT. Modifications were made in a distrubuted version, cost analyses were in man hours and quantities of machine resources consumed,…

  1. Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2010-02-09

    This document supersedes DOE/NV/25946--801, “Nevada Test Site Radiological Control Manual,” Revision 0 issued in October 2009. Brief Description of Revision: A minor revision to correct oversights made during revision to incorporate the 10 CFR 835 Update; and for use as a reference document for Tenant Organization Radiological Protection Programs.

  2. Detailed Geophysical Fault Characterization in Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Theodore H.; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Burton, Bethany L.; Wallin, Erin L.

    2009-01-01

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada. Between the years 1951 and 1992, 659 underground nuclear tests took place in Yucca Flat; most were conducted in large, vertical excavations that penetrated alluvium and the underlying Cenozoic volcanic rocks. Radioactive and other potential chemical contaminants at the NTS are the subject of a long-term program of investigation and remediation by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office, under its Environmental Restoration Program. As part of the program, the DOE seeks to assess the extent of contamination and to evaluate the potential risks to humans and the environment from byproducts of weapons testing. To accomplish this objective, the DOE Environmental Restoration Program is constructing and calibrating a ground-water flow model to predict hydrologic flow in Yucca Flat as part of an effort to quantify the subsurface hydrology of the Nevada Test Site. A necessary part of calibrating and evaluating a model of the flow system is an understanding of the location and characteristics of faults that may influence ground-water flow. In addition, knowledge of fault-zone architecture and physical properties is a fundamental component of the containment of the contamination from underground nuclear tests, should such testing ever resume at the Nevada Test Site. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a detailed understanding of the geometry and physical properties of fault zones in Yucca Flat. This study was designed to investigate faults in greater detail and to characterize fault geometry, the presence of fault splays, and the fault-zone width. Integrated geological and geophysical studies have been designed and implemented to work toward this goal. This report describes the geophysical surveys conducted near two drill holes in Yucca Flat, the data analyses performed, and the

  3. Developing Uncertainty Models for Robust Flutter Analysis Using Ground Vibration Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Starr; Lind, Rick; Kehoe, Michael W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A ground vibration test can be used to obtain information about structural dynamics that is important for flutter analysis. Traditionally, this information#such as natural frequencies of modes#is used to update analytical models used to predict flutter speeds. The ground vibration test can also be used to obtain uncertainty models, such as natural frequencies and their associated variations, that can update analytical models for the purpose of predicting robust flutter speeds. Analyzing test data using the -norm, rather than the traditional 2-norm, is shown to lead to a minimum-size uncertainty description and, consequently, a least-conservative robust flutter speed. This approach is demonstrated using ground vibration test data for the Aerostructures Test Wing. Different norms are used to formulate uncertainty models and their associated robust flutter speeds to evaluate which norm is least conservative.

  4. The JPSS Ground Project Algorithm Verification, Test and Evaluation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, G. A.; Jain, P.; Chander, G.; Nguyen, V. T.; Dixon, V.

    2016-12-01

    The Government Resource for Algorithm Verification, Independent Test, and Evaluation (GRAVITE) is an operational system that provides services to the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Mission. It is also a unique environment for Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) and Data Quality Assessment (DQA) of the Join Polar Satellite System (JPSS) mission data products. GRAVITE provides a fast and direct access to the data and products created by the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), the NASA/NOAA operational system that converts Raw Data Records (RDR's) generated by sensors on the S-NPP into calibrated geo-located Sensor Data Records (SDR's) and generates Mission Unique Products (MUPS). It also facilitates algorithm investigation, integration, checkouts and tuning, instrument and product calibration and data quality support, monitoring and data/products distribution. GRAVITE is the portal for the latest S-NPP and JPSS baselined Processing Coefficient Tables (PCT's) and Look-Up-Tables (LUT's) and hosts a number DQA offline tools that takes advantage of the proximity to the near-real time data flows. It also contains a set of automated and ad-hoc Cal/Val tools used for algorithm analysis and updates, including an instance of the IDPS called GRAVITE Algorithm Development Area (G-ADA), that has the latest installation of the IDPS algorithms running in an identical software and hardware platforms. Two other important GRAVITE component are the Investigator-led Processing System (IPS) and the Investigator Computing Facility (ICF). The IPS is a dedicated environment where authorized users run automated scripts called Product Generation Executables (PGE's) to support Cal/Val and data quality assurance offline. This data-rich and data-driven service holds its own distribution system and allows operators to retrieve science data products. The ICF is a workspace where users can share computing applications and resources and have full access to libraries and

  5. ANAEROBIC DEGRADATION OF MTBE TO TBA IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES IN ORANGE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although tert-Butyl Alcohol (TBA) has not been used as a fuel oxygenate in Orange County, California, the concentrations of TBA in ground water at gasoline spill sites are high compared to the concentrations of the conventional fuel oxygenate Methyl tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE). In t...

  6. Work plan for preliminary investigation of organic constituents in ground water at the New Rifle site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    A special study screening for Appendix 9 (40 CFR Part 264) analytes identified the New Rifle site as a target for additional screening for organic constituents. Because of this recommendation and the findings in a recent independent technical review, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has requested that the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) perform a preliminary investigation of the potential presence of organic compounds in the ground water at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. From 1958 to 1972, organic chemicals were used in large quantities during ore processing at the New Rifle site, and it is possible that some fraction was released to the environment. Therefore, the primary objective of this investigation is to determine whether organic chemicals used at the milling facility are present in the ground water. The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water well points at the New Rifle site. The selection of analytes and the procedures for collecting ground water samples for analysis of organic constituents are also described.

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2003-04-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities performed to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996, and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SA4FER) Plan for CAU 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOEN], 2001). CAU 398 consists of the following thirteen Corrective Action Sites (CASs) all located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1): CAS 25-25-02, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-03, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-04, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-05, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-06, Oil Spills, CAS 25-25-07, Hydraulic Oil Spill(s), CAS 25-25-08, Hydraulic Oil Spill(s), CAS 25-25-16, Diesel Spill (from CAS 25-01-02), CAS 25-25-17, Subsurface Hydraulic Oil Spill, CAS 25-44-0 1, Fuel Spill, CAS 25-44-04, Acid Spill (from CAS 25-01-01), CAS 25-44-02, Spill, and CAS 25-44-03, Spill. Copies of the analytical results for the site verification samples are included in Appendix B. Copies of the CAU Use Restriction Information forms are included in Appendix C.

  8. LISA Pathfinder test mass injection in geodesic motion: status of the on-ground testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortoluzzi, D; Biral, F; Bosetti, P; Da Lio, M; De Cecco, M [Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering and INFN, University of Trento, 38050 Trento (Italy); Baglivo, L [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Padova, 35122 Padova (Italy); Benedetti, M [Department of Materials Engineering and Industrial Technologies and INFN, University of Trento, 38050 Trento (Italy); Cavalleri, A; Dolesi, R; Weber, W; Vitale, S [Department of Physics and INFN, University of Trento, 38050 Trento (Italy); Lapolla, M, E-mail: daniele.bortoluzzi@ing.unitn.i [Thales Alenia Space Italia, 20090 Milano (Italy)

    2009-05-07

    The LISA Technology Package (LTP) onboard the LISA Pathfinder mission aims to demonstrate, in orbit, several critical technology milestones for LISA, including the purest geodesic motion ever achieved for a macroscopic body. The gravitational reference sensor in the LTP hosts a heavy test mass (TM) surrounded by electrodes, at a relatively large 'gap' distance of several mm, which are used to measure and control the TM position and attitude. The large gaps--necessary to minimize the force noise acting on the TM--limit the available level of electrostatic actuation force that can be applied to the TM and thus the authority to control its position and velocity. Due to the large mass and gaps, a caging mechanism is required to securely hold the TM during the launch phase, when the whole payload endures large accelerations. Later in orbit, the TM must be injected into its geodesic trajectory, through the release from the caging mechanism and subsequent capture by the electrostatic actuation. During the release phase, the constraining device must limit adhesion forces that exert a net impulse upon rupture, such that the required forces needed to control the TM do not exceed the actuation authority. The TM injection into geodesic motion, and most critically the release phase, constitutes a potential point of failure for the mission. The on-ground verification of this phase is performed by measuring the momentum transferred between TM-representative surfaces and the release device, reproducing the dynamics that will take place in flight. This paper reports on the testing activities performed at the Department of Mechanical and Structural Engineering of the University of Trento.

  9. PSP SAR interferometry monitoring of ground and structure deformations applied to archaeological sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Mario; Francioni, Elena; Trillo, Francesco; Minati, Federico; Margottini, Claudio; Spizzichino, Daniele; Trigila, Alessandro; Iadanza, Carla

    2017-04-01

    Archaeological sites and cultural heritage are considered as critical assets for the society, representing not only the history of region or a culture, but also contributing to create a common identity of people living in a certain region. In this view, it is becoming more and more urgent to preserve them from climate changes effect and in general from their degradation. These structures are usually just as precious as fragile: remote sensing technology can be useful to monitor these treasures. In this work, we will focus on ground deformation measurements obtained by satellite SAR interferometry and on the methodology adopted and implemented in order to use the results operatively for conservation policies in a Italian archaeological site. The analysis is based on the processing of COSMO-SkyMed Himage data by the e-GEOS proprietary Persistent Scatterer Pair (PSP) SAR interferometry technology. The PSP technique is a proven SAR interferometry technology characterized by the fact of exploiting in the processing only the relative properties between close points (pairs) in order to overcome atmospheric artefacts (which are one of the main problems of SAR interferometry). Validations analyses [Costantini et al. 2015] settled that this technique applied to COSMO-SkyMed Himage data is able to retrieve very dense (except of course on vegetated or cultivated areas) millimetric deformation measurements with sub-metric localization. Considering the limitations of all the interferometric techniques, in particular the fact that the measurement are along the line of sight (LOS) and the geometric distortions, in order to obtain the maximum information from interferometric analysis, both ascending and descending geometry have been used. The ascending analysis allows selecting measurements points over the top and, approximately, South-West part of the structures, while the descending one over the top and the South-East part of the structures. The interferometric techniques needs

  10. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Potable Water System Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, Ruben P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bellah, Wendy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-04

    The existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 drinking water system operation schematic is shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. The sources of water are from two Site 300 wells (Well #18 and Well #20) and San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) Hetch-Hetchy water through the Thomas shaft pumping station. Currently, Well #20 with 300 gallons per minute (gpm) pump capacity is the primary source of well water used during the months of September through July, while Well #18 with 225 gpm pump capacity is the source of well water for the month of August. The well water is chlorinated using sodium hypochlorite to provide required residual chlorine throughout Site 300. Well water chlorination is covered in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Chlorination Plan (“the Chlorination Plan”; LLNL-TR-642903; current version dated August 2013). The third source of water is the SFPUC Hetch-Hetchy Water System through the Thomas shaft facility with a 150 gpm pump capacity. At the Thomas shaft station the pumped water is treated through SFPUC-owned and operated ultraviolet (UV) reactor disinfection units on its way to Site 300. The Thomas Shaft Hetch- Hetchy water line is connected to the Site 300 water system through the line common to Well pumps #18 and #20 at valve box #1.

  11. LLNL Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Potable Water System Operations Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, R. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bellah, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-09-14

    The existing Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Site 300 drinking water system operation schematic is shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. The sources of water are from two Site 300 wells (Well #18 and Well #20) and San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SFPUC) Hetch-Hetchy water through the Thomas shaft pumping station. Currently, Well #20 with 300 gallons per minute (gpm) pump capacity is the primary source of well water used during the months of September through July, while Well #18 with 225 gpm pump capacity is the source of well water for the month of August. The well water is chlorinated using sodium hypochlorite to provide required residual chlorine throughout Site 300. Well water chlorination is covered in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Chlorination Plan (“the Chlorination Plan”; LLNL-TR-642903; current version dated August 2013). The third source of water is the SFPUC Hetch-Hetchy Water System through the Thomas shaft facility with a 150 gpm pump capacity. At the Thomas shaft station the pumped water is treated through SFPUC-owned and operated ultraviolet (UV) reactor disinfection units on its way to Site 300. The Thomas Shaft Hetch- Hetchy water line is connected to the Site 300 water system through the line common to Well pumps #18 and #20 at valve box #1.

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 340: NTS Pesticide Release Sites Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. M. Obi

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide documentation of the completed corrective action and to provide data confirming the corrective action. The corrective action was performed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 1999) and consisted of clean closure by excavation and disposal. The Area 15 Quonset Hut 15-11 was formerly used for storage of farm supplies including pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers. The Area 23 Quonset Hut 800 was formerly used to clean pesticide and herbicide equipment. Steam-cleaning rinsate and sink drainage occasionally overflowed a sump into adjoining drainage ditches. One ditch flows south and is referred to as the quonset hut ditch. The other ditch flows southeast and is referred to as the inner drainage ditch. The Area 23 Skid Huts were formerly used for storing and mixing pesticide and herbicide solutions. Excess solutions were released directly to the ground near the skid huts. The skid huts were moved to a nearby location prior to the site characterization performed in 1998 and reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE, 1998). The vicinity and site plans of the Area 23 sites are shown in Figures 2 and 3, respectively.

  13. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program - Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiological Control Managers' Council

    2008-06-01

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection,' establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (on-site or off-site) U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration off-site projects. This NTS RPP promulgates the radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for occupational exposure to ionizing radiation resulting from NNSA/NSO activities at the NTS and other operational areas as stated in 10 CFR 835.1(a). NNSA/NSO activities (including design, construction, operation, and decommissioning) within the scope of this RPP may result in occupational exposures to radiation or radioactive material. Therefore, a system of control is implemented through specific references to the site-specific NV/YMP RCM. This system of control is intended to ensure that the following criteria are met: (1) occupational exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (2) DOE's limiting values are not exceeded, (3) employees are aware of and are prepared to cope with emergency conditions, and (4) employees are not inadvertently exposed to radiation or radioactive material.

  14. Nondestructive testing and assessment of consolidation effects of earthen sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Earthen sites are widely distributed throughout China, and most of them belong to archaeological sites with significant values, which not only directly witness the origin, formation and development of Chinese civilization, but also possess important values for conservation and exhibition. Many researches and practices on their conservation and consolidation have been carried out; however, the consolidation effect is mainly judged by visual observation and expert evaluation. Scientific assessment of conservation and consolidation effects is a challenging issue. Many instruments in other fields cannot be directly applied to the conservation of cultural relics due to their peculiarity. In order to assess the effects of field conservation experiments, this paper tries to understand the consolidation effects at Liangzhu site using nondestructive or micro-damage methods, including thermo-physical parameters testing, infrared thermal imaging, high-density microelectrode resistivity testing, portable microscope observation, and hydrophilic and hydrophobic testing, and thereby explores the practicable methods for evaluating the properties of consolidation materials for earthen sites treatment.

  15. Preliminary report on engineering geology of thirteen tunnel sites, Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmarth, Verl Richard; McKeown, Francis Alexander; Dobrovolny, Ernest

    1958-01-01

    Reconnaissance of 13 areas in and adjacent to Nevada Test Site was completed. Of the 13 areas, Forty Mile Canyon, South-central Shoshone Mountain, and Southeast Shoshone Mountain named in order of preference, offer many advantages for carrying on future underground nuclear explosions.

  16. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA, JUNE 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2006-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  17. The effect of the Jessica grounding on Galápagos reef fish communities adjacent to the wreck site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Graham J; Marshall, Paul A; Mooney, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The grounding of the oil tanker Jessica off San Cristóbal Island, Galápagos, resulted in generally elevated rather than depressed densities of fishes adjacent to the wreck site 15 weeks post spill. Species richness of fishes declined along transects out from the wreck; however, patterns were inconsistent for different depth strata, with the most clearly defined decline evident for the intermediate 5-7 m depth stratum. Fish species attracted to the immediate wreck site, most notably the surgeonfish Prionurus laticlavius, the damselfish Microspathodon dorsalis and the angelfish Holacanthus passer, were considered to be responding either to the heterogeneity provided by the wreck structure or elevated densities of macroalgae. The fish community at the wreck site lay outside the range of variation for other sites investigated in the region; however, contrary to predictions of grounding impacts, the fish assemblage immediately adjacent to the wreckage showed greater faunal similarity to reference sites than did fish assemblage at 60-90 m distance from the grounding.

  18. Comparison of Ground-Based and Satellite-Derived Solar UV Index Levels at Six South African Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Maurice Cadet

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has been measuring the ground-based solar UV index for more than two decades at six sites to raise awareness about the impacts of the solar UV index on human health. This paper is an exploratory study based on comparison with satellite UV index measurements from the OMI/AURA experiment. Relative UV index differences between ground-based and satellite-derived data ranged from 0 to 45% depending on the site and year. Most of time, these differences appear in winter. Some ground-based stations’ data had closer agreement with satellite-derived data. While the ground-based instruments are not intended for long-term trend analysis, they provide UV index information for public awareness instead, with some weak signs suggesting such long-term trends may exist in the ground-based data. The annual cycle, altitude, and latitude effects clearly appear in the UV index data measured in South Africa. This variability must be taken into account for the development of an excess solar UV exposure prevention strategy.

  19. Site Characterization for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. L.; Hardin, E. L.; Freeze, G. A.; Sassani, D.; Brady, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy is at the beginning of 5-year Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT) to investigate the feasibility of constructing and characterizing two boreholes in crystalline basement rock to a depth of 5 km (16,400 ft). The concept of deep borehole disposal for radioactive waste has some advantages over mined repositories, including incremental construction and loading, the enhanced natural barriers provided by deep continental crystalline basement, and reduced site characterization. Site characterization efforts need to determine an eligible site that does not have the following disqualifying characteristics: greater than 2 km to crystalline basement, upward vertical fluid potential gradients, presence of economically exploitable natural resources, presence of high permeability connection to the shallow subsurface, and significant probability of future seismic or volcanic activity. Site characterization activities for the DBFT will include geomechanical (i.e., rock in situ stress state, and fluid pressure), geological (i.e., rock and fracture infill lithology), hydrological (i.e., quantity of fluid, fluid convection properties, and solute transport mechanisms), and geochemical (i.e., rock-water interaction and natural tracers) aspects. Both direct (i.e., sampling and in situ testing) and indirect (i.e., borehole geophysical) methods are planned for efficient and effective characterization of these site aspects and physical processes. Borehole-based characterization will be used to determine the variability of system state (i.e., stress, pressure, temperature, and chemistry) with depth, and interpretation of material and system parameters relevant to numerical site simulation. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE

  20. Thermal and Fluid Modeling of the CRYogenic Orbital TEstbed (CRYOTE) Ground Test Article (GTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piryk, David; Schallhorn, Paul; Walls, Laurie; Stopnitzky, Benny; Rhys, Noah; Wollen, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to anchor thermal and fluid system models to data acquired from a ground test article (GTA) for the CRYogenic Orbital TEstbed - CRYOTE. To accomplish this analysis, it was broken into four primary tasks. These included model development, pre-test predictions, testing support at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC} and post-test correlations. Information from MSFC facilitated the task of refining and correlating the initial models. The primary goal of the modeling/testing/correlating efforts was to characterize heat loads throughout the ground test article. Significant factors impacting the heat loads included radiative environments, multi-layer insulation (MLI) performance, tank fill levels, tank pressures, and even contact conductance coefficients. This paper demonstrates how analytical thermal/fluid networks were established, and it includes supporting rationale for specific thermal responses seen during testing.

  1. From Regional Hazard Assessment to Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Support - InSAR Ground Motion Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lege, T.; Kalia, A.; Gruenberg, I.; Frei, M.

    2016-12-01

    There are numerous scientific applications of InSAR methods in tectonics, earthquake analysis and other geologic and geophysical fields. Ground motion on local and regional scale measured and monitored via the application of the InSAR techniques provide scientists and engineers with plenty of new insights and further understanding of subsurface processes. However, the operational use of InSAR is not yet very widespread. To foster the operational utilization of the Copernicus Sentinel Satellites in the day-to-day business of federal, state and municipal work and planning BGR (Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources) initiated workshops with potential user groups. Through extensive reconcilement of interests and demands with scientific, technical, economic and governmental stakeholders (e.g. Ministries, Mining Authorities, Geological Surveys, Geodetic Surveys and Environmental Agencies on federal and state level, SMEs, German Aerospace Center) BGR developed the concept of the InSAR based German National Ground Motion Service. One important backbone for the nationwide ground motion service is the so-called Persistent Scatterer Interferometry Wide Area Product (WAP) approach developed with grants of European research funds. The presentation shows the implementation of the ground motion service and examples for product developments for operational supervision of mining, water resources management and spatial planning. Furthermore the contributions of Copernicus Sentinel 1 radar data in the context of CTBT are discussed. The DInSAR processing of Sentinel 1 IW (Interferometric Wide Swath) SAR acquisitions from January 1st and 13th Jan. 2016 allow for the first time a near real time ground motion measurement of the North Korean nuclear test site. The measured ground displacements show a strong spatio-temporal correlation to the calculated epicenter measured by teleseismic stations. We are convinced this way another space technique will soon contribute even

  2. A Method for Calculating the Probability of Successfully Completing a Rocket Propulsion Ground Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, Bradley

    2007-01-01

    Propulsion ground test facilities face the daily challenge of scheduling multiple customers into limited facility space and successfully completing their propulsion test projects. Over the last decade NASA s propulsion test facilities have performed hundreds of tests, collected thousands of seconds of test data, and exceeded the capabilities of numerous test facility and test article components. A logistic regression mathematical modeling technique has been developed to predict the probability of successfully completing a rocket propulsion test. A logistic regression model is a mathematical modeling approach that can be used to describe the relationship of several independent predictor variables X(sub 1), X(sub 2),.., X(sub k) to a binary or dichotomous dependent variable Y, where Y can only be one of two possible outcomes, in this case Success or Failure of accomplishing a full duration test. The use of logistic regression modeling is not new; however, modeling propulsion ground test facilities using logistic regression is both a new and unique application of the statistical technique. Results from this type of model provide project managers with insight and confidence into the effectiveness of rocket propulsion ground testing.

  3. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139, Waste Disposal Sites, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 139 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 139 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Details of the site history and site characterization results for CAU 139 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006) and in the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to present the detailed scope of work required to implement the recommended corrective actions as specified in Section 4.0 of the approved CADD (NNSA/NSO, 2007). The approved closure activities for CAU 139 include removal of soil and debris contaminated with plutonium (Pu)-239, excavation of geophysical anomalies, removal of surface debris, construction of an engineered soil cover, and implementation of use restrictions (URs). Table 1 presents a summary of CAS-specific closure activities and contaminants of concern (COCs). Specific details of the corrective actions to be performed at each CAS are presented in Section 2.0 of this report.

  4. Creation of geographic information database of subsatellite calibration test site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyelyk, Ya. I.; Semeniv, O. V.

    2014-12-01

    The prototype of geographic information database (DB) of the sub-satellite calibration test site has been created, to which user can be accessed from the free open-source geographic information system Quantum GIS (QGIS) environment. QGIS is used as an integrator of all data and applications and visualizer of the satellite imagery and vector layers of test sites in the cartographic interface. Conversion of the database from the local representation in the MS Access to the server representation in the PostgreSQL environment has been performed. Dynamic application to QGIS for user interaction from QGIS environment with the object-relational database and to display information from the database has been created. Functional-algorithmic part of these application and the interface for user interaction with the database has been developed.

  5. Nevada Test Site tortoise population monitoring study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J.M.; Zander, K.K.

    1994-12-01

    A Tortoise Population Monitoring Study was initiated to determine and monitor the density of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) on the Nevada Test Site. Quadrat sampling was conducted following methodology described in the Draft Desert Tortoise Recovery Plan (FWS, 1993). So few tortoises were found that densities could not be calculated. Based on estimates of capture probabilities and densities from other studies, it was determined that 1-km{sup 2} (0.4 mi{sup 2}) plots did not contain enough tortoises for estimating densities with the Recovery Plan methods. It was recommended that additional surveys on the Nevada Test Site using those methods not be conducted. Any future efforts to monitor desert tortoise densities should start by identifying other possible methods, determining their relative power to detect changes, and estimating their cost.

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for CAU 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada (US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2001). CAU 499 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): RG-25-001-RD24: Radar 24 Diesel Spill Site which is approximately 4.0 kilometers (2.5 miles) southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the end of Avenue 24. The Hydrocarbon Spill Site is a diesel fuel release site that is assumed to have been caused by numerous small historical over-fillings, spills, and leaks from an above-ground storage tank (AST) over a period of approximately 36 years. The tank was located on the east side of Building 24-50 on the TTR.

  7. Numerical Simulation of Groundwater Withdrawal at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Rosemary [Nevada Site Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States).; Giroux, Brian [Nevada Site Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States).; Pohll, Greg [Nevada Site Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States).; Hershey, Ronald [Nevada Site Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States).; Russell, Charles [Nevada Site Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States).; Howcroft, William [Nevada Site Office, Las Vegas, NV (United States).

    2004-01-28

    Alternative uses of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) may require large amounts of water to construct and/or operate. The only abundant source of water at the NTS is groundwater. This report describes preliminary modeling to quantify the amount of groundwater available for development from three hydrographic areas at the NTS. Modeling was conducted with a three-dimensional transient numerical groundwater flow model.

  8. 2003 Nevada Test Site Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Illness and Injury Prevention Programs

    2007-05-23

    Annual Illness and Injury Surveillance Program report for 2003 for the Nevada Test Site. The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) commitment to assuring the health and safety of its workers includes the conduct of epidemiologic surveillance activities that provide an early warning system for health problems among workers. The Illness and Injury Surveillance Program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers.

  9. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruihang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Cao, Juliang; Zhang, Kaidong

    2015-09-16

    In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter-SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS), a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS) of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising.

  10. An SINS/GNSS Ground Vehicle Gravimetry Test Based on SGA-WZ02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruihang Yu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In March 2015, a ground vehicle gravimetry test was implemented in eastern Changsha to assess the repeatability and accuracy of ground vehicle SINS/GNSS gravimeter—SGA-WZ02. The gravity system developed by NUDT consisted of a Strapdown Inertial Navigation System (SINS, a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS remote station on test vehicle, a GNSS static master station on the ground, and a data logging subsystem. A south-north profile of 35 km along the highway in eastern Changsha was chosen and four repeated available measure lines were obtained. The average speed of a vehicle is 40 km/h. To assess the external ground gravity disturbances, precise ground gravity data was built by CG-5 precise gravimeter as the reference. Under relative smooth conditions, internal accuracy among repeated lines shows an average agreement at the level of 1.86 mGal for half wavelengths about 1.1 km, and 1.22 mGal for 1.7 km. The root-mean-square (RMS of difference between calculated gravity data and reference data is about 2.27 mGal/1.1 km, and 1.74 mGal/1.7 km. Not all of the noises caused by vehicle itself and experiments environments were eliminated in the primary results. By means of selecting reasonable filters and improving the GNSS observation conditions, further developments in ground vehicle gravimetry are promising.

  11. Repeatable source, site, and path effects on the standard deviation for empirical ground-motion prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, P.-S.; Chiou, B.; Abrahamson, N.; Walling, M.; Lee, C.-T.; Cheng, C.-T.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we quantify the reduction in the standard deviation for empirical ground-motion prediction models by removing ergodic assumption.We partition the modeling error (residual) into five components, three of which represent the repeatable source-location-specific, site-specific, and path-specific deviations from the population mean. A variance estimation procedure of these error components is developed for use with a set of recordings from earthquakes not heavily clustered in space.With most source locations and propagation paths sampled only once, we opt to exploit the spatial correlation of residuals to estimate the variances associated with the path-specific and the source-location-specific deviations. The estimation procedure is applied to ground-motion amplitudes from 64 shallow earthquakes in Taiwan recorded at 285 sites with at least 10 recordings per site. The estimated variance components are used to quantify the reduction in aleatory variability that can be used in hazard analysis for a single site and for a single path. For peak ground acceleration and spectral accelerations at periods of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, and 3.0 s, we find that the singlesite standard deviations are 9%-14% smaller than the total standard deviation, whereas the single-path standard deviations are 39%-47% smaller.

  12. TREATABILITY TEST PLAN FOR DEEP VADOSE ZONE REMEDIATION AT THE HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW; MORSE JG; TRUEX MJ; LAST GV

    2007-11-29

    A treatability test plan has been prepared to address options for remediating portions of the deep vadose zone beneath a portion of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The vadose zone is the region of the subsurface that extends from the ground surface to the water table. The overriding objective of the treatability test plan is to recommend specific remediation technologies and laboratory and field tests to support the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 remedial decision-making process in the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site. Most of the technologies considered involve removing water from the vadose zone or immobilizing the contaminants to reduce the risk of contaminating groundwater. A multi-element approach to initial treatability testing is recommended, with the goal of providing the information needed to evaluate candidate technologies. The proposed tests focus on mitigating two contaminants--uranium and technetium. Specific technologies are recommended for testing at areas that may affect groundwater in the future, but a strategy to test other technologies is also presented.

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 340: Pesticide Release sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1998-12-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 340, the NTS Pesticide Release Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 340 is located at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites: 23-21-01, Area 23 Quonset Hut 800 Pesticide Release Ditch; 23-18-03, Area 23 Skid Huts Pesticide Storage; and 15-18-02, Area 15 Quonset Hut 15-11 Pesticide Storage. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each Corrective Action Site. The scope of this Corrective Action Decision Document consists of the following tasks: Develop corrective action objectives; Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; Develop corrective action alternatives; Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each Corrective Action Site.

  14. Closure Plan for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2008-09-01

    The Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the preliminary closure plan for the Area 5 RWMS at the NTS that was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (DOE, 2005a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure schedule, updated closure inventory, updated site and facility characterization data, the Title II engineering cover design, and the closure process for the 92-Acre Area of the RWMS. The format and content of this site-specific plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). This interim closure plan meets closure and post-closure monitoring requirements of the order DOE O 435.1, manual DOE M 435.1-1, Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 191, 40 CFR 265, Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) 444.743, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements as incorporated into NAC 444.8632. The Area 5 RWMS accepts primarily packaged low-level waste (LLW), low-level mixed waste (LLMW), and asbestiform low-level waste (ALLW) for disposal in excavated disposal cells.

  15. 2003 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program, Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2003 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site. Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semi-annually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halides (TOX), tritium, and major cations/anions. Results from all samples collected in 2003 were within established criteria. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated unit within the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site and confirm that any previous detections of TOC and TOX were false positives. Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevations. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year. Other information in the report includes a Cumulative Chronology for the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the current groundwater sampling procedure.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 139: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 139 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as 'Waste Disposal Sites' and consists of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit; CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris; CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit; CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches; CAS 09-23-01, Area 9 Gravel Gertie; and CAS 09-34-01, Underground Detection Station. Closure activities were conducted from December 2008 to April 2009 according to the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 139 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007b). The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Closure activities are summarized. CAU 139, 'Waste Disposal Sites,' consists of seven CASs in Areas 3, 4, 6, and 9 of the NTS. The closure alternatives included No Further Action, Clean Closure, and Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. This CR provides a summary of completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and confirmation that remediation goals were met. The following site closure activities were performed at CAU 139 as documented in this CR: (1) At CAS 03-35-01, Burn Pit, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (2) At CAS 04-08-02, Waste Disposal Site, an administrative UR was implemented. No postings or post-closure monitoring are required. (3) At CAS 04-99-01, Contaminated Surface Debris, soil and debris were removed and disposed as LLW, and debris was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. (4) At CAS 06-19-02, Waste Disposal Site/Burn Pit, no work was performed. (5) At CAS 06-19-03, Waste Disposal Trenches, a native soil cover was installed

  17. Site-specific seismic ground motion analyses for transportation infrastructure in the New Madrid seismic zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Generic, code-based design procedures cannot account for the anticipated short-period attenuation and long-period amplification of earthquake ground motions in the deep, soft sediments of the Mississippi Embayment within the New Madrid Seismic Zone (...

  18. Life-Cycle Assessments of Selected NASA Ground-Based Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydnor, George Honeycutt

    2012-01-01

    In the past two years, two separate facility-specific life cycle assessments (LCAs) have been performed as summer student projects. The first project focused on 13 facilities managed by NASA s Aeronautics Test Program (ATP), an organization responsible for large, high-energy ground test facilities that accomplish the nation s most advanced aerospace research. A facility inventory was created for each facility, and the operational-phase carbon footprint and environmental impact were calculated. The largest impacts stemmed from electricity and natural gas used directly at the facility and to generate support processes such as compressed air and steam. However, in specialized facilities that use unique inputs like R-134a, R-14, jet fuels, or nitrogen gas, these sometimes had a considerable effect on the facility s overall environmental impact. The second LCA project was conducted on the NASA Ames Arc Jet Complex and also involved creating a facility inventory and calculating the carbon footprint and environmental impact. In addition, operational alternatives were analyzed for their effectiveness at reducing impact. Overall, the Arc Jet Complex impact is dominated by the natural-gas fired boiler producing steam on-site, but alternatives were provided that could reduce the impact of the boiler operation, some of which are already being implemented. The data and results provided by these LCA projects are beneficial to both the individual facilities and NASA as a whole; the results have already been used in a proposal to reduce carbon footprint at Ames Research Center. To help future life cycle projects, several lessons learned have been recommended as simple and effective infrastructure improvements to NASA, including better utility metering and data recording and standardization of modeling choices and methods. These studies also increased sensitivity to and appreciation for quantifying the impact of NASA s activities.

  19. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-11-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 398: Area 25 Spill Sites. CAU 398, located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996), and consists of the following 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (Figure 1): (1) CAS 25-44-01 , a fuel spill on soil that covers a concrete pad. The origins and use of the spill material are unknown, but the spill is suspected to be railroad bedding material. (2) CAS 25-44-02, a spill of liquid to the soil from leaking drums. (3) CAS 25-44-03, a spill of oil from two leaking drums onto a concrete pad and surrounding soil. (4) CAS 25-44-04, a spill from two tanks containing sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide used for a water demineralization process. (5) CAS 25-25-02, a fuel or oil spill from leaking drums that were removed in 1992. (6) CAS 25-25-03, an oil spill adjacent to a tipped-over drum. The source of the drum is not listed, although it is noted that the drum was removed in 1991. (7) CAS 25-25-04, an area on the north side of the Engine-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility, where oils and cooling fluids from metal machining operations were poured directly onto the ground. (8) CAS 25-25-05, an area of oil and/or hydraulic fluid spills beneath the heavy equipment once stored there. (9) CAS 25-25-06, an area of diesel fuel staining beneath two generators that have since been removed. (10) CAS 25-25-07, an area of hydraulic oil spills associated with a tunnel-boring machine abandoned inside X-Tunnel. (11) CAS 25-25-08, an area of hydraulic fluid spills associated with a tunnel-boring machine abandoned inside Y-Tunnel. (12) CAS 25-25-16, a diesel fuel spill from an above-ground storage tank located near Building 3320 at Engine Test Stand-1 (ETS-1) that was removed in 1998. (13) CAS 25-25-17, a hydraulic oil spill

  20. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS), conducted June 22 through July 10, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the NTS. The Survey covers all environment media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations and activities performed at the NTS, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by the Battelle Columbus Division under contract with DOE. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the NTS Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the NTS Survey. 165 refs., 42 figs., 52 tabs.

  1. Site characterization and monitoring data from Area 5 Pilot Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-02-01

    The Special Projects Section (SPS) of Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc. (REECO) is responsible for characterizing the subsurface geology and hydrology of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Division, Waste Operations Branch. The three Pilot Wells that comprise the Pilot Well Project are an important part of the Area 5 Site Characterization Program designed to determine the suitability of the Area 5 RWMS for disposal of low-level waste (LLW), mixed waste (MW), and transuranic waste (TRU). The primary purpose of the Pilot Well Project is two-fold: first, to characterize important water quality and hydrologic properties of the uppermost aquifer; and second, to characterize the lithologic, stratigraphic, and hydrologic conditions which influence infiltration, redistribution, and percolation, and chemical transport through the thick vadose zone in the vicinity of the Area 5 RWMS. This report describes Pilot Well drilling and coring, geophysical logging, instrumentation and stemming, laboratory testing, and in situ testing and monitoring activities.

  2. Evaluation of health risks associated with proposed ground water standards at selected inactive uranium mill-tailings sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, L.D.; Medeiros, W.H.; Meinhold, A.; Morris, S.C.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Nagy, J.; Lackey, K.

    1989-04-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed ground water standards applicable to all inactive uranium mill-tailings sites. The proposed standards include maximum concentration limits (MCL) for currently regulated drinking water contaminants, as well as the addition of standards for molybdenum, uranium, nitrate, and radium-226 plus radium-228. The proposed standards define the point of compliance to be everywhere downgradient of the tailings pile, and require ground water remediation to drinking water standards if MCLs are exceeded. This document presents a preliminary description of the Phase 2 efforts. The potential risks and hazards at Gunnison, Colorado and Lakeview, Oregon were estimated to demonstrate the need for a risk assessment and the usefulness of a cost-benefit approach in setting supplemental standards and determining the need for and level of restoration at UMTRA sites. 8 refs., 12 tabs.

  3. Radionuclide migration studies at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, J.L.

    1989-12-01

    The United States government routinely tests nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in southern Nevada. A significant amount of radioactive material exists underground at the NTS with no containers or engineered barriers to inhibit its subsequent migration. The Department of Energy has sponsored for many years a research program on radionuclide movement in the geologic media at this location. Goals of this research program are to measure the extent of movement of radionuclides away from underground explosion sites and to determine the mechanisms by which such movement occurs. This program has acquired significance in another aspect of nuclear waste management because of the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain at the NTS is being intensively studied as the possible site for a mined repository for high level nuclear waste. The NTS provides a unique setting for field studies concerning radionuclide migration; there is the potential for greatly increasing our knowledge of the behavior of radioactive materials in volcanogenic media. This review summarizes some of the significant findings made under this research program at the NTS and identifies reports in which the details of the research may be found. 36 refs., 4 figs.

  4. The Effect of Tropopause Seeing on Solar Telescope Site Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Jacques M.

    2017-08-01

    The site testing for and seeing correction planning of the 4-m solar telescopes has failed to take into account the significant amount of seeing at tropopause levels (10-20 km altitude).The worst aspect of that seeing layer is its small isoplanatic patch size which at low solar elevations can be significantly less than 1 arcsec. The CLEAR/ATST/DKIST SDIMM seeing monitor is insensitive to this type of seeing. A correction for this missed seeing significantly decreases the measured seeing qualities for the sites tested especially in the early morning and late afternoon. It clearly shows the lake site to be superior with mid-day observations much to be preferred. The small tropopause isoplanatic patch size values also complicate the implementation of the solar MCAO systems aimed at large field-of-view sun imaging. Currently planned systems only correct for lower-layer seeing for which the isoplanatic patch size is about one arc minute. To fully achieve the diffraction limit of the 4-meter class (0.025 arcsec at 500 nm), over a large enough field-of-view to be of scientific interest, complicated Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics systems will be needed.

  5. Monitoring ground deformation of cultural heritage sites using UAVs and geodetic techniques: the case study of Choirokoitia, JPI PROTHEGO project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Danezis, Chris; Mendonidis, Evangelos; Lymperopoulou, Efstathia

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the integrated methods using UAVs and geodetic techniques to monitor ground deformation within the Choirokoitia UNESCO World Heritage Site in Cyprus. The Neolithic settlement of Choirokoitia, occupied from the 7th to the 4th millennium B.C., is one of the most important prehistoric sites in the eastern Mediterranean. The study is conducted under the PROTHEGO (PROTection of European Cultural HEritage from GeO-hazards) project, which is a collaborative research project funded in the framework of the Joint Programming Initiative on Cultural Heritage and Global Change (JPICH) - Heritage Plus in 2015-2018 (www.prothego.eu) and through the Cyprus Research Promotion Foundation. PROTHEGO aims to make an innovative contribution towards the analysis of geo-hazards in areas of cultural heritage, and uses novel space technology based on radar interferometry to retrieve information on ground stability and motion in the 400+ UNESCO's World Heritage List monuments and sites of Europe. The field measurements collected at the Choirokoitia site will be later compared with SAR data to verify micro-movements in the area to monitor potential geo-hazards. The site is located on a steep hill, which makes it vulnerable to rock falls and landslides.

  6. Site amplification and strong ground motion of the 2007 Noto Hanto, Japan, earthquake estimated from aftershock observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimi, M.; Yoshida, K.

    2008-03-01

    Site amplifications in the lowlands most affected by the 2007 Noto Hanto earthquake, Monzen, Anamizu, and Wajima, are examined using aftershock records observed at eight temporary seismic stations installed just after the mainshock and at two K-NET stations. The predominant frequencies of spectral ratios at alluvium sites in Anamizu and Wajima are approximately 1 Hz. Site amplifications at the alluvium sites are successfully reproduced from 1-D response analysis, except for that at ISK005 where 2-D or higher amplification effects are inferred to play a significant role. A source model composed of two asperities reproduces the ground motions of the mainshock using the empirical Green's function method. The seismic moments of the asperities are 3.76×1018 N m and 2.21×1018 N m, respectively. Peak ground velocity (PGV) at alluvium sites during the mainshock are estimated to be 70-110 cm/s for Monzen, 50-110 cm/s for Anamizu, and 60-70 cm/s for Wajima.

  7. Sensitivity of ground motion parameters to local site effects for areas characterised by a thick buried low-velocity layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, Daniela; Galea, Pauline; D'Amico, Sebastiano; Paolucci, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that earthquake damage at a particular site depends on the source, the path that the waves travel through and the local geology. The latter is capable of amplifying and changing the frequency content of the incoming seismic waves. In regions of sparse or no strong ground motion records, like Malta (Central Mediterranean), ground motion simulations are used to obtain parameters for purposes of seismic design and analysis. As an input to ground motion simulations, amplification functions related to the shallow subsurface are required. Shear-wave velocity profiles of several sites on the Maltese islands were obtained using the Horizontal-to-Vertical Spectral Ratio (H/V), the Extended Spatial Auto-Correlation (ESAC) technique and the Genetic Algorithm. The sites chosen were all characterised by a layer of Blue Clay, which can be up to 75 m thick, underlying the Upper Coralline Limestone, a fossiliferous coarse grained limestone. This situation gives rise to a velocity inversion. Available borehole data generally extends down till the top of the Blue Clay layer therefore the only way to check the validity of the modelled shear-wave velocity profile is through the thickness of the topmost layer. Surface wave methods are characterised by uncertainties related to the measurements and the model used for interpretation. Moreover the inversion procedure is also highly non-unique. Such uncertainties are not commonly included in site response analysis. Yet, the propagation of uncertainties from the extracted dispersion curves to inversion solutions can lead to significant differences in the simulations (Boaga et al., 2011). In this study, a series of sensitivity analyses will be presented with the aim of better identifying those stratigraphic properties which can perturb the ground motion simulation results. The stochastic one-dimensional site response analysis algorithm, Extended Source Simulation (EXSIM; Motazedian and Atkinson, 2005), was used to perform

  8. A STUDY OF LIFT-OFF TEST METHOD OF GROUND ANCHORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yuu; Sakai, Toshinori

    Ground anchors (hereinafter anchors) are important to do the maintenance after construction. Residual tensile strength of anchors are generally confirmed by lift-off test that pulls an anchor using a hydraulic jack. However, the lift-off test has not been established a proper testing method. Therefore, it may not have been proper maintenance from measurement variability. In this paper, we conducted various lift-off test at cut slope of the expressway, and made proposals on proper lift-off test method.

  9. Glaciation and regional ground-water flow in the Fennoscandian Shield: Site 94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Alden M.; Voss, Clifford I.; Neuzil, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    Results from a regional-scale ground-water flow model of the Fennoscandian shield suggest that ground-water flow is strongly affected by surface conditions associated with climatic change and glaciation. The model was used to run a series of numerical simulations of variable-density ground-water flow in a 1500-km-long and approximately 10-km-deep cross-section that passes through southern Sweden. Ground-water flow and shield brine transport in the cross-sectional model are controlled by an assumed time evolution of surface conditions over the next 140 ka. Simulations show that, under periglacial conditions, permafrost may locally or extensively impede the free recharge or discharge of ground water. Below cold-based glacial ice, no recharge or discharge of ground water occurs. Both of these conditions result in the settling of shield brine and consequent freshening of near-surface water in areas of natural discharge blocked by permafrost. The presence of warm-based ice with basal melting creates a potential for ground-water recharge rates much larger than under present, ice-free conditions. Recharging basal meltwater can reach depths of a few kilometers in a few thousand years. The vast majority of recharged water is accommodated through storage in the volume of bedrock below the local area of recharge; regional (lateral) redistribution of recharged water by subsurface flow is minor over the duration of a glacial advance (~10 ka). During glacial retreat, the weight of the ice overlying a given surface location decreases, and significant upward flow of ground water may occur below the ice sheet due to pressure release, despite the continued potential for recharge of basal meltwater. Excess meltwater must exit from below the glacier through subglacial cavities and channels. Subsurface penetration of meltwater during glacial advance and up-flow during glacial retreat are greatest if the loading efficiency of the shield rock is low. The maximum rate of ground

  10. Ground vibration test results for Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST)/Aeroelastic Research Wing (ARW-1R) aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, T. H.; Gilyard, G. B.

    1986-01-01

    The drones for aerodynamic and structural testing (DAST) project was designed to control flutter actively at high subsonic speeds. Accurate knowledge of the structural model was critical for the successful design of the control system. A ground vibration test was conducted on the DAST vehicle to determine the structural model characteristics. This report presents and discusses the vibration and test equipment, the test setup and procedures, and the antisymmetric and symmetric mode shape results. The modal characteristics were subsequently used to update the structural model employed in the control law design process.

  11. Site Guidelines for a Deep Borehole Field Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassani, D.; Kuhlman, K. L.; Freeze, G. A.; MacKinnon, R. J.; Perry, F.

    2015-12-01

    The US DOE Office of Nuclear Energy Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign (UFDC) is initiating a Deep Borehole Field Test (DBFT), without use of any radioactive waste, to evaluate the geoscience of the approach and technical capabilities for implementation. DOE has identified Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) as the Technical Lead for the UFDC DBFT Project, with the role of supporting DOE in (i) developing the overall DBFT Project Plan, (ii) management and integration of all DBFT Project activities, and (iii) providing Project technical guidance to DOE, other DOE National Laboratories, and university partners. The DBFT includes drilling one Characterization Borehole (CB-8.5" diameter), followed by an optional Field Test Borehole (FTB), to a depth of about 5,000 m (16,400 feet) into crystalline basement rock in a geologically stable continental location. The DBFT CB will be drilled and completed to facilitate downhole scientific testing and analyses. If site conditions are found to be favorable, DOE may drill the larger-diameter (17") FTB to facilitate proof-of-concept of handling, emplacement, and retrieval activities using surrogate waste containers. Guidelines for favorable DBFT site geohydrochemical and geomechanical conditions will be discussed and status of the DBFT Project will be provided. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. SAND2015-6426A.

  12. Vessel grounding in entrance channels: case studies and physical model tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tulsi, K

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available off the channel slope and back into the entrance channel. The tests were conducted at the Coastal & Hydraulics Laboratory, of the CSIR in Stellenbosch, South Africa. Simulated vessel grounding was modelled in a hydraulic basin at a scale of 1:100. Over...

  13. The ACE-DTU Planar Near-Field Ground Penetrating Radar Antenna Test Facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenler-Eriksen, Hans-Rudolph; Meincke, Peter

    2004-01-01

    The ACE-DTU planar near-field ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna test facility is used to measure the plane-wave transmitting spectrum of a GPR loop antenna close to the air-soil interface by means of a probe buried in soil. Probe correction is implemented using knowledge about the complex...

  14. Background-Oriented Schlieren Applications in NASA Glenn Research Center's Ground Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Michelle M.; Woike, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    This is a presentation for an invited session at the 2015 SciTech Conference 53rd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting. The presentation covers the recent applications of Background-Oriented Schlieren in NASA Glenn Research Center's ground test facilities, such as the 8x6 SWT, open jet rig, and AAPL.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 346: Areas 8, 10 Housekeeping Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2003-08-01

    This Closure Report documents the closure activities conducted for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 346: Areas 8, 10 Housekeeping Sites. CAU 346 is listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and consists of the following 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 8 and 10 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): (1) CAS 08-22-04: Drums (2); (2) CAS 08-22-11: Drums; Bucket; (3) CAS 08-24-02: Battery; (4) CAS 10-14-01: Transformer; (5) CAS 10-22-06: Drum (Gas Block); (6) CAS 10-22-10: Drum (Gas Block); (7) CAS 10-22-12: Drum (Gas Block); (8) CAS 10-22-13: Drum (Gas Block); (9) CAS 10-22-16: Drum (Gas Block); (10) CAS 10-22-22: Drum; (11) CAS 10-22-25: Drum; (12) CAS 10-22-36: Paint Can; (13) CAS 10-22-37: Gas Block; and (14) CAS 10-24-11: Battery. Closure activities consisted of closing each CAS by removing debris and/or material, disposing of the generated waste, and verifying that each site was clean-closed by visual inspection and/or laboratory analysis of soil verification samples.

  16. Characterization of Vacuum Facility Background Gas Through Simulation and Considerations for Electric Propulsion Ground Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, John T.; Burt, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    The background gas in a vacuum facility for electric propulsion ground testing is examined in detail through a series of cold flow simulations using a direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code. The focus here is on the background gas itself, its structure and characteristics, rather than assessing its interaction and impact on thruster operation. The background gas, which is often incorrectly characterized as uniform, is found to have a notable velocity within a test facility. The gas velocity has an impact on the proper measurement of pressure and the calculation of ingestion flux to a thruster. There are also considerations for best practices for tests that involve the introduction of supplemental gas flows to artificially increase the background pressure. All of these effects need to be accounted for to properly characterize the operation of electric propulsion thrusters across different ground test vacuum facilities.

  17. Ground based 2DoF test for LISA and LISA PF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanga, R [Dip. Astronomia e Scienza dello Spazio, Universita di Firenze, Largo E. Fermi 2, 50100, Florence (Italy); INFN Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy); Marconi, L [INFN Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy); Dip. di Fisica, Universita di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, 38050 Povo (Tunisia) (Italy); Bagni, G [INFN Firenze, Via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Finland) (Italy); Istituto di Fisica, Universita di Urbino, Via Santa Chiara 27, 61029 Urbino (Italy)] (and others)

    2006-03-02

    On-ground tests are required to study the couplings between LISA test masses and the spacecraft that host them. Very interesting and useful results have already been obtained with a 1 DoF torsion pendulum. In order to study couplings that might act between two or more degrees of freedom in measuring the position and acting on the position of each test mass, a many degrees of freedom facility is needed. Here we present a new 2 DoF double torsion pendulum that will be used to test LISA Gravitational Reference Sensor (GRS) on the ground. The facility will be located at INFN Laboratory at Gran Sasso (LNGS), in order to reduce the local ambient noise that limits the sensitivity of the system.

  18. Dynamic load testing on the bearing capacity of prestressed tubular concrete piles in soft ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuang; Liu, Songyu

    2008-11-01

    Dynamic load testing (DLT) is a high strain test method for assessing pile performance. The shaft capacity of a driven PTC (prestressed tubular concrete) pile in marine soft ground will vary with time after installation. The DLT method has been successfully transferred to the testing of prestressed pipe piles in marine soft clay of Lianyungang area in China. DLT is investigated to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of single pile at different period after pile installation. The ultimate bearing capacity of single pile was founded to increase more than 70% during the inventing 3 months, which demonstrate the time effect of rigid pile bearing capacity in marine soft ground. Furthermore, the skin friction and axial force along the pile shaft are presented as well, which present the load transfer mechanism of pipe pile in soft clay. It shows the economy and efficiency of DLT method compared to static load testing method.

  19. Field Guide for Testing Existing Photovoltaic Systems for Ground Faults and Installing Equipment to Mitigate Fire Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, William [Brooks Engineering, Vacaville, CA (United States); Basso, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Coddington, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Ground faults and arc faults are the two most common reasons for fires in photovoltaic (PV) arrays and methods exist that can mitigate the hazards. This report provides field procedures for testing PV arrays for ground faults, and for implementing high resolution ground fault and arc fault detectors in existing and new PV system designs.

  20. Development of a sine-dwell ground vibration test (GVT) system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available Vibration Test (GVT) System Presented at CSIR Research and Innovation Conference: 27 - 28 February 2006 DPSS Mr Louw van Zyl Mr Erik Wegman 27 February 2006 Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www.csir.co.za Agenda • Introduction Why ground... stream_source_info VanZyl_2006.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 9765 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name VanZyl_2006.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Development of a Sine-Dwell Ground...

  1. Test of ground-based lidar instrument WLS7-159

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report presents the result of the test performed for the given Windcube at DTU’s test site for large wind turbine at Høvsøre, Denmark. The test aims at establishing a relation between the reference wind measurements and corresponding lidar wind indications, and evaluating a set of quality...

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 104: Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-27

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 104, Area 7 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 104 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. CAU 104 consists of the following 15 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Area 7 of the Nevada National Security Site: · CAS 07-23-03, Atmospheric Test Site T-7C · CAS 07-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site T7-1 · CAS 07-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site · CAS 07-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site T7-5a · CAS 07-23-07, Atmospheric Test Site - Dog (T-S) · CAS 07-23-08, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (T-S) · CAS 07-23-09, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (T-S) · CAS 07-23-10, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie · CAS 07-23-11, Atmospheric Test Site - Dixie · CAS 07-23-12, Atmospheric Test Site - Charlie (Bus) · CAS 07-23-13, Atmospheric Test Site - Baker (Buster) · CAS 07-23-14, Atmospheric Test Site - Ruth · CAS 07-23-15, Atmospheric Test Site T7-4 · CAS 07-23-16, Atmospheric Test Site B7-b · CAS 07-23-17, Atmospheric Test Site - Climax Closure activities began in October 2012 and were completed in April 2013. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for CAU 104. The corrective actions included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities generated sanitary waste, mixed waste, and recyclable material. Some wastes exceeded land disposal limits and required treatment prior to disposal. Other wastes met land disposal restrictions and were disposed in appropriate onsite landfills. The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office

  3. The 'Guetsch' Alpine wind power test site; Alpine Test Site Guetsch. Handbuch und Fachtagung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattin, R.

    2008-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the influence of icing-up on the operation of wind turbines in mountainous areas. Within the Swiss research project 'Alpine Test Site Guetsch', extensive icing studies were carried out at the Guetsch site near Andermatt, Switzerland. This document deals with the following subjects: Information about ice formation on structures, in particular with respect to wind turbines, standards and international research activities, wind measurements under icing-up conditions, estimation of the frequency of icing-up conditions, effects of icing-up on wind turbines, ice detection, measures available for de-icing and anti-icing as well as ice throw. A list of factors to be taken into account by the planners and operators of wind turbines in alpine environments is presented.

  4. Closure Strategy Nevada Test Site Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-03-01

    This paper presents an overview of the strategy for closure of part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is about 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). The Area 5 RWMS is in the northern part of Frenchman Flat, approximately 14 miles north of Mercury. The Area 5 RWMS encompasses 732 acres subdivided into quadrants, and is bounded by a 1,000-foot (ft)-wide buffer zone. The northwest and southwest quadrants have not been developed. The northeast and southeast quadrants have been used for disposal of unclassified low-level radioactive waste (LLW) and indefinite storage of classified materials. This paper focuses on closure of the 38 waste disposal and classified material storage units within the southeast quadrant of the Area 5 RWMS, called the ''92-Acre Area''. The U.S Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) is currently planning to close the 92-Acre Area by 2011. Closure planning for this site must take into account the regulatory requirements for a diversity of waste streams, disposal and storage configurations, disposal history, and site conditions. For ease of discussion, the 92-Acre Area has been subdivided into six closure units defined by waste type, location, and similarity in regulatory requirements. Each of the closure units contains one or more waste disposal units; waste disposal units are also called waste disposal cells. The paper provides a brief background of the Area 5 RWMS, identifies key closure issues for the 92-Acre Area, recommends actions to address the issues, and provides the National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), schedule for closure.

  5. Ground-living spiders (Araneae at polluted sites in the Subarctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koponen, Seppo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spiders were studied around the Pechenganikel smelter combine, Kola Peninsula, north-western Russia. The average spider density was 6-fold greater and the density of Linyphiidae specimens 11.5-fold higher at slightly polluted sites, compared with heavily polluted sites. Altogether, 18 species from 10 families were found at heavily polluted sites, the theridiid Robertus scoticus clearly dominating (23.3 % of identifiable specimens, also Neon reticulatus (9.6 %, Thanatus formicinus (9.6 % and Xysticus audax (8.2 % were abundant. The most numerous among 58 species found at slightly polluted sites were Tapinocyba pallens (18.5 %, Robertus scoticus (13.7 %, Maso sundevalli (9.5 % and Alopecosa aculeata (8.2 %. The family Linyphiidae dominated at slightly polluted sites, 64 % of species and 60 % of individuals; compared with heavily polluted sites, 23 % and 38 % respectively.

  6. Ground-based self-gravity tests for LISA Pathfinder and LISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trenkel, C; Warren, C; Wealthy, D, E-mail: christian.trenkel@astrium.eads.ne [Astrium Ltd, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage SG1 2AS (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-01

    Gravitational coupling between the free-falling test masses and the surrounding spacecraft is one of the dominant noise sources for both LISA Pathfinder and LISA. At present, there are no plans to verify any of the self-gravity requirements by test, on the ground. Here, we explore the possibilities of conducting such tests, using a customised torsion balance. We discuss the main sources of systematic and statistical uncertainty present in such a set-up. Our preliminary assessment indicates that the sensitivity is sufficient to carry out meaningful self-gravity tests.

  7. Live Site Demonstration Munitions Response Program Site UXO 01 at Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center (MCAGCC) Twentynine Palms, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    26 4.2 Site Geology ...harmless metallic objects or geology . Field experience indicates that often in excess of 90% of objects excavated during the course of a MR are found...cr ea se s d ep th o f d et ec tio n, al th ou gh la rg e w he el s a llo w fo r ea sy c le ar an ce o f m os t g ro un d ob st ru ct io ns

  8. Calendar Year 2004 annual site environmental report : Tonopah Test Range, Nevada & Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Amber L.; Wagner, Katrina; Goering, Teresa Lynn; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2005-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2004. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004b).

  9. Laboratory and On-Site Tests for Rapid Runway Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Leonelli

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The attention to rapid pavement repair has grown fast in recent decades: this topic is strategic for the airport management process for civil purposes and peacekeeping missions. This work presents the results of laboratory and on-site tests for rapid runway repair, in order to analyse and compare technical and mechanical performances of 12 different materials currently used in airport. The study focuses on site repairs, a technique adopted most frequently than repairs with modular elements. After describing mechanical and physical properties of the examined materials (2 bituminous emulsions, 5 cement mortars, 4 cold bituminous mixtures and 1 expanding resin, the study presents the results of carried out mechanical tests. The results demonstrate that the best performing material is a one-component fast setting and hardening cement mortar with graded aggregates. This material allows the runway reopening 6 h after the work. A cold bituminous mixture (bicomponent premixed cold asphalt with water as catalyst and the ordinary cement concrete allow the reopening to traffic after 18 h, but both ensure a lower service life (1000 coverages than the cement mortar (10,000 coverages. The obtained results include important information both laboratory level and field, and they could be used by airport management bodies and road agencies when scheduling and evaluating pavement repairs.

  10. Ground ice at the Phoenix Landing Site: Stability state and origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Michael T.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Sizemore, Hanna G.; Searls, Mindi L.; Blaney, Diana L.; Cull, Selby; Hecht, Michael H.; Heet, Tabatha L.; Keller, H. Uwe; Lemmon, Mark T.; Markiewicz, Wojciech J.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Pike, W. Thomas; Zent, Aaron P.

    2009-12-01

    A primary objective of the Phoenix mission was to examine the characteristics of high latitude ground ice on Mars. We report observations of ground ice, its depth distribution and stability characteristics, and examine its origins and history. High latitude ground ice was explored through a dozen trench complexes and landing thruster pits, over a range of polygon morphological provinces. Shallow ground ice was found to be abundant under a layer of relatively loose ice-free soil with a mean depth of 4.6 cm, which varied by more than 10x from trench to trench. These variations can be attributed mainly to slope effects and thermal inertia variations in the overburden soil affecting ground temperatures. The presence of ice at this depth is consistent with vapor-diffusive equilibrium with respect to a mean atmospheric water content of 3.4 × 1019 m-3, consistent with the present-day climate. Significant ice heterogeneity was observed, with two major forms: ice-cemented soil and relatively pure light toned ice. Ice-cemented soils, which comprised about 90% of the icy material exposed by trenching, are best explained as vapor deposited pore ice in a matrix supported porous soil. Light toned ice deposits represent a minority of the subsurface and are thought to consist of relatively thin near surface deposits. The origin of these relatively pure ice deposits appears most consistent with the formation of excess ice by soil ice segregation, such as would occur by thin film migration and the formation of ice lenses, needle ice, or similar ice structures.

  11. Advanced composite rudders for DC-10 aircraft: Design, manufacturing, and ground tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, G. M.; Purdy, D. M.; Cominsky, A.; Hawley, A. V.; Amason, M. P.; Kung, J. T.; Palmer, R. J.; Purves, N. B.; Marra, P. J.; Hancock, G. R.

    1976-01-01

    Design synthesis, tooling and process development, manufacturing, and ground testing of a graphite epoxy rudder for the DC-10 commercial transport are discussed. The composite structure was fabricated using a unique processing method in which the thermal expansion characteristics of rubber tooling mandrels were used to generate curing pressures during an oven cure cycle. The ground test program resulted in certification of the rudder for passenger-carrying flights. Results of the structural and environmental tests are interpreted and detailed development of the rubber tooling and manufacturing process is described. Processing, tooling, and manufacturing problems encountered during fabrication of four development rudders and ten flight-service rudders are discussed and the results of corrective actions are described. Non-recurring and recurring manufacturing labor man-hours are tabulated at the detailed operation level. A weight reduction of 13.58 kg (33 percent) was attained in the composite rudder.

  12. Effluent Containment System for space thermal nuclear propulsion ground test facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This report presents the research and development study work performed for the Space Reactor Power System Division of the U.S. Department of Energy on an innovative ECS that would be used during ground testing of a space nuclear thermal rocket engine. A significant portion of the ground test facilities for a space nuclear thermal propulsion engine are the effluent treatment and containment systems. The proposed ECS configuration developed recycles all engine coolant media and does not impact the environment by venting radioactive material. All coolant media, hydrogen and water, are collected, treated for removal of radioactive particulates, and recycled for use in subsequent tests until the end of the facility life. Radioactive materials removed by the treatment systems are recovered, stored for decay of short-lived isotopes, or packaged for disposal as waste. At the end of the useful life, the facility will be decontaminated and dismantled for disposal.

  13. Guidelines for Coding and Entering Ground-Water Data into the Ground-Water Site Inventory Data Base, Version 4.6, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lane, R. C

    2006-01-01

    ... (WAWSC) Ground-Water Site Inventory (GWSI) database. Some definitions, standards, and practices in this document vary from those in the National Water Information System (NWIS) User's Manual (U.S...

  14. Analysis of ER-12-3 FY 2005 Hydrologic Testing, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bill Fryer

    2006-07-01

    This report documents the analysis of data collected for ER-12-3 during the fiscal year (FY) 2005 Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain well development and hydraulic testing program (herein referred to as the ''testing program''). Well ER-12-3 was constructed and tested as a part of the Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 99, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain, Phase I drilling program during FY 2005. These activities were conducted on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. As shown on Figure 1-1, ER-12-3 is located in central Rainier Mesa, in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Figure 1-2 shows the well location in relation to the tunnels under Rainier Mesa. The well was drilled to a total depth (TD) of 4,908 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs) (surface elevation 7,390.8 ft above mean sea level [amsl]) in the area of several tunnels mined into Rainier Mesa that were used historically for nuclear testing (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The closest nuclear test to the well location was YUBA (U-12b.10), conducted in the U-12b Tunnel approximately 1,529 ft northeast of the well site. The YUBA test working point elevation was located at approximately 6,642 ft amsl. The YUBA test had an announced yield of 3.1 kilotons (kt) (SNJV, 2006b). The purpose of this hydrogeologic investigation well is to evaluate the deep Tertiary volcanic section below the tunnel level, which is above the regional water table, and to provide information on the section of the lower carbonate aquifer-thrust plate (LCA3) located below the Tertiary volcanic section (SNJV, 2005b). Details on the drilling and completion program are presented in the ''Completion Report for Well ER-12-3 Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa - Shoshone Mountain'' (NNSA/NSO, 2006). Development and hydraulic testing of ER-12-3 took place between June 3 and July 22, 2005. The

  15. An equivalent ground thermal test method for single-phase fluid loop space radiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwen Ning

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermal vacuum test is widely used for the ground validation of spacecraft thermal control system. However, the conduction and convection can be simulated in normal ground pressure environment completely. By the employment of pumped fluid loops’ thermal control technology on spacecraft, conduction and convection become the main heat transfer behavior between radiator and inside cabin. As long as the heat transfer behavior between radiator and outer space can be equivalently simulated in normal pressure, the thermal vacuum test can be substituted by the normal ground pressure thermal test. In this paper, an equivalent normal pressure thermal test method for the spacecraft single-phase fluid loop radiator is proposed. The heat radiation between radiator and outer space has been equivalently simulated by combination of a group of refrigerators and thermal electrical cooler (TEC array. By adjusting the heat rejection of each device, the relationship between heat flux and surface temperature of the radiator can be maintained. To verify this method, a validating system has been built up and the experiments have been carried out. The results indicate that the proposed equivalent ground thermal test method can simulate the heat rejection performance of radiator correctly and the temperature error between in-orbit theory value and experiment result of the radiator is less than 0.5 °C, except for the equipment startup period. This provides a potential method for the thermal test of space systems especially for extra-large spacecraft which employs single-phase fluid loop radiator as thermal control approach.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 536 is located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 536 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Area 3 Release Site, and comprises a single Corrective Action Site (CAS): {sm_bullet} CAS 03-44-02, Steam Jenny Discharge The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CAS 03-44-02 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)- and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-impacted soil, soil impacted with plutonium (Pu)-239, and concrete pad debris. CAU 536 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 536 Corrective Action Plan (CAP), with minor deviations as approved by NDEP. The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 536 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 536 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 1,000 cubic yards (yd3) of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH- and PAH-impacted soil and debris, approximately 8 yd3 of Pu-239-impacted soil, and approximately 100 yd3 of concrete debris were generated, managed, and disposed of appropriately. Additionally, a previously uncharacterized, buried drum was excavated, removed, and disposed of as hydrocarbon waste as a best management practice. Waste minimization techniques, such as the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure

  17. Site Specific Ground Motion Modeling and Seismic Response Analysis for Microzonation of Baku, Azerbaijan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babayev, Gulam; Telesca, Luciano

    2016-12-01

    We investigated ground response for Baku (Azerbaijan) from two earthquakes of magnitude M6.3 occurred in Caspian Sea (characterized as a near event) and M7.5 in Shamakhi (characterized as a remote extreme event). S-wave velocity with the average shear wave velocity over the topmost 30 m of soil is obtained by experimental method from the VP values measured for the soils. The downtown part of Baku city is characterized by low VS30 values (< 250 m/s), related to sand, water-saturated sand, gravel-pebble, and limestone with clay. High surface PGA of 240 gal for the M7.5 event and of about 190 gal for the M6.3 event, and hence a high ground motion amplification, is observed in the shoreline area, through downtown, in the north-west, and in the east parts of Baku city with soft clays, loamy sands, gravel, sediments.

  18. Optical ground station site diversity for Deep Space Optical Communications the Mars Telecom Orbiter optical link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.; Parvin, B.; Fugate, R.; Kervin, P.; Zingales, S.

    2003-01-01

    Future NASA deep space missions will fly advanced high resolution imaging instruments that will require high bandwidth links to return the huge data volumes generated by these instruments. Optical communications is a key technology for returning these large data volumes from deep space probes. Yet to cost effectively realize the high bandwidth potential of the optical link will require deployment of ground receivers in diverse locations to provide high link availability. A recent analysis of GOES weather satellite data showed that a network of ground stations located in Hawaii and the Southwest continental US can provide an average of 90% availability for the deep space optical link. JPL and AFRL are exploring the use of large telescopes in Hawaii, California, and Albuquerque to support the Mars Telesat laser communications demonstration. Designed to demonstrate multi-Mbps communications from Mars, the mission will investigate key operational strategies of future deep space optical communications network.

  19. JPL field measurements at the Finney County, Kansas, test site, October 1976: Meteorological variables, surface reflectivity, surface and subsurface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, A. B.; Schieldge, J.; Paley, H. N.

    1977-01-01

    Data collected at the Finney County, Kansas test site as part of the Joint Soil Moisture Experiment (JSME) are presented here, prior to analysis, to provide all JSME investigators with an immediate source of primary information. The ground-truth measurements were taken to verify and complement soil moisture data taken by microwave and infrared sensors during aircraft overflights. Measurements were made of meteorological variables (air speed, temperature, relative humidity, and rainfall), surface reflectivity, and temperatures at and below the surface.

  20. Modeling Above-Ground Biomass Across Multiple Circum-Arctic Tundra Sites Using High Spatial Resolution Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räsänen, Aleksi; Juutinen, Sari; Aurela, Mika; Virtanen, Tarmo

    2017-04-01

    Biomass is one of the central bio-geophysical variables in Earth observation for tracking plant productivity, and flow of carbon, nutrients, and water. Most of the satellite based biomass mapping exercises in Arctic environments have been performed by using rather coarse spatial resolution data, e.g. Landsat and AVHRR which have spatial resolutions of 30 m and >1 km, respectively. While the coarse resolution images have high temporal resolution, they are incapable of capturing the fragmented nature of tundra environment and fine-scale changes in vegetation and carbon exchange patterns. Very high spatial resolution (VHSR, spatial resolution 0.5-2 m) satellite images have the potential to detect environmental variables with an ecologically sound spatial resolution. The usage of VHSR images has, nevertheless, been modest so far in biomass modeling in the Arctic. Our objectives were to use VHSR for predicting above ground biomass in tundra landscapes, evaluate whether a common predictive model can be applied across circum-Arctic tundra and peatland sites having different types of vegetation, and produce knowledge on distribution of plant functional types (PFT) in these sites. Such model development is dependent on ground-based surveys of vegetation with the same spatial resolution and extent with the VHSR images. In this study, we conducted ground-based surveys of vegetation composition and biomass in four different arctic tundra or peatland areas located in Russia, Canada, and Finland. First, we sorted species into PFTs and developed PFT-specific models to predict biomass on the basis of non-destructive measurements (cover, height). Second, we predicted overall biomass on landscape scale by combinations of single bands and vegetation indices of very high resolution satellite images (QuickBird or WorldView-2 images of the eight sites). We compared area-specific empirical regression models and common models that were applied across all sites. We found that NDVI was

  1. Nevada Test Site Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year - 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Y.E.; Grossman, R.F.

    2000-10-01

    Prior to 1989, annual reports of environmental monitoring and assessment results for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were prepared in two separate parts. Onsite effluent monitoring and environmental monitoring results were reported in an onsite report prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Results of the Offsite Radiological Surveillance and Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring programs conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Laboratory (various names) in Las Vegas, Nevada, were reported separately by that Agency. Beginning with the 1989 Annual Site Environmental Report for the NTS, these two documents were combined into a single report to provide a more comprehensive annual documentation of the environmental protection activities conducted for the nuclear testing program and other nuclear and non-nuclear operations at the NTS. The two agencies have coordinated preparation of this eleventh combined onsite and offsite report through sharing of information on environmental surveillance and releases as well as meteorological, hydrological, and other supporting data used in dose-estimation calculations.

  2. Nevada Test Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Townsend, Y.E.

    1999-10-01

    Prior to 1989, annual reports of environmental monitoring and assessment results for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were prepared in two separate parts. Onsite effluent monitoring and environmental monitoring results were reported in an onsite report prepared by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV). Results of the Offsite Radiological Surveillance and Long-Term Hydrological Monitoring Programs conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Laboratory (various names) in Las Vegas, Nevada, were reported separately by that Agency. Beginning with the 1989 Annual Site Environmental Report for the NTS, these two documents were combined into a single report to provide a more comprehensive annual documentation of the environmental protection activities conducted for the nuclear testing program and other nuclear and non-nuclear operations at the NTS. The two agencies have coordinated preparation of this tenth combined onsite and offsite report through sharing of information on environmental surveillance and releases as well as meteorological, hydrological, and other supporting data used in dose-estimation calculations.

  3. Ground tests with active neutron instrumentation for the planetary science missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvak, M.L., E-mail: litvak@mx.iki.rssi.ru [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Mitrofanov, I.G.; Sanin, A.B. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Jun, I. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA USA (United States); Kozyrev, A.S. [Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Krylov, A.; Shvetsov, V.N.; Timoshenko, G.N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Starr, R. [Catholic University of America, Washington DC (United States); Zontikov, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-11

    We present results of experimental work performed with a spare flight model of the DAN/MSL instrument in a newly built ground test facility at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. This instrument was selected for the tests as a flight prototype of an active neutron spectrometer applicable for future landed missions to various solid solar system bodies. In our experiment we have fabricated simplified samples of planetary material and tested the capability of neutron activation methods to detect thin layers of water/water ice lying on top of planetary dry regolith or buried within a dry regolith at different depths.

  4. CLPX-Ground: Snow Measurements at the Local Scale Observation Site (LSOS), Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set presents snow depth, snow water equivalence (SWE), snow wetness data, and snow pit data from two pine sites and a small clearing at the Local Scale...

  5. CLPX-Ground: Sub-Canopy Energetics at the Local Scale Observation Site (LSOS), Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of solar and longwave radiation data from beneath two pine canopies (one uniform, one discontinuous) at the Local Scale Observation Site...

  6. CLPX-Ground: Snow Measurements at the Local Scale Observation Site (LSOS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set presents snow depth, snow water equivalence (SWE), snow wetness data, and snow pit data from two pine sites and a small clearing at the Local Scale...

  7. CLPX-Ground: Sub-Canopy Energetics at the Local Scale Observation Site (LSOS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of solar and longwave radiation data from beneath two pine canopies (one uniform, one discontinuous) at the Local Scale Observation Site...

  8. Hydrologic characterization of the Fry Canyon, Utah site prior to field demonstration of reactive chemical barriers to control radionuclide and trace-element contamination in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naftz, D.L.; Freethey, G.W. [Geological Survey, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Davis, J.A. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    The Fry Canyon Site in southeastern Utah has been selected as a long term demonstration site to assess the performance of selected reaction barrier technologies for the removal of uranium and other trace elements from ground water. Objectives include site characterization and evaluation of barrier technologies.

  9. Barometric pressure transient testing applications at the Nevada Test Site: formation permeability analysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, J.M.

    1984-12-01

    The report evaluates previous investigations of the gas permeability of the rock surrounding emplacement holes at the Nevada Test Site. The discussion sets the framework from which the present uncertainty in gas permeability can be overcome. The usefulness of the barometric pressure testing method has been established. Flow models were used to evaluate barometric pressure transients taken at NTS holes U2fe, U19ac and U20ai. 31 refs., 103 figs., 18 tabs. (ACR)

  10. Structural geology of the French Peak accommodation zone, Nevada Test Site, southwestern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The French Peak accommodation zone (FPAZ) forms an east-trending bedrock structural high in the Nevada Test Site region of southwestern Nevada that formed during Cenozoic Basin and Range extension. The zone separates areas of opposing directions of tilt and downthrow on faults in the Yucca Flat and Frenchman Flat areas. Paleomagnetic data show that rocks within the accommodation zone adjacent to Yucca Flat were not strongly affected by vertical-axis rotation and thus that the transverse strikes of fault and strata formed near their present orientation. Both normal- and oblique strike-slip faulting in the FPAZ largely occurred under a normal-fault stress regime, with least principal stress oriented west-northwest. The normal and sinistral faults in the Puddle Peka segment transfers extension between the Plutonium Valley normal fault zone and the Cane Spring sinistral fault. Recognition of sinistral shear across the Puddle Peak segment allows the Frenchman Flat basin to be interpreted as an asymmetric pull-apart basin developed between the FPAZ and a zone of east-northeast-striking faults to the south that include the Rock Valley fault. The FPAZ has the potential to influence ground-water flow in the region in several ways. Fracture density and thus probably fracture conductivity is high within the FPAZ due to the abundant fault splays present. Moreover,, fractures oriented transversely to the general southward flow of ground water through Yucca Flat area are significant and have potential to laterally divert ground water. Finally, the FPAZ forms a faulted structural high whose northern and southern flanks may permit intermixing of ground waters from different aquifer levels, namely the lower carbonate, welded tuff, and alluvial aquifers. 42 refs.

  11. 1998 Annual Site Environmental Report Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.K.; Fink, C.H.; Sanchez, R.V.

    1999-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1998) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance at TTR extends only to those areas where SNL activities are carried out. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990a).

  12. 1997 annual site environmental report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Todd; Duncan, Dianne (ed.); Forston, William; Sanchez, Rebecca (ed.)

    1998-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. Thes annual report (calendar year 1997) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management, cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act. In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance extends only to those activities performed by SNL or under its direction. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared as required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program.

  13. ERDA test facilities, East Mesa Test Site. Geothermal resource investigations, Imperial Valley, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Detailed specifications which must be complied with in the construction of the ERDA Test Facilities at the East Mesa Site for geothermal resource investigations in Imperial Valley, California are presented for use by prospective bidders for the construction contract. The principle construction work includes a 700 gpm cooling tower with its associated supports and equipment, pipelines from wells, electrical equipment, and all earthwork. (LCL)

  14. Ground-motion site effects from multimethod shear-wave velocity characterization at 16 seismograph stations deployed for aftershocks of the August 2011 Mineral, Virginia earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, William J.; Odum, Jackson K.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Williams, Robert A.; Angster, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    We characterize shear-wave velocity versus depth (Vs profile) at 16 portable seismograph sites through the epicentral region of the 2011 Mw 5.8 Mineral (Virginia, USA) earthquake to investigate ground-motion site effects in the area. We used a multimethod acquisition and analysis approach, where active-source horizontal shear (SH) wave reflection and refraction as well as active-source multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) and passive-source refraction microtremor (ReMi) Rayleigh wave dispersion were interpreted separately. The time-averaged shear-wave velocity to a depth of 30 m (Vs30), interpreted bedrock depth, and site resonant frequency were estimated from the best-fit Vs profile of each method at each location for analysis. Using the median Vs30 value (270–715 m/s) as representative of a given site, we estimate that all 16 sites are National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site class C or D. Based on a comparison of simplified mapped surface geology to median Vs30 at our sites, we do not see clear evidence for using surface geologic units as a proxy for Vs30 in the epicentral region, although this may primarily be because the units are similar in age (Paleozoic) and may have similar bulk seismic properties. We compare resonant frequencies calculated from ambient noise horizontal:vertical spectral ratios (HVSR) at available sites to predicted site frequencies (generally between 1.9 and 7.6 Hz) derived from the median bedrock depth and average Vs to bedrock. Robust linear regression of HVSR to both site frequency and Vs30 demonstrate moderate correlation to each, and thus both appear to be generally representative of site response in this region. Based on Kendall tau rank correlation testing, we find that Vs30 and the site frequency calculated from average Vs to median interpreted bedrock depth can both be considered reliable predictors of weak-motion site effects in the epicentral region.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 121: Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 121 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended February 2008) as Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites. CAU 121 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 12-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; (2) CAS 12-01-02, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (3) CAS 12-22-26, Drums; 2 AST's. CAU 121 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO and the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 121 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007). Field work took place from February through September 2008. Samples were collected to determine the path forward to close each site. Closure activities were completed as defined in the plan based on sample analytical results and site conditions. No contaminants of concern (COCs) were present at CAS 12-01-01; therefore, no further action was chosen as the corrective action alternative. As a best management practice (BMP), the empty aboveground storage tank (AST) was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. At CAS 12-01-02, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present above the preliminary action level (PAL) in the soil beneath the AST that could possibly have originated from the AST contents. Therefore, PCBs were considered COCs, and the site was clean closed by excavating and disposing of soil containing PCBs. Approximately 5 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) of soil were excavated and disposed as petroleum hydrocarbon PCB remediation waste, and approximately 13 yd3 of soil were excavated and disposed as PCB remediation waste. Cleanup samples were collected to confirm that the remaining soil did not contain PCBs above the PAL. Other compounds detected in the soil above PALs (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] and semi-volatile organic compounds [SVOCs

  16. Significance of rotating ground motions on nonlinear behavior of symmetric and asymmetric buildings in near fault sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Erol; ,

    2012-01-01

    Building codes in the U.S. require at least two horizontal ground motion components for three-dimensional (3D) response history analysis (RHA) of structures. For sites within 5 km of an active fault, these records should be rotated to fault-normal/fault-parallel (FN/FP) directions, and two RHA analyses should be performed separately (when FN and then FP are aligned with transverse direction of the structural axes). It is assumed that this approach will lead to two sets of responses that envelope the range of possible responses over all non-redundant rotation angles. This assumption is examined here using 3D computer models of a single-story structure having symmetric (that is, torsionally-stiff) and asymmetric (that is, torsionally flexible) layouts subjected to an ensemble of bi-directional near-fault strong ground motions with and without apparent velocity pulses. In this parametric study, the elastic vibration period of the structures is varied from 0.2 to 5 seconds, and yield strength reduction factors R is varied from a value that leads to linear-elastic design to 3 and 5. The influence that the rotation angle of the ground motion has on several engineering demand parameters (EDPs) is examined in linear-elastic and nonlinear-inelastic domains to form a benchmark for evaluating the use of the FN/FP directions as well as the maximum-direction (MD) ground motion, a new definition of horizontal ground motions for use in the seismic design of structures according to the 2009 NEHRP Provisions and Commentary.

  17. Residual radionuclide concentrations and estimated radiation doses at the former French nuclear weapons test sites in Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danesi, P.R. [Arsenal, Objekt 3/30, A-1030 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: piero@danesi.at; Moreno, J. [Institut fuer Radiochemie, Technishe Universitaet Muenchen, Walther-Meissner Str. 3., D-85748 Garching (Germany); Makarewicz, M.; Louvat, D. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-11-15

    In order to assess the level of residual radioactivity and evaluate the radiological conditions at the former French nuclear testing sites of Reggane and Taourirt Tan Afella in the south of Algeria, the International Atomic Energy Agency, at the request of the government of Algeria, conducted a field mission to the sites in 1999. At these locations, France conducted a number of nuclear tests in the early 1960s. At the ground zero locality of the ''Gerboise Blanche'' atmospheric test (Reggane) and in the vicinity of a tunnel where radioactive lava was ejected during a poorly contained explosion (Taourirt Tan Afella), non-negligible levels of radioactive material could still be measured. Using the information collected and using realistic potential exposure scenarios, radiation doses to potential occupants and visitors to the sites were estimated.

  18. Residual radionuclide concentrations and estimated radiation doses at the former French nuclear weapons test sites in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesi, P R; Moreno, J; Makarewicz, M; Louvat, D

    2008-11-01

    In order to assess the level of residual radioactivity and evaluate the radiological conditions at the former French nuclear testing sites of Reggane and Taourirt Tan Afella in the south of Algeria, the International Atomic Energy Agency, at the request of the government of Algeria, conducted a field mission to the sites in 1999. At these locations, France conducted a number of nuclear tests in the early 1960s. At the ground zero locality of the ''Gerboise Blanche'' atmospheric test (Reggane) and in the vicinity of a tunnel where radioactive lava was ejected during a poorly contained explosion (Taourirt Tan Afella), non-negligible levels of radioactive material could still be measured. Using the information collected and using realistic potential exposure scenarios, radiation doses to potential occupants and visitors to the sites were estimated.

  19. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J.I. [ed.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Bogen, K.T.; Daniels, J.I.; Layton, D.W.; Straume, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Andricevic, R.; Jacobson, R.L. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Water Resources Center; Meinhold, A.F.; Holtzman, S.; Morris, S.C.; Hamilton, L.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in southwestern Nevada, about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of the city of Las Vegas. A series of tests was conducted in the late 1950s and early 1960s at or near the NTS to study issues involving plutonium-bearing devices. These tests resulted in the dispersal of about 5 TBq of {sup 239,24O}Pu on the surficial soils at the test locations. Additionally, underground tests of nuclear weapons devices have been conducted at the NTS since late 1962; ground water beneath the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides produced by these tests. These two important problems have been selected for assessment. Regarding the plutonium contamination, because the residual {sup 239}Pu decays slowly (half-life of 24,110 y), these sites could represent a long-term hazard if they are not remediated and if institutional controls are lost. To investigate the magnitude of the potential health risks for this no-remediation case, three basic exposure scenarios were defined that could bring individuals in contact with {sup 239,24O}Pu at the sites: (1) a resident living in a subdivision, (2) a resident farmer, and (3) a worker at a commercial facility -- all located at a test site. The predicted cancer risks for the resident farmer were more than a factor of three times higher than the suburban resident at the median risk level, and about a factor of ten greater than the reference worker at a commercial facility. At 100 y from the present, the 5, 50, and 95th percentile risks for the resident farmer at the most contaminated site were 4 x 10{sup {minus}6}, 6 x 10{sup {minus}5}, and 5 x 10{sup {minus}4}, respectively. For the assessment of Pu in surface soil, the principal sources of uncertainty in the estimated risks were population mobility, the relationship between indoor and outdoor contaminant levels, and the dose and risk factors for bone, liver, and lung.

  20. Pilot study risk assessment for selected problems at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, J.I. (ed.)

    1993-06-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is located in southwestern Nevada, about 105 km (65 mi) northwest of the city of Las Vegas. A series of tests was conducted in the late 1950s and early 1960s at or near the NTS to study issues involving plutonium-bearing devices. These tests resulted in the dispersal of about 5 TBq of [sup 239,24O]Pu on the surficial soils at the test locations. Additionally, underground tests of nuclear weapons devices have been conducted at the NTS since late 1962; ground water beneath the NTS has been contaminated with radionuclides produced by these tests. These two important problems have been selected for assessment. Regarding the plutonium contamination, because the residual [sup 239]Pu decays slowly (half-life of 24,110 y), these sites could represent a long-term hazard if they are not remediated and if institutional controls are lost. To investigate the magnitude of the potential health risks for this no-remediation case, three basic exposure scenarios were defined that could bring individuals in contact with [sup 239,24O]Pu at the sites: (1) a resident living in a subdivision, (2) a resident farmer, and (3) a worker at a commercial facility -- all located at a test site. The predicted cancer risks for the resident farmer were more than a factor of three times higher than the suburban resident at the median risk level, and about a factor of ten greater than the reference worker at a commercial facility. At 100 y from the present, the 5, 50, and 95th percentile risks for the resident farmer at the most contaminated site were 4 x 10[sup [minus]6], 6 x 10[sup [minus]5], and 5 x 10[sup [minus]4], respectively. For the assessment of Pu in surface soil, the principal sources of uncertainty in the estimated risks were population mobility, the relationship between indoor and outdoor contaminant levels, and the dose and risk factors for bone, liver, and lung.

  1. Improved orthogonality check for measured modes. [from ground vibration testing of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method is proposed for performing an orthogonality check for normal modes derived from ground vibration testing. The method utilizes partitioned mass and stiffness matrices for a linear undamped representation of a structure. The normalization of the modes by the proposed method inherently includes the effects of significant displacements which were not measured; and the method may allow the use of fewer measurement points than would be necessary with the conventional method.

  2. Status of the flora and fauna on the Nevada Test Site, 1989--1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, R.B. [comp.

    1994-03-01

    This volume includes six reports of monitoring work to determine the status of and trends in flora and fauna populations on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) from 1989 through 1991. The Nevada Operations Office of the US Department of Energy supported monitoring under its Basic Environmental Compliance and Monitoring Program (BECAMP) since 1987. Under this program several undisturbed baseline plots, and numerous plots in disturbed areas, are sampled on annual or three-year cycles. Perennial plant populations, ephemeral plants, small mammals, reptiles, birds, and large mammals were monitored. Monitoring results are reported for five baseline sites, one from each major landform on the NTS (Jackass Flats, Frenchman Flat, Yucca Flat, Pahute Mesa, and Rainier Mesa), and for areas cleared of vegetation by fires, atmospheric nuclear weapons tests, construction, and gophers. Roadside flora and fauna were studied at two locations, and several historical study plots around the NTS were recensused to determine vegetation changes over long time spans. Three subsidence craters resulting from below-ground nuclear weapons tests were also studied. A major influence on plants and animals during the report period was a severe drought during 1989 and 1990, followed by more moderate drought in 1991.

  3. Comparison between SAR Soil Moisture Estimates and Hydrological Model Simulations over the Scrivia Test Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pistocchi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of a comparison between the soil moisture content (SMC estimated from C-band SAR, the SMC simulated by a hydrological model, and the SMC measured on ground are presented. The study was carried out in an agricultural test site located in North-west Italy, in the Scrivia river basin. The hydrological model used for the simulations consists of a one-layer soil water balance model, which was found to be able to partially reproduce the soil moisture variability, retaining at the same time simplicity and effectiveness in describing the topsoil. SMC estimates were derived from the application of a retrieval algorithm, based on an Artificial Neural Network approach, to a time series of ENVISAT/ASAR images acquired over the Scrivia test site. The core of the algorithm was represented by a set of ANNs able to deal with the different SAR configurations in terms of polarizations and available ancillary data. In case of crop covered soils, the effect of vegetation was accounted for using NDVI information, or, if available, for the cross-polarized channel. The algorithm results showed some ability in retrieving SMC with RMSE generally <0.04 m3/m3 and very low bias (i.e., <0.01 m3/m3, except for the case of VV polarized SAR images: in this case, the obtained RMSE was somewhat higher than 0.04 m3/m3 (≤0.058 m3/m3. The algorithm was implemented within the framework of an ESA project concerning the development of an operative algorithm for the SMC retrieval from Sentinel-1 data. The algorithm should take into account the GMES requirements of SMC accuracy (≤5% in volume, spatial resolution (≤1 km and timeliness (3 h from observation. The SMC estimated by the SAR algorithm, the SMC estimated by the hydrological model, and the SMC measured on ground were found to be in good agreement. The hydrological model simulations were performed at two soil depths: 30 and 5 cm and showed that the 30 cm simulations indicated, as expected, SMC

  4. A new fabrication method for precision antenna reflectors for space flight and ground test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, G. Richard; Wanhainen, Joyce S.; Ketelsen, Dean A.

    1990-01-01

    The use of higher frequencies on communications satellites has led to the requirement for increasingly precise antenna reflectors for use in space. Typical industry fabrication methods for space antenna reflectors employ successive molding techniques for reflector face sheets and a final fit-up to a master mold in order to achieve the required accuracies. However, new missions at much higher frequencies will require greater accuracies than may be achievable using these present methods. A new approach for the fabrication of ground-test antenna reflectors is to machine the reflective surface into a stainless steel and fiberglass composite structure. A 2.7-m diameter ground-test antenna reflector fabricated using this method has an accuracy of better than 0.013 mm (0.0005 in.) rms. A similar design concept for a solid surface reflector for use on spacecraft would involve fabrication in a similar manner but using space-qualified materials. This report describes the design, analysis, and fabrication of the 2.7-m-diameter precision antenna reflector for antenna ground test and the extension of this technology to precision space antenna reflectors.

  5. A new fabrication method for precision antenna reflectors for space flight and ground test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, G. Richard; Wanhainen, Joyce S.; Ketelsen, Dean A.

    1991-01-01

    Communications satellites are using increasingly higher frequencies that require increasingly precise antenna reflectors for use in space. Traditional industry fabrication methods for space antenna reflectors employ successive modeling techniques using high- and low-temperature molds for reflector face sheets and then a final fit-up of the completed honeycomb sandwich panel antenna reflector to a master pattern. However, as new missions are planned at much higher frequencies, greater accuracies will be necessary than are achievable using these present methods. A new approach for the fabrication of ground-test solid-surface antenna reflectors is to build a rigid support structure with an easy-to-machine surface. This surface is subsequently machined to the desired reflector contour and coated with a radio-frequency-reflective surface. This method was used to fabricate a 2.7-m-diameter ground-test antenna reflector to an accuracy of better than 0.013 mm (0.0005 in.) rms. A similar reflector for use on spacecraft would be constructed in a similar manner but with space-qualified materials. The design, analysis, and fabrication of the 2.7-m-diameter precision antenna reflector for antenna ground tests and the extension of this technology to precision, space-based antenna reflectors are described.

  6. Environmental Assessment for the LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, S.E.; Novo, M.G.; Shinn, J.H.

    1986-04-01

    The LGF Spill Test Facility at Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site, is being constructed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE). In this Environmental Assessment, environmental consequences of spilling hazardous materials in the Frenchman Flat basin are evaluated and mitigations and recommendations are stated in order to protect natural resources and reduce land-use impacts. Guidelines and restrictions concerning spill-test procedures will be determined by the LGF Test Facility Operations Manager and DOE based on toxicity documentation for the test material, provided by the user, and mitigations imposed by the Environmental Assessment. In addition to Spill Test Facility operational procedures, certain assumptions have been made in preparation of this document: no materials will be considered for testing that have cumulative, long-term persistence in the environment; spill tests will consist of releases of 15 min or less; and sufficient time will be allowed between tests for recovery of natural resources. Geographic limits to downwind concentrations of spill materials were primarily determined from meteorological data, human occupational exposure standards to hazardous materials and previous spill tests. These limits were established using maximum spill scenarios and environmental impacts are discussed as worst case scenarios; however, spill-test series will begin with smaller spills, gradually increasing in size after the impacts of the initial tests have been evaluated.

  7. MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION OF TERTIARY BUTYL ALCOHOL (TBA) IN GROUND WATER AT GASOLINE SPILL SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The state agencies that implement the Underground Storage Tank program rely heavily on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) to clean up contaminants such as benzene and methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) at gasoline spill sites. This is possible because the contaminants are biolo...

  8. Testing the FOCUS model PEARL in an Italian site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouraoui, F.; Bidoglio, G.

    2003-04-01

    Pesticides are integral part of the modern agricultural production system . The use of pesticide has soared during the post war period, and now the consumption of pesticide has been reducing in Europe. However, the reduction is difficult to attribute to one specific factor since the application of pesticide is highly variable and linked to climatic, out-breaks of diseases, etc. Furthermore, new molecules are being produced which are more efficient and require a lower dosage. In the EU, the placing on the market of Plant Protection Products (PPP) is regulated at the Community Level by the Council Directive (91/414/EEC). The PPP stresses the need of validated models to calculate predicted environmental concentrations. In this context, European Commission set up a FOrum for the Co-ordination of pesticide fate models and their USe (FOCUS). In a complementary effort, DG research supported the APECOP project with one major objective being the validation and improvement of existing pesticide fate models. The research presented here focuses on the validation of the PEARL model in an Italian site. The PEARL model, which is one of the FOCUS model, is actually used in the Dutch pesticide registration procedure. The test site is located near Bologna (Italy). The 35 months long experiment was conducted on a 107m by 28m plot with a loamy soil for . The experiment involved the application of KBr as a tracer and two applications of ethoprophos and three applications of Aclonifen. A sequential approach was used for the Bologna site. During this exercise only the measured soil physical parameters were used. The simulation with the PEARL model yielded negative values for both soil moisture profile and pesticide content. In a second step, the water transport module was calibrated, using measured soil moisture profile. This improved greatly the prediction of the soil water balance. Information relative to pesticide degradation and sorption where then included. This allowed a good

  9. Development of Methods to Predict the Effects of Test Media in Ground-Based Propulsion Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J. Philip; Danehy, Paul M.; Gaffney, Richard L., Jr.; Parker, Peter A.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Chelliah, Harsha K.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Bivolaru, Daniel; Givi, Peyman; Hassan, Hassan A.

    2009-01-01

    This report discusses work that began in mid-2004 sponsored by the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Test & Evaluation/Science & Technology (T&E/S&T) Program. The work was undertaken to improve the state of the art of CFD capabilities for predicting the effects of the test media on the flameholding characteristics in scramjet engines. The program had several components including the development of advanced algorithms and models for simulating engine flowpaths as well as a fundamental experimental and diagnostic development effort to support the formulation and validation of the mathematical models. This report provides details of the completed work, involving the development of phenomenological models for Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes codes, large-eddy simulation techniques and reduced-kinetics models. Experiments that provided data for the modeling efforts are also described, along with with the associated nonintrusive diagnostics used to collect the data.

  10. Advancing EDL Technologies for Future Space Missions: From Ground Testing Facilities to Ablative Heatshields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovitch, Jason

    Motivated by recent MSL results where the ablation rate of the PICA heatshield was over-predicted, and staying true to the objectives outlined in the NASA Space Technology Roadmaps and Priorities report, this work focuses on advancing EDL technologies for future space missions. Due to the difficulties in performing flight tests in the hypervelocity regime, a new ground testing facility called the vertical expansion tunnel is proposed. The adverse effects from secondary diaphragm rupture in an expansion tunnel may be reduced or eliminated by orienting the tunnel vertically, matching the test gas pressure and the accelerator gas pressure, and initially separating the test gas from the accelerator gas by density stratification. If some sacrifice of the reservoir conditions can be made, the VET can be utilized in hypervelocity ground testing, without the problems associated with secondary diaphragm rupture. The performance of different constraints for the Rate-Controlled Constrained-Equilibrium (RCCE) method is investigated in the context of modeling reacting flows characteristic to ground testing facilities, and re-entry conditions. The effectiveness of different constraints are isolated, and new constraints previously unmentioned in the literature are introduced. Three main benefits from the RCCE method were determined: 1) the reduction in number of equations that need to be solved to model a reacting flow; 2) the reduction in stiffness of the system of equations needed to be solved; and 3) the ability to tabulate chemical properties as a function of a constraint once, prior to running a simulation, along with the ability to use the same table for multiple simulations. Finally, published physical properties of PICA are compiled, and the composition of the pyrolysis gases that form at high temperatures internal to a heatshield is investigated. A necessary link between the composition of the solid resin, and the composition of the pyrolysis gases created is provided

  11. A Test of a Strong Ground Motion Prediction Methodology for the 7 September 1999, Mw=6.0 Athens Earthquake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchings, L; Ioannidou, E; Voulgaris, N; Kalogeras, I; Savy, J; Foxall, W; Stavrakakis, G

    2004-08-06

    We test a methodology to predict the range of ground-motion hazard for a fixed magnitude earthquake along a specific fault or within a specific source volume, and we demonstrate how to incorporate this into probabilistic seismic hazard analyses (PSHA). We modeled ground motion with empirical Green's functions. We tested our methodology with the 7 September 1999, Mw=6.0 Athens earthquake, we: (1) developed constraints on rupture parameters based on prior knowledge of earthquake rupture processes and sources in the region; (2) generated impulsive point shear source empirical Green's functions by deconvolving out the source contribution of M < 4.0 aftershocks; (3) used aftershocks that occurred throughout the area and not necessarily along the fault to be modeled; (4) ran a sufficient number of scenario earthquakes to span the full variability of ground motion possible; (5) found that our distribution of synthesized ground motions span what actually occurred and their distribution is realistically narrow; (6) determined that one of our source models generates records that match observed time histories well; (7) found that certain combinations of rupture parameters produced ''extreme'' ground motions at some stations; (8) identified that the ''best fitting'' rupture models occurred in the vicinity of 38.05{sup o} N 23.60{sup o} W with center of rupture near 12 km, and near unilateral rupture towards the areas of high damage, and this is consistent with independent investigations; and (9) synthesized strong motion records in high damage areas for which records from the earthquake were not recorded. We then developed a demonstration PSHA for a source region near Athens utilizing synthesized ground motion rather that traditional attenuation. We synthesized 500 earthquakes distributed throughout the source zone likely to have Mw=6.0 earthquakes near Athens. We assumed an average return period of 1000 years for this

  12. A prelanding assessment of the ice table depth and ground ice characteristics in Martian permafrost at the Phoenix landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, M.T.; Boynton, W.V.; Feldman, W.C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Titus, Joshua T.N.; Bandfield, L.; Putzig, N.E.; Sizemore, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    We review multiple estimates of the ice table depth at potential Phoenix landing sites and consider the possible state and distribution of subsurface ice. A two-layer model of ice-rich material overlain by ice-free material is consistent with both the observational and theoretical lines of evidence. Results indicate ground ice to be shallow and ubiquitous, 2-6 cm below the surface. Undulations in the ice table depth are expected because of the thermodynamic effects of rocks, slopes, and soil variations on the scale of the Phoenix Lander and within the digging area, which can be advantageous for analysis of both dry surficial soils and buried ice-rich materials. The ground ice at the ice table to be sampled by the Phoenix Lander is expected to be geologically young because of recent climate oscillations. However, estimates of the ratio of soil to ice in the ice-rich subsurface layer suggest that that the ice content exceeds the available pore space, which is difficult to reconcile with existing ground ice stability and dynamics models. These high concentrations of ice may be the result of either the burial of surface snow during times of higher obliquity, initially high-porosity soils, or the migration of water along thin films. Measurement of the D/H ratio within the ice at the ice table and of the soil-to-ice ratio, as well as imaging ice-soil textures, will help determine if the ice is indeed young and if the models of the effects of climate change on the ground ice are reasonable. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. A prelanding assessment of the ice table depth and ground ice characteristics in Martian permafrost at the Phoenix landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, Michael T.; Boynton, William V.; Feldman, William C.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Titus, Timothy N.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Sizemore, Hanna G.

    2008-11-01

    We review multiple estimates of the ice table depth at potential Phoenix landing sites and consider the possible state and distribution of subsurface ice. A two-layer model of ice-rich material overlain by ice-free material is consistent with both the observational and theoretical lines of evidence. Results indicate ground ice to be shallow and ubiquitous, 2-6 cm below the surface. Undulations in the ice table depth are expected because of the thermodynamic effects of rocks, slopes, and soil variations on the scale of the Phoenix Lander and within the digging area, which can be advantageous for analysis of both dry surficial soils and buried ice-rich materials. The ground ice at the ice table to be sampled by the Phoenix Lander is expected to be geologically young because of recent climate oscillations. However, estimates of the ratio of soil to ice in the ice-rich subsurface layer suggest that that the ice content exceeds the available pore space, which is difficult to reconcile with existing ground ice stability and dynamics models. These high concentrations of ice may be the result of either the burial of surface snow during times of higher obliquity, initially high-porosity soils, or the migration of water along thin films. Measurement of the D/H ratio within the ice at the ice table and of the soil-to-ice ratio, as well as imaging ice-soil textures, will help determine if the ice is indeed young and if the models of the effects of climate change on the ground ice are reasonable.

  14. Ground Vibration Test Planning and Pre-Test Analysis for the X-33 Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Herand; Tinker, Michael L.; Hidalgo, Homero

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the results of the modal test planning and the pre-test analysis for the X-33 vehicle. The pre-test analysis included the selection of the target modes, selection of the sensor and shaker locations and the development of an accurate Test Analysis Model (TAM). For target mode selection, four techniques were considered, one based on the Modal Cost technique, one based on Balanced Singular Value technique, a technique known as the Root Sum Squared (RSS) method, and a Modal Kinetic Energy (MKE) approach. For selecting sensor locations, four techniques were also considered; one based on the Weighted Average Kinetic Energy (WAKE), one based on Guyan Reduction (GR), one emphasizing engineering judgment, and one based on an optimum sensor selection technique using Genetic Algorithm (GA) search technique combined with a criteria based on Hankel Singular Values (HSV's). For selecting shaker locations, four techniques were also considered; one based on the Weighted Average Driving Point Residue (WADPR), one based on engineering judgment and accessibility considerations, a frequency response method, and an optimum shaker location selection based on a GA search technique combined with a criteria based on HSV's. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed sensor and shaker locations for exciting the target modes, extensive numerical simulations were performed. Multivariate Mode Indicator Function (MMIF) was used to evaluate the effectiveness of each sensor & shaker set with respect to modal parameter identification. Several TAM reduction techniques were considered including, Guyan, IRS, Modal, and Hybrid. Based on a pre-test cross-orthogonality checks using various reduction techniques, a Hybrid TAM reduction technique was selected and was used for all three vehicle fuel level configurations.

  15. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-09-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 499, Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR). This CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996). CAU 499 is located on the TTR and consists of the following single Corrective Action Site (CAS) (Figure 1): CAS RG-25-001-RD24 - Radar 24 Diesel Spill Site is a diesel fuel release site that is assumed to have been cased by numerous small historical over fillings, spills and leaks from an above-ground storage tank (AST) over a period of 36 years. The tank was located on the north side of Building 24-50 on the TTR approximately 4.0 kilometers (2.5 miles) southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the end of the Avenue 24.

  16. Radiological effluents released from nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests at the Nevada Test Site 1959 through 1969: Fact Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, H.N.

    1995-06-01

    Nuclear rocket and ramjet engine tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Area 25 and Area 26, about 80 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, from July 1959 through September 1969. This document presents a brief history of the nuclear rocket engine tests, information on the off-site radiological monitoring, and descriptions of the tests.

  17. Ground-based automated radiometric calibration system in Baotou site, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ning; Li, Chuanrong; Ma, Lingling; Liu, Yaokai; Meng, Fanrong; Zhao, Yongguang; Pang, Bo; Qian, Yonggang; Li, Wei; Tang, Lingli; Wang, Dongjin

    2017-10-01

    Post-launch vicarious calibration method, as an important post launch method, not only can be used to evaluate the onboard calibrators but also can be allowed for a traceable knowledge of the absolute accuracy, although it has the drawbacks of low frequency data collections due expensive on personal and cost. To overcome the problems, CEOS Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV) Infrared Visible Optical Sensors (IVOS) subgroup has proposed an Automated Radiative Calibration Network (RadCalNet) project. Baotou site is one of the four demonstration sites of RadCalNet. The superiority characteristics of Baotou site is the combination of various natural scenes and artificial targets. In each artificial target and desert, an automated spectrum measurement instrument is developed to obtain the surface reflected radiance spectra every 2 minutes with a spectrum resolution of 2nm. The aerosol optical thickness and column water vapour content are measured by an automatic sun photometer. To meet the requirement of RadCalNet, a surface reflectance spectrum retrieval method is used to generate the standard input files, with the support of surface and atmospheric measurements. Then the top of atmospheric reflectance spectra are derived from the input files. The results of the demonstration satellites, including Landsat 8, Sentinal-2A, show that there is a good agreement between observed and calculated results.

  18. Final test results for the ground operations demonstration unit for liquid hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, W. U.; Swanger, A. M.; Fesmire, J. E.; Jumper, K. M.; Johnson, W. L.; Tomsik, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    Described herein is a comprehensive project-a large-scale test of an integrated refrigeration and storage system called the Ground Operations and Demonstration Unit for Liquid Hydrogen (GODU LH2), sponsored by the Advanced Exploration Systems Program and constructed at Kennedy Space Center. A commercial cryogenic refrigerator interfaced with a 125,000 l liquid hydrogen tank and auxiliary systems in a manner that enabled control of the propellant state by extracting heat via a closed loop Brayton cycle refrigerator coupled to a novel internal heat exchanger. Three primary objectives were demonstrating zero-loss storage and transfer, gaseous liquefaction, and propellant densification. Testing was performed at three different liquid hydrogen fill-levels. Data were collected on tank pressure, internal tank temperature profiles, mass flow in and out of the system, and refrigeration system performance. All test objectives were successfully achieved during approximately two years of testing. A summary of the final results is presented in this paper.

  19. Aerodynamic behavior of the Viking entry vehicle - Ground test and flight results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, D. B.; Intrieri, P. F.; Seiff, A.

    1977-01-01

    An extensive series of tests of the Viking entry vehicle flying in pure CO2 was conducted in a ballistic range at Ames Research Center. The primary purpose of these tests was to calibrate the aerodynamic lift and drag characteristics in order to allow the density, pressure, and temperature profiles of the Martian atmosphere to be determined from onboard instrumentation carried on Viking. Both the Viking 1 and Viking 2 entry vehicles performed flawlessly during entry and descent, and the atmosphere structure was deduced to an altitude of about 120 km. A description is given of the ballistic range tests and of the aerodynamic behavior of the full scale entry vehicles during entry into the Martian atmosphere. Some comparisons between ground test and flight results are shown.

  20. [Radiobiological effects on plants and animals within Semipalatinsk Test Site (Kazakhstan)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozolin, E M; Geras'kin, S A; Minkenova, K S

    2008-01-01

    The Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) was the main place of nuclear devices tests in the former Soviet Union. From 1949 to 1989 about 460 nuclear explosions have been carried out at STS. Radioactive contamination of STS territory has the extremely non-uniform character. The main dose-forming radionuclides are 137Cs, 90Sr, 152Eu, as well as 154Eu, 60CO, 239,240Pu and 241Am. The greatest specific activity of 137Cs and 239,240Pu in ground are n x 10(3) kBk/kg, 152Eu - 96 kBk/kg, 154Eu - 10.4 kBk/kg, 60Co - 20.5 kBk/kg, 241Am - 15 kBk/kg. However, up to now, within STS sites exists where gamma-dose rate comes to 60 microGy/h, that is enough for induction reliable biological effects in animals and plants. Inhabiting territory of STS plants and animals are characterized by increased level of mutagenesis, changes of morpho-anatomic indices and parameters of peripheral blood, by the increase of asymmetry bilateral indices, change of composition and structure of communities.

  1. Preoperational test report, cross-site transfer system integrated test (POTR-007)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacquet, E.A.

    1998-04-02

    This report documents the results obtained during the performance of Preoperational Test POTP-007, from December 12, 1997 to March 27, 1998. The main objectives were to demonstrate the operation of the following Cross-Site Transfer System components: Booster pumps P-3125A and P-3125B interlocks and controls, both local and remote; Booster pump P-3125A and P-3125B and associated variable speed drives VSD-1 and VSD-2 performance in both manual and automatic modes; and Water filling, circulation, venting and draining of the transfer headers (supernate and slurry line). As described in reference 1, the following components of the Cross-Site Transfer System that would normally be used during an actual waste transfer, are not used in this specific test: Water Flush System; Valving and instrumentation associated with the 241-SY-A valve pit jumpers; and Valving and instrumentation associated with the 244-A lift station.

  2. Construction site Voice Operated Information System (VOIS) test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Debbie J.; Hettchen, William

    1991-01-01

    The Voice Activated Information System (VAIS), developed by USACERL, allows inspectors to verbally log on-site inspection reports on a hand held tape recorder. The tape is later processed by the VAIS, which enters the information into the system's database and produces a written report. The Voice Operated Information System (VOIS), developed by USACERL and Automated Sciences Group, through a ESACERL cooperative research and development agreement (CRDA), is an improved voice recognition system based on the concepts and function of the VAIS. To determine the applicability of the VOIS to Corps of Engineers construction projects, Technology Transfer Test Bad (T3B) funds were provided to the Corps of Engineers National Security Agency (NSA) Area Office (Fort Meade) to procure and implement the VOIS, and to train personnel in its use. This report summarizes the NSA application of the VOIS to quality assurance inspection of radio frequency shielding and to progress payment logs, and concludes that the VOIS is an easily implemented system that can offer improvements when applied to repetitive inspection procedures. Use of VOIS can save time during inspection, improve documentation storage, and provide flexible retrieval of stored information.

  3. Technical safety appraisal of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-01

    This report presents the results of one of a series of Technical Safety Appraisals (TSAs) being conducted of Department of Energy (DOE) operations (nuclear and non-nuclear) by the Assistant Secretary of Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H), Office of Safety Appraisals. These TSAs are one of the initiatives announced by the Secretary of Energy on September 18, 1985, to enhance the DOE`s environment, safety, and health program. This TSA report focuses on the safety and health operations of the Nevada Operations Office (NV) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which was conducted concurrently, with and supporting a Tiger Team Assessment. The total effort of all the Tiger Team assessment, including environmental and manager evaluations, is reported in the Tiger Team Report, issued January 1990. The assessment of the NTS began November 5, 1989 with the briefing of the Tiger Team in Las Vegas at the Nevada Operations Office. The TSA team evaluation was conducted November 6--17, and November 26--December 1, 1989 at the NTS.

  4. Free Flight Ground Testing of ADEPT in Advance of the Sounding Rocket One Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B. P.; Dutta, S.

    2017-01-01

    The Adaptable Deployable Entry and Placement Technology (ADEPT) project will be conducting the first flight test of ADEPT, titled Sounding Rocket One (SR-1), in just two months. The need for this flight test stems from the fact that ADEPT's supersonic dynamic stability has not yet been characterized. The SR-1 flight test will provide critical data describing the flight mechanics of ADEPT in ballistic flight. These data will feed decision making on future ADEPT mission designs. This presentation will describe the SR-1 scientific data products, possible flight test outcomes, and the implications of those outcomes on future ADEPT development. In addition, this presentation will describe free-flight ground testing performed in advance of the flight test. A subsonic flight dynamics test conducted at the Vertical Spin Tunnel located at NASA Langley Research Center provided subsonic flight dynamics data at high and low altitudes for multiple center of mass (CoM) locations. A ballistic range test at the Hypervelocity Free Flight Aerodynamics Facility (HFFAF) located at NASA Ames Research Center provided supersonic flight dynamics data at low supersonic Mach numbers. Execution and outcomes of these tests will be discussed. Finally, a hypothesized trajectory estimate for the SR-1 flight will be presented.

  5. Pattern recognition techniques for failure trend detection in SSME ground tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudry, A.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a complex power plant. To evaluate its performance 1200 hot-wire ground tests have been conducted, varying in duration from 0 to 500 secs. During the test some 500 sensors are sampled every 20 ms. The sensors are generally bounded by red lines so that an excursion beyond could lead to premature shutdown. In 27 tests it was not possible to effect an orderly premature shutdown, resulting in major incidents with serious damage to the SSME and test stand. The application of pattern recognition are investigated to detect SSME performance trends that may lead to major incidents. Based on the sensor data a set of (n) features is defined. At any time during the test, the state of the SSME is given by a point in the n-dimensional feature space. The history of a test can now be represented as a trajectory in the n-dimensional feature space. Portions of the normal trajectories and failed test trajectories would lie in different regions of the n-dimensional feature space. The latter can now be partitioned into regions of normal and failed tests. Thus, it is possible to examine the trajectory of a test in progress and predict if it is going into the normal or failure region.

  6. Studies of Health Effects from Nuclear Testing near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Grosche

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear bomb testing conducted at the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan is of great importance for today’s radiation protection research, particularly in the area of low dose exposures. This type of radiation is of particular interest due to the lack of research in this field and how it impacts population health. In order to understand the possible health effects of nuclear bomb testing, it is important to determine what studies have been conducted on the effects of low dose exposure and dosimetry, and evaluate new epidemiologic data and biological material collected from populations living in proximity to the test site. With time, new epidemiological data has been made available, and it is possible that these data may be linked to biological samples. Next to linking existing and newly available data to examine health effects, the existing dosimetry system needs to be expanded and further developed to include residential areas, which have not yet been taken into account. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of previous studies evaluating the health effects of nuclear testing, including some information on dosimetry efforts, and pointing out directions for future epidemiologic studies.

  7. Geohydrology of the 218-W-5 Burial Ground, 200-West Area, Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, B.N.

    1990-05-01

    Construction a disposal facility for solid, mixed low-level radioactive and hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State (Figure 1) is planned. A site-specific performance assessment for each new disposal facility to ensure that wastes will be isolated from the environment is required. To demonstrate the adequacy of the facility for isolating the wastes, computer codes are used to simulate the physical processes that could cause the waste to migrate to underground water supplies or to the land's surface. The purpose of this report is provide a compilation and interpretation of geologic and hydrologic data available use in the performance assessment modeling. A variety of data are needed to model flow and transport from a solid-waste burial trench. These data include soil water content, soil moisture potential, saturated and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity, and phase mineralogy of the soils and sediments within the vadose zone. The hydrologic data that are critical for quantifying the water storage and transport properties for unsaturated soils require a characterization of the heterogeneities of various soil layers and the moisture characteristic curves for these layers. Hydraulic properties and mineralogic data for the saturated sediments are also important for modelling the flow and transport of wastes in the unconfined aquifer. This report begins with a discussion of the procedures and methods used to gather data both in the field and in the laboratory. This is followed by a summary of the geology, including the stratigraphic framework, lithofacies, and mineralogic/geochemical characteristics of the suprabasalt sediments. The hydrology of the region of the site is discussed next. In this discussion, the characteristics of the uppermost aquifer(s), unsaturated zone, and the various hydrogeologic units are presented. 54 refs., 39 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Field tests of 2- and 40-tube condensers at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, R.W.; Domingo, N.

    1982-05-01

    Two water-cooled isobutane condensers, one with 2 tubes and one with 40 tubes, were subjected to field tests at the East Mesa Geothermal Test Site to assess relative heat transfer performance in both surface evaporator and direct-contact evaporator modes. The five groups of tests established that field performance was below earlier laboratory-determined levels and that direct-contact evaporator mode performance was poorer than that for the surface evaporator mode. In all test situations, fluted condenser tubes performed better than smooth condenser tubes. Cooling water quality had no significant effect on performance, but brine preflash in the direct-contact mode did promote some relative performance improvement. Important implications of these results for binary geothermal power plants are that (1) working-fluid-side impurities can significantly degrade heat transfer performance of the power plant condensers and (2) provisions for minimizing such impurities may be required.

  9. Geology Report: Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site DOE/Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2006-07-01

    Surficial geologic studies near the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) were conducted as part of a site characterization program. Studies included evaluation of the potential for future volcanism and Area 3 fault activity that could impact waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS. Future volcanic activity could lead to disruption of the Area 3 RWMS. Local and regional studies of volcanic risk indicate that major changes in regional volcanic activity within the next 1,000 years are not likely. Mapped basalts of Paiute Ridge, Nye Canyon, and nearby Scarp Canyon are Miocene in age. There is a lack of evidence for post-Miocene volcanism in the subsurface of Yucca Flat, and the hazard of basaltic volcanism at the Area 3 RWMS, within the 1,000-year regulatory period, is very low and not a forseeable future event. Studies included a literature review and data analysis to evaluate unclassified published and unpublished information regarding the Area 3 and East Branch Area 3 faults mapped in Area 3 and southern Area 7. Two trenches were excavated along the Area 3 fault to search for evidence of near-surface movement prior to nuclear testing. Allostratigraphic units and fractures were mapped in Trenches ST02 and ST03. The Area 3 fault is a plane of weakness that has undergone strain resulting from stress imposed by natural events and underground nuclear testing. No major vertical displacement on the Area 3 fault since the Early Holocene, and probably since the Middle Pleistocene, can be demonstrated. The lack of major displacement within this time frame and minimal vertical extent of minor fractures suggest that waste disposal operations at the Area 3 RWMS will not be impacted substantially by the Area 3 fault, within the regulatory compliance period. A geomorphic surface map of Yucca Flat utilizes the recent geomorphology and soil characterization work done in adjacent northern Frenchman Flat. The approach taken was to adopt the map unit boundaries (line

  10. 78 FR 18932 - Public Meeting: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Test Site Program; Privacy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Public Meeting: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Test Site Program... privacy policy approach for the unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) test site program. The FAA is seeking the... unmanned aircraft systems in to the National Airspace System. The overall purpose of this test site program...

  11. Integration of Remote Sensing Products with Ground-Based Measurements to Understand the Dynamics of Nepal's Forests and Plantation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, H.; Jain, A. K.

    2016-12-01

    This study assembles information from three sources - remote sensing, terrestrial photography and ground-based inventory data, to understand the dynamics of Nepal's tropical and sub-tropical forests and plantation sites for the period 1990-2015. Our study focuses on following three specific district areas, which have conserved forests through social and agroforestry management practices: 1. Dolakha district: This site has been selected to study the impact of community-based forest management on land cover change using repeat photography and satellite imagery, in combination with interviews with community members. The study time period is during the period 1990-2010. We determined that satellite data with ground photographs can provide transparency for long term monitoring. The initial results also suggests that community-based forest management program in the mid-hills of Nepal was successful. 2. Chitwan district: Here we use high resolution remote sensing data and optimized community field inventories to evaluate potential application and operational feasibility of community level REDD+ measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems. The study uses temporal dynamics of land cover transitions, tree canopy size classes and biomass over a Kayar khola watershed REDD+ study area with community forest to evaluate satellite Image segmentation for land cover, linear regression model for above ground biomass (AGB), and estimation and monitoring field data for tree crowns and AGB. We study three specific years 2002, 2009, 2012. Using integration of WorldView-2 and airborne LiDAR data for tree species level. 3. Nuwakot district: This district was selected to study the impact of establishment of tree plantation on total barren/fallow. Over the last 40 year, this area has went through a drastic changes, from barren land to forest area with tree species consisting of Dalbergia sissoo, Leucaena leucocephala, Michelia champaca, etc. In 1994, this district area was registered

  12. Site exploration for rock-mechanics field tests in the Grouse Canyon Member, Belted Range Tuff, U12g Tunnel Complex, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langkopf, B.S.; Eshom, E.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes site exploration work completed in support of planned rock-mechanics field tests in the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Ruff at Nevada Test Site`s, G-Tunnel. As part of this work, the Rock Mechanics Drift (RMD) and the Rock Mass Property Alcove (RMPA) were mined and three coreholes drilled. The results of mapping and corehole logging are displayed, described, and analyzed.

  13. Ground-water flow model of the Boone formation at the Tar Creek superfund site, Oklahoma and Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, T.B.; Czarnecki, John B.

    2006-01-01

    Extensive mining activities conducted at the Tar Creek Superfund site, one of the largest Superfund sites in the United States, pose substantial health and safety risks. Mining activities removed a total of about 6,000,000 tons of lead and zinc by 1949. To evaluate the effect of this mining on the ground-water flow, a MODFLOW 2000 digital model has been developed to simulate ground-water flow in the carbonate formations of Mississippian age underlying the Tar Creek Superfund site. The model consists of three layers of variable thickness and a grid of 580 rows by 680 columns of cells 164 feet (50 meters) on a side. Model flux boundary conditions are specified for rivers and general head boundaries along the northern boundary of the Boone Formation. Selected cells in layer 1 are simulated as drain cells. Model calibration has been performed to minimize the difference between simulated and observed water levels in the Boone Formation. Hydraulic conductivity values specified during calibration range from 1.3 to 35 feet per day for the Boone Formation with the larger values occurring along the axis of the Miami Syncline where horizontal anisotropy is specified as 10 to 1. Hydraulic conductivity associated with the mine void is set at 50,000 feet per day and a specific yield of 1.0 is specified to represent that the mine void is filled completely with water. Residuals (the difference between measured and simulated ground-water altitudes) has a root-mean-squared value of 8.53 feet and an absolute mean value of 7.29 feet for 17 observed values of water levels in the Boone Formation. The utility of the model for simulating and evaluating the possible consequences of remediation activities has been demonstrated. The model was used to simulate the emplacement of chat (mine waste consisting of fines and fragments of chert) back into the mine. Scenarios using 1,800,000 and 6,500,000 tons of chat were run. Hydraulic conductivity was reduced from 50,000 feet per day to 35 feet

  14. Earth modeling and estimation of the local seismic ground motion due to site geology in complex volcanoclastic areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Di Fiore

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic areas often show complex behaviour as far as seismic waves propagation and seismic motion at surface are concerned. In fact, the finite lateral extent of surface layers such as lava flows, blocks, differential welding and/or zeolitization within pyroclastic deposits, introduces in the propagation of seismic waves effects such as the generation of surface waves at the edge, resonance in lateral direction, diffractions and scattering of energy, which tend to modify the amplitude as well as the duration of the ground motion. The irregular topographic surface, typical of volcanic areas, also strongly influences the seismic site response. Despite this heterogeneity, it is unfortunately a common geophysical and engineering practice to evaluate even in volcanic environments the subsurface velocity field with monodimensional investigation method (i.e. geognostic soundings, refraction survey, down-hole, etc. prior to the seismic site response computation which in a such cases is obviously also made with 1D algorithms. This approach often leads to highly inaccurate results. In this paper we use a different approach, i.e. a fully 2D P-wave Çturning rayÈ tomographic survey followed by 2D seismic site response modeling. We report here the results of this approach in three sites located at short distance from Mt. Vesuvius and Campi Flegrei and characterized by overburdens constituted by volcanoclastic deposits with large lateral and vertical variations of their elastic properties. Comparison between 1D and 2D Dynamic Amplification Factor shows in all reported cases entirely different results, both in terms of peak period and spectral contents, as expected from the clear bidimensionality of the geological section. Therefore, these studies suggest evaluating carefully the subsoil geological structures in areas characterized by possible large lateral and vertical variations of the elastic properties in order to reach correct seismic site response

  15. Nevada Test Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Townsend, Y.E. [eds.

    1998-10-01

    Monitoring and surveillance, on and around the Nevada Test Site, (NTS) by US Department of Energy (DOE) contractors and NTS user organizations during 1997, indicated that operations on the NTS were conducted in compliance with applicable DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. All discharges of radioactive liquids remained onsite in containment ponds, and there was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater. Surveillance around the NTS indicated that airborne radioactivity from diffusion, evaporation of liquid effluents, or resuspension of soil was not detectable offsite, and exposure above existing background to members of the offsite population was not measured by the offsite monitoring program. Using the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA`s) Clean Air Package 1988 (CAP88)-PC model and NTS radionuclide emissions and environmental monitoring data, the calculated effective dose equivalent (EDE) to the maximally exposed individual offsite would have been 0.089 mrem. Hazardous wastes were shipped offsite to approved disposal facilities.

  16. Nevada test site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    Monitoring and surveillance on and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) by US Department of Energy (DOE) contractors and NTS user organizations during 1995 indicated that operations on the NTS were conducted in compliance with applicable federal and DOE regulations and guidelines. All discharges of radioactive liquids remained onsite in containment ponds, and there was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater. Surveillance around the NTS indicated that airborne radioactivity from diffusion, evaporation of effluents, or resuspension was not detectable offsite, and no measurable net exposure to members of the offsite population was detected through the offsite dosimetry program. There were no nonradiological releases to the offsite area. Hazardous wastes were shipped offsite to approved disposal facilities. Compliance with the various regulations stemming from the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is being achieved and, where mandated, permits for air and water effluents and waste management have been obtained from the appropriate agencies. Cooperation with other agencies has resulted in seven different consent orders and agreements. Support facilities at off-NTS locations complied with the requirements of air quality permits and state or local wastewater discharge and hazardous waste permits.

  17. Future aerospace ground test facility requirements for the Arnold Engineering Development Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Mark E.; Baron, Judson R.; Bogdonoff, Seymour M.; Carter, Donald I.; Couch, Lana M.; Fanning, Arthur E.; Heiser, William H.; Koff, Bernard L.; Melnik, Robert E.; Mercer, Stephen C.

    1992-01-01

    Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) was conceived at the close of World War II, when major new developments in flight technology were presaged by new aerodynamic and propulsion concepts. During the past 40 years, AEDC has played a significant part in the development of many aerospace systems. The original plans were extended through the years by some additional facilities, particularly in the area of propulsion testing. AEDC now has undertaken development of a master plan in an attempt to project requirements and to plan for ground test and computational facilities over the coming 20 to 30 years. This report was prepared in response to an AEDC request that the National Research Council (NRC) assemble a committee to prepare guidance for planning and modernizing AEDC facilities for the development and testing of future classes of aerospace systems as envisaged by the U.S. Air Force.

  18. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office sponsored two separate, independent solar sail system design and development demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L' Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators.

  19. The Yucca Mountain Project prototype air-coring test, U12g tunnel, Nevada test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ray, J.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Newsom, J.C. [Newsom Industries, Citrus Heights, CA (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The Prototype Air-Coring Test was conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) G-Tunnel facility to evaluate standard coring techniques, modified slightly for air circulation, for use in testing at a prospective nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Air-coring technology allows sampling of subsurface lithology with minimal perturbation to ambient characteristic such as that required for exploratory holes near aquifers, environmental applications, and site characterization work. Two horizontal holes were cored, one 50 ft long and the other 150 ft long, in densely welded fractured tuff to simulate the difficult drilling conditions anticipated at Yucca Mountain. Drilling data from seven holes on three other prototype tests in nonwelded tuff were also collected for comparison. The test was used to establish preliminary standards of performance for drilling and dust collection equipment and to assess procedural efficiencies. The Longyear-38 drill achieved 97% recovery for HQ-size core (-2.5 in.), and the Atlas Copco dust collector (DCT-90) captured 1500 lb of fugitive dust in a mine environment with only minor modifications. Average hole production rates were 6-8 ft per 6-h shift in welded tuff and almost 20 ft per shift on deeper holes in nonwelded tuff. Lexan liners were successfully used to encapsulate core samples during the coring process and protect core properties effectively. The Prototype Air-Coring Test demonstrated that horizontal air coring in fractured welded tuff (to at least 150 ft) can be safely accomplished by proper selection, integration, and minor modification of standard drilling equipment, using appropriate procedures and engineering controls. The test also indicated that rig logistics, equipment, and methods need improvement before attempting a large-scale dry drilling program at Yucca Mountain.

  20. Concept study of a hydrogen containment process during nuclear thermal engine ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ten-See; Stewart, Eric T.; Canabal, Francisco

    A new hydrogen containment process was proposed for ground testing of a nuclear thermal engine. It utilizes two thermophysical steps to contain the hydrogen exhaust. First, the decomposition of hydrogen through oxygen-rich combustion at higher temperature; second, the recombination of remaining hydrogen with radicals at low temperature. This is achieved with two unit operations: an oxygen-rich burner and a tubular heat exchanger. A computational fluid dynamics methodology was used to analyze the entire process on a three-dimensional domain. The computed flammability at the exit of the heat exchanger was less than the lower flammability limit, confirming the hydrogen containment capability of the proposed process.

  1. The effect of visual deprivation on the organization of conceptual knowledge: testing the grounded cognition hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, J Frederico

    2010-01-01

    The present paper evaluates the effect of visual deprivation on the organization and retrieval of conceptual knowledge. The experimental study used the release from proactive interference (PI-release) paradigm. Early onset blind (EOB) and sighted (S) subjects were tested with this task and additional visual and nonvisual property retrieval cues. PI-release results showed that the visual cue was less effective for EOB individuals than for S individuals, whereas the nonvisual cue was similarly effective for EOB individuals and S individuals. Results support a grounded view of cognition where the organization of conceptual knowledge depends on the role that sensory and motor channels play in its acquisition.

  2. Objectives and Progress on Ground Vibration Testing for the Ares Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Margaret L.; Chenevert, Donald J.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated vehicle ground vibration testing (IVGVT) will be a vital component for ensuring the safety of NASA s next generation of exploration vehicles to send human beings to the Moon and beyond. A ground vibration test (GVT) measures the fundamental dynamic characteristics of launch vehicles during various phases of flight. The Ares Flight & Integrated Test Office (FITO) will be conducting the IVGVT for the Ares I crew launch vehicle at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) from 2012 to 2014 using Test Stand (TS) 4550. MSFC conducted similar GVT for the Saturn V and Space Shuttle vehicles. FITO will perform the IVGVT on the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which will lift the Orion crew exploration vehicle to low Earth orbit, and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which can launch the lunar lander into orbit and send the combined Orion/lander vehicles toward the Moon. Ares V consists of a six-engine core stage with two solid rocket boosters and an Earth departure stage (EDS). The same engine will power the EDS and the Ares I second stage. The current plan is to test six configurations in three unique test positions inside TS 4550. Four Ares I second stage test configurations will be tested in Position 3, consisting of the Upper Stage and Orion crew module in four nominal conditions: J-2X engine ignition, post Launch Abort System (LAS) jettison, critical slosh mass, and J-2X burn-out. Position 2 consists of the entire launch stack at first stage burn-out (using empty first stage segments). Position 1 represents the entire launch stack at lift-off (using inert first stage segments). Because of long disuse, TS 4550 is being repaired and modified for reactivation to conduct the Ares I IVGVT. The Shuttle-era platforms have been removed and are being replaced with mast climbers that provide ready access to the test articles and can be moved easily to support different positions within the test stand. Two new cranes will help move test articles at the test stand and at the

  3. Force Limiting Vibration Tests Evaluated from both Ground Acoustic Tests and FEM Simulations of a Flight Like Vehicle System Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; LaVerde, Bruce; Waldon, James; Hunt, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has conducted a series of ground acoustic tests with the dual goals of informing analytical judgment, and validating analytical methods when estimating vibroacoustic responses of launch vehicle subsystems. The process of repeatedly correlating finite element-simulated responses with test-measured responses has assisted in the development of best practices for modeling and post-processing. In recent work, force transducers were integrated to measure interface forces at the base of avionics box equipment. Other force data was indirectly measured using strain gauges. The combination of these direct and indirect force measurements has been used to support and illustrate the advantages of implementing the Force Limiting approach for equipment qualification tests. The comparison of force response from integrated system level tests to measurements at the same locations during component level vibration tests provides an excellent illustration. A second comparison of the measured response cases from the system level acoustic tests to finite element simulations has also produced some principles for assessing the suitability of Finite Element Models (FEMs) for making vibroacoustics estimates. The results indicate that when FEM models are employed to guide force limiting choices, they should include sufficient detail to represent the apparent mass of the system in the frequency range of interest.

  4. Closure Plan for the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2007-09-01

    The Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RMWS) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is managed and operated by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec) for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This document is the first update of the interim closure plan for the Area 3 RWMS, which was presented in the Integrated Closure and Monitoring Plan (ICMP) (DOE, 2005). The format and content of this plan follows the Format and Content Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Closure Plans (DOE, 1999a). The major updates to the plan include a new closure date, updated closure inventory, the new institutional control policy, and the Title II engineering cover design. The plan identifies the assumptions and regulatory requirements, describes the disposal sites and the physical environment in which they are located, presents the design of the closure cover, and defines the approach and schedule for both closing and monitoring the site. The Area 3 RWMS accepts low-level waste (LLW) from across the DOE Complex in compliance with the NTS Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSA/NSO, 2006). The Area 3 RWMS accepts both packaged and unpackaged unclassified bulk LLW for disposal in subsidence craters that resulted from deep underground tests of nuclear devices in the early 1960s. The Area 3 RWMS covers 48 hectares (119 acres) and comprises seven subsidence craters--U-3ax, U-3bl, U-3ah, U-3at, U-3bh, U-3az, and U-3bg. The area between craters U-3ax and U-3bl was excavated to form one large disposal unit (U-3ax/bl); the area between craters U-3ah and U-3at was also excavated to form another large disposal unit (U-3ah/at). Waste unit U-3ax/bl is closed; waste units U-3ah/at and U-3bh are active; and the remaining craters, although currently undeveloped, are available for disposal of waste if required. This plan specifically addresses the closure of the U-3ah/at and the U-3bh LLW units. A final closure

  5. Can interpreting sediment toxicity tests a mega sites benefit from novel approaches to normalization to address batching of tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sediment toxicity tests are a key tool used in Ecological Risk Assessments for contaminated sediment sites. Interpreting test results and defining toxicity is often a challenge. This is particularly true at mega sites where the testing regime is large, and by necessity performed ...

  6. Toxicity of sediments surrounding the Gunpowder Neck Superfund Site at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. Final report, August 1992-December 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haley, M.V.; Anthony, J.S.; Chester, N.A.; Kurnas, C.W.

    1995-07-01

    From the late 1940s through the 1960s, the standard practice for disposing of toxic chemicals at Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, was open burning. This disposal site has since been placed on the National Priority List (NPt) by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In the spring 1992, sediment samples were taken from waterways that surround that disposal area. Chemical analysis and sediment toxicity assays (Ampelisca abdita) were conducted. Toxicity comparison, with sediment leachate from an Adapted Toxicity Characteristic teaching Procedure (ATCLP), were made using Daphnia magna and a fluorescent bacterium Photobacterium phosphoreum in MICROTOX assays. Amphipods showed a wide range of mortality in mud as well as coarser sediments indicating substrate preference is not critical to the outcome of the assay. Toxicity results from the leachates showed the sediments were not toxic to daphnia and MICROTOX assays.

  7. Atmospheric mercury concentrations observed at ground-based monitoring sites globally distributed in the framework of the GMOS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprovieri, Francesca; Pirrone, Nicola; Bencardino, Mariantonia; D'Amore, Francesco; Carbone, Francesco; Cinnirella, Sergio; Mannarino, Valentino; Landis, Matthew; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Weigelt, Andreas; Brunke, Ernst-Günther; Labuschagne, Casper; Martin, Lynwill; Munthe, John; Wängberg, Ingvar; Artaxo, Paulo; Morais, Fernando; Barbosa, Henrique de Melo Jorge; Brito, Joel; Cairns, Warren; Barbante, Carlo; Diéguez, María del Carmen; Garcia, Patricia Elizabeth; Dommergue, Aurélien; Angot, Helene; Magand, Olivier; Skov, Henrik; Horvat, Milena; Kotnik, Jože; Read, Katie Alana; Mendes Neves, Luis; Gawlik, Bernd Manfred; Sena, Fabrizio; Mashyanov, Nikolay; Obolkin, Vladimir; Wip, Dennis; Feng, Xin Bin; Zhang, Hui; Fu, Xuewu; Ramachandran, Ramesh; Cossa, Daniel; Knoery, Joël; Marusczak, Nicolas; Nerentorp, Michelle; Norstrom, Claus

    2016-09-01

    Long-term monitoring of data of ambient mercury (Hg) on a global scale to assess its emission, transport, atmospheric chemistry, and deposition processes is vital to understanding the impact of Hg pollution on the environment. The Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project was funded by the European Commission (gmos.eu" target="_blank">http://www.gmos.eu) and started in November 2010 with the overall goal to develop a coordinated global observing system to monitor Hg on a global scale, including a large network of ground-based monitoring stations, ad hoc periodic oceanographic cruises and measurement flights in the lower and upper troposphere as well as in the lower stratosphere. To date, more than 40 ground-based monitoring sites constitute the global network covering many regions where little to no observational data were available before GMOS. This work presents atmospheric Hg concentrations recorded worldwide in the framework of the GMOS project (2010-2015), analyzing Hg measurement results in terms of temporal trends, seasonality and comparability within the network. Major findings highlighted in this paper include a clear gradient of Hg concentrations between the Northern and Southern hemispheres, confirming that the gradient observed is mostly driven by local and regional sources, which can be anthropogenic, natural or a combination of both.

  8. Ground standoff mine detection system (GSTAMIDS) block 0 contractor test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressley, J. R. R.; Page, Lochlin; Green, Brian; Schweitzer, Timothy W.; Howard, Peter

    2003-09-01

    Under contact to the United States Army, EG&G Technical Services currently is conducting field tests of the Ground Standoff Mine Detection System (GSTAMIDS) Block 0 Engineering, Manufacturing and Development (EMD) systems. GSTAMIDS is a spiral development effort designed to provide the war fighter an incremental, near-term capability to execute on-road countermine missions. GSTAMIDS is being developed in three distinct blocks. The primary mission for GSTAMIDS Block 0 is route clearance, automatically detecting and marking all metallic and non-metallic Anti-Tank (AT) mines. It consists of a Mine Detection and marking System (MDS) mounted on a teleoperated Mine Detection Vehicle (MDV) and a Main Computer System (MCS) mounted in a Mine Protected Clearance Vehicle (MPCV). Both vehicles have overpass capability for AT mines, as well as armor anti-mine blast protection. The MPCV mounted MCS receives sensor data, along with inertial navigation data, from the MDS via an RF PCM telemetry link, automatically processes and fuses the data for mine detection and sends mine marking commands back to the MDV. The MDS sensors provide a three-meter detection swath and include nine (9) Ground Penetrating Radars (GPR), nine (9) Pulsed Magnetic Induction (PMI) metal detectors, and (as an option) two (2) long-wave infrared (LWIR) cameras. Contractor testing includes raw sensor data collection and sensor evaluation, performance (Pd and FAR), operating and storage environment, and EMI/EMC radiated emissions and susceptibility, as well as maintenance demonstrations. Testing has been conducted at a number of test mine lanes in different climates under a wide range of weather conditions over the past year and a half. This paper will present contractor test results to date.

  9. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-09-30

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan covers activities associated with Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996 [as amended February 2008]). CAU 107 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site. (1) CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt; (2) CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2); (3) CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm; (4) CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area; (5) CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area; (6) CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area; (7) CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area; (8) CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area; (9) CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area; (10) CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area; (11) CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a; (12) CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site; (13) CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil; (14) CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10; and (15) CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky). Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, engineering drawings, field screening, analytical results, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), closure in place with administrative controls or no further action will be implemented for CAU 107. CAU 107 closure activities will consist of verifying that the current postings required under Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 835 are in place and implementing use restrictions (URs) at two sites, CAS 03-23-29 and CAS 18-23-02. The current radiological postings combined with the URs are adequate administrative controls to limit site access and worker dose.

  10. Deep Resistivity Structure of Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodore H. Asch; Brian D. Rodriguez; Jay A. Sampson; Jackie M. Williams; Maryla Deszcz-Pan

    2006-12-12

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing groundwater contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. During 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), funded by the DOE and NNSA-NSO, collected and processed data from twenty-six Magnetotelluric (MT) and Audio-Magnetotelluric (AMT) sites at the Nevada Test Site. Data stations were located in and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain to assist in characterizing the pre-Tertiary geology in those areas. These new stations extend to the west the hydrogeologic study that was conducted in Yucca Flat in 2003. This work has helped to refine the character, thickness, and lateral extent of pre Tertiary confining units. In particular, a major goal has been to define the upper clastic confining unit (UCCU – late Devonian to Mississippian-age siliciclastic rocks assigned to the Eleana Formation and Chainman Shale(Bechtel Nevada, 2006)) in the Yucca Flat area and west towards Shoshone Mountain in the south, east of Buckboard Mesa, and onto Rainier Mesa in the north. The Nevada Test Site magnetotelluric data interpretation presented in this report includes the results of detailed two-dimensional (2 D) resistivity modeling for each profile (including alternative interpretations) and gross inferences on the three dimensional (3 D) character of the geology within the region. The character, thickness, and lateral extent of the Chainman Shale and Eleana Formation that comprise the Upper Clastic Confining Unit (UCCU) are generally characterized in the upper 5 km. The interpretation is not well determined where conductive TCU overlies conductive Chainman Shale, where resistive Eleana Formation overlies resistive LCA units, or where resistive VTA rock overlies units of the Eleana Formation. The nature of the

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 370: T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patrick Matthews

    2009-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 370, T-4 Atmospheric Test Site, located in Area 4 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 370 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 04-23-01, Atmospheric Test Site T-4. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 370 due to the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from June 25, 2008, through April 2, 2009, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 370: T-4 Atmospheric Test Site and Record of Technical Change No. 1.

  12. Protection of ecological receptors exposed to tritium from the Nevada Test Site underground test area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyers-Schoene, L.; Bowen, D.G. [IT Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mayasich, S.A. [IT Corp., St. Paul, MN (United States); Bangerter, R.M. [Dept. of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Operations Office

    1995-12-31

    The Nevada Test Site Corrective Action Strategy includes an evaluation of risks to the environment that may be associated with underground nuclear test activities that occurred in the past. Phase 1 of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project focuses on tritium. Tritium in deep subsurface soil was modeled from soil to groundwater, and from groundwater to surface water discharge points using a hydrogeological model developed specifically for UGTA. Ecological pathways of concern are those related to the exposure of biota to contaminated surface water and groundwater. Surface water receptors selected were based on those key to the habitats of greatest concern at Ash meadows, nevada, an off-site discharge location. These receptors were algae, pupfish, and great blue heron. Groundwater receptors were microorganisms known to exist in water beneath Rainier Mesa. Acceptable tritium concentrations in surface and groundwater were estimated using models created by Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and radiation effects data from the literature. Based on this analysis, concentrations of tritium less than 9.3 {times} 10{sup 7} pCi/L were predicted to be protective of aquatic and semi-aquatic populations, and of the endangered desert pupfish.

  13. Estimation of peak ground acceleration and spectral acceleration for South India with local site effects: probabilistic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Vipin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work an attempt has been made to evaluate the seismic hazard of South India (8.0° N–20° N; 72° E–88° E based on the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA. The earthquake data obtained from different sources were declustered to remove the dependent events. A total of 598 earthquakes of moment magnitude 4 and above were obtained from the study area after declustering, and were considered for further hazard analysis. The seismotectonic map of the study area was prepared by considering the faults, lineaments and the shear zones in the study area which are associated with earthquakes of magnitude 4 and above. For assessing the seismic hazard, the study area was divided into small grids of size 0.1°×0.1°, and the hazard parameters were calculated at the centre of each of these grid cells by considering all the seismic sources with in a radius of 300 km. Rock level peak horizontal acceleration (PHA and spectral acceleration (SA values at 1 s corresponding to 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years have been calculated for all the grid points. The contour maps showing the spatial variation of these values are presented here. Uniform hazard response spectrum (UHRS at rock level for 5% damping and 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years were also developed for all the grid points. The peak ground acceleration (PGA at surface level was calculated for the entire South India for four different site classes. These values can be used to find the PGA values at any site in South India based on site class at that location. Thus, this method can be viewed as a simplified method to evaluate the PGA values at any site in the study area.

  14. Nevada Test Site annual site environmental report for calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, S.C.; Townsend, Y.E. [eds.

    1997-10-01

    Monitoring and surveillance on and around the Nevada Test Site (NTS) by US Department of Energy (DOE) contractors and NTS user organizations during 1996 indicated that operations on the NTS were conducted in compliance with applicable DOE, state, and federal regulations and guidelines. All discharges of radioactive liquids remained onsite in containment ponds, and there was no indication of potential migration of radioactivity to the offsite area through groundwater. Surveillance around the NTS indicated that airborne radioactivity from diffusion, evaporation of liquid effluents, or resuspension of soil was not detectable offsite, and exposure above background to members of the offsite population was not measured by the offsite monitoring program. Using the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Clean Air Package 1988 (CAP88)PC model and NTS radionuclide emissions and environmental monitoring data, the calculated effective dose equivalent (EDE) to the maximally exposed individual offsite would have been 0.11 mrem. This value is less than 2 percent of the federal dose limit prescribed for radionuclide air emissions. Any person receiving this dose would also have received 144 mrem from natural background radiation. There were no nonradiological releases to the offsite area. Hazardous wastes were shipped offsite to approved disposal facilities. Compliance with the various regulations stemming from the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) is being achieved and, where mandated, permits for air and water effluents and waste management have been obtained from the appropriate agencies. Cooperation with other agencies has resulted in seven different consent orders and agreements. Support facilities at off-NTS locations have complied with the requirements of air quality permits and state or local wastewater discharge and hazardous waste permits as mandated for each location.

  15. Study on the Influential Factors of Heat Transfer of Ground Heat Exchanger with Orthogonal Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shunyu; Yang, Rui; Liu, Lamei; Zhou, Chuanhui; Shi, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Orthogonal test method could decrease experimental times and obtain better test effect. The Taguchi method, as well as mean value response and analysis of variance, were applied in this paper to study the influence of water flow velocity in pipe, diameter and water temperature of pipe inlet on heat transfer of ground heat exchanger. The optimum design parameters and the estimated values of heat flux per meter of well depth for single U-tubes are obtained. The analysis revealed that diameter is the most influential parameter for heat flux per meter of well depth in single U-tubes while water flow velocity within 0.3m/s to 0.5m/s. And water flow velocity and diameter are important influential parameters for heat flux per meter of well depth in single U-tubes while water flow velocity within 0.5m/s to 0.8m/s. Tubes with big diameters are superior to tubes with small diameters in the design of ground source heat exchanger with single U-tubes.

  16. Testing sea-level markers observed in ground-penetrating radar data from Feddet, south-eastern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B

    2012-01-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) data have been collected across the modern part (test identification of sea-level markers in GPR data from microtidal depositional environments. Nielsen and Clemmensen (2009) showed...

  17. Strip distortion generator for simulating inlet flow distortion in gas turbine engine ground test facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saleem Yusoof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A methodology has been developed to generate a non-uniform/distorted inlet flow field to test a gas turbine engine in ground test facilities. The distorted flow field is generated by positioning radial and circumferential strips of varying widths upstream of the Aerodynamic Interface Plane. The interacting wakes from these strips are used to generate a given target flow field. The approximate superposition of these wakes is investigated and used to construct the strip arrangement which is subsequently validated by computing the flow field by solving the Navier–Stokes equations. The strip geometry designed using the present methodology is able to produce the target Mach number distribution with a root-mean-square error of 5.06%.

  18. Closure report for housekeeping category, Corrective Action Unit 344, Nevada Test Site. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This Closure Report summarizes the corrective actions which were completed at the Corrective Action Sites within Corrective Action Unit 344 at the Nevada Test Site. Current site descriptions, observations and identification of wastes removed are included on FFACO Corrective Action Site housekeeping closure verification forms.

  19. Calibration and Recovery of Nuclear Test Seismic Ground-Motion Data from the Leo Brady Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B.; Abbott, R. E.

    2016-12-01

    In 1960, Sandia National Laboratories established a small seismic network with stations in Nevada, Utah, and California with the mission to monitor underground nuclear tests (UGTs) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly known as the Nevada Test Site). Over time, this seismic network came to be known as the Leo Brady Seismic Network (LBSN). The LBSN recorded approximately 800 UGTs at the NNSS from its inception through the end of testing in 1992. These irreplaceable data, mostly archived on analog, frequency-modulated magnetic tapes and stored in vaults, are now being digitized. This necessitated a calibration method to take the data from analog FM to digital counts to ground-motion units. Complicating the issue, the seismic system setup, telemetering, instrumentation, and calibration methods changed several times over the course of the LBSN's service life, and much of the documentation and knowledge of the system has been lost to time. The information necessary to understand, interpret, and ultimately calibrate these data was therefore collected from many disparate sources, each of which contains bits and pieces of relevant information. Contradictory information was often the rule rather than the exception. Where necessary (due to a lack of direct information) we made educated guesses as to the exact system, setup, and methodologies used. Ultimately, we documented the evolution and configuration of the seismic network, and determined both empirical and analytical approaches to calibrating these data. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  20. Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing in Support of NASA Launch Vehicle Loads and Controls Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, Margaret L.; Davis, Susan R.; Askins, Bruce R.; Salyer, Blaine H.

    2008-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ares Projects Office (APO) is continuing to make progress toward the final design of the Ares I crew launch vehicle and Ares V cargo launch vehicle. Ares I and V will form the space launch capabilities necessary to fulfill NASA's exploration strategy of sending human beings to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. As with all new space vehicles there will be a number of tests to ensure the design can be Human Rated. One of these is the Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT) that will be measuring responses of the Ares I as a system. All structural systems possess a basic set of physical characteristics unique to that system. These unique characteristics include items such as mass distribution, frequency and damping. When specified, they allow engineers to understand and predict how a structural system like the Ares I launch vehicle behaves under given loading conditions. These physical properties of launch vehicles may be predicted by analysis or measured through certain types of tests. Generally, these properties are predicted by analysis during the design phase of a launch vehicle and then verified through testing before the vehicle is Human Rated. The IVGVT is intended to measure by test the fundamental dynamic characteristics of Ares I during various phases of operational/flight. This testing includes excitations of the vehicle in lateral, longitudinal, and torsional directions at vehicle configurations representing different trajectory points. During the series of tests, properties such as natural frequencies, mode shapes, and transfer functions are measured directly. These data will then be used to calibrate loads and Guidance, Navigation, and Controls (GN&C) analysis models for verifying analyses of Ares I. NASA launch vehicles from Saturn to Shuttle have undergone Ground Vibration Tests (GVTs) leading to successful launch vehicles. A GVT was not performed on the unmanned Delta III. This vehicle was

  1. Site testing for the VLT in Northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltjer, L.

    The European Southern Observatory (ESO) will need sites for three telescopes. The telescopes considered include the 3.5 m New Technology Telescope to be completed in 1987, the 15 m Swedish-ESO mm/submm telescope, and the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The first two telescopes will probably be placed on La Silla. However, because of humidity considerations, a later transfer of the 15 m mm/submm telescope to a drier site appears possible. The main reason for conducting a new site survey is related to the VLT. Possible areas for establishing an observatory in the Southern Hemisphere are examined, taking into account Northern Chile. Attention is given to an area south of Antofagasta, mountains west of the Salar de Punta Negra, mountains between San Pedro de Atacama and El Tatio, mountains east of La Silla, problems regarding the observation of faint objects, water vapor content, and difficulties due to wind.

  2. The effect of the Jessica grounding on subtidal invertebrate and plant communities at the Galápagos wreck site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Paul A; Edgar, Graham J

    2003-01-01

    Impacts of the grounding of the oil tanker Jessica off San Cristóbal island, Galápagos, included both effects of oil on biota and also mechanical effects associated with a shallow furrow 50 m x 30 m gouged across the rocky seafloor and wreckage strewn over 7500 m(2). The wreckage represented a minor but potentially chronic source of pollution to the surrounding environment through delayed releases of oil, antifouling compounds and other toxic chemicals, and a possible source of exotic marine taxa. Investigation at the wreck site indicated that impacts on subtidal plant and macro-invertebrate communities were largely confined within 100 m of the wreck site itself. Observed population effects included significant increases in cover of opportunistic algae (filamentous green algae, filamentous red algae and Ulva sp.) and the hydroid Ectopleura media adjacent to the wreck, while densities of the green sea urchin Lytechinus semituberculatus significantly decreased from 0.3 m(-2) adjacent to the wreck to 11 m(-2) at 100 m distance.

  3. Estimation of aerosol particle composition using ground-based sun-sky radiometer measurements at typical sites in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Gu, X.; Wang, L.; Li, D.; Xing, X.; Gai, J.; Wang, Q.; Li, K.; Li, L.; Zhang, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol affects climate and environment through radiative and health effects determined by its physical and chemical properties. In this study, we modeled aerosol by an internal mixture of different components like water, sulfate and black carbon following Maxwell-Garnett effective medium approximation theory. In order to deal with complex aerosol mixing situation in China, we considered extra mineral dust component in case of large particles. Remote sensing data obtained from ground-based CE318 sun-sky radiometers in typical China sites are used to derive the aerosol mixture model. Measurements are firstly calibrated by using intercomparison and vicarious calibration methods and then retrieved by using AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) inversion algorithm to obtain refractive indices of the mixture, which are then used to yield aerosol component fraction. Results at typical China regions like megacity, industrial, arid, oceanic and background sites show considerable difference between their aerosol particle compositions and agree with a priori information like regional aerosol sources and formation processes.

  4. Nevada Test Site 2000 Annual Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E.Townsend

    2001-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2000 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (IL) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  5. Ensuring Safe Exploration: Ares Launch Vehicle Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuma, M. L.; Chenevert, D. J.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated vehicle ground vibration testing (IVGVT) will be a vital component for ensuring the safety of NASA's next generation of exploration vehicles to send human beings to the Moon and beyond. A ground vibration test (GVT) measures the fundamental dynamic characteristics of launch vehicles during various phases of flight. The Ares Flight & Integrated Test Office (FITO) will be leading the IVGVT for the Ares I crew launch vehicle at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) from 2012 to 2014 using Test Stand (TS) 4550. MSFC conducted similar GVT for the Saturn V and Space Shuttle vehicles. FITO is responsible for performing the IVGVT on the Ares I crew launch vehicle, which will lift the Orion crew exploration vehicle to low Earth orbit, and the Ares V cargo launch vehicle, which can launch the lunar lander into orbit and send the combined Orionilander vehicles toward the Moon. Ares V consists of a six-engine core stage with two solid rocket boosters and an Earth departure stage (EDS). The same engine will power the EDS and the Ares I second stage. For the Ares IVGVT, the current plan is to test six configurations in three unique test positions inside TS 4550. Position 1 represents the entire launch stack at liftoff (using inert first stage segments). Position 2 consists of the entire launch stack at first stage burn-out (using empty first stage segments). Four Ares I second stage test configurations will be tested in Position 3, consisting of the Upper Stage and Orion crew module in four nominal conditions: J-2X engine ignition, post Launch Abort System (LAS) jettison, critical slosh mass, and J-2X burn-out. Because of long disuse, TS 4550 is being repaired and reactivated to conduct the Ares I IVGVT. The Shuttle-era platforms have been removed and are being replaced with mast climbers that provide ready access to the test articles and can be moved easily to support different positions within the test stand. The electrical power distribution system for TS 4550 was

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 137: Waste Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.:0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 137: Waste Disposal Sites. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 137 contains sites that are located in Areas 1, 3, 7, 9, and 12 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 137 is comprised of the eight corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; (2) CAS 03-23-01, Waste Disposal Site; (3) CAS 03-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (4) CAS 03-99-15, Waste Disposal Site; (5) CAS 07-23-02, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (6) CAS 09-23-07, Radioactive Waste Disposal Site; (7) CAS 12-08-01, Waste Disposal Site; and (8) CAS 12-23-07, Waste Disposal Site. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 137 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI before evaluating and selecting

  7. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation at the New Rifle Site, Rifle, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the New Rifle Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site, Rifle, Colorado. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between the shallow aquifer and the Colorado River.

  8. Severe burning treatment tested on lowland pine sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Little; E. B. Moore

    1953-01-01

    Since the prescribed use of fire is a fairly new silvicultural technique for preparing seedbeds for pine in the New Jersey pine region, it has been used rather cautiously. Burning treatments have been made in the winter, when periodic light fires can be easily controlled. The treatments have been used almost exclusively on upland sites.

  9. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 107: Low Impact Soil Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-03-31

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan covers activities associated with Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 107 of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996 [as amended February 2008]). CAU 107 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 9, 10, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site. {sm_bullet} CAS 01-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site - High Alt{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-02, Contaminated Areas (2){sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-03, Contaminated Berm{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-10, Gourd-Amber Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-11, Sappho Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 02-23-12, Scuttle Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-24, Seaweed B Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-27, Adze Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-28, Manzanas Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 03-23-29, Truchas-Chamisal Contamination Area{sm_bullet} CAS 04-23-02, Atmospheric Test Site T4-a{sm_bullet} CAS 05-23-06, Atmospheric Test Site{sm_bullet} CAS 09-23-06, Mound of Contaminated Soil{sm_bullet} CAS 10-23-04, Atmospheric Test Site M-10{sm_bullet} CAS 18-23-02, U-18d Crater (Sulky) Based on historical documentation, personnel interviews, site process knowledge, site visits, photographs, engineering drawings, field screening, analytical results, and the results of data quality objectives process (Section 3.0), closure in place with administrative controls or no further action will be implemented for CAU 107.

  10. Internal methane transport through Juncus effusus: experimental manipulation of morphological barriers to test above- and below-ground diffusion limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Anders; Sorrell, Brian K; Brix, Hans

    2012-11-01

    Aerenchymatous plants can transport methane (CH(4) ) from the root zone to the atmosphere, bypassing the surface-oxidizing layers of the soil, yet morphological and anatomical factors that govern the transport of methane have rarely been critically tested in manipulative experiments. Here, we investigated the methane transport capacity of hydroponically grown Juncus effusus, in experiments with roots submerged in nutrient solutions sparged with methane (1.16 mmol CH(4) l(-1)). Through a range of manipulations of the above- and below-ground plant parts, we tested the contradictory claims in the literature regarding which sites provide the greatest resistance to gas transport. Root manipulations had the greatest effect on methane transport. Removing root material reduced methane transport significantly, and especially the lateral roots and the root tips were important. Cutting of the shoots, with or without subsequent sealing, did not alter methane transport significantly. We confirm modelling predictions that the limiting factor for methane transport in the tussock forming wetland graminoid, J. effusus, is the amount of permeable root surface, estimated using the proxy measurement of root length. The aerial tissues do not provide any significant resistance to methane transport, and the methane is emitted from the lower 50 mm of the shoots. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Pre-Flight Tests with Astronauts, Flight and Ground Hardware, to Assure On-Orbit Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    On-Orbit Constraints Test (OOCT's) refers to mating flight hardware together on the ground before they will be mated on-orbit or on the Lunar surface. The concept seems simple but it can be difficult to perform operations like this on the ground when the flight hardware is being designed to be mated on-orbit in a zero-g/vacuum environment of space or low-g/vacuum environment on the Lunar/Mars Surface. Also some of the items are manufactured years apart so how are mating tasks performed on these components if one piece is on-orbit/on Lunar/Mars surface before its mating piece is planned to be built. Both the Internal Vehicular Activity (IVA) and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) OOCT's performed at Kennedy Space Center will be presented in this paper. Details include how OOCT's should mimic on-orbit/Lunar/Mars surface operational scenarios, a series of photographs will be shown that were taken during OOCT's performed on International Space Station (ISS) flight elements, lessons learned as a result of the OOCT's will be presented and the paper will conclude with possible applications to Moon and Mars Surface operations planned for the Constellation Program.

  12. Small UAV Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System Design Considerations and Flight Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, Paul; Skoog, Mark; Burrows, Scott; Thomas, SaraKatie

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Armstrong Flight Research Center Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (SUAV) Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS) project demonstrated several important collision avoidance technologies. First, the SUAV Auto GCAS design included capabilities to take advantage of terrain avoidance maneuvers flying turns to either side as well as straight over terrain. Second, the design also included innovative digital elevation model (DEM) scanning methods. The combination of multi-trajectory options and new scanning methods demonstrated the ability to reduce the nuisance potential of the SUAV while maintaining robust terrain avoidance. Third, the Auto GCAS algorithms were hosted on the processor inside a smartphone, providing a lightweight hardware configuration for use in either the ground control station or on board the test aircraft. Finally, compression of DEM data for the entire Earth and successful hosting of that data on the smartphone was demonstrated. The SUAV Auto GCAS project demonstrated that together these methods and technologies have the potential to dramatically reduce the number of controlled flight into terrain mishaps across a wide range of aviation platforms with similar capabilities including UAVs, general aviation aircraft, helicopters, and model aircraft.

  13. Ground and surface water for drinking: a laboratory study on genotoxicity using plant tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Feretti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Surface waters are increasingly utilized for drinking water because groundwater sources are often polluted. Several monitoring studies have detected the presence of mutagenicity in drinking water, especially from surface sources due to the reaction of natural organic matter with disinfectant. The study aimed to investigate the genotoxic potential of the products of reaction between humic substances, which are naturally present in surface water, and three disinfectants: chlorine dioxide, sodium hypochlorite and peracetic acid. Commercial humic acids dissolved in distilled water at different total organic carbon (TOC concentrations were studied in order to simulate natural conditions of both ground water (TOC=2.5 mg/L and surface water (TOC=7.5 mg/L. These solutions were treated with the biocides at a 1:1 molar ratio of C:disinfectant and tested for genotoxicity using the anaphase chromosomal aberration and micronucleus tests in Allium cepa, and the Vicia faba and Tradescantia micronucleus tests. The tests were carried out after different times and with different modes of exposure, and at 1:1 and 1:10 dilutions of disinfected and undisinfected humic acid solutions. A genotoxic effect was found for sodium hypochlorite in all plant tests, at both TOCs considered, while chlorine dioxide gave positive results only with the A.cepa tests. Some positive effects were also detected for PAA (A.cepa and Tradescantia. No relevant differences were found in samples with different TOC values. The significant increase in all genotoxicity end-points induced by all tested disinfectants indicates that a genotoxic potential is exerted even in the presence of organic substances at similar concentrations to those frequently present in drinking water.

  14. Ground-water monitoring compliance projects for Hanford Site facilities: Volume 1, The report and Appendix A, Progress report for the period October 1 to December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-02-01

    This report documents recent progress on ground-water monitoring projects for four Hanford Site facilities: the 300 Area Process Trenches, the 183-H Solar Evaporation Basins, the 200 Area Low-Level Burial Grounds, and the Nonradioactive Dangerous Waste (NRDW) Landfill. The existing ground-water monitoring projects for the first two facilities named in the paragraph above are currently being expanded by adding new wells to the networks. During the reporting period, sampling of the existing wells continued on a monthly basis, and the analytical results for samples collected from September through November 1986 are included and discussed in this document. 8 refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Validation of Global EO Biophysical Products at JECAM Test Site in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skakun, Sergii; Kussul, Nataliia; Kravchenko, Oleksiy; Basarab, Ruslan; Ostapenko, Vadym; Yailymov, Bohdan; Shelestov, Andrii; Kolotii, Andrii; Mironov, Andrii

    Efficient global agriculture monitoring requires appropriate validation of Earth observation (EO) products for different regions and cropping system. This problem is addressed within the Joint Experiment of Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) initiative which aims to develop monitoring and reporting protocols and best practices for a variety of global agricultural systems. Ukraine is actively involved into JECAM, and a JECAM Ukraine test site was officially established in 2011. The following problems are being solved within JECAM Ukraine: (i) crop identification and crop area estimation [1]; (ii) crop yield forecasting [2]; (iii) EO products validation. The following case study regions were selected for these purposes: (i) the whole Kyiv oblast (28,000 sq. km) indented for crop mapping and acreage estimation; (ii) intensive observation sub-site in Pshenichne which is a research farm from the National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine and indented for crop biophysical parameters estimation; (iii) Lviv region for rape-seed identification and crop rotation control; (iv) Crimea region for crop damage assessment due to droughts, and illegial field detection. In 2013, Ukrainian JECAM test site was selected as one of the “Champion User” for the ESA Sentinel-2 for Agriculture project. The test site was observed with SPOT-4 and RapidEye satellites every 5 days. The collected images are then used to simulate Sentinel-2 images for agriculture purposes. JECAM Ukraine is responsible for collecting ground observation data for validation purposes, and is involved in providing user requirements for Sentinel-2 agriculture related products. In particular, three field campaigns to characterize the vegetation biophysical parameters at the Pshenichne test site were carried out: First campaign - 14th to 17th of May 2013; second campaign - 12th to 15th of June 2013; third campaign - 14th to 17th of July 2013. Digital Hemispheric Photographs (DHP) images were

  16. Bibliography of reports on studies of the geology, hydrogeology and hydrology at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, from 1951--1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaber, P.R.; Stowers, E.D.; Pearl, R.H.

    1997-04-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) was established in 1951 as a proving ground for nuclear weapons. The site had formerly been part of an Air Force bombing and gunnery range during World War II. Sponsor-directed studies of the geology, hydrogeology, and hydrology of the NTS began about 1956 and were broad based in nature, but were related mainly to the effects of the detonation of nuclear weapons. These effects included recommending acceptable media and areas for underground tests, the possibility of off-site contamination of groundwater, air blast and surface contamination in the event of venting, ground-shock damage that could result from underground blasts, and studies in support of drilling and emplacement. The studies were both of a pure scientific nature and of a practical applied nature. The NTS was the site of 828 underground nuclear tests and 100 above-ground tests conducted between 1951 and 1992 (U.S. Department of Energy, 1994a). After July 1962, all nuclear tests conducted in the United States were underground, most of them at the NTS. The first contained underground nuclear explosion was detonated on September 19, 1957, following extensive study of the underground effect of chemical explosives. The tests were performed by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors, the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission and the Energy Research and Development Administration. As part of a nationwide complex for nuclear weapons design, testing and manufacturing, the NTS was the location for continental testing of new and stockpiled nuclear devices. Other tests, including Project {open_quotes}Plowshare{close_quotes} experiments to test the peaceful application of nuclear explosives, were conducted on several parts of the site. In addition, the Defense Nuclear Agency tested the effect of nuclear detonations on military hardware.

  17. TWRS tank waste pretreatment process development hot test siting report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.; Banning, D.L.; Dodd, D.A.; Smith, D.A.; Stevens, P.F. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Hansen, R.I.; Reynolds, B.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This report is the sixth in a series that have assessed the hot testing requirements for TWRS pretreatment process development and identified the hot testing support requirements. This report, based on the previous work, identifies specific hot test work packages, matches those packages to specific hot cell facilities, and provides recommendations of specific facilities to be employed for the pretreatment hot test work. Also identified are serious limitations in the tank waste sample retrieval and handling infrastructure. Recommendations are provided for staged development of 500 mL, 3 L, 25 L and 4000 L sample recovery systems and specific actions to provide those capabilities.

  18. Final safety analysis report for the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA), Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-10-01

    This document is the third volume of a 3 volume safety analysis report on the Ground Test Accelerator (GTA). The GTA program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is the major element of the national Neutral Particle Beam (NPB) program, which is supported by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office (SDIO). A principal goal of the national NPB program is to assess the feasibility of using hydrogen and deuterium neutral particle beams outside the Earth`s atmosphere. The main effort of the NPB program at Los Alamos concentrates on developing the GTA. The GTA is classified as a low-hazard facility, except for the cryogenic-cooling system, which is classified as a moderate-hazard facility. This volume consists of appendices C through U of the report

  19. JWST Point Spread Function Quality and Stability: Ground Testing, Integrated Modeling, and Space Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElwain, Michael; Van Gorkom, Kyle; Bowers, Charles W.; Carnahan, Timothy M.; Kimble, Randy A.; Knight, J. Scott; Lightsey, Paul; Maghami, Peiman G.; Mustelier, David; Niedner, Malcolm B.; hide

    2017-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a large (6.5 m) cryogenic segmented aperture telescope with science instruments that cover the near- and mid-infrared from 0.6-27 microns. The large aperture not only provides high photometric sensitivity, but it also enables high angular resolution across the bandpass, with a diffraction limited point spread function (PSF) at wavelengths longer than 2 microns. The JWST PSF quality and stability are intimately tied to the science capabilities as it is convolved with the astrophysical scene. However, the PSF evolves at a variety of timescales based on telescope jitter and thermal distortion as the observatory attitude is varied. We present the image quality and stability requirements, recent predictions from integrated modeling, measurements made during ground-based testing, and performance characterization activities that will be carried out as part of the commissioning process.

  20. Radiative Heating in MSL Entry: Comparison of Flight Heating Discrepancy to Ground Test and Predictive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruden, Brett A.; Brandis, Aaron M.; White, Todd R.; Mahzari, Milad; Bose, Deepak

    2014-01-01

    During the recent entry of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), the heat shield was equipped with thermocouple stacks to measure in-depth heating of the thermal protection system (TPS). When only convective heating was considered, the derived heat flux from gauges in the stagnation region was found to be underpredicted by as much as 17 W/sq cm, which is significant compared to the peak heating of 32 W/sq cm. In order to quantify the contribution of radiative heating phenomena to the discrepancy, ground tests and predictive simulations that replicated the MSL entry trajectory were performed. An analysis is carried through to assess the quality of the radiation model and the impact to stagnation line heating. The impact is shown to be significant, but does not fully explain the heating discrepancy.

  1. 78 FR 77646 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2014 Census Site Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; 2014 Census Site Test AGENCY: U.S. Census..., reducing the need for more costly enumerator-administered options. The 2014 Census Site Test will allow the... under consideration for the 2020 Census. To improve self- response, the Census Bureau plans to test new...

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 135: Areas 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. H. Cox

    2001-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, was closed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan (DOE/NV, 2000). CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CAS). Two of these CAS's were identified in the Corrective Action Investigation Data Quality Objective meeting as being improperly identified as underground storage tanks. CAS 25-02-03 identified as the Deluge Valve Pit was actually an underground electrical vault and CAS 25-02-10 identified as an Underground Storage Tank was actually a former above ground storage tank filled with demineralized water. Both of these CAS's are recommended for a no further action closure. CAS 25-02-01 the Underground Storage Tanks commonly referred to as the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault was closed by decontaminating the vault structure and conducting a radiological verification survey to document compliance with the Nevada Test Site unrestricted use release criteria. The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive and cell service area drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999, discussed in ''The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 199a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples exceeded the preliminary action levels for polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. The CAU 135 closure activities consisted of scabbling radiological ''hot spots

  3. ACCESS, Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars: Integration, Test, and Ground Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mary Elizabeth; Morris, Matthew; Aldoroty, Lauren; Kurucz, Robert; McCandliss, Stephan; Rauscher, Bernard; Kimble, Randy; Kruk, Jeffrey; Wright, Edward L.; Feldman, Paul; Riess, Adam; Gardner, Jonathon; Bohlin, Ralph; Deustua, Susana; Dixon, Van; Sahnow, David J.; Perlmutter, Saul

    2018-01-01

    Establishing improved spectrophotometric standards is important for a broad range of missions and is relevant to many astrophysical problems. Systematic errors associated with astrophysical data used to probe fundamental astrophysical questions, such as SNeIa observations used to constrain dark energy theories, now exceed the statistical errors associated with merged databases of these measurements. ACCESS, “Absolute Color Calibration Experiment for Standard Stars”, is a series of rocket-borne sub-orbital missions and ground-based experiments designed to enable improvements in the precision of the astrophysical flux scale through the transfer of absolute laboratory detector standards from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to a network of stellar standards with a calibration accuracy of 1% and a spectral resolving power of 500 across the 0.35‑1.7μm bandpass. To achieve this goal ACCESS (1) observes HST/ Calspec stars (2) above the atmosphere to eliminate telluric spectral contaminants (e.g. OH) (3) using a single optical path and (HgCdTe) detector (4) that is calibrated to NIST laboratory standards and (5) monitored on the ground and in-flight using a on-board calibration monitor. The observations are (6) cross-checked and extended through the generation of stellar atmosphere models for the targets. The ACCESS telescope and spectrograph have been designed, fabricated, and integrated. Subsystems have been tested. Performance results for subsystems, operations testing, and the integrated spectrograph will be presented. NASA sounding rocket grant NNX17AC83G supports this work.

  4. Analysis of the Effects of Vitiates on Surface Heat Flux in Ground Tests of Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, Vincent; Gaffney, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    To achieve the high enthalpy conditions associated with hypersonic flight, many ground test facilities burn fuel in the air upstream of the test chamber. Unfortunately, the products of combustion contaminate the test gas and alter gas properties and the heat fluxes associated with aerodynamic heating. The difference in the heating rates between clean air and a vitiated test medium needs to be understood so that the thermal management system for hypersonic vehicles can be properly designed. This is particularly important for advanced hypersonic vehicle concepts powered by air-breathing propulsion systems that couple cooling requirements, fuel flow rates, and combustor performance by flowing fuel through sub-surface cooling passages to cool engine components and preheat the fuel prior to combustion. An analytical investigation was performed comparing clean air to a gas vitiated with methane/oxygen combustion products to determine if variations in gas properties contributed to changes in predicted heat flux. This investigation started with simple relationships, evolved into writing an engineering-level code, and ended with running a series of CFD cases. It was noted that it is not possible to simultaneously match all of the gas properties between clean and vitiated test gases. A study was then conducted selecting various combinations of freestream properties for a vitiated test gas that matched clean air values to determine which combination of parameters affected the computed heat transfer the least. The best combination of properties to match was the free-stream total sensible enthalpy, dynamic pressure, and either the velocity or Mach number. This combination yielded only a 2% difference in heating. Other combinations showed departures of up to 10% in the heat flux estimate.

  5. Surface Disturbances at the Punggye-ri Nuclear Test Site: Another Indicator of Nuclear Testing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pabian, Frank V. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Coblentz, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-02-03

    A review of available very high-resolution commercial satellite imagery (bracketing the time of North Korea’s most recent underground nuclear test on 9 September 2016 at the Punggye-ri Underground Nuclear Test Site) has led to the detection and identification of several minor surface disturbances on the southern flank of Mt. Mantap. These surface disturbances occur in the form of small landslides, either alone or together with small zones of disturbed bare rock that appear to have been vertically lofted (“spalled”) as a result of the most recent underground explosion. Typically, spall can be uniquely attributed to underground nuclear testing and is not a result of natural processes. However, given the time gap of up to three months between images (pre- and post-event), which was coincident with a period of heavy typhoon flooding in the area1, it is not possible to determine whether the small landslides were exclusively explosion induced, the consequence of heavy rainfall erosion, or some combination of the two.

  6. Overview of Low-Level Waste Disposal Operations at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/Navarro

    2007-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Environmental Management Program is charged with the responsibility to carry out the disposal of on-site and off-site generated low-level radioactive waste at the Nevada Test Site. Core elements of this mission are ensuring that disposal take place in a manner that is safe and cost-effective while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. This paper focuses on giving an overview of the Nevada Test Site facilities regarding currant design of disposal. In addition, technical attributes of the facilities established through the site characterization process will be further described. An update on current waste disposal volumes and capabilities will also be provided. This discussion leads to anticipated volume projections and disposal site requirements as the Nevada Test Site disposal operations look towards the future.

  7. Using the Sonoran Desert test site to monitor the long-term radiometric stability of the Landsat TM/ETM+ and Terra MODIS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, A.; Xiong, X.; Choi, T.; Chander, G.; Wu, A.

    2009-08-01

    Pseudo-invariant ground targets have been extensively used to monitor the long-term radiometric calibration stability of remote sensing instruments. The NASA MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST), in collaboration with members from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, has previously demonstrated the use of pseudo-invariant ground sites for the long-term stability monitoring of Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ sensors. This paper focuses on the results derived from observations made over the Sonoran Desert. Additionally, Landsat 5 TM data over the Sonoran Desert site were used to evaluate the temporal stability of this site. Top-ofatmosphere (TOA) reflectances were computed for the closely matched TM, ETM+, and MODIS spectral bands over selected regions of interest. The impacts due to different viewing geometries, or the effect of test site Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), are also presented.

  8. Using the Sonoran Desert test site to monitor the long-term radiometric stability of the Landsat TM/ETM+ and Terra MODIS sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angal, A.; Xiong, X.; Choi, T.; Chander, G.; Wu, A.

    2009-01-01

    Pseudo-invariant ground targets have been extensively used to monitor the long-term radiometric calibration stability of remote sensing instruments. The NASA MODIS Characterization Support Team (MCST), in collaboration with members from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center, has previously demonstrated the use of pseudo-invariant ground sites for the long-term stability monitoring of Terra MODIS and Landsat 7 ETM+ sensors. This paper focuses on the results derived from observations made over the Sonoran Desert. Additionally, Landsat 5 TM data over the Sonoran Desert site were used to evaluate the temporal stability of this site. Top-ofatmosphere (TOA) reflectances were computed for the closely matched TM, ETM+, and MODIS spectral bands over selected regions of interest. The impacts due to different viewing geometries, or the effect of test site Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF), are also presented. ?? 2009 SPIE.

  9. Estimating Empirical Site Amplification of Taiwan near-surface structure by Spectral Ratio Methods with CWB Next Generation Seismic Network: toward broadband waveform ground motion prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Y. H.; Ma, K. F.; Wang, Y. J.

    2016-12-01

    Site effect is one of the most important factors dominating ground motion prediction. For engineering usage, the ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) usually includes the site-effect factor (e.g. Vs30, Z1.0). The site-effect, however, is considered as non-linear response, and could be critical for the aspect in broadband waveform modeling for ground motion prediction through simulation. In this study, we utilized four large earthquakes data of surface and borehole seismometers from Central Weather Bureau (CWB) next generation seismic network to analyze the site amplification factors and the transfer functions for sediments over the basement. We used a spectral ratio method by comparing the ground motions of surface and borehole record to acquire empirical amplification factors (EAF) for PGA, PGV and frequency spectra from 0.1 to 20 Hz. The relationship between the EAF and Vs30 value were analyzed as well. The first part of results showed that nonlinear relationship between PGA (or PGV) amplification and Vs30, suggested that the amplification of PGA or PGV from borehole to surface was not dominated by shallow structure (i.e., top 30 m of strata). Thus, estimating the site effect should include not only Vs30 but EAF, because EAF could directly response the amplification of ground motion by site characters. The second part of results showed that the relationships between EAF for frequency spectra range of 0.1 to 20 Hz and Vs30 could be divided into two site types which are strongly correlated to Vs30 values of sites. For Type I sites, the EAF increased with increasing frequency, and the Vs30 of these sites are generally over 760 (m/s). Type II sites which Vs30 are generally lower than 760 (m/s), the peak value of EAF shown around frequency range of 1 to 3 Hz attributed to the soft-soil conditions. The empirical amplification and transfer function analysis could be applied to obtain the GMPE for basement rock and be adopted in ground motion simulation. The effort

  10. Vent System Analysis for the Cryogenic Propellant Storage Transfer Ground Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A

    2013-01-01

    To test and validate key capabilities and technologies required for future exploration elements such as large cryogenic propulsion stages and propellant depots, NASA is leading the efforts to develop and design the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) payload. The primary objectives of CPST payload are to demonstrate: 1) in-space storage of cryogenic propellants for long duration applications; and 2) in-space transfer of cryogenic propellants. The Ground Test Article (GTA) is a technology development version of the CPST payload. The GTA consists of flight-sized and flight-like storage and transfer tanks, liquid acquisition devices, transfer, and pressurization systems with all of the CPST functionality. The GTA is designed to perform integrated passive and active thermal storage and transfer performance testing with liquid hydrogen (LH2) in a vacuum environment. The GTA storage tank is designed to store liquid hydrogen and the transfer tank is designed to be 5% of the storage tank volume. The LH2 transfer subsystem is designed to transfer propellant from one tank to the other utilizing pressure or a pump. The LH2 vent subsystem is designed to prevent over-pressurization of the storage and transfer tanks. An in-house general-purpose computer program was utilized to model and simulate the vent subsystem operation. The modeling, analysis, and the results will be presented in the final paper.

  11. The optical performance of the PILOT instrument from ground end-to-end tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, R.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Longval, Y.; Ristorcelli, I.; Ade, P.; Alina, D.; André, Y.; Aumont, J.; Bautista, L.; de Bernardis, P.; Boulade, O.; Bousqet, F.; Bouzit, M.; Buttice, V.; Caillat, A.; Chaigneau, M.; Charra, M.; Crane, B.; Douchin, F.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubois, J. P.; Engel, C.; Griffin, M.; Foenard, G.; Grabarnik, S.; Hargrave, P.; Hughes, A.; Laureijs, R.; Leriche, B.; Maestre, S.; Maffei, B.; Marty, C.; Marty, W.; Masi, S.; Montel, J.; Montier, L.; Mot, B.; Narbonne, J.; Pajot, F.; Pérot, E.; Pimentao, J.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Rodriguez, L.; Roudil, G.; Salatino, M.; Savini, G.; Simonella, O.; Saccoccio, M.; Tauber, J.; Tucker, C.

    2017-06-01

    The Polarized Instrument for Long-wavelength Observation of the Tenuous interstellar medium ( PILOT) is a balloon-borne astronomy experiment designed to study the linear polarization of thermal dust emission in two photometric bands centred at wavelengths 240 μm (1.2 THz) and 550 μm (545 GHz), with an angular resolution of a few arcminutes. Several end-to-end tests of the instrument were performed on the ground between 2012 and 2014, in order to prepare for the first scientific flight of the experiment that took place in September 2015 from Timmins, Ontario, Canada. This paper presents the results of those tests, focussing on an evaluation of the instrument's optical performance. We quantify image quality across the extent of the focal plane, and describe the tests that we conducted to determine the focal plane geometry, the optimal focus position, and sources of internal straylight. We present estimates of the detector response, obtained using an internal calibration source, and estimates of the background intensity and background polarization.

  12. Activation of electrical machinery. Supplement 1. [Preliminary evaluation; not applicable to ground tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolen, J.R.

    1963-11-15

    The following analysis of the induced radioactivity in SNAP-50/SPUR electrical machinery having a high cobalt content is submitted. Induced radioactivity in the flight vehicle will contribute negligibly to allowable radiation levels. This is especially so due to the low neutron to gamma ratio of assumed radiation damage tolerances to semiconductors. A calculation to estimate the order of magnitude of induced radioactivity in cobalt is attached. The calculation is based on a best guess of the neutron spectrum directly behind a lithium hydride shield. The resulting low cobalt activity and associated dose rate of about 1 mr/hr at 10 ft from a generator or a motor is insignificant. Although the evaluation indicates insignificant levels of induced radioactivity, this conclusion is not applicable to a ground test. Neutron moderation and scattering from a containment vessel and biological shield would greatly perturb the neutron environment behind the flight shield. Posttest handling of all components within the vacuum test chamber will undoubtedly be a problem. Notwithstanding the importance of limiting induced radioactivity, other considerations such as economy, cooling and vacuum requirements will largely dictate the final facility design. In summary, an activation analysis involves the overall facility design and will not be readily resolved. For a 10,000 hr. test the Co/sup 60/ activity may range from 100 curies per lb of cobalt where no shielding is provided to 10/sup -3/ curies per lb of cobalt where the equivalent of a flight shield is provided.

  13. Dynamic Time Warping Distance Method for Similarity Test of Multipoint Ground Motion Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingmin Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reasonability of artificial multi-point ground motions and the identification of abnormal records in seismic array observations, are two important issues in application and analysis of multi-point ground motion fields. Based on the dynamic time warping (DTW distance method, this paper discusses the application of similarity measurement in the similarity analysis of simulated multi-point ground motions and the actual seismic array records. Analysis results show that the DTW distance method not only can quantitatively reflect the similarity of simulated ground motion field, but also offers advantages in clustering analysis and singularity recognition of actual multi-point ground motion field.

  14. Innovative Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Thomas Johnathan; Noble, Cheryl Ann; Noble, C.; Martinell, John Stephen; Borowski, S.

    2000-07-01

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonable assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

  15. Innovation Approaches to Development and Ground Testing of Advanced Bimodal Space Power and Propulsion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, T.; Noble, C.; Martinell, J. (INEEL); Borowski, S. (NASA Glenn Research Center)

    2000-07-14

    The last major development effort for nuclear power and propulsion systems ended in 1993. Currently, there is not an initiative at either the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) or the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that requires the development of new nuclear power and propulsion systems. Studies continue to show nuclear technology as a strong technical candidate to lead the way toward human exploration of adjacent planets or provide power for deep space missions, particularly a 15,000 lbf bimodal nuclear system with 115 kW power capability. The development of nuclear technology for space applications would require technology development in some areas and a major flight qualification program. The last major ground test facility considered for nuclear propulsion qualification was the U.S. Air Force/DOE Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Project. Seven years have passed since that effort, and the questions remain the same, how to qualify nuclear power and propulsion systems for future space flight. It can be reasonably assumed that much of the nuclear testing required to qualify a nuclear system for space application will be performed at DOE facilities as demonstrated by the Nuclear Rocket Engine Reactor Experiment (NERVA) and Space Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (SNTP) programs. The nuclear infrastructure to support testing in this country is aging and getting smaller, though facilities still exist to support many of the technology development needs. By renewing efforts, an innovative approach to qualifying these systems through the use of existing facilities either in the U.S. (DOE's Advance Test Reactor, High Flux Irradiation Facility and the Contained Test Facility) or overseas should be possible.

  16. Forecasts of the atmospherical parameters close to the ground at the LBT site in the context of the ALTA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Alessio; Masciadri, Elena; Fini, Luca

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we study the abilities of an atmospherical mesoscale model in forecasting the classical atmospherical parameters relevant for astronomical applications at the surface layer (wind speed, wind direction, temperature, relative humidity) on the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT) site - Mount Graham, Arizona. The study is carried out in the framework of the ALTA project aiming at implementing an automated system for the forecasts of atmospherical parameters (Meso-Nh code) and the optical turbulence (Astro-Meso-Nh code) for the service-mode operation of the LBT. The final goal of such an operational tool is to provide predictions with high time frequency of atmospheric and optical parameters for an optimized planning of the telescope operation (dome thermalization, wind-dependent dome orientation, observation planning based on predicted seeing, adaptive optics optimization, etc...). Numerical simulations are carried out with the Meso-Nh and Astro-Meso-Nh codes, which were proven to give excellent results in previous studies focused on the two ESO sites of Cerro Paranal and Cerro Armazones (MOSE Project). In this paper we will focus our attention on the comparison of atmospherical parameters forescasted by the model close to the ground with measurements taken by the observatory instrumentations and stored in the LBT telemetry in order to validate the numerical predictions. As previously done for Cerro Paranal (Lascaux et al., 2015), we will also present an analysis of the model performances based on the method of the contingency tables, that allows us to provide complementary key information with the respect to the bias and RMSE (systematic and statistical errors), such as the percentage of correct detection and the probability to obtain a correct detection inside a defined interval of values.

  17. Comparison of ground-based measurements of solar UV radiation at four sites on the Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsang, Gelsor; Chen, Yi-Chun; Pingcuo, Nima; Dahlback, Arne; Frette, Øyvind; Kjeldstad, Berit; Hamre, Børge; Stamnes, Knut; Stamnes, Jakob J

    2014-02-01

    We compare results for the UV index (UVI), the total ozone column (TOC), and the radiation modification factor (RMF, being 1 in the absence of clouds and aerosols) at four sites on the Tibetan Plateau. The results were obtained by analyzing ground measurements by multichannel moderate-bandwidth filter instruments for the period July 2008-September 2010, and radiative transfer modeling was used to aid the interpretation of the results. The highest UVI of 20.6 was measured in Tingri (28.7°N; 4335 m). For July, monthly mean UVI values were 14.5 and 12.9 in Tingri and Lhasa (29.7°N; 3683 m), respectively. Generally, the UVI levels in Tingri and Lhasa were higher than in Nagchu (31.5°N; 4510 m) and Linzhi (29.7°N; 2995 m), due to less cloud cover at the former two sites. In 2009, the annual mean UVI and RMF values were 6.8 and 0.7 for Linzhi, 8.8 and 0.92 for Lhasa, 10.5 and 0.92 for Tingri, and 6.7 and 0.7 for Nagchu. Radiative transfer simulations indicate that the latitude difference would correspond to an increase in the UVI of about 0.3 from Nagchu to Tingri; whereas, the altitude difference would correspond to a reduction of about 1.5%, implying that the observed difference is due to the difference in cloud cover. The annual mean TOC values were found to be 260-264 Dobson units (DU) in Lhasa, Linzhi, and Nagchu, and 252 DU in Tingri. TOC values in Lhasa were found to agree within 3% with those derived from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) measurements.

  18. Open-loop GPS signal tracking at low elevation angles from a ground-based observation site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyerle, Georg; Zus, Florian

    2016-04-01

    For more than a decade space-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) radio occultation (RO) observations are used by meteorological services world-wide for their numerical weather prediction models. In addition, climate studies increasingly rely on validated GNSS-RO data sets of atmospheric parameters. GNSS-RO profiles typically cover an altitude range from the boundary layer up to the upper stratosphere; their highest accuracy and precision, however, are attained at the tropopause level. In the lower troposphere, multipath ray propagation tend to induce signal amplitude and frequency fluctuations which lead to the development and implementation of open-loop signal tracking methods in GNSS-RO receiver firmwares. In open-loop mode the feed-back values for the carrier tracking loop are derived not from measured data, but from a Doppler frequency model which usually is extracted from an atmospheric climatology. In order to ensure that this receiver-internal parameter set, does not bias the carrier phase path observables, dual-channel open-loop GNSS-RO signal tracking was suggested. Following this proposal the ground-based "GLESER" (GPS low-elevation setting event recorder) campaign was established. Its objective was to disproof the existence of model-induced frequency biases using ground-based GPS observations at very low elevation angles. Between January and December 2014 about 2600 validated setting events, starting at geometric elevation angles of +2° and extending to -1°… - 1.5°, were recorded by the single frequency "OpenGPS" GPS receiver at a measurement site located close to Potsdam, Germany (52.3808°N, 13.0642°E). The study is based on the assumption that these ground-based observations may be used as proxies for space-based RO measurements, even if the latter occur on a one order of magnitude faster temporal scale. The "GLESER" data analysis shows that the open-loop Doppler model has negligible influence on the derived frequency profile

  19. Validating MODIS and Sentinel-2 NDVI Products at a Temperate Deciduous Forest Site Using Two Independent Ground-Based Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Maximilian; Dechant, Benjamin; Rebmann, Corinna; Vohland, Michael; Cuntz, Matthias; Doktor, Daniel

    2017-08-11

    Quantifying the accuracy of remote sensing products is a timely endeavor given the rapid increase in Earth observation missions. A validation site for Sentinel-2 products was hence established in central Germany. Automatic multispectral and hyperspectral sensor systems were installed in parallel with an existing eddy covariance flux tower, providing spectral information of the vegetation present at high temporal resolution. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) values from ground-based hyperspectral and multispectral sensors were compared with NDVI products derived from Sentinel-2A and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The influence of different spatial and temporal resolutions was assessed. High correlations and similar phenological patterns between in situ and satellite-based NDVI time series demonstrated the reliability of satellite-based phenological metrics. Sentinel-2-derived metrics showed better agreement with in situ measurements than MODIS-derived metrics. Dynamic filtering with the best index slope extraction algorithm was nevertheless beneficial for Sentinel-2 NDVI time series despite the availability of quality information from the atmospheric correction procedure.

  20. Radiation doses to local populations near nuclear weapons test sites worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André

    2002-05-01

    Nuclear weapons testing was conducted in the atmosphere at numerous sites worldwide between 1946 and 1980, which resulted in exposures to local populations as a consequence of fallout of radioactive debris. The nuclear tests were conducted by five nations (United States, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France, and China) primarily at 16 sites. The 16 testing sites, located in nine different countries on five continents (plus Oceania) contributed nearly all of the radioactive materials released to the environment by atmospheric testing; only small amounts were released at a fewother minor testing sites. The 16 sites discussed here are Nevada Test Site, USA (North American continent), Bikini and Enewetak, Marshall Islands (Oceania); Johnston Island, USA (Oceania), Christmas and Malden Island, Kiribati (Oceania); Emu Field, Maralinga, and Monte Bello Islands, Australia (Australian continent); Mururoa and Fangataufa, French Polynesia (Oceania), Reggane, Algeria (Africa), Novaya Zemlya and Kapustin Yar, Russia (Europe), Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan (Asia), and Lop Nor, China (Asia). There were large differences in the numbers of tests conducted at each location and in the total explosive yields. Those factors, as well as differences in population density, lifestyle, environment, and climate at each site, led to large differences in the doses received by local populations. In general, the tests conducted earliest led to the highest individual and population exposures, although the amount of information available for a few of these sites is insufficient to provide any detailed evaluation of radiation exposures. The most comprehensive information for any site is for the Nevada Test Site. The disparities in available information add difficulty to determining the radiation exposures of local populations at each site. It is the goal of this paper to summarize the available information on external and internal doses received by the public living in the regions near each of the

  1. Gravity and magnetic data of Fortymile Wash, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce, D.A.; Kohrn, S.B. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Waddell, S. [Fenix and Scisson, Inc., Mercury, NV (United States)

    1992-12-31

    Gravity and ground magnetic data collected along six traverses across Fortymile Wash, in the southwest quadrant of the Nevada Test Site suggest that there are no significant vertical offsets below Fortymile Wash. The largest gravity and magnetic anomaly, in the vicinity of Fortymile Wash, is produced by the Paintbrush fault, on the west flank of Fran Ridge. Inferred vertical offset is about 250 {+-} 60 m (800 {+-} 200 ft). Geophysical data indicate that the fault is about 300 m (1,000 ft) east of its mapped, but concealed location. North of Busted Butte, near Fran Ridge, geophysical data do not preclude the existence of small vertical offsets bounding Fortymile Wash. However, gravity and magnetic profiles south of Busted Butte show little correlation to those to the north and suggest that vertical offsets, comparable in size to the Paintbrush fault, are not present. Density profiling, a technique used to determine the average density of small topographic features, suggests that the density of near-surface material in the vicinity of Fortymile Wash is 1.80 to 2.00 g/cm{sup 3}.

  2. Development of Biocompatibility Procedures for Assessment of Plant Growth in Ground Test Hardware for the EMCS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, R. N.; Steele, M. K.; Sun, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS) is an European Space Agency-developed facility designed to support plant research in microgravity on the IS NASA is responsible for providing US specific hardware to use within the EMCS. In preparation for flight, research will be developed and tested at Ames Research Center in the EMCS ground test hardware, the Experiment Reference Module (ERM) In order to determine the acceptability of the ERM for such purposes, biocompatibility tests will be performed to determine that the hardware functions as intended and successfully supports the' growth of plants. In this report, we describe the development of procedures and the collection of baseline data against which to compare ERM function, e.g. biocompatibility testing. A simple and robust system was developed to grow whole Arabidopsis thaliana plants within the confined volumes characteristic of spaceflight hardware. Our system for growing plants eliminated the necessity of a water/nutrient delivery system and allowed for quantifiable assessment of individual plants, as well as entire population dynamics. To insure uniform germination, seeds were started in small straw segments and transplanted into modified scintillation vials. Seedlings were selected prior to transplantation to decrease genetic variability. Plants were grown for a total of 24 days in standard laboratory plant growth chambers under controlled conditions. Sequential digital still images were taken on a daily basis. Analysis of these images allowed for the quantification of even minute environmental effect, on growth dynamics whole plants. The data collected provide reliable growth curves against which to compare plants grown in the ERM.

  3. Transfer of radionuclides to plants of natural ecosystems at the Semipalatinsk Test Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionova, N V; Lukashenko, S N; Kabdyrakova, A M; Kunduzbayeva, A Ye; Panitskiy, A V; Ivanova, A R

    2017-10-06

    A systematic study devoted to (137)Cs, (90)Sr, (241)Am, (239+240)Pu radionuclides in vegetation cover from several spots of the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) is summarised in this paper, highlighting the main findings obtained. The analysed spots are characterized by various types of radioactive contamination. Transfer factors (Tf) required for the quantitative description of the radionuclides transition from the soil to aboveground plant parts were determined, being found that, on average, the minimum Tf for all the radionuclides concerned were determined on the "Experimental Field" ground, followed by the determined ones in the "plumes" of radioactive fallout and in the conditionally "background" territories analysed. The highest transfer factors were characteristic of zones of radioactive streamflows and places of warfare radioactive agent (WRA) tests. On the other hand, ordering the radionuclide transferring factors in descending order, the following sequence was obtained: (90)Sr Tf > Cs Tf > (239+240)Pu Tf > (241)Am Tf, with the (90)Sr Tf, on the average, exceeding the (137)Cs Tf by 8 times and exceeding the (239+240)Pu Tf by up 16 times. (239+240)Pu Tf values were up to 3 times higher than the (241)Am Tf. The exception to the indicated radionuclide Tf descending order corresponded to places of WRA tests where Tf of radionuclides of interest by plants follows the sequence (90)Sr > (239+240)Pu > (137)Cs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-05-08

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination (PCBs), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in the southwestern portion of Area 25 on the NTS in Jackass Flats (adjacent to Test Cell C [TCC]), CAU 528 consists of Corrective Action Site 25-27-03, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Surface Contamination. Test Cell C was built to support the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (operational between 1959 and 1973) activities including conducting ground tests and static firings of nuclear engine reactors. Although CAU 528 was not considered as a direct potential source of PCBs and petroleum contamination, two potential sources of contamination have nevertheless been identified from an unknown source in concentrations that could potentially pose an unacceptable risk to human health and/or the environment. This CAU's close proximity to TCC prompted Shaw to collect surface soil samples, which have indicated the presence of PCBs extending throughout the area to the north, east, south, and even to the edge of the western boundary. Based on this information, more extensive field investigation activities are being planned, the results of which are to be used to support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  5. Development of a low background test facility for the SPICA-SAFARI on-ground calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieleman, P.; Laauwen, W. M.; Ferrari, L.; Ferlet, M.; Vandenbussche, B.; Meinsma, L.; Huisman, R.

    2012-09-01

    SAFARI is a far-infrared camera to be launched in 2021 onboard the SPICA satellite. SAFARI offers imaging spectroscopy and imaging photometry in the wavelength range of 34 to 210 μm with detector NEP of 2•10-19 W/√Hz. A cryogenic test facility for SAFARI on-ground calibration and characterization is being developed. The main design driver is the required low background of a few attoWatts per pixel. This prohibits optical access to room temperature and hence all test equipment needs to be inside the cryostat at 4.5K. The instrument parameters to be verified are interfaces with the SPICA satellite, sensitivity, alignment, image quality, spectral response, frequency calibration, and point spread function. The instrument sensitivity is calibrated by a calibration source providing a spatially homogeneous signal at the attoWatt level. This low light intensity is achieved by geometrical dilution of a 150K source to an integrating sphere. The beam quality and point spread function is measured by a pinhole/mask plate wheel, back-illuminated by a second integrating sphere. This sphere is fed by a stable wide-band source, providing spectral lines via a cryogenic etalon.

  6. PhoneSat: Ground Testing of a Phone-Based Prototype Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Carmen; Howard, Benjamin; Reyes, Matthew; Snarskiy, Fedor; Hickman, Ryan; Boshuizen, Christopher; Marshall, William

    2010-01-01

    Most of the key capabilities that are requisite of a satellite bus are housed in today's smart phones. PhoneSat refers to an initiative to build a ground-based prototype vehicle that could all the basic functionality of a satellite, including attitude control, using a smart Phone as its central hardware. All components used were also low cost Commercial off the Shelf (COTS). In summer 2009, an initial prototype was created using the LEGO Mindstorm toolkit demonstrating simple attitude control. Here we report on a follow up initiative to design, build and test a vehicle based on the Google s smart phone Nexus One. The report includes results from initial thermal-vacuum chamber tests and low altitude sub-orbital rocket flights which show that, at least for short durations, the Nexus One phone is able to withstand key aspects of the space environment without failure. We compare the sensor data from the Phone's accelerometers and magnetometers with that of an external microelectronic inertial measurement unit.

  7. Operational Phase Life Cycle Assessment of Select NASA Ground Test Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydnor, George H.; Marshall, Timothy J.; McGinnis, Sean

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) is responsible for many large, high-energy ground test facilities that accomplish the nation s most advanced aerospace research. In order to accomplish these national objectives, significant energy and resources are consumed. A select group of facilities was analyzed using life-cycle assessment (LCA) to determine carbon footprint and environmental impacts. Most of these impacts stem from electricity and natural gas consumption, used directly at the facility and to generate support processes such as compressed air and steam. Other activities were analyzed but determined to be smaller in scale and frequency with relatively negligible environmental impacts. More specialized facilities use R-134a, R-14, jet fuels, or nitrogen gas, and these unique inputs can have a considerable effect on a facility s overall environmental impact. The results of this LCA will be useful to ATP and NASA as the nation looks to identify its top energy consumers and NASA looks to maximize research output and minimize environmental impact. Keywords: NASA, Aeronautics, Wind tunnel, Keyword 4, Keyword 5

  8. Turbulence Model Effects on RANS Simulations of the HIFiRE Flight 2 Ground Test Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Mankbadi, Mina R.; Vyas, Manan A.

    2014-01-01

    The Wind-US Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver was applied to the Hypersonic International Flight Research Experimentation (HIFiRE) Flight 2 scramjet ground test configuration. Two test points corresponding to flight Mach numbers of 5.9 and 8.9 were examined. The emphasis was examining turbulence model effects on the prediction of flow path pressures. Three variants of the Menter k-omega turbulence model family were investigated. These include the baseline (BSL) and shear stress transport (SST) as well as a modified SST model where the shear stress limiter was altered. Variations in the turbulent Schmidt number were also considered. Choice of turbulence model had a substantial effect on prediction of the flow path pressures. The BSL model produced the highest pressures and the SST model produced the lowest pressures. As expected, the settings for the turbulent Schmidt number also had significant effects on predicted pressures. Small values for the turbulent Schmidt number enabled more rapid mass transfer, faster combustion, and in turn higher flowpath pressures. Optimal settings for turbulence model and turbulent Schmidt number were found to be rather case dependent, as has been concluded in other scramjet investigations.

  9. Aggregate impact testing of selected granite samples from sites in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Aggregate Impact Testing machine was used to measure the resistance to fa ilure of Rocks from five (5) selected granite quarries to a suddenly applied force using S ingapore standard. The results obtained show that brittleness (S20) value of the rocks were between 2 - 10. These values are less than the stated ...

  10. Waste inventory and preliminary source term model for the Greater Confinement Disposal site at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, M.S.Y.; Bernard, E.A.

    1991-12-01

    Currently, there are several Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes at the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) for the Nevada Test Site. These are intermediate-depth boreholes used for the disposal of special case wastes, that is, radioactive waste within the Department of Energy complex that do not meet the criteria established for disposal of high-level waste, transuranic waste, or low-level waste. A performance assessment is needed to evaluate the safety of the GCD site, and to examine the feasibility of the GCD disposal concept as a disposal solution for special case wastes in general. This report documents the effort in defining all the waste inventory presently disposed of at the GCD site, and the inventory and release model to be used in a performance assessment for compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency`s 40 CFR 191.

  11. Disposal configuration options for future uses of greater confinement disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, L. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. The DOE`s Nevada Field Office contracted with Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the possibility of disposing of some of this special-case waste at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). As part of this investigation, a review of a near-surface and subsurface disposal options that was performed to develop alternative disposal configurations for special-case waste disposal at the NTS. The criteria for the review included (1) configurations appropriate for disposal at the NTS; (2) configurations for disposal of waste at least 100 ft below the ground surface; (3) configurations for which equipment and technology currently exist; and (4) configurations that meet the special requirements imposed by the nature of special-case waste. Four options for subsurface disposal of special-case waste are proposed: mined consolidated rock, mined alluvium, deep pits or trenches, and deep boreholes. Six different methods for near-surface disposal are also presented: earth-covered tumuli, above-grade concrete structures, trenches, below-grade concrete structures, shallow boreholes, and hydrofracture. Greater confinement disposal (GCD) in boreholes at least 100 ft deep, similar to that currently practiced at the GCD facility at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the NTS, was retained as the option that met the criteria for the review. Four borehole disposal configurations are proposed with engineered barriers that range from the native alluvium to a combination of gravel and concrete. The configurations identified will be used for system analysis that will be performed to determine the disposal configurations and wastes that may be suitable candidates for disposal of special-case wastes at the NTS.

  12. Characterization Report for the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. This report summarizes characterization and monitoring work pertinent to the 92-Acre Area in the southeast part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites. The decades of characterization and assessment work at the Area 5 RWMS indicate that the access controls, waste operation practices, site design, final cover design, site setting, and arid natural environment contribute to a containment system that meets regulatory requirements and performance objectives for the short- and long-term protection of the environment and public. The available characterization and Performance Assessment information is adequate to support design of the final cover and development of closure plans. No further characterization is warranted to demonstrate regulatory compliance. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is proceeding with the development of closure plans for the six closure units of the 92-Acre Area.

  13. Geologic Site Characterization of the North Korean Nuclear Test Site at Punggye-Ri: A Reconnaissance Mapping Redux

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-30

    clandestine nuclear test (e.g., the evaluation of seismic wave propagation, the prediction of gas releases, and evaluation of tunnel layouts). An...produce a high-resolution (5-meter) geologic map of the site. This map helps refine the USGS reconnaissance geology map (which was based on the...test locations, the relationship between fracture rock and containment, and possible motivation for continued tunneling at the â\\”South Portalâ

  14. A review of guidelines on home drug testing web sites for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Yukiko; Fairfax-Columbo, Jaymes; Ball, Emily; Cassey, Heather; Arria, Amelia M; Bresani, Elena; Curtis, Brenda L; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2014-01-01

    To update and extend prior work reviewing Web sites that discuss home drug testing for parents, and assess the quality of information that the Web sites provide, to assist them in deciding when and how to use home drug testing. We conducted a worldwide Web search that identified 8 Web sites providing information for parents on home drug testing. We assessed the information on the sites using a checklist developed with field experts in adolescent substance abuse and psychosocial interventions that focus on urine testing. None of the Web sites covered all the items on the 24-item checklist, and only 3 covered at least half of the items (12, 14, and 21 items, respectively). The remaining 5 Web sites covered less than half of the checklist items. The mean number of items covered by the Web sites was 11. Among the Web sites that we reviewed, few provided thorough information to parents regarding empirically supported strategies to effectively use drug testing to intervene on adolescent substance use. Furthermore, most Web sites did not provide thorough information regarding the risks and benefits to inform parents' decision to use home drug testing. Empirical evidence regarding efficacy, benefits, risks, and limitations of home drug testing is needed.

  15. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 330: Areas 6, 22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-08-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 330, Areas 6,22, and 23 Tanks and Spill Sites. The CAUs are currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). This CAU is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) (Figure 1). CAU 330 consists of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 06-02-04 - Consists of an underground tank and piping. This CAS is close to an area that was part of the Animal Investigation Program (AIP), conducted under the U.S. Public Health Service. Its purpose was to study and perform tests on the cattle and wild animals in and around the NTS that were exposed to radionuclides. It is unknown if this tank was part of these operations. (2) CAS 22-99-06 - Is a fuel spill that is believed to be a waste oil release which occurred when Camp Desert Rock was an active facility. This CAS was originally identified as being a small depression where liquids were poured onto the ground, located on the west side of Building T-1001. This building has been identified as housing a fire station, radio station, and radio net remote and telephone switchboard. (3) CAS 23-01-02 - Is a large aboveground storage tank (AST) farm that was constructed to provide gasoline and diesel storage in Area 23. The site consists of two ASTs, a concrete foundation, a surrounding earthen berm, associated piping, and unloading stations. (4) CAS 23-25-05 - Consists of an asphalt oil spill/tar release that contains a wash covered with asphalt oil/tar material, a half buried 208-liter (L) (55-gallon [gal]) drum, rebar, and concrete located in the vicinity.

  16. Nevada Test Site 2009 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program, Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-01-19

    This report is a compilation of the groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The data have been collected since 1993 and include calendar year 2009 results. During 2009, groundwater at each of the three pilot wells was sampled on March 10, 2009, and August 18, 2009, and water levels at each of the three pilot wells were measured on February 17, May 6, August 17, and November 10, 2009. Groundwater samples were analyzed for the following indicators of contamination: pH, specific conductance, total organic carbon, total organic halides, and tritium. Indicators of general water chemistry (cations and anions) were also measured. Results from all samples collected in 2009 were within the limits established by agreement with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for each analyte. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Area 5 RWMS. There were no significant changes in measured groundwater parameters compared to previous years. The report contains an updated cumulative chronology for the Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program and a brief description of the site hydrogeology.

  17. Nevada Test Site 2002 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2003-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2002 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semiannually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, major cations/anions, metals, tritium, total organic carbon (TOC), and total organic halogen (TOX). Results from all samples collected in 2002 were within established criteria. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act(RCRA) regulated unit within the RWMS-5 and confirm that the detections of TOC and TOX in 2000 were false positives. Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (ILs) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevation. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure.

  18. Nevada Test Site 2001 Data Report: Groundwater Monitoring Program Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. E. Townsend

    2002-02-01

    This report is a compilation of the calendar year 2001 groundwater sampling results from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). Contamination indicator data are presented in control chart and tabular form with investigation levels (ILs) indicated. Gross water chemistry data are presented in graphical and tabular form. Other information in the report includes, the Cumulative Chronology for Area 5 RWMS Groundwater Monitoring Program, a brief description of the site hydrogeology, and the groundwater sampling procedure. Wells Ue5PW-1, Ue5PW-2, and Ue5PW-3 were sampled semiannually for the required analytes: pH, specific conductance, major cations/anions, metals, tritium, total organic carbon (TOC), and total organic halogen (TOX). Due to detections of TOC and TOX in some samples collected in 2000, a plan, as approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), was executed to collect an increased number and type of samples in 2001. Results from all samples collected in 2001 were below ILs. These data indicate that there has been no measurable impact to the uppermost aquifer from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated unit within the Area 5 RWMS and confirm that the detections of TOC and TOX in 2000 were false positives. There were no major changes noted in the monitored groundwater elevation. There continues to be an extremely small gradient to the northeast with an average flow velocity of less than one foot per year.

  19. Neptunium Transport Behavior in the Vicinity of Underground Nuclear Tests at the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, P; Tinnacher, R M; Zavarin, M; Williams, R W; Kersting, A B

    2010-12-03

    We used short lived {sup 239}Np as a yield tracer and state of the art magnetic sector ICP-MS to measure ultra low levels of {sup 237}Np in a number of 'hot wells' at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly known as the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The results indicate that {sup 237}Np concentrations at the Almendro, Cambric, Dalhart, Cheshire and Chancellor sites, are in the range of 3 x 10{sup -5} to 7 x 10{sup -2} pCi/L and well below the MCL for alpha emitting radionuclides (15 pCi/L) (EPA, 2009). Thus, while Np transport is believed to occur at the NNSS, activities are expected to be well below the regulatory limits for alpha-emitting radionuclides. We also compared {sup 237}Np concentration data to other radionuclides, including tritium, {sup 14}C, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and plutonium, to evaluate the relative {sup 237}Np transport behavior. Based on isotope ratios relative to published unclassified Radiologic Source Terms (Bowen et al., 1999) and taking into consideration radionuclide distribution between melt glass, rubble and groundwater (IAEA, 1998), {sup 237}Np appears to be substantially less mobile than tritium and other non-sorbing radionuclides, as expected. However, this analysis also suggests that {sup 237}Np mobility is surprisingly similar to that of plutonium. The similar transport behavior of Np and Pu can be explained by one of two possibilities: (1) Np(IV) and Pu(IV) oxidation states dominate under mildly reducing NNSS groundwater conditions resulting in similar transport behavior or (2) apparent Np transport is the result of transport of its parent {sup 241}Pu and {sup 241}Am isotopes and subsequent decay to {sup 237}Np. Finally, measured {sup 237}Np concentrations were compared to recent Hydrologic Source Term (HST) models. The 237Np data collected from three wells in Frenchman Flat (RNM-1, RNM-2S, and UE-5n) are in good agreement with recent HST transport model predictions (Carle et al., 2005). The agreement

  20. From Ground Truth to Space: Surface, Subsurface and Remote Observations Associated with Nuclear Test Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A. J.; Anderson, D.; Burt, C.; Craven, J.; Kimblin, C.; McKenna, I.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Miller, E.; Yocky, D. A.; Haas, D.

    2016-12-01

    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) result in numerous signatures that manifest on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Currently, prompt signals, such as the detection of seismic waves provide only generalized locations and the timing and amplitude of non-prompt signals are difficult to predict. As such, research into improving the detection, location, and identification of suspect events has been conducted, resulting in advancement of nuclear test detection science. In this presentation, we demonstrate the scalar variably of surface and subsurface observables, briefly discuss current capabilities to locate, detect and characterize potential nuclear explosion locations, and explain how emergent technologies and amalgamation of disparate data sets will facilitate improved monitoring and verification. At the smaller scales, material and fracture characterization efforts on rock collected from legacy UNE sites and from underground experiments using chemical explosions can be incorporated into predictive modeling efforts. Spatial analyses of digital elevation models and orthoimagery of both modern conventional and legacy nuclear sites show subtle surface topographic changes and damage at nearby outcrops. Additionally, at sites where such technology cannot penetrate vegetative cover, it is possible to use the vegetation itself as both a companion signature reflecting geologic conditions and showing subsurface impacts to water, nutrients, and chemicals. Aerial systems based on RGB imagery, light detection and ranging, and hyperspectral imaging can allow for combined remote sensing modalities to perform pattern recognition and classification tasks. Finally, more remote systems such as satellite based synthetic aperture radar and satellite imagery are other techniques in development for UNE site detection, location and characterization.

  1. Review of information on hydrology and radionuclide migration at the Nevada Test Site 1976--1988, and annotated bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, J.R.; Eddy, P.A.; Wallace, R.W.; Foley, M.G.; Bierschenk, W.H.; Harrison, R.P. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA); IT Corp., Richland, WA (USA); Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information on changes in the state of knowledge on the hydrology and radionuclide migration that have occurred at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) since 1976. In the present study, a literature review was conducted to examine information published since 1976 about the various activities that have occurred at the NTS. Information was collected from the literature on the site's geological, hydrological, geochemical, and geomorphic characteristics related to the impacts on the ground water from weapons testing and the disposal of waste at the NTS. This information was used to identify the state of knowledge about the NTS and the potential impacts of NTS activities on the ground water. More than 250 reports were reviewed, of which about 200 contained information pertinent to the subject of this report. Because the reports have never been collected in a single location, only those that were supplied by the US Department of Energy and other cooperating organizations could be reviewed, and some pertinent documents may have been missed. Appendix A contains an annotated bibliography of the reports reviewed. 149 refs., 28 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Slope stability and bearing capacity of landfills and simple on-site test methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamawaki, Atsushi; Doi, Yoichi; Omine, Kiyoshi

    2017-07-01

    This study discusses strength characteristics (slope stability, bearing capacity, etc.) of waste landfills through on-site tests that were carried out at 29 locations in 19 sites in Japan and three other countries, and proposes simple methods to test and assess the mechanical strength of landfills on site. Also, the possibility of using a landfill site was investigated by a full-scale eccentric loading test. As a result of this, landfills containing more than about 10 cm long plastics or other fibrous materials were found to be resilient and hard to yield. An on-site full scale test proved that no differential settlement occurs. The repose angle test proposed as a simple on-site test method has been confirmed to be a good indicator for slope stability assessment. The repose angle test suggested that landfills which have high, near-saturation water content have considerably poorer slope stability. The results of our repose angle test and the impact acceleration test were related to the internal friction angle and the cohesion, respectively. In addition to this, it was found that the air pore volume ratio measured by an on-site air pore volume ratio test is likely to be related to various strength parameters.

  3. Sensitivity and specificity of the inner thigh, as a site for Mantoux test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sunlight ultraviolet rays (UV) have recently been shown to induce immunosuppression that alters the skin response to Mantoux test negatively. ... The specificity and sensitivity of the inner thigh as a site for the screening and early detection of TB appears strong, it should be considered as a possible site for Mantoux test.

  4. User-Centered Design and Usability Testing of a Web Site: An Illustrative Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Michael D.; Frick, Theodore W.; Hansen, Lisa

    1997-01-01

    Presents an overview of user-centered design and usability testing. Describes a Web site evaluation project at a university, the iterative process of rapid prototyping and usability testing, and how the findings helped to improve the design. Discusses recommendations for university Web site design and reflects on problems faced in usability…

  5. STREAMLINED APPROACH FOR ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 116: AREA 25 TEST CELL C FACILITYNEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan identifies the activities required for the closure of Corrective Action Unit 116, Area 25 Test Cell C Facility. The Test Cell C Facility is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site approximately 25 miles northwest of Mercury, Nevada.

  6. Comparative Plutonium-239 Dose Assessment for Three Desert Sites: Maralinga, Australia; Palomares, Spain; and the Nevada Test Site, USA - Before and After Remedial Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Church, B W; Shinn, J; Williams, G A; Martin, L J; O' Brien, R S; Adams, S R

    2000-07-14

    . This paper specifically examines sites that are similar in many ways. These sites were chosen for their similarities to make comparisons. The sites are all desert in nature i.e., have low rainfall (all receive about 20 cm per year), have minimal vegetative ground cover, and have high summer temperatures. These sites are Palomares, Spain; the Nevada Test Site (NTS); and the Maralinga site in Australia. One significant difference, however, is that the Palomares site has been used continuously for residential and agriculture purposes since the plutonium remediation was completed. Maralinga is being remediated with the objective of returning the land to its former owners, but it will have some use restrictions for the remaining contaminated areas. Any decision to return the land being remediated by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) at its Nevada sites, for public use, is in the distant future.

  7. Investigation of CTBT OSI Radionuclide Techniques at the DILUTED WATERS Nuclear Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciak, James E.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Keillor, Martin E.; Lepel, Elwood A.; Seifert, Allen; Emer, Dudley; Floyd, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a verification regime that includes the ability to conduct an On-Site Inspection (OSI) will be established. The Treaty allows for an OSI to include many techniques, including the radionuclide techniques of gamma radiation surveying and spectrometry and environmental sampling and analysis. Such radioactivity detection techniques can provide the “smoking gun” evidence that a nuclear test has occurred through the detection and quantification of indicative recent fission products. An OSI faces restrictions in time and manpower, as dictated by the Treaty; not to mention possible logistics difficulties due to the location and climate of the suspected explosion site. It is thus necessary to have a good understanding of the possible source term an OSI will encounter and the proper techniques that will be necessary for an effective OSI regime. One of the challenges during an OSI is to locate radioactive debris that has escaped an underground nuclear explosion (UNE) and settled on the surface near and downwind of ground zero. To support the understanding and selection of sampling and survey techniques for use in an OSI, we are currently designing an experiment, the Particulate Release Experiment (PRex), to simulate a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. PRex will occur at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The project is conducted under the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) funded by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA). Prior to the release experiment, scheduled for Spring of 2013, the project scheduled a number of activities at the NNSS to prepare for the release experiment as well as to utilize the nuclear