WorldWideScience

Sample records for test setup spats

  1. Present status of the South Pole acoustic test setup (SPATS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tosi, D.; Boeser, S.; Fischer, J.H.; Heller, R.; Krieger, K.; Nahnhauer, R.; Pohl, M.; Sulanke, K.H. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Bohm, C.; Hundertmark, S. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Descamps, F. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Hallgren, A. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden); Price, B.; Vandenbroucke, J. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Acoustic detection in ice is a promising method to investigate the low flux of ultra high energy neutrinos (E>10{sup 18} eV). Due to the long predicted attenuation length of acoustic waves generated by neutrino-induced cascades, a volume of several km{sup 3}, as available in the polar ice cap, may be equipped with sparse sensors. In order to study in-situ the absorption, the refraction of sound and the background noise, the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS), consisting of 21 pairs of sensors and transmitters organized in 3 strings, has been developed. Low temperature tests simulating the harsh South Pole environment and long range tests in an ice-covered lake have been undertaken. The results obtained demonstrate the robustness of the setup and allow a first estimate of the expected performance. A simulation showing the capability of the system concerning refraction and absorptivity of the ice is presented, together with the first results of the installed setup, which is planned to be deployed in the austral summer season 2006-2007. (orig.)

  2. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup: calibrations and lake test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeser, S [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Bohm, C [University Stockholm, Fysikum, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Descamps, F [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Fischer, J [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Hallgren, A [University Uppsala, Department of Radiation Sciences, Box 535, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Heller, R [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Hundertmark, S [University Stockholm, Fysikum, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Krieger, K [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Nahnhauer, R [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Pohl, M [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Price, P B [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sulanke, K [DESY, Platanenallee 6, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Vandenbroucke, J [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-09-15

    In order to detect the small neutrino fluxes expected at ultra-high energies, large volumes of materials have to be instrumented with inexpensive but sensitive acoustic sensors. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) will be installed in the Antarctic ice during the polar season 2006/2007 after which the collected data will be used to reveal the acoustic properties of the South Polar ice cap. The developed piezoceramic based ultrasound sensors and transmitters that are part of this system have been extensively studied during calibration measurements in water, using a commercial hydrophone as reference. Also, a SPATS system test was accomplished in Lake Tornetraesk, Abisko (Sweden). This allowed verification of the DAQ system, transmitter range and sensor performance. Here the results of the calibrations and the Abisko lake measurements are reported.

  3. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup: calibrations and lake test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böser, S.; Bohm, C.; Descamps, F.; Fischer, J.; Hallgren, A.; Heller, R.; Hundertmark, S.; Krieger, K.; Nahnhauer, R.; Pohl, M.; Price, P. B.; Sulanke, K.; Vandenbroucke, J.

    2007-09-01

    In order to detect the small neutrino fluxes expected at ultra-high energies, large volumes of materials have to be instrumented with inexpensive but sensitive acoustic sensors. The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) will be installed in the Antarctic ice during the polar season 2006/2007 after which the collected data will be used to reveal the acoustic properties of the South Polar ice cap. The developed piezoceramic based ultrasound sensors and transmitters that are part of this system have been extensively studied during calibration measurements in water, using a commercial hydrophone as reference. Also, a SPATS system test was accomplished in Lake Torneträsk, Abisko (Sweden). This allowed verification of the DAQ system, transmitter range and sensor performance. Here the results of the calibrations and the Abisko lake measurements are reported.

  4. Design and performance of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, Y. [Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Becker, K.-H. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Berdermann, J. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Bissok, M. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Bohm, C. [Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Boeser, S.; Bothe, M. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Carson, M. [Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Descamps, F., E-mail: Freija.Descamps@icecube.wisc.edu [Department of Subatomic and Radiation Physics, University of Gent, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Fischer-Wolfarth, J.-H. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Gustafsson, L.; Hallgren, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Heinen, D. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Helbing, K. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Heller, R. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Hundertmark, S. [Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm University, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Karg, T. [Department of Physics, University of Wuppertal, D-42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Krieger, K. [DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen (Germany); Laihem, K.; Meures, T. [III. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); and others

    2012-08-11

    The South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) was built to evaluate the acoustic characteristics of the South Pole ice in the 10-100 kHz frequency range, for the purpose of assessing the feasibility of an acoustic neutrino detection array at the South Pole. The SPATS hardware consists of four vertical strings deployed in the upper 500 m of the South Pole ice cap. The strings form a trapezoidal array with a maximum baseline of 543 m. Each string has seven stages equipped with one transmitter and one sensor module (glaciophone). Sound is detected or generated by piezoelectric ceramic elements inside the modules. Analogue signals are sent to the surface on electric cables where they are digitized by a PC-based data acquisition system. The data from all strings are collected on a central computer in the IceCube Laboratory from where they are sent to a central data storage facility via a satellite link or stored locally on tape. A technical overview of SPATS and its performance is presented.

  5. Status of the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeser, S [DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6., 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Bohm, C [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Descamps, F [DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6., 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Fischer, J [DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6., 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Hallgren, A [Uppsala University, Lagerhyddsvagen, Uppsala (Sweden); Heller, R [DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6., 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Hundertmark, S [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Krieger, K [DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6., 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Nahnhauer, R [DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6., 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Pohl, M [DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6., 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Price, B [University of Berkeley, California (United States); Sulanke, K [DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6., 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Vandenbroucke, J [University of Berkeley, California (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Due to the low flux of ultra-high energetic neutrinos induced in interactions of cosmic rays with the cosmic microwave background, very large instrumented volumes and new registration techniques are necessary for their detection. The south polar ice offers the unique opportunity to implement existing Cherenkov techniques as well as registration of radio and acoustic waves from the neutrino interaction. A simulation of a {approx} 120 km{sup 3} hybrid optical/radio/acoustic detector showed that event rates of {approx} 10 per year can be achieved. In this simulation the ultrasonic parameters of antarctic ice regarding absorption, scattering and environmental noise pose the key uncertainty. To evaluate the acoustic properties in-situ, the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) has been created. An array of custom-made ultrasonic sensors and transmitters will be deployed on three strings in the upper 400 m of the holes of the IceCube experiment. The status of the experiment and a first evaluation of its performance are presented here.

  6. Advanced Laboratory Setup for Testing Offshore Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Dam; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a test setup for testing small-scale offshore foundations under realistic conditions of high pore-water pressure and high impact loads. The actuator, used for loading has enough capacity to apply sufficient force and displacement to achieve both drained and undrained failure ...

  7. SPAT 15 - Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartley, J.C. (Coordinator)

    1998-08-01

    In the Spring of 1997, the Department of Energy's Department Standards Committee (DSC) convened a Standards Process Action Team (SPAT-15) to evaluate assessment processes within the DOE complex. If time and resources permitted, the team was also to evaluate assessment processes used by private industry conducting similar work and activities. The specific task statement was as follows: "Define the attributes of assessment programs that effectively support organizational feedback and improvement of safety systems at all the different levels of contractor and Department organizations." The team gathered information on existing assessment programs through surveys and presentations by representatives from national laboratories, processing facilities, and remediation sites. Examples of assessment programs described in this report encompass site-wide, individual facility, and task level applications within the DOE compIex

  8. Lightweight, Soft Variable Stiffness Gel Spats for Walking Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of the aging society, many of the elderly people are in need of nursing care for their daily activities. Therefore, innovative technologies are needed to support the daily activities of elderly people and to lighten the heavy burden of nursing. We think the technology of soft actuators should be one of the key issues for developing such technologies. In this study, we focused on walking assistance for daily life and presented a preliminary work of developing novel poly vinyl chloride (PVC gel actuator-based lightweight and soft wearable assistive spats for supporting the walking motion of human. The PVC gel devices are incorporated in the generally used spats. The stiffness of the gel spats can be actively varied with the applied DC field turned on and off. The gel spats have the characteristics of a simple structure, a lightweight, easy to put on and take off, and with a high flexibility. A prototype was tested in the motions of lifting a foot and walking. It was found that the integrated electromyogram (IEMG and maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC values of the rectus femoris muscle reduced with the assistance of the gel spats, which demonstrated the potential of the gel spats as a device for walking assistance.

  9. Test setup for DEPMOSFET matrices for XEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, M.; Kendziorra, E.; Schanz, T.; Santangelo, A.; Wilms, J.; Treis, J.; Herrmann, S.; Strüder, L.; Lechner, P.; Fischer, P.; Peric, I.; Barret, D.

    2006-06-01

    The DEPMOSFET (Depleted p-channel MOSFET) is an Active Pixel Sensor (APS) for the XEUS Wide Field Imager (WFI), which is developed and produced by the MPI semiconductor laboratory in Munich (HLL). The current prototype detector consists of a hybrid where a 64 x 64 pixel matrix with 75 μm x 75 μm pixel size each is mounted together with CMOS SWITCHER II ICs for row-selection and a CAMEX 64 ASIC for readout. First measurements for this device have shown the high energy resolution and quantum efficiency as well as the potential for fast readout. For fast timing studies on XEUS an instrument is needed which is able to deal with count rates up to 10 6 photons s -1 with 10 μs time resolution. At the Institut fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, we have built a setup to investigate the timing performance of the current prototype detector and to study the capability of the DEPMOSFET detector to handle high count rates. In this paper we present the Data Acquisition System and the future plans for this setup.

  10. Concept and validation of a fully automated photocatalytic test setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytgat, Tom; Hauchecorne, Birger; Smits, Marianne; Verbruggen, Sammy W; Lenaerts, Silvia

    2012-04-01

    Photocatalytic activity can be studied by several methods, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. To study photocatalytic activity in an easy, user-friendly, and realistic way, a completely new setup has been built. The setup is modularly constructed around Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy at the heart of it, resulting in great versatility. Complementary software has been written for automatic control of the setup and for processing the generated data. Two pollutants, oil and n-octane, are tested to validate the performance of the setup. These validation experiments confirm the usefulness and added value of the setup in general and of the FTIR detection methodology as well. It becomes clear that a system of online measurements with good repeatability, accuracy, and user-friendliness has been created.

  11. Wild Black-lip Pearl Oyster (Pinctada margaritifera) Spat Collection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—Pearl farming is a growing aquaculture activity in Tanzania but requires sufficient young pearl oysters to make it feasible. Collection of spat in the wild is the most viable way of doing this and was tested to establish whether it would yield sufficient juvenile pearl oysters to support an industry. A total of.

  12. Test Setup for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test setup for testing axially static and cyclic loaded piles in sand is described in the following. The purpose for the tests is to examine the tensile capacity of axially loaded piles in dense fully saturated sand. The pile dimensions are chosen to resemble full scale dimension of piles used...... in offshore pile foundations today....

  13. Experimental infection of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas spat by ostreid herpesvirus 1: demonstration of oyster spat susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schikorski David

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2008 and 2009, acute mortalities occurred in France among Pacific cupped oyster, Crassostrea gigas, spat. Different hypothesis including the implication of environmental factors, toxic algae and/or pathogens have been explored. Diagnostic tests indicated that OsHV-1 including a particular genotype, termed OsHV-1 μVar, was detected in most of samples and especially in moribund oysters with the highlighting of virus particles looking like herpes viruses by TEM examination. In this study, an experimental protocol to reproduce OsHV-1 infection in laboratory conditions was developed. This protocol was based on the intramuscular injection of filtered (0.22 μm tissue homogenates prepared from naturally OsHV-1 infected spat collected on French coasts during mortality outbreaks in 2008. Results of the experimental trials showed that mortalities were induced after injection. Moreover, filtered tissue homogenates induced mortalities whereas the same tissue homogenates exposed to an ultraviolet (UV treatment did not induce any mortality suggesting that oyster spat mortalities require the presence of a UV sensitive agent. Furthermore, analysis of injected oyster spat revealed the detection of high amounts of OsHV-1 DNA by real-time quantitative PCR. Finally, TEM analysis demonstrated the presence of herpes virus particles. The developed protocol allowed to maintain sources of infective virus which can be useful for the development of further studies concerning the transmission and the development of OsHV-1 infection.

  14. Laboratory Test Setup for Cyclic Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive description and the considerations regarding the design of a new laboratory test setup for testing cyclic axially loaded piles in sand. The test setup aims at analysing the effect of axial one-way cyclic loading on pile capacity and accumulated displacements....... Another aim was to test a large diameter pile segment with dimensions resembling full-scale piles to model the interface properties between pile and sand correctly. The pile segment was an open-ended steel pipe pile with a diameter of 0.5 m and a length of 1 m. The sand conditions resembled the dense sand...... determined from the API RP 2GEO standard and from the test results indicated over consolidation of the sand. Two initial one-way cyclic loading tests provided results of effects on pile capacity and accumulated displacements in agreement with other researchers’ test results....

  15. Cryogenic actuator testing for the SAFARI ground calibration setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, C.; Eggens, M.; Nieuwenhuizen, A. C. T.; Detrain, A.; Smit, H.; Dieleman, P.

    2012-09-01

    For the on-ground calibration setup of the SAFARI instrument cryogenic mechanisms are being developed at SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, including a filter wheel, XYZ-scanner and a flipmirror mechanism. Due to the extremely low background radiation requirement of the SAFARI instrument, all of these mechanisms will have to perform their work at 4.5 Kelvin and low-dissipative cryogenic actuators are required to drive these mechanisms. In this paper, the performance of stepper motors, piezoelectric actuators and brushless DC-motors as cryogenic actuators are compared. We tested stepper motor mechanical performance and electrical dissipation at 4K. The actuator requirements, test setup and test results are presented. Furthermore, design considerations and early performance tests of the flipmirror mechanism are discussed. This flipmirror features a 102 x 72 mm aluminum mirror that can be rotated 45°. A Phytron stepper motor with reduction gearbox has been chosen to drive the flipmirror. Testing showed that this motor has a dissipation of 49mW at 4K with a torque of 60Nmm at 100rpm. Thermal modeling of the flipmirror mechanism predicts that with proper thermal strapping the peak temperature of the flipmirror after a single action will be within the background level requirements of the SAFARI instrument. Early tests confirm this result. For low-duty cycle operations commercial stepper motors appear suitable as actuators for test equipment in the SAFARI on ground calibration setup.

  16. Magnet Test Setup of the CMS Tracker ready for installation

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    The pieces of the Tracker that will be operated in the forthcoming Magnet Test and Cosmic Challenge (MTCC) have been transported inside the dummy tracker support tube to the CMS experimental hall (Point 5, Cessy). The operation took place during the night of 12th May, covering the ~15km distance in about three hours. The transport was monitored for shocks, temperature and humidity with the help of the CERN TS-IC section. The Tracker setup comprises segments of the Tracker Inner Barrel (TIB), the Tracker Outer Barrel (TOB) and Tracker EndCaps (TEC) detectors. It represents roughly 1% of the final CMS Tracker. Installation into the solenoid is foreseen to take place on Wednesday 17th May.

  17. Introduction to heat transfer test setup for the SCRAP receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkoll, Matti; Harms, Thomas M.; von Backström, Theodor W.

    2017-06-01

    The Spiky Central Receiver Air Pre-heater (SCRAP) receiver is a novel external tubular metallic central receiver concept. The SCRAP receiver is designed to increase an air-receivers solar-thermal performance. This is aimed to be achieved by enhancing heat transfer to the pressurized air-stream within the absorber assemblies (spikes) by utilizing an internally finned tube geometry. The fin shape is defined to create rectangular ducts as passages for the air flow, therewith a high heat transfer coefficient. The spikes are arranged in such a way that they trap incoming concentrated radiation (reduce reflection losses) and minimize thermal radiation losses from the receiver to ambient. In previous work, the modeling of a SCRAP receiver was discussed on. This included the modeling of the internal air flow and heat transfer within a spike, analysis of the optical characteristics of a SCRAP receiver and the impingement heat transfer capabilities in the spike tip (exposed to the highest flux). Further, analysis of the thermal interaction of spikes with one another and with ambient (convective and radiative heat loss) permitted drawing of first conclusions of the receiver performance potential. To validate the models predicting the pressurized air flow and heat transfer within a spike, an experimental test setup was designed, constructed and built at the heat transfer laboratories at Stellenbosch University. This work introduces the design of the test setup and will discuss preliminary results obtained during its commissioning. From first analysis the predictions made for the pressure drop within the internally finned section appear adequate. The heat transfer behavior will require further detailed analysis to develop sufficient confidence to allow for conclusions. Initial results, however, show good general agreement between measured and simulated data.

  18. Performance tests of external moderators of a PGNAA setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Al-Jarallah, M I; Abu-Jarad, F; Maslehuddin, M

    2003-01-01

    Performance tests of external cylindrical moderators of an accelerator-based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup have been carried out through thermal neutrons and prompt gamma-ray yield measurements. The PGNAA setup is to be used for analysis of cement samples. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of geometry of cylindrical moderator on yield of thermal neutrons and prompt gamma-rays for two different types of moderator assemblies. One of the moderators was to be used with a small sample and the other to be used with a large sample. Fast and thermal neutron yield was measured inside the sample volume as a function of the front moderator thickness as well as sample length. Neutron yield measurement was carried out at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 350 keV pulsed beam accelerator using nuclear track detectors. The pulsed 200 keV deuteron beam with 5 ns pulse width and 31.25 kHz frequency was used to produce 2.8 MeV neutrons via D(d,n) reaction. Neutron yield measurements showed that the large sample moderator has a smaller yield of thermal neutrons as compared to the small sample moderator, which is in complete agreement with the results of Monte Carlo yield calculations of the thermal and fast neutrons from both the moderators. Finally, the prompt gamma-ray yield from a Portland cement sample was measured using the two moderators and was compared with each other. As predicted by Monte Carlo simulations, in spite of a smaller yield of thermal neutrons, the large sample moderator has a higher yield of prompt gamma-rays. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Performance tests of external moderators of a PGNAA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman,; Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Abu-Jarad, F.; Maslehuddin, M

    2003-01-01

    Performance tests of external cylindrical moderators of an accelerator-based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup have been carried out through thermal neutrons and prompt {gamma}-ray yield measurements. The PGNAA setup is to be used for analysis of cement samples. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of geometry of cylindrical moderator on yield of thermal neutrons and prompt {gamma}-rays for two different types of moderator assemblies. One of the moderators was to be used with a small sample and the other to be used with a large sample. Fast and thermal neutron yield was measured inside the sample volume as a function of the front moderator thickness as well as sample length. Neutron yield measurement was carried out at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals 350 keV pulsed beam accelerator using nuclear track detectors. The pulsed 200 keV deuteron beam with 5 ns pulse width and 31.25 kHz frequency was used to produce 2.8 MeV neutrons via D(d,n) reaction. Neutron yield measurements showed that the large sample moderator has a smaller yield of thermal neutrons as compared to the small sample moderator, which is in complete agreement with the results of Monte Carlo yield calculations of the thermal and fast neutrons from both the moderators. Finally, the prompt {gamma}-ray yield from a Portland cement sample was measured using the two moderators and was compared with each other. As predicted by Monte Carlo simulations, in spite of a smaller yield of thermal neutrons, the large sample moderator has a higher yield of prompt {gamma}-rays.

  20. Advanced Test Method of Solid Oxide Cells in a Plug-Flow Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Højgaard; Hauch, Anne; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a case study of two electrolysis tests of solid oxide cells [Ni/yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-YSZ-lanthanum strontium manganite (LSM)/YSZ] tested in a plug-flow setup. An extensively instrumented cell test setup was used, and the tests involved measurements of the cell...

  1. Development of a grinding-specific performance test set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, C. G.; Larsen, B. H.; Andresen, E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a performance test set-up for America's Cup grinders. The test set-up had to mimic the on-boat grinding activity and be capable of collecting data for analysis and evaluation of grinding performance. This study included a literature-based analysis of grinding...

  2. On Dimensions of OTA Setups for Massive MIMO Base Stations Radiated Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyösti, Pekka; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    dimensions of the over-the-air (OTA) setups for the performance evaluation of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) BSs in anechoic chambers with multiple probes. Setup dimension is the major cost factor in the test systems and is thus the key issue to be investigated. The purpose is to determine...

  3. MIMO OTA Testing in Small Multi-Probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    OpenAIRE

    Llorente, Ines Carton; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    OTA testing of MIMO capable terminals is often performed in large anechoic chambers, where planar waves impinging the test area are assumed. Furthermore, reflections from the chamber, and probe coupling are often considered negligible due to the large dimensions of the chamber. This paper investigates the feasibility of reducing the physical dimension of 2D multi-probe anechoic chamber setups for MIMO OTA testing, with the purpose of reducing the cost and space of the setup. In the paper, a c...

  4. Evaluation of Reflections in a MIMO OTA Test Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Franek, Ondrej; Krenz, Gunter

    2014-01-01

    With the commercialization of MIMO devices, accurate over-the-air testing has become a major research area in mobile communications. Several test methods are investigated in the related work. This paper discusses the anechoic chamber method and specifically deals with reflections between probes...

  5. Plasma Deflection Test Setup for E-Sail Propulsion Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Allen; Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd; Wright, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The Electronic Sail or E-Sail is a novel propulsion concept based on momentum exchange between fast solar wind protons and the plasma sheath of long positively charged conductors comprising the E-Sail. The effective sail area increases with decreasing plasma density allowing an E-Sail craft to continue to accelerate at predicted ranges well beyond the capabilities of existing electronic or chemical propulsion spacecraft. While negatively charged conductors in plasmas have been extensively studied and flown, the interaction between plasma and a positively charged conductor is not well studied. We present a plasma deflection test method using a differential ion flux probe (DIFP). The DIFP measures the angle and energy of incident ions. The plasma sheath around a charged body can measured by comparing the angular distribution of ions with and without a positively charged test body. These test results will be used to evaluate numerical calculations of expected thrust per unit length of conductor in the solar wind plasma. This work was supported by a NASA Space Technology Research Fellowship.

  6. Gas diffusion electrode setup for catalyst testing in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Gustav K H; Fleige, Michael; Arenz, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    We present a detailed description of the construction and testing of an electrochemical cell setup allowing the investigation of a gas diffusion electrode containing carbon supported high surface area catalysts. The setup is designed for measurements in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperature, i.e., very close to the actual conditions in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The cell consists of a stainless steel flow field and a PEEK plastic cell body comprising the electrochemical cell, which exhibits a three electrode configuration. The cell body and flow field are braced using a KF-25 vacuum flange clamp, which allows an easy assembly of the setup. As demonstrated, the setup can be used to investigate temperature dependent electrochemical processes on high surface area type electrocatalysts, but it also enables quick screening tests of HT-PEMFC catalysts under realistic conditions.

  7. Gas diffusion electrode setup for catalyst testing in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Gustav K. H.; Fleige, Michael; Arenz, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    We present a detailed description of the construction and testing of an electrochemical cell setup allowing the investigation of a gas diffusion electrode containing carbon supported high surface area catalysts. The setup is designed for measurements in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperature, i.e., very close to the actual conditions in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The cell consists of a stainless steel flow field and a PEEK plastic cell body comprising the electrochemical cell, which exhibits a three electrode configuration. The cell body and flow field are braced using a KF-25 vacuum flange clamp, which allows an easy assembly of the setup. As demonstrated, the setup can be used to investigate temperature dependent electrochemical processes on high surface area type electrocatalysts, but it also enables quick screening tests of HT-PEMFC catalysts under realistic conditions.

  8. Setup of IN VIVO Breast Cancer Models for Nanodrug Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schifter, Søren

    2013-01-01

    RNA/aptamer conjugates, or carriers such as liposome/chitosan/micelle spheres. As a first step towards testing of the efficacy of siRNA delivery in vivo via different conjugates and complexes, we aimed at developing a standardized breast cancer model system in mice. In this conception, a reporter gene is used...... for detection of the primary tumor and metastasis and the efficacy of siRNA delivery is measured by reporter gene-targeting siRNAs and in vivo imaging. The use of a uniform siRNA not affecting cellular processes would allow for standardized assessment of siRNA delivery to cancer cells without interferences via...... differential knockdown efficacies and the readout can directly be performed by quantitative imaging using a Caliper IVIS system. In one line of experiments, we engineered non-metastatic MCF-7 breast cancer cells to express the luminescent reporter firefly luciferase (Luc2) along with a pro-metastatic micro...

  9. Larval settlement and spat recovery rates of the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819) using different systems to induce metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, R C; Silva, F C; Gomes, C H M; Ferreira, J F; Melo, C M R

    2011-05-01

    This study aimed at the assessment, in the laboratory, of the larval settlement and spat recovery rates of oysters of the species Crassostrea brasiliana using plastic collectors, epinephrine (C9H13NO3 C4H6O6) and shell powder in settlement tanks. Polypropylene was used attached to bamboo frames. The material was chosen due to its pliability--that favours the spat detachment. Two experiments were carried out; the first between February and April 2008, and the second between November and December 2008 at the Marine Mussel Laboratory of Santa Catarina Federal University (Laboratório de Moluscos Marinhos da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina). In the first experiment, the scratched plastic collectors were tested consorting them with shell powder; on the second, the plastic collectors were tested consorted with shell powder, only shell powder and epinephrine as the metamorphosis stimulator. The quantification was carried out of the larvae settled in the plastic collectors, and of the recovery and integrity of the spats after their detachment. The first experiment has shown a recovery rate of 48.83% of the spats in comparison with the D larvae used. From this percentage, 4.9% settled in the plastic collectors and 43.93% in shell powder. The second experiment revealed 55.78% regarding the settled spats in comparison with the total of larvae used (using epinephrine), 78.62% in the treatment with the collector plus shell powder and 58.33% in the treatment only with shell powder. Thus, the use of the collector plus shell powder resulted in a greater spat recovery when compared to the other treatments.

  10. MIMO OTA Testing in Small Multi-Probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llorente, Ines Carton; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    investigates the feasibility of reducing the physical dimension of 2D multi-probe anechoic chamber setups for MIMO OTA testing, with the purpose of reducing the cost and space of the setup. In the paper, a channel emulation algorithm and chamber compensation technique are proposed for MIMO OTA testing in small......OTA testing of MIMO capable terminals is often performed in large anechoic chambers, where planar waves impinging the test area are assumed. Furthermore, reflections from the chamber, and probe coupling are often considered negligible due to the large dimensions of the chamber. This paper...

  11. Development of a fatigue testing setup for dielectric elastomer membrane actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, M.; Rizzello, G.; Seelecke, S.

    2017-04-01

    Dielectric elastomers (DE's) represent a transduction technology with high potential in many fields, including industries, due to their low weight, flexibility, and small energy consumption. For industrial applications, it is of fundamental importance to quantify the lifetime of DE technology, in terms of electrical and mechanical fatigue, when operating in realistic environmental conditions. This work contributes toward this direction, by presenting the development of an experimental setup which permits systematic fatigue testing of DE membranes. The setup permits to apply both mechanical and electrical stimuli to several membranes simultaneously, while measuring at the same time their mechanical (force, deformation) and electrical response (capacitance, resistance). In its final state, the setup will allow to test up to 15 DE membranes at the same time for several thousands of cycles. Control of the modules, monitoring of the actuators, and data acquisition are realized on a cRio FPGA-system running with LabVIEW. The setup is located in a climate chamber, in order to investigate the fatigue mechanisms at different environmental conditions, i.e., in terms of temperature and humidity. The setup consists of two main parts, namely a fatigue group and a measurement group. The fatigue group stays permanently in the climate chamber, while the measurement group is assembled to the fatigue group and allows to perform measurements at 20°C.

  12. Gas diffusion electrode setup for catalyst testing in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Gustav Karl Henrik; Fleige, Michael; Arenz, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed description of the construction and testing of an electrochemical cell setup allowing the investigation of a gas diffusion electrode containing carbon supported high surface area catalysts. The setup is designed for measurements in concentrated phosphoric acid at elevated...... temperature, i.e., very close to the actual conditions in high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). The cell consists of a stainless steel flow field and a PEEK plastic cell body comprising the electrochemical cell, which exhibits a three electrode configuration. The cell body and flow...

  13. Emulating Ray-Tracing Channels in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups for Virtual Drive Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Llorente, Ines Carton; Kyösti, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses virtual drive testing (VDT) for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals in multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) setups. We propose to perform VDT, via reproducing ray tracing (RT) simulated channels with the field synthesis technique. Simulation results...

  14. TEST BEAM COORDINATION: The 2004 Test Beam Calorimetry set-up in H8

    CERN Multimedia

    Aleksa, M; Di Girolamo, B; Ferrari, C; Giugni, D; Santoni, C; Wingerter, I

    A new table has been designed, built and finally mounted to position the LAr cryostat in front of the Tilecal modules. The new table has been connected to the existing Tilecal table to be able to move the full set-up along eta values between 0 and 1.2. The table has been conceived by D. Giugni (INFN Milano and now CERN PH) and modeled by G. Braga (INFN Milano) in spring-summer 2003. The realization of the table has been done by an Italian firm (MatecImpianti, Fenegrò, Como) under the supervision of S. Coelli (INFN Milano) starting August 2003. Figure 1 shows the table assembled at the firm (left). Figure 1: The Tilecal-LAr table: in Fenegro (left) and at CERN (right). In November 2003 the table has been delivered to CERN and put in temporary storage to be assembled after the preparation of the Tilecal zone. In February 2004 two technicians from the firm and the team of technician coordinated by C. Ferrari (CERN AB/ATB), assembled, tested and commissioned the table under the supervision of S. Coelli...

  15. Comparison of 2 plating techniques for lateral clavicle fractures, using a new standardized biomechanical testing setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suter, Cyrill; Majewski, Martin; Nowakowski, Andrej M

    2017-09-08

    Conservative treatment of lateral clavicle fractures (Neer type II) often ends with unsatisfactory results for patients. Operative treatment is thus gaining acceptance. A retrospective study found success using a double plate technique for these injuries. For the current study, a standardized testing setup was developed to compare the mechanical properties of single versus double plate technique for lateral clavicle fractures. Six synthetic bones were tested for each technique. Neer type IIB fractures were created using computer-aided design (CAD). Fatigue testing was carried out with a cantilever bending test. Parameters measured were cycles undergone, failure load and stiffness at the point of failure. The standardized testing setup was able to provide reproducible failures. The double plate technique lasted about 16,000 more cycles and withstood an additional 22.4 N on average. The new modified standardized testing setup produced reproducible fixation failures for both clavicle fracture fixation techniques. The double plate technique seems to be mechanically superior to the single plate technique.

  16. Set-up and Test Procedure for Suction Installation and Uninstallation of Bucket Foundation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koteras, Aleksandra Katarzyna

    This technical report describes the set-up and the test procedures for installation and uninstallation of medium-scale model of bucket foundation that can be performed in the geotechnical part of laboratory in Aalborg University. The installation of bucket foundation can be tested with the use...... of suction under the bucket lid or by applying additional force through the hydraulic piston, forcing the bucket to penetrate into the soil. Tests for uninstallation are performed also with the use of water pressure, as a reverse process to the suction installation. Both installation and uninstallation tests...

  17. Experimental Testing of the HI Mass Reconstruction Procedure at Lis Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamanin, D. V.; Strekalovsky, A. O.; Alexandrov, A. A.; Alexandrova, I. A.; Kondtatyev, N. A.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Mishinsky, V. G.; Strekalovsky, O. V.; Zhuchko, V. E.; Pyatkov, Yu. V.; Mkaza, N.

    2015-06-01

    Reconstruction of the heavy ion masses in the time-of-flight spectrometry is known to be a complicated task due to distortions both in timing and measuring of the ions energy using PIN diodes. Original procedure which takes into account simultaneously pulse height defect (PHD) and plasma delay for unbiased mass reconstruction was tested in series of experiments at the LIS setup using degrader foils.

  18. Experimental spat collecting of the edible oyster, Saccostrea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A one year study was carried out at Kunduchi Creek, Dar es Salaam, to determine spat settlement using the three different substrates (clutches): coconut shells, asbestos and cockle shells, set at three different depths, 0.5 m, 1 m, and 1.5 m. The experiment was set up at three different sites within the creek. There were no ...

  19. Establishment of a novel in vitro test setup for electric and magnetic stimulation of human osteoblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, P C; Jonitz-Heincke, A; Su, Y; Souffrant, R; Hansmann, D; Ewald, H; Krüger, A; Mittelmeier, W; Bader, R

    2014-11-01

    When large defects occur, bone regeneration can be supported by bone grafting and biophysical stimuli like electric and magnetic stimulation (EMS). Clinically established EMS modes are external coils and surgical implants like an electroinductive screw system, which combines a magnetic and electric field, e.g., for the treatment of avascular bone necrosis or pseudarthrosis. For optimization of this implant system, an in vitro test setup was designed to investigate effects of EMS on human osteoblasts on different 3D scaffolds (based on calcium phosphate and collagen). Prior to the cell experiments, numerical simulations of the setup, as well as experimental validation, via measurements of the electric parameters induced by EMS were conducted. Human osteoblasts (3 × 10(5) cells) were seeded onto the scaffolds and cultivated. After 24 h, screw implants (Stryker ASNIS III s-series) were centered in the scaffolds, and EMS was applied (3 × 45 min per day at 20 Hz) for 3 days. Cell viability and collagen type 1 (Col1) synthesis were determined subsequently. Numerical simulation and validation showed an adequate distribution of the electric field within the scaffolds. Experimental measurements of the electric potential revealed only minimal deviation from the simulation. Cell response to stimulation varied with scaffold material and mode of stimulation. EMS-stimulated cells exhibited a significant decrease of metabolic activity in particular on collagen scaffolds. In contrast, the Col1/metabolic activity ratio was significantly increased on collagen and non-sintered calcium phosphate scaffolds after 3 days. Exclusive magnetic stimulation showed similar but nonsignificant tendencies in metabolic activity and Col1 synthesis. The cell tests demonstrate that the new test setup is a valuable tool for in vitro testing and parameter optimization of the clinically used electroinductive screw system. It combines magnetic and electric stimulation, allowing in vitro investigations

  20. On Probe Weighting for MIMO OTA testing in Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Nuutinen, Jukka-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    The multi-probe anechoic chamber method is promising for OTA testing. The reason can be attributed to its potential for enabling evaluating MIMO terminals in realistic environments. The focus of the paper is on investigating how to create desired spatial channel models with the multi-probe anechoic...... chamber setups. Simulation results have shown that with the discussed methods, the number of probes and probe power weights determine to which level the spatial characteristics of the target channel models can be accurately approximated. With the optimized weights, better agreement is achieved for all...

  1. Test setups for the development of high voltage circuit breakers for high short circuit capacities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, R.; Ruhnau, W.; Zemann, E.

    1981-10-01

    A number of test setups and procedures are described for measuring and simulating the current and voltage conditions prevailing in short circuit breakers designed to interrupt short circuit currents from 80 to 100 kA. A synthetic test circuit was successfully developed, using the principles of both voltage and current injection. A capacitance current injection procedure allows for the establishment of the influence of iron in the magnetic circuit on the prospective transient recovery voltage of the breaker. Methods for measuring the post-arc current are indicated, and developed meshed grid and tube shunts are described. Synthetic test circuits are presented which are suitable for testing the capacitive switching capabilities of breakers.

  2. X-ray phase scanning setup for non-destructive testing using Talbot-Lau interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachche, S.; Nonoguchi, M.; Kato, K.; Kageyama, M.; Koike, T.; Kuribayashi, M.; Momose, A.

    2016-09-01

    X-ray grating interferometry has a great potential for X-ray phase imaging over conventional X-ray absorption imaging which does not provide significant contrast for weakly absorbing objects and soft biological tissues. X-ray Talbot and Talbot-Lau interferometers which are composed of transmission gratings and measure the differential X-ray phase shifts have gained popularity because they operate with polychromatic beams. In X-ray radiography, especially for nondestructive testing in industrial applications, the feasibility of continuous sample scanning is not yet completely revealed. A scanning setup is frequently advantageous when compared to a direct 2D static image acquisition in terms of field of view, exposure time, illuminating radiation, etc. This paper demonstrates an efficient scanning setup for grating-based Xray phase imaging using laboratory-based X-ray source. An apparatus consisting of an X-ray source that emits X-rays vertically, optical gratings and a photon-counting detector was used with which continuously moving objects across the field of view as that of conveyor belt system can be imaged. The imaging performance of phase scanner was tested by scanning a long continuous moving sample at a speed of 5 mm/s and absorption, differential-phase and visibility images were generated by processing non-uniform moire movie with our specially designed phase measurement algorithm. A brief discussion on the feasibility of phase scanner with scanning setup approach including X-ray phase imaging performance is reported. The successful results suggest a breakthrough for scanning objects those are moving continuously on conveyor belt system non-destructively using the scheme of X-ray phase imaging.

  3. Experimental Evaluation of User Influence on Test Zone Size in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Ji, Yilin

    2017-01-01

    Over-the-air (OTA) radiated testing for multipleinput multiple-output (MIMO) capable mobile terminals has been actively discussed in the standardization in recent years, where multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) method has been selected, together with the radiated two-stage (RTS) method. The supp......Over-the-air (OTA) radiated testing for multipleinput multiple-output (MIMO) capable mobile terminals has been actively discussed in the standardization in recent years, where multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) method has been selected, together with the radiated two-stage (RTS) method...... available in the literature are typically limited to free space scenarios, where no user effect in the vicinity of MIMO terminal is present. There is a concern whether or not the test zone size should encompass the user phantom, together with the mobile terminal in the MPAC setup. To address this issue...

  4. Multiple sample setup for testing the hydrothermal stability of adsorbents in thermal energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Fabian; Laevemann, Eberhard

    2015-06-01

    Thermal energy storage based on adsorption and desorption of water on an adsorbent can achieve high energy storage densities. Many adsorbents lose adsorption capacity when operated under unfavourable hydrothermal conditions during adsorption and desorption. The stability of an adsorbent against stressing hydrothermal conditions is a key issue for its usability in adsorption thermal energy storage. We built an experimental setup that simultaneously controls the hydrothermal conditions of 16 samples arranged in a matrix of four temperatures and four water vapour pressures. This setup allows the testing of potential adsorbents between temperatures of 50 °C and 350 °C and water vapour pressures of up to 32 kPa. A measurement procedure that allows the detection of the hydrothermal stability of an adsorbent after defined time spans has been designed. We verified the functionality of the multiple sample measurements with a microporous adsorbent, a zeolite NaMSX. The hydrothermal stability of this zeolite is tested by water uptake measurements. A standard deviation lower than 1% of the 16 samples for detecting the hydrothermal stability enables setting different conditions in each sample cell. Further, we compared the water uptake measurements by measuring their adsorption isotherms with the volumetric device BELSORP Aqua 3 from Bel Japan.

  5. Automated ethernet-based test setup for long wave infrared camera analysis and algorithm evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edeler, Torsten; Ohliger, Kevin; Lawrenz, Sönke; Hussmann, Stephan

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we consider a new way for automated camera calibration and specification. The proposed setup is optimized for working with uncooled long wave infrared (thermal) cameras, while the concept itself is not restricted to those cameras. Every component of the setup like black body source, climate chamber, remote power switch, and the camera itself is connected to a network via Ethernet and a Windows XP workstation is controlling all components by the use of the TCL - script language. Beside the job of communicating with the components the script tool is also capable to run Matlab code via the matlab kernel. Data exchange during the measurement is possible and offers a variety of different advantages from drastically reduction of the amount of data to enormous speedup of the measuring procedure due to data analysis during measurement. A parameter based software framework is presented to create generic test cases, where modification to the test scenario does not require any programming skills. In the second part of the paper the measurement results of a self developed GigE-Vision thermal camera are presented and correction algorithms, providing high quality image output, are shown. These algorithms are fully implemented in the FPGA of the camera to provide real time processing while maintaining GigE-Vision as standard transmission protocol as an interface to arbitrary software tools. Artefacts taken into account are spatial noise, defective pixel and offset drift due to self heating after power on.

  6. Recent Advances on OTA Testing for 5G Antenna Systems in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.; Kyösti, Pekka

    2017-01-01

    Over-the-air (OTA) testing is seen as an essential method for evaluating 5G antenna systems, since conventional cable testing are no longer applicable. In the paper, we discussed the similarities and discrepancies of OTA testing in the multiprobe anechoic chamber (MPAC) setups for 4G user equipment...

  7. Wall heat transfer coefficient in a molten salt bubble column: testing the experimental setup

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Skosana, PJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available reactors that are highly exothermic or endothermic. This paper presents the design and operation of experimental setup used for measurement of the heat transfer coefficient in molten salt media. The experimental setup was operated with tap water, heat...

  8. Test Setup for Anechoic Room based MIMO OTA Testing of LTE Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carreño, Xavier; Fan, Wei; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2013-01-01

    testing. The CTIA MIMO OTA SubGorup (MOSG) is comparing each proposed MIMO OTA technique to establish, first, an exact methodology for each technique and second, to ensure each of them offers equivalent results. This contribution focuses on the multi-probe anechoic chamber solution and summarizes...

  9. SPATS - an Acoustic Array at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeser, S [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Bohm, C [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Descamps, F [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Fischer, J [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Hallgren, A [Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Heller, R [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Hulth, P O [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Hundertmark, S [Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Krieger, K [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Nahnhauer, R [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Pohl, M [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Price, B [University of California, Berkeley (United States); Sulanke, K [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Vandenbroucke, J [University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    2007-03-15

    The detection of extraterrestrial EHE neutrinos requires detection volumes at least one order of magnitude larger than currently constructed km3 optical neutrino detectors. In ice, it is anticipated that the absorption length for acoustic waves reaches up to to several kilometers. This makes ice an attractive host environment for a next generation acoustic neutrino detector. To measure the acoustic properties of ice at South Pole, a test setup has been developed, ready to be deployed in the 2006/07 summer season.

  10. Test of a cryogenic set-up for a 10 meter long liquid nitrogen cooled superconducting power cable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Træholt, Chresten; Rasmussen, Carsten; Kühle (fratrådt), Anders Van Der Aa

    2000-01-01

    of a superconducting cable includes the thermal insulation of the cable, the current- and coolant feed-throughs and possibly dynamic vacuum control. Since feed-throughs represent major sources of heat in-leak to the cryogenic system it is important to optimise the design and the number of these in a superconducting...... cable. We report on our experimental set-up for testing a 10 meter long high temperature superconducting cable with a critical current of 3.2 kA at 77K. The set-up consists of a custom designed cable end termination, current lead, coolant feed-through, liquid nitrogen closed loop circulation system...

  11. Field instrumentation and testing to study set-up phenomenon of piles driven into Louisiana clayey soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The main objective of this research study is to evaluate the time-dependent increase in pile capacity (or pile setup phenomenon) for piles driven into Louisiana soils through conducting repeated static and dynamic field testing with time on full-scal...

  12. The experimental setup of a large field operational test for cooperative driving vehicles at the A270

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, T.H.A. van den; Netten, B.D.; Hoedemaeker, M.; Ploeg, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a large field operational test (FOT) for cooperative driving systems, which take place on a public highway, is discussed. The experimental setup consist of a specific driver support system, which is closely related to cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) systems. Instead of

  13. Development of a Penning trap based set-up for precision tests of the standard model.

    CERN Document Server

    Delauré, Bavo

    This work has presented the development and realization of the WITCH set-up, which is designed to measure the recoil energy spectrum of the daughter ions originating in nuclear -decay. The spectral shape reveals the angular correlation between the neutrino and the -particle, which is sensitive to the nature of the weak interaction, i.e. possible scalar or tensor type contributions. In order to allow detection of the low energy recoil ions, the set-up is equipped with a Penning trap which is in principle able to confine ions of each element in a scattering free environment. This storage device for the radioactive source is coupled to a retardation spectrometer, which performs the energy analysis of the recoil ions and has a solid angle acceptance of almost 2. The setup is installed at the ISOLDE/CERN facility. At present, the set-up installation is close to completion and commissioning of the apparatus has started. A first experiment with a radioactive beam is planned for the second half of 2004. In order to c...

  14. Developing a reproducible non-line-of-sight experimental setup for testing wireless medical device coexistence utilizing ZigBee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaSorte, Nickolas J; Rajab, Samer A; Refai, Hazem H

    2012-11-01

    The integration of heterogeneous wireless technologies is believed to aid revolutionary healthcare delivery in hospitals and residential care. Wireless medical device coexistence is a growing concern given the ubiquity of wireless technology. In spite of this, a consensus standard that addresses risks associated with wireless heterogeneous networks has not been adopted. This paper serves as a starting point by recommending a practice for assessing the coexistence of a wireless medical device in a non-line-of-sight environment utilizing 802.15.4 in a practical, versatile, and reproducible test setup. This paper provides an extensive survey of other coexistence studies concerning 802.15.4 and 802.11 and reports on the authors' coexistence testing inside and outside an anechoic chamber. Results are compared against a non-line-of-sight test setup. Findings relative to co-channel and adjacent channel interference were consistent with results reported in the literature.

  15. SpatTrack: an imaging toolbox for analysis of vesicle motility and distribution in living cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Frederik Wendelboe; Jensen, Marie Louise; Christensen, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    SpatTrack, an open source, platform-independent program collecting a variety of methods for analysis of vesicle dynamics and distribution in living cells. SpatTrack performs 2D particle tracking, trajectory analysis and fitting of diffusion models to the calculated mean square displacement. It allows...... for spatial analysis of detected vesicle patterns including calculation of the radial distribution function and particle-based colocalization. Importantly, all analysis tools are supported by Monte Carlo simulations of synthetic images. This allows the user to assess the reliability of the analysis...... and to study alternative scenarios. We demonstrate the functionality of SpatTrack by performing a detailed imaging study of internalized fluorescence-tagged Niemann Pick C2 (NPC2) protein in human disease fibroblasts. Using SpatTrack, we show that NPC2 rescued the cholesterol-storage phenotype from...

  16. Genome-wide association analysis in asthma subjects identifies SPATS2L as a novel bronchodilator response gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himes, Blanca E; Jiang, Xiaofeng; Hu, Ruoxi; Wu, Ann C; Lasky-Su, Jessica A; Klanderman, Barbara J; Ziniti, John; Senter-Sylvia, Jody; Lima, John J; Irvin, Charles G; Peters, Stephen P; Meyers, Deborah A; Bleecker, Eugene R; Kubo, Michiaki; Tamari, Mayumi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Szefler, Stanley J; Lemanske, Robert F; Zeiger, Robert S; Strunk, Robert C; Martinez, Fernando D; Hanrahan, John P; Koppelman, Gerard H; Postma, Dirkje S; Nieuwenhuis, Maartje A E; Vonk, Judith M; Panettieri, Reynold A; Markezich, Amy; Israel, Elliot; Carey, Vincent J; Tantisira, Kelan G; Litonjua, Augusto A; Lu, Quan; Weiss, Scott T

    2012-07-01

    Bronchodilator response (BDR) is an important asthma phenotype that measures reversibility of airway obstruction by comparing lung function (i.e. FEV(1)) before and after the administration of a short-acting β(2)-agonist, the most common rescue medications used for the treatment of asthma. BDR also serves as a test of β(2)-agonist efficacy. BDR is a complex trait that is partly under genetic control. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of BDR, quantified as percent change in baseline FEV(1) after administration of a β(2)-agonist, was performed with 1,644 non-Hispanic white asthmatic subjects from six drug clinical trials: CAMP, LOCCS, LODO, a medication trial conducted by Sepracor, CARE, and ACRN. Data for 469,884 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to measure the association of SNPs with BDR using a linear regression model, while adjusting for age, sex, and height. Replication of primary P-values was attempted in 501 white subjects from SARP and 550 white subjects from DAG. Experimental evidence supporting the top gene was obtained via siRNA knockdown and Western blotting analyses. The lowest overall combined P-value was 9.7E-07 for SNP rs295137, near the SPATS2L gene. Among subjects in the primary analysis, those with rs295137 TT genotype had a median BDR of 16.0 (IQR = [6.2, 32.4]), while those with CC or TC genotypes had a median BDR of 10.9 (IQR = [5.0, 22.2]). SPATS2L mRNA knockdown resulted in increased β(2)-adrenergic receptor levels. Our results suggest that SPATS2L may be an important regulator of β(2)-adrenergic receptor down-regulation and that there is promise in gaining a better understanding of the biological mechanisms of differential response to β(2)-agonists through GWAS.

  17. Mussel Spat Ropes Assist Redfin Bully Gobiomorphus huttoni Passage through Experimental Culverts with Velocity Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan D. Tonkin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of mussel spat rope for enabling the passage of redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni through culverts, which create velocity barriers, was trialled in the laboratory. No fish were able to access the un-roped control pipes whereas 52% successfully negotiated the pipes in the rope treatments. The success of fish ascending treatment pipes suggests mussel spat rope may be effective for enabling the passage of this and other similar fish species through otherwise impassable culverts with velocity barriers.

  18. ATLAS TileCal Sub-Module Production at UIUC - Photos of Prototype PMT Test Setup

    CERN Multimedia

    Errede, Steve

    2001-01-01

    Photo 1 - Entrance to the lab. Photo 2 - A shot of the center of the lab. Photo 3 - The back of the lab. The Dark Box: Photo 4 - A view of the outside of the Dark Box along with its dry nitrogen system. Photo 5 - A view of the inside of the Dark Box. Photo 6 - The LED holder, beam splitter (removed in this shot), and a pulsing circuit. Photo 7 - The PMT holder. Photo 8 - A possible design for a Stepper Motor controlled filter wheel. Photo 9 - Polishing area for the optical fibers. R&D Work on Stepper Motor/Motion Control: Photo 10 - The complete prototype of the Stepper Motor setup. Photo 11 - The prototype of the Main Stepper Motor Driver Board. Photo 12 - The prototype of the Stepper Motor Power Amplifer. Photo 13 - The prototype of the Stepper Motor LabPC + Interface Board.

  19. A setup to perform X-ray irradiation tests on scintillating fibres for the SciFi project

    CERN Document Server

    Gavardi, Laura; Joram, Christian; Kristic, Robert

    2017-01-01

    An X-ray setup has been installed at CERN. The setup will serve for quality assurance purposes related to the acceptance of $11'000~ \\text{km}$ of scintillating plastic fibres for the SciFi detector of LHCb. The X-ray tube has a tungsten target and can be powered up to 60kV, 30mA. The setup is intended to monitor the relative radiation response of the different fibre batches. The dose rate absorbed by the fibre under test can be tuned, adjusting the settings of the X-ray tube and adding aluminium filters of different thicknesses. When operating the X-ray tube without filters at a high voltage of $40\\rm \\,kV$ and an anode current of $30\\rm \\,mA$, the dose rate is about $23\\rm \\,Gy/min$. The maximum dose of about $35\\rm \\,kGy$ expected in the SciFi Tracker can be thus reached in about $1\\rm \\,day$.

  20. Specification of a cyclist target and test setup for the evaluation of Cyclist-AEB systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montfort, S. van; Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Fritz, M.; Wimmer, T.

    2015-01-01

    From 2018, AEB systems dedicated to avoid or mitigate car-to-cyclist collisions will be included in the safety assessment by Euro NCAP [1] & [2]. To test such systems, appropriate equipment and a test procedure are being developed in the project CATS (Cyclist-AES Testing System). Accidentology was

  1. Cyclist target and test setup for the evaluation of cyclist-autonomous emergency braking (AEB) systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camp, O.M.G.C. op den; Montfort, S. van; Uittenbogaard, J.; Welten, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    From 2018, AEB systems dedicated to avoid or mitigate passenger car-to-cyclist collisions will be considered in the safety assessment by Euro NCAP. To test such systems, appropriate equipment has been developed in the project CATS “Cyclist-AEB Testing System.” Moreover, the project dealt with

  2. Towards nondestructive testing of pre-crash systems in a HIL setup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, J.; Hendriks, F.M.; Schouten, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the developments in the field of ADA systems shifted from comfort oriented systems to safety oriented systems. Consequently, the complexity of testing those systems increased. This leads to a demand for reproducible, efficient and safe testing methods for ADA systems in general, and

  3. A test beam set-up for the characterization of the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode technology for particle tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Vilella, A; Trenado, J; Vila, A; Casanova, R; Vos, M; Garrido, L; Dieguez, A

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that avalanche photodiodes operated in the Geiger mode above the breakdown voltage offer a virtually infinite gain and time accuracy in the picosecond range that can be used for single photon detection. However, their performance in particle detection still remains unexplored. In this contribution, we are going to expose different steps that we have taken in order to prove the efficiency of the Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes in the aforementioned field. In particular, we will present a setup for the characterization of these sensors in a test beam. The expected results of the test beam at DESY and CERN have been simulated with Geant4 and will also be exposed.

  4. Verification of Emulated Channels in Multi-Probe Based MIMO OTA Testing Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2013-01-01

    Standardization work for MIMO OTA testing methods is currently ongoing, where a multi-probe anechoic chamber based solution is an important candidate. In this paper, the probes located on an OTA ring are used to synthesize a plane wave field in the center of the OTA ring. This paper investigates...

  5. Test setup for long term reliability investigation of Silicon Carbide MOSFETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2013-01-01

    Silicon Carbide MOSFETs are now widely available and have frequently been demonstrated to offer numerous advantages over Silicon based devices. However, reliability issues remain a significant concern in their realisation in commercial power electronic systems. In this paper, a test bench...

  6. Design and building of a new experimental setup for testing hydrogen storage materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, A.

    2005-01-01

    For hydrogen to become the future energy carrier a suitable way of storing hydrogen is needed, especially if hydrogen is to be used in mobile applications such as cars. To test potential hydrogen storage materials with respect to capacity, kinetics andthermodynamics the Materials Research...

  7. On Dimensions of OTA Setups for Massive MIMO Base Stations Radiated Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyösti, Pekka; Fan, Wei; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    The development of base stations (BS) with large aperture antenna arrays, enabled partially by the utilization of cmWave and mmWave frequency bands, will require radiated testing in fading conditions. In this paper, the objective is to investigate the suitable measurement distances and physical...

  8. Fracture of porcelain-veneered gold-alloy and zirconia molar crowns using a modified test set-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Christel; Drazic, Marko; Nilsson, Eddie; Vult von Steyern, Per

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The main aim of this study was to compare fracture load and fracture mode of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) and metal-ceramic (MC) molar crowns using a modified test set-up to produce fractures similar to those seen in vivo, i.e. fractures of the veneering material rather than complete fractures. Materials and methods: 13 high-noble-alloy MC and 13 Y-TZP molar crowns veneered with porcelain were manufactured. The crowns were artificially aged before final load to fracture. Load was applied using a 7 mm diameter steel ball exerting force on the cusps with stresses directed toward the core-veneer interface. Fracture surface analysis was performed using light- and scanning electron microscopy. Results: The test design produced fractures of the veneering material rather than complete fractures. MC crowns withstood significantly (p > 0.001) higher loads (mean 2155 N) than Y-TZP (mean 1505 N) crowns, yet both endure loads sufficient for predictable clinical use. Fracture mode differed between MC and Y-TZP. MC crowns exhibited fractures involving the core-veneer interface but without core exposure. One Y-TZP crown suffered a complete fracture, all others except one displayed fractures of the veneering material involving the core-veneer interface with core exposure. Conclusions: The test set-up produces fractures similar to those found in vivo and may be useful to evaluate the core-veneer interface of different material systems, both metals and ceramics. The study confirms suggestions from previous studies of a weaker core-veneer bond for Y-TZP compared to MC crowns. PMID:28642899

  9. Fracture of porcelain-veneered gold-alloy and zirconia molar crowns using a modified test set-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Larsson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aim of this study was to compare fracture load and fracture mode of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP and metal-ceramic (MC molar crowns using a modified test set-up to produce fractures similar to those seen in vivo, i.e. fractures of the veneering material rather than complete fractures. Materials and methods: 13 high-noble-alloy MC and 13 Y-TZP molar crowns veneered with porcelain were manufactured. The crowns were artificially aged before final load to fracture. Load was applied using a 7 mm diameter steel ball exerting force on the cusps with stresses directed toward the core-veneer interface. Fracture surface analysis was performed using light- and scanning electron microscopy. Results: The test design produced fractures of the veneering material rather than complete fractures. MC crowns withstood significantly (p > 0.001 higher loads (mean 2155 N than Y-TZP (mean 1505 N crowns, yet both endure loads sufficient for predictable clinical use. Fracture mode differed between MC and Y-TZP. MC crowns exhibited fractures involving the core-veneer interface but without core exposure. One Y-TZP crown suffered a complete fracture, all others except one displayed fractures of the veneering material involving the core-veneer interface with core exposure. Conclusions: The test set-up produces fractures similar to those found in vivo and may be useful to evaluate the core-veneer interface of different material systems, both metals and ceramics. The study confirms suggestions from previous studies of a weaker core-veneer bond for Y-TZP compared to MC crowns.

  10. Experimental setup and realization of thin film specimens for microtensile tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhaire, Christophe; Seguineau, Cédric; Ignat, Michel; Josserond, Charles; Debove, Laurent; Brida, Sebastiano; Desmarres, Jean-Michel; Lafontan, Xavier

    2009-02-01

    This paper describes a microtensile test system and the design as the realization of the samples dedicated to the tensile experiments. Two different technologies for the development of miniaturized specimens are detailed: self-standing tensile samples sustained by silicon frames and metal on polymer specimens obtained by laser cutting. The design of the samples has been optimized by means of finite element simulations. Aluminum beams with very large length on thickness ratio have been released from their silicon substrate using a standard etching process. Stress/strain curves are derived from experimental force/displacement values and discussed in terms of Young's modulus values and critical parameters (flow and rupture stresses).

  11. Infrared Thermography Assessment of Thermal Bridges in Building Envelope: Experimental Validation in a Test Room Setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bianchi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal infrared imaging is a valuable tool to perform non-destructive qualitative tests and to investigate buildings envelope thermal-energy behavior. The assessment of envelope thermal insulation, ventilation, air leakages, and HVAC performance can be implemented through the analysis of each thermogram corresponding to an object surface temperature. Thermography also allows the identification of thermal bridges in buildings’ envelope that, together with windows and doors, constitute one of the weakest component increasing thermal losses. A quantitative methodology was proposed in previous researches by the authors in order to evaluate the effect of such weak point on the energy balance of the whole building. In the present work, in-field experimental measurements were carried out with the purpose of evaluating the energy losses through the envelope of a test room experimental field. In-situ thermal transmittance of walls, ceiling and roof were continuously monitored and each element was characterized by its own thermal insulation capability. Infrared thermography and the proposed quantitative methodology were applied to assess the energy losses due to thermal bridges. The main results show that the procedure confirms to be a reliable tool to quantify the incidence of thermal bridges in the envelope thermal losses.

  12. Corals like it waxed: paraffin-based antifouling technology enhances coral spat survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Tebben

    Full Text Available The early post-settlement stage is the most sensitive during the life history of reef building corals. However, few studies have examined the factors that influence coral mortality during this period. Here, the impact of fouling on the survival of newly settled coral spat of Acropora millepora was investigated by manipulating the extent of fouling cover on settlement tiles using non-toxic, wax antifouling coatings. Survival of spat on coated tiles was double that on control tiles. Moreover, there was a significant negative correlation between percentage cover of fouling and spat survival across all tiles types, suggesting that fouling in direct proximity to settled corals has detrimental effects on early post-settlement survival. While previous studies have shown that increased fouling negatively affects coral larval settlement and health of juvenile and adult corals, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show a direct relationship between fouling and early post-settlement survival for a broadcast spawning scleractinian coral. The negative effects of fouling on this sensitive life history stage may become more pronounced in the future as coastal eutrophication increases. Our results further suggest that targeted seeding of coral spat on artificial surfaces in combination with fouling control could prove useful to improve the efficiency of sexual reproduction-based coral propagation for reef rehabilitation.

  13. Tests with beam setup of the TileCal phase-II upgrade electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reward Hlaluku, Dingane

    2017-09-01

    The LHC has planned a series of upgrades culminating in the High Luminosity LHC which will have an average luminosity 5-7 times larger than the nominal Run-2 value. The ATLAS Tile calorimeter plans to introduce a new readout architecture by completely replacing the back-end and front-end electronics for the High Luminosity LHC. The photomultiplier signals will be fully digitized and transferred for every bunch crossing to the off-detector Tile PreProcessor. The Tile PreProcessor will further provide preprocessed digital data to the first level of trigger with improved spatial granularity and energy resolution in contrast to the current analog trigger signals. A single super-drawer module commissioned with the phase-II upgrade electronics is to be inserted into the real detector to evaluate and qualify the new readout and trigger concepts in the overall ATLAS data acquisition system. This new super-drawer, so-called hybrid Demonstrator, must provide analog trigger signals for backward compatibility with the current system. This Demonstrator drawer has been inserted into a Tile calorimeter module prototype to evaluate the performance in the lab. In parallel, one more module has been instrumented with two other front-end electronics options based on custom ASICs (QIE and FATALIC) which are under evaluation. These two modules together with three other modules composed of the current system electronics were exposed to different particles and energies in three test-beam campaigns during 2015 and 2016.

  14. Approaching Repetitive Short Circuit Tests on MW-Scale Power Modules by means of an Automatic Testing Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Wang, Huai; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    with no significant damage. The developed system has been demonstrated to be very helpful in performing a large number of repetition tests as required by modern testing protocols for robustness and reliability assess-ment. The software algorithm and a demonstration video are available for download....

  15. A Langmuir probe system for the test setup of an RF-driven negative hydrogen ion source at HUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, P.; Chen, D. Z.; Li, D.; Zuo, C.

    2017-08-01

    A test setup of an RF-driven negative hydrogen ion source is being constructed at HUST. It is operated at the typical pressure of 0.3 Pa, maximum RF power of 20 kW/1 MHz, with discharge pulse of 6-10 seconds. In order to diagnose the plasma parameters and evaluate the source performance, a highly integrated and automated Langmuir probe system has been developed in-house. It allows for multiple sweeping, mass data acquisition and automatic data evaluation in a fast diagnosis shot of several hundred milliseconds. Various analysis methods are investigated and compared for the ion density determination. Due to the low density and thick sheath in the plasma, OML theory is selected as the applicable one. Preliminary discharge and diagnosis experiments have been carried out in the experimental source. The plasma in the driver exhibits non-Maxwellian electron energy distribution with low density of 1017 m-3 and electron temperature of 59 eV at 20 kW/0.3 Pa.

  16. A Laboratory Test Setup for in Situ Measurements of the Dielectric Properties of Catalyst Powder Samples under Reaction Conditions by Microwave Cavity Perturbation: Set up and Initial Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Dietrich

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic behavior of zeolite catalysts for the ammonia-based selective catalytic reduction (SCR of nitrogen oxides (NOX depends strongly on the type of zeolite material. An essential precondition for SCR is a previous ammonia gas adsorption that occurs on acidic sites of the zeolite. In order to understand and develop SCR active materials, it is crucial to know the amount of sorbed ammonia under reaction conditions. To support classical temperature-programmed desorption (TPD experiments, a correlation of the dielectric properties with the catalytic properties and the ammonia sorption under reaction conditions appears promising. In this work, a laboratory test setup, which enables direct measurements of the dielectric properties of catalytic powder samples under a defined gas atmosphere and temperature by microwave cavity perturbation, has been developed. Based on previous investigations and computational simulations, a resonator cavity and a heating system were designed, installed and characterized. The resonator cavity is designed to operate in its TM010 mode at 1.2 GHz. The first measurement of the ammonia loading of an H-ZSM-5 zeolite confirmed the operating performance of the test setup at constant temperatures of up to 300 °C. It showed how both real and imaginary parts of the relative complex permittivity are strongly correlated with the mass of stored ammonia.

  17. Ankle Spatting Compared to Bracing or Taping during Maximal-Effort Sprint Drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    REUTER, GRANT D; DAHL, ANGELA R; SENCHINA, DAVID S

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the influences of 4 ankle conditions (no support, bracing, taping, taping + spatting; all in football cleats) during 2 maximal-effort field drills (40-yd dash and 34-yd cutting drill) on perceptions of comfort and stability and performance outcomes. Fourteen young adult males participated. Subjects’ perceptions of comfort and stability were assessed by visual analogue scales after each drill for each ankle condition. Time-to-completion and post-completion heart rate were recorded. For both drills, significant differences in comfort perception were found such that subjects perceived no support as equivocal to bracing but more comfortable than either taping or spatting + taping. Stability results differed by drill. For the dash, significant differences in stability perception were found such that subjects perceived no support as equivocal to bracing but less stable than either taping or spatting + taping. By contrast, for the cutting drill significant differences in stability perception were found such that subjects perceived their ankles as less stable during the no support condition as compared to all 3 other conditions. Generally, bracing was perceived as equivocal to all 3 other conditions for comfort and stability. There were no significant differences in time-to-completion or heart rate for any comparison. Compared to bracing or taping, spatting + taping (a) did not influence performance time in explosive/sprint-type drills, (b) was perceived as equivalent to taping alone in terms of ankle comfort and stability, and (c) was perceived as equivalent to bracing in terms of stability but not comfort. PMID:27478530

  18. Sensitivity testing of the model set-up used for calculation of photochemical ozone creation potentials (POCP) under European conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altenstedt, J.; Pleijel, K.

    1998-02-01

    Photochemical Ozone Creation Potentials (POCP) is a method to rank VOC, relative to other VOC, according to their ability to produce ground level ozone. To obtain POCP values valid under European conditions, a critical analysis of the POCP concept has been performed using the IVL photochemical trajectory model. The critical analysis has concentrated on three VOC (ethene, n-butane and o-xylene) and has analysed the effect on their POCP values when different model parameters were varied. The three species were chosen because of their different degradation mechanisms in the atmosphere and thus their different abilities to produce ozone. The model parameters which have been tested include background emissions, initial concentrations, dry deposition velocities, the features of the added point source and meteorological parameters. The critical analysis shows that the background emissions of NO{sub x} and VOC have a critical impact on the POCP values. The hour of the day for the point source emission also shows a large influence on the POCP values. Other model parameters which have been studied have not shown such large influence on the POCP values. Based on the critical analysis a model set-up for calculation of POCP is defined. The variations in POCP values due to changes in the background emissions of NO{sub x} and VOC are so large that they can not be disregarded in the calculation of POCP. It is recommended to calculate POCP ranges based on the extremes in POCP values instead of calculating site specific POCP values. Four individual emission scenarios which produced the extremes in POCP values in the analysis have been selected for future calculation of POCP ranges. The scenarios are constructed based on the emissions in Europe and the resulting POCP ranges are thus intended to be applicable within Europe 67 refs, 61 figs, 16 tabs

  19. Developing a national spat collection program for pearl oysters in the Fiji Islands supporting pearl industry development and livelihoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranesh Kishore

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cultured pearl farming in Fiji relies on wild spat collection to supply the oysters used for pearl production. This supply can be inconsistent and a research program was implemented to determine recruitment of pearl oysters to spat collectors at sites throughout Fiji as a basis for developing a national spat collection program to improve reliability of oyster supply to the industry. Twenty-nine sites across Fiji were used in this study. Spat collectors consisted of a 100 m longline from which 310 individual spat collectors were suspended. Spat collectors were deployed for a period of 10–15 months when the number of pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera and Pteria penguin spat attached to each collector was counted and shell size recorded. A total of 5478 P. margaritifera juveniles were collected from all sites with the highest number of recruits (693 and the highest number of recruits per collector (2.10 ± 0.17 occurring at Nacobau (Vanua Levu. The largest mean dorso-ventral measurement (DVM of P. margaritifera at any site was 8.61 ± 0.30 cm while the smallest was 4.26 ± 0.13 cm. Some sites did not record any P. margaritifera recruitment during the study and these were generally sites with relatively turbid water. A total of 4224 Pt. penguin were collected from all sites, with the highest number of recruits (495 recorded from Namarai (Viti Levu. The mean DVM of Pt. penguin ranged from 7.53 cm to 13.62 cm across sites. Results indicate that Pt. penguin have greater tolerance of more turbid inshore sites than P. margaritifera based on greater levels of recruitment at these sites. Results identified sites supporting high levels of pearl oyster recruitment as a basis for an ongoing national spat collection program, and support better targeting of spat collection activities that maximise oyster supply to the Fijian pearl industry. The national spat collection program will generate significant livelihood benefits across

  20. Transcriptional changes in Crassostrea gigas oyster spat following a parental exposure to the herbicide diuron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondon, R. [Ifremer, IHPE UMR 5244, Univ. Perpignan Via Domitia, CNRS, Univ. Montpellier, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Univ. Perpignan Via Domitia, IHPE UMR 5244, CNRS, IFREMER, Univ. Montpellier, F-66860 Perpignan (France); Akcha, F. [Ifremer, Department of Biogeochemistry and Ecotoxicology, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Rue de l’ile d’Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes Cedex 03 (France); Alonso, P. [CNRS, IHPE UMR 5244, Univ. Perpignan Via Domitia, IFREMER, Univ. Montpellier, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Menard, D.; Rouxel, J. [Ifremer, Department of Biogeochemistry and Ecotoxicology, Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Rue de l’ile d’Yeu, BP 21105, 44311 Nantes Cedex 03 (France); Montagnani, C., E-mail: cmontagn@ifremer.fr [Ifremer, IHPE UMR 5244, Univ. Perpignan Via Domitia, CNRS, Univ. Montpellier, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Mitta, G.; Cosseau, C.; Grunau, C. [Univ. Perpignan Via Domitia, IHPE UMR 5244, CNRS, IFREMER, Univ. Montpellier, F-66860 Perpignan (France)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Remodeling of the transcriptome of the offspring of oysters exposed to diuron (838 gene which expression is modulated). • Functions related to cytoskeleton organization, translation, ATP synthesis were activated. • Functions linked to transcription and protein degradation were altered. • Up-regulation of genes involved in energy production, protein synthesis and mitosis. • Catch-up growth phenomenon could allow the spats to compensate for slower growth. - Abstract: The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is the main oyster species produced in the world, and a key coastal economic resource in France. High mortalities affect Pacific oysters since 2008 in France and Europe. Their origins have been attributed to a combination of biotic and abiotic factors, underlining the importance of environment quality. The impact of water pollution has been pointed out and one of the pollutants, the genotoxic herbicide diuron, occurs at high concentrations all along the French coasts. Previous work has revealed that a parental exposure to diuron had a strong impact on hatching rates and offspring development even if spats were not exposed to diuron themselves. In this study, we explored for the first time the transcriptional changes occurring in oyster spats (non exposed) originating from genitors exposed to an environmentally relevant concentration of diuron during gametogenesis using the RNAseq methodology. We identified a transcriptomic remodeling revealing an effect of the herbicide. Different molecular pathways involved in energy production, translation and cell proliferation are particularly disturbed. This analysis revealed modulated candidate genes putatively involved in response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in offspring of genitors exposed to diuron. Complementary measures of the activity of enzymes involved in these latter processes corroborate the results obtained at the transcriptomic level. In addition, our results suggested an

  1. Test of experimental set-ups for electrodialytic removal of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from different contaminated harbour sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrøm, Gunvor Marie; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Villumsen, Arne

    2005-01-01

    Electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from different harbour sediments was investigated. Electrodialytic remediation experiments in laboratory scale were made with calcareous and non-calcareous harbour sediments. Two different experimental set-ups were used for the study, one with stirring of t...

  2. Reliable experimental setup to test the pressure modulation of Baerveldt Implant tubes for reducing post-operative hypotony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, Ajay

    Glaucoma encompasses a group of conditions that result in damage to the optic nerve and can cause loss of vision and blindness. The nerve is damaged due to an increase in the eye's internal (intraocular) pressure (IOP) above the nominal range of 15 -- 20 mm Hg. There are many treatments available for this group of diseases depending on the complexity and stage of nerve degradation. In extreme cases where drugs or laser surgery do not create better conditions for the patient, ophthalmologists use glaucoma drainage devices to help alleviate the IOP. Many drainage implants have been developed over the years and are in use; but two popular implants are the Baerveldt Glaucoma Implant and the Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implant. Baerveldt Implants are non-valved and provide low initial resistance to outflow of fluid, resulting in post-operative complications such as hypotony, where the IOP drops below 5 mm of Hg. Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implants are valved implants which initially restrict the amount of fluid flowing out of the eye. The long term success rates of Baerveldt Implants surpass those of Ahmed Valve Implants because of post-surgical issues; but Baerveldt Implants' initial effectiveness is poor without proper flow restriction. This drives the need to develop new ways to improve the initial effectiveness of Baerveldt Implants. A possible solution proposed by our research team is to place an insert in the Baerveldt Implant tube of inner diameter 305 microns. The insert must be designed to provide flow resistance for the early time frame [e.g., first 30 -- 60 post-operative days] until sufficient scar tissue has formed on the implant. After that initial stage with the insert, the scar tissue will provide the necessary flow resistance to maintain the IOP above 5 mm Hg. The main objective of this project was to develop and validate an experimental apparatus to measure pressure drop across a Baerveldt Implant tube, with and without inserts. This setup will be used in the

  3. The experimental setup of the Interaction in Crystals for Emission of RADiation collaboration at Mainzer Mikrotron: Design, commissioning, and tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietti, D., E-mail: Daniela.Lietti@cern.ch [Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, 22100 Como (Italy); Backe, H.; Lauth, W. [Institut für Kernphysik der Universität Mainz, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Bagli, E.; Bandiera, L.; Germogli, G.; Guidi, V.; Mazzolari, A. [Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); INFN Sezione di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Berra, A.; Prest, M. [Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, 22100 Como (Italy); INFN Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Carturan, S.; De Salvador, D. [Università degli Studi di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro (Italy); Vallazza, E. [INFN Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2015-04-15

    Silicon/germanium flat/bent crystals are thin devices able to efficiently deflect charged particle GeV-energy beams up to a few hundreds of μrad; moreover, high intensity photons can be efficiently produced in the so-called Multi-Volume Reflection (MVR) and Multiple Volume Reflections in One Crystal (MVROC) conditions. In the last years, the research interest in this field has moved to the dynamic studies of light negative leptons in the low energy range: the possibility to deflect negative particles and to produce high intensity γ sources via the coherent interactions with crystals in the sub-GeV energy range has been proved by the ICE-RAD (Interaction in Crystals for Emission of RADiation) Collaboration at the MAinzer MIkrotron (MAMI, Germany). This paper describes the setup used by the ICE-RAD experiment for the crystals characterization (both in terms of deflection and radiation emission properties): a high precision goniometer is used to align the crystals with the incoming beam, while a silicon based profilometer and an inorganic scintillator reconstruct, respectively, the particle position and the photon spectra after the samples. The crystals manufacturing process and their characterization, the silicon profilometer commissioning at the CERN PS T9 beamline, and the commissioning of the whole setup installed at MAMI are presented.

  4. Model Test Setup and Program for Experimental Estimation of Surface Loads of the SSG Kvitsøy Pilot Plant from Extreme Wave Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Larsen, Brian Juul

    reservoirs. In the present SSG setup three reservoirs have been used. Model tests are planned using a model (length scale 1:60) of the SSG prototype at the planned location of a pilot plant at the west coast of the island Kvitsøy near Stavanger, Norway. The properties of the coastal area surrounding...... the planned pilot plant site is also modeled. The tests will be carried out at Dept. of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University (AAU) in the 3D deep water wave tank....

  5. Characterization of a Setup to test the Impact of High-Amplitude Pressure Waves on Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Mischa; Kahlert, Ulf; Wessolleck, Johanna; Maciaczyk, Donata; Merkt, Benjamin; Maciaczyk, Jaroslaw; Osterholz, Jens; Nikkhah, Guido; Steinhauser, Martin O.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of pressure waves on cells may provide several possible applications in biology and medicine including the direct killing of tumors, drug delivery or gene transfection. In this study we characterize the physical properties of mechanical pressure waves generated by a nanosecond laser pulse in a setup with well-defined cell culture conditions. To systematically characterize the system on the relevant length and time scales (micrometers and nanoseconds) we use photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV) and obtain velocity profiles of the cell culture vessel at the passage of the pressure wave. These profiles serve as input for numerical pressure wave simulations that help to further quantify the pressure conditions on the cellular length scale. On the biological level we demonstrate killing of glioblastoma cells and quantify experimentally the pressure threshold for cell destruction. PMID:24458018

  6. Texas inmate who spat on guard loses habeas appeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-07-28

    The Fifth U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals has rejected [name removed]' petition for a writ of habeas corpus after concluding that [name removed] could have killed a prison guard by infecting him with saliva. [Name removed], a prisoner with HIV, will spend the rest of his life behind bars for spitting in the prison guard's face in June 1988. However, the prosecution never established that virus was present in [name removed]' saliva, and the guard tested negative for HIV antibodies. The appeals court decided to uphold the jury's decision to believe the witnesses who testified that HIV could be transmitted through saliva. Although the appeals court found that the defense presented enough scientific evidence to show that HIV cannot be transmitted by saliva, the court decided that as long as some evidence existed for the jury to draw its conclusions, they could not disturb the jury's assessment. The defense also contended that the trial judge gave improper instructions to the jury in how to evaluate whether an act tends to but fails to effect the commission of murder. The appeals court found the judge's instructions to be flawed, but not so much as to harm [name removed]' due process rights.

  7. External quality assessment for KRAS testing is needed: setup of a European program and report of the first joined regional quality assessment rounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellon, Ellen; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; Tejpar, Sabine

    2011-01-01

    . In an effort to ensure optimal, uniform, and reliable community-based KRAS testing throughout Europe, a KRAS external quality assessment (EQA) scheme was set up. The first large assessment round included 59 laboratories from eight different European countries. For each country, one regional scheme organizer...... their own preferred method for histological evaluation, DNA isolation, and mutation analysis. In this study, we analyze the setup of the KRAS scheme. We analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of the regional scheme organization by analyzing the outcome of genotyping results, analysis of tumor percentage...

  8. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from distinct geographic locations in China: an increasing prevalence of spa-t030 and SCCmec type III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Zhengxiang; Duo, Libo; Xiong, Jie; Gong, Yanwen; Yang, Jiyong; Wang, Zhanke; Wu, Xuqin; Lu, Zhongyi; Meng, Xiangzhao; Zhao, Jingya; Zhang, Changjian; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Yulong; Zhang, Mengqiang; Han, Li

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus belongs to one of the most common bacteria causing healthcare and community associated infections in China, but their molecular characterization has not been well studied. From May 2011 to June 2012, a total of 322 non-duplicate S. aureus isolates were consecutively collected from seven tertiary care hospitals in seven cities with distinct geographical locations in China, including 171 methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) and 151 MRSA isolates. All isolates were characterized by spa typing. The presence of virulence genes was tested by PCR. MRSA were further characterized by SCCmec typing. Seventy four and 16 spa types were identified among 168 MSSA and 150 MRSA, respectively. One spa type t030 accounted for 80.1% of all MRSA isolates, which was higher than previously reported, while spa-t037 accounted for only 4.0% of all MRSA isolates. The first six spa types (t309, t189, t034, t377, t078 and t091) accounted for about one third of all MSSA isolates. 121 of 151 MRSA isolates (80.1%) were identified as SCCmec type III. pvl gene was found in 32 MSSA (18.7%) and 5 MRSA (3.3%) isolates, with ST22-MSSA-t309 as the most commonly identified strain. Compared with non-epidemic MRSA clones, epidemic MRSA clones (corresponding to ST239) exhibited a lower susceptibility to rifampin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, a higher prevalence of sea gene and a lower prevalence of seb, sec, seg, sei and tst genes. The increasing prevalence of multidrug resistant spa-t030 MRSA represents a major public health problem in China.

  9. Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus from distinct geographic locations in China: an increasing prevalence of spa-t030 and SCCmec type III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus belongs to one of the most common bacteria causing healthcare and community associated infections in China, but their molecular characterization has not been well studied. From May 2011 to June 2012, a total of 322 non-duplicate S. aureus isolates were consecutively collected from seven tertiary care hospitals in seven cities with distinct geographical locations in China, including 171 methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and 151 MRSA isolates. All isolates were characterized by spa typing. The presence of virulence genes was tested by PCR. MRSA were further characterized by SCCmec typing. Seventy four and 16 spa types were identified among 168 MSSA and 150 MRSA, respectively. One spa type t030 accounted for 80.1% of all MRSA isolates, which was higher than previously reported, while spa-t037 accounted for only 4.0% of all MRSA isolates. The first six spa types (t309, t189, t034, t377, t078 and t091 accounted for about one third of all MSSA isolates. 121 of 151 MRSA isolates (80.1% were identified as SCCmec type III. pvl gene was found in 32 MSSA (18.7% and 5 MRSA (3.3% isolates, with ST22-MSSA-t309 as the most commonly identified strain. Compared with non-epidemic MRSA clones, epidemic MRSA clones (corresponding to ST239 exhibited a lower susceptibility to rifampin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, a higher prevalence of sea gene and a lower prevalence of seb, sec, seg, sei and tst genes. The increasing prevalence of multidrug resistant spa-t030 MRSA represents a major public health problem in China.

  10. Evaluation of toxicity of Deepwater Horizon slick oil on spat of the oyster Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignier, Julien; Rolton, Anne; Soudant, Philippe; Chu, Fu-Lin E; Robert, René; Volety, Aswani K

    2018-01-01

    The 2010 explosion of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil rig generated the largest marine oil spill in US history with millions of barrels of crude oil released in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM). The eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, is an ecologically and economically important species in the northern GoM. Due to its biological characteristics (sessile, filter feeding), juvenile oysters may have been affected. This study investigated the effects of surface-collected DWH oil prepared as high-energy water-accommodated fraction (HEWAF) on the survival of 2-month-old oyster spat, and evaluated the potential impacts of HEWAF on particle clearance rate and spat tissue. Exposure of oysters to a range of oil/HEWAF (0-7-66-147-908-3450 μg tPAH50 (sum of 50 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) L-1) resulted in non-dose-dependent mortalities and reduced clearance rates of algal food (Tisochrysis lutea). A morphometric study of the digestive tubules (DGTs) indicated a dose-dependent response to oil exposure on lumen dilation, on epithelium thinning of the DGT, and a significant change in DGT synchrony (LOEC = 66 μg tPAH50 L-1). This finding suggests that structural changes occurred in the digestive gland of exposed oysters most likely due to an oil-related stress. In addition, histological observations showed that tissues in contact with HEWAF (gills, palp, connective tissue, digestive gland) were adversely impacted at ≥ 7 μg tPAH50 L-1, and exhibited pathological symptoms typical of an inflammatory response (e.g., hemocyte diapedesis and infiltration, syncytia, epithelium sloughing).

  11. Development of a wind energy converter and investigation of its operational function. Part 4: Test setup and results of measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armbrust, S.; Molly, J. P.

    1982-12-01

    Measurements made during test operations at the MODA.10 plant as well as at a 25 years old 6 kW wind energy converter are presented. The test arrangements, measurement results of both wind energy converters, and the experience gained are described.

  12. Validation of a Micrometric remotely controlled pre-alignment system for the CLIC Linear Collider using a test setup (Mock-Up) with 5 degrees of freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Mainaud Durand, H; Griffet, S; Kemppinen, J; Leuxe, R; Sosin, M

    2011-01-01

    The CLIC main beam quadrupoles need to be prealigned within 17 um rms with respect to a straight reference line along a sliding window of 200 m. A readjustment system based on eccentric cam movers, which will provide stiffness to the support assembly, is being studied. The cam movers were qualified on a 1 degree of freedom (DOF) test setup, where a repeatability of adjustment below 1um was measured along their whole range. This paper presents the 5 DOF mock-up, built for the validation of the eccentric cam movers, as well as the first results of tests carried out: resolution of displacement along the whole range, measurements of the support eigenfrequencies.

  13. Setup planning for machining

    CERN Document Server

    Hazarika, Manjuri

    2015-01-01

    Professionals as well as researchers can benefit from this comprehensive introduction into the topic of setup planning, which reflects the latest state of research and gives hands-on examples. Starting with a brief but thorough introduction, this book explains the significance of setup planning in process planning and includes a reflection on its external constraints. Step-by-step the different phases of setup planning are outlined and traditional as well as modern approaches, such as fuzzy logic based setup planning, on the solution of setup planning problems are presented. Three detailed examples of applications provide a clear and accessible insight into the up-to-date techniques and various approaches in setup planning.

  14. Test set-ups for developing high voltage circuit-breaker for high short-circuit capacities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patzelt, R.; Ruhnau, W.; Zemann, E.

    1981-10-01

    The increasing short-circuit power in networks requires short-circuit breakers which are capable of interrupting short-circuit currents from 80 to 100 kA. The investigation and research development of a synthetic test circuit according to the principles of voltage- and current-injection respectively for short-circuit currents stated above comprises the first part of this report. The second part deals with the influence of Ferrum in the magnetic circuit on the transient recovery voltage wave form which is not influenced by the arc voltage. Investigations on the measurement of the post-arc current is described in the third chapter. In this case the construction and measurement of meshed grid- and tube shunts represent the major constituent. The fourth and last chapter deals with the investigation of synthetic test circuits in order to prove the capacitive switching capabilities of circuit-breakers. Two different switching circuits were subjected to test and subsequently developed for service.

  15. The Evaluation of a Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) Under Vertical Loading Conditions: Part 1 - Experimental Setup and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Justin D.; Annett, Martin S.

    2013-01-01

    A series of 16 vertical tests were conducted on a Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) - NT 50th percentile Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The purpose of the tests conducted at NASA LaRC was threefold. The first was to add vertical response data to the growing test database for THOR-NT development and validation. Second, the THOR-NT analytical computational models currently in development must be validated for the vertical loading environment. The computational models have been calibrated for frontal crash environments with concentration on accurately replicating head/neck, thoracic, and lower extremity responses. Finally, familiarity with the THOR ATD is necessary because NASA is interested in evaluating advanced ATDs for use in future flight and research projects. The THOR was subjected to vertical loading conditions ranging between 5 and 16 g in magnitude and 40 to 120 milliseconds (msec) in duration. It was also tested under conditions identical to previous tests conducted on the Hybrid II and III ATDs to allow comparisons to be made. Variations in the test setup were also introduced, such as the addition of a footrest in an attempt to offload some of the impact load into the legs. A full data set of the THOR-NT ATD will be presented and discussed. Results from the tests show that the THOR was largely insensitive to differences in the loading conditions, perhaps due in part to their small magnitudes. THOR responses, when compared to the Hybrid II and III in the lumbar region, demonstrated that the THOR more closely resembled the straight spine Hybrid setup. In the neck region, the THOR behaved more like the Hybrid III. However in both cases, the responses were not identical, indicating that the THOR would show differences in response than the Hybrid II and III ATDs when subjected to identical impact conditions. The addition of a footrest did not significantly affect the THOR response due to the nature of how

  16. KLauS: an ASIC for silicon photomultiplier readout and its application in a setup for production testing of scintillating tiles

    CERN Document Server

    Briggl, K; Hagdorn, R; Harion, T; Schultz-Coulon, H.C; Shen, W

    2014-01-01

    signals from silicon photomultipliers. Developed as an analog front-end for future calorimeters with high granularity as pursued by the AHCAL concept in the CALICE collaboration, the ASIC is designed to measure the charge signal of the sensors in a large dynamic range and with low electronic noise contributions. In order to tune the operation voltage of each sensor individually, an 8-bit DAC to tune the voltage at the input terminal within a range of 2V is implemented. Using an integrated fast comparator with low jitter, the time information can be measured with subnanosecond resolution. The low power consumption of the ASIC can be further decreased using power gating techniques. Future versions of KLauS are under development and will incorporate an ADC with a resolution of up to 12-bits and blocks for digital data transmission. The chip is used in a setup for mass testing and characterization of scintillator tiles for the AHCAL ...

  17. Combined UHV/high-pressure catalysis setup for depth-resolved near-surface spectroscopic characterization and catalytic testing of model catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayr, Lukas; Klötzer, Bernhard; Penner, Simon [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Rameshan, Raffael [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Rameshan, Christoph [Institute of Physical Chemistry, University of Innsbruck, Innrain 52a, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institute of Materials Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/BC/01, 1060 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-05-15

    An ultra-high vacuum (UHV) setup for “real” and “inverse” model catalyst preparation, depth-resolved near-surface spectroscopic characterization, and quantification of catalytic activity and selectivity under technologically relevant conditions is described. Due to the all-quartz reactor attached directly to the UHV-chamber, transfer of the catalyst for in situ testing without intermediate contact to the ambient is possible. The design of the UHV-compatible re-circulating batch reactor setup allows the study of reaction kinetics under close to technically relevant catalytic conditions up to 1273 K without contact to metallic surfaces except those of the catalyst itself. With the attached differentially pumped exchangeable evaporators and the quartz-microbalance thickness monitoring equipment, a reproducible, versatile, and standardised sample preparation is possible. For three-dimensional near-surface sample characterization, the system is equipped with a hemispherical analyser for X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron-beam or X-ray-excited Auger-electron spectroscopy, and low-energy ion scattering measurements. Due the dedicated geometry of the X-ray gun (54.7°, “magic angle”) and the rotatable sample holder, depth analysis by angle-resolved XPS measurements can be performed. Thus, by the combination of characterisation methods with different information depths, a detailed three-dimensional picture of the electronic and geometric structure of the model catalyst can be obtained. To demonstrate the capability of the described system, comparative results for depth-resolved sample characterization and catalytic testing in methanol steam reforming on PdGa and PdZn near-surface intermetallic phases are shown.

  18. Combined UHV/high-pressure catalysis setup for depth-resolved near-surface spectroscopic characterization and catalytic testing of model catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Lukas; Rameshan, Raffael; Klötzer, Bernhard; Penner, Simon; Rameshan, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    An ultra-high vacuum (UHV) setup for "real" and "inverse" model catalyst preparation, depth-resolved near-surface spectroscopic characterization, and quantification of catalytic activity and selectivity under technologically relevant conditions is described. Due to the all-quartz reactor attached directly to the UHV-chamber, transfer of the catalyst for in situ testing without intermediate contact to the ambient is possible. The design of the UHV-compatible re-circulating batch reactor setup allows the study of reaction kinetics under close to technically relevant catalytic conditions up to 1273 K without contact to metallic surfaces except those of the catalyst itself. With the attached differentially pumped exchangeable evaporators and the quartz-microbalance thickness monitoring equipment, a reproducible, versatile, and standardised sample preparation is possible. For three-dimensional near-surface sample characterization, the system is equipped with a hemispherical analyser for X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electron-beam or X-ray-excited Auger-electron spectroscopy, and low-energy ion scattering measurements. Due the dedicated geometry of the X-ray gun (54.7°, "magic angle") and the rotatable sample holder, depth analysis by angle-resolved XPS measurements can be performed. Thus, by the combination of characterisation methods with different information depths, a detailed three-dimensional picture of the electronic and geometric structure of the model catalyst can be obtained. To demonstrate the capability of the described system, comparative results for depth-resolved sample characterization and catalytic testing in methanol steam reforming on PdGa and PdZn near-surface intermetallic phases are shown.

  19. Points in the set-up of tests for fMRI. Toward the delineation of language-competent areas in clinical practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takashima, Hisaharu; Ejima, Mitsuhiro; Takeyama, Mamoru; Yamaguchi, Masami; Sato, Yoshino [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan). Hospital

    2001-06-01

    This hospital has performed fMRI of language-competent areas of the brain to identify the language-dominant hemisphere and obtain the configuration of the focus in the language-dominant side of the brain. Until now, signals have been detected in only two of fifteen patients who were diagnosed by language tests of a last-syllable word chain. In the present experiment, we tried to have subjects select the type of test. The result was that changes in signals were detected in eight of ten patients. Although the set-up of tests for fMRI is said to hold significant value, clear-cut studies to back this up have rarely been seen. Because clinical medicine treats patients who have difficulty in communication or suffer from aphasia, it is important to take into consideration individual variations and to set up a test suitable for, or achievable by, these individuals. The present method enabled us to avoid failure in examination caused by unsuccessful tests. (author)

  20. Improved usability of a multi-infusion setup using a centralized control interface: A task-based usability test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Doesburg

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the usability benefits of adding a bedside central control interface that controls all intravenous (IV infusion pumps compared to the conventional individual control of multiple infusion pumps. Eighteen dedicated ICU nurses volunteered in a between-subjects task-based usability test. A newly developed central control interface was compared to conventional control of multiple infusion pumps in a simulated ICU setting. Task execution time, clicks, errors and questionnaire responses were evaluated. Overall the central control interface outperformed the conventional control in terms of fewer user actions (40±3 vs. 73±20 clicks, p<0.001 and fewer user errors (1±1 vs. 3±2 errors, p<0.05, with no difference in task execution times (421±108 vs. 406±119 seconds, not significant. Questionnaires indicated a significant preference for the central control interface. Despite being novice users of the central control interface, ICU nurses displayed improved performance with the central control interface compared to the conventional interface they were familiar with. We conclude that the new user interface has an overall better usability than the conventional interface.

  1. Tests of a Compton imaging prototype in a monoenergetic 4.44 MeV photon field—a benchmark setup for prompt gamma-ray imaging devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golnik, C.; Bemmerer, D.; Enghardt, W.; Fiedler, F.; Hueso-González, F.; Pausch, G.; Römer, K.; Rohling, H.; Schöne, S.; Wagner, L.; Kormoll, T.

    2016-06-01

    The finite range of a proton beam in tissue opens new vistas for the delivery of a highly conformal dose distribution in radiotherapy. However, the actual particle range, and therefore the accurate dose deposition, is sensitive to the tissue composition in the proton path. Range uncertainties, resulting from limited knowledge of this tissue composition or positioning errors, are accounted for in the form of safety margins. Thus, the unverified particle range constrains the principle benefit of proton therapy. Detecting prompt γ-rays, a side product of proton-tissue interaction, aims at an on-line and non-invasive monitoring of the particle range, and therefore towards exploiting the potential of proton therapy. Compton imaging of the spatial prompt γ-ray emission is a promising measurement approach. Prompt γ-rays exhibit emission energies of several MeV. Hence, common radioactive sources cannot provide the energy range a prompt γ-ray imaging device must be designed for. In this work a benchmark measurement-setup for the production of a localized, monoenergetic 4.44 MeV γ-ray source is introduced. At the Tandetron accelerator at the HZDR, the proton-capture resonance reaction 15N(p,α γ4.439)12C is utilized. This reaction provides the same nuclear de-excitation (and γ-ray emission) occurrent as an intense prompt γ-ray line in proton therapy. The emission yield is quantitatively described. A two-stage Compton imaging device, dedicated for prompt γ-ray imaging, is tested at the setup exemplarily. Besides successful imaging tests, the detection efficiency of the prototype at 4.44 MeV is derived from the measured data. Combining this efficiency with the emission yield for prompt γ-rays, the number of valid Compton events, induced by γ-rays in the energy region around 4.44 MeV, is estimated for the prototype being implemented in a therapeutic treatment scenario. As a consequence, the detection efficiency turns out to be a key parameter for prompt

  2. The virtual slice setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytton, William W; Neymotin, Samuel A; Hines, Michael L

    2008-06-30

    In an effort to design a simulation environment that is more similar to that of neurophysiology, we introduce a virtual slice setup in the NEURON simulator. The virtual slice setup runs continuously and permits parameter changes, including changes to synaptic weights and time course and to intrinsic cell properties. The virtual slice setup permits shocks to be applied at chosen locations and activity to be sampled intra- or extracellularly from chosen locations. By default, a summed population display is shown during a run to indicate the level of activity and no states are saved. Simulations can run for hours of model time, therefore it is not practical to save all of the state variables. These, in any case, are primarily of interest at discrete times when experiments are being run: the simulation can be stopped momentarily at such times to save activity patterns. The virtual slice setup maintains an automated notebook showing shocks and parameter changes as well as user comments. We demonstrate how interaction with a continuously running simulation encourages experimental prototyping and can suggest additional dynamical features such as ligand wash-in and wash-out-alternatives to typical instantaneous parameter change. The virtual slice setup currently uses event-driven cells and runs at approximately 2 min/h on a laptop.

  3. A versatile elevated-pressure reactor combined with an ultrahigh vacuum surface setup for efficient testing of model and powder catalysts under clean gas-phase conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfin, Franck; Piccolo, Laurent [Institut de recherches sur la catalyse et l' environnement de Lyon (IRCELYON), UMR 5256 CNRS and Université Lyon 1, 2 avenue Albert Einstein, F-69626 Villeurbanne (France)

    2013-09-15

    A small-volume reaction cell for catalytic or photocatalytic testing of solid materials at pressures up to 1000 Torr has been coupled to a surface-science setup used for standard sample preparation and characterization under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). The reactor and sample holder designs allow easy sample transfer from/to the UHV chamber, and investigation of both planar and small amounts of powder catalysts under the same conditions. The sample is heated with an infrared laser beam and its temperature is measured with a compact pyrometer. Combined in a regulation loop, this system ensures fast and accurate temperature control as well as clean heating. The reaction products are automatically sampled and analyzed by mass spectrometry and/or gas chromatography (GC). Unlike previous systems, our GC apparatus does not use a recirculation loop and allows working in clean conditions at pressures as low as 1 Torr while detecting partial pressures smaller than 10{sup −4} Torr. The efficiency and versatility of the reactor are demonstrated in the study of two catalytic systems: butadiene hydrogenation on Pd(100) and CO oxidation over an AuRh/TiO{sub 2} powder catalyst.

  4. Improved mortar setup technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, D

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available 2008 Brisbane October 2008 Improved mortar setup technique Danie de Villiers CSIR, Defence Piece Safety and Security program ABSTRACT Mortars will still play an important roll in modern warfare. This paper describes a unique way... of mirror R – right side of mirror F – front side of mirror B – back side of mirror After setup the mortar will be in front of the mirror and the target at the back of the mirror. On the dial are three marks to be used when reading the bearing value...

  5. Artificial collection and early growth of spat of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819, in La Rinconada Marine Reserve, Antofagasta, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Avendaño D.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial collection of early juveniles (“spat” of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus in Japanese-type collectors was evaluated between January 2001 and July 2002 in the La Rinconada Marine Reserve, Antofagasta, Chile. This area of Antofagasta Bay has in the past been noted for the retention of scallop larvae by local gyres, in which their numbers can vary between 89 and 34175 larvae m-3, producing larval sets of 400 to 15340 post-larvae (spat per collector. The results showed no quantitative relationship between larval abundance in the water and the spat density collected per day in the collectors, although high settlement rates were associated with high numbers of umboned larvae in the water. Allowing collectors to remain in situ for extended periods of 88 and 159 days resulted in a severe loss of seed which had settled in the collectors during the first 28 to 40 days of immersion. These losses varied between 50.9 and 99.6% of the spat collected, and were more prejudicial for the smaller cohorts that had settled in the collectors at the end of the first immersion period. The growth rates measured among different cohorts for each immersion period varied between 81.3 and 235.2 mm/day for the first cohort (C1 and between 64.0 and 167.4 mm/day for the second cohort (C2. The highest growth rates occurred in collectors containing the lowest numbers of spat after the occurrence of spat losses during the long periods of immersion. Occurrence of intraspecific competition within the collectors is discussed as potentially responsible for the decreases in spat numbers and the variations observed in their growth rates.

  6. Predation of shore crabs (Carcinus maenas (L.)) and starfish (Asterias rubens L.) on blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) seed from wild sources and spat collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, P.; Blankendaal, M.; Perdon, J.

    2009-01-01

    In The Netherlands, several pilot projects are carried out on the use of spat collectors as an additional supply of seed for bottom culture of mussels (Mytilus edulis). The method proves to be successful in yielding substantial amounts of seed. One of the conditions for successful application of

  7. Predation of shore crabs (Carcinus maenas (L)) and starfish (Asterias rubens L.) on blue mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) seed from wild sources and spat collectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamermans, P.; Blankendaal, M.; Perdon, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    In The Netherlands, several pilot projects are carried out on the use of spat collectors as an additional supply of seed for bottom culture of mussels (Mytilus edulis). The method proves to be successful in yielding substantial amounts of seed. One of the conditions for successful application of

  8. Oyster sex determination is influenced by temperature - first clues in spat during first gonadic differentiation and gametogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santerre, Christelle; Sourdaine, Pascal; Marc, Nicolas; Mingant, Christian; Robert, René; Martinez, Anne-Sophie

    2013-05-01

    The sex-determining system of Crassostrea gigas is still poorly known, especially regarding the potential influence of temperature. In order to address this question, mRNA expressions of actors of the molecular cascade (Cg-DMl, Cg-SoxE, Cg-β-catenin, Cg-Foxl2/Cg-Foxl2os) and of Oyvlg, a germ cell marker, were investigated by real-time PCR in spat grown at different temperatures (18, 22, 25 and 28°C). In parallel, gonadic differentiation, gametogenesis and sex ratios were assessed by histology at each of these temperatures. Whatever the temperature, Cg-DMl, Cg-SoxE, Cg-β-catenin and Oyvlg expressions peaked at the same developmental stage, always after Cg-Foxl2/Cg-Foxl2os (around 40-44dpf for spat grown at 18°C). Temperatures increased the kinetics of first gonadic differentiation and gametogenesis. At 25°C a significant switch occurred in sex ratio towards males and in the balance of expression between male and female genes, in favor of males. A slight gametogenesis disturbance was also observed. These results strengthen the hypotheses about the sex-determining time window and molecular cascade governing the development of C. gigas, with notably the involvement of Cg-Foxl2/Cg-Foxl2os in the very early steps. They also suggest an influence of temperature on the oyster's sex determination which, associated to genetic control, would induce a mixed sex determination system (GSD+TSD). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Larval settlement and spat recovery rates of the oyster Crassostrea brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819 using different systems to induce metamorphosis Taxas de assentamento larval e recuperação de sementes da ostra Crassostrea brasiliana (Lamarck, 1819 com uso de diferentes sistemas de indução à metamorfose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RC Silveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at the assessment, in the laboratory, of the larval settlement and spat recovery rates of oysters of the species Crassostrea brasiliana using plastic collectors, epinephrine (C9H13NO3 C4H6O6 and shell powder in settlement tanks. Polypropylene was used attached to bamboo frames. The material was chosen due to its pliability - that favours the spat detachment. Two experiments were carried out; the first between February and April 2008, and the second between November and December 2008 at the Marine Mussel Laboratory of Santa Catarina Federal University (Laboratório de Moluscos Marinhos da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. In the first experiment, the scratched plastic collectors were tested consorting them with shell powder; on the second, the plastic collectors were tested consorted with shell powder, only shell powder and epinephrine as the metamorphosis stimulator. The quantification was carried out of the larvae settled in the plastic collectors, and of the recovery and integrity of the spats after their detachment. The first experiment has shown a recovery rate of 48.83% of the spats in comparison with the D larvae used. From this percentage, 4.9% settled in the plastic collectors and 43.93% in shell powder. The second experiment revealed 55.78% regarding the settled spats in comparison with the total of larvae used (using epinephrine, 78.62% in the treatment with the collector plus shell powder and 58.33% in the treatment only with shell powder. Thus, the use of the collector plus shell powder resulted in a greater spat recovery when compared to the other treatments.O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a taxa de assentamento larval e recuperação de sementes de ostras da espécie Crassostrea brasiliana, em laboratório, através do uso de coletores plásticos, epinefrina (C9H13NO3 C4H6O6 e pó de concha em tanques de assentamento. Foram utilizados coletores plásticos de polipropileno, presos a armações de

  10. Experimental setup to detect superconducting wire motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruwali, K.; Yamanaka, A.; Teramoto, Y.; Nakanishi, K.; Hosoyama, K.

    2009-04-01

    An experimental setup was designed and fabricated to study superconducting wire motion under the influence of electromagnetic force. Experiments were conducted at 4.2 K by varying the experimental conditions such as the tension to the superconducting wire and different insulating materials at the interface of the superconducting wire and head part. The insulating materials used in the experiments were polyimide film and a high strength polyethylene fiber cloth, Dyneema. Details of the experimental setup and the test results are reported in this paper.

  11. Experimental setup to detect superconducting wire motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ruwali

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available An experimental setup was designed and fabricated to study superconducting wire motion under the influence of electromagnetic force. Experiments were conducted at 4.2 K by varying the experimental conditions such as the tension to the superconducting wire and different insulating materials at the interface of the superconducting wire and head part. The insulating materials used in the experiments were polyimide film and a high strength polyethylene fiber cloth, Dyneema. Details of the experimental setup and the test results are reported in this paper.

  12. Server farms with setup costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gandhi, A.; Harchol-Balter, M.; Adan, I.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider server farms with a setup cost. This model is common in manufacturing systems and data centers, where there is a cost to turn servers on. Setup costs always take the form of a time delay, and sometimes there is additionally a power penalty, as in the case of data centers.

  13. Laser-induced transient grating setup with continuously tunable period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega-Flick, A. [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Applied Physics Department, CINVESTAV-Unidad Mérida, Carretera Antigua a Progreso Km 6, Cordemex, Mérida, Yucatán 97310 Mexico (Mexico); Eliason, J. K.; Maznev, A. A.; Nelson, K. A., E-mail: kanelson@mit.edu [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Khanolkar, A.; Abi Ghanem, M.; Boechler, N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Alvarado-Gil, J. J. [Applied Physics Department, CINVESTAV-Unidad Mérida, Carretera Antigua a Progreso Km 6, Cordemex, Mérida, Yucatán 97310 Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-12-15

    We present a modification of the laser-induced transient grating setup enabling continuous tuning of the transient grating period. The fine control of the period is accomplished by varying the angle of the diffraction grating used to split excitation and probe beams. The setup has been tested by measuring dispersion of bulk and surface acoustic waves in both transmission and reflection geometries. The presented modification is fully compatible with optical heterodyne detection and can be easily implemented in any transient grating setup.

  14. A cryogenic measurement setup for characterization microwave devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybalko, Oleksandr

    2017-01-01

    A cryogenic measurement setup for characterization microwave devices from room to cryogenic temperatures is presented. The setup allows testing microwave devices at variable temperatures ranging from 300 to 77 K. Frequency doubler (94/188 GHz) has been cooled to 77 K and peak efficiency of 32...

  15. ISSUES AND FEASIBILITY DEMONSTRATION OF CLIC SUPPORTING SYSTEM CHAIN ACTIVE PRE-ALIGNMENT USING A MULTI-MODULE TEST SETUP (MOCK-UP)

    CERN Document Server

    Sosin, Mateusz

    2016-01-01

    The implementation study of the CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) is under way at CERN with a focus on the challenging issues. The pre-alignment precision and accuracy requirements are part of these technical challenges: the permissible transverse position errors of the linac components are typically 14 micrometers over sliding windows of 200m. To validate the proposed methods and strategies, the Large Scale Metrology section at CERN has performed campaigns of measurements on the CLIC Two Beam Test Modules, focusing inter alia on the alignment performance of the CLIC “snake”- girders configuration and the Main Beam Quadrupoles supporting structures. This paper describes the activities and results of tests which were performed on the test mock-up for the qualification of the CLIC supporting system chain for active pre-alignment. The lessons learnt (“know how”), the issues encountered in the girder position determination as well as the behaviour of the mechanical components are presented.

  16. Measurement of shower development and its Moli\\`ere radius with a four-plane LumiCal test set-up arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Abramowicz, H.; Afanaciev, K.; Benhammou, Y.; Bortko, L.; Borysov, O.; Borysova, M.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Chelkov, G.; Coca, C.; Daniluk, W.; Dannheim, D.; Dumitru, L.; Elsener, K.; Firlej, M.; Firu, E.; Fiutowski, T.; Ghenescu, V.; Gostkin, M.; Hempel, M.; Henschel, H.; Ignatenko, M.Idzik{$^j$},A.; Ishikawa, A.; Kananov, S.; Karacheban, O.; Klempt, W.; Kotov, S.; Kotula, J.; Kozhevnikov, D.; Kruchonok, V.; Krupa, B.; Kulis, Sz.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lesiak, T.; Levy, A.; Levy, I.; Lohmann, W.; Lukic, S.; Moron, J.; Moszczynski, A.; Neagu, A.T.; Nuiry, F.-X.; Orlandea, M.; Pandurovic, M.; Pawlik, B.; Preda, T.; Sailer, O.Rosenblat{$^a$},A.; Schumm, B.; Schuwalow, S.; Smiljanic, I.; Smolyanskiy, P.; Swientek, K.; Terlecki, P.; Uggerhoj, U.I.; Wistisen, T.N.; Yamamoto, T.Wojton{$^h$},H.; Zawiejski, L.; Zgura, I.S.; Zhemchugov, A.

    A prototype of a luminometer, designed for a future e+e- collider detector, and consisting at present of a four-plane module, was tested in the CERN PS accelerator T9 beam. The objective of this beam test was to demonstrate a multi-plane tungsten/silicon operation, to study the development of the electromagnetic shower and to compare it with MC simulations. The Moli\\`ere radius has been determined to be 24.0 +/- 0.6 (stat.) +/- 1.5 (syst.) mm using a parametrization of the shower shape. Very good agreement was found between data and a detailed Geant4 simulation. This value is significantly larger than the one obtained using the fomula based on the material composition.

  17. Over-the-air Radiated Testing of Millimeter-Wave Beam-steerable Devices in a Cost-Effective Measurement Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Rumney, Moray

    2018-01-01

    With the severe spectrum congestion of sub-6GHz cellular systems, large-scale antenna systems in the millimeter-wave (mmWave) bands can potentially meet the high data rate envisioned for fifth generation (5G) communications. Performance evaluation of antenna systems is an essential step...... in the product design and development stage. However, conventional cable conducted test methods are not applicable for mmWave devices. There is a strong need for over-the-air (OTA) radiated methods, where mmWave device performance can be evaluated in a reliable, repeatable, and feasible way in laboratory...... conditions. In this article, radiated testing methods are reviewed, with a focus on their principle and applicability for beam steerable mmWave devices. To explore the spatial sparsity of mmWave channel profiles, a cost-effective simplified 3D sectored multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) system with an OTA...

  18. Design Of Mechanical Test Setup To Find The Endurance Limit Of CoilCompression SpringUsing Modified Slider-Crank Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Vispute

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract- A spring is an elastic or resilient body whose function is to deflect or deform when a load is applied and recover its original shape when the load is removed. The important applications of springs are in application of a force clutches brakes etc. measurement of a force spring balance storing energy clocktoy springs and absorbing shocks and vibrations springs in vehicle suspension systems. Fatigue loads are generally cyclic and fluctuating in nature and are much less in magnitude than the yield strength of materials but they tend to have unpredictable behavior due to dissimilar and brutal fracture patterns. To avoid this determining the endurance limit becomes inevitability. The present paper aims to test the endurance limit of a wide range of coiledcompression springs in the smallest possible time frame using a screw-based modified slider-crank mechanism in a mechanical system.

  19. The spectral imaging facility: Setup characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, Simone, E-mail: simone.deangelis@iaps.inaf.it; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Manzari, Paola Olga [Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Ammannito, Eleonora [Institute for Space Astrophysics and Planetology, INAF-IAPS, Via Fosso del Cavaliere, 100, 00133 Rome (Italy); Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095-1567 (United States); Di Iorio, Tatiana [ENEA, UTMEA-TER, Rome (Italy); Liberati, Fabrizio [Opto Service SrL, Campagnano di Roma (RM) (Italy); Tarchi, Fabio; Dami, Michele; Olivieri, Monica; Pompei, Carlo [Selex ES, Campi Bisenzio (Italy); Mugnuolo, Raffaele [Italian Space Agency, ASI, Spatial Geodesy Center, Matera (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The SPectral IMager (SPIM) facility is a laboratory visible infrared spectrometer developed to support space borne observations of rocky bodies of the solar system. Currently, this laboratory setup is used to support the DAWN mission, which is in its journey towards the asteroid 1-Ceres, and to support the 2018 Exo-Mars mission in the spectral investigation of the Martian subsurface. The main part of this setup is an imaging spectrometer that is a spare of the DAWN visible infrared spectrometer. The spectrometer has been assembled and calibrated at Selex ES and then installed in the facility developed at the INAF-IAPS laboratory in Rome. The goal of SPIM is to collect data to build spectral libraries for the interpretation of the space borne and in situ hyperspectral measurements of planetary materials. Given its very high spatial resolution combined with the imaging capability, this instrument can also help in the detailed study of minerals and rocks. In this paper, the instrument setup is first described, and then a series of test measurements, aimed to the characterization of the main subsystems, are reported. In particular, laboratory tests have been performed concerning (i) the radiation sources, (ii) the reference targets, and (iii) linearity of detector response; the instrumental imaging artifacts have also been investigated.

  20. Community-acquired necrotizing pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST30-SCCmecIVc-spat019-PVL positive in San Antonio de Areco, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvina Fernández

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is the first cause of skin and soft tissue infections, but can also produce severe diseases such as bacteremia, osteomyelitis and necrotizing pneumonia. Some S. aureus lineages have been described in cases of necrotizing pneumonia worldwide, usually in young, previously healthy patients. In this work, we describe a fatal case of necrotizing pneumonia due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus clone ST30-SCCmecIVc-spat019-PVL positive in an immunocompetent adult patient.

  1. Wideband MIMO Channel Capacity Analysis in Multiprobe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyosti, Pekka; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses over the air (OTA) testing for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals with emphasis on wideband MIMO channel capacity analysis in a multi-probe anechoic chamber setup. In the literature, the spatial correlation simulation accuracy at the receiver (Rx) side has...... in a practical multi-probe anechoic chamber setup. The capacity simulation accuracy is shown to be a valid measure to determine the test area size....

  2. Extensions of cutting problems: setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Henn

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though the body of literature in the area of cutting and packing is growing rapidly, research seems to focus on standard problems in the first place, while practical aspects are less frequently dealt with. This is particularly true for setup processes which arise in industrial cutting processes whenever a new cutting pattern is started (i.e. a pattern is different from its predecessor and the cutting equipment has to be prepared in order to meet the technological requirements of the new pattern. Setups involve the consumption of resources and the loss of production time capacity. Therefore, consequences of this kind must explicitly be taken into account for the planning and control of industrial cutting processes. This results in extensions to traditional models which will be reviewed here. We show how setups can be represented in such models, and we report on the algorithms which have been suggested for the determination of solutions of the respective models. We discuss the value of these approaches and finally point out potential directions of future research.

  3. Integration of the Autarkic Hybrid into a motor vehicle and set-up in the system test stand; Integration des Autarken Hybrid in ein KFZ und Aufbau am Systempruefstand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehn, B.R.; Pflaum, H.; Schmidbauer, T.

    1999-07-01

    At the TU of Munich a test vehicle is currently equipped with the drive system ''Autarkic Hybrid''. Apart from the drive unit consisting of the serial combustion engine, a i{sub 2} transmission and the electric engine additional components, such as the hydraulic supply must be integrated in the engine room. The traction battery, components of the control system, the extended electric power supply and the acquisition of measuring data are integrated in the trunk or on the back seats. Several systems which already exist in the vehicle loose their function due to the retrofitting and must be replaced. Additional display and operating elements are available for the driver. The Autarkic Hybrid is not only integrated into a vehicle but also set-up in the system test stand of the FZG. This combination enables a two-way testing and optimisation of the drive system. (orig.) [German] An der TU Muenchen wird gegenwaertig ein Versuchsfahrzeug mit dem Antriebsstrang 'Autarker Hybrid' ausgestattet. Neben der Antriebseinheit bestehend aus dem serienmaessigen Verbrennungsmotor, einem i{sup 2}-Getriebe und einer Elektromaschine muessen zusaetzliche Komponenten, wie beispielsweise die Hydraulikversorgung, im Motorraum untergebracht werden. Die Traktionsbatterie, Komponenten der Regelung, die erweiterte Stromversorgung und eine Messdatenerfassung finden im Bereich der Ladeflaeche bzw. auf der Ruecksitzbank Platz. Verschiedene im Fahrzeug bereits vorhandene Systeme verlieren im Rahmen der Umruestung ihre Funktion, entfallen daher oder muessen ersetzt werden. Dem Fahrer stehen zusaetzliche Anzeige- und Bedienelemente zur Verfuegung. Parallel zum Versuchsfahrzeug erfolgt ein Aufbau des Autarken Hybrid auf dem Systempruefstand der FZG. Im Zusammenspiel mit dem Versuchsfahrzeug wird hierdurch eine zweigleisige Erprobung und Optimierung des Antriebsstrangs moeglich. (orig.)

  4. Characterization of textile electrodes and conductors using standardized measurement setups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, L; Neuhaus, C; Medrano, G; Jungbecker, N; Walter, M; Gries, T; Leonhardt, S

    2010-02-01

    Textile electrodes and conductors are being developed and used in different monitoring scenarios, such as ECG or bioimpedance spectroscopy measurements. Compared to standard materials, conductive textile materials offer improved wearing comfort and enable long-term measurements. Unfortunately, the development and investigation of such materials often suffers from the non-reproducibility of the test scenarios. For example, the materials are generally tested on human skin which is difficult since the properties of human skin differ for each person and can change within hours. This study presents two test setups which offer reproducible measurement procedures for the systematic analysis of textile electrodes and conductors. The electrode test setup was designed with a special skin dummy which allows investigation of not only the electrical properties of textile electrodes but also the contact behavior between electrode and skin. Using both test setups, eight textile electrodes and five textile conductors were analyzed and compared.

  5. Explaining perceived oral texture of starch-based custard desserts from standard and novel instrumental tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, de R.A.; Prinz, J.F.; Janssen, A.M.

    2006-01-01

    A number of in vitro and in vivo instrumental tests have been developed to reflect various aspects of the perceived oral texture of starch-based vanilla custard desserts. These tests include measurements of the food's infra-red reflectance (IRR), of the turbidity of spat-out rinse water, and of the

  6. Setup Analysis: Combining SMED with Other Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadnicka Dorota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to propose the methodology for the setup analysis, which can be implemented mainly in small and medium enterprises which are not convinced to implement the setups development. The methodology was developed after the research which determined the problem. Companies still have difficulties with a long setup time. Many of them do nothing to decrease this time. A long setup is not a sufficient reason for companies to undertake any actions towards the setup time reduction. To encourage companies to implement SMED it is essential to make some analyses of changeovers in order to discover problems. The methodology proposed can really encourage the management to take a decision about the SMED implementation, and that was verified in a production company. The setup analysis methodology is made up of seven steps. Four of them concern a setups analysis in a chosen area of a company, such as a work stand which is a bottleneck with many setups. The goal is to convince the management to begin actions concerning the setups improvement. The last three steps are related to a certain setup and, there, the goal is to reduce a setup time and the risk of problems which can appear during the setup. In this paper, the tools such as SMED, Pareto analysis, statistical analysis, FMEA and other were used.

  7. The TwinEBIS setup: Machine description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitenfeldt, M. [CERN, Geneva 23 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Mertzig, R. [CERN, Geneva 23 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Technische Universität Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Pitters, J. [CERN, Geneva 23 CH-1211 (Switzerland); Technische Universität Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Shornikov, A. [CERN, Geneva 23 CH-1211 (Switzerland); GANIL, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Wenander, F., E-mail: fredrik.wenander@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva 23 CH-1211 (Switzerland)

    2017-06-01

    TwinEBIS is an Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) recently made operational at CERN. The device is similar in construction to the REXEBIS charge breeder operating at the ISOLDE facility. After relocation of the solenoid from the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory (MSL) Stockholm, TwinEBIS was commissioned at CERN and serves as a test bench dedicated to manipulation of low-energy highly charged ions. In this paper we give an overview of the setup and present advanced numerical simulations of the electron optics. In addition, the alignment procedure of the solenoid magnetic field is described and measurement results are presented. Results from cathode investigations, electron beam tests and ion extraction modulation are presented in a follow-up paper.

  8. Comparison of Channel Emulation Techniques in Multiprobe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llorente, Ines Carton; Fan, Wei; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2015-01-01

    This paper compares two different techniques for channel emulation in multiprobe anechoic chamber based setups, which is a candidate solution for the standardization of MIMO OTA performance testing of mobile devices. The comparison is performed via simulations of the field distribution, temporal...

  9. Rician Channel Modeling for Multiprobe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Hentilä, Lassi

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses over the air (OTA) testing for multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals, with emphasis on modeling Rician channel models in the multi-probe anechoic chamber setups. A technique to model Rician channels is proposed. The line-of-sight (LOS) component...

  10. 3D channel emulation in a multi-probe setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Sun, Fan; Kyösti, Pekka

    2013-01-01

    A technique to emulate 3D geometry-based channel models in a multiprobe over the air test setup is presented. The proposed technique provides a general emulation framework for any spherical incoming power spectrum. The emulation method results in two optimization objectives, which are both convex...

  11. Estimating setup of driven piles into Louisiana clayey soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Two types of mathematical models for pile setup prediction, the Skov-Denver model and the newly developed rate-based model, have been established from all the dynamic and static testing data, including restrikes of the production piles, restrikes, st...

  12. Measurement Uncertainty Investigation in the Multi-probe OTA Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Szini, Istvan Janos; Foegelle, M. D.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive efforts are underway to standardize over the air (OTA) testing of the multiple input multiple output (MIMO) capable terminals in COST IC1004, 3GPP RAN4 and CTIA. Due to the ability to reproduce realistic radio propagation environments inside the anechoic chamber and evaluate end user...... metrics in real world scenarios, the multi-probe based method has attracted huge interest from both industry and academia. This contribution attempts to identify some of the measurement uncertainties of the practical multi-probe setups and provide some guidance to establish the multi-probe anechoic...... chamber setup. This contribution presents the results of uncertainty measurements carried out in three practical multi-probe setups. Some sources of measurement errors, i.e. cable effect, cable termination, etc. are identified based on the measurement results....

  13. A setup for active fault diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    A setup for active fault diagnosis (AFD) of parametric faults in dynamic systems is formulated in this paper. It is shown that it is possible to use the same setup for both open loop systems, closed loop systems based on a nominal feedback controller as well as for closed loop systems based on a ...

  14. Virtual setup: application in orthodontic practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camardella, L.T.; Rothier, E.K.; Vilella, O.V.; Ongkosuwito, E.M.; Breuning, K.H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A plaster dental model is a patient's traditional three-dimensional (3D) record. If the dental crowns from a plaster model are separated and positioned in wax, this setup of the crowns can be used to simulate orthodontic treatment. The traditional way to make this dental setup requires

  15. Split scheduling with uniform setup times.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Schalekamp; R.A. Sitters (René); S.L. van der Ster; L. Stougie (Leen); V. Verdugo; A. van Zuylen

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study a scheduling problem in which jobs may be split into parts, where the parts of a split job may be processed simultaneously on more than one machine. Each part of a job requires a setup time, however, on the machine where the job part is processed. During setup, a

  16. Characterization of a neutron imaging setup at the INES facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durisi, E.A., E-mail: elisabettaalessandra.durisi@unito.it [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Visca, L. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Albertin, F.; Brancaccio, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Corsi, J. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dughera, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Ferrarese, W. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Giovagnoli, A.; Grassi, N. [Fondazione Centro per la Conservazione ed il Restauro dei Beni Culturali “La Venaria Reale”, Piazza della Repubblica, 10078 Venaria Reale, Torino (Italy); Grazzi, F. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Lo Giudice, A.; Mila, G. [Università di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Sezione di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy); and others

    2013-10-21

    The Italian Neutron Experimental Station (INES) located at the ISIS pulsed neutron source (Didcot, United Kingdom) provides a thermal neutron beam mainly used for diffraction analysis. A neutron transmission imaging system was also developed for beam monitoring and for aligning the sample under investigation. Although the time-of-flight neutron diffraction is a consolidated technique, the neutron imaging setup is not yet completely characterized and optimized. In this paper the performance for neutron radiography and tomography at INES of two scintillator screens read out by two different commercial CCD cameras is compared in terms of linearity, signal-to-noise ratio, effective dynamic range and spatial resolution. In addition, the results of neutron radiographies and a tomography of metal alloy test structures are presented to better characterize the INES imaging capabilities of metal artifacts in the cultural heritage field. -- Highlights: A full characterization of the present INES imaging set-up was carried out. Two CCD cameras and two scintillators (ZnS/{sup 6}LiF) of different thicknesses were tested. Linearity, effective dynamic range and spatial resolution were determined. Radiographies of steep wedges were performed using the highest dynamic range setup. Tomography of a bronze cube was performed using the best spatial resolution setup.

  17. Automated PCR setup for forensic casework samples using the Normalization Wizard and PCR Setup robotic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspoon, S A; Sykes, K L V; Ban, J D; Pollard, A; Baisden, M; Farr, M; Graham, N; Collins, B L; Green, M M; Christenson, C C

    2006-12-20

    Human genome, pharmaceutical and research laboratories have long enjoyed the application of robotics to performing repetitive laboratory tasks. However, the utilization of robotics in forensic laboratories for processing casework samples is relatively new and poses particular challenges. Since the quantity and quality (a mixture versus a single source sample, the level of degradation, the presence of PCR inhibitors) of the DNA contained within a casework sample is unknown, particular attention must be paid to procedural susceptibility to contamination, as well as DNA yield, especially as it pertains to samples with little biological material. The Virginia Department of Forensic Science (VDFS) has successfully automated forensic casework DNA extraction utilizing the DNA IQ(trade mark) System in conjunction with the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation. Human DNA quantitation is also performed in a near complete automated fashion utilizing the AluQuant Human DNA Quantitation System and the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation. Recently, the PCR setup for casework samples has been automated, employing the Biomek 2000 Automation Workstation and Normalization Wizard, Genetic Identity version, which utilizes the quantitation data, imported into the software, to create a customized automated method for DNA dilution, unique to that plate of DNA samples. The PCR Setup software method, used in conjunction with the Normalization Wizard method and written for the Biomek 2000, functions to mix the diluted DNA samples, transfer the PCR master mix, and transfer the diluted DNA samples to PCR amplification tubes. Once the process is complete, the DNA extracts, still on the deck of the robot in PCR amplification strip tubes, are transferred to pre-labeled 1.5 mL tubes for long-term storage using an automated method. The automation of these steps in the process of forensic DNA casework analysis has been accomplished by performing extensive optimization, validation and testing of the

  18. Braneworld setup and embedding in teleparallel gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Behboodi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct the setup of a five-dimensional braneworld scenario in teleparallel gravity. Both cases of Minkowski and Friedmann–Robertson–Walker branes embedded in anti-de Sitter bulk are studied and the effective 4D action were studied. 4-dimensional local Lorentz invariance is found to be recovered in both cases. However, due to different junction conditions, the equations governing the 4D cosmological evolution differ from general relativistic case. Using the results of Ref. [13], we consider a simple inflationary scenario in this setup. The inflation parameters are found to be modified compared to general relativistic case.

  19. Optymisation of equipment setup processes in enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Grzybowska

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Fast equipment setup in a machine on production line is the key precondition to increase the fl exibility of the production. Methodology of SMED (Single Minute Exchange of Die is an example which allows reducing the time of setup practically to the minimum. The article presents the theoretical bases and required rules as well as case study conducted in one of chosen enterprises. This paper also answers the question if SMED methodology is applicable in metallurgical sector, presenting the example of shortening the time between the production of various metallurgical products manufactured in the machine for continuous casting of steel (COS in Polish.

  20. Estimating Discrete Power Angular Spectra in Multiprobe OTA Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2014-01-01

    The letter discusses over-the-air (OTA) testing for multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals with emphasis on estimating discrete power angular spectrum modeled at the receiver (Rx) side in the test zone. Two techniques based on a uniform circular array (UCA) are proposed to obtain...... accurate direction-of-arrival estimates as well as power estimates of the impinging signals in the test zone. Simulation results match well with the target, as expected. Measurement results based on a virtual UCA in a practical 3-D multiprobe setup further support the simulation results. Possible reasons...... for the deviations between simulations and measurements are also investigated....

  1. 350 keV accelerator-based neutron transmission setup at KFUPM for hydrogen detection

    CERN Document Server

    Naqvi, A; Maslehuddin, M; Kidwai, S; Nassar, R

    2002-01-01

    An experimental setup has been developed to determine hydrogen contents of bulk samples using fast neutron transmission technique. Neutrons with 3 MeV energy were produced via D(d, n) reaction. The neutrons transmitted through the sample were detected by a NE213 scintillation detector. Preliminary tests of the setup were carried out using soil samples with different moisture contents. In addition to experimental study, Monte Carlo simulations were carried out to generate calibration curve of the experimental setup. Finally, experimental tests results were compared with the results of Monte Carlo simulations. A good agreement has been obtained between the simulation results and experimental results.

  2. Building and commissioning of a setup to study ageing phenomena in gaseous detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuhoza, A., E-mail: aabuhoza@kacst.edu.sa [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); King Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt (Germany); Schmidt, H.R. [Eberhard-Karls-Universität, Tübingen (Germany); Biswas, S. [School of Physical Sciences, National Institute of Science Education and Research, Jatni 752050 (India); Frankenfeld, U.; Hehner, J.; Schmidt, C.J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany)

    2016-07-11

    In high-rate heavy-ion experiments, gaseous detectors encounter big challenges in terms of degradation of their performance due to a phenomenon called ageing. A setup for high precision ageing studies has been constructed and commissioned at the GSI detector laboratory. The setup as well as the gas system have been carefully optimized to reach a high sensitivity for ageing effects. Two different materials have been examined for their influence on gaseous detectors: RTV-3145 and Gerband 705. The details of the construction of the ageing test setup and the test results will be presented.

  3. Android Virtual Machine (VM) Setup on Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Machine (VM) Setup on Linux Ken F Yu Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL...Android emulator using an Android VM on an x86 host computer . 15. SUBJECT TERMS ELIDe, Android, VM, virtual machine 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...Select < filesystem > type ..................................................................................................10 Fig. 19 Answer <yes> to

  4. ASD FieldSpec Calibration Setup and Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Dan

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the Analytical Spectral Devices (ASD) Fieldspec Calibration Setup and Techniques. The topics include: 1) ASD Fieldspec FR Spectroradiometer; 2) Components of Calibration; 3) Equipment list; 4) Spectral Setup; 5) Spectral Calibration; 6) Radiometric and Linearity Setup; 7) Radiometric setup; 8) Datadets Required; 9) Data files; and 10) Field of View Measurement. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  5. CALIBRATION PROCEDURES IN MID FORMAT CAMERA SETUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Pivnicka

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of mid-format cameras are used for aerial surveying projects. To achieve a reliable and geometrically precise result also in the photogrammetric workflow, awareness on the sensitive parts is important. The use of direct referencing systems (GPS/IMU, the mounting on a stabilizing camera platform and the specific values of the mid format camera make a professional setup with various calibration and misalignment operations necessary. An important part is to have a proper camera calibration. Using aerial images over a well designed test field with 3D structures and/or different flight altitudes enable the determination of calibration values in Bingo software. It will be demonstrated how such a calibration can be performed. The direct referencing device must be mounted in a solid and reliable way to the camera. Beside the mechanical work especially in mounting the camera beside the IMU, 2 lever arms have to be measured in mm accuracy. Important are the lever arms from the GPS Antenna to the IMU's calibrated centre and also the lever arm from the IMU centre to the Camera projection centre. In fact, the measurement with a total station is not a difficult task but the definition of the right centres and the need for using rotation matrices can cause serious accuracy problems. The benefit of small and medium format cameras is that also smaller aircrafts can be used. Like that, a gyro bases stabilized platform is recommended. This causes, that the IMU must be mounted beside the camera on the stabilizer. The advantage is, that the IMU can be used to control the platform, the problematic thing is, that the IMU to GPS antenna lever arm is floating. In fact we have to deal with an additional data stream, the values of the movement of the stabiliser to correct the floating lever arm distances. If the post-processing of the GPS-IMU data by taking the floating levers into account, delivers an expected result, the lever arms between IMU and

  6. Multiparametric Experiments and Multiparametric Setups for Metering Explosive Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeucci, J.; Scarlato, P.; Del Bello, E.

    2016-12-01

    Explosive eruptions are multifaceted processes best studied by integrating a variety of observational perspectives. This need marries well with the continuous stream of new means that technological progress provides to volcanologists to parameterize these eruptions. Since decades, new technologies have been tested and integrated approaches have been attempted during so-called multiparametric experiments, i.e., short field campaigns with many, different instruments (and scientists) targeting natural laboratory volcanoes. Recently, portable multiparametric setups have been developed, including a few, highly complementary instruments to be rapidly deployed at any erupting volcano. Multiparametric experiments and setups share most of their challenges, like technical issues, site logistics, and data processing and interpretation. Our FAMoUS (FAst MUltiparametric Setup) setup pivots around coupled, high-speed imaging (visible and thermal) and acoustic (infrasonic to audible) recording, plus occasional seismic recording and sample collection. FAMoUS provided new insights on pyroclasts ejection and settling and jet noise dynamics at volcanoes worldwide. In the last years we conducted a series of BAcIO (Broadband ACquisition and Imaging Operation) experiments at Stromboli (Italy). These hosted state-of-the-art and prototypal eruption-metering technologies, including: multiple high-speed high-definition cameras for 3-D imaging; combined visible-infrared-ultraviolet imaging; in-situ and remote gas measurements; UAV aerial surveys; Doppler radar, and microphone arrays. This combined approach provides new understandings of the fundamental controls of Strombolian-style activity, and allows for crucial cross-validation of instruments and techniques. Several documentary expeditions participated in the BAcIO, attesting its tremendous potential for public outreach. Finally, sharing field work promotes interdisciplinary discussions and cooperation like nothing in the world.

  7. Comparison of six electromyography acquisition setups on hand movement classification tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzolato, Stefano; Tagliapietra, Luca; Cognolato, Matteo; Reggiani, Monica; Müller, Henning; Atzori, Manfredo

    2017-01-01

    Hand prostheses controlled by surface electromyography are promising due to the non-invasive approach and the control capabilities offered by machine learning. Nevertheless, dexterous prostheses are still scarcely spread due to control difficulties, low robustness and often prohibitive costs. Several sEMG acquisition setups are now available, ranging in terms of costs between a few hundred and several thousand dollars. The objective of this paper is the relative comparison of six acquisition setups on an identical hand movement classification task, in order to help the researchers to choose the proper acquisition setup for their requirements. The acquisition setups are based on four different sEMG electrodes (including Otto Bock, Delsys Trigno, Cometa Wave + Dormo ECG and two Thalmic Myo armbands) and they were used to record more than 50 hand movements from intact subjects with a standardized acquisition protocol. The relative performance of the six sEMG acquisition setups is compared on 41 identical hand movements with a standardized feature extraction and data analysis pipeline aimed at performing hand movement classification. Comparable classification results are obtained with three acquisition setups including the Delsys Trigno, the Cometa Wave and the affordable setup composed of two Myo armbands. The results suggest that practical sEMG tests can be performed even when costs are relevant (e.g. in small laboratories, developing countries or use by children). All the presented datasets can be used for offline tests and their quality can easily be compared as the data sets are publicly available.

  8. Experimental setup to detect superconducting wire motion

    OpenAIRE

    K. Ruwali; A. Yamanaka; Y. Teramoto; K. Nakanishi; K. Hosoyama

    2009-01-01

    An experimental setup was designed and fabricated to study superconducting wire motion under the influence of electromagnetic force. Experiments were conducted at 4.2 K by varying the experimental conditions such as the tension to the superconducting wire and different insulating materials at the interface of the superconducting wire and head part. The insulating materials used in the experiments were polyimide film and a high strength polyethylene fiber cloth, Dyneema. Details of the experim...

  9. The current status of the MASHA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedeneev, V. Yu., E-mail: vvedeneyev@gmail.com; Rodin, A. M.; Krupa, L.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Kamas, D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Kliman, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Slovakia); Komarov, A. B.; Motycak, S.; Novoselov, A. S.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Yukhimchuk, S. A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Granja, C.; Pospisil, S. [Czech Technical University in Prague, Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics (Czech Republic)

    2017-11-15

    The MASHA setup designed as the mass-separator with the resolving power of about 1700, which allows mass identification of superheavy nuclides is described. The setup uses solid ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method. In the present article the upgrade of some parts of MASHA are described: target box (rotating target + hot catcher), ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance, data acquisition, beam diagnostics and control systems. The upgrade is undertaken in order to increase the total separation efficiency, reduce the separation time, of the installation and working stability and make possible continuous measurements at high beam currents. Ion source efficiency was measured in autonomous regime with using calibrated gas leaks of Kr and Xe injected directly to ion source. Some results of the first experiments for production of radon isotopes using the multi-nucleon transfer reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 242}Pu are described in the present article. The using of TIMEPIX detector with MASHA setup for neutron-rich Rn isotopes identification is also described.

  10. The current status of the MASHA setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedeneev, V. Yu.; Rodin, A. M.; Krupa, L.; Belozerov, A. V.; Chernysheva, E. V.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulyaev, A. V.; Gulyaeva, A. V.; Kamas, D.; Kliman, J.; Komarov, A. B.; Motycak, S.; Novoselov, A. S.; Salamatin, V. S.; Stepantsov, S. V.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Yukhimchuk, S. A.; Granja, C.; Pospisil, S.

    2017-11-01

    The MASHA setup designed as the mass-separator with the resolving power of about 1700, which allows mass identification of superheavy nuclides is described. The setup uses solid ISOL (Isotope Separation On-Line) method. In the present article the upgrade of some parts of MASHA are described: target box (rotating target + hot catcher), ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance, data acquisition, beam diagnostics and control systems. The upgrade is undertaken in order to increase the total separation efficiency, reduce the separation time, of the installation and working stability and make possible continuous measurements at high beam currents. Ion source efficiency was measured in autonomous regime with using calibrated gas leaks of Kr and Xe injected directly to ion source. Some results of the first experiments for production of radon isotopes using the multi-nucleon transfer reaction 48Ca+242Pu are described in the present article. The using of TIMEPIX detector with MASHA setup for neutron-rich Rn isotopes identification is also described.

  11. Test of the Feasibility and Accuracy of Mass and Velocity Measurements on Pellets in Flight in a Microwave Set-Up with a Pass-Hole in the Transmission Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Verner; Andersen, P.

    The feasibility of mass and velocity measurements on pellets in flight without use of optical equipment has been tested. The mass is measured by a microwave system, and the velocity is measured by a time of flight in a double interaction with the microwave system. The influence of the size of the...

  12. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion: Set-Up and Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Chantelle M.

    1999-01-01

    During the research period focus was placed upon set-up, installment, and operation of the IEC. While procurement of specific components was difficult, the IEC was on several occasions demonstrated to be practical and safe during operation. Over the course of the summer several different grids were tested and various modes were obtained. While hard data was not produced, the IEC did something more important, which was to become established here at Marshall and pave the way for future IEC systems to be built.

  13. Setup optimization toward accurate ageing studies of gas filled detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuhoza, A., E-mail: a.abuhoza@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany); National Center for Mathematics and Physics, KACST, P.O. Box 6086, Riyadh 11442 (Saudi Arabia); Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt (Germany); Schmidt, H.R. [Eberhard-Karls-Universität, Tübingen (Germany); Biswas, S.; Frankenfeld, U.; Hehner, J.; Schmidt, C.J. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt 64291 (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    An infrastructure has been set up at the GSI detector laboratory to study the influence of construction materials on the ageing properties of gas filled detectors, such as multi-wire proportional chamber (MWPC), gas electron multiplier (GEM). Optimization of an ageing setup was performed by observing the variation of the normalized gain obtained using two identical MWPCs. An accuracy in the relative gain measurement below 1% has been achieved by monitoring environmental conditions and by systematic improvements of the measuring equipment. Ageing test of fiberglass G11 has been performed.

  14. High-resolution continuous-flow analysis setup for water isotopic measurement from ice cores using laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelsson, B. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Keller, E. D.; Gkinis, V.

    2015-07-01

    Here we present an experimental setup for water stable isotope (δ18O and δD) continuous-flow measurements and provide metrics defining the performance of the setup during a major ice core measurement campaign (Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution; RICE). We also use the metrics to compare alternate systems. Our setup is the first continuous-flow laser spectroscopy system that is using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (OA-ICOS; analyzer manufactured by Los Gatos Research, LGR) in combination with an evaporation unit to continuously analyze water samples from an ice core. A Water Vapor Isotope Standard Source (WVISS) calibration unit, manufactured by LGR, was modified to (1) enable measurements on several water standards, (2) increase the temporal resolution by reducing the response time and (3) reduce the influence from memory effects. While this setup was designed for the continuous-flow analysis (CFA) of ice cores, it can also continuously analyze other liquid or vapor sources. The custom setups provide a shorter response time (~ 54 and 18 s for 2013 and 2014 setup, respectively) compared to the original WVISS unit (~ 62 s), which is an improvement in measurement resolution. Another improvement compared to the original WVISS is that the custom setups have a reduced memory effect. Stability tests comparing the custom and WVISS setups were performed and Allan deviations (σAllan) were calculated to determine precision at different averaging times. For the custom 2013 setup the precision after integration times of 103 s is 0.060 and 0.070 ‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. The corresponding σAllan values for the custom 2014 setup are 0.030, 0.060 and 0.043 ‰ for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. For the WVISS setup the precision is 0.035, 0.070 and 0.042 ‰ after 103 s for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. Both the custom setups and WVISS setup are influenced by instrumental drift with δ18O being more drift sensitive than δD. The

  15. Comparison of two setups for induction heating in injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    To eliminate defects and improve the quality of molded parts, increasing the mold temperature is one of the applicable solutions. A high mold temperature can increase the path flow of the polymer inside the cavity allowing reduction of the number of injection points, reduction of part thickness......, and moulding of smaller and more complex geometries. The last two aspects are very important in micro injection molding. In this paper, a new embedded induction heating system is proposed and validated and two different coil setups were tested and compared. An experimental investigation was performed based...... on a test geometry integrating different aspect ratios of small structures. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) was used as material, and different mold temperatures were tested. The replicated test objects were measured by means of an optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM). On the basis...

  16. Composite Inflation Setup and Glueball Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bezrukov, Fedor; Channuie, Phongpichit; Jark Joergensen, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    We explore the paradigm according to which inflation is driven by a four-dimensional strongly coupled dynamics coupled non-minimally to gravity. We start by introducing the general setup, both in the metric and Palatini formulation, for generic models of composite inflation. We then analyze......-minimally to gravity. We demonstrate that it is possible to achieve successful inflation with the confining scale of the underlying Yang-Mills theory naturally of the order of the grand unified energy scale. We also argue that within the metric formulation models of composite inflation lead to a more consistent...

  17. Improved mortar set-up technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Villiers, D

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available www.csir.co.za Close Rage Reference Device (Prismatic Mirror) • Problems with aiming posts • Description of the Prismatic Mirror • Prismatic Mirror set-up • Passing adjustment bearings and paralleling • Mortar lay • First shot and small.... Prismatic Mirror (Close Rage Reference Device) Slide 16 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Prismatic Mirror (Close Rage Reference Device) Slide 17 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za C2A1 Bearing Scale (Close Rage Reference...

  18. Laboratory setup for temperature and humidity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Eimre, Kristjan

    2015-01-01

    In active particle detectors, the temperature and humidity conditions must be under constant monitoring and control, as even small deviations from the norm cause changes to detector characteristics and result in a loss of precision. To monitor the temperature and humidity, different kinds of sensors are used, which must be calibrated beforehand to ensure their accuracy. To calibrate the large number of sensors that are needed for the particle detectors and other laboratory work, a calibration system is needed. The purpose of the current work was to develop a laboratory setup for temperature and humidity sensor measurements and calibration.

  19. Cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, M F; van Mourik, M W; Postler, L; Nolf, A; Lakhmanskiy, K; Paiva, R R; Möller, S; Daniilidis, N; Häffner, H; Kaushal, V; Ruster, T; Warschburger, C; Kaufmann, H; Poschinger, U G; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Schindler, P; Monz, T; Blatt, R

    2016-11-01

    We report on the design of a cryogenic setup for trapped ion quantum computing containing a segmented surface electrode trap. The heat shield of our cryostat is designed to attenuate alternating magnetic field noise, resulting in 120 dB reduction of 50 Hz noise along the magnetic field axis. We combine this efficient magnetic shielding with high optical access required for single ion addressing as well as for efficient state detection by placing two lenses each with numerical aperture 0.23 inside the inner heat shield. The cryostat design incorporates vibration isolation to avoid decoherence of optical qubits due to the motion of the cryostat. We measure vibrations of the cryostat of less than ±20 nm over 2 s. In addition to the cryogenic apparatus, we describe the setup required for an operation with 40Ca+ and 88Sr+ ions. The instability of the laser manipulating the optical qubits in 40Ca+ is characterized by yielding a minimum of its Allan deviation of 2.4 ⋅ 10-15 at 0.33 s. To evaluate the performance of the apparatus, we trapped 40Ca+ ions, obtaining a heating rate of 2.14(16) phonons/s and a Gaussian decay of the Ramsey contrast with a 1/e-time of 18.2(8) ms.

  20. Laser-Doppler-Velocimetry on the basis of frequency selective absorption: set-up and test of a Doppler Gloval Velocimeter; Laser-Doppler-Velocimetry auf der Basis frequenzselektiver Absorption: Aufbau und Einsatz eines Doppler Global Velocimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehle, I.

    1999-11-01

    A Doppler Global Velocimeter was set up in the frame of a PhD thesis. This velocimeter is optimized to carry out high accuracy, three component, time averaged planar velocity measurements. The anemometer was successfully applied to wind tunnel and test rig flows, and the measurement accuracy was investigated. A volumetric data-set of the flow field inside an industrial combustion chamber was measured. This data field contained about 400.000 vectors. DGV measurements in the intake of a jet engine model were carried out applying a fibre bundle boroskope. The flow structure of the wake of a car model in a wind tunnel was investigated. The measurement accuracy of the DGV-System is {+-}0.5 m/s when operated under ideal conditions. This study can serve as a basis to evaluate the use of DGV for aerodynamic development experiments. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen der Dissertation wurde ein auf hohe Messgenauigkeit optimiertes DGV-Geraet fuer zeitlich gemittelte Drei-Komponenten-Geschwindigkeitsmessungen entwickelt und gebaut, an Laborstroemungen, an Teststaenden und an Windkanaelen erfolgreich eingesetzt und das Potential der Messtechnik, insbesondere im Hinblick auf Messgenauigkeit, untersucht. Im Fall einer industriellen Brennkammer konnte ein Volumen-Datensatz des Stroemungsfeldes erstellt werden, dessen Umfang bei ca. 400.000 Vektoren lag. Es wurden DGV-Messungen mittels eines flexiblen Endoskops auf Basis eines Faserbuendels durchgefuehrt und damit die Stroemung in einem Flugzeugeinlauf vermessen. Es wurden DGV-Messungen im Nachlauf eines PKW-Modells in einem Windkanal durchgefuehrt. Die Messgenauigkeit des erstellten DGV-Systems betraegt unter Idealbedingungen {+-}0,5 m/s. Durch die Arbeit wurde eine Basis zur Beurteilung des Nutzens der DGV-Technik fuer aerodynamische Entwicklungsarbeiten geschaffen. (orig.)

  1. Accuracy in tangential breast treatment set-up: a portal imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tienhoven, G; Lanson, J H; Crabeels, D; Heukelom, S; Mijnheer, B J

    1991-12-01

    To test the accuracy and reproducibility of the tangential breast treatment set-up used in The Netherlands Cancer Institute, a portal imaging study was performed in 12 patients treated for early stage breast cancer. With an on-line electronic portal imaging device (EPID) images were obtained of each patient in several fractions and compared with simulator films and with each other. In five patients, multiple images (on the average 7) per fraction were obtained to evaluate set-up variations due to respiratory movement. The central lung distance (CLD) and other set-up parameters varied within one fraction about 1 mm (1 SD). The average variation of these parameters between various fractions was about 2 mm (1 SD). The differences between simulator and treatment set-up over all patients and all fractions was on the average 2-3 mm for the central beam edge to skin distance and the central lung distance. It can be concluded that the tangential breast treatment set-up is very stable and reproducible and that respiration does not have a significant influence on treatment volume. The EPID appears to be an adequate tool for studies of treatment set-up accuracy like this.

  2. Improvements of the optical detection setup of COLLAPS

    CERN Document Server

    Sailer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In Collinear Laser Spectroscopy of rare isotopes it is crucial to keep the background of the measurements low. Using photomultiplier tubes for those measurements, the dark count rate should be as low as possible and the signal gain high. Therefore, it is important to use the right type of photomultiplier tubes for the purpose of single photon detection with a low signal rate. Thus, I tested several different types of photomultiplier tubes for their dark count rates and noise to signal separation. The results have identified the most suitable type of photomultiplier tubes, but further measuring for verification might be necessary. Therefore, it is very important to keep the photomultiplier tubes shut from light. Exposing the photocathode to light implies life-long damage and increased background for several days. So far, when dismounting one of these photomultiplier tubes from the setup, a big cage around the optical detection setup was covered into black sheets to keep it as dark as possible inside. Still, th...

  3. Thermal cycling fiber metal laminates : Considerations, test setup and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, B.; Teixeira de Freitas, S.; Sinke, J.

    2015-01-01

    The development of fiber metal laminates to multi-functional materials by embedding heater elements in the laminate extends their field of application. Fiber metal laminates with embedded heater elements are likely to be used for the de- and anti-icing of leading edges in aircraft as they combine

  4. ALBERTA - HEC test beam set-up in June 1999

    CERN Multimedia

    Vinter, M.

    1999-01-01

    Photo1 - HEC 2 (rear) being set up in the "clean" room. Photo2 - HEC 2 (rear) being craned onto rotating C. Photo3 - HEC 2 (rear) being rotated. Photo4 - A now well rotated HEC 2 (rear) is being craned off the C. Photo5 - HEC 2 (rear) installed in the cryostat. Photo6 - Part of the basic frame (the frame that sits in the very bottom of the cryostat). Photo7 - Part of the basic frame (one of the two frames which the 3 calorimeter modules sit on). Photo8 - The marriage frame.

  5. Initialization and Setup of the Coastal Model Test Bed: STWAVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Blanton 2008) study. This regional digital elevation model (DEM), with a cell size of 10 m, was generated from numerous datasets collected at different...however, with a few minor alterations , the system is also capable of running historical data from the FRF. This is important flexibility, allowing...NOTE: The contents of this technical note are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such products.

  6. The new cold neutron tomography set-up at SINQ

    CERN Document Server

    Baechler, S; Cauwels, P; Dierick, M; Jolie, J; Materna, T; Mondelaers, W

    2002-01-01

    A new cold neutron tomography set-up is operational at the neutron spallation source SINQ of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland. The detection system is based on a sup 6 LiF/ZnS:Ag conversion screen and a CCD camera. Several tests have been carried out to characterize the quality of the tomography system, such as homogeneity, reproducibility, L/D-ratio and spatial resolution. The high flux and the good efficiency of the detector lead to very short exposure times. Thus, a typical set of tomography scans can be performed in only 20 min. Then, 3D computed tomography objects were calculated using the filtered back-projection reconstruction method. Initial results of various samples show that cold neutron tomography can be a useful tool for industry, geology and dentistry. Furthermore, suitable applications can be found in the field of archaeology.

  7. Current status of GALS setup in JINR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemlyanoy, S., E-mail: zemlya@jinr.ru; Avvakumov, K., E-mail: kavvakumov@jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (Russian Federation); Fedosseev, V. [CERN (Switzerland); Bark, R. [Nat. Research Foundation, iThemba LABS (South Africa); Blazczak, Z. [A. Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Physics (Poland); Janas, Z. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics (Poland)

    2017-11-15

    This is a brief report on the current status of the new GAs cell based Laser ionization Setup (GALS) at the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna. GALS will exploit available beams from the U-400M cyclotron in low energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions to study exotic neutron-rich nuclei located in the “north-east” region of nuclear map. Products from 4.5 to 9 MeV/nucleon heavy-ion collisions, such as {sup 136}Xe on {sup 208}Pb, are thermalized and neutralized in a high pressure gas cell and subsequently selectively laser re-ionized. In order to choose the best scheme of ion extraction the results of computer simulations of two different systems are presented. The first off- and online experiment will be performed on osmium atoms that is regarded as a most convenient element for producing isotopes with neutron number in the vicinity of the magic N = 126.

  8. Current status of GALS setup in JINR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlyanoy, S.; Avvakumov, K.; Fedosseev, V.; Bark, R.; Blazczak, Z.; Janas, Z.

    2017-11-01

    This is a brief report on the current status of the new GAs cell based Laser ionization Setup (GALS) at the Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna. GALS will exploit available beams from the U-400M cyclotron in low energy multi-nucleon transfer reactions to study exotic neutron-rich nuclei located in the "north-east" region of nuclear map. Products from 4.5 to 9 MeV/nucleon heavy-ion collisions, such as 136Xe on 208Pb, are thermalized and neutralized in a high pressure gas cell and subsequently selectively laser re-ionized. In order to choose the best scheme of ion extraction the results of computer simulations of two different systems are presented. The first off- and online experiment will be performed on osmium atoms that is regarded as a most convenient element for producing isotopes with neutron number in the vicinity of the magic N = 126.

  9. A new setup for the underground study of capture reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Casella, C; Lemut, A; Limata, B; Bemmerer, D; Bonetti, R; Broggini, C; Campajola, L; Cocconi, P; Corvisiero, P; Cruz, J; D'Onofrio, A; Formicola, A; Fülöp, Z; Gervino, G; Gialanella, L; Guglielmetti, A; Gustavino, C; Gyürky, G; Loiano, A; Imbriani, G; Jesus, A P; Junker, M; Musico, P; Ordine, A; Parodi, F; Parolin, M; Pinto, J V; Prati, P; Ribeiro, J P; Roca, V; Rogalla, D; Rolfs, C; Romano, M; Rossi-Alvarez, C; Rottura, A; Schuemann, F; Somorjai, E; Strieder, F; Terrasi, F; Trautvetter, H P; Vomiero, A; Zavatarelli, S

    2002-01-01

    For the study of astrophysically relevant capture reactions in the underground laboratory LUNA a new setup of high sensitivity has been implemented. The setup includes a windowless gas target, a 4 pi BGO summing crystal, and beam calorimeters. The setup has been recently used to measure the d(p,gamma) sup 3 He cross-section for the first time within its solar Gamow peak, i.e. down to 2.5 keV c.m. energy. The features of the optimized setup are described.

  10. Development of a New Downscale Setup for Wheel-Rail Contact Experiments under Impact Loading Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naeimi, M.; Li, Z.; Petrov, R.H.; Sietsma, J.; Dollevoet, R.P.B.J.

    2017-01-01

    A new downscale test rig is developed for investigating the contact between the wheel and rail under impact-like loading conditions. This paper presents the development process of the setup, including review and synthesis of the potential experimental techniques, followed by scalability, mechanical

  11. Experimental Evaluation of MIMO Terminals with User Influence in OTA Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Hentilä, Lassi

    2017-01-01

    channel models in a practical 3D multi-probe anechoic chamber (MPAC) setup. A terminal mock-up, operating at 2.55 GHz, together with a realistic user phantom was used, and channel models with different spatial and polarization profiles, DUT with different operation modes and orientation angles were tested....

  12. Investigation of self healing behaviour of asphalt mixes using beam on elastic foundation setup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, J.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; Van de Ven, M.F.C.; Wu, S.; Yu, J.

    2012-01-01

    Self healing of asphalt mixes is known for more than four decades. However, it is a complex phenomenon which depends on the duration of the rest period, temperature, crack size, etc. In order to quantify the self healing behaviour of asphalt mixes, a test setup was proposed in this research using an

  13. Diagnostic Setup for Characterization of Near-Anode Processes in Hall Thrusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Dorf; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2003-09-08

    A diagnostic setup for characterization of near-anode processes in Hall-current plasma thrusters consisting of biased and emissive electrostatic probes, high-precision positioning system and low-noise electronic circuitry was developed and tested. Experimental results show that radial probe insertion does not cause perturbations to the discharge and therefore can be used for accurate near-anode measurements.

  14. Integration of micro milling highspeed spindle on a microEDM-milling machine set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Grave, Arnaud; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Andolfatto, Loic

    2009-01-01

    In order to cope with repositioning errors and to combine the fast removal rate of micro milling with the precision and small feature size achievable with micro EDM milling, a hybrid micro-milling and micro-EDM milling centre was built and tested. The aim was to build an affordable set-up, easy...

  15. A compact multi-chamber setup for degradation and lifetime studies of organic solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Jørgensen, Mikkel; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    A controlled atmosphere setup designed for long-term degradation studies of organic solar cells under illumination is presented. The setup was designed with ease-of-use and compactness in mind and allows for multiple solar cells distributed on four glass substrates to be studied in four different...... chambers with temperature and atmosphere control. The four chambers are situated at close proximity in the setup thereby allowing the solar cells to be subjected to as uniform an illumination distribution as possible for the given solar simulator employed. The cell substrates serve as the front window...... and present a tight seal. Hence no illumination correction needs to be performed due to transmission and reflection losses as otherwise seen with test chambers employing a window as a seal. The solar cells in each chamber are continuously and individually electrically monitored under biased conditions...

  16. A dedicated AMS setup for medium mass isotopes at the Cologne FN tandem accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, M.; Altenkirch, R.; Feuerstein, C.; Müller-Gatermann, C.; Hackenberg, G.; Herb, S.; Bhandari, P.; Heinze, S.; Stolz, A.; Dewald, A.

    2017-09-01

    AMS measurements of medium mass isotopes, e.g. of 53Mn and 60Fe, are gaining interest in various fields of operation, especially geoscience. Therefore a dedicated AMS setup has been built at the Cologne 10 MV FN tandem accelerator. This setup is designed to obtain a sufficient suppression of the stable isobars at energies around 100 MeV. In this contribution we report on the actual status of the new setup and the first in-beam tests of its individual components. The isobar suppression is done with (dE/dx) techniques using combinations of energy degrader foils with an electrostatic analyzer (ESA) and a time of flight (ToF) system, as well as a (dE/dx),E gas ionization detector. Furthermore, the upgraded ion source and its negative ion yield measurement for MnO- are presented.

  17. Fault tolerant control - a residual based set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    A new set-up for fault tolerant control (FTC) for stable systems is presented in this paper. The new set-up is based on a simple implementation of the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization. This implementation of the YJBK parameterization will allow a direct and simple reconfigurati...

  18. Channel Verification Results for the SCME models in a Multi-Probe Based MIMO OTA Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; S. Ashta, Jagjit

    2013-01-01

    MIMO OTA testing methodologies are being intensively investigated by CTIA and 3GPP, where various MIMO test methods have been proposed which vary widely in how they emulate the propagation channels. Inter-lab/inter-technique OTA performance comparison testing for MIMO devices is ongoing in CTIA, ...... correlation, spatial correlation and cross polarization ratio, can be accurcately reproduced in a multi-probe anechoic chamber based MIMO OTA setup....

  19. Development and design of a multi-column experimental setup for Kr/Xe separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-12-01

    As a precursor to FY-15 Kr/Xe separation testing, design modifications to an existing experimental setup are warranted. The modifications would allow for multi-column testing to facilitate a Xe separation followed by a Kr separation using engineered form sorbents prepared using an INL patented process. A new cooling apparatus capable of achieving test temperatures to -40° C and able to house a newly designed Xe column was acquired. Modifications to the existing setup are being installed to allow for multi-column testing and gas constituent analyses using evacuated sample bombs. The new modifications will allow for independent temperature control for each column enabling a plethora of test conditions to be implemented. Sample analyses will be used to evaluate the Xe/Kr selectivity of the AgZ-PAN sorbent and determine the Kr purity of the effluent stream following Kr capture using the HZ-PAN sorbent.

  20. High-resolution continuous flow analysis setup for water isotopic measurement from ice cores using laser spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelsson, B. D.; Baisden, W. T.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Keller, E. D.; Gkinis, V.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present an experimental setup for water stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) continuous flow measurements. It is the first continuous flow laser spectroscopy system that is using Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (OA-ICOS; analyzer manufactured by Los Gatos Research - LGR) in combination with an evaporation unit to continuously analyze sample from an ice core. A Water Vapor Isotopic Standard Source (WVISS) calibration unit, manufactured by LGR, was modified to: (1) increase the temporal resolution by reducing the response time (2) enable measurements on several water standards, and (3) to reduce the influence from memory effects. While this setup was designed for the Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) of ice cores, it can also continuously analyze other liquid or vapor sources. The modified setup provides a shorter response time (~54 and 18 s for 2013 and 2014 setup, respectively) compared to the original WVISS unit (~62 s), which is an improvement in measurement resolution. Another improvement compared to the original WVISS is that the modified setup has a reduced memory effect. Stability tests comparing the modified WVISS and WVISS setups were performed and Allan deviations (σAllan) were calculated to determine precision at different averaging times. For the 2013 modified setup the precision after integration times of 103 s are 0.060 and 0.070‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. For the WVISS setup the corresponding σAllan values are 0.030, 0.060 and 0.043‰ for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. For the WVISS setup the precision is 0.035, 0.070 and 0.042‰ after 103 s for δ18O, δD and δ17O, respectively. Both the modified setups and WVISS setup are influenced by instrumental drift with δ18O being more drift sensitive than δD. The σAllan values for δ18O of 0.30 and 0.18‰ for the modified (2013) and WVISS setup, respectively after averaging times of 104 s (2.78 h). The Isotopic Water Analyzer (IWA)-modified WVISS setup used during the

  1. Two-and Three-Dimensional Laboratory Studies of Wave Breaking, Dissipation, Setup, and Runup on Reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    very large storm waves, and most include fringing coral reefs. Waves undergo significant transformation as they shoal and break on fringing reefs and...continuously varied using the " snake principle" to produce waves at angles approaching 85 deg from normal. However, only shore-normal waves, i.e...setup on the reef, which is consistent with previous results. Gourlay (1996b) observed similar trends in setup measured during tests of coral reef

  2. Developing a beta source based setup for pixel sensor characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Schouwenberg, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of this project is to provide mono-energetic minimum ionizing electrons from a $^{90}$Sr source using a magnetic monochromator, and thus provide a useful tool for in-lab sensor characterization. The monochromator is calibrated using a setup, with a heavy inorganic scintillator and a PMT, which has been calibrated with a $^{22}$Na gamma source. The average energy of the electrons as a function of the current in the monochromator coil is found to be $1.38\\pm0.01$ keV/mA, taking into consideration the effect of the magnetic field on the signal of the PMT. For integration into the pixel sensor test bench, scintillator-counters (a plastic scintillator connected to a PMT) are used. Their response to the electron energies is observed to follow a saturation curve, which leads to a more identical response for high energetic electrons. A preliminary pixel sensor test bench has been set up and properties such as voltage and discriminator settings have been studied as well as count rates for coincidence cou...

  3. P300-based brain computer interface experimental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda, Carolina; Garcia, Eliana; Posada, Alejandro; Torres, Robinson

    2009-01-01

    A Brain-Computer interface (BCI) is a communication system that enables the generation of a control signal from brain signals such as sensorymotor rhythms and evoked potentials; therefore, it constitutes a novel communication option for people with severe motor disabilities (such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis patients). This paper presents the development of a P300-based BCI. This prototype uses a homemade six-channel electroencephalograph for the acquisition of the signals, and a visual stimulation matrix; since this matrix contains letters of the alphabet as well as images associated to them, it permits word-writing and the elaboration of messages with the images. To process the signals the software BCI2000 and MATLAB 7.0 were used. The latter was used to program three linear translation algorithms (Stepwise Linear Discriminant Analysis, Lineal Discriminant Analysis and Least Squares) to convert the brain signals into communication signals. These algorithms had a classification accuracy of 90.73 %, 95.75 % and 89.45 % respectively, when using raw data; and of 90.78%, 49.48 % and 53.9 %, when data was previously common-average filtered. The experimental setup was tested in ten healthy volunteers; 5 of them got a 100% success, 1 a 90% success, 2 an around 70% success and 2 a 50% success, in the online free-spelling tests.

  4. Four point bending setup for characterization of semiconductor piezoresistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Jacob; Arnoldus, Morten Berg; Hansen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We present a four point bending setup suitable for high precision characterization of piezoresistance in semiconductors. The compact setup has a total size of 635 cm3. Thermal stability is ensured by an aluminum housing wherein the actual four point bending fixture is located. The four point...... bending fixture is manufactured in polyetheretherketon and a dedicated silicon chip with embedded piezoresistors fits in the fixture. The fixture is actuated by a microstepper actuator and a high sensitivity force sensor measures the applied force on the fixture and chip. The setup includes heaters...

  5. RCT: Module 2.10, Access Control and Work Area Setup, Course 8776

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillmer, Kurt T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-11

    This course presents information on radiological work permits (RWPs), various types of postings used in radiological areas, radiological area setups, access controls, and releases of material from radiological areas. All of these are fundamental duties of RCTs. This course will prepare the student with the skills necessary for radiological control technician (RCT) qualification by passing quizzes, tests, and the RCT Comprehensive Phase 1, Unit 2 Examination (TEST 27566) and providing in-thefield skills.

  6. Probe Selection in Multiprobe OTA Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Sun, Fan; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2014-01-01

    Standardization work for over-the-air (OTA) testing of multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals is currently ongoing in COST IC1004, 3GPP, and CTIA, where a multiprobe anechoic chamber based method is a promising candidate. Setting up a multiprobe configuration with channel emulators...

  7. Impact of the frequency of online verifications on the patient set-up accuracy and set-up margins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Adel

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The purpose of the study was to evaluate the patient set-up error of different anatomical sites, to estimate the effect of different frequencies of online verifications on the patient set-up accuracy, and to calculate margins to accommodate for the patient set-up error (ICRU set-up margin, SM. Methods and materials Alignment data of 148 patients treated with inversed planned intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT or three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT of the head and neck (n = 31, chest (n = 72, abdomen (n = 15, and pelvis (n = 30 were evaluated. The patient set-up accuracy was assessed using orthogonal megavoltage electronic portal images of 2328 fractions of 173 planning target volumes (PTV. In 25 patients, two PTVs were analyzed where the PTVs were located in different anatomical sites and treated in two different radiotherapy courses. The patient set-up error and the corresponding SM were retrospectively determined assuming no online verification, online verification once a week and online verification every other day. Results The SM could be effectively reduced with increasing frequency of online verifications. However, a significant frequency of relevant set-up errors remained even after online verification every other day. For example, residual set-up errors larger than 5 mm were observed on average in 18% to 27% of all fractions of patients treated in the chest, abdomen and pelvis, and in 10% of fractions of patients treated in the head and neck after online verification every other day. Conclusion In patients where high set-up accuracy is desired, daily online verification is highly recommended.

  8. A novel collinear optical setup for holographic data storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horimai, Hideyoshi; Li, Jun

    2004-09-01

    In this paper, A novel collinear optical setup for holographic data storage system is presented. Simulated/experimental results are given. Combined with sub-page based data format, the system is simple and robust.

  9. The COMPASS Setup for Physics with Hadron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Abbon, Ph.; Akhunzyanov, R.; Alexandrov, Yu.; Alexeev, M.G.; Alexeev, G.D.; Amoroso, A.; Andrieux, V.; Anosov, V.; Austregesilo, A.; Badelek, B.; Balestra, F.; Barth, J.; Baum, G.; Beck, R.; Bedfer, Y.; Berlin, A.; Bernhard, J.; Bicker, K.; Bielert, E.R.; Bieling, J.; Birsa, R.; Bisplinghoff, J.; Bodlak, M.; Boer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Bradamante, F.; Braun, C.; Bressan, A.; Buchele, M.; Burtin, E.; Capozza, L.; Ciliberti, P.; Chiosso, M.; Chung, S.U.; Cicuttin, A.; Colantoni, M.; Cotte, D.; Crespo, M.L.; Curiel, Q.; Dafni, T.; Dalla Torre, S.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Dasgupta, S.; Denisov, O.Yu.; Desforge, D.; Dinkelbach, A.M.; Donskov, S.V.; Doshita, N.; Duic, V.; Dunnweber, W.; Durand, D.; Dziewiecki, M.; Efremov, A.; Elia, C.; Eversheim, P.D.; Eyrich, W.; Faessler, M.; Ferrero, A.; Finger, M.; M. Finger jr; Fischer, H.; Franco, C.; von Hohenesche, N. du Fresne; Friedrich, J.M.; Frolov, V.; Gatignon, L.; Gautheron, F.; Gavrichtchouk, O.P.; Gerassimov, S.; Geyer, R.; Giganon, A.; Gnesi, I.; Gobbo, B.; Goertz, S.; Gorzellik, M.; Grabmuller, S.; Grasso, A.; Gregori, M.; Grube, B.; Grussenmeyer, T.; Guskov, A.; Haas, F.; von Harrach, D.; Hahne, D.; Hashimoto, R.; Heinsius, F.H.; Herrmann, F.; Hinterberger, F.; Hoppner, Ch.; Horikawa, N.; d'Hose, N.; Huber, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.; Iwata, T.; Jahn, R.; Jary, V.; Jasinski, P.; Jorg, P.; Joosten, R.; Kabuss, E.; Ketzer, B.; Khaustov, G.V.; Khokhlov, Yu. A.; Kisselev, Yu.; Klein, F.; Klimaszewski, K.; Koivuniemi, J.H.; Kolosov, V.N.; Kondo, K.; Konigsmann, K.; Konorov, I.; Konstantinov, V.F.; Kotzinian, A.M.; Kouznetsov, O.; Kramer, M.; Kroumchtein, Z.V.; Kuchinski, N.; Kuhn, R.; Kunne, F.; Kurek, K.; Kurjata, R.P.; Lednev, A.A.; Lehmann, A.; Levillain, M.; Levorato, S.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Maggiora, A.; Magnon, A.; Makke, N.; Mallot, G.K.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.; Martin, A.; Marzec, J.; Matousek, J.; Matsuda, H.; Matsuda, T.; Menon, G.; Meshcheryakov, G.; Meyer, W.; Michigami, T.; Mikhailov, Yu. V.; Miyachi, Y.; Moinester, M.A.; Nagaytsev, A.; Nagel, T.; Nerling, F.; Neubert, S.; Neyret, D.; Nikolaenko, V.I.; Novy, J.; Nowak, W.D.; Nunes, Ana Sofia; Olshevsky, A.G.; Orlov, I.; Ostrick, M.; Panknin, R.; Panzieri, D.; Parsamyan, B.; Paul, S.; Pesaro, G.; Pesaro, V.; Peshekhonov, D.V.; Pires, C.; Platchkov, S.; Pochodzalla, J.; Polyakov, V.A.; Pretz, J.; Quaresma, M.; Quintans, C.; Ramos, S.; Regali, C.; Reicherz, G.; Reymond, J-M.; Rocco, E.; Rossiyskaya, N.S.; Rousse, J.Y.; Ryabchikov, D.I.; Rychter, A.; Samartsev, A.; Samoylenko, V.D.; Sandacz, A.; Sarkar, S.; Savin, I.A.; Sbrizzai, G.; Schiavon, P.; Schill, C.; Schluter, T.; Schmidt, K.; Schmieden, H.; Schonning, K.; Schopferer, S.; Schott, M.; Shevchenko, O.Yu.; Silva, L.; Sinha, L.; Sirtl, S.; Slunecka, M.; Sosio, S.; Sozzi, F.; Srnka, A.; Steiger, L.; Stolarski, M.; Sulc, M.; Sulej, R.; Suzuki, H.; Szabelski, A.; Szameitat, T.; Sznajder, P.; Takekawa, S.; Wolbeek, J. ter; Tessaro, S.; Tessarotto, F.; Thibaud, F.; Tskhay, V.; Uhl, S.; Uman, I.; Virius, M.; Wang, L.; Weisrock, T.; Weitzel, Q.; Wilfert, M.; Windmolders, R.; Wollny, H.; Zaremba, K.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zemlyanichkina, E.; Ziembicki, M.; Zink, A.

    2015-01-01

    The main characteristics of the COMPASS experimental setup for physics with hadron beams are described. This setup was designed to perform exclusive measurements of processes with several charged and/or neutral particles in the final state. Making use of a large part of the apparatus that was previously built for spin structure studies with a muon beam, it also features a new target system as well as new or upgraded detectors. The hadron setup is able to operate at the high incident hadron flux available at CERN. It is characterised by large angular and momentum coverages, large and nearly flat acceptances, and good two and three-particle mass resolutions. In 2008 and 2009 it was successfully used with positive and negative hadron beams and with liquid hydrogen and solid nuclear targets. This article describes the new and upgraded detectors and auxiliary equipment, outlines the reconstruction procedures used, and summarises the general performance of the setup.

  10. A new setup for neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negret, A.; Borcea, C.; Drohe, J.C.; Mihailescu, L.C.; Plompen, A.J.M.; Wynants, R. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Borcea, C. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering Horia Hulubei, Bucharest (Romania)

    2008-07-01

    An upgraded detection setup for neutron scattering measurements was recently completed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM (Institute for Reference Materials and Measurement - Belgium). A 200 m flight path is used. Eight HPGe detectors are placed at 110 and 150 degrees with respect to the neutron beam and are read-out by fast digitizers. The neutron flux is monitored by a {sup 235}U fission chamber. The first inelastic scattering measurement with the new setup was performed for natural Iron. (authors)

  11. The setup and care of a patient in Buck's traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, T

    1999-01-01

    Buck's traction is certainly one of the more common traction setups seen in orthopaedic patient care today. However, just because it is common doesn't mean we can take it for granted. Specific setup techniques as well as patient evaluation methods must be understood if the traction is to accomplish its task. The goal of this article is to go through some of the basics in techniques and perhaps explain why this traction is so commonly used.

  12. Intelligent Command and Control Demonstration Setup and Presentation Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ARL-TR-8244 ● DEC 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Intelligent Command and Control Demonstration Setup and Presentation...and Control Demonstration Setup and Presentation Instructions by Laurel C Sadler and Somiya Metu Computational and Information Sciences...for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM

  13. Setup of Galvanic Sensors for the Monitoring of Gilded Bronzes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Goidanich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrochemical techniques, such as linear polarization resistance (Rp, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS, cannot be applied to gilded bronzes, as it may not be possible to interpret the results obtained due to the bimetallic nature of the studied material. The measurement of the macrocouple current generated by the gold/bronze galvanic couple can be used as an indicator of degradation processes. Nevertheless, this measurement cannot be performed directly on the original artifacts due to the systematic presence of short-circuits between the two metals. In the present work the use of galvanic sensors is proposed as a possible solution for the monitoring of gilded bronze artefacts. The sensors have been designed to simulate real gilded bronze surfaces in terms of composition and stratigraphy and have proved to be a reliable diagnostic tool for the in situ monitoring of the rates of deterioration of gilded bronze surfaces and to test new conservation treatments. Their set-up and application is reported and their performances discussed.

  14. Optimal sensor placement for multi-setup modal analysis of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Maes, Kristof; De Roeck, Guido; Reynders, Edwin; Papadimitriou, Costas; Lombaert, Geert

    2017-08-01

    Modal tests on large structures are often performed in multiple setups for practical reasons. Several sensors are kept fixed as reference sensors over all setups, while the other, so called roving sensors, are moved from one setup to another. This paper develops an optimal sensor placement strategy for multi-setup modal identification, which simultaneously optimizes the locations of the reference sensors and roving sensors. As an optimality criterion, the Information Entropy is adopted, which is a scalar measure of uncertainty in the Bayesian framework. The focus in the application goes to repetitive structures where modes typically occur in clusters, with closely spaced natural frequencies and similar wavelengths. The proposed strategy is illustrated for selecting optimal positions of uni-axial sensors for a repetitive frame structure. The influence of the number of reference sensors and two strategies for positioning roving sensors, i.e. a cluster and a uniform distribution of roving sensors, are investigated. The number of reference sensors is found to be preferably equal to or larger than the number of modes to be identified. In this case, the information content, as quantified by the Information Entropy, is not very sensitive to the roving sensor strategy. If less reference sensors are used, it is highly preferred to distribute the roving sensors uniformly over the structure instead of clustering them. The proposed strategy has been validated by an experimental modal test on a floor of an office building of KU Leuven, which has a nearly repetitive structural layout. The results show how optimally locating sensors allows extracting more information from the data. Though the focus is on applications involving repetitive structures, the proposed strategy can be applied to multi-setup modal identification of any large structure.

  15. Recreating Riser Slugging Flow Based on an Economic Lab-sized Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse; Pedersen, Simon; Yang, Zhenyu

    2013-01-01

    As a kind of periodic phenomenon, the slugging flow in the offshore oil & gas production addresses a lot of attentions, due to its limitation of production rate, periodic overload processing facilities, and even direct cause of emergent shutdown. This work studies the emulation of the riser slugg...... slug model, besides extensive experimental tests. The theoretical analysis and experimental results show that this simple setup can recreate the key features of slugging flow phenomenon reasonably precise, and it serves as a good platform for further slug control study.......As a kind of periodic phenomenon, the slugging flow in the offshore oil & gas production addresses a lot of attentions, due to its limitation of production rate, periodic overload processing facilities, and even direct cause of emergent shutdown. This work studies the emulation of the riser...... slugging flow in the offshore oil & gas production, by constructing an economical lab-sized setup in the university campus. Firstly, the construction and used components for the lab setup are illustrated; then, the constructed setup is validated by checking the consistency with some existing typical riser...

  16. Measurement of acoustic attenuation in South Pole ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J.A.; Ahlers, M.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S.W.; Bay, R.; Alba, J.L.B.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J.J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J.K.; Becker, K.H.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D.Z.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D.J.; Bohm, C.; Boser, S.; Botner, O.; Bradley, L.; Braun, J.; Buitink, S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D.F.; D'Agostino, M.V.; Danninger, M.; Clercq, C. De; Demirors, L.; Depaepe, O.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; Vries-Uiterweerd, G. de; DeYoung, T.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J.P.; Duvoort, M.R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R.W.; Engdegard, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P.A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A.R.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M.M.; Fox, B.D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Geisler, M.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glusenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J.A.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Gross, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R.M.; Gurtner, M.; Gustafsson, L.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Helbing, K.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G.C.; Hoffman, K.D.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Lafebre, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Using the South Pole Acoustic Test Setup (SPATS) and a retrievable transmitter deployed in holes drilled for the IceCube experiment, we have measured the attenuation of acoustic signals by South Pole ice at depths between 190 m and 500 m. Three data sets, using different acoustic sources, have been

  17. Investigation of the energy dependence of breakdown properties with a DC spark setup

    CERN Document Server

    Hansen, Anita; Calatroni, S

    2009-01-01

    The Compact LInear Collider (CLIC) study is a site independent feasibility study aiming at the development of a realistic technology at an affordable cost for a future linear electron-positron collider. The European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) is one of the collaborators for the CLIC study.The CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) positioned at CERN provides testing of this technology, including the testing of the proposed radio-frequency (RF) structures in a two-beam concept to produce the necessary accelerating electric field as high as 100 MV/m to reach the goal of a nominal total energy of 3 TeV. One problem at such high accelerating fields is electrical discharges, i.e. sparks, damaging the inside of the RF structures as well as deflecting the trajectories of accelerated particles. A Direct Current (DC) spark test setup is in use at CERN to aid the understanding of electrical discharges under vacuum conditions, also called vacuum arcs. In contrast to the more complex CTF3 setup, the DC spark setup is si...

  18. Minimization of number of setups for mounting machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolman, Pavel; Nchor, Dennis; Hampel, David [Department of Statistics and Operation Analysis, Faculty of Business and Economics, Mendel University in Brno, Zemědělská 1, 603 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Žák, Jaroslav [Institute of Technology and Business, Okružní 517/10, 370 01 České Budejovice (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-10

    The article deals with the problem of minimizing the number of setups for mounting SMT machines. SMT is a device used to assemble components on printed circuit boards (PCB) during the manufacturing of electronics. Each type of PCB has a different set of components, which are obligatory. Components are placed in the SMT tray. The problem consists in the fact that the total number of components used for all products is greater than the size of the tray. Therefore, every change of manufactured product requires a complete change of components in the tray (i.e., a setup change). Currently, the number of setups corresponds to the number of printed circuit board type. Any production change affects the change of setup and stops production on one shift. Many components occur in more products therefore the question arose as to how to deploy the products into groups so as to minimize the number of setups. This would result in a huge increase in efficiency of production.

  19. Estimation of functional preparedness of young handballers in setup time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Favoritоv V.N.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of level of functional preparedness of young handballers in setup time is shown. It was foreseen to make alteration in educational-training process with the purpose of optimization of their functional preparedness. 11 youths were plugged in research, calendar age 14 - 15 years. For determination of level of their functional preparedness the computer program "SVSM" was applied. It is set that at the beginning of setup time of 18,18% of all respondent functional preparedness is characterized by a "middle" level, 27,27% - below the "average", 54,54% - "above" the average. At the end of setup time among sportsmen representatives prevailed with the level of functional preparedness "above" average - 63,63%, with level "high" - 27,27%, sportsmen with level below the average were not observed. Efficiency of the offered system of trainings employments for optimization of functional preparedness of young handballers is well-proven.

  20. Motivating ergonomic computer workstation setup: sometimes training is not enough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O; Artnak, Melissa; Needham, Mick; Wirth, Oliver; Silverman, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders lead to pain and suffering and result in high costs to industry. There is evidence to suggest that whereas conventional ergonomics training programs result in knowledge gains, they may not necessarily translate to changes in behavior. There were 11 participants in an ergonomics training program, and a subsample of participants received a motivational intervention in the form of incentives for correct workstation setup. Training did not yield any changes in ergonomics measures for any participant. Incentives resulted in marked and durable changes in targeted workstation measures. The data suggest that improving worker knowledge about ergonomically correct workstation setup does not necessarily lead to correct workstation setup, and that motivational interventions may be needed to achieve lasting behavior change.

  1. Why IV Setup for Stream Ciphers is Difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zenner, Erik

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, the initialization vector (IV) setup has proven to be the most vulnerable point when designing secure stream ciphers. In this paper, we take a look at possible reasons why this is the case, identifying numerous open research problems in cryptography.......In recent years, the initialization vector (IV) setup has proven to be the most vulnerable point when designing secure stream ciphers. In this paper, we take a look at possible reasons why this is the case, identifying numerous open research problems in cryptography....

  2. First results from the HDMS experiment in the final setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H. V.; Dietz, A.; Heusser, G.; Krivosheina, I. V.; Mazza, D.; Strecker, H.; Tomei, C.

    2003-02-01

    The Heidelberg dark matter search (HDMS) is an experiment designed for the search for weakly interacting massive particle dark matter. It is using a special configuration of Ge detectors, to efficiently reduce the background in the low-energy region below 100 keV. After one year of running the HDMS detector prototype in the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory, the inner crystal of the detector has been replaced with a HPGe crystal of enriched 73Ge. The final setup started data taking in Gran Sasso in August 2000. The performance and the first results of the measurement with the final setup are discussed.

  3. View of the WA10 set-up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    The WA10 experiment by the Geneva-Lausanne Collaboration was set-up in the H5 beam (unseparated, up to 50 GeV/c) to study K+-p --> K0pi+-p and other reactions of similar topology, and the energy dependence of resonance production.

  4. 3D Channel Model Emulation in a MIMO OTA Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Kyösti, Pekka; Sun, Fan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new channel reconstruction technique for 3D geometry-based channels in a multi-probe based MIMO OTA setup. The proposed method provides a general channel reconstruction framework for any spherical power spectrum. The channel reconstruction is formed as convex optimization...

  5. A Magnetic Set-Up to Help Teach Newton's Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panijpan, Bhinyo; Sujarittham, Thanida; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Tanamatayarat, Jintawat; Nopparatjamjomras, Suchai

    2009-01-01

    A set-up comprising a magnetic disc, a solenoid and a mechanical balance was used to teach first-year physics students Newton's third law with the help of a free body diagram. The image of a floating magnet immobilized by the solenoid's repulsive force should help dispel a common misconception of students as regards the first law: that stationary…

  6. Fast Source Routed Connection Setup - Proposal for a RSVP Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Lataretu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern networks are expecting fast and efficient setup procedures for their connections. Strict time limits are requested for signaling in the normal operational mode and also for the recovery/restoration mode. As a possible solution, I proposed a method for fast source routed connection setup that takes advantage of the existing distributed processing potential in order to minimize the dependency of setup time on the path length. Two alternatives for the parallel setup are presented: sequential synchronization in the intermediate nodes and final synchronization in the egress node. The expected time reduction is considerable. The proposal is in general terms, using abstract messages instead of a specific signaling protocol. In the meantime, RSVP is established as the state of the art signaling protocol. The research community is still looking for ways to increase its speed and efficiency. In this context, I'm proposing an implementation of the mentioned method based on the current RSVP standard and I'm comparing it with a recent similar proposal.

  7. Development of a new experimental setup for studying collisions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coincidence setup for energetic e -solid/gas interaction. 2. Design, fabrication and development of ... photodiode detector to look through a 5 mm hole situated on the end cap of the detector. In the present configuration, one of the five .... The distance between front and back plates is 21 mm. These relatively wide slit widths.

  8. The setup of a mobile mobility panel for the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs, Karst Teunis; Veenstra, Sander; Thomas, Tom

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the setup of the Dutch Mobile Mobility Panel project, in which GPS-enabled mobile phones (smartphones) are used as a passive multiple-week and multiple-year travel behaviour data collection tool. The data collection methodology used in the Dutch Mobile Mobility Panel comprised

  9. Development of a new experimental setup for studying collisions of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Development of a new electron-recoil ion/photon coincidence setup for investigating some of the electron induced collision processes, such as electron bremsstrahlung, electron backscattering, innershell excitation and multiple ionization of target atoms/molecules in bombardment of electrons having energies from 2.0 keV ...

  10. Couch height–based patient setup for abdominal radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohira, Shingo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Ueda, Yoshihiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Nishiyama, Kinji [Department of Radiation Oncology, Yao Municipal Hospital, Yao (Japan); Miyazaki, Masayoshi; Isono, Masaru; Tsujii, Katsutomo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Takashina, Masaaki; Koizumi, Masahiko [Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Kawanabe, Kiyoto [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan); Teshima, Teruki, E-mail: teshima-te@mc.pref.osaka.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    There are 2 methods commonly used for patient positioning in the anterior-posterior (A-P) direction: one is the skin mark patient setup method (SMPS) and the other is the couch height–based patient setup method (CHPS). This study compared the setup accuracy of these 2 methods for abdominal radiation therapy. The enrollment for this study comprised 23 patients with pancreatic cancer. For treatments (539 sessions), patients were set up by using isocenter skin marks and thereafter treatment couch was shifted so that the distance between the isocenter and the upper side of the treatment couch was equal to that indicated on the computed tomographic (CT) image. Setup deviation in the A-P direction for CHPS was measured by matching the spine of the digitally reconstructed radiograph (DRR) of a lateral beam at simulation with that of the corresponding time-integrated electronic portal image. For SMPS with no correction (SMPS/NC), setup deviation was calculated based on the couch-level difference between SMPS and CHPS. SMPS/NC was corrected using 2 off-line correction protocols: no action level (SMPS/NAL) and extended NAL (SMPS/eNAL) protocols. Margins to compensate for deviations were calculated using the Stroom formula. A-P deviation > 5 mm was observed in 17% of SMPS/NC, 4% of SMPS/NAL, and 4% of SMPS/eNAL sessions but only in one CHPS session. For SMPS/NC, 7 patients (30%) showed deviations at an increasing rate of > 0.1 mm/fraction, but for CHPS, no such trend was observed. The standard deviations (SDs) of systematic error (Σ) were 2.6, 1.4, 0.6, and 0.8 mm and the root mean squares of random error (σ) were 2.1, 2.6, 2.7, and 0.9 mm for SMPS/NC, SMPS/NAL, SMPS/eNAL, and CHPS, respectively. Margins to compensate for the deviations were wide for SMPS/NC (6.7 mm), smaller for SMPS/NAL (4.6 mm) and SMPS/eNAL (3.1 mm), and smallest for CHPS (2.2 mm). Achieving better setup with smaller margins, CHPS appears to be a reproducible method for abdominal patient setup.

  11. Broadband short pulse measurement by autocorrelation with a sum-frequency generation set-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glotin, F.; Jaroszynski, D.; Marcouille, O. [LURE, Orsay (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Previous spectral and laser pulse length measurements carried out on the CLIO FEL at wavelength {lambda}=8.5 {mu}m suggested that very short light pulses could be generated, about 500 fs wide (FWHM). For these measurements a Michelson interferometer with a Te crystal, as a non-linear detector, was used as a second order autocorrelation device. More recent measurements in similar conditions have confirmed that the laser pulses observed are indeed single: they are not followed by other pulses distant by the slippage length N{lambda}. As the single micropulse length is likely to depend on the slippage, more measurements at different wavelengths would be useful. This is not directly possible with our actual interferometer set-up, based on a phase-matched non-linear crystal. However, we can use the broadband non-linear medium provided by one of our users` experiments: Sum-Frequency Generation over surfaces. With such autocorrelation set-up, interference fringes are no more visible, but this is largely compensated by the frequency range provided. First tests at 8 {mu}m have already been performed to validate the technic, leading to results similar to those obtained with our previous Michelson set-up.

  12. Headspace-free setup of in vitro bioassays for the evaluation of volatile disinfection by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalter, Daniel; Dutt, Mriga; Escher, Beate I

    2013-11-18

    The conventional setup of in vitro bioassays in microplates does not prevent the loss of volatile compounds, which hampers the toxicological characterization of waterborne volatile disinfection by-products (DBPs). To minimize the loss of volatile test chemicals, we adapted four in vitro bioassays to a headspace-free setup using eight volatile organic compounds (four trihalomethanes, 1,1-dichloroethene, bromoethane, and two haloacetonitriles) that cover a wide range of air-water partition coefficients. The nominal effect concentrations of the test chemicals decreased by up to three orders of magnitude when the conventional setup was changed to a headspace-free setup for the bacterial cytotoxicity assay using bioluminescence inhibition of Vibrio fischeri. The increase of apparent sensitivity correlated significantly with the air-water partition coefficient. Purge and trap GC/MS analysis revealed a reduced loss of dosed volatile compounds in the headspace free setup (78-130% of nominal concentration) compared to a substantial loss in the conventional set up (2-13% of the nominal concentration). The experimental effect concentrations converged with the headspace-free setup to the effect concentrations predicted by a QSAR model, confirming the suitability of the headspace-free approach to minimize the loss of volatile test chemicals. The analogue headspace-free design of the bacterial bioassays for genotoxicity (umuC assay) and mutagenicity (Ames fluctuation assay) increased the number of compounds detected as genotoxic or mutagenic from one to four and zero to two, respectively. In a bioassay with a mammalian cell line applied for detecting the induction of the Nrf-2-mediated oxidative stress response (AREc32 assay), the headspace-free setup improved the apparent sensitivity by less than one order of magnitude, presumably due to the retaining effect of the serum components in the medium, which is also reflected in the reduced aqueous concentrations of compounds. This

  13. Precise measurement of the HFS of positronium using the zeeman effect I: Experimental set-up and RF system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimoto, G; Ishida, A; Sasaki, Y; Miyazaki, A; Kato, K; Asai, S [Department of Physics, Graduate School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Suehara, T; Namba, T; Kobayashi, T [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics (ICEPP), University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Saito, H [Department of General Systems Studies, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 153-8902 (Japan); Yoshida, M; Tanaka, K; Yamamoto, A [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-0801 (Japan); Urushizaki, Y; Ogawa, I; Idehara, T [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region (FIR-FU), University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui, Fukui, 910-8507 (Japan); Sabchevski, S, E-mail: akimoto@icepp.s.u-tokyo.ac.j [Bulgarian Academy of Science, 1, 15 Noemvri Str, 1040 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-04-01

    Positronium is a QCD-free system and the measurement of its hyperfine splitting provides a strict test of quantum electrodynamics (QED). Recent research revealed a discrepancy of 3.9{sigma} between the QED prediction and previous experimental results. We report on the prototype run of an improved experimental set-up and the performance of its RF system.

  14. The WITCH experiment: completion of a set-up to investigate the structure of weak interactions with a Penning trap

    CERN Document Server

    Kozlov, V.Yu.; Beck, D.; Beck, M.; Coeck, S.; Delaure, B.; Kopecky, S.; Lindroth, A.; Delahaye, P.; Wenander, F.; Golovko, V.V.; Kraev, I.S.; Phalet, T.

    2006-01-01

    The WITCH experiment aims to study a possible admixture of a scalar or tensor type interaction in beta decay by determining the beta-neutrino angular correlation from the shape of the recoil energy spectrum. The installation period was completed and intensive commissioning of the set-up was performed already. The lay-out of the WITCH set-up and results of commissioning tests performed until now are described here, showing that the full set-up up to the spectrometer is now operational, although several efficiencies are still to be improved. Due to its feature of being able to measure the energy spectrum for recoil ions, the WITCH experiment also opens possibilities for other observables.

  15. Search for hybrid baryons with CLAS12 experimental setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, Lucille [Univ. degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    It is crucial to study the meson electroproduction in the kinematic region dominated by the formation of resonances. CLAS12 setup in Hall B at Jefferson Lab is particularly suitable for this task, since it is able to detect scattered electrons at low polar angles thanks to the Forward Tagger (FT) component. The process that we propose to study is ep → e'K+Λ, where the electron beam will be provided by the CEBAF accelerator with energies of 6.6, 8.8, and 11 GeV. This thesis work describes the setup and calibration of the FT calorimeter and the studies related to the search of hybrid baryons through the measurement of the K+ Λ electroproduction cross section.

  16. Entwicklung eines Computerprogramms zur Durchführung elektronischer Setups

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Es wird ein selbst entwickeltes Programm für Personalcomputer zur Simulation eines kieferorthopädischen Setups vorgestellt. Das Programm arbeitet mit einem Beispieldatensatz, der mikroskopisch gewonnen wurde. Mit dem Programm "VirtSet" lassen sich Zähne unabhängig voneinander positionieren, da sie sich auf eigene Koordinatensysteme beziehen. Die Ausrichtungen dieser Koordinatensysteme entsprechen den zahnärztlichen Richtungsbezeichnungen. Das Programm bietet eine halbautomatische Positionier...

  17. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-1-100 Anthropomorphic Test Device Operation and Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    5 APPENDIX A. D4D OPERATOR GUIDE. g. The bottom portion of the enclosure is an aluminum block that has been machined . All of the data...Excitation current limit Fuse shared by four channels Electronic shutdown per channel A short on the D4D may require several minutes to clear...Fahrenheit for an extended period, then the controller shuts down the electronics on the channel boards. In the case of a shutdown , the cooler is left

  18. A laboratory experimental setup for photo-absorption studies using synchrotron radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Shastri, A; Saraswati, P; Sunanda, K

    2002-01-01

    The photophysics beamline, which is being installed at the 450 MeV Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS), Indus-l, is a medium resolution beamline useful for a variety of experiments in the VUV region viz. 500-2000 A. One of the major applications of this beamline is gas-phase photo-absorption studies. An experimental set up to be used for these experiments was designed, developed and tested in our laboratory. The setup consists of a high vacuum absorption cell, 1/4 m monochromator and detection system. For the purpose of testing, xenon and tungsten continuum sources were used and absorption spectra were recorded in the UV region. This setup was used to record the absorption spectrum of a few molecules like acetone, ammonia, benzene, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in order to evaluate the performance of the experimental system which will subsequently be used with the photophysics beamline. Details of the design, fabrication and testing of the absorption cell and experimental procedures are presented in this repor...

  19. ARCADE: Description of the project and setup of the Lidar/AMT system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valore L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The ARCADE (Atmospheric Research for Climate and Astroparticle DEtection project is a 3 years project funded by MIUR, that aims to study the aerosol attenuation of UV light in atmosphere using multiple instruments and techniques, as those commonly used in the cosmic rays community: elastic Lidar, Raman Lidar, side-scattering measurements using a distant laser source. All measurements will be acquired on the same air mass at the same time, in a semi-desertic site near Lamar, Colorado (U.S.. For each instrument, multiple analysis techniques will be tested: the target is a better comprehension of the systematics and limits of applicability of each method. The system is composed by a Lidar (elastic+Raman, fully designed and built within this project, and by the Atmospheric Monitoring Telescope (AMT, a telescope for the detection of UV light owned by the Colorado School of Mines. The setup of the two instruments is described in detail here. The project is presently in its third year: the Lidar system has been tested at the University of L'Aquila in February 2014 before shipment to the U.S., and the AMT has been recently reinstalled and tested in Lamar (May 2014. In June/July 2014 the ARCADE group will work out the final setup of the Lidar+AMT system in Lamar and will begin data acquisition.

  20. Implementing and Characterizing a Video Reflectometry Set-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunill-Rodríguez, Margarita; Castro-Ramos, Jorge; Vázquez-Montiel José, Sergio; Delgado-Atencio, A.

    2008-04-01

    Video reflectometry is a technique to obtain information of the optical parameters of biological tissues from the study of the lateral distribution of the light in combination with the use of a theoretical model for light tissue interaction. One of its main advantages is that either in vitro or in vivo measurements are performed with no need of physical contact. The video reflectometry experimental set-up used in this work consist of an He-Ne laser (632.8 nm, 35 mW) as a point light source, a CCD camera (Sony, XC-ST70) to record the lateral distribution Rd(r) of the light backscattered by the phantoms samples and five neutral density filters to allow a proper measurement of the light distribution. Six pictures of the tissue are taken with each neutral filter, and loaded and processed by a MathCAD(R) program script developed by us to obtain the lateral distribution Rd(r). The preparation and experimentation of tissue phantoms are described when agar gels are used as the matrix. Intralipid and India ink are used as the scattering and absorber centers, respectively. During the characterization of this experimental set-up, regarding the repeatability of measurements, highly scattering media such as samples of commercial milk and a cylindrical volume of Teflon were used. Experimental results are discussed and compared with Farrell's theoretical formulation of lateral distribution Rd(r) for semiinfinite media. The experimental array implemented in combination with our MathCAD(R) code provides an adequate tool to record the lateral distribution of light in phantoms with optical properties similar to human tissues. The standard deviation of the lateral distribution is negligible for practical applications of this technique. We found acceptable results between the theoretical predictions and the experimental measurements performed with the set-up presented.

  1. Automated quality control system for LC-SRM setups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleman, Johan; Waldemarson, Sofia; Malmström, Johan; Levander, Fredrik

    2013-12-16

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) is emerging as a standard tool for high-throughput protein quantification. For reliable and reproducible SRM protein quantification it is essential that system performance is stable. We present here a quality control workflow that is based on repeated analysis of a standard sample to allow insight into the stability of the key properties of a SRM setup. This is supported by automated software to monitor system performance and display information like signal intensities and retention time stability over time, and alert upon deviations from expected metrics. Utilising the software to evaluate 407 repeated injections of a standard sample during half a year, outliers in relative peptide signal intensities and relative peptide fragment ratios are identified, indicating the need for instrument maintenance. We therefore believe that the software could be a vital and powerful tool for any lab regularly performing SRM, increasing the reliability and quality of the SRM platform. Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry is becoming established as a standard technique for accurate protein quantification. However, to achieve the required quantification reproducibility of the liquid chromatography (LC)-SRM setup, system performance needs to be monitored over time. Here we introduce a workflow with associated software to enable automated monitoring of LC-SRM setups. We believe that usage of the presented concepts will further strengthen the role of SRM as a reliable tool for protein quantification. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Standardization and Quality Control in Proteomics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Universally composable protocols with relaxed set-up assumptions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barak, Boaz; Canetti, Ran; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2004-01-01

    infrastructure": parties have registered public keys, no single registration authority needs to be fully trusted, and no single piece of information has to be globally trusted and available. In addition, unlike known protocols in the CRS model, the proposed protocols guarantee some basic level of security even...... allow for UC protocols. We answer this question in the affirmative: we propose alternative and relaxed set-up assumptions and show that they suffice for reproducing the general feasibility results for UC protocols in the CRS model. These alternative assumptions have the flavor of a "public-key...

  3. Automated assembly of micro mechanical parts in a Microfactory setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gegeckaite, Asta

    2006-01-01

    Many micro products in use today are manufactured using semi-automatic assembly. Handling, assembly and transport of the parts are especially labour intense processes. Automation of these processes holds a large potential, especially if flexible, modular microfactories can be developed. This paper...... focuses on the issues that have to be taken into consideration in order to go from a semi-automatic production into an automated microfactory. The application in this study is a switch consisting of 7 parts. The development of a microfactory setup to take care of the automated assembly of the switch...

  4. Seeing the unseen: diagnosing acromegaly in a dental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Mamta; Maitin, Nitin; Rastogi, Khushboo; Bhushan, Rajarshi

    2013-09-03

    Acromegaly is a rare metabolic condition in adults caused due to over secretion of growth hormone mostly due to pituitary gland adenomas.Disproportionate skeletal, tissue and organ growth are characteristic of acromegaly but the changes may be so insidious that most of the times go unnoticed by the patient and family. Craniofacial soft tissue and skeletal changes including mandibular prognathism and disturbed occlusion are typical manifestations of the disease process. Dental professionals may be the first healthcare providers to be visited by these patients and thereby prove instrumental in early diagnosis. Here we report the diagnosis of a case of acromegaly in a dental setup.

  5. Interfacing of high temperature Z-meter setup using python

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashutosh; Sisodia, Shashank; Pandey, Sudhir K.

    2017-05-01

    In this work, we interface high temperature Z-meter setup to automize the whole measurement process. A program is built on open source programming language `Python' which convert the manual measurement process into fully automated process without any cost addition. Using this program, simultaneous measurement of Seebeck coefficient (α), thermal conductivity (κ) and electrical resistivity (ρ), are performed and using all three, figure-of-merit (ZT) is calculated. Developed program is verified by performing measurement over p-type Bi0.36Sb1.45Te3 sample and the data obtained are found to be in good agreement with the reported data.

  6. Detection of ammonia released from zeolite by the quantum cascade laser based photoacoustic set-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, M. B.; da Silva, M. G.; Polidoro, J. C.; Luna, F. J.; Monte, M. B. M.; Miklós, A.; Souza-Barros, F.; Vargas, H.

    2008-01-01

    We report the first results obtained with a Brazilian sedimentary zeolite (hereafter called the zeolite concentrate, ZC) to reduce ammonia volatilization loss of the nitrogen nutrient in tropical farms. Preliminary laboratory tests were made with both ammonium sulfate and urea into ZC. The reported field tests obtained in rose cultivations show a significant effect of the use of urea mixed with ZC on the stem growth of the rose buds. In the laboratory tests, the observations of the retention of ammonia by ZC were done using the photoacoustic set-up described in this work. The report data were obtained at temperatures of 25 and 60°C, simulating typical tropical weather temperatures.

  7. Photothermal excitation setup for a modified commercial atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, Holger; Rode, Sebastian; Schreiber, Martin; Kühnle, Angelika, E-mail: kuehnle@uni-mainz.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Kobayashi, Kei; Yamada, Hirofumi [Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Katsura, Nishikyo, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    High-resolution imaging in liquids using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy is known to suffer from additional peaks in the resonance spectrum that are unrelated to the cantilever resonance. These unwanted peaks are caused by acoustic modes of the liquid and the setup arising from the indirect oscillation excitation by a piezoelectric transducer. Photothermal excitation has been identified as a suitable method for exciting the cantilever in a direct manner. Here, we present a simple design for implementing photothermal excitation in a modified Multimode scan head from Bruker. Our approach is based on adding a few components only to keep the modifications as simple as possible and to maintain the low noise level of the original setup with a typical deflection noise density of about 15 fm/√(Hz) measured in aqueous solution. The success of the modification is illustrated by a comparison of the resonance spectra obtained with piezoelectric and photothermal excitation. The performance of the systems is demonstrated by presenting high-resolution images on bare calcite in liquid as well as organic adsorbates (Alizarin Red S) on calcite with simultaneous atomic resolution of the underlying calcite substrate.

  8. A HPMT based set-up to characterize scintillating crystals

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, C; Jääskeläinen, S; Lecoeur, Gérard; Leutz, H; Loos, R; Piedigrossi, D; Puertolas, D; Rosso, E; Schomaker, R

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a fully automatic measurement set-up, capable of measuring light yields arising from scintillating crystals in a linear range of about four orders of magnitude. The photodetector is a Hybrid Photomultiplier Tube especially developed to optimize linear range and photon detection. Crystal and photodetector are temperature controlled by a closed water circuit, as this is essential when measuring low light yield scintillating crystals with a marked temperature dependence of their light yield. Gamma sources can be placed either on top or on the side of the crystal. In this latter case, the source can be automatically moved by a computer-controlled step motor to provide a uniformity profile of the light yield along the crystal. Tagged and not-tagged operation modes are possible. The whole set-up is computer-controlled in an effort to provide fast and reliable measurements, to characterize many crystals per day. This is important for the quality control of the Lead Tungstate crystals that will be a...

  9. A simple DPSS laser setup and experiments for undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Antje; Kircher, Sandra; Setzler, Dominik; Gerharz, Miriam; Rockstuhl, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Advanced optical concepts are often thought to be out of reach when it comes to an experimental demonstration for undergraduates and secondary school students. This is not always true. Here, we discuss the use of a diode-pumped solid state (DPSS) laser based on Nd:YVO4/KTP hybrid crystals, being also at the heart of many green laser pointers, to educate students on multiple modern optical concepts and applications thereof. This concerns not only nonlinear optics, e.g. second harmonic generation, but also laser physics and electromagnetic wave phenomena that occur if light interacts with matter. In this contribution we primarily describe the setup of the simple Nd:YVO4/KTP solid state laser system using hybrid crystals. The setup is integrated into our lab for undergraduates and school students. We show that various experiments on the topics mentioned above can be performed with affordable equipment while investigating some basic laser characteristics. By studying the influence of different surface roughness from various materials on the appearance of laser speckles, students get to know a modern laser application. Furthermore, we describe an experiment on the optical data transfer in free space optical communication: an additional experiment with a high motivational nature.

  10. The role of a prone setup in breast radiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly eHuppert

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Most patients undergoing breast conservation therapy (BCT receive radiotherapy in the supine position. Historically, prone breast irradiation has been advocated for women with large pendulous breasts in order to decrease acute and late toxicities. With the advent of CT planning, the prone technique has become both feasible and reproducible. It was shown to be advantageous not only for women with larger breasts but in most patients since it consistently reduces, if not eliminates, the inclusion of heart and lung within the field. The prone setup has been accepted as the best localizing position for both MRI and stereotactic biopsy, but its adoption has been delayed in radiotherapy. New technological advances including image-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT and image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT have made possible the exploration of accelerated fractionation schemes with a concomitant boost to the tumor bed in the prone position, along with better imaging and verification of reproducibility of patient setup. This review describes some of the available techniques for prone breast radiotherapy and the available experience in their application. The NYU prone breast radiotherapy approach is discussed, including a summary of the results from several prospective trials.

  11. Neutron moderation in a bulk sample and its effects on PGNAA setup geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Naqvi, A.A.; Fazal-ur-Rehman,; Maselehuddin, M.; Abu-Jarad, F.; Raashid, M

    2003-06-01

    In a prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup, the neutron moderation in the bulk sample also plays a key role. This can even dominate the thermalization effects of the external moderator in some cases. In order to study the neutron moderation effect in the bulk sample, moderators with two different sizes of the sample were tested at the King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) PGNAA facility. In these tests, the thermal neutron relative intensity and prompt gamma ray yield from the two moderators were measured using nuclear track detectors (NTDs) and NaI detector, respectively. As predicted by Monte Carlo simulations, the measured intensity of thermal neutron inside the large sample cavity due to the external moderator was smaller than that from the smaller sample cavity. Due to its larger size, additional thermalization of neutrons will take place in the larger sample. In spite of smaller thermal neutron yield from the external moderator at the large sample location, higher yield of the prompt gamma ray was observed as compared to that from the smaller sample. This confirms the significance of neutron moderation effects in the bulk sample and can thereby affect the PGNAA geometry size. This allows larger samples in conjunction with smaller moderators in the PGNAA setup.

  12. An approach for a comprehensive automation of electro-optical (EO) sensor characterization setups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Amit; Sharma, Jitendra; Sukheja, Anil; Kumar, Sumit; Mishra, Ashish; Goswami, D. R.

    2016-05-01

    Space Applications Centre develops various electro-optical (EO) sensors for space borne platforms and inter-planetary missions. Sensor complexities vary for different applications and therefore performance evaluation and characterization pose different challenges. Performance optimization tasks demand repeated measurements and characterization needs to be done under different phases of testing. It is difficult to meet such requirements in case of short sensor development lifecycles or tight schedules. Activities which are amenable to automation are identified and targeted to reduce the manual intervention and to avoid delays due to errors and to speed up the overall activity. Laboratory instruments, either in-house developed or COTS, play an important role in automating the test setup as they have different types of interfaces and have their own complications. In order to make an automated test setup, software intelligence need to be built based on the instrument feedback and the other check points based on the test sequence. A complete automation needs machine intelligence and sufficient amount of traceability, so that the process can be easily verified for confidence. Overall software architecture should be such that it allows connecting various types of instruments, decision making based on output of the device under test, complete traceability and fault tolerance. In this paper authors have identified the activities that can be automated for various EO sensor categories and approaches are discussed for automation with radiometric calibration, spectral response measurement and focusing as test cases. Also, software architecture is presented which allows uniform access to instruments, back-end database and macro level automation process.

  13. Precision assessment of model-based RSA for a total knee prosthesis in a biplanar set-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trozzi, C; Kaptein, B L; Garling, E H; Shelyakova, T; Russo, A; Bragonzoni, L; Martelli, S

    2008-10-01

    Model-based Roentgen Stereophotogrammetric Analysis (RSA) was recently developed for the measurement of prosthesis micromotion. Its main advantage is that markers do not need to be attached to the implants as traditional marker-based RSA requires. Model-based RSA has only been tested in uniplanar radiographic set-ups. A biplanar set-up would theoretically facilitate the pose estimation algorithm, since radiographic projections would show more different shape features of the implants than in uniplanar images. We tested the precision of model-based RSA and compared it with that of the traditional marker-based method in a biplanar set-up. Micromotions of both tibial and femoral components were measured with both the techniques from double examinations of patients participating in a clinical study. The results showed that in the biplanar set-up model-based RSA presents a homogeneous distribution of precision for all the translation directions, but an inhomogeneous error for rotations, especially internal-external rotation presented higher errors than rotations about the transverse and sagittal axes. Model-based RSA was less precise than the marker-based method, although the differences were not significant for the translations and rotations of the tibial component, with the exception of the internal-external rotations. For both prosthesis components the precisions of model-based RSA were below 0.2 mm for all the translations, and below 0.3 degrees for rotations about transverse and sagittal axes. These values are still acceptable for clinical studies aimed at evaluating total knee prosthesis micromotion. In a biplanar set-up model-based RSA is a valid alternative to traditional marker-based RSA where marking of the prosthesis is an enormous disadvantage.

  14. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 1; Setup_BFaNS User's Manual and Developer's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the first volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User's Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by step-by-step instructions for installing and running Setup_BFaNS. It concludes with technical documentation of the Setup_BFaNS computer program.

  15. An improved miniature mixed-mode delamination setup for in situ microscopic interface failure analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolluri, M.; Hoefnagels, J. P. M.; van Dommelen, J. A. W.; Geers, M. G. D.

    2011-01-01

    Precise characterization of interface delamination in miniature interface structures is an ongoing challenge with the advent of miniaturization and multi-functionality in the electronics industry. Accurate numerical prediction of the interface behaviour is necessary to minimize delamination failures. Successful prediction requires (i) accurate determination of the interface properties like the critical energy release rate (CERR) over the full range of mode mixities and (ii) simultaneous in situ microscopic visualization of the delamination mechanism. These requirements were recently addressed by the development of the miniature mixed-mode bending (MMMB) setup (Kolluri et al 2009 Int. J. Fract.). In this paper an improved MMMB setup is presented, which overcomes the main limitations of the original design. Specifically, the improved design (i) can access a significantly larger range of interface systems due to its increased limits of maximum accessible load and stroke in all mode mixities, (ii) has significantly higher accuracy in load-displacement measurement due to its reduced clearance at the connectors, which is particularly relevant for miniature samples, and (iii) has a high reproducibility due to a newly added setup alignment tool. The measurement concept is validated on (industrially relevant) copper lead frame-moulding compound epoxy interface structures. The load-displacement curves and corresponding CERR values obtained from experiments over the full range of mode mixities are discussed in relation to the delamination mechanism observed during real-time in situ visualization. Specifically, the measured increase in the CERR towards mode II is related to a more discrete or jerky crack growth behaviour observed in the mode II dominant tests. Finally, the potential of the methodology for interface parameter characterization is illustrated.

  16. Characterization of the high-frequency squeal on a laboratory brake setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Oliviero; Massi, Francesco

    2008-02-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on high-frequency brake squeal noise conducted on an appropriately designed experimental rig, called laboratory brake. Brake squeal is one of the major issues in the design process of an automotive brake and the development of a robust procedure for a "squeal-free" design is still under investigation. The high-frequency squeal is the most frequent noise generated by automotive brakes and is characterized by a wavelength of the "squealing mode" comparable to the length of the brake pad. The proposed "laboratory brake" is a good compromise between simple test rigs, such as the beam-on-disc, and the experimental setups that use real brakes. The beam-on-disc setup is a useful tool to understand the mechanism leading to the instability, but it does not simulate appropriately a real brake. On the other hand, real brakes are too complex for fundamental investigation and for efficient modeling. The experimental analysis shows a strong correlation between the length of the pad, the dynamic behavior of the system, and the squealing deformed shape. Moreover, depending on the length of the pad compared with the wavelength of the disc mode, three different kind of squeal instability may occur during experiments: the sine mode squeal, the cosine mode squeal and the rotating squeal. The latter is characterized by nodal diameters rotating during a squeal cycle. A linear reduced model, able to reproduce the dynamic behavior of the experimental setup, is used to predict the squeal occurrence. However, such linear model is not able to predict the rotating squeal characteristic that seems to be caused by nonlinear interactions due to the contact between the disc and the caliper.

  17. Development of an experiment for ultrahigh-precision g-factor measurements in a Penning-trap setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso Otamendi, J.

    2007-07-13

    This thesis is concerned with the design and construction of an experimental setup aiming to perform ultrahigh-precision g-factor measurements on a bound electron in highly-charged ions. The g-factor of a particle is a dimensionless constant which determines the strength of its interaction with a magnetic field. In the case of an electron bound to a highly-charged ion, it serves as one of the most stringent tests of bound-state quantum electrodynamics (BS-QED). The measurement is based on a triple-Penning-trap system and the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect. The first part of the thesis is devoted to the current knowledge on magnetic moments and motivates the techniques and experimental setup used during the work described. As a major challenge to overcome, the charge breeding of the ions is dealt with in detail, along with the solution found, based on a field-emission-point array. The tools included allow for the measurement of ionization cross-sections by electron impact. The last part of the thesis is dedicated to the design and operation of the triple-Penning-trap setup and the detection schemes implemented. At present, all the experimental setup for the production of highly-charged ions and the corresponding g-factor measurement is completely finalized, including the control system needed for the first measurement stages, so the ion-creation and charge-breeding processes will be the next steps to be taken. (orig.)

  18. Setup accuracy for prone and supine whole breast irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulliez, Thomas; Vercauteren, Tom; Greveling, Annick van; Speleers, Bruno; Neve, Wilfried de; Veldeman, Liv [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent (Belgium); Gulyban, Akos [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent (Belgium); University Hospital Liege, Department of Radiotherapy, Liege (Belgium)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) based setup accuracy and margins for prone and supine whole breast irradiation (WBI). Setup accuracy was evaluated on 3559 CBCT scans of 242 patients treated with WBI and uncertainty margins were calculated using the van Herk formula. Uni- and multivariate analysis on individual margins was performed for age, body mass index (BMI) and cup size. The population-based margin in vertical (VE), lateral (LA) and longitudinal (LO) directions was 10.4/9.4/9.4 mm for the 103 supine and 10.5/22.4/13.7 mm for the 139 prone treated patients, being significantly (p < 0.01) different for the LA and LO directions. Multivariate analysis identified a significant (p < 0.05) correlation between BMI and the LO margin in supine position and the VE/LA margin in prone position. In this series, setup accuracy is significantly worse in prone compared to supine position for the LA and LO directions. However, without proper image-guidance, uncertainty margins of about 1 cm are also necessary for supine WBI. For patients with a higher BMI, larger margins are required. (orig.) [German] Ziel der Arbeit war es, die interfraktionelle Repositionierungsgenauigkeit in Bauchlage (BL) versus Rueckenlage (RL) bei Ganzbrustbestrahlung (GBB) mittels Cone-Beam-CT (CBCT) zu bestimmen, um die notwendigen PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende zu definieren. Die Repositionierungsgenauigkeit wurde basierend an 3559 CBCT-Scans von 242 mit GBB behandelten Patienten ausgewertet. Die PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende wurden unter Verwendung der ''van-Herk''-Formel berechnet. Uni- und multivariable Analysen wurden fuer Sicherheitsabstaende in jede Richtung auf Basis von Alter, Body-Mass-Index (BMI) und Koerbchengroesse durchgefuehrt. Die basierend auf den taeglichen CBCT-Verschiebungen berechneten PTV-Sicherheitsabstaende betrugen in anteroposteriorer (AP), lateraler (LT oder links-rechts) und kraniokaudaler (CC) Richtung 10,4/9,4/9,4 mm fuer die RL (103 Patienten) und

  19. Developing and implementing a high precision setup system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lee-Cheng

    The demand for high-precision radiotherapy (HPRT) was first implemented in stereotactic radiosurgery using a rigid, invasive stereotactic head frame. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) with a frameless device was developed along a growing interest in sophisticated treatment with a tight margin and high-dose gradient. This dissertation establishes the complete management for HPRT in the process of frameless SRT, including image-guided localization, immobilization, and dose evaluation. The most ideal and precise positioning system can allow for ease of relocation, real-time patient movement assessment, high accuracy, and no additional dose in daily use. A new image-guided stereotactic positioning system (IGSPS), the Align RT3C 3D surface camera system (ART, VisionRT), which combines 3D surface images and uses a real-time tracking technique, was developed to ensure accurate positioning at the first place. The uncertainties of current optical tracking system, which causes patient discomfort due to additional bite plates using the dental impression technique and external markers, are found. The accuracy and feasibility of ART is validated by comparisons with the optical tracking and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) systems. Additionally, an effective daily quality assurance (QA) program for the linear accelerator and multiple IGSPSs is the most important factor to ensure system performance in daily use. Currently, systematic errors from the phantom variety and long measurement time caused by switching phantoms were discovered. We investigated the use of a commercially available daily QA device to improve the efficiency and thoroughness. Reasonable action level has been established by considering dosimetric relevance and clinic flow. As for intricate treatments, the effect of dose deviation caused by setup errors remains uncertain on tumor coverage and toxicity on OARs. The lack of adequate dosimetric simulations based on the true treatment coordinates from

  20. Evaluation of RSA set-up from a clinical biplane fluoroscopy system for 3D joint kinematic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanzinga, Tommaso; Signorelli, Cecilia; Bontempi, Marco; Russo, Alessandro; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Marcacci, Maurilio; Bragonzoni, Laura

    2016-01-01

    dinamic roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA), a technique currently based only on customized radiographic equipment, has been shown to be a very accurate method for detecting three-dimensional (3D) joint motion. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the applicability of an innovative RSA set-up for in vivo knee kinematic analysis, using a biplane fluoroscopic image system. To this end, the Authors describe the set-up as well as a possible protocol for clinical knee joint evaluation. The accuracy of the kinematic measurements is assessed. the Authors evaluated the accuracy of 3D kinematic analysis of the knee in a new RSA set-up, based on a commercial biplane fluoroscopy system integrated into the clinical environment. The study was organized in three main phases: an in vitro test under static conditions, an in vitro test under dynamic conditions reproducing a flexion-extension range of motion (ROM), and an in vivo analysis of the flexion-extension ROM. For each test, the following were calculated, as an indication of the tracking accuracy: mean, minimum, maximum values and standard deviation of the error of rigid body fitting. in terms of rigid body fitting, in vivo test errors were found to be 0.10±0.05 mm. Phantom tests in static and kinematic conditions showed precision levels, for translations and rotations, of below 0.1 mm/0.2° and below 0.5 mm/0.3° respectively for all directions. the results of this study suggest that kinematic RSA can be successfully performed using a standard clinical biplane fluoroscopy system for the acquisition of slow movements of the lower limb. a kinematic RSA set-up using a clinical biplane fluoroscopy system is potentially applicable and provides a useful method for obtaining better characterization of joint biomechanics.

  1. A Full-size High Temperature Superconducting Coil Employed in a Wind Turbine Generator Set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Kellers, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    of the full generator. This paper deals with the HTS coil employed in the set-up. The coil utilizing YBCO tapes is double-layered with 152 turns per layer and is wound on a FeNi9 iron core. Several sensors are installed to monitor the operating status of the coil, e.g., temperature, field, voltage. The coil...... is tested in LN2 first, and then tested in the set-up so that the magnetic environment in a real generator is reflected. The experimental results are reported, followed by a finite element simulation and a discussion on the deviation of the results. The tested and estimated Ic in LN2 are 148 A and 143 A......, respectively. When tested in the set-up, the maximum temperature of the coil is controlled at 77 K and 40 K, and the I-V curves under both conditions are presented. It is found that the lower half coil that is closer to the stator has a smaller Ic due to a higher field level. The study is of significance...

  2. Experimental study of aerodynamic characteristics of a reentry vehicle on a setup with free oscillations at supersonic velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamov, N. P.; Kharitonov, A. M.; Chasovnikov, E. A.; Dyad'kin, A. A.; Krylov, A. N.; Aleksandrov, E. N.

    2016-11-01

    A setup with free oscillations containing a transverse sting for holding the test model and possible test regimes are described. The method of testing and data processing is presented. Aerodynamic characteristics of the pitching moment of the model in a wide range of Mach numbers are obtained. Comparisons of quasi-steady data with numerical predictions and of damping derivatives with those obtained previously in tests of the model mounted on the base sting and with calculated results are performed. The model is found to be statically and dynamically stable except for regimes with M = 1.75 and 2.25, where nondecaying oscillations are excited.

  3. An unconventional set-up for fluxless brazing of aluminium

    CERN Document Server

    Loos, Robert

    1999-01-01

    In order to successfully braze aluminium alloy assemblies without the use of oxide-removing fluxes, an evironment with very low contaminant level is mandatory. This is mostly achieved by using a vacuum furnace. Brazing under inert gas of sufficient purity is also possible. The method reported upon here makes use of a stainless steel bag which can enter a traditional air furnace. The bag is evacuated, giving a well distributed mechanical pressure on the parts to join. The intrinsic handicap of poor vacuum is compensated by regular inert gas flushing, even at high temperatures. The set-up works rather well, and the idea is believed to yield a valuable strategic and economic option, for the realization of special equipment as well as for prototyping work. We intend to use the principle for the CMS Preshower cooling screens.

  4. MULTI SENSOR AND PLATFORMS SETUPS FOR VARIOUS AIRBORNE APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kemper

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To combine various sensors to get a system for specific use became popular within the last 10 years. Metric mid format cameras meanwhile reach the 100 MPix and entered the mapping market to compete with the big format sensors. Beside that also other sensors as SLR Cameras provide high resolution and enter the aerial surveying market for orthophoto production or monitoring applications. Flexibility, purchase-costs, size and weight are common aspects to design multi-sensor systems. Some sensors are useful for mapping while others are part of environmental monitoring systems. Beside classical surveying aircrafts also UL Airplanes, Para/Trikes or UAVs make use of multi sensor systems. Many of them are customer specific while other already are frequently used in the market. This paper aims to show some setup, their application, what are the results and what are the pros and cons of them are.

  5. Distributed Drives Monitoring and Control: A Laboratory Setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mini Sreejeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory setup of distributed drives system comprising a three-phase induction motor (IM drive and a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM drive is modeled, designed, and developed for the monitoring and control of the individual drives. The integrated operation of IM and PMSM drives system has been analyzed under different operating conditions, and their performance has been monitored through supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA system. The necessary SCADA graphical user interface (GUI has also been created for the display of drive parameters. The performances of IM and PMSM under parametric variations are predicted through sensitivity analysis. An integrated operation of the drives is demonstrated through experimental and simulation results.

  6. Study of CRFP Shell Structures under Dynamic Loading in Shock Tube Setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Khawaja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the study of the response of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CRFP quasi-isotropic shell structures under the influence of dynamic loading. The quasi-isotropic CRFP shell specimens are fabricated using Multipreg E720 laminates. These laminates are laid in such a way that shell structure has equal strength and mechanical properties in the two-dimensional (2D plane and hence can be regarded as quasi-isotropic. In this study, the dynamic loading is generated using shock waves in a shock tube experimental setup. The strain and pressure data is collected from the experiments. Additional tests are carried out using Material Test System (MTS for both tensile and flexural response of CRFP. Results obtained from experiments are compared with numerical simulations using ANSYS Multiphysics 14.0 finite element method (FEM package. The numerical simulation and experimental results are found to be in good agreement.

  7. Competencies Setup for Nuclear Regulatory Staff in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingish, Panupong; Siripirom, Lopchai; Nakkaew, Pongpan; Manuwong, Theerapatt; Wongsamarn, Vichian [Office of Atoms for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-05-15

    Competencies setup for regulatory bodies oversee a research reactor and nuclear power reactors in Thailand, concentrating on staff development in areas of review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, authorization, and development of regulations and guides. The regulatory body in Thailand is the Bureau of Nuclear Safety Regulation (BNSR) which belongs to the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP). The BNSR is divided into 4 groups according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These groups are the nuclear safety administration group, nuclear safety technical support group, nuclear safety assessment and licensing group, and the nuclear installations inspection group. Each group is divided into senior and junior positions. The competencies model was used for implementation of staff qualification, career planning and professional progression by BNSR. Competencies are related to knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSAs) needed to perform their job. A key issue is obtaining competencies for the regulatory bodies. The systematic approach to training (SAT) has been used in several countries for improvement regulator performance. The SAT contains 5 steps, including analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation, to achieve competencies. The SAT provides a logical progression from the identification of competencies required to perform a job to the design, development and implementation of training using the competencies model. In the first step, BNSR performs an operating analysis of training needs assessment (TNA) by using gap analysis technique, as suggested by IAEA. Individual regulatory bodies address the gap using appropriate training program, after comparing the actual and desired competency profiles to determine the gap. This paper examines competencies setup for regulatory staff of BNSR as a result of gaps analysis to establish a scheme for design characteristics of regulatory staff and training courses, thereby enhancing the regulatory

  8. Examining Crowding Using a Real Three-Dimensional Experimental Setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhardt Lisa Valentina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of impaired recognition of peripherally presented visual targets, when flanked by similar stimuli, is referred to as crowding. Studies in a two-dimensional space have shown that lateral distances are critical: the extent of crowding depends on eccentricity of the target stimulus and on the spacing between target and flanking stimuli. The question of whether also distances in depth affect crowding was until now usually investigated using virtual depth. However, virtual and real depth differ, for example with respect to the accommodation-vergence alignment and to effects of blur. Thus, we made an attempt to study crowding in real depth. In our experimental setup, real depth is implemented by two screens, observed via a semi-transparent mirror. Thus, moving the two screens along the line of sight allows simultaneous stimulus presentation with real depth differences. In a first validation study with 18 participants, a fixation cross was fixed in a depth of 190 cm. Single and flanked Landolt rings were presented in 2° of eccentricity in the same depth as fixation, or in front of (170 cm, or behind (215 cm the fixation depth. Results concerning recognition performance show a similar extent of crowding for flanked targets presented in front of, or behind the fixation depth, and flanked targets in the fixation depth. But, concerning reaction time, the difference between isolated and flanked targets was reduced in defocused depths compared to the fixation depth. That is, reaction time toward flanked targets in the fixation depth was higher than in front of, or behind the fixation depth. With the experimental setup, crowding successfully was induced in different real depths. In further studies, the influence of target and flankers in divergent depths on crowding will be investigated.

  9. Design of an inexpensive integrating sphere student laboratory setup for the optical characterization of light sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leloup, Frédéric B.; Leyre, Sven; Bauwens, Eva; Van den Abeele, Toon; Hanselaer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the design of an inexpensive integrating sphere setup is presented, enabling students to perform optical characterization of light sources with reasonable accuracy, in a student laboratory context. Instead of using an expensive sphere with magnesium oxide or barium sulfate coating, a cheap polystyrene sphere is employed. In combination with a low-cost USB spectroradiometer, the system enables the direct measurement of the spectral radiant power of a light source. In addition to the radiant power, the luminous flux, luminous efficacy, and distinctive colorimetric quantities (colour coordinates, colour temperature, and colour rendering index) can be determined. Besides a description of the equipment used, the experimental measurement procedure and some typical measurement results are presented. A comparison between the data and the results obtained with scientific metrology instrumentation indicates reasonable accuracy. As a result, it can be concluded that the purpose of the presented experiments, being that students become acquainted with applications of radiometry and photometry, and with data collection and data analysis as in a professional context, is fully achieved with the described test setup.

  10. Control system for RF-driven negative ion source experimental setup at HUST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dong; Wang, Xiaomin, E-mail: xm_wang@hust.edu.cn; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Lige; Yue, Haikun; Chen, Dezhi; Zuo, Chen

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • The CompactRIO system is reliable and could achieve high-speed data collection. • The queue and event software structure allows the control code to be flexible. • TCP/IP performs better than shared variable method for mass data transmission. • The method for lowering the peak RF reflected power has been discussed and given. - Abstract: An experimental setup of RF-driven negative ion source has been built at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). The control system for this setup is responsible for RF loading, gas feeding, filament heating, filament DC bias, data collection and Langmuir probe triggering during plasma production. To research influences on the plasma ignition of gas puff and RF power loading, the control system should be of flexible operating sequence, high-speed data collection and reliable data transmission. The general control unit (GCU) adopts a CompactRIO system, which performs high-speed data collection for gas pressure and RF power. The host control program adopts a queue and event structure for flexible operation, and TCP/IP method is applied for mass data transmission. The development of the host control program is described in detail. The test results of the shared variable and TCP/IP methods are presented, as well as data showing the advantages of the TCP/IP method. The experiment results with two different sequences of plasma production are given and discussed here.

  11. EXAMİNATİON OF PRİMARY SCHOOL LEVEL CHİLDEREN AND YOUTH SETUP OF BASKETBALL MOTOR DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Şinasi; Hikmet; Olcay

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of this work is to examine the motor development of primary school level children and the youth setup of basketball teams. 71 male students and 68 female students whose age average is 8.8(Ss±1.49) have participated in this research. 40 of those who participated in research are calculated to be doing sports and their length is 4.32(Ss±5.61). In this work Bruininks-Oseretsky Motor Sufficiency Test is used as a tool to gain information. In this test 8 small and 14 skill tests exist for b...

  12. Effects of remedies made in patient setup process on residual setup errors and margins in head and neck cancer radiotherapy based on 2D image guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapanen, Mika; Laaksomaa, Marko; Tulijoki, Tapio; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Hyödynmaa, Simo

    2015-01-01

    Patient setup errors were aimed to be reduced in radiotherapy (RT) of head-and-neck (H&N) cancer. Some remedies in patient setup procedure were proposed for this purpose. RT of H&N cancer has challenges due to patient rotation and flexible anatomy. Residual position errors occurring in treatment situation and required setup margins were estimated for relevant bony landmarks after the remedies made in setup process and compared with previous results. The formation process for thermoplastic masks was improved. Also image matching was harmonized to the vertebrae in the middle of the target and a 5 mm threshold was introduced for immediate correction of systematic errors of the landmarks. After the remedies, residual position errors of bony landmarks were retrospectively determined from 748 orthogonal X-ray images of 40 H&N cancer patients. The landmarks were the vertebrae C1-2, C5-7, the occiput bone and the mandible. The errors include contributions from patient rotation, flexible anatomy and inter-observer variation in image matching. Setup margins (3D) were calculated with the Van Herk formula. Systematic residual errors of the landmarks were reduced maximally by 49.8% (p ≤ 0.05) and the margins by 3.1 mm after the remedies. With daily image guidance the setup margins of the landmarks were within 4.4 mm, but larger margins of 6.4 mm were required for the mandible. Remarkable decrease in the residual errors of the bony landmarks and setup margins were achieved through the remedies made in the setup process. The importance of quality assurance of the setup process was demonstrated.

  13. Monitoring of spectroscopic changes of a single trapped fission yeast cell by using a Raman tweezers set-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başar, G.; Kın, S.

    2008-10-01

    We demonstrate an improvement of the sensitivity of a Raman tweezers set-up, which combines optical tweezers with Raman spectroscopy. The system was tested by taking the Raman spectrum of a 4.6 μm diameter polystyrene sphere trapped in an aqueous solution. The improvement of sensitivity of the set-up was achieved by adjusting the trap depth for maximum signal to noise ratio (SNR). The maximum SNR was obtained by investigating the Raman peak of a trapped polystyrene sphere at 1001 cm -1 according to trap depth. With this system, a single trapped living Schizosaccharomyces Pombe yeast cell was sensitively monitored by taking the kinetic Raman spectra for more than 2 h. The relative intensity decrease in amide I and amide III bands, frequency increase in amide I band together with alterations in tyrosine marker band around 850 cm -1 was observed, which indicates alterations in the hydration state of protein by time progressing.

  14. Polarization-modulation setup for ultrafast infrared anisotropy experiments to study liquid dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tros, Martijn; Woutersen, Sander

    2015-06-01

    An infrared pump-probe setup using rapid polarization modulation has been developed to perform time-resolved vibrational anisotropy measurements. A photo-elastic modulator is used as a rapidly switchable half-wave plate, enabling the measurement of transient absorptions for parallel and perpendicular polarizations of the pump and probe pulses on a shot-to-shot basis. In this way, infrared intensity fluctuations are nearly completely canceled, significantly enhancing the accuracy of the transient-anisotropy measurement. The method is tested on the OD-stretch vibration of HDO in H2O, for which the signal-to-noise ratio is found to be 4 times better than with conventional methods.

  15. A setup for the precision measurement of multianode photomultiplier efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaksley, C.; Gorodetzky, P.

    2014-11-01

    In many applications, such as the detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using the air fluorescence method, the number of photons incident on the detector must be known. This requires a precise knowledge of the absolute efficiency of the photodetectors used. We present an experimental setup for measuring the single photoelectron gain and efficiency of multi-anode photomultipliers with a total uncertainty on the order of a few percent. This precision is obtained by using a comparison to a NIST calibrated photodiode, and the presented method can be applied to both vacuum photomultiplier tubes and other photodetectors. This work is motivated by the need to calibrate the focal surface of the EUSO-Balloon instrument, which is a technical pathfinder for the future JEM-EUSO mission. A complete discussion of photomultiplier calibration is presented and the efficiency measurement technique is discussed in detail. A set of example results are shown in order to illustrate the key points of the method.

  16. A setup for the precision measurement of multianode photomultiplier efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaksley, C., E-mail: blaksley@in2p3.fr; Gorodetzky, P., E-mail: philippe.gorodetzky@cern.ch

    2014-11-11

    In many applications, such as the detection of ultra-high energy cosmic rays using the air fluorescence method, the number of photons incident on the detector must be known. This requires a precise knowledge of the absolute efficiency of the photodetectors used. We present an experimental setup for measuring the single photoelectron gain and efficiency of multi-anode photomultipliers with a total uncertainty on the order of a few percent. This precision is obtained by using a comparison to a NIST calibrated photodiode, and the presented method can be applied to both vacuum photomultiplier tubes and other photodetectors. This work is motivated by the need to calibrate the focal surface of the EUSO-Balloon instrument, which is a technical pathfinder for the future JEM-EUSO mission. A complete discussion of photomultiplier calibration is presented and the efficiency measurement technique is discussed in detail. A set of example results are shown in order to illustrate the key points of the method.

  17. SR-Site groundwater flow modelling methodology, setup and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selroos, Jan-Olof (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)); Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2010-12-15

    As a part of the license application for a final repository for spent nuclear fuel at Forsmark, the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken three groundwater flow modelling studies. These are performed within the SR-Site project and represent time periods with different climate conditions. The simulations carried out contribute to the overall evaluation of the repository design and long-term radiological safety. Three time periods are addressed; the Excavation and operational phases, the Initial period of temperate climate after closure, and the Remaining part of the reference glacial cycle. The present report is a synthesis of the background reports describing the modelling methodology, setup, and results. It is the primary reference for the conclusions drawn in a SR-Site specific context concerning groundwater flow during the three climate periods. These conclusions are not necessarily provided explicitly in the background reports, but are based on the results provided in these reports. The main results and comparisons presented in the present report are summarised in the SR-Site Main report.

  18. Setup tuning using Lambda and anti-Lambda particles

    CERN Document Server

    Benelli, A

    2013-01-01

    In order to check the general geometry of the DIRAC experiment, we use the $\\Lambda$ and $\\bar{\\Lambda}$ particles that decay in our setup into $p\\pi^-$ and $\\pi^+\\bar{p}$. The Lambda mass is very well determined [1] and comparing the value reconstructed in our data with the published one we can be condent that our geometrical description is correct. The main factors that can influence the value of the Lambda mass are: the position of the Aluminum membrane and the opening angle of the two downstream arms, they will be discussed in this note in section 3. The width of the Lambda mass distribution is another tool that we use to evaluate the resolution of the momentum reconstruction of the particles. There are several factors that can contribute to the momentum reconstruction resolution. The most important are: the multiple scattering in the Aluminum membrane and in the Drift Chambers (DC), the resolution of the DC planes, the alignment of the DC downstream and the multiple scattering in the upstream detectors. ...

  19. The mechanical and thermal setup of the GLORIA spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piesch, C.; Sartorius, C.; Friedl-Vallon, F.; Gulde, T.; Heger, S.; Kretschmer, E.; Maucher, G.; Nordmeyer, H.; Barthel, J.; Ebersoldt, A.; Graf, F.; Hase, F.; Kleinert, A.; Neubert, T.; Schillings, H. J.

    2015-04-01

    The novel airborne Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging of the Atmosphere (GLORIA) measures infrared emission of atmospheric trace constituents. GLORIA comprises a cooled imaging Fourier transform spectrometer, which is operated in unpressurized aircraft compartments at ambient temperature. The whole spectrometer is pointed by the gimbal towards the atmospheric target. In order to reach the required sensitivity for atmospheric emission measurements, the spectrometer optics needs to operate at a temperature below 220 K. A lightweight and compact design is mandatory due to limited space and high agility requirements. The cooled optical system needs to withstand high pressure and temperature gradients, humidity, and vibrations. A new cooling system based on carbon dioxide and liquid nitrogen combined with high-performance insulation has been developed to meet the mechanical, thermal, and logistical demands. The challenging mechanical and spatial requirements lead to the development of a novel rigid linear slide design in order to achieve the large optical path difference for high spectral resolution. This paper describes the mechanical and thermal setup of GLORIA and presents the performance results on two different research aircrafts.

  20. Setup time reduction in pvc boots production through smed technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Herculano da Costa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The competition imposed by the market requires of the organizations the continuous improvement of its processes, products and offered services, with lower production costs. This article addresses this issue describing the resulting improvements from the implementation of Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED in the process of exchange the mold of the injection machine of PVC during the boots manufacturing. The case study was conducted in a large company of footwear, located in the state of Paraiba. In order to find the best alternative to the problem of the setup of the molds, were used the SMED and the methodology for problem resolution, and then was implemented the solution that generated greater productivity for the company. Among the improvements made, we should emphasize the reduction of inactive time of 11.56 minutes to 5 minutes, reducing the time needed for the adjustments of the molds with the implementation of guides for centering and shims to standardize the heights of the molds.

  1. A Low Cost Approach to Large Smart Shelf Setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MOGA, D.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent years showed a growing interest in the use of RFID technology in applications like distribution and storage of goods, supply chain and inventory. This paper analyses the current smart shelf solutions and presents the experience of developing an automatic reading system for smart shelves. The proposed system addresses the problem of reading RFID tags from items placed on multiple shelves. It allows the use of standard low cost readers and tags and uses a single antenna that can be positioned in specific locations at repeatable positions. The system proposes an alternative to the approaches with multiple antennas placed in fixed position inside the shelf or around the shelves, offering a lower cost solution by means of dedicated electromechanical devices able to carry the antenna and the reader to the locations of interest along a rail system. Moreover, antenna position can be controlled for three axis of movement allowing for extra flexibility and complete coverage of the shelves. The proposed setup is a fully wireless one. It contains a standard reader, electromechanical positioning actuators and wireless communication and control hardware offering power from integrated batteries.

  2. Simulation of the $\\beta$ setup of the SSD group

    CERN Document Server

    Barron, Jared

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to first implement a simulation in GEANT4 of the setup used by the SSD group to conduct measurements of the response of silicon detectors to ionizing radiation. This simulation was then compared to theoretical results on energy deposition in silicon sensors of varying thickness by ionizing radiation, as well as measurements of the energy deposition distribution taken using the apparatus being simulated. Simulation was also used to calibrate the trigger, estimating that a peak trigger signal of 1V corresponds to an energy deposited of 0.744 MeV. It was found that for the most probable value (MPV) of the energy deposition distribution, simulation coincides with theory within 5%, but the full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) is underestimated by 15%. Measurements were conducted on a 280$\\mu$m sensor and compared to simulation. The MPV was 10% lower in observation than simulation, and the FWHM was 10-15% higher.

  3. Development of a Low Cost MQL Setup for Turning Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Sumaiya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of MQL application on the tool wear, surface roughness and chip formation in turning Aluminum alloy 6061 is investigated. Experiments were carried out by plain turning of an Aluminum bar with varying depth of cut, cutting speeds (spindle speed and cutting environments (Dry, Wet and MQL. A newly designed, cost efficient and portable MQL setup was developed for this study. For each experimental trial, five passes were carried out in order to promote the formation of tool wear. After each pass, the tool surface was examined under a microscope and the surface roughness was measured using a stylus based surface tester. The extent of tool wear from each pass is measured by using ImageJ software. Chips were collected after the five passes and were physically examined. The newly designed MQL delivery system was successful in delivering a fine mist of lubricant at the cutting point. MQL lubrication provided lower surface roughness and tool wear values compared to wet and dry conditions due to effective temperature reduction and improved lubrication penetration of cutting zones, as well as better chip flushing. Chip formed under MQL conditions had reduced chip thickness due to reduced temperatures. MQL was found to have the greatest positive impact on tool wear and surface roughness parameters based on ANOVA results.

  4. A Low Cost Rokkaku Kite Setup for Aerial Photogrammetric System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A. F.; Khurshid, K.; Saleh, N.; Yousuf, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    Orthogonally Projected Area (OPA) of a geographical feature has primarily been studied utilizing rather time consuming field based sampling techniques. Remote sensing on the contrary provides the ability to acquire large scale data at a snapshot of time and lets the OPA to be calculated conveniently and with reasonable accuracy. Unfortunately satellite based remote sensing provides data at high cost and limited spatial resolution for scientific studies focused at small areas such as micro lakes micro ecosystems, etc. More importantly, recent satellite data may not be readily available for a particular location. This paper describes a low cost photogrammetric system to measure the OPA of a small scale geographic feature such as a plot of land, micro lake or an archaeological site, etc. Fitted with a consumer grade digital imaging system, a Rokkaku kite aerial platform with stable flight characteristics is designed and fabricated for image acquisition. The data processing procedure involves automatic Ground Control Point (GCP) detection, intelligent target area shape determination with minimal human input. A Graphical User Interface (GUI) is built from scratch in MATLAB to allow the user to conveniently process the acquired data, archive and retrieve the results. Extensive on-field experimentation consists of multiple geographic features including flat land surfaces, buildings, undulating rural areas, and an irregular shaped micro lake, etc. Our results show that the proposed system is not only low cost, but provides a framework that is easy and fast to setup while maintaining the required constraints on the accuracy.

  5. Influence of setup and carbon source on the bacterial community of biocathodes in microbial electrolysis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croese, Elsemiek; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W; Marshall, Ian P G; Spormann, Alfred M; Euverink, Gert-Jan W; Geelhoed, Jeanine S; Stams, Alfons J M; Plugge, Caroline M

    2014-01-01

    The microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) biocathode has shown great potential as alternative for expensive metals as catalyst for H2 synthesis. Here, the bacterial communities at the biocathode of five hydrogen producing MECs using molecular techniques were characterized. The setups differed in design (large versus small) including electrode material and flow path and in carbon source provided at the cathode (bicarbonate or acetate). A hydrogenase gene-based DNA microarray (Hydrogenase Chip) was used to analyze hydrogenase genes present in the three large setups. The small setups showed dominant groups of Firmicutes and two of the large setups showed dominant groups of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The third large setup received acetate but no sulfate (no sulfur source). In this setup an almost pure culture of a Promicromonospora sp. developed. Most of the hydrogenase genes detected were coding for bidirectional Hox-type hydrogenases, which have shown to be involved in cytoplasmatic H2 production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Setup Time Reduction On Solder Paste Printing Machine – A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Dhake

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Lean manufacturing envisages the reduction of the seven deadly wastes referred to as MUDA. Setup time forms a major component of the equipment downtime. It leads to lower machine utilization and restricts the output and product variety. This necessitates the requirement for quick setups. Single Minute Exchange of Die philosophy (a lean manufacturing tool here after referred as “SMED” is one of the important tool which aims at quick setups driving smaller lot sizes, lower production costs, improve productivity in terms of increased output, increased utilization of machine and labor hours, make additional capacity available (often at bottleneck resources, reduce scrap and rework, and increase flexibility[3]. This paper focuses on the application of Single Minute Exchange of Die[1] and Quick Changeover Philosophy[2] for reducing setup time on Solder Past Printing Machine (bottleneck machine in a electronic speedo-cluster manufacturing company. The four step SMED philosophy was adopted to effect reduction in setup time. The initial step was gathering information about the present setup times and its proportion to the total productive time. A detailed video based time study of setup activities was done to classify them into external and internal setup activities in terms of their need (i.e. preparation, replacement or adjustment, time taken and the way these could be reduced, simplified or eliminated. The improvements effected were of three categories viz., mechanical, procedural and organizational. The paper concludes by comparing the present and proposed (implemented methods of setup procedures.

  7. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  8. Sensor set-up for wireless measurement of automotive rim and wheel parameters in laboratory conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borecki, M.; Prus, P.; Korwin-Pawlowski, M. L.; Rychlik, A.; Kozubel, W.

    2017-08-01

    Modern rims and wheels are tested at the design and production stages. Tests can be performed in laboratory conditions and on the ride. In the laboratory, complex and costly equipment is used, as for example wheel balancers and impact testers. Modern wheel balancers are equipped with electronic and electro-mechanical units that enable touch-less measurement of dimensions, including precision measurement of radial and lateral wheel run-out, automatic positioning and application of the counterweights, and vehicle wheel set monitoring - tread wear, drift angles and run-out unbalance. Those tests are performed by on-wheel axis measurements with laser distance meters. The impact tester enables dropping of weights from a defined height onto a wheel. Test criteria are the loss of pressure of the tire and generation of cracks in the wheel without direct impact of the falling weights. In the present paper, a set up composed of three accelerometers, a temperature sensor and a pressure sensor is examined as the base of a wheel tester. The sensor set-up configuration, on-line diagnostic and signal transmission are discussed.

  9. Development of new test set-up for dynamic tensile tests on concrete at high loading rates. Instrumented spalling tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerheijm, J.; Doormaal, J.C.A.M. van

    2001-01-01

    For the numerical prediction of the response of concrete structures under extreme dynamic loading, like missile impact and internal explosions, reliable material data and material models are essential. But knowledge of the response of concrete at high loading rates is still very limited. At request

  10. Exploring the Physics Limitations of Compact High Gradient Accelerating Structures Simulations of the Electron Current Spectrometer Setup in Geant4

    CERN Document Server

    Van Vliet, Philine Julia

    2017-01-01

    The high field gradient of 100 MV/m that will be applied to the accelerator cavities of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC), gives rise to the problem of RF breakdowns. The field collapses and a plasma of electrons and ions is being formed in the cavity, preventing the RF field from penetrating the cavity. Electrons in the plasma are being accelerated and ejected out, resulting in a breakdown current up to a few Amp`eres, measured outside the cavities. These breakdowns lead to luminosity loss, so reducing their amount is of great importance. For this, a better understanding of the physics behind RF breakdowns is needed. To study these breakdowns, the XBox 2 test facility has a spectrometer setup installed after the RF cavity that is being conditioned. For this report, a simulation of this spectrometer setup has been made using Geant4. Once a detailed simulation of the RF field and cavity has been made, it can be connected to this simulation of the spectrometer setup and used to recreate the data that has b...

  11. The set-up for forward scattered particle detection at the external microbeam facility of the INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntini, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Massi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Calusi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Gelli, N.; Castelli, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Carraresi, L.; Czelusniak, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Fedi, M.E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Gueli, A.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); INFN Sezione di Catania, Via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Palla, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa and Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); and others

    2015-04-01

    In the last few years some new implementations and upgrades have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence, enriching the existing PIXE, PIGE, BS, IBIL set-up with complementary techniques, when possible allowing for simultaneous multi-technique analyses. We developed a system, compatible with the existing set-up, for the out-of-vacuum detection of the forward scattered particles. This system makes feasible the external-STIM (Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy) and external-FS (Forward Scattering), now both available at our beamline. Test measurements are shortly presented.

  12. The possibility to use 'energy plus transmutation' set-up for neutron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ket, and polyethylene shielding. 2. Experimental set-up. The 'energy plus transmutation' set-up was designed for transmutation studies in high-energy neutron fluxes. It consists of a cylindrical lead target (diameter 84 mm, length 480 mm) surrounded by a sub-critical uranium blanket. The target and blanket are divided into ...

  13. Remote monitoring of implantable pacemakers: in-office setup significantly improves successful data transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiushui; Apostolakos, Christina; Vo, Thuy Hong; Shaw, Richard E; Shields, Korey; Banki, Nader M; Zuckermann, Douglas W; Flint, Alexander C; Hongo, Richard H; Goldschlager, Nora F

    2013-10-01

    Remote wireless follow-up of implanted pacemakers (PM) has become an attractive method of follow-up. Although wireless PM follow-up has several advantages compared with transtelephonic and office-based follow-up, its utility depends on successful transmission. Initial in-office setup of wireless PM will improve transmission rate as compared with home setup. A total of 202 consecutive patients from 2 medical centers were included in this retrospective study. Patients in the home setup group (N = 101) had traditional home setup of wireless PM, whereas patients in the in-office group (N = 101) had setup of PMs by allied health professionals during the postoperative office visit. Successful transmission was defined as successful initial wireless transmission of PM data by 2 months postimplant. Of the 101 patients in the home setup group, 22 (22%) patients had successful transmission. Of the 101 patients in the in-office group, 92 (91%) patients had successful transmission (P transmission (odds ratio: 114.5; 95% confidence interval: 32.1-408.4; P data transmission, initial home setup of the wireless monitoring device was frequently unsuccessful. In-office PM setup was associated with a significantly higher rate of successful transmission. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Design of excitation signals for active system monitoring in a performance assessment setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates how the excitation signal should be chosen for a active performance setup. The signal is used in a setup where the main purpose is to detect whether a parameter change of the controller has changed the global performance significantly. The signal has to be able to excite t...

  15. Performance of velocity vector estimation using an improved dynamic beamforming setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2001-01-01

    Estimation of velocity vectors using transverse spatial modulation has previously been presented. Initially, the velocity estimation was improved using an approximated dynamic beamformer setup instead of a static combined with a new velocity estimation scheme.(1) A new beamformer setup for dynami...

  16. On SIP Session setup delay for VoIP services over correlated fading channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fathi, Hanane; Chakraborty, Shyam S.; Prasad, Ramjee

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the session setup delay of the session initiation protocol (SIP) is studied. The transmissions on both the forward and reverse channel are assumed to experience Markovian errors. The session setup delay is evaluated for different transport protocols, and with the use of the radio l...

  17. Evaluation of overall setup accuracy and adequate setup margins in pelvic image-guided radiotherapy: Comparison of the male and female patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksomaa, Marko, E-mail: marko.laaksomaa@pshp.fi [Department of Oncology, Tampere University Hospital (TAUH), Tampere (Finland); Kapanen, Mika [Department of Oncology, Tampere University Hospital (TAUH), Tampere (Finland); Department of Medical Physics, Tampere University Hospital (TAUH), Tampere (Finland); Tulijoki, Tapio [Department of Oncology, Tampere University Hospital (TAUH), Tampere (Finland); Peltola, Seppo; Hyödynmaa, Simo [Department of Oncology, Tampere University Hospital (TAUH), Tampere (Finland); Department of Medical Physics, Tampere University Hospital (TAUH), Tampere (Finland); Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa [Department of Oncology, Tampere University Hospital (TAUH), Tampere (Finland)

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated adequate setup margins for the radiotherapy (RT) of pelvic tumors based on overall position errors of bony landmarks. We also estimated the difference in setup accuracy between the male and female patients. Finally, we compared the patient rotation for 2 immobilization devices. The study cohort included consecutive 64 male and 64 female patients. Altogether, 1794 orthogonal setup images were analyzed. Observer-related deviation in image matching and the effect of patient rotation were explicitly determined. Overall systematic and random errors were calculated in 3 orthogonal directions. Anisotropic setup margins were evaluated based on residual errors after weekly image guidance. The van Herk formula was used to calculate the margins. Overall, 100 patients were immobilized with a house-made device. The patient rotation was compared against 28 patients immobilized with CIVCO's Kneefix and Feetfix. We found that the usually applied isotropic setup margin of 8 mm covered all the uncertainties related to patient setup for most RT treatments of the pelvis. However, margins of even 10.3 mm were needed for the female patients with very large pelvic target volumes centered either in the symphysis or in the sacrum containing both of these structures. This was because the effect of rotation (p ≤ 0.02) and the observer variation in image matching (p ≤ 0.04) were significantly larger for the female patients than for the male patients. Even with daily image guidance, the required margins remained larger for the women. Patient rotations were largest about the lateral axes. The difference between the required margins was only 1 mm for the 2 immobilization devices. The largest component of overall systematic position error came from patient rotation. This emphasizes the need for rotation correction. Overall, larger position errors and setup margins were observed for the female patients with pelvic cancer than for the male patients.

  18. A modified transmission tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) setup provides access to opaque samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja; Richter, Marc; Knebel, Detlef; Jähnke, Torsten; Jankowski, Tilo; Stock, Erik; Deckert, Volker

    2014-01-01

    The combination of scanning probe microscopy and Raman spectroscopy enables chemical characterization of surfaces at highest spatial resolution. This so-called tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) can be employed for a variety of samples where a label-free characterization or identification of constituents on the nanometer scale is pursued. Present TERS setup geometries are always a compromise for specific dedicated applications and show different advantages and disadvantages: Transmission back-reflection setups, when using immersion objectives with a high numerical aperture, intrinsically provide the highest collection efficiency but cannot be applied for opaque samples. Those samples demand upright setups, at the cost of lower collection efficiency, even though very efficient systems using a parabolic mirror for illumination and collection have been demonstrated. In this contribution it is demonstrated that the incorporation of a dichroic mirror to a transmission TERS setup provides easy access to opaque samples without further modification of the setup.

  19. Bias determination for space accelerometers using the ZARM Catapult system - experimental setup and data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Hanns; Santos Rodrigues, Manuel; Touboul, Pierre; Liorzou, Françoise

    2012-07-01

    Accelerometers for space applications - like the electrostatic differential accelrometer for the MICROSCOPE mission for testing the equivalence principle in space - have to be tested and qualified in μg-conditions in order to demonstrate the system operation and to determine the characteristic sensor parameters. One important characteristic property is the sensor bias. In principle one can determine the sensor bias directly by using the ZARM catapult system as test platform. Even in the evacuated drop tube the residual air pressure results in an air friction that depends on the capsule velocity. At the apex (highest point of the capsule trajectory) the acceleration (relative to the gravitational acceleration g) becomes zero due to the zero velocity at the apex. The direct measurement of the vertical linear acceleration sensor bias is affected by some additional effects that have to be understood in order to be able to determine the sensor bias. Two catapult campaigns have been carried out to demonstrate the principles of the bias determination using a SuperStar accelerometer (Onera). The presentation gives an overview on the experimental setup and on the corresponding data analysis.

  20. Genetic evolutionary taboo search for optimal marker placement in infrared patient setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riboldi, M [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Baroni, G [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Spadea, M F [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy); Tagaste, B [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Garibaldi, C [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Cambria, R [Medical Physics Department, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Orecchia, R [Radiotherapy Division, European Institute of Oncology, Via Ripamonti 435, 20141 Milan (Italy); Pedotti, A [TBMLab, Department of Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano University, Plaza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan (Italy)

    2007-09-21

    In infrared patient setup adequate selection of the external fiducial configuration is required for compensating inner target displacements (target registration error, TRE). Genetic algorithms (GA) and taboo search (TS) were applied in a newly designed approach to optimal marker placement: the genetic evolutionary taboo search (GETS) algorithm. In the GETS paradigm, multiple solutions are simultaneously tested in a stochastic evolutionary scheme, where taboo-based decision making and adaptive memory guide the optimization process. The GETS algorithm was tested on a group of ten prostate patients, to be compared to standard optimization and to randomly selected configurations. The changes in the optimal marker configuration, when TRE is minimized for OARs, were specifically examined. Optimal GETS configurations ensured a 26.5% mean decrease in the TRE value, versus 19.4% for conventional quasi-Newton optimization. Common features in GETS marker configurations were highlighted in the dataset of ten patients, even when multiple runs of the stochastic algorithm were performed. Including OARs in TRE minimization did not considerably affect the spatial distribution of GETS marker configurations. In conclusion, the GETS algorithm proved to be highly effective in solving the optimal marker placement problem. Further work is needed to embed site-specific deformation models in the optimization process.

  1. Setup for investigating gold nanoparticle penetration through reconstructed skin and comparison to published human skin data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labouta, Hagar I.; Thude, Sibylle; Schneider, Marc

    2013-06-01

    Owing to the limited source of human skin (HS) and the ethical restrictions of using animals in experiments, in vitro skin equivalents are a possible alternative for conducting particle penetration experiments. The conditions for conducting penetration experiments with model particles, 15-nm gold nanoparticles (AuNP), through nonsealed skin equivalents are described for the first time. These conditions include experimental setup, sterility conditions, effective applied dose determination, skin sectioning, and skin integrity check. Penetration at different exposure times (two and 24 h) and after tissue fixation (fixed versus unfixed skin) are examined to establish a benchmark in comparison to HS in an attempt to get similar results to HS experiments presented earlier. Multiphoton microscopy is used to detect gold luminescence in skin sections. λex=800 nm is used for excitation of AuNP and skin samples, allowing us to determine a relative index for particle penetration. Despite the observed overpredictability of penetration into skin equivalents, they could serve as a first fast screen for testing the behavior of nanoparticles and extrapolate their penetration behavior into HS. Further investigations are required to test a wide range of particles of different physicochemical properties to validate the skin equivalent-human skin particle penetration relationship.

  2. Hybrid direct carbon fuel cell anode processes investigated using a 3-electrode half-cell setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleebeeck, Lisa; Arenillas, A.; Menendez, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    anthracite and bituminous coals, as well as carbon black, were tested, revealing similar open circuit potential and activation energies in mixed 96-4vol% N2-CO2 and 50-50vol% CO-CO2 environments between 700 and 800°C. Bituminous coal showed the highest activity, likely associated to a high O/C ratio......A 3-electrode half-cell setup consisting of a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte support was employed to investigate the chemical and electrochemical processes occurring in the vicinity of a model hybrid direct carbon fuel cell (HDCFC) anode (Ni-YSZ) in contact with a molten carbon......-alkali carbonate slurry. Electrochemical testing, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), with and without the Ni-YSZ layer highlighted the promotional effect of the Ni-YSZ anode layer, and revealed the contributions of Ni/NiO, and potentially K/K2O, redox couple(s). Treated...

  3. CO2-gradient measurements using a parallel multi-analyzer setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Foken

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Accurate CO2 concentration gradient measurements are needed for the computation of advective flux terms, which are part of the full Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE budget equation. A typical draw back of current gradient measurement designs in advection research is the inadequate sampling of complex flow phenomena using too few observation points in space and time. To overcome this draw back, a new measurement design is presented which allows the parallel measurement of several sampling points at a high frequency. Due to the multi-analyzer nature of the design, inter-instrument bias becomes more of a concern compared to conventional setups. Therefore a statistical approach is presented which allows for accurate observations of concentration gradients, which are typically small in relation to analyzer accuracy, to be obtained. This bias correction approach applies a conditional, time dependent signal correction. The correction depends on a mixing index based on cross correlation analysis, which characterizes the degree of mixing of the atmosphere between individual sample points. The approach assumes statistical properties of probability density functions (pdf of concentration differences between a sample point and the field average which are common to the pdf's from several sample points. The applicability of the assumptions made was tested by Large Eddy Simulation (LES using the model PALM and could be verified for a test case of well mixed conditions. The study presents concentration time series before and after correction, measured at a 2 m height in the sub-canopy at the FLUXNET spruce forest site Waldstein-Weiden-brunnen (DE-Bay, analyzes the dependence of statistical parameters of pdf's from atmospheric parameters such as stratification, quantifies the errors and evaluates the performance of the bias correction approach. The improvements that are achieved by applying the bias correction approach are one order of magnitude larger than possible

  4. Diffuse back-illumination setup for high temporally resolved extinction imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlye, Fredrik Ree; Penney, Keith; Ivarsson, Anders

    2017-01-01

    in the optical system, enabling minimal exposure times and high-temporal resolution capabilities. The setup uses a customized engineered diffuser to transmit a constant radiance within a limited angular range such that radiant intensity is maximized while fulfilling the lighting criteria for optimal beam......This work presents the development of an optical setup for quantitative, high-temporal resolution line-of-sight extinction imaging in harsh optical environments. The application specifically targets measurements of automotive fuel sprays at high ambient temperature and pressure conditions where...... attenuation caused by refractive index gradients by an order of magnitude compared to previous high-temporal resolution setups....

  5. An economic production model for time dependent demand with rework and multiple production setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Singh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a model for time dependent demand with multiple productions and rework setups. Production is demand dependent and greater than the demand rate. Production facility produces items in m production setups and one rework setup (m, 1 policy. The major reason of reverse logistic and green supply chain is rework, so it reduces the cost of production and other ecological problems. Most of the researchers developed a rework model without deteriorating items. A numerical example and sensitivity analysis is shown to describe the model.

  6. A versatile setup using femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yujie, E-mail: styojm@physics.tamu.edu [Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Voronine, Dmitri V.; Sokolov, Alexei V. [Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798 (United States); Scully, Marlan O. [Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843 (United States); Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798 (United States); Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We report a versatile setup based on the femtosecond adaptive spectroscopic techniques for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering. The setup uses a femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillator source and a folded 4f pulse shaper, in which the pulse shaping is carried out through conventional optical elements and does not require a spatial light modulator. Our setup is simple in alignment, and can be easily switched between the collinear single-beam and the noncollinear two-beam configurations. We demonstrate the capability for investigating both transparent and highly scattering samples by detecting transmitted and reflected signals, respectively.

  7. Design of an Experimental Setup for Testing Multiphysical Effects on High Speed Mini Rotors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikmen, E.; van der Hoogt, Peter; de Boer, Andries; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Jonker, Jan B.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, there have been numerous research projects on the development of minirotating machines. These machines mostly operate at speeds above the first critical speed and have special levitation systems. Besides, the multiphysical effects become significant in small scale. Therefore, advanced

  8. Experimental Investigation of Thermal Performance in a Vehicle Cabin Test Setup With Pcm in the Roof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purusothaman, M.; kota, Saichand; Cornilius, C. Sam; Siva, R.

    2017-05-01

    Heat flow from the roof with radiation through glass windows obviously high level that contributes to the total heat gained of a vehicle cabin. The cabin temperature of closed stationary vehicles in direct sunlight can quickly rise to a very level that may damage property and harm children or pets left in the vehicle. The problem that is faced by many car users today is very hot interior after certain minutes or hours of parking in open or un-shaded parking area. The heat accumulated inside the vehicle with undesired temperature rise would cause the parts of the car’s interior to degrade. Even the passengers are affected with the thermal condition inside the vehicle itself. The passenger has to wait for a certain time before getting into the car to cool down the interior condition either by lowering down the window or switching on the air conditioner at high speed that really affect the fuel consumption. A new roofing structure to improve its total thermal resistance is developed. Its uses phase change material properties to trap the heat from solar radiation and then release it back to the outer atmosphere by external convection when the vehicle is in use or during the nocturnal cycle. Phase change material, which has become an attractive means to store. Thermal energy, which has a wide range of applications, has been used. Phase change material has a high heat of fusion which is able to store and release large amount of energy. This PCM has been insulated in the roof of the vehicle to arrest the heat entering into the vehicle cabin. Experimental and numerical analyses have been conducted to compare the thermal performance of the new roofing structure and the normal roofing. By this experiment, the cooling process of the cabin could be much lower. The experimental investigation revealed that, on a hot day, the interior temperature of the vehicles cabin was approximately 22ºCe higher than the ambient temperature. The results show that the new roofing structure could effectively reduce the inlet of heat from the roof into the cabin. As a result, the interior temperature of the cabin could be much lower.

  9. Tests with beam setup of the TileCal Phase-II upgrade electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hlaluku, Dingane Reward; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The LHC has planned a series of upgrades culminating in the High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) which will have an average luminosity 5-7 times larger than the nominal Run-2 value. The ATLAS Tile Calorimeter (TileCal) will undergo an upgrade to accommodate to the HL-LHC parameters. The TileCal electronics both on- and off-detector will be completely redesigned and a new readout architecture will be adopted. The photomultiplier signals will be digitised and transferred to the TileCal PreProcessors (PPr) located off-detector for every bunch crossing. Then, the PPr will provide preprocessed digital data to the first level trigger with improved spatial granularity and energy resolution with respect to the current analog trigger signals. We plan to insert one TileCal module instrumented with the new electronics in the real detector to evaluate and qualify the new readout and trigger concepts in the overall ATLAS data acquisition system. This new drawer, so-called Hybrid Demonstrator, must provide analog trigger signal fo...

  10. Performance Testing of Massive MIMO Base Station with Multi-Probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Fengchun; Fan, Wei; Ji, Yilin

    2018-01-01

    The utilization of massive multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) antenna arrays at the base station (BS) side has been identified as an enabling technique for 5G communication systems. To evaluate the true end-to-end performance of BS's, an over-the-air (OTA) radiated method is required. In this p......The utilization of massive multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) antenna arrays at the base station (BS) side has been identified as an enabling technique for 5G communication systems. To evaluate the true end-to-end performance of BS's, an over-the-air (OTA) radiated method is required...

  11. Experience with Calibration Procedures for LIPP Test Set-up Using Solid Calibration Specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mogens; Holbøll, Joachim; Fleming, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the short and the long term behaviour of two different materials that have been suggested for calibration of space charge measuring systems. Two different space charge measuring systems were planned to be used for the investigation; more specifically, the laser induced pressu...

  12. Technical note: An experimental set-up to measure latent and sensible heat fluxes from (artificial plant leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Schymanski

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaf transpiration and energy exchange are coupled processes that operate at small scales yet exert a significant influence on the terrestrial hydrological cycle and climate. Surprisingly, experimental capabilities required to quantify the energy–transpiration coupling at the leaf scale are lacking, challenging our ability to test basic questions of importance for resolving large-scale processes. The present study describes an experimental set-up for the simultaneous observation of transpiration rates and all leaf energy balance components under controlled conditions, using an insulated closed loop miniature wind tunnel and artificial leaves with pre-defined and constant diffusive conductance for water vapour. A range of tests documents the above capabilities of the experimental set-up and points to potential improvements. The tests reveal a conceptual flaw in the assumption that leaf temperature can be characterized by a single value, suggesting that even for thin, planar leaves, a temperature gradient between the irradiated and shaded or transpiring and non-transpiring leaf side can lead to bias when using observed leaf temperatures and fluxes to deduce effective conductances to sensible heat or water vapour transfer. However, comparison of experimental results with an explicit leaf energy balance model revealed only minor effects on simulated leaf energy exchange rates by the neglect of cross-sectional leaf temperature gradients, lending experimental support to our current understanding of leaf gas and energy exchange processes.

  13. The Datura Pixel Beam Telescope - Setup and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Rubinskiy, Igor; Perrey, Hanno [DESY (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The Datura pixel telescope is an upgraded version of the original Eudet beam telescope. It consists of six planes of Mimosa 26 monolithic active pixel sensors, mounted on two lever arms with three planes each. The sensor positioning is flexible and there is the possibility of including a central device under test (DUT). With the telescope, a pointing precision of under 3 μm at the DUT can be achieved. Cooling of sensors and DUT, positioning and read-out infrastructure are included. The telescope provides a flexible and general purpose testing environment for various sensor technologies. In this talk telescope resolution measurements at the low energy DESY e{sup +}/e{sup -} test beam are presented.

  14. A new setup to measure bidirectional reflectance distribution functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosjen, P.P.J.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Bartholomeus, H.

    2012-01-01

    The Plant Facility, a new laboratory goniometer system, built by the Wageningen University has been tested in order to take bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements. An ASD FieldSpec 3 spectroradiometer mounted on an industrial robot arm is able to measure small targets

  15. Testing Backbone.js

    CERN Document Server

    Roemer, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    This book is packed with the step by step tutorial and instructions in recipe format helping you setup test infrastructure and gradually advance your skills to plan, develop, and test your backbone applications.If you are a JavaScript developer looking for recipes to create and implement test support for your backbone application, then this book is ideal for you.

  16. Technical Note: Introduction of variance component analysis to setup error analysis in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to introduce variance component analysis to the estimation of systematic and random components in setup error of radiotherapy. Balanced data according to the one-factor random effect model were assumed. Analysis-of-variance (anova)-based computation was applied to estimate the values and their confidence intervals (CIs) for systematic and random errors and the population mean of setup errors. The conventional method overestimates systematic error, especially in hypofractionated settings. The CI for systematic error becomes much wider than that for random error. The anova-based estimation can be extended to a multifactor model considering multiple causes of setup errors (e.g., interpatient, interfraction, and intrafraction). Variance component analysis may lead to novel applications to setup error analysis in radiotherapy.

  17. Integrated Diagnostic/Prognostic Experimental Setup for Capacitor Degradation and Health Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper proposes the experiments and setups for studying diagnosis and prognosis of electrolytic capacitors in DC-DC power converters. Electrolytic capacitors and...

  18. Pragmatic setup for bioparticle responses by dielectrophoresis for resource limited environment application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohd Anuar Md; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin; Kayani, Aminuddin Ahmad

    2017-12-01

    Various dielectrophoretic responses of bioparticles, including cell-chain, spinning, rotation and clustering, are of high interest in the field due to their benefit into application for biomedical and clinical implementation potential. Numerous attempts using sophisticated equipment setup have been studied to perform those dielectrophoretic responses, however, for development into resource limited environment application, such as portable, sustainable and environmental friendly diagnostic tools, establishment of pragmatic setup using standard, non-sophisticated and low-cost equipment is of important task. Here we show the advantages in the judicious design optimization of tip microelectrode, also with selection of suspending medium and optimization of electric signal configuration in establishing setup that can promote the aforementioned dielectrophoretic responses within standard equipments, i.e. pragmatic setup.

  19. Design of an experimental setup for hydro-kinetic energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Grabbe, Mårten; Yuen, Katarina; Goude, Anders; Lalander, Emilia; Leijon, Mats

    2009-01-01

    A hydro-kinetic energy project has been underway in Sweden since 2000, and an in-stream prototype setup for experiments at a site in a Swedish river is now in progress. The system comprises a vertical axis turbine and a directly driven permanent magnet generator. Methods and choices used in designing the system are described here. The turbine and generator are evaluated based on measurements and CFD simulations of conditions at the site for the experimental setup.

  20. Method and apparatus for checking the stability of a setup for making reflection type holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, H. G. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for checking the stability of a setup for recording reflection-type (white light) holograms. Two sets of interference fringes are simultaneously obtained, one giving information about coherence and stability of the setup alone and the other demonstrating coherence of the entire system, including the holographic recording plate. Special emphasis is given to the stability of the plate, due to the fact that any minute vibration might severely degrade or completely destroy the recording.

  1. Light quark correlators in a mixed-action setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardoni, Fabio [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Garron, Nicolas [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). SUPA, School of Physics; Hernandez, Pilar [CSIC-Univ. de Valencia (Spain). Inst. de Fisica Corpuscular; Necco, Silvia [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Pena, Carlos [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC

    2011-11-15

    We report our progress in simulating Neuberger valence fermions on N{sub f}=2 Wilson O(a)-improved sea quarks. We compute correlators with valence quark masses both in the p- and in the e-regime, and we match the results with the predictions of the Chiral Effective Theory in the mixed regime. This allows us to extract the Low Energy Couplings (LECs) of the N{sub f}=2 theory and to test the validity of the approach. (orig.)

  2. Development of Prototype Laboratory Setup for Selective Detection of Ethylene Based on Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kathirvelan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here a prototype laboratory setup for detecting ethylene (C2H4 in ppm level employing a sensor made of multiwalled carbon nanotubes of 40 nm average tube diameter. The proposed reversible chemoresistive ethylene sensor is fabricated using Kapton as the substrate onto which carbon nanotubes are coated using thick film technology. IDT silver electrodes are printed using piezo head based ink-jet printing technology. The increases in electrical resistance of the sensor element are measured on exposure to ethylene for different ethylene concentrations using a potentiostat and data acquisition system. The increase in resistance of the calibrated sensor element on exposure to ethylene (analyte is about 18.4% at room temperature for 50 ppm ethylene concentration. This change is reversible. Our sensor element exhibits a better performance than those reported earlier (1.8% and it has got the rise and fall time of 10 s and 60 s, respectively. It could be used for testing the ripening of fruits.

  3. Multi-Block Enhancement for Lagrangian Dendritic Mesh setup in Altair5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglass, Rodney W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-15

    Initial mesh setup for an ASC mUlti-physics code at LANL is done using Altair5. Altair5 assumes that the final mesh is composed of logical structured mesh blocks linked together at mesh boundaries to form, ultimately, an unstructured mesh. Within these blocks, meshes may have dendrites, that is, local regions where two zones share common edges (in two-dimensions, or faces in three-dimensions) with a single zone. In many cases, contiguous subsets of the initial set of blocks may have the same material assigned to them, but without smoothing the mesh would form a computationally challenging initial mesh. Some of these blocks may also have zones with nodes on domain boundaries. This paper reports on the implementation of multiblock smoothing in Altair5, which allows for dendrites and for moving boundary nodes. Dendritic nodes are constrained to be located at the average of their neighbor nodes while boundary nodes are constrained to move along the boundary geometry. Two fundamentally different smoothing methods were implemented. First, a variational principle is presented that balances zonal size and distortion via a user selected weighting with constraints imposed using penalty methods for dendritic nodes and Lagrange multipliers for boundary nodes. Second, the Laplace-Beltrami smoother is presented. This is a general elliptic smoother which can easily be modified to give Laplacian and Winslow-Crowley mesh smoothing. Results are shown for several test meshes of interest.

  4. W-Band Free Space Permittivity Measurement Setup for Candidate Radome Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fralick, Dion T.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement system used for w-band complex permittivity measurements performed in NASA Langley Research Center's Electromagnetics Research Branch. The system was used to characterize candidate radome materials for the passive millimeter wave (PMMW) camera experiment. The PMMW camera is a new technology sensor, with goals of all-weather landings of civilian and military aircraft. The sensor is being developed under a NASA Technology Reinvestment program with TRW, McDonnell- Douglas, Honeywell, and Composite Optics, Inc. as participants. The experiment is scheduled to be flight tested on the Air Force's 'Speckled Trout' aircraft in late 1997. The camera operates at W-band, in a radiometric capacity and generates an image of the viewable field. Because the camera is a radiometer, the system is very sensitive to losses. Minimal transmission loss through the radome at the operating frequency, 89 GHz, was critical to the success of the experiment. This paper details the design, set-up, calibration and operation of a free space measurement system developed and used to characterize the candidate radome materials for this program.

  5. Continuous, short-interval redox data loggers: verification and setup considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, C; Kröger, R; Reese, B; Pierce, S C

    2013-09-01

    Reduction-oxidation or redox potential is typically collected by measuring redox at a single time interval and returning to the electrode to collect subsequent intervals to generate a temporal gradient of changes in redox. Typically, intervals between sampling are on the scale of hours, days, and weeks, rather than one, five, or 20 minutes due to logistical constraints of collection. These constraints are labor (i.e., constant measurements 24/7) and technology driven (i.e., construction of a unit that is capable of accurately and precisely measuring redox at fine temporal scales). This study describes a continuous, short interval redox data logger that is capable of measuring ±10 mV at minute time intervals. To ensure quality assured and quality controlled data, the redox unit was subjected to tiered verification procedures that documented hardware and probe sensitivity to changes in voltage. Furthermore, the setup was laboratory tested against known mV redox solutions (Zobel, 225 mV), flooded in soil medium over 48 h, and subjected to drying over 48 h. Results highlight and verify the accuracy and precision of the redox probes and hardware for measuring stability and changes in redox. Future research will investigate field operations of redox probes and create spatially and temporally detailed investigations to changes in redox as a result of vegetation, flooding, and management.

  6. Efficient low-power wireless communication setup for an autonomous soil moisture sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surducan, Vasile; Surducan, Emanoil

    2017-12-01

    During July 2016 - September 2017, a micro-irrigation system was set up and tested in field and greenhouse-like conditions, using eight inexpensive soil moisture sensors designed and manufactured in our institute. Each sensor was powered by accumulators charged by an (8 × 14) cm2 solar panel. The energy budget was carefully managed to allow long operating time for both the moisture sensor and the irrigation automation. We present here the hardware-software setup implemented in our proprietary moisture sensor for wireless communication, using Bluetooth Low Energy modules (BLE). The autonomy of the system may reach 4-5 cloudy days without the need of recharging the accumulators from the sun. Over the entire operating period, the moisture sensors send data wirelessly every sampling time (15 to 30 minutes) following water drips on the soil for the next 30 seconds, pushed by a low power micro pump. The micro-irrigation process is repeated every sampling time, until the soil moisture threshold is reached. In between the operating states, the sensor and watering automation go to sleep. The software algorithm ensures low energy (max. 2.8 mWh) consumption for the moisture sensor and 20 mWh for the irrigation automation, substantially increasing the accumulators discharge cycle.

  7. Digital Image Correlation accuracy: influence of kind of speckle and recording setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germaneau A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital Image Correlation (DIC is a popular optical technique which allows the measurement of displacement and strain fields on an object surface showing a random speckle pattern. To use its extension to 3D cases (called Digital Volume Correlation, DVC, it is often necessary to include particles in the material in order to have a sufficient contrast. However, as these particles are more rigid than the material, it is not sure that the correlation technique is able to follow exactly strains on the speckle pattern made of powder. As the digital recording process by CCD camera and correlation algorithms are the same between 2D and 3D cases, this study is then conducted in 2D cases in order to show the influence of the powder in the speckle pattern on the evaluation of displacement by DIC linked to the choice of the type of interpolation, of CCD cameras and lighting. In displacement tests, only the recording setup seems to have a strong influence on the accuracy of measurements. For strain experiments, powder has an effect on strain measurements over 10%.

  8. Evaluation of clip localization for different kilovoltage imaging modalities as applied to partial breast irradiation setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehler, Andreas; Ng, Sook-Kien; Lyatskaya, Yulia; Stsepankou, Dzmitry; Hesser, Jurgen; Zygmanski, Piotr [University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); University Medical Centre Mannheim, University of Heidelberg, Theodor-Kutzer Ufer 1-3, D-68167 Mannheim (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2009-03-15

    Surgical clip localization and image quality were evaluated for different types of kilovoltage cone beam imaging modalities as applied to partial breast irradiation (PBI) setup. These modalities included (i) clinically available radiographs and cone beam CT (CB-CT) and (ii) various alternative modalities based on partial/sparse/truncated CB-CT. An anthropomorphic torso-breast phantom with surgical clips was used for the imaging studies. The torso phantom had artificial lungs, and the attached breast phantom was a mammographic phantom with realistic shape and tissue inhomogeneities. Three types of clips of variable size were used in two orthogonal orientations to assess their in-/cross-plane characteristics for image-guided setup of the torso-breast phantom in supine position. All studies were performed with the Varian on-board imaging (OBI, Varian) system. CT reconstructions were calculated with the standard Feldkamp-Davis-Kress algorithm. First, the radiographs were studied for a wide range of viewing angles to characterize image quality for various types of body anatomy in the foreground/background of the clips. Next, image reconstruction quality was evaluated for partial/sparse/truncated CB-CT. Since these modalities led to reconstructions with strong artifacts due to insufficient input data, a knowledge-based CT reconstruction method was also tested. In this method, the input data to the reconstruction algorithm were modified by combining complementary data sets selected from the treatment and reference projections. Different partial/sparse/truncated CB-CT scan types were studied depending on the total arc angle, angular increment between the consequent views (CT projections), orientation of the arc center with respect to the imaged breast and chest wall, and imaging field size. The central angles of the viewing arcs were either tangential or orthogonal to the chest wall. Several offset positions of the phantom with respect to the reference position were

  9. PREDICTING SEQUENCE DEPENDENT SET-UP TIMES FOR MULTISTATION MACHINES (A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Reinecke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The set-up time for jobs on some multi-station machines , such as manually configured colour printers, are sequence dependent. Many techniques exist for fmding a sequence in which to process the jobs to reduce total set-up time significantly. They all require an estimate ofthe set-up time for each job given the set-up ofthe previous job. In practice predicting set-up times for scheduling purposes may become prohibitively time consuming. In this article a practical technique is presented that estimates the set-up time for ajob on a multi-station machine, such as a manually configured printer. An application in a corrugated cardboard box factory, where the technique is in use as part of a computerised scheduling system, is discussed.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die opsteltyd vir take op sommige veelstasie masjiene, soos handgekonfigureerde kleurdrukkers, is . volgorde afhanklik. Vele tegnieke bestaan om die volgorde te bepaal waarin take geprosesseer moet word om opsteltyd beduidend te verminder. Al die tegnieke vereis die opsteltyd van die volgende taak, gegewe die opsteltyd van die voorgaande taak. In die praktyk mag raming van opsteltye vir skeduleringsdoeleindes onhanteerbaar lank neem. In hierdie artikel word 'n praktiese tegniek beskryf wat die opsteltyd beraarn vir vir 'n taak op 'nveelstasie masjien, soos 'n handgekonfigureerde drukpers. 'n Toepassing in 'n riffelkartondoos fabriek , waar die tegniek toegepas word as deel van 'n gerekenariseerde skeduleringsisteem, word bespreek.

  10. High temperature setup for measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity of thin films using inductive heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnane, L.; Williams, N.; Silva, H.; Gokirmak, A.

    2015-10-01

    We have developed an automated setup for simultaneous measurement of Seebeck coefficient S(T) and electrical resistivity ρ(T) of thin film samples from room temperature to ˜650 °C. S and ρ are extracted from current-voltage (I-V) measurements obtained using a semiconductor parameter analyzer and temperature measurements obtained using commercial thermocouples. The slope and the x-axis intercept of the I-V characteristics represent the sample conductance G and the Seebeck voltage, respectively. The measured G(T) can be scaled to ρ(T) by the geometry factor obtained from the room temperature resistivity measurement of the film. The setup uses resistive or inductive heating to control the temperature and temperature gradient on the sample. Inductive heating is achieved with steel plates that surround the test area and a water cooled copper pipe coil underneath that generates an AC magnetic field. The measurements can be performed using resistive heating only or inductive heating only, or a combination of both depending on the desired heating ranges. Inductive heating provides a more uniform heating of the test area, does not require contacts to the sample holder, can be used up to the Curie temperature of the particular magnetic material, and the temperature gradients can be adjusted by the relative positions of the coil and sample. Example results obtained for low doped single-crystal silicon with inductive heating only and with resistive heating only are presented.

  11. TRIGA-SPEC: A setup for mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaer, J.; Krämer, J.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Eberhardt, K.; Eitel, G.; Ferrer, R.; Geppert, C.; George, S.; Herfurth, F.; Ketter, J.; Nagy, Sz.; Neidherr, D.; Neugart, R.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Repp, J.; Smorra, C.; Trautmann, N.; Weber, C.

    2008-09-01

    The research reactor TRIGA Mainz is an ideal facility to provide neutron-rich nuclides with production rates sufficiently large for mass spectrometric and laser spectroscopic studies. Within the TRIGA-SPEC project, a Penning trap as well as a beamline for collinear laser spectroscopy are being installed. Several new developments will ensure high sensitivity of the trap setup enabling mass measurements even on a single ion. Besides neutron-rich fission products produced in the reactor, also heavy nuclides such as 235U or 252Cf can be investigated for the first time with an off-line ion source. The data provided by the mass measurements will be of interest for astrophysical calculations on the rapid neutron-capture process as well as for tests of mass models in the heavy-mass region. The laser spectroscopic measurements will yield model-independent information on nuclear ground-state properties such as nuclear moments and charge radii of neutron-rich nuclei of refractory elements far from stability. TRIGA-SPEC also serves as a test facility for mass and laser spectroscopic experiments at SHIPTRAP and the low-energy branch of the future GSI facility FAIR. This publication describes the experimental setup as well as its present status.

  12. Totomatix: a novel automatic set-up to control diurnal, diel and long-term plant nitrate nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamowicz, Stéphane; Le Bot, Jacques; Huanosto Magaña, Ruth; Fabre, José

    2012-01-01

    Background Stand-alone nutritional set-ups are useful tools to grow plants at defined nutrient availabilities and to measure nutrient uptake rates continuously, in particular that for nitrate. Their use is essential when the measurements are meant to cover long time periods. These complex systems have, however, important drawbacks, including poor long-term reliability and low precision at high nitrate concentration. This explains why the information dealing with diel dynamics of nitrate uptake rate is scarce and concerns mainly young plants grown at low nitrate concentration. Scope The novel system detailed in this paper has been developed to allow versatile use in growth rooms, greenhouses or open fields at nitrate concentrations ranging from a few micro- to several millimoles per litres. The system controls, at set frequencies, the solution nitrate concentration, pH and volumes. Nitrate concentration is measured by spectral deconvolution of UV spectra. The main advantages of the set-up are its low maintenance (weekly basis), an ability to diagnose interference or erroneous analyses and high precision of nitrate concentration measurements (0·025 % at 3 mm). The paper details the precision of diurnal nitrate uptake rate measurements, which reveals sensitivity to solution volume at low nitrate concentration, whereas at high concentration, it is mostly sensitive to the precision of volume estimates. Conclusions This novel set-up allows us to measure and characterize the dynamics of plant nitrate nutrition at high temporal resolution (minutes to hours) over long-term experiments (up to 1 year). It is reliable and also offers a novel method to regulate up to seven N treatments by adjusting the daily uptake of test plants relative to controls, in variable environments such as open fields and glasshouses. PMID:21985796

  13. The new external ion beam analysis setup at the Demokritos Tandem accelerator and first applications in cultural heritage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokaras, Dimosthenis, E-mail: dsokaras@inp.demokritos.g [Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Bistekos, Euthimios; Georgiou, Lambros [Philon Models, 18541 Piraeus (Greece); Salomon, Joseph [Laboratoire du C2RMF, Centre de Rechereche et de Restauration des Musees du France, 75001 Paris (France); Bogovac, Mladen [Institute Ruder Boskovic, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Aloupi-Siotis, Eleni [Thetis Authentics Ltd., 11636 Athens (Greece); Paschalis, Vasilis [Benaki Museum, 10674 Athens (Greece); Aslani, Ioanna [Thetis Authentics Ltd., 11636 Athens (Greece); Karabagia, Sofia; Lagoyannis, Anastasios; Harissopulos, Sotirios; Kantarelou, Vasiliki [Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Karydas, Andreas-Germanos [Institute of Nuclear Physics, N.C.S.R. ' Demokritos' , Aghia Paraskevi, 15310 Athens (Greece); Nuclear Spectrometry and Applications Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2011-03-01

    At the 5.5 MV Tandem VdG accelerator of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of N.C.S.R. 'Demokritos', Athens, Greece, an external ion-beam set-up has been recently developed and installed. The aim of this development was to integrate the analytical capabilities of the PIXE, RBS and PIGE ion beam techniques in one experimental set-up, so that to attain a complete elemental and near surface structural characterization of samples in an almost non-destructive way and without any limitation concerning their size or conductive state. A careful 3D mechanical drawing optimized the set-up experimental parameters achieving probe dimensions at the millimeter range (1 mm{sup 2}) and fulfilling the special requirements imposed for optimum performance of the aforementioned techniques, including the possibility to use heavier, than protons, ion beams. For the digital pulse processing of the X-ray, {gamma}-ray and charged particle detector signals, novel hardware and software tools were developed based on a custom FPGA configuration. The first applications were focused in the quality control of materials that have been intentionally contaminated with a particular tracer-element ('tagged' materials). The tagged materials which were developed and tested are technologically authentic replicas of ancient attic ceramics with black glazed decoration. Analytical diagnostic studies were carried out for a few representative paintings of contemporary Greek painters in order to identify and document materials/pigments and techniques and eventually to prevent trade of fakes. Finally, ancient glass beads were also examined with respect to the sodium concentration and its in-depth homogeneity.

  14. The new external ion beam analysis setup at the Demokritos Tandem accelerator and first applications in cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Bistekos, Euthimios; Georgiou, Lambros; Salomon, Joseph; Bogovac, Mladen; Aloupi-Siotis, Eleni; Paschalis, Vasilis; Aslani, Ioanna; Karabagia, Sofia; Lagoyannis, Anastasios; Harissopulos, Sotirios; Kantarelou, Vasiliki; Karydas, Andreas-Germanos

    2011-03-01

    At the 5.5 MV Tandem VdG accelerator of the Institute of Nuclear Physics of N.C.S.R. "Demokritos", Athens, Greece, an external ion-beam set-up has been recently developed and installed. The aim of this development was to integrate the analytical capabilities of the PIXE, RBS and PIGE ion beam techniques in one experimental set-up, so that to attain a complete elemental and near surface structural characterization of samples in an almost non-destructive way and without any limitation concerning their size or conductive state. A careful 3D mechanical drawing optimized the set-up experimental parameters achieving probe dimensions at the millimeter range (1 mm 2) and fulfilling the special requirements imposed for optimum performance of the aforementioned techniques, including the possibility to use heavier, than protons, ion beams. For the digital pulse processing of the X-ray, γ-ray and charged particle detector signals, novel hardware and software tools were developed based on a custom FPGA configuration. The first applications were focused in the quality control of materials that have been intentionally contaminated with a particular tracer-element ("tagged" materials). The tagged materials which were developed and tested are technologically authentic replicas of ancient attic ceramics with black glazed decoration. Analytical diagnostic studies were carried out for a few representative paintings of contemporary Greek painters in order to identify and document materials/pigments and techniques and eventually to prevent trade of fakes. Finally, ancient glass beads were also examined with respect to the sodium concentration and its in-depth homogeneity.

  15. Production and performance of larvae and spat of pure and hybrid species of Mytilus chilensis and M. galloprovincialis from laboratory crosses Producción y comportamiento de larvas de especies puras e híbridas entre Mytilus chilensis y Mytilus galloprovincialis obtenidas en laboratorio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Toro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Adult specimens of M. galloprovincialis from Concepción Bay and M. chilensis from Yaldad Bay, Chile, were transferred to the laboratory to produce crosses of "pure" and "hybrid" species in order to evaluate early larval development and growth. These variables are important for understanding the dynamics of these two mussel species in this potential hybrid zone where they occur sympatrically. The study showed that fertilization occurred in all crosses and significant differences were not detected between pure lines and hybrids in terms of the percentage of eggs that developed into larvae. Hybrid larvae and spat from both reciprocal crosses grew significantly more than those from pure lines, although valve length values were within the ranges reported in the literature.Ejemplares adultos de M. galloprovincialis de la bahía de Concepción y de M. chilensis de la bahía de Yaldad, Chile, se trasladaron al laboratorio para realizar cruzamientos puros de cada especie e híbridos, para evaluar el desarrollo larval temprano y su crecimiento. Estas variables son importantes para entender la dinámica de estas dos especies de mitílidos en esta potencial zona híbrida donde se encuentran en forma simpátrica. El estudio mostró que la fertilización ocurrió en todos los cruzamientos y no se detectó diferencias significativas entre líneas puras e híbridas en el porcentaje de huevos que se desarrollaron a larvas. Las larvas y juveniles híbridos de ambos cruzamientos recíprocos crecieron significativamente más que las larvas de los cruzamientos de especies puras, aunque los valores de longitud de la valva están dentro de los rangos reportados en la bibliografía.

  16. A new method and device of aligning patient setup lasers in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ui-Jung; Jo, Kwanghyun; Lim, Young Kyung; Kwak, Jung Won; Choi, Sang Hyuon; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kim, Mi Young; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Shin, Dongho; Lee, Se Byeong; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Park, Sung Yong; Kim, Siyong

    2016-01-08

    The aim of this study is to develop a new method to align the patient setup lasers in a radiation therapy treatment room and examine its validity and efficiency. The new laser alignment method is realized by a device composed of both a metallic base plate and a few acrylic transparent plates. Except one, every plate has either a crosshair line (CHL) or a single vertical line that is used for alignment. Two holders for radiochromic film insertion are prepared in the device to find a radiation isocenter. The right laser positions can be found optically by matching the shadows of all the CHLs in the gantry head and the device. The reproducibility, accuracy, and efficiency of laser alignment and the dependency on the position error of the light source were evaluated by comparing the means and the standard deviations of the measured laser positions. After the optical alignment of the lasers, the radiation isocenter was found by the gantry and collimator star shots, and then the lasers were translated parallel to the isocenter. In the laser position reproducibility test, the mean and standard deviation on the wall of treatment room were 32.3 ± 0.93 mm for the new method whereas they were 33.4 ± 1.49 mm for the conventional method. The mean alignment accuracy was 1.4 mm for the new method, and 2.1 mm for the conventional method on the walls. In the test of the dependency on the light source position error, the mean laser position was shifted just by a similar amount of the shift of the light source in the new method, but it was greatly magnified in the conventional method. In this study, a new laser alignment method was devised and evaluated successfully. The new method provided more accurate, more reproducible, and faster alignment of the lasers than the conventional method.

  17. A Modernized UDM-600 Dynamometer-Based Setup for the Cutting Force Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya. I. Shuliak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers development of a modernized UDM-600 dynamometer-based setup for measuring the cutting force components. Modernization of existing equipment to improve the method of recording the cutting force components in the automated mode is of relevance. The measuring setup allows recording the cutting force components in turning and milling, as well as the axial force and the torque in the drilling and milling operations.The article presents a block diagram and a schematic diagram of the setup to measure the cutting force components, and describes a basic principle of measuring units within the modernized setup. The developed setup uses a half-bridge strain gauge measuring circuit to record the cutting forces. To enhance the measuring circuit output voltage is used a 16-channel amplifier of LA-UN16 model with a discretely adjustable gain. To record and process electrical signals is used a data acquisition device of NI USB-6009 model, which enables transmitting the received data to a PC via USB-interface. The data acquisition device has a built-in stabilized DC power supply that is used to power the strain gauge bridges. A developed schematic diagram of the measuring setup allows us to realize this measuring device and implement its modernization.Final processing of recorded data is provided through the software developed in visual programming environment LabVIEW 9.0. The program allows us to show the real-time measuring values of the cutting force components graphically and to record the taken data to a text file.The measuring setup modernization enabled increasing measurement accuracy and reducing time for processing and analysis of experimental data obtained when measuring the cutting force components. The MT2 Department of BMSTU uses it in education and research activities and in experimental efforts and laboratory classes.

  18. A Low Cost Setup for Behavioral Audiometry in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziridis, Konstantin; Ahlf, Sönke; Schulze, Holger

    2012-01-01

    In auditory animal research it is crucial to have precise information about basic hearing parameters of the animal subjects that are involved in the experiments. Such parameters may be physiological response characteristics of the auditory pathway, e.g. via brainstem audiometry (BERA). But these methods allow only indirect and uncertain extrapolations about the auditory percept that corresponds to these physiological parameters. To assess the perceptual level of hearing, behavioral methods have to be used. A potential problem with the use of behavioral methods for the description of perception in animal models is the fact that most of these methods involve some kind of learning paradigm before the subjects can be behaviorally tested, e.g. animals may have to learn to press a lever in response to a sound. As these learning paradigms change perception itself 1,2 they consequently will influence any result about perception obtained with these methods and therefore have to be interpreted with caution. Exceptions are paradigms that make use of reflex responses, because here no learning paradigms have to be carried out prior to perceptual testing. One such reflex response is the acoustic startle response (ASR) that can highly reproducibly be elicited with unexpected loud sounds in naïve animals. This ASR in turn can be influenced by preceding sounds depending on the perceptibility of this preceding stimulus: Sounds well above hearing threshold will completely inhibit the amplitude of the ASR; sounds close to threshold will only slightly inhibit the ASR. This phenomenon is called pre-pulse inhibition (PPI) 3,4, and the amount of PPI on the ASR gradually depends on the perceptibility of the pre-pulse. PPI of the ASR is therefore well suited to determine behavioral audiograms in naïve, non-trained animals, to determine hearing impairments or even to detect possible subjective tinnitus percepts in these animals. In this paper we demonstrate the use of this method in a

  19. A computational analysis of lower bounds for the economic lot sizing problem in remanufacturing with separate setups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aishah Syed Ali, Sharifah

    2017-09-01

    This paper considers economic lot sizing problem in remanufacturing with separate setup (ELSRs), where remanufactured and new products are produced on dedicated production lines. Since this problem is NP-hard in general, which leads to computationally inefficient and low-quality of solutions, we present (a) a multicommodity formulation and (b) a strengthened formulation based on a priori addition of valid inequalities in the space of original variables, which are then compared with the Wagner-Whitin based formulation available in the literature. Computational experiments on a large number of test data sets are performed to evaluate the different approaches. The numerical results show that our strengthened formulation outperforms all the other tested approaches in terms of linear relaxation bounds. Finally, we conclude with future research directions.

  20. The urban boundary-layer field campaign in marseille (ubl/clu-escompte): set-up and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestayer, P.G.; Durand, P.; Augustin, P.; Bastin, S.; Bonnefond, J.-M.; Benech, B.; Campistron, B.; Coppalle, A.; Delbarre, H.; Dousset, B.; Drobinski, P.; Druilhet, A.; Frejafon, E.; Grimmond, C.S.B.; Groleau, D.; Irvine, M.; Kergomard, C.; Kermadi, S.; Lagouarde, J.-P.; Lemonsu, A.; Lohou, F.; Long, N.; Masson, V.; Moppert, C.; Noilhan, J.; Offerle, B.; Oke, T.R.; Pigeon, G.; Puygrenier, V.; Roberts, S.; Rosant, J.-M.; Sanid, F.; Salmond, J.; Talbaut, M.; Voogt, J.

    The UBL/CLU (urban boundary layer/couche limite urbaine) observation and modelling campaign is a side-project of the regional photochemistry campaign ESCOMPTE. UBL/CLU focuses on the dynamics and thermodynamics of the urban boundary layer of Marseille, on the Mediterranean coast of France. The objective of UBL/CLU is to document the four-dimensional structure of the urban boundary layer and its relation to the heat and moisture exchanges between the urban canopy and the atmosphere during periods of low wind conditions, from June 4 to July 16, 2001. The project took advantage of the comprehensive observational set-up of the ESCOMPTE campaign over the Berre-Marseille area, especially the ground-based remote sensing, airborne measurements, and the intensive documentation of the regional meteorology. Additional instrumentation was installed as part of UBL/CLU. Analysis objectives focus on (i) validation of several energy balance computational schemes such as LUMPS, TEB and SM2-U, (ii) ground truth and urban canopy signatures suitable for the estimation of urban albedos and aerodynamic surface temperatures from satellite data, (iii) high resolution mapping of urban land cover, land-use and aerodynamic parameters used in UBL models, and (iv) testing the ability of high resolution atmospheric models to simulate the structure of the UBL during land and sea breezes, and the related transport and diffusion of pollutants over different districts of the city. This paper presents initial results from such analyses and details of the overall experimental set-up.

  1. SU-F-T-519: Is Geometry Based Setup Sufficient for All of the Head and Neck Treatment Cases?: A Feasibility Study Towards the Dose Based Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S; Chen, S; Zhang, B; Xu, H; Prado, K; D’Souza, W; Yi, B [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study compares the geometric-based setup (GBS) which is currently used in the clinic to a novel concept of dose-based setup (DBS) of head and neck (H&N) patients using cone beam CT (CBCT) of the day; and evaluates the clinical advantages. Methods: Ten H&N patients who underwent re-simulation and re-plan due to noticeable anatomic changes during the course of the treatments were retrospectively reviewed on dosimetric changes in the assumption of no plan modification was performed. RayStation planning system (RaySearch Laboratories AB, Sweden) was used to match (ROI fusion module) between prescribed isodoseline (IDL) in the CBCT imported along with ROIs from re-planned CT and the IDL of original plan (Dose-based setup: DBS). Then, the CBCT plan based on daily setup using the GBS (previously used for a patient) and the DBS CBCT plan recalculated in RayStation compared against the original CT-sim plan. Results: Most of patients’ tumor coverage and OAR doses got generally worsen when the CBCT plans were compared with original CT-sim plan with GBS. However, when DBS intervened, the OAR dose and tumor coverage was better than the GBS. For example, one of patients’ daily average doses of right parotid and oral cavity increased to 26% and 36%, respectively from the original plan to the GBS planning. However, it only increased by 13% and 24%, respectively with DBS. GTV D95 coverage also decreased by 16% with GBS, but only 2% decreased with DBS. Conclusion: DBS method is superior to GBS to prevent any abrupt dose changes to OARs as well as PTV/CTV or GTV at least for some H&N cases. Since it is not known when the DBS is beneficial to the GBS, a system which enables the on-line DBS may be helpful for better treatment of H&N.

  2. Performance improvement of keV Neutrons-based PGNAA setups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Abdelmonem, M.S. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, KFUPM Box 1815, Dhahran-31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Misned, Ghada [Girls Education College, Riyadh Girls Colleges, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Al-Ghamdi, Hanan [Girls Education College, Riyadh Girls Colleges, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2006-12-15

    The performance of keV neutrons based Prompt Gamma Ray Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) setups have been observed to improve by enclosing its neutron source inside the moderator. The keV neutrons were produced via {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction and {sup 3}H(p,n) reactions. For the two PGNAA setups, the maximum intensity of the prompt {gamma}-ray yield was observed for a 5 cm long moderator with the neutron source positioned at a distance of 0.5 cm from the moderator-end facing the sample. Due to enclosing the source inside the moderator, the prompt {gamma}-ray yield from the {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction and {sup 3}H(p,n) reaction based PGNAA setups have increased by a factor of three as compared to that achieved from these setups with the source outside the moderator. This study provides a theoretical basis for the measurement of performance of {sup 7}Li(p,n) reaction and the {sup 3}H(p,n) reaction based PGNAA setups.

  3. Seismic imaging of sandbox experiments – laboratory hardware setup and first reflection seismic sections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Krawczyk

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available With the study and technical development introduced here, we combine analogue sandbox simulation techniques with seismic physical modelling of sandbox models. For that purpose, we designed and developed a new mini-seismic facility for laboratory use, comprising a seismic tank, a PC-driven control unit, a positioning system, and piezoelectric transducers used here for the first time in an array mode. To assess the possibilities and limits of seismic imaging of small-scale structures in sandbox models, different geometry setups were tested in the first 2-D experiments that also tested the proper functioning of the device and studied the seismo-elastic properties of the granular media used. Simple two-layer models of different materials and layer thicknesses as well as a more complex model comprising channels and shear zones were tested using different acquisition geometries and signal properties. We suggest using well sorted and well rounded grains with little surface roughness (glass beads. Source receiver-offsets less than 14 cm for imaging structures as small as 2.0–1.5 mm size have proven feasible. This is the best compromise between wide beam and high energy output, and is applicable with a consistent waveform. Resolution of the interfaces of layers of granular materials depends on the interface preparation rather than on the material itself. Flat grading of interfaces and powder coverage yields the clearest interface reflections. Finally, sandbox seismic sections provide images of high quality showing constant thickness layers as well as predefined channel structures and indications of the fault traces from shear zones. Since these were artificially introduced in our test models, they can be regarded as zones of disturbance rather than tectonic shear zones characterized by decompaction. The multiple-offset surveying introduced here, improves the quality with respect to S / N ratio and source signature even more; the maximum depth

  4. An in-line shearography setup based on circular polarization gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain, Pascal; Piron, Pierre; Renotte, Yvon; Habraken, Serge

    2013-09-01

    The shearing amount defines the resolution of a speckle shearing interferometer and the shearing direction defines the sensitivity direction of the setup. The properties of circular (cycloid) holographic polarization gratings recorded in liquid crystal polymers can be used to build a new multi-shearing direction and amount shearography setup. The polarization states of the diffracted beams offer an easy way to produce phase shifts and thus to compute the phase contained in the shearograms. The theoretical bases of such a device are highlighted and an original compact and full in-line setup is proposed. First experimental results of delamination detection and flaw detection by shearography are presented. A discussion on the importance of the grating recording and the polarization orientation points out the best working requirements.

  5. Economic Production Quantity (EPQ model for three type imperfect items with rework and learning in setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindum Mukhopadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imperfect quality Items are unavoidable in an Inventory system due to imperfect productionprocess, natural disasters, damages, or many other reasons. The setup cost and production cycletime can be related in terms of process deterioration and learning and forgetting effects. Learningreduces production run length and setup cost, whereas deterioration and forgetting increases both.Keeping these facts in mind, this paper investigates an Economic Production Quantity (EPQ modelwith imperfect quality items with varying set-up costs. Mathematical model and solution proceduresare developed with major insight to its charecteristics. Numerical example and sensitivity analysisare provided to illustrate and analyze the model performance. It is observed that our model has asignificant impacts on the optimal lot size and optimal profit of the model.

  6. Beta-spectroscopy of long lived nuclides with a PIPS detector-setup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domula Alexander R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several applications in modern nuclear physics, research and engineering are limited by a lack of precise knowledge in spectral shape data for beta-decays. Specifically the interest aims to study spectral data for forbidden decays with respectively long half-lives, which is one of the central activities of our group. For the investigation of those rare beta-decays the group operates a setup of six PIPS detectors in a vacuum chamber built out of low-radioactivity materials. In the long term the setup will be used as low-background-detector for the investigation of rare beta-decays. In order to reduce the measuring-background a muon veto was installed. The characterization of the setup in the energy-range from 20..1000 keV using conversion-electrons is described. A set of useful calibration-nuclides was established to determine energy calibration and efficiencies.

  7. A high sensitivity ultralow temperature RF conductance and noise measurement setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, F. D.; Mahé, A.; Denis, A.; Berroir, J.-M.; Glattli, D. C.; Plaçais, B.; Fève, G.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the realization of a high sensitivity RF noise measurement scheme to study small current fluctuations of mesoscopic systems at milli-Kelvin temperatures. The setup relies on the combination of an interferometric amplification scheme and a quarter-wave impedance transformer, allowing the measurement of noise power spectral densities with gigahertz bandwidth up to five orders of magnitude below the amplifier noise floor. We simultaneously measure the high frequency conductance of the sample by derivating a portion of the signal to a microwave homodyne detection. We describe the principle of the setup, as well as its implementation and calibration. Finally, we show that our setup allows to fully characterize a subnanosecond on-demand single electron source. More generally, its sensitivity and bandwidth make it suitable for applications manipulating single charges at GHz frequencies.

  8. Minimizing SIP Session Re-Setup Delay over Wireless Link in 3G Handover Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon Bongkyo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The delay in transmitting SIP messages over the wireless link for session resetup at handover is still major bottleneck for interactive multimedia service. In this paper, a proxy agent-based scheme is proposed to minimize the SIP session setup delay over a wireless link in 3G inter-subnet handover scenarios. This scheme is based on the two characteristics. One is that the major factor of SIP session re-setup delay is generally caused by the retransmissions in the unreliable wireless links, and the other is that most of the fields in request messages as well as response messages are duplicated when a set of SIP messages are exchanged during session re-setup procedure. In this scheme, no change is required in the SIP message processing except for the proxy agents in both BS and MH.

  9. Mathematical Model of the Electronuclear Set-Up on the Beam of the JINR Synchrotron

    CERN Document Server

    Barashenkov, V S; Kumawat, H; Lobanova, V A

    2004-01-01

    On the base of the Monte Carlo code CASCADE, developed at JINR, a mathematical model of the deep-subcritical set-up with uranium blanket used in experiments underway at JINR using a 0.6-4 GeV proton beam, is created. The neutron spectra, yields and energies of generated particles are calculated and compared for several modifications of the set-up. The influence of paraffin and graphite moderators on the characteristics of particles escaping lead target is studied. The modelled set-up can be considered as a first step to experiments with the designed at JINR U-Pu ADS SAD with heat power of several tens of kW.

  10. Beta-spectroscopy of long lived nuclides with a PIPS detector-setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domula, Alexander R.; Thurn, Jan; Zuber, Kai

    2017-09-01

    Several applications in modern nuclear physics, research and engineering are limited by a lack of precise knowledge in spectral shape data for beta-decays. Specifically the interest aims to study spectral data for forbidden decays with respectively long half-lives, which is one of the central activities of our group. For the investigation of those rare beta-decays the group operates a setup of six PIPS detectors in a vacuum chamber built out of low-radioactivity materials. In the long term the setup will be used as low-background-detector for the investigation of rare beta-decays. In order to reduce the measuring-background a muon veto was installed. The characterization of the setup in the energy-range from 20..1000 keV using conversion-electrons is described. A set of useful calibration-nuclides was established to determine energy calibration and efficiencies.

  11. Setup of a drift tube muon tracker and calibration of muon tracking in Borexino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bick, Daniel

    2011-04-15

    In this work the setup and commissioning of a drift tube based 3D muon tracking detector are described and its use for the solar neutrino experiment Borexino is presented. After a brief introduction to neutrino physics, the general layout of the detector is presented. It is followed by the description of the reconstruction and calibration algorithms. The performance of the muon tracker is presented and results from the commissioning in Hamburg are shown. The detector is currently operated in the LNGS underground laboratory in Italy at the Borexino experiment. After an introduction to Borexino, the modifications of the muon tracker for its setup at LNGS are described. The setup is used as a reference system to determine the resolution of the Borexino muon tracking which is essential for the tagging of cosmogenic induced {sup 11}C background. Finally, first results are presented. (orig.)

  12. Development of group setup strategies for makespan minimization in PCB assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, I.O.; Grunow, M.; Günther, H.-O.

    2007-01-01

    Balancing setup effort and actual production time is an important issue in medium-variety, medium-volume printed circuit board (PCB) assembly. By grouping batches of similar PCB types to be processed with a common machine setup, the total time required for setting up the component feeders...... in the magazine of the placement machine can be reduced. On the other hand, the assembly times per PCB increase, since it is no longer possible to optimise the feeder locations in the magazine for each PCB type individually. In order to balance the savings in setup time and the increase in assembly time...... and to minimise the global makespan, we propose efficient grouping procedures which include machine-specific algorithms for fine-tuning the machine operations for a group of PCBs. Hence, the actual placement times are reflected much more accurately, compared with conventional grouping procedures which merely...

  13. Impact of different setup approaches in image-guided radiotherapy as primary treatment for prostate cancer. A study of 2940 setup deviations in 980 MVCTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller, Kilian; Specht, Hanno; Kampfer, Severin; Duma, Marciana Nona [Technische Universitaet Muenchen Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Radiation Oncology, Muenchen (Germany); Petrucci, Alessia [University of Florence, Department of Radiation Oncology, Florence (Italy); Geinitz, Hans [Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern Linz, Department of Radiation Oncology, Linz (Austria); Schuster, Tibor [Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Institute for Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, Muenchen (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    The goal of this study was to assess the impact of different setup approaches in image-guided radiotherapy (IMRT) of the prostatic gland. In all, 28 patients with prostate cancer were enrolled in this study. After the placement of an endorectal balloon, the planning target volume (PTV) was treated to a dose of 70 Gy in 35 fractions. A simultaneously integrated boost (SIB) of 76 Gy (2.17 Gy per fraction and per day) was delivered to a smaller target volume. All patients underwent daily prostate-aligned IGRT by megavoltage CT (MVCT). Retrospectively, three different setup approaches were evaluated by comparison to the prostate alignment: setup by skin alignment, endorectal balloon alignment, and automatic registration by bones. A total of 2,940 setup deviations were analyzed in 980 fractions. Compared to prostate alignment, skin mark alignment was associated with substantial displacements, which were ≥ 8 mm in 13 %, 5 %, and 44 % of all fractions in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions, respectively. Endorectal balloon alignment yielded displacements ≥ 8 mm in 3 %, 19 %, and 1 % of all setups; and ≥ 3 mm in 27 %, 58 %, and 18 % of all fractions, respectively. For bone matching, the values were 1 %, 1 %, and 2 % and 3 %, 11 %, and 34 %, respectively. For prostate radiotherapy, setup by skin marks alone is inappropriate for patient positioning due to the fact that, during almost half of the fractions, parts of the prostate would not be targeted successfully with an 8-mm safety margin. Bone matching performs better but not sufficiently for safety margins ≤ 3 mm. Endorectal balloon matching can be combined with bone alignment to increase accuracy in the vertical direction when prostate-based setup is not available. Daily prostate alignment remains the gold standard for high-precision radiotherapy with small safety margins. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser Studie bestand darin, den Einfluss verschiedener Herangehensweisen bei der Einstellung einer

  14. Discharge and Nitrogen Transfer Modelling in the Berze River: A HYPE Setup and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinbergs, Arturs; Lagzdins, Ainis; Jansons, Viesturs; Abramenko, Kaspars; Sudars, Ritvars

    2017-05-01

    This study is focused on water quality and quantity modelling in the Berze River basin located in the Zemgale region of Latvia. The contributing basin area of 872 km2 is furthermore divided into 15 sub-basins designated according to the characteristics of hydrological network and water sampling programme. The river basin of interest is a spatially complex system with agricultural land and forests as two predominant land use types. Complexity of the system reflects in the discharge intensity and diffuse pollution of nitrogen compounds into the water bodies of the river basin. The presence of urban area has an impact as the load from the existing wastewater treatment plants consist up to 76 % of the total nitrogen load in the Berze River basin. Representative data sets of land cover, agricultural field data base for crop distribution analysis, estimation of crop management, soil type map, digital elevation model, drainage conditions, network of water bodies and point sources were used for the modelling procedures. The semi-distributed hydro chemical model HYPE has a setup to simulate discharge and nitrogen transfer. In order to make the model more robust and appropriate for the current study the data sets previously stated were classified by unifying similar spatially located polygons. The data layers were overlaid and 53 hydrological response units (SLCs) were created. Agricultural land consists of 48 SLCs with the details of soils, drainage conditions, crop types, and land management practices. Manual calibration procedure was applied to improve the performance of discharge simulation. Simulated discharge values showed good agreement with the observed values with the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of 0.82 and bias of -6.6 %. Manual calibration of parameters related to nitrogen leakage simulation was applied to test the most sensitive parameters.

  15. Cone beam computed tomography guidance for setup of patients receiving accelerated partial breast irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Elizabeth A; Cho, John; Vallis, Katherine A; Sharpe, Michael B; Lee, Grace; Blackburn, Helen; Nageeti, Tahani; McGibney, Carol; Jaffray, David A

    2007-06-01

    To evaluate the role of cone-beam CT (CBCT) guidance for setup error reduction and soft tissue visualization in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Twenty patients were recruited for the delivery of radiotherapy to the postoperative cavity (3850 cGy in 10 fractions over 5 days) using an APBI technique. Cone-beam CT data sets were acquired after an initial skin-mark setup and before treatment delivery. These were registered online using the ipsilateral lung and external contours. Corrections were executed for translations exceeding 3 mm. The random and systematic errors associated with setup using skin-marks and setup using CBCT guidance were calculated and compared. A total of 315 CBCT data sets were analyzed. The systematic errors for the skin-mark setup were 2.7, 1.7, and 2.4 mm in the right-left, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. These were reduced to 0.8, 0.7, and 0.8 mm when CBCT guidance was used. The random errors were reduced from 2.4, 2.2, and 2.9 mm for skin-marks to 1.5, 1.5, and 1.6 mm for CBCT guidance in the right-left, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. A skin-mark setup for APBI patients is sufficient for current planning target volume margins for the population of patients studied here. Online CBCT guidance minimizes the occurrence of large random deviations, which may have a greater impact for the accelerated fractionation schedule used in APBI. It is also likely to permit a reduction in planning target volume margins and provide skin-line visualization and dosimetric evaluation of cardiac and lung volumes.

  16. Prediction and Compensation of Geometrical Errors in Milling Process of Thin Components Using a Flexible Configuration Setup =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Sy Quy

    In this study, a prediction model based on finite element analysis is developed to predict cutting errors during the machining process of thin plates using a flexible setup configuration. The model is based on analysis of the material deformation of thin plates under the action of axial cutting forces using a specifically designed test bed to reproduce commonly used flexible setup in industry. The cutting process is simplified as a static analysis of the material deformation under the effect of the applied cutting forces. In the analysis, different positions of the cutting tool during the machining process are studied to determine the workpiece's geometrical profiles during milling. Several analyses are carried out for different positions of the cutting tool. The cutting force is also modeled to predict the cutting force for specific cutting conditions. This cutting force model is utilized as input to the finite element analysis of the material deformation of the workpiece during the machining process. The experimental system is also designed to conduct tests with different cutting conditions on the three-axis Huron K2X10 CNC milling machine to verify the predicted results obtained from the analysis model. The geometrical errors of the machined plates after machining are determined by using the Mitutoyo Bright Strato Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) to measure their geometrical profiles before and after machining processes. Finally, the mirror technique is utilized to compensate cutting deviations based on the predicted results of the workpiece's displacements. Adding the value from the prediction model to the designed cutting depth creates the updated tool path. The results show good agreement in the prediction of the thin plate deformation during the machining as compared to the experimental tests.

  17. First measurements at the DAPHINE phi-factory with the DEAR experimental setup

    CERN Document Server

    Augsburger, M A; Egger, J P; Gartner, B; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M A; King, R; Lauss, B; Petrascu, C; Zmeskal, J

    2000-01-01

    The relevant background for the DEAR experiment - low-energy X rays and ionizing particles - present in the DEAR interaction region of the DAPHINE e sup + e sup - collider was investigated using the first-stage DEAR setup and CCD detectors. An extensive Monte Carlo simulation was performed for the present setup and beam conditions. Good quantitative agreement between measurements and simulation was achieved. This is a confirmation that, with respect to the expected background, which gives an important contribution to the statistical precision of the experiment, the configuration chosen to measure the strong interaction shift and width in kaonic hydrogen and kaonic deuterium can indeed reach the planned level of accuracy.

  18. Reproducibility of patient setup by surface image registration system in conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballarè Andrea

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reproducibility of patient setup for radiotherapy is based on various methods including external markers, X-rays with planar or computerized image acquisition, and, more recently, surface matching imaging. We analyzed the setup reproducibility of 16 patients affected by prostate cancer who underwent conformal radiotherapy with curative intent by using a surface image registration system. Methods We analyzed the setup reproducibility of 16 patients affected by prostate cancer candidates for conformal radiotherapy by using a surface image registration system. At the initial setup, EPID images were compared with DRRs and a reference 3D surface image was obtained by the AlignRT system (Vision RT, London, UK. Surface images were acquired prior to every subsequent setup procedure. EPID acquisition was repeated when errors > 5 mm were reported. Results The mean random and systematic errors were 1.2 ± 2.3 mm and 0.3 ± 3.0 mm along the X axis, 0.0 ± 1.4 mm and 0.5 ± 2.0 mm along the Y axis, and 2.0 ± 1.8 mm and -0.7 ± 2.4 mm along the Z axis respectively. The positioning error detected by AlignRT along the 3 axes X, Y, and Z exceeded the value of 5 mm in 14.1%, 2.0%, and 5.1% measurements and the value of 3 mm in 36.9%, 13.6% and 27.8% measurements, respectively. Correlation factors calculated by linear regression between the errors measured by AlignRT and EPID ranged from 0.77 to 0.92 with a mean of 0.85 and SD of 0.13. The setup measurements by surface imaging are highly reproducible and correlate with the setup errors detected by EPID. Conclusion Surface image registration system appears to be a simple, fast, non-invasive, and reproducible method to analyze the set-up alignment in 3DCRT of prostate cancer patients.

  19. Design of a setup for {sup 252}Cf neutron source for storage and analysis purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hei, Daqian [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106 (China); Zhuang, Haocheng [Xi’an Middle School of Shanxi Province, Xi’an 710000 (China); Jia, Wenbao, E-mail: jiawenbao@163.com [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Suzhou 215000 (China); Cheng, Can; Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Hongtao [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106 (China); Chen, Da [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 211106 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, Suzhou 215000 (China)

    2016-11-01

    {sup 252}Cf is a reliable isotopic neutron source and widely used in the prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique. A cylindrical barrel made by polymethyl methacrylate contained with the boric acid solution was designed for storage and application of a 5 μg {sup 252}Cf neutron source. The size of the setup was optimized with Monte Carlo code. The experiments were performed and the results showed the doses were reduced with the setup and less than the allowable limit. The intensity and collimating radius of the neutron beam could also be adjusted through different collimator.

  20. Setup time reduction in a CNC production facility through redesign of jigs and fixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Pei Xian; Prakash, Joshua; Lai, Koon Chun

    2017-11-01

    In CNC manufacturing, jigs and fixtures function to arrange workpiece in a definite position or prevent misalignment during machining operations. The case study of this research is conducted in company `X', where a high demand product `Y' `consists of three machining steps, with the first step as the bottleneck. The setup time for first step of product `Y' was studied carefully and analyzed to identify underlying problems. Few suggestions were proposed in order to simplify or eliminate the bottleneck setup procedure, involving the redesigning of jigs and fixtures to eliminate multiple leveling and alignment procedure. Three recommendations for future research are proposed in the last section.

  1. Technologies for the Fast Set-Up of Automated Assembly Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Ude, Ales; Petersen, Henrik Gordon

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we describe technologies facilitating the set-up of automated assembly solutions which have been developed in the context of the IntellAct project (2011–2014). Tedious procedures are currently still required to establish such robot solutions. This hinders especially the automation...... of so called few-of-a-kind production. Therefore, most production of this kind is done manually and thus often performed in low-wage countries. In the IntellAct project, we have developed a set of methods which facilitate the set-up of a complex automatic assembly process, and here we present our work...

  2. Equilibrium Customer Strategies in the Queue with Threshold Policy and Setup Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peishu Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the equilibrium behavior of customers in the M/M/1 queue with N policy and setup times. The server is shut down once the system is empty and begins an exponential setup time to start service again when the number of customers in the system accumulates the threshold N  (N≥1. We consider the equilibrium threshold strategies for fully observable case and mixed strategies for fully unobservable case, respectively. We get various performance measures of the system and investigate some numerical examples of system size, social benefit, and expected cost function per unit time for the two different cases under equilibrium customer strategies.

  3. setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elesandro Antônio Baptista

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In previous work the authors proposed a model suitable for reducing the number of cutting tools required for machining in factory environments, where production lots consisting of a small number of pieces of different materials and geometries were optimized. The model, although yielding good results in simulations, lacked a practical application. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and provide any needed modifications of the optimization model and then validate the more recent one using data obtained from its practical implementation in the shop floor of an industry that operates using flexible machining practices. This implementation is important to allow the identification of other situations that were not perceived in simulation, such as the variation in cutting tool life. The results show that the model can be successfully applied to flexible manufacturing environments.

  4. A long arm for ultrasound: a combined robotic focused ultrasound setup for magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krafft, Axel J; Jenne, Jürgen W; Maier, Florian; Stafford, R Jason; Huber, Peter E; Semmler, Wolfhard; Bock, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) is a highly precise noninvasive procedure to ablate pathogenic tissue. FUS therapy is often combined with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging as MR imaging offers excellent target identification and allows for continuous monitoring of FUS induced temperature changes. As the dimensions of the ultrasound (US) focus are typically much smaller than the targeted volume, multiple sonications and focus repositioning are interleaved to scan the focus over the target volume. Focal scanning can be achieved electronically by using phased-array US transducers or mechanically by using dedicated mechanical actuators. In this study, the authors propose and evaluate the precision of a combined robotic FUS setup to overcome some of the limitations of the existing MRgFUS systems. Such systems are typically integrated into the patient table of the MR scanner and thus only provide an application of the US wave within a limited spatial range from below the patient. The fully MR-compatible robotic assistance system InnoMotion (InnoMedic GmbH, Herxheim, Germany) was originally designed for MR-guided interventions with needles. It offers five pneumatically driven degrees of freedom and can be moved over a wide range within the bore of the magnet. In this work, the robotic system was combined with a fixed-focus US transducer (frequency: 1.7 MHz; focal length: 68 mm, and numerical aperture: 0.44) that was integrated into a dedicated, in-house developed treatment unit for FUS application. A series of MR-guided focal scanning procedures was performed in a polyacrylamide-egg white gel phantom to assess the positioning accuracy of the combined FUS setup. In animal experiments with a 3-month-old domestic pig, the system's potential and suitability for MRgFUS was tested. In phantom experiments, a total targeting precision of about 3 mm was found, which is comparable to that of the existing MRgFUS systems. Focus positioning could be performed within a few seconds

  5. A flexible experimental setup for femtosecond time-resolved broad-band ellipsometry and magneto-optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boschini, F.; Hedayat, H.; Piovera, C.; Dallera, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, p.zza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gupta, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States); Carpene, E., E-mail: ettore.carpene@polimi.it [CNR-IFN, Dipartimento di Fisica, Politecnico di Milano, p.zza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    A versatile experimental setup for femtosecond time-resolved ellipsometry and magneto-optical Kerr effect measurements in the visible light range is described. The apparatus is based on the pump-probe technique and combines a broad-band probing beam with an intense near-infrared pump. According to Fresnel scattering matrix formalism, the analysis of the reflected beam at different polarization states of the incident probe light allows one to determine the diagonal and the off-diagonal elements of the dielectric tensor in the investigated sample. Moreover, the pump-probe method permits to study the dynamics of the dielectric response after a short and intense optical excitation. The performance of the experimental apparatus is tested on CrO{sub 2} single crystals as a benchmark.

  6. Setup and performance of RHIC for the 2008 run with deuteron-gold collisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner,C.; Abreu, N.P.; Ahren, L.; Alessi, J.; Bai, M.; et al.

    2008-06-23

    This year (2008) deuterons and gold ions were collided in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the first time since 2003. The setup and performance of the collider for the 2008 run is reviewed with a focus on improvements that have led to an order of magnitude increase in luminosity over that achieved in the 2003 run.

  7. Estimating Setup of Piles Driven into Louisiana Clayey Soils : Tech Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Geotechnical engineers and researchers (Seed and Reese 1955, Long et al. 1999, and Bullock et al. 2005) have reported for many years that the axial capacity of a driven pile may increase over time, which is usually referred to as pile setup or freeze...

  8. Estimating setup of driven piles into Louisiana clayey soils : tech summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Geotechnical engineers and researchers (Seed and Reese 1955, Long et al. 1999, and Bullock et al. 2005) have reported for many years : that the axial capacity of a driven pile may increase over time, which is usually referred to as pile setup or free...

  9. Full-Scale Continuous Mini-Reactor Setup for Heterogeneous Grignard Alkylation of a Pharmaceutical Intermediate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Jønch; Holm, Thomas; Rahbek, Jesper P.

    2013-01-01

    A reactor setup consisting of two reactors in series has been implemented for a full-scale, heterogeneous Grignard alkylation. Solutions pass from a small filter reactor into a static mixer reactor with multiple side entries, thus combining continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and plug flow...

  10. An experimental set-up for carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 122; Issue 3. An experimental set-up for carbon isotopic analysis of atmospheric CO2 and an example of ecosystem response during solar eclipse 2010. Tania Guha Prosenjit Ghosh. Volume 122 Issue 3 June 2013 pp 623-638 ...

  11. Classifying and modeling setups and cleanings in lot sizing and scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefansdottir, Bryndis; Grunow, Martin; Akkerman, Renzo

    2017-01-01

    Much attention in the lot sizing and scheduling literature has been focused on reducing the number and size of setups. Cleanings, in contrast, remain a key cost driver in large parts of the process industries such as the food and pharmaceutical sectors. Here, quality and safety considerations lead

  12. Diffuse back-illumination setup for high temporally resolved extinction imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westlye, Fredrik Ree; Penney, Keith; Ivarsson, Anders

    2017-01-01

    This work presents the development of an optical setup for quantitative, high-temporal resolution line-of-sight extinction imaging in harsh optical environments. The application specifically targets measurements of automotive fuel sprays at high ambient temperature and pressure conditions where...

  13. GRAPhEME: a setup to measure (n, xn γ) reaction cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, Greg; Bacquias, A.; Capdevielle, O.; Dessagne, P.; Kerveno, M.; Rudolf, G. [Universite de Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 rue du Loess 67037 Strasbourg (France); CNRS, UMR7178, 67037 Strasbourg (France); Borcea, C.; Negret, A.; Olacel, A. [Nat. Inst. Of Phys. And Nucl. Eng., Bucharest (Romania); Drohe, J.C.; Plompen, A.J.M.; Nyman, M. [EU/ JRC-IRMM, Geel (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    Most of nuclear reactor developments are using evaluated data base for numerical simulations. However, the considered databases present still large uncertainties and disagreements. To improve their level of precision, new measurements are needed, in particular for (n, xn) reactions, which are of great importance as they modify the neutron spectrum, the neutron population, and produce radioactive species. The IPHC group started an experimental program to measure (n, xn gamma) reaction cross sections using prompt gamma spectroscopy and neutron energy determination by time of flight. Measurements of (n, xn gamma) cross section have been performed for {sup 235,238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup nat,182,183,184,186}W, {sup nat}Zr. The experimental setup is installed at the neutron beam at GELINA (Geel, Belgium). The setup has recently been upgraded with the addition of a highly segmented 36 pixels planar HPGe detector. Significant efforts have been made to reduce radiation background and electromagnetic perturbations. The setup is equipped with a high rate digital acquisition system. The analysis of the segmented detector data requires a specific procedure to account for cross signals between pixels. An overall attention is paid to the precision of the measurement. The setup characteristic and the analysis procedure will be presented along with the acquisition and analysis challenges. Examples of results and their impact on models will be discussed. (authors)

  14. Groundwater flow due to a nonlinear wave set-up on a permeable beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Przyborska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Water flow through the beach body plays an important role in the biological status of the organisms inhabiting the beach sand. For tideless seas, the groundwater flow in shallow water is governed entirely by the surface wave dynamics on the beach. As waves propagate towards the shore, they become steeper owing to the decreasing water depth and at some depth, the waves lose their stability and start to break. When waves break, their energy is dissipated and the spatial changes of the radiation stress give rise to changes in the mean sea level, known as the set-up. The mean shore pressure gradient due to the wave set-up drives the groundwater circulation within the beach zone. This paper discusses the circulation of groundwater resulting from a nonlinear set-up. The circulation of flow is compared with the classic Longuet-Higgins (1983 solution and the time series of the set-up is considered for a 24 h storm. Water infiltrates into the coastal aquifer on the upper part of the beach near the maximum run-up and exfiltration occurs on the lower part of the beach face near the breaking point.

  15. Automated extraction of DNA and PCR setup using a Tecan Freedom EVO® liquid handler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg; Hansen, Anders Johannes; Stangegaard, Michael

    We have implemented and validated automated protocols for DNA extraction and PCR setup using a Tecan Freedom EVO® liquid handler mounted with the TeMagS magnetic separation device. The methods were validated for accredited, forensic genetic work according to ISO 17025 using the Qiagen Mag...

  16. Influence of setup and carbon source on the bacterial community of biocathodes in microbial electrolysis cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croese, Elsemiek; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W.; Marshall, Ian P.G.; Spormann, Alfred M.; Euverink, Gert-Jan W.; Geelhoed, Jeanine S.; Stams, Alfons J.M.; Plugge, Caroline M.

    2014-01-01

    The microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) biocathode has shown great potential as alternative for expensive metals as catalyst for H2synthesis. Here, the bacterial communities at the biocathode of five hydrogen producing MECs using molecular techniques were characterized. The setups differed in design

  17. View of the WA3 set-up from upstream the beam entering the hydrogen target.

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1977-01-01

    The Amsterdam-CERN-Cracow-Munich-Oxford-Rutherford (ACCMOR)Collaboration set-up this experiment in the H1 beam of West Hall to study a variety of exclusive hadron reactions over a wide kinematic range up to 100 GeV/c incident momentum.

  18. Fast and thermal neutron intensity measurements at the KFUPM PGNAA setup

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Jarallah, M I; Fazal-Ur-Rehman; Abu-Jarad, F A

    2002-01-01

    Fast and thermal neutron intensity distributions have been measured at an accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup. The setup is built at the 350 keV accelerator laboratory of King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). The setup is mainly designed to carry out PGNAA elemental analysis via thermal neutron capture. In this study relative intensity of fast and thermal neutrons was measured as a function of the PGNAA moderator assembly parameters using nuclear track detectors (NTDs). The relative intensity of the neutrons was measured inside the sample region as a function of front moderator thickness as well as sample length. Measurements were carried out at the KFUPM 350 keV accelerator using 2.8 MeV pulsed neutron beam from D(d,n) reaction. The pulsed deuteron beam with 5 ns pulse width and 30 kHz frequency was used to produce neutrons. Experimental results were compared with results of Monte Carlo design calculations of the PGNAA setup. A good agreement has bee...

  19. Fast and thermal neutron intensity measurements at the KFUPM PGNAA setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jarallah, M.I.; Naqvi, A.A. E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman; Abu-jarad, F

    2002-10-01

    Fast and thermal neutron intensity distributions have been measured at an accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) setup. The setup is built at the 350 keV accelerator laboratory of King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM). The setup is mainly designed to carry out PGNAA elemental analysis via thermal neutron capture. In this study relative intensity of fast and thermal neutrons was measured as a function of the PGNAA moderator assembly parameters using nuclear track detectors (NTDs). The relative intensity of the neutrons was measured inside the sample region as a function of front moderator thickness as well as sample length. Measurements were carried out at the KFUPM 350 keV accelerator using 2.8 MeV pulsed neutron beam from D(d,n) reaction. The pulsed deuteron beam with 5 ns pulse width and 30 kHz frequency was used to produce neutrons. Experimental results were compared with results of Monte Carlo design calculations of the PGNAA setup. A good agreement has been found between the experimental results and the calculations.

  20. Integrating sphere-based setup as an accurate system for optical properties measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abdalmonem, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the optical properties of solid and liquid samples has great importance. Since the integrating sphere-based setup is used to measure the amount of reflected and transmitted light by the examined samples, optical properties could...

  1. Controlling Mechatronic Set-up Using Real-time Linux and CTC ++

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, Johannes F.; Jovanovic, D.S.; Hilderink, G.H.; van Amerongen, J.; Jonker, B.; Regtien, P.; Stramigioli, S.

    2002-01-01

    The development of control software for mechatronic systems is presented by means of a case study: a 2 DOF mechanical rotational set-up usable as a camera-positioning device. The control software is generated using the code generation facility of 20-SIM, thus guaranteeing the generated code being

  2. A Demonstration Setup to Simulate Detection of Planets outside the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choopan, W.; Ketpichainarong, W.; Laosinchai, P.; Panijpan, B.

    2011-01-01

    We constructed a simple demonstration setup to simulate an extrasolar planet and its star revolving around the system's centre of mass. Periodic dimming of light from the star by the transiting planet and the star's orbital revolution simulate the two major ways of deducing the presence of an exoplanet near a distant star. Apart from being a…

  3. A setup for measuring characteristics of microwave electric vacuum devices with open resonance structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rybalko, Oleksandr; Ruban, A. I.; Vorob’ev, G. S.

    2015-01-01

    A new modification of the universal experimental setup for measuring electrodynamic characteristics of microwave generators with open resonance structures of the orotron–diffraction-radiation-generator type is described. To expand the functional capabilities and the electronic frequency-tuning ra...

  4. Setup and Performance of the RHIC Injector Accelerators for the 2005 Run with Copper Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gardner, Chris J; Alessi, James; Benjamin, John; Blaskiewicz, Michael; Brennan, Joseph M; Brown, Kevin A; Carlson, Charles; De Long, Joseph; Glenn, Joseph; Hayes, Thomas; MacKay, William W; Marr, Gregory J; Morris, John; Roser, Thomas; Severino, Freddy; Smith, Kevin T; Steski, Dannie; Tsoupas, Nicholaos; Zaltsman, Alex; Zeno, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Copper ions for the 2005 run of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory are accelerated in the Tandem, Booster and AGS prior to injection into RHIC. The setup and performance of this chain of accelerators will be reviewed.

  5. Evolutionary algorithms for scheduling a flowshop manufacturing cell with sequence dependent family setups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franca, PM; Gupta, JND; Mendes, AS; Moscato, P; Veltink, KJ

    This paper considers the problem of scheduling part families and jobs within each part family in a flowshop manufacturing cell with sequence dependent family setups times where it is desired to minimize the makespan while processing parts (jobs) in each family together. Two evolutionary algorithms-a

  6. Experimental Study of Drag Resistance using a Laboratory Scale Rotary Set-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erik Weinell, Claus; Olsen, Kenneth N.; Christoffersen, Martin W.

    2003-01-01

    This work covers an experimental study of the drag resistance of different painted surfaces and simulated large-scale irregularities, viz. dry spraying, weld seams, barnacle fouling and paint remains. A laboratory scale rotary set-up was used to determine the drag resistance, and the surface...

  7. HW/SW Design Space Exploration on the Production Cell Setup

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, M.A.; Welch, P.H.; Roebbers, H.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Barnes, F.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and compares five CSP based and two CSP related process-oriented motion control system implementations that are made for our Production Cell demonstration setup. Five implementations are software-based and two are FPGA hardware-based. All implementations were originally made

  8. Tools and Setups for Experiments with AC and Rotating Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponikvar, D.

    2010-01-01

    A rotating magnetic field is the basis for the transformation of electrical energy to mechanical energy. School experiments on the rotating magnetic field are rare since they require the use of specially prepared mechanical setups and/or relatively large, three-phase power supplies to achieve strong magnetic fields. This paper proposes several…

  9. Influence of setup and carbon source on the bacterial community of biocathodes in microbial electrolysis cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croesea, E.; Jeremiasse, A.W.; Marshall, I.P.G.; Spormann, A.M.; Euverink, G.J.W.; Geelhoed, J.S.; Stams, A.J.M.; Plugge, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) biocathode has shown great potential as alternative for expensive metals as catalyst for H2 synthesis. Here, the bacterial communities at the biocathode of five hydrogen producing MECs using molecular techniques were characterized. The setups differed in design

  10. Evaluation of Rotational Errors in Treatment Setup of Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Liver Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Minsong; Lasley, Foster D.; Das, Indra J.; DesRosiers, Colleen M.; Slessinger, Eric D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States); Cardenes, Higinia R., E-mail: hcardene@iupui.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dosimetric impact of rotational setup errors in stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) treatment of liver tumors and to investigate whether translational shifts can compensate for rotation. Methods and Materials: The positioning accuracy in 20 patients with liver malignancies treated with SBRT was reevaluated offline by matching the patients' cone-beam computed tomography (CT) scans (n=75) to the planning CT scans and adjusting the 3 rotational angles (pitch, roll, and yaw). Systematic and random setup errors were calculated. The dosimetric changes caused by rotational setup errors were quantified for both simulated and observed patient rotations. Dose distributions recalculated on the rotated CT scans were compared with the original planned doses. Translational corrections were simulated based on manual translational registration of the rotated images to the original CT scans. The correction efficacy was evaluated by comparing the recalculated plans with the original plans. Results: The systematic rotational setup errors were -0.06 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.68 Degree-Sign , -0.29 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.62 Degree-Sign , and -0.24 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.61 Degree-Sign ; the random setup errors were 0.80 Degree-Sign , 1.05 Degree-Sign , and 0.61 Degree-Sign for pitch, roll, and yaw, respectively. Analysis of CBCT images showed that 56.0%, 14.7%, and 1.3% of treated fractions had rotational errors of >1 Degree-Sign , >2 Degree-Sign , and >3 Degree-Sign , respectively, in any one of the rotational axes. Rotational simulations demonstrated that the reduction of gross tumor volume (GTV) coverage was <2% when rotation was <3 Degree-Sign . Recalculated plans using actual patient roll motions showed similar reduction (<2%) in GTV coverage. Translational corrections improved the GTV coverage to within 3% of the original values. For organs at risk (OAR), the dosimetric impact varied case by case. Conclusion: Actual rotational setup errors in SBRT for liver

  11. Comparison of setup deviations for two thermoplastic immobilization masks in glottis cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Hong [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine, The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study was compare to the patient setup deviation of two different type thermoplastic immobilization masks for glottis cancer in the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). A total of 16 glottis cancer cases were divided into two groups based on applied mask type: standard or alternative group. The mean error (M), three-dimensional setup displacement error (3D-error), systematic error (Σ), random error (σ) were calculated for each group, and also analyzed setup margin (mm). The 3D-errors were 5.2 ± 1.3 mm and 5.9 ± 0.7 mm for the standard and alternative groups, respectively; the alternative group was 13.6% higher than the standard group. The systematic errors in the roll angle and the x, y, z directions were 0.8°, 1.7 mm, 1.0 mm, and 1.5 mm in the alternative group and 0.8°, 1.1 mm, 1.8 mm, and 2.0 mm in the alternative group. The random errors in the x, y, z directions were 10.9%, 1.7%, and 23.1% lower in the alternative group than in the standard group. However, absolute rotational angle (i.e., roll) in the alternative group was 12.4% higher than in the standard group. For calculated setup margin, the alternative group in x direction was 31.8% lower than in standard group. In contrast, the y and z direction were 52.6% and 21.6% higher than in the standard group. Although using a modified thermoplastic immobilization mask could be affect patient setup deviation in terms of numerical results, various point of view for an immobilization masks has need to research in terms of clinic issue.

  12. Automated patient setup and gating using cone beam computed tomography projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hanlin; Bertholet, Jenny; Ge, Jiajia; Poulsen, Per; Parikh, Parag

    2016-03-01

    In radiation therapy, fiducial markers are often implanted near tumors and used for patient positioning and respiratory gating purposes. These markers are then used to manually align the patients by matching the markers in the cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) reconstruction to those in the planning CT. This step is time-intensive and user-dependent, and often results in a suboptimal patient setup. We propose a fully automated, robust method based on dynamic programming (DP) for segmenting radiopaque fiducial markers in CBCT projection images, which are then used to automatically optimize the treatment couch position and/or gating window bounds. The mean of the absolute 2D segmentation error of our DP algorithm is 1.3+/- 1.0 mm for 87 markers on 39 patients. Intrafraction images were acquired every 3 s during treatment at two different institutions. For gated patients from Institution A (8 patients, 40 fractions), the DP algorithm increased the delivery accuracy (96+/- 6% versus 91+/- 11% , p  manual setup using kV fluoroscopy. For non-gated patients from Institution B (6 patients, 16 fractions), the DP algorithm performed similarly (1.5+/- 0.8 mm versus 1.6+/- 0.9 mm, p  =  0.48) compared to the manual setup matching the fiducial markers in the CBCT to the mean position. Our proposed automated patient setup algorithm only takes 1-2 s to run, requires no user intervention, and performs as well as or better than the current clinical setup.

  13. Cumulative sum method in nonzero fixed action level setup correction strategy: an application of statistical process control for targeted prostate radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, N M; Wee, L

    2012-05-01

    This study aims to incorporate a statistical process control tool, the cumulative sum (CUSUM) method, in the nonzero fixed action level setup correction strategy for the detection and correction of systematic shifts in prostate position during prostate image-guided radiotherapy. A daily nonzero action level setup correction strategy using CUSUM chart was proposed and tested retrospectively on 34 nonrandomized patients with prostate-implanted fiducial markers in situ plus daily localization via stereoscopic electronic portal imaging. A cumulative error index, which monitors a cumulative process index over time, was implemented in parallel with the localization offsets of the prostate. A value of this index exceeding a decision interval H indicated that a systematic change in the mean value of localization had occurred. When a value of the index exceeding H was recorded, the magnitude of the systematic shift was estimated and the subsequent prescribed offsets were corrected to account for the new setup positions. With the new protocol, the authors produced simulated treatment histories in which the detection of systematic shifts and the frequency of localization offset exceeding action level were evaluated. The protocol was examined against three levels of mean systematic shifts of localization for detection (μ(1)) of 3, 5, and 7 mm. The overall rates of detection of systematic shifts using this algorithm were relatively high. The level μ(1) = 3 mm resulted in the highest rate of detection of systematic offset change, in 42% of the charts. For larger values of μ(1), the overall detection numbers fell to 18% and 12% of the charts for μ(1) = 5 and 7 mm, respectively. The mean magnitude of change in systematic offset at time of detection was 3.1, 4.4, and 5.2 mm for μ(1) = 3, 5, and 7 mm, respectively. By adapting the setup position for any change in systematic localization offset over a course of treatment using the new protocol, it has been shown that

  14. Letter: A simple ion source set-up for desorption/ionization on silicon with ion mobility spectrometry and ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamov, Alexey; Sysoev, Alexey A; Grigoras, Kestutis; Laakia, Jaako; Kotiaho, Tapio

    2011-01-01

    Using a simple ion source set-up, laser desorption/ionization on silicon (DIOS) was demonstrated with the use of a custom-made drift tube ion mobility spectrometer (IMS), mounted on a commercial triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, and with an IMS equipped with a Faraday plate detector. DIOS was tested by mobility measurement of tetrapropylammonium iodide, tetrabutylammonium iodide and tetrapentylammonium iodide, whilst 2,6-di-tert- butylpyridine was used as a standard. The reduced mobilities measured for the test halides are in concordance with previously obtained ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry data.

  15. Mechanical characterization of a short fiber-reinforced polymer at room temperature: experimental setups evaluated by an optical measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, C.; Scheffer, T.; Diebels, S.

    2017-09-01

    Composite materials are of great interest for industrial applications because of their outstanding properties. Each composite material has its own characteristics due to the large number of possible combinations of matrix and filler. As a result of their compounding, composites usually show a complex material behavior. This work is focused on the experimental testing of a short fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composite at room temperature. The characteristic behavior of this material class is often based on a superposition of typical material effects. The predicted characteristic material properties such as elasto-plasticity, damage and anisotropy of the investigated material are obtained from results of cyclic uniaxial tensile tests at constant strain rate. Concerning the manufacturing process as well as industrial applications, the experimental investigations are extended to multiaxial loading situations. Therefore, the composite material is examined with a setup close to a deep-drawing process, the Nakajima test (Nakazima et al. in Study on the formability of steel sheets. Yawate Technical Report No. 264, pp 8517-8530, 1968). The evaluation of the experimental investigations is provided by an optical analysis system using a digital image correlation software. Finally, based on the results of the uniaxial tensile tests, a one-dimensional macroscopic model is introduced and first results of the simulation are provided.

  16. Actual target coverage after setup verification using surgical clips compared with external skin markers in postoperative breast cancer radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Salm, Anke; Murrer, Lars; Steenbakkers, Inge; Houben, Ruud; Boersma, Liesbeth J

    After changing from offline setup verification to online setup verification using external skin markers in breast cancer patients, we noticed an increase in localized acute skin toxicity beneath the markers. Also, in vivo 3-dimensional dose measurements showed deviations between the delivered and the planned dose distributions; therefore, we investigated the accuracy of setup verification using surgical clips in the tumor bed, with a focus on target coverage of whole breast and tumor bed. Orthogonal kilovoltage images were acquired before every fraction in 35 breast cancer patients, deriving an online 3-dimensional setup error by matching on external skin markers. In retrospect, a rematch was performed using surgical clips. For 155 fractions (ie, 5-6 fractions/patient), a cone beam computed tomography (CT) scan was available. Analysis concerned: (1) visibility of the clips, (2) migration of the clips, (3) comparison of setup errors according to both match methods, and (4) comparison of target coverage by recalculating the dose on the online setup-corrected cone beam CT scan with the patient setup according to both match methods. External validation of the surgical clip-based online setup verification was performed in 23 patients by analyzing kilovoltage images of 100 fractions, obtained after treatment. All types of surgical clips could be visualized. The clip to center-of-mass distance decreased on average by 2 mm (standard deviation, 1) over the course of treatment. Setup differences between match methods were on average validation in 23 patients showed reassuring setup errors verification using surgical clips results in comparable setup corrections and target volume coverage as verification using skin markers. By omitting skin markers acute skin toxicity beneath the markers is prevented. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Calculation errors of Set-up in patients with tumor location of prostate. Exploratory study; Calculo de errores de Set-up en pacientes con localizacion tumoral de prostata. Estudio exploratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donis Gil, S.; Robayna Duque, B. E.; Jimenez Sosa, A.; Hernandez Armas, O.; Gonzalez Martin, A. E.; Hernandez Armas, J.

    2013-07-01

    The calculation of SM is done from errors in positioning (set-up). These errors are calculated from movements in 3D of the patient. This paper is an exploratory study of 20 patients with tumor location of prostate in which errors of set-up for two protocols of work are evaluated. (Author)

  18. Considerations for GPU SEE Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwas, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the considerations an engineer should take to perform Single Event Effects (SEE) testing on GPU devices. Notable topics will include setup complexity, architecture insight which permits cross platform normalization, acquiring a reasonable detail of information from the test suite, and a few lessons learned from preliminary testing.

  19. Setup Accuracy of the Novalis ExacTrac 6DOF System for Frameless Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevaert, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.gevaert@uzbrussel.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium); Verellen, Dirk; Tournel, Koen; Linthout, Nadine; Bral, Samuel; Engels, Benedikt; Collen, Christine; Depuydt, Tom; Duchateau, Michael; Reynders, Truus; Storme, Guy; De Ridder, Mark [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: Stereotactic radiosurgery using frame-based positioning is a well-established technique for the treatment of benign and malignant lesions. By contrast, a new trend toward frameless systems using image-guided positioning techniques is gaining mainstream acceptance. This study was designed to measure the detection and positioning accuracy of the ExacTrac/Novalis Body (ET/NB) for rotations and to compare the accuracy of the frameless with the frame-based radiosurgery technique. Methods and Materials: A program was developed in house to rotate reference computed tomography images. The angles measured by the system were compared with the known rotations. The accuracy of ET/NB was evaluated with a head phantom with seven lead beads inserted, mounted on a treatment couch equipped with a robotic tilt module, and was measured with a digital water level and portal films. Multiple hidden target tests (HTT) were performed to measure the overall accuracy of the different positioning techniques for radiosurgery (i.e., frameless and frame-based with relocatable mask or invasive ring, respectively). Results: The ET/NB system can detect rotational setup errors with an average accuracy of 0.09 Degree-Sign (standard deviation [SD] 0.06 Degree-Sign ), 0.02 Degree-Sign (SD 0.07 Degree-Sign ), and 0.06 Degree-Sign (SD 0.14 Degree-Sign ) for longitudinal, lateral, and vertical rotations, respectively. The average positioning accuracy was 0.06 Degree-Sign (SD 0.04 Degree-Sign ), 0.08 Degree-Sign (SD 0.06 Degree-Sign ), and 0.08 Degree-Sign (SD 0.07 Degree-Sign ) for longitudinal, lateral and vertical rotations, respectively. The results of the HTT showed an overall three-dimensional accuracy of 0.76 mm (SD 0.46 mm) for the frameless technique, 0.87 mm (SD 0.44 mm) for the relocatable mask, and 1.19 mm (SD 0.45 mm) for the frame-based technique. Conclusions: The study showed high detection accuracy and a subdegree positioning accuracy. On the basis of phantom studies, the

  20. Setup accuracy of the Novalis ExacTrac 6DOF system for frameless radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevaert, Thierry; Verellen, Dirk; Tournel, Koen; Linthout, Nadine; Bral, Samuel; Engels, Benedikt; Collen, Christine; Depuydt, Tom; Duchateau, Michael; Reynders, Truus; Storme, Guy; De Ridder, Mark

    2012-04-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery using frame-based positioning is a well-established technique for the treatment of benign and malignant lesions. By contrast, a new trend toward frameless systems using image-guided positioning techniques is gaining mainstream acceptance. This study was designed to measure the detection and positioning accuracy of the ExacTrac/Novalis Body (ET/NB) for rotations and to compare the accuracy of the frameless with the frame-based radiosurgery technique. A program was developed in house to rotate reference computed tomography images. The angles measured by the system were compared with the known rotations. The accuracy of ET/NB was evaluated with a head phantom with seven lead beads inserted, mounted on a treatment couch equipped with a robotic tilt module, and was measured with a digital water level and portal films. Multiple hidden target tests (HTT) were performed to measure the overall accuracy of the different positioning techniques for radiosurgery (i.e., frameless and frame-based with relocatable mask or invasive ring, respectively). The ET/NB system can detect rotational setup errors with an average accuracy of 0.09° (standard deviation [SD] 0.06°), 0.02° (SD 0.07°), and 0.06° (SD 0.14°) for longitudinal, lateral, and vertical rotations, respectively. The average positioning accuracy was 0.06° (SD 0.04°), 0.08° (SD 0.06°), and 0.08° (SD 0.07°) for longitudinal, lateral and vertical rotations, respectively. The results of the HTT showed an overall three-dimensional accuracy of 0.76 mm (SD 0.46 mm) for the frameless technique, 0.87 mm (SD 0.44 mm) for the relocatable mask, and 1.19 mm (SD 0.45 mm) for the frame-based technique. The study showed high detection accuracy and a subdegree positioning accuracy. On the basis of phantom studies, the frameless technique showed comparable accuracy to the frame-based approach. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Multimodal optical setup based on spectrometer and cameras combination for biological tissue characterization with spatially modulated illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Daniel; Abookasis, David

    2017-04-01

    The application of optical techniques as tools for biomedical research has generated substantial interest for the ability of such methodologies to simultaneously measure biochemical and morphological parameters of tissue. Ongoing optimization of optical techniques may introduce such tools as alternative or complementary to conventional methodologies. The common approach shared by current optical techniques lies in the independent acquisition of tissue's optical properties (i.e., absorption and reduced scattering coefficients) from reflected or transmitted light. Such optical parameters, in turn, provide detailed information regarding both the concentrations of clinically relevant chromophores and macroscopic structural variations in tissue. We couple a noncontact optical setup with a simple analysis algorithm to obtain absorption and scattering coefficients of biological samples under test. Technically, a portable picoprojector projects serial sinusoidal patterns at low and high spatial frequencies, while a spectrometer and two independent CCD cameras simultaneously acquire the reflected diffuse light through a single spectrometer and two separate CCD cameras having different bandpass filters at nonisosbestic and isosbestic wavelengths in front of each. This configuration fills the gaps in each other's capabilities for acquiring optical properties of tissue at high spectral and spatial resolution. Experiments were performed on both tissue-mimicking phantoms as well as hands of healthy human volunteers to quantify their optical properties as proof of concept for the present technique. In a separate experiment, we derived the optical properties of the hand skin from the measured diffuse reflectance, based on a recently developed camera model. Additionally, oxygen saturation levels of tissue measured by the system were found to agree well with reference values. Taken together, the present results demonstrate the potential of this integrated setup for diagnostic and

  2. Integrated trimodal SSEP experimental setup for visual, auditory and tactile stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuś, Rafał; Spustek, Tomasz; Zieleniewska, Magdalena; Duszyk, Anna; Rogowski, Piotr; Suffczyński, Piotr

    2017-12-01

    Objective. Steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs), the brain responses to repetitive stimulation, are commonly used in both clinical practice and scientific research. Particular brain mechanisms underlying SSEPs in different modalities (i.e. visual, auditory and tactile) are very complex and still not completely understood. Each response has distinct resonant frequencies and exhibits a particular brain topography. Moreover, the topography can be frequency-dependent, as in case of auditory potentials. However, to study each modality separately and also to investigate multisensory interactions through multimodal experiments, a proper experimental setup appears to be of critical importance. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a novel SSEP experimental setup providing a repetitive stimulation in three different modalities (visual, tactile and auditory) with a precise control of stimuli parameters. Results from a pilot study with a stimulation in a particular modality and in two modalities simultaneously prove the feasibility of the device to study SSEP phenomenon. Approach. We developed a setup of three separate stimulators that allows for a precise generation of repetitive stimuli. Besides sequential stimulation in a particular modality, parallel stimulation in up to three different modalities can be delivered. Stimulus in each modality is characterized by a stimulation frequency and a waveform (sine or square wave). We also present a novel methodology for the analysis of SSEPs. Main results. Apart from constructing the experimental setup, we conducted a pilot study with both sequential and simultaneous stimulation paradigms. EEG signals recorded during this study were analyzed with advanced methodology based on spatial filtering and adaptive approximation, followed by statistical evaluation. Significance. We developed a novel experimental setup for performing SSEP experiments. In this sense our study continues the ongoing research in this field. On the

  3. SU-E-T-463: Quantification of Rotational Variation in Mouse Setup for IGRT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarroll, R; Rubinstein, A; Kingsley, C; Yang, J; Yang, P; Court, L [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: New small-animal irradiators include extremely precise IGRT capabilities. However, mouse immobilization and localization remains a challenge. In particular, unlike week-to-week translational displacements, rotational changes in positioning are not easily corrected for in subject setup. Using two methods of setup, we aim to quantify week-to-week rotational variation in mice for the purpose of IGRT planning in small animal studies. Methods: Ten mice were imaged weekly using breath-hold CBCT (X-RAD 225 Cx), with the mouse positioned in a half-pipe support, providing 40 scans. A second group of two mice were positioned in a 3D printed immobilization device, which was created using a CT from a similarly shaped mouse, providing 10 scans. For each mouse, the first image was taken to be the reference image. Subsequent CT images were then rigidly registered, based on bony anatomy. Rotations in the axial (roll), sagittal (pitch), and coronal (yaw) planes were recorded and used to quantify variation in angular setup. Results: For the mice imaged in the half pipe, average magnitude of roll was found to be 5.4±4.6° (range: −12.9:18.86°), of pitch 1.6±1.3° (range: −1.4:4.7°), and of yaw 1.9±1.5° (range −5.4:1.1°). For the mice imaged in the printed setup; average magnitude of roll was found to be 0.64±0.6° (range: −2.1:1.0°), of pitch 0.6±0.4° (range: 0.0:1.3°), and of yaw 0.2±0.1° (range: 0.0:0.4°). The printed setup provided reduction in roll, pitch, and yaw by 88, 62, and 90 percent, respectively. Conclusion: For the typical setup routine, roll in mouse position is the dominant source of rotational variation. However, when a printed device was used, drastic improvements in mouse immobilization were seen. This work provides a promising foundation for mouse immobilization, required for full scale small animal IGRT. Currently, we are making improvements to allo±w the use of a similar system for MR, PET, and bioluminescence.

  4. Walkable self-overlapping virtual reality maze and map visualization demo: public virtual reality setup for asymmetric collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serubugo, Sule; Skantarova, Denisa; Evers, Nicolaj

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes our demonstration of a walkable self-overlapping maze and its corresponding map to facilitate asymmetric collaboration for room-scale virtual reality setups in public places.......This paper describes our demonstration of a walkable self-overlapping maze and its corresponding map to facilitate asymmetric collaboration for room-scale virtual reality setups in public places....

  5. Interferometric focal length measurement of positive and negative lenses using a lateral-shearing cyclic path optical configuration setup and polarization phase-shifting interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Y Pavan; Negi, Sarvendra Singh; Kamath, M Pandurang; Chatterjee, Sanjib; Sharma, S D; Joshi, A S

    2017-10-20

    We present a simple interferometric focal length measurement technique for measuring the focal length of positive and negative lenses using a lateral-shearing cyclic path optical configuration (CPOC) setup and polarization phase-shifting interferometry (PPSI). The technique requires an auxiliary lens, whose focal length need not be known accurately, for generating a focused point source at its focal plane. The focal point of the test lens is adjusted to be in the vicinity of the focus of the auxiliary lens. The radii of the resulting spherical wave fronts emerging from the test lens, due to the defocus, for two different longitudinal shifted positions of the test lens are measured using the lateral-shearing CPOC setup and PPSI. Focal length of the test lens is determined from the known longitudinal shift and from the measured radii of the spherical wave fronts. Results obtained for 200.0 mm convex and 100.0 mm concave test lenses are presented.

  6. Investigation on Superior Performance by Fractional Controller for Cart-Servo Laboratory Set-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameya Anil Kesarkar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an investigation is made on the superiority of fractional PID controller (PI^alpha D^beta over conventional PID for the cart-servo laboratory set-up. The designed controllers are optimum in the sense of Integral Absolute Error (IAE and Integral Square Error (ISE. The paper contributes in three aspects: 1 Acquiring nonlinear mathematical model for the cart-servo laboratory set-up, 2 Designing fractional and integer order PID for minimizing IAE, ISE, 3 Analyzing the performance of designed controllers for simulated plant model as well as real plant. The results show a significantly superior performance by PI^alpha D^beta as compared to the conventional PID controller.

  7. A containerless levitation setup for liquid processing in a superconducting magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui-Meng; Yin, Da-Chuan; Li, Hai-Sheng; Geng, Li-Qiang; Zhang, Chen-Yan; Lu, Qin-Qin; Guo, Yun-Zhu; Guo, Wei-Hong; Shang, Peng; Wakayama, Nobuko I

    2008-09-01

    Containerless processing of materials is considered beneficial for obtaining high quality products due to the elimination of the detrimental effects coming from the contact with container walls. Many containerless processing methods are realized by levitation techniques. This paper describes a containerless levitation setup that utilized the magnetization force generated in a gradient magnetic field. It comprises a levitation unit, a temperature control unit, and a real-time observation unit. Known volume of liquid diamagnetic samples can be levitated in the levitation chamber, the temperature of which is controlled using the temperature control unit. The evolution of the levitated sample is observed in real time using the observation unit. With this setup, containerless processing of liquid such as crystal growth from solution can be realized in a well-controlled manner. Since the levitation is achieved using a superconducting magnet, experiments requiring long duration time such as protein crystallization and simulation of space environment for living system can be easily succeeded.

  8. A simple and reliable setup for monitoring corrosion rate of steel rebars in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shamsad; Jibran, Mohammed Abdul Azeem; Azad, Abul Kalam; Maslehuddin, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy in the measurement of the rate of corrosion of steel in concrete depends on many factors. The high resistivity of concrete makes the polarization data erroneous due to the Ohmic drop. The other source of error is the use of an arbitrarily assumed value of the Stern-Geary constant for calculating corrosion current density. This paper presents the outcomes of a research work conducted to develop a reliable and low-cost experimental setup and a simple calculation procedure that can be utilised to calculate the corrosion current density considering the Ohmic drop compensation and the actual value of the Stern-Geary constants calculated using the polarization data. The measurements conducted on specimens corroded to different levels indicate the usefulness of the developed setup to determine the corrosion current density with and without Ohmic drop compensation.

  9. First measurements at the DA{phi}NE {phi}-factory with the DEAR experimental setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augsburger, M. [Fribourg Univ., Fribourg (Switzerland). Inst. de Physiqe, Bd. de Perolles; Bragadireanu, A.M.; Petrascu, C.; Iliescu, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, RM (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Inst. of Physics and Nuclear Engineering Horia Hulubei, Magurele, Bucharest (Romania). Dept. of High Energy Physics; Egger, J.-P. [Neuchatel Univ., Neuchatel, (Switzerland). Inst. de Physique; Gartner, B.; Zmeskal, J.; King, R. [Austrian Academy of Sciences, Wien, (Austria). Inst. for Medium Energy Physics; Guaraldo, C.; Lauss, B [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Frascati, RM (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati

    1999-07-01

    The relevant background for the DEAR experiment - low-energy X-rays and ionizing particles - present in the DEAR interaction region of the DA{phi}NE e{sup +} e{sup -} collider was investigated using the first stage DEAR setup and CCD detectors. An extensive Monte Carlo simulation was performed for the present setup and beam conditions. Good quantitative agreement between measurements and simulation was achieved. This is a confirmation that, with respect to the expected background, which gives an important contribution to the statistical precision of the experiment, the configuration chosen to measure the strong interaction shift and width in kaonic hydrogen and kaonic deuterium can indeed reach the planned level of accuracy.

  10. A diagnostic system for electrical faults in a high current discharge plasma setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigam, S.; Aneesh, K.; Navathe, C. P.; Gupta, P. D. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2011-02-15

    A diagnostic system to detect electrical faults inside a coaxial high current discharge device is presented here. This technique utilizes two biconical antennas picking up electromagnetic radiation from the discharge device, a voltage divider sensing input voltage, and a Rogowski coil measuring the main discharge current. A computer program then analyses frequency components in these signals and provides information as to whether the discharge event was normal or any breakdown fault occurred inside the coaxial device. The diagnostic system is developed for a 450 kV and 50 kA capillary discharge plasma setup. For the setup various possible faults are analyzed by electrical simulation, followed by experimental results. In the case of normal discharge through the capillary load the dominant frequency is {approx}4 MHz. Under faulty conditions, the peak in magnitude versus frequency plot of the antenna signal changes according to the fault position which involves different paths causing variation in the equivalent circuit elements.

  11. A diagnostic system for electrical faults in a high current discharge plasma setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S; Aneesh, K; Navathe, C P; Gupta, P D

    2011-02-01

    A diagnostic system to detect electrical faults inside a coaxial high current discharge device is presented here. This technique utilizes two biconical antennas picking up electromagnetic radiation from the discharge device, a voltage divider sensing input voltage, and a Rogowski coil measuring the main discharge current. A computer program then analyses frequency components in these signals and provides information as to whether the discharge event was normal or any breakdown fault occurred inside the coaxial device. The diagnostic system is developed for a 450 kV and 50 kA capillary discharge plasma setup. For the setup various possible faults are analyzed by electrical simulation, followed by experimental results. In the case of normal discharge through the capillary load the dominant frequency is ∼4 MHz. Under faulty conditions, the peak in magnitude versus frequency plot of the antenna signal changes according to the fault position which involves different paths causing variation in the equivalent circuit elements.

  12. A diagnostic system for electrical faults in a high current discharge plasma setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S.; Aneesh, K.; Navathe, C. P.; Gupta, P. D.

    2011-02-01

    A diagnostic system to detect electrical faults inside a coaxial high current discharge device is presented here. This technique utilizes two biconical antennas picking up electromagnetic radiation from the discharge device, a voltage divider sensing input voltage, and a Rogowski coil measuring the main discharge current. A computer program then analyses frequency components in these signals and provides information as to whether the discharge event was normal or any breakdown fault occurred inside the coaxial device. The diagnostic system is developed for a 450 kV and 50 kA capillary discharge plasma setup. For the setup various possible faults are analyzed by electrical simulation, followed by experimental results. In the case of normal discharge through the capillary load the dominant frequency is ˜4 MHz. Under faulty conditions, the peak in magnitude versus frequency plot of the antenna signal changes according to the fault position which involves different paths causing variation in the equivalent circuit elements.

  13. Versatile setup for optical spectroscopy under high pressure and low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Michaël K.; Levallois, Julien; Akrap, Ana; Teyssier, Jérémie; Kuzmenko, Alexey B.; Lévy-Bertrand, Florence; Tediosi, Riccardo; Brandt, Mehdi; Lerch, Philippe; van der Marel, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    We present an optical setup for spectroscopic measurements in the infrared and of Raman shift under high pressure and at low temperature. Using a membrane-driven diamond anvil cell, the pressure can be tuned in situ up to 20 GPa and the temperatures ranges from room temperature down to 18 K in transmission mode and 13 K in reflection mode. In transmission, the setup is entirely working under vacuum to reduce the water absorption features and obtain a higher spectral stability. Since the infrared throughput obtained with a thermal source is limited, the use of a synchrotron source allowed to enhance the performance, as illustrated with results obtained with various materials. The analysis of the reflectivity is adapted so that it benefits from ambient pressure data and produces quantitative optical conductivity curves that can be easily compared to the results at ambient pressure.

  14. Relative performance of priority rules for hybrid flow shop scheduling with setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Yochihiro Fuchigami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses the hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with explicit and sequence-independent setup times. This production environment is a multistage system with unidirectional flow of jobs, wherein each stage may contain multiple machines available for processing. The optimized measure was the total time to complete the schedule (makespan. The aim was to propose new priority rules to support the schedule and to evaluate their relative performance at the production system considered by the percentage of success, relative deviation, standard deviation of relative deviation, and average CPU time. Computational experiments have indicated that the rules using ascending order of the sum of processing and setup times of the first stage (SPT1 and SPT1_ERD performed better, reaching together more than 56% of success.

  15. 350 keV accelerator based PGNAA setup to detect nitrogen in bulk samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.sa [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Al-Matouq, Faris A.; Khiari, F.Z.; Gondal, M.A.; Rehman, Khateeb-ur [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Isab, A.A. [Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Raashid, M.; Dastageer, M.A. [Department of Physics and King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    2013-11-21

    Nitrogen concentration was measured in explosive and narcotics proxy material, e.g. anthranilic acid, caffeine, melamine, and urea samples, bulk samples through thermal neutron capture reaction using 350 keV accelerator based prompt gamma ray neutron activation (PGNAA) setup. Intensity of 2.52, 3.53–3.68, 4.51, 5.27–5.30 and 10.38 MeV prompt gamma rays of nitrogen from the bulk samples was measured using a cylindrical 100 mm×100 mm (diameter×height ) BGO detector. Inspite of interference of nitrogen gamma rays from bulk samples with capture prompt gamma rays from BGO detector material, an excellent agreement between the experimental and calculated yields of nitrogen gamma rays has been obtained. This is an indication of the excellent performance of the PGNAA setup for detection of nitrogen in bulk samples.

  16. Development of a TOF SIMS setup at the Zagreb heavy ion microbeam facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadić, Tonči [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Bogdanović Radović, Iva, E-mail: iva@irb.hr [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Siketić, Zdravko; Cosic, Donny Domagoj; Skukan, Natko; Jakšić, Milko [Laboratory for Ion Beam Interactions, Ruđer Bošković Institute, Bijenička 54, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Matsuo, Jiro [Quantum Science and Engineering Center, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2014-08-01

    We describe a new Time-of-flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF SIMS) setup for MeV SIMS application, which is constructed and installed at the heavy ion microbeam facility at the Ruđer Bošković Institute in Zagreb. The TOF-SIMS setup is developed for high sensitivity molecular imaging using a heavy ion microbeam that focuses ion beams (from C to I) with sub-micron resolution. Dedicated pulse processing electronics for MeV SIMS application have been developed, enabling microbeam-scanning control, incoming ion microbeam pulsing and molecular mapping. The first results showing measured MeV SIMS spectra as well as molecular maps for samples of interest are presented and discussed.

  17. High Speed Stereovision Setup for Position and Motion Estimation of Fertilizer Particles Leaving a Centrifugal Spreader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Hijazi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A 3D imaging technique using a high speed binocular stereovision system was developed in combination with corresponding image processing algorithms for accurate determination of the parameters of particles leaving the spinning disks of centrifugal fertilizer spreaders. Validation of the stereo-matching algorithm using a virtual 3D stereovision simulator indicated an error of less than 2 pixels for 90% of the particles. The setup was validated using the cylindrical spread pattern of an experimental spreader. A 2D correlation coefficient of 90% and a Relative Error of 27% was found between the experimental results and the (simulated spread pattern obtained with the developed setup. In combination with a ballistic flight model, the developed image acquisition and processing algorithms can enable fast determination and evaluation of the spread pattern which can be used as a tool for spreader design and precise machine calibration.

  18. New education system for construction of optical holography setup - Tangible learning with Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    In case of teaching optical system construction, it is difficult to prepare the optical components for the attendance student. However the tangible learning is very important to master the optical system construction. It helps learners understand easily to use an inexpensive learning system that provides optical experiments experiences. Therefore, we propose the new education system for construction of optical setup with the augmented reality. To use the augmented reality, the proposed system can simulate the optical system construction by the direct hand control. Also, this system only requires an inexpensive web camera, printed makers and a personal computer. Since this system does not require the darkroom and the expensive optical equipments, the learners can study anytime, anywhere when they want to do. In this paper, we developed the system that can teach the optical system construction of the Denisyuk hologram and 2-step transmission type hologram. For the tangible learning and the easy understanding, the proposed system displays the CG objects of the optical components on the markers which are controlled by the learner's hands. The proposed system does not only display the CG object, but also display the light beam which is controlled by the optical components. To display the light beam that is hard to be seen directly, the learners can confirm about what is happening by the own manipulation. For the construction of optical holography setup, we arrange a laser, mirrors, a PBS (polarizing beam splitter), lenses, a polarizer, half-wave plates, spatial filters, an optical power meter and a recording plate. After the construction, proposed system can check optical setup correctly. In comparison with the learners who only read a book, the learners who use the system can construct the optical holography setup more quickly and correctly.

  19. Elbow arthroscopy: a new setup to avoid visual paradox and improve triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Apurv; Pydah, Satya Kanth V; Webb, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Elbow arthroscopy is a useful diagnostic and therapeutic tool for various conditions. Conventional arthroscopy with the patient in the prone or lateral position where the screen is placed on the opposite side makes it difficult to interpret the image, results in visual paradox, and is associated with difficult triangulation. We present a modified setup for the operating room to help eliminate these problems and improve triangulation.

  20. Heuristics methods for the flow shop scheduling problem with separated setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Seido Nagano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the permutation flow shop scheduling problem with separated machine setup times. As a result of an investigation on the problem characteristics, four heuristics methods are proposed with procedures of the construction sequencing solution by an analogy with the asymmetric traveling salesman problem with the objective of minimizing makespan. Experimental results show that one of the new heuristics methods proposed provide high quality solutions in comparisons with the evaluated methods considered in the literature.

  1. Development of innovative computer software to facilitate the setup and computation of water quality index

    OpenAIRE

    Nabizadeh, Ramin; Valadi Amin, Maryam; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Naddafi, Kazem; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Yousefzadeh, Samira

    2013-01-01

    Background Developing a water quality index which is used to convert the water quality dataset into a single number is the most important task of most water quality monitoring programmes. As the water quality index setup is based on different local obstacles, it is not feasible to introduce a definite water quality index to reveal the water quality level. Findings In this study, an innovative software application, the Iranian Water Quality Index Software (IWQIS), is presented in order to faci...

  2. Statistical Assessment of Proton Treatment Plans Under Setup and Range Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Peter C.; Cheung, Joey P.; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Andrew K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Sahoo, Narayan [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liu, Wei; Li, Heng; Mohan, Radhe; Court, Laurence E. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong, Lei, E-mail: dong.lei@scrippshealth.org [Scripps Proton Therapy Center, San Diego, California (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a method for quantifying the effect of setup errors and range uncertainties on dose distribution and dose–volume histogram using statistical parameters; and to assess existing planning practice in selected treatment sites under setup and range uncertainties. Methods and Materials: Twenty passively scattered proton lung cancer plans, 10 prostate, and 1 brain cancer scanning-beam proton plan(s) were analyzed. To account for the dose under uncertainties, we performed a comprehensive simulation in which the dose was recalculated 600 times per given plan under the influence of random and systematic setup errors and proton range errors. On the basis of simulation results, we determined the probability of dose variations and calculated the expected values and standard deviations of dose–volume histograms. The uncertainties in dose were spatially visualized on the planning CT as a probability map of failure to target coverage or overdose of critical structures. Results: The expected value of target coverage under the uncertainties was consistently lower than that of the nominal value determined from the clinical target volume coverage without setup error or range uncertainty, with a mean difference of −1.1% (−0.9% for breath-hold), −0.3%, and −2.2% for lung, prostate, and a brain cases, respectively. The organs with most sensitive dose under uncertainties were esophagus and spinal cord for lung, rectum for prostate, and brain stem for brain cancer. Conclusions: A clinically feasible robustness plan analysis tool based on direct dose calculation and statistical simulation has been developed. Both the expectation value and standard deviation are useful to evaluate the impact of uncertainties. The existing proton beam planning method used in this institution seems to be adequate in terms of target coverage. However, structures that are small in volume or located near the target area showed greater sensitivity to uncertainties.

  3. Nonequilibrium thermodynamics of single DNA hairpins in a dual-trap optical tweezers setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellari, M. Ribezzi; Huguet, J. M.; Ritort, F.

    2011-03-01

    We use two counter propagating laser beams to create a dual trap optical tweezers setup which is free from cross interference between the beams and provides great instrumental stability. This setup works by direct measurement of light momentum, separately for each trap, and is based on the Minitweezers design [1]. The dual trap setup has many applications: it can be used to study the force-dependent unfolding kinetics of single molecules and to address fundamental problems in nonequilibrium thermodynamics of small systems [2]. Recent progress in statistical physics has shown the importance of considering large energy deviations in the beahvior of systems that are driven out-of-equilibrium by time-dependent forces. Prominent examples are nonequilibrium work relations (e.g. the Jarzynski equality [3]) and fluctuation theorems. By repeated measurement of the irreversible work the Jarzynski equality allows us to recover the free energy difference between two thermodynamic states, AF, by taking exponential averages of the work W done by the external agent on the system, e-βΔF = transformations. This implies that mechanical work must be measured in the proper reference that is solidary with the thermal bath for these relations to hold. We have carried out repeated mechanical unfolding/folding cycles on short (20 bp) DNA hairpins and measured work distributions in the dual-trap setup along this process. Our aim is to check under which experimental conditions we can discern the non-invariance property of fluctuation relations thereby establishing the correct operative definition of the work in our setting. This study may help to identify and quantify potential violations of the fluctuation relations.

  4. SOFIA: An innovative setup to measure complete isotopic yield of fission fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellereau, E.; Bélier, G.; Boutoux, G.; Chatillon, A.; Ebran, A.; Gorbinet, T.; Laurent, B.; Martin, J.-F.; Taieb, J.; Audouin, L.; Tassan-Got, L.; Jurado, B.; Álvarez-Pol, H.; Ayyad, Y.; Benlliure, J.; Caamaño, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Paradela, C.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, J. L.; Vargas, J.; Casarejos, E.; Heinz, A.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Kurz, N.; Nociforo, C.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rossi, D.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Simon, H.; Voss, B.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    We performed an experiment dedicated to the accurate isotopic yield measurement of fission fragments over the whole range. SOFIA exploits the inverse kinematics technique: using heavy ion beams at relativistic energies, fission is induced by Coulomb excitation in a high-Z target. The fragments are emitted forward and both of them are identified in charge and mass. The setup will be presented, as well as preliminary spectra.

  5. GPU-accelerated automatic identification of robust beam setups for proton and carbon-ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammazzalorso, F.; Bednarz, T.; Jelen, U.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate acceleration on graphic processing units (GPU) of automatic identification of robust particle therapy beam setups, minimizing negative dosimetric effects of Bragg peak displacement caused by treatment-time patient positioning errors. Our particle therapy research toolkit, RobuR, was extended with OpenCL support and used to implement calculation on GPU of the Port Homogeneity Index, a metric scoring irradiation port robustness through analysis of tissue density patterns prior to dose optimization and computation. Results were benchmarked against an independent native CPU implementation. Numerical results were in agreement between the GPU implementation and native CPU implementation. For 10 skull base cases, the GPU-accelerated implementation was employed to select beam setups for proton and carbon ion treatment plans, which proved to be dosimetrically robust, when recomputed in presence of various simulated positioning errors. From the point of view of performance, average running time on the GPU decreased by at least one order of magnitude compared to the CPU, rendering the GPU-accelerated analysis a feasible step in a clinical treatment planning interactive session. In conclusion, selection of robust particle therapy beam setups can be effectively accelerated on a GPU and become an unintrusive part of the particle therapy treatment planning workflow. Additionally, the speed gain opens new usage scenarios, like interactive analysis manipulation (e.g. constraining of some setup) and re-execution. Finally, through OpenCL portable parallelism, the new implementation is suitable also for CPU-only use, taking advantage of multiple cores, and can potentially exploit types of accelerators other than GPUs.

  6. Parallel patterns determination in solving cyclic flow shop problem with setups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożejko Wojciech

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is the new idea of blocks for the cyclic flow shop problem with setup times, using multiple patterns with different sizes determined for each machine constituting optimal schedule of cities for the traveling salesman problem (TSP. We propose to take advantage of the Intel Xeon Phi parallel computing environment during so-called ’blocks’ determination basing on patterns, in effect significantly improving the quality of obtained results.

  7. In vitro measurement of ambient pressure changes using a realistic clinical setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Scheldrup; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2008-01-01

    In vitro measurement of ambient pressure changes using a realistic clinical setup Klaus Scheldrup Andersen and Jørgen Arendt Jensen Motivation and objective: Many attempts to find a non-invasive procedure to measure the local blood pressure have been made. In the last decade independent experiments...... correspondence with results by Shi et al 1999 and Adam et al 2005 who both used a receiver separated from the emitting single element transducer....

  8. SOFIA: An innovative setup to measure complete isotopic yield of fission fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellereau E.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed an experiment dedicated to the accurate isotopic yield measurement of fission fragments over the whole range. SOFIA exploits the inverse kinematics technique: using heavy ion beams at relativistic energies, fission is induced by Coulomb excitation in a high-Z target. The fragments are emitted forward and both of them are identified in charge and mass. The setup will be presented, as well as preliminary spectra.

  9. Optical setup for two-colour experiments at the low density matter beamline of FERMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finetti, Paola; Demidovich, Alexander; Plekan, Oksana; Di Fraia, Michele; Cucini, Riccardo; Callegari, Carlo; Cinquegrana, Paolo; Sigalotti, Paolo; Ivanov, Rosen; Danailov, Miltcho B.; Fava, Claudio; De Ninno, Giovanni; Coreno, Marcello; Grazioli, Cesare; Feifel, Raimund; Squibb, Richard J.; Mazza, Tommaso; Meyer, Michael; Prince, Kevin C.

    2017-11-01

    The low density matter beamline of the free electron laser facility FERMI is dedicated to the study of atomic, molecular and cluster systems, and here we describe the optical setup available for two-colour experiments. Samples can be exposed to ultrashort pulses from a Ti:Sapphire source (fundamental, or second or third harmonic), and ultrashort light pulses of FERMI in the EUV/soft x-ray region with a well-defined temporal delay, and negligible jitter (space.

  10. Laser Setup for Volume Diffractive Optical Elements Recording in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    published in non peer-reviewed journals : Final Report: Laser Setup for Volume Diffractive Optical Elements Recording in Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass...enhancement of lasers brightness and fine spectral filtering. However, further increase of size of holographic optical elements , which are required for high...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Form Approved OMB NO. 0704-0188 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) - Approved for Public Release

  11. Implementing a perpetual anesthesia setup standardized for the trauma room in a level I trauma center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faircloth, Amanda C; Ford, Mary B

    2013-02-01

    The trauma room in a level I trauma center is a dynamic environment that provides little room for error. Significant variability can exist if anesthesia providers set up the room differently. Standardization provides a system that is consistent, reliable, and cost-effective. This study examines the process of creating and implementing a standardized anesthesia setup in the trauma room of a level I trauma center. As a result of this study, the medication cart and airway setups have been standardized. Providers are encouraged to only draw up medications that will be immediately used and to ensure that prefilled syringes have been incorporated into the pharmacy formulary. Using the EZ Endo prestyleted endotracheal tube (ETT) vs a regular ETT with stylet has yielded an annual cost savings of $2,673. Ensuring that items such as an esophageal temperature probe, humidifier, and nasogastric tube are available but unopened has provided a savings of $1,989.25 per year. The reservoir bag has been changed to a latex-free bag, and 3 central line kits including an arterial line kit are routinely stocked. An ultrasound machine dedicated for central line access, GlideScope, rapid fluid infuser, and Airtraq laryngoscope have all been incorporated into the permanent setup in the trauma room.

  12. Multiple regions-of-interest analysis of setup uncertainties for head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lifei; Garden, Adam S; Lo, Justin; Ang, K Kian; Ahamad, Anesa; Morrison, William H; Rosenthal, David I; Chambers, Mark S; Zhu, X Ronald; Mohan, Radhe; Dong, Lei

    2006-04-01

    To analyze three-dimensional setup uncertainties for multiple regions of interest (ROIs) in head-and-neck region. In-room computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired using a CT-on-rails system for 14 patients. Three separate bony ROIs were defined: C2 and C6 vertebral bodies and the palatine process of the maxilla. Translational shifts of 3 ROIs were calculated relative to the marked isocenter on the immobilization mask. The shifts for all 3 ROIs were highly correlated. However, noticeable differences on the order of 2-6 mm existed between any 2 ROIs, indicating the flexibility and/or rotational effect in the head-and-neck region. The palatine process of the maxilla had the smallest right-left shifts because of the tight lateral fit in the face mask, but the largest superior-inferior movement because of in-plane rotation and variations in jaw positions. The neck region (C6) had the largest right-left shifts. The positioning mouthpiece was found effective in reducing variations in the superior-inferior direction. There was no statistically significant improvement for using the S-board (8 out of 14 patients) vs. the short face mask. We found variability in setup corrections for different regions of head-and-neck anatomy. These relative positional variations should be considered when making setup corrections or designing treatment margins.

  13. Wastewater treatment in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands using different media (setup stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Razik A. Zidan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Wastewater treatment through horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF constructed wetlands (CWs using three different treatment media (gravel, pieces of plastic pipes, and shredded tire rubber chips were investigated in Samaha village, Dakahliya, Egypt. The study focused on the wetland setup stage during the first months of its operation (setup stage. In this stage media porosity, bacterial biofilm, and plant roots growth were in progress and it was prior to the operational steady state stage. Objectives of this paper are to study the change in media porosity of HSSF wetland cells in order to estimate duration of wetland setup stage, and to evaluate the use of different bed media on biological oxygen demand (BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD and total suspended solids (TSS treatment. The results showed that after 180 days of operation, the wetland cells had reached steady porosity and had started stable treatment. Also performance of plastic media bed in pollutants reduction was better than gravel and rubber beds and gravel media was in advanced than rubber media.

  14. A total internal reflection-fluorescence correlation spectroscopy setup with pulsed diode laser excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weger, Lukas; Hoffmann-Jacobsen, Kerstin

    2017-09-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) measures fluctuations in a (sub-)femtoliter volume to analyze the diffusive behavior of fluorescent particles. This highly sensitive method has proven to be useful for the analysis of dynamic biological systems as well as in chemistry, physics, and material sciences. It is routinely performed with commercial fluorescence microscopes, which provide a confined observation volume by the confocal technique. The evanescent wave of total internal reflectance (TIR) is used in home-built systems to permit a surface sensitive FCS analysis. We present a combined confocal and TIR-FCS setup which uses economic low-power pulsed diode lasers for excitation. Excitation and detection are coupled to time-correlated photon counting hardware. This allows simultaneous fluorescence lifetime and FCS measurements in a surface-sensitive mode. Moreover, the setup supports fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy at surfaces. The excitation can be easily switched between TIR and epi-illumination to compare the surface properties with those in liquid bulk. The capabilities of the presented setup are demonstrated by measuring the diffusion coefficients of a free dye molecule, a labeled polyethylene glycol, and a fluorescent nanoparticle in confocal as well as in TIR-FCS.

  15. A proposal simulated annealing algorithm for proportional parallel flow shops with separated setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Yochihiro Fuchigami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the problem of minimizing makespan on two parallel flow shops with proportional processing and setup times. The setup times are separated and sequence-independent. The parallel flow shop scheduling problem is a specific case of well-known hybrid flow shop, characterized by a multistage production system with more than one machine working in parallel at each stage. This situation is very common in various kinds of companies like chemical, electronics, automotive, pharmaceutical and food industries. This work aimed to propose six Simulated Annealing algorithms, their perturbation schemes and an algorithm for initial sequence generation. This study can be classified as “applied research” regarding the nature, “exploratory” about the objectives and “experimental” as to procedures, besides the “quantitative” approach. The proposed algorithms were effective regarding the solution and computationally efficient. Results of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA revealed no significant difference between the schemes in terms of makespan. It’s suggested the use of PS4 scheme, which moves a subsequence of jobs, for providing the best percentage of success. It was also found that there is a significant difference between the results of the algorithms for each value of the proportionality factor of the processing and setup times of flow shops.

  16. PENURUNAN WAKTU SET-UP UNTUK PENINGKATAN EFEKTIFITAS PADA PT. X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendri Hendri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PT. X bergerak dalam industri manufuktur yang memproduksi komponen otomotif yang  salah satu prosesnya adalah pembuatan bearing. Saat ini, persaingan dalam dunia bisnis semakin ketat. Situasi ini membuat organisasi untuk memperbaiki diri dengan penurunan waktu set-up supaya dapat menghilangkan pemborosan sehingga peningkatan efektifitas dapat dicapai. Untuk melakukan penurunan waktu set-up dalam penelitian ini menggunakan metode Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED. SMED adalah salah satu metoda improvement dari Lean Manufacturing yang digunakan untuk mempercepat waktu yang dibutuhkan untuk melakukan setup pergantian dari memproduksi satu jenis produk ke model produk lainnya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui waktu Set up, serta mengetahui cara memperbaiki dan menurunkan waktu set up. Setelah dilakukan penelitian diketahui total waktu set up atau change over serta dilakukan perbaikan pada tiga titik yakni memindakan enam aktivitas internal menjadi aktivitas eksernal yang aktivitasnya dipersingkat, mengganti cara kerja setting/pengencangan baut dari cara manual ke alat bantu pengencangan dengan bantuan tekanan udara (pneumatic, dan mengganti cara kerja setting/penyetelan manual menjadi penyetelan dengan mengunakan block gauge. Secara keseluruhan terjadi penurunan waktu set up yang signifikan. Dengan demikian terjadi peningkatan efektifitas dengan menghilangkan pemborosan waktu set up sehinga terjadi peningkatan jumlah produksi per jam.

  17. A Novel Computer-Based Set-Up to Study Movement Coordination in Human Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderisio, Francesco; Lombardi, Maria; Fiore, Gianfranco; di Bernardo, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Existing experimental works on movement coordination in human ensembles mostly investigate situations where each subject is connected to all the others through direct visual and auditory coupling, so that unavoidable social interaction affects their coordination level. Here, we present a novel computer-based set-up to study movement coordination in human groups so as to minimize the influence of social interaction among participants and implement different visual pairings between them. In so doing, players can only take into consideration the motion of a designated subset of the others. This allows the evaluation of the exclusive effects on coordination of the structure of interconnections among the players in the group and their own dynamics. In addition, our set-up enables the deployment of virtual computer players to investigate dyadic interaction between a human and a virtual agent, as well as group synchronization in mixed teams of human and virtual agents. We show how this novel set-up can be employed to study coordination both in dyads and in groups over different structures of interconnections, in the presence as well as in the absence of virtual agents acting as followers or leaders. Finally, in order to illustrate the capabilities of the architecture, we describe some preliminary results. The platform is available to any researcher who wishes to unfold the mechanisms underlying group synchronization in human ensembles and shed light on its socio-psychological aspects.

  18. How gate setup and turn radii influence energy dissipation in slalom ski racing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supej, Matej; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2010-11-01

    This study examined whether gate setup and turn radii influence energy dissipation in slalom skiing. 3D kinematical measurements were performed over two runs on the same slope in a WC slalom competition with two different gate setups: 1) open gates (OG) and 2) open gates with a delayed gate (DG). Using the arithmetic mean of the skis' turn radii (R(AMS)) the slalom turns were divided into 1) initiation phase (R(AMS) > 15 m) and steering phase (R(AMS) skiing (all p < .05). In both gate setups the highest F and the highest energy dissipation were present in the steering phase, whereas the correlation between R(AMS) and energy dissipation was low (OG: r = .364 and DG: r = .214, both p < .001). In summary, compared with plain open gates, an additional delayed gate prolonged the turn radii and decreased energy dissipation in the beginning of the initiation phase, despite the fact that the relative frequency of occurrence of the highest energy dissipation was higher in DG.

  19. A Novel Computer-Based Set-Up to Study Movement Coordination in Human Ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Alderisio

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Existing experimental works on movement coordination in human ensembles mostly investigate situations where each subject is connected to all the others through direct visual and auditory coupling, so that unavoidable social interaction affects their coordination level. Here, we present a novel computer-based set-up to study movement coordination in human groups so as to minimize the influence of social interaction among participants and implement different visual pairings between them. In so doing, players can only take into consideration the motion of a designated subset of the others. This allows the evaluation of the exclusive effects on coordination of the structure of interconnections among the players in the group and their own dynamics. In addition, our set-up enables the deployment of virtual computer players to investigate dyadic interaction between a human and a virtual agent, as well as group synchronization in mixed teams of human and virtual agents. We show how this novel set-up can be employed to study coordination both in dyads and in groups over different structures of interconnections, in the presence as well as in the absence of virtual agents acting as followers or leaders. Finally, in order to illustrate the capabilities of the architecture, we describe some preliminary results. The platform is available to any researcher who wishes to unfold the mechanisms underlying group synchronization in human ensembles and shed light on its socio-psychological aspects.

  20. LS1 Report: A brand new set-up for ASACUSA-CUSP

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    ASACUSA is running for the first time with a totally new set-up. Three new vital instruments have been designed, produced and installed during LS1 in addition to several other major modifications. The collaboration is now ready to perform the first high-precision measurement of the hyperfine structure of antihydrogen – a study that aims at comparing the inner properties of matter and antimatter.   The ASACUSA set-up. The ASACUSA-CUSP collaboration comprises about 30 scientists from various institutes in Europe and Japan. Because of the Japanese contribution, the experiment is often known by its Japanese pronunciation, the experiment’s logo is in Japanese, and the logbook uses Japanese time! This year, for the first time, the experiment is running with a completely new set-up, which now includes a new superconducting double cusp magnet, a new tracking detector and a new final antihydrogen detector. “The magnet is the heart of the ASACUSA experiment,” expl...

  1. Flexibility and utility of pre-processing methods in converting STXM setups for ptychography - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromm, Catherine [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-20

    Ptychography is an advanced diffraction based imaging technique that can achieve resolution of 5nm and below. It is done by scanning a sample through a beam of focused x-rays using discrete yet overlapping scan steps. Scattering data is collected on a CCD camera, and the phase of the scattered light is reconstructed with sophisticated iterative algorithms. Because the experimental setup is similar, ptychography setups can be created by retrofitting existing STXM beam lines with new hardware. The other challenge comes in the reconstruction of the collected scattering images. Scattering data must be adjusted and packaged with experimental parameters to calibrate the reconstruction software. The necessary pre-processing of data prior to reconstruction is unique to each beamline setup, and even the optical alignments used on that particular day. Pre-processing software must be developed to be flexible and efficient in order to allow experiments appropriate control and freedom in the analysis of their hard-won data. This paper will describe the implementation of pre-processing software which successfully connects data collection steps to reconstruction steps, letting the user accomplish accurate and reliable ptychography.

  2. Laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition setup for fast synthesis of graphene patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chentao; Zhang, Jianhuan; Lin, Kun; Huang, Yuanqing

    2017-05-01

    An automatic setup based on the laser-assisted chemical vapor deposition method has been developed for the rapid synthesis of graphene patterns. The key components of this setup include a laser beam control and focusing unit, a laser spot monitoring unit, and a vacuum and flow control unit. A laser beam with precision control of laser power is focused on the surface of a nickel foil substrate by the laser beam control and focusing unit for localized heating. A rapid heating and cooling process at the localized region is induced by the relative movement between the focalized laser spot and the nickel foil substrate, which causes the decomposing of gaseous hydrocarbon and the out-diffusing of excess carbon atoms to form graphene patterns on the laser scanning path. All the fabrication parameters that affect the quality and number of graphene layers, such as laser power, laser spot size, laser scanning speed, pressure of vacuum chamber, and flow rates of gases, can be precisely controlled and monitored during the preparation of graphene patterns. A simulation of temperature distribution was carried out via the finite element method, providing a scientific guidance for the regulation of temperature distribution during experiments. A multi-layer graphene ribbon with few defects was synthesized to verify its performance of the rapid growth of high-quality graphene patterns. Furthermore, this setup has potential applications in other laser-based graphene synthesis and processing.

  3. Spat- en sproeiwater : maatregelen aan voertuig en weg.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, J.P.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the splash and spray problem. The paper also gives solutions to this problem, from the traffic safety point of view. The problem often arises in critical circumstances such as rain, wet road, wind, and overtaking. The splash and spray is mainly caused by lorries, especially

  4. experimental spat collecting of the edible oyster, saccost rea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    substrates including man-made structures (e.g. jetties, ship hulls, beacons). According to Lewis (1964) and Hartnoll (1976), these oysters are abundant in the upper eulittoral zone where they grow to a maximum shell length of 65 mm (van Someren and Whitehead 1961) but experience stunting in crowded conditions.

  5. Etoi notshju mõ spat ne budjem / Valentin Zvegintsev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zvegintsev, Valentin

    2003-01-01

    Produtsent Kristian Taska uue mängufilmi "Täna öösel me ei maga" võtetelt Tallinna vanalinnas. Lavastab Ilmar Taska, operaatoriks on Istvan Borbas, peaosades Carmen Kass, Peter Franzen, Maria Avdjushko...

  6. Numerical study of a confocal ultrasonic setup for creation of cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafond, Maxime, E-mail: maxime.lafond@inserm.fr; Chavrier, Françoise; Prieur, Fabrice [Inserm, U1032, LabTau, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Mestas, Jean-Louis; Lafon, Cyril [Inserm, U1032, LabTau, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Université Lyon 1, Lyon, F-69003 (France); Caviskills SAS, Vaulx-En-Velin, F-69120 (France)

    2015-10-28

    Acoustic cavitation is used for various therapeutic applications such as local enhancement of drug delivery, histotripsy or hyperthermia. One of the utmost important parameter for cavitation creation is the rarefaction pressure. The typical magnitude of the rarefaction pressure required to initiate cavitation from gas dissolved in tissue is beyond the range of the megapascal. Because nonlinear effects need to be taken into account, a numerical simulator based on the Westervelt equation was used to study the pressure waveform and the acoustic field generated by a setup for creation of cavitation consisting of two high intensity focused ultrasound transducers mounted confocally. At constant acoustic power, simulations with only one and both transducers from the confocal setup showed that the distortion of the pressure waveform due to the combined effects of nonlinearity and diffraction is less pronounced when both confocal transducers are used. Consequently, the confocal setup generates a greater peak negative pressure at focus which is more favorable for cavitation initiation. Comparison between the confocal setup and a single transducer with the same total emitting surface puts in evidence the role of the spatial separation of the two beams. Furthermore, it has been previously shown that the location of the peak negative pressure created by a single transducer shifts from focus towards the transducers in the presence of nonlinear effects. The simulator was used to study a configuration where the acoustical axes of transducers intersect on the peak negative pressure instead of the geometrical focus. For a representative confocal setup, namely moderate nonlinear effects, a 2% increase of the peak negative pressure and 8% decrease of the peak positive pressure resulted from this configuration. These differences tend to increase by increasing nonlinear effects. Although the optimal position of the transducers varies with the nonlinear regimen, the intersection point

  7. Dose variations caused by setup errors in intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy: A PRESAGE study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng, Kieyin [School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia); Gagliardi, Frank [School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia); William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Alqathami, Mamdooh [School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia); Ackerly, Trevor [William Buckland Radiotherapy Centre, Melbourne (Australia); Geso, Moshi, E-mail: moshi.geso@rmit.edu.au [School of Medical Sciences, RMIT University, Melbourne (Australia)

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) requires tight margins around the tumor, thus producing a steep dose gradient between the tumor and the surrounding healthy tissue. Any setup errors might become clinically significant. To date, no study has been performed to evaluate the dosimetric variations caused by setup errors with a 3-dimensional dosimeter, the PRESAGE. This research aimed to evaluate the potential effect that setup errors have on the dose distribution of intracranial SRT. Computed tomography (CT) simulation of a CIRS radiosurgery head phantom was performed with 1.25-mm slice thickness. An ideal treatment plan was generated using Brainlab iPlan. A PRESAGE was made for every treatment with and without errors. A prescan using the optical CT scanner was carried out. Before treatment, the phantom was imaged using Brainlab ExacTrac. Actual radiotherapy treatments with and without errors were carried out with the Novalis treatment machine. Postscan was performed with an optical CT scanner to analyze the dose irradiation. The dose variation between treatments with and without errors was determined using a 3-dimensional gamma analysis. Errors are clinically insignificant when the passing ratio of the gamma analysis is 95% and above. Errors were clinically significant when the setup errors exceeded a 0.7-mm translation and a 0.5° rotation. The results showed that a 3-mm translation shift in the superior-inferior (SI), right-left (RL), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions and 2° couch rotation produced a passing ratio of 53.1%. Translational and rotational errors of 1.5 mm and 1°, respectively, generated a passing ratio of 62.2%. Translation shift of 0.7 mm in the directions of SI, RL, and AP and a 0.5° couch rotation produced a passing ratio of 96.2%. Preventing the occurrences of setup errors in intracranial SRT treatment is extremely important as errors greater than 0.7 mm and 0.5° alter the dose distribution. The geometrical displacements affect dose delivery

  8. Dose variations caused by setup errors in intracranial stereotactic radiotherapy: a PRESAGE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Kieyin; Gagliardi, Frank; Alqathami, Mamdooh; Ackerly, Trevor; Geso, Moshi

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) requires tight margins around the tumor, thus producing a steep dose gradient between the tumor and the surrounding healthy tissue. Any setup errors might become clinically significant. To date, no study has been performed to evaluate the dosimetric variations caused by setup errors with a 3-dimensional dosimeter, the PRESAGE. This research aimed to evaluate the potential effect that setup errors have on the dose distribution of intracranial SRT. Computed tomography (CT) simulation of a CIRS radiosurgery head phantom was performed with 1.25-mm slice thickness. An ideal treatment plan was generated using Brainlab iPlan. A PRESAGE was made for every treatment with and without errors. A prescan using the optical CT scanner was carried out. Before treatment, the phantom was imaged using Brainlab ExacTrac. Actual radiotherapy treatments with and without errors were carried out with the Novalis treatment machine. Postscan was performed with an optical CT scanner to analyze the dose irradiation. The dose variation between treatments with and without errors was determined using a 3-dimensional gamma analysis. Errors are clinically insignificant when the passing ratio of the gamma analysis is 95% and above. Errors were clinically significant when the setup errors exceeded a 0.7-mm translation and a 0.5° rotation. The results showed that a 3-mm translation shift in the superior-inferior (SI), right-left (RL), and anterior-posterior (AP) directions and 2° couch rotation produced a passing ratio of 53.1%. Translational and rotational errors of 1.5mm and 1°, respectively, generated a passing ratio of 62.2%. Translation shift of 0.7mm in the directions of SI, RL, and AP and a 0.5° couch rotation produced a passing ratio of 96.2%. Preventing the occurrences of setup errors in intracranial SRT treatment is extremely important as errors greater than 0.7mm and 0.5° alter the dose distribution. The geometrical displacements affect dose delivery to

  9. Focus stacking: Comparing commercial top-end set-ups with a semi-automatic low budget approach. A possible solution for mass digitization of type specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecko, Jonathan; Mathys, Aurore; Dekoninck, Wouter; Leponce, Maurice; VandenSpiegel, Didier; Semal, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In this manuscript we present a focus stacking system, composed of commercial photographic equipment. The system is inexpensive compared to high-end commercial focus stacking solutions. We tested this system and compared the results with several different software packages (CombineZP, Auto-Montage, Helicon Focus and Zerene Stacker). We tested our final stacked picture with a picture obtained from two high-end focus stacking solutions: a Leica MZ16A with DFC500 and a Leica Z6APO with DFC290. Zerene Stacker and Helicon Focus both provided satisfactory results. However, Zerene Stacker gives the user more possibilities in terms of control of the software, batch processing and retouching. The outcome of the test on high-end solutions demonstrates that our approach performs better in several ways. The resolution of the tested extended focus pictures is much higher than those from the Leica systems. The flash lighting inside the Ikea closet creates an evenly illuminated picture, without struggling with filters, diffusers, etc. The largest benefit is the price of the set-up which is approximately € 3,000, which is 8 and 10 times less than the LeicaZ6APO and LeicaMZ16A set-up respectively. Overall, this enables institutions to purchase multiple solutions or to start digitising the type collection on a large scale even with a small budget.

  10. A novel Brain Computer Interface for classification of social joint attention in autism and comparison of 3 experimental setups: A feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Carlos P; Simões, Marco A; Mouga, Susana; Andrade, João; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    We present a novel virtual-reality P300-based Brain Computer Interface (BCI) paradigm using social cues to direct the focus of attention. We combined interactive immersive virtual-reality (VR) technology with the properties of P300 signals in a training tool which can be used in social attention disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We tested the novel social attention training paradigm (P300-based BCI paradigm for rehabilitation of joint-attention skills) in 13 healthy participants, in 3 EEG systems. The more suitable setup was tested online with 4 ASD subjects. Statistical accuracy was assessed based on the detection of P300, using spatial filtering and a Naïve-Bayes classifier. We compared: 1 - g.Mobilab+ (active dry-electrodes, wireless transmission); 2 - g.Nautilus (active electrodes, wireless transmission); 3 - V-Amp with actiCAP Xpress dry-electrodes. Significant statistical classification was achieved in all systems. g.Nautilus proved to be the best performing system in terms of accuracy in the detection of P300, preparation time, speed and reported comfort. Proof of concept tests in ASD participants proved that this setup is feasible for training joint attention skills in ASD. This work provides a unique combination of 'easy-to-use' BCI systems with new technologies such as VR to train joint-attention skills in autism. Our P300 BCI paradigm is feasible for future Phase I/II clinical trials to train joint-attention skills, with successful classification within few trials, online in ASD participants. The g.Nautilus system is the best performing one to use with the developed BCI setup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Set-up and first operation of a plasma oven for treatment of low level radioactive wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachtrodt Frederik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental device for plasma treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive waste was built and tested in several design variations. The laboratory device is designed with the intention to study the general effects and difficulties in a plasma incineration set-up for the further future development of a larger scale pilot plant. The key part of the device consists of a novel microwave plasma torch driven by 200 W electric power, and operating at atmospheric pressure. It is a specific design characteristic of the torch that a high peak temperature can be reached with a low power input compared to other plasma torches. Experiments have been carried out to analyze the effect of the plasma on materials typical for operational low-level wastes. In some preliminary cold tests the behavior of stable volatile species e. g., caesium was investigated by TXRF measurements of material collected from the oven walls and the filtered off-gas. The results help in improving and scaling up the existing design and in understanding the effects for a pilot plant, especially for the off-gas collection and treatment.

  12. After retrospective evaluation of the SETUP rate change during the treatment of head and neck cancer patient with Helical Tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae Young; Kim, Seung Jun; Hwang, Cheol Hwan; Son, Jong Gi [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Retrospective evaluation of setup changes using the corrected position during helical tomotherapy. Head and neck cancer patients were randomly sampled and summarized into 3 groups: Group 1(32) Brain, Group 2 2(28)Maxillar, Nasal cavity, Group 3 (35) Nasopharynx(NPX), Tongue, Tonsil, and Oropharynx(OPX). In 3 groups, the statistical tests based on repeated measurements among 30 times of the duration of treatment by applying X, Y, Z axis errors, roll, weight changes, and vectors as variables. The statistical test results showed that there was no difference between x-axis (p = 0.458) and y-axis (p=0.986) and in roll (p = 0.037), weight change (p <0.001), and the vector (p <0.001). In addition, the pattern between the three groups based on the fraction revealed no difference in x-axis (p = 0.430) and roll (p = 0.299) but a difference in y-axis (.023), weight change (p = 0.001), and vector (p = 0.028). The results of the retrospective evaluation found the change in the group 3 with respect Y, Z, weight, and vector and a larger random error during the treatment including low neck.

  13. Range Camera Self-Calibration Based on Integrated Bundle Adjustment via Joint Setup with a 2D Digital Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Sattari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Time-of-flight cameras, based on Photonic Mixer Device (PMD technology, are capable of measuring distances to objects at high frame rates, however, the measured ranges and the intensity data contain systematic errors that need to be corrected. In this paper, a new integrated range camera self-calibration method via joint setup with a digital (RGB camera is presented. This method can simultaneously estimate the systematic range error parameters as well as the interior and external orientation parameters of the camera. The calibration approach is based on photogrammetric bundle adjustment of observation equations originating from collinearity condition and a range errors model. Addition of a digital camera to the calibration process overcomes the limitations of small field of view and low pixel resolution of the range camera. The tests are performed on a dataset captured by a PMD[vision]-O3 camera from a multi-resolution test field of high contrast targets. An average improvement of 83% in RMS of range error and 72% in RMS of coordinate residual, over that achieved with basic calibration, was realized in an independent accuracy assessment. Our proposed calibration method also achieved 25% and 36% improvement on RMS of range error and coordinate residual, respectively, over that obtained by integrated calibration of the single PMD camera.

  14. Range camera self-calibration based on integrated bundle adjustment via joint setup with a 2D digital camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Mozhdeh; Homayouni, Saeid; Saadatseresht, Mohammad; Sattari, Mehran

    2011-01-01

    Time-of-flight cameras, based on photonic mixer device (PMD) technology, are capable of measuring distances to objects at high frame rates, however, the measured ranges and the intensity data contain systematic errors that need to be corrected. In this paper, a new integrated range camera self-calibration method via joint setup with a digital (RGB) camera is presented. This method can simultaneously estimate the systematic range error parameters as well as the interior and external orientation parameters of the camera. The calibration approach is based on photogrammetric bundle adjustment of observation equations originating from collinearity condition and a range errors model. Addition of a digital camera to the calibration process overcomes the limitations of small field of view and low pixel resolution of the range camera. The tests are performed on a dataset captured by a PMD[vision]-O3 camera from a multi-resolution test field of high contrast targets. An average improvement of 83% in RMS of range error and 72% in RMS of coordinate residual, over that achieved with basic calibration, was realized in an independent accuracy assessment. Our proposed calibration method also achieved 25% and 36% improvement on RMS of range error and coordinate residual, respectively, over that obtained by integrated calibration of the single PMD camera.

  15. Straight ladder inclined angle in a field environment: the relationship among actual angle, method of set-up and knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wen-Ruey; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; Chang, Chien-Chi; Brunette, Christopher; Fallentin, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ladder inclined angle is a critical factor that could lead to a slip at the base of portable straight ladders, a major cause of falls from heights. Despite several methods established to help workers achieve the recommended 75.5° angle for ladder set-up, it remains unclear if these methods are used in practice. This study explored ladder set-up behaviours in a field environment. Professional installers of a company in the cable and other pay TV industry were observed for ladder set-up at their worksites. The results showed that the actual angles of 265 ladder set-ups by 67 participants averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°. Although all the participants had training on recommended ladder set-up methods, only 3 out of 67 participants applied these methods in their daily work and even they failed to achieve the desired 75.5° angle. Therefore, ladder set-up remains problematic in real-world situations. Practitioner Summary: Professional installers of a cable company were observed for portable straight ladder set-up at their worksites. The ladder inclined angle averaged 67.3° with a standard deviation of 3.22°, while the recommended angle is 75.5°. Only a few participants used the methods that they learned during training in their daily work. PMID:26672809

  16. Residual set-up errors and margins in on-line image-guided prostate localization in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard; Muren, Ludvig; Høyer, Morten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Image-guided on-line correction of the target position allows radiotherapy of prostate cancer with narrow set-up margins. The present study investigated the residual set-up error after on-line prostate localization and its impact on margins. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prostate...... localization based on two orthogonal X-ray images of gold markers implanted in the prostate was performed with an on-board imager at four treatment sessions for 90 patients. The set-up error in the sagittal plane residual after couch adjustment was evaluated on lateral verification portal images. RESULTS......: The set-up error was less than 3.0mm in 92% of the cases in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction and in 95% of the cases in the cranio-caudal (CC) direction. The set-up error was dominated by internal prostate motion taking place during the set-up procedure. Set-up margins were calculated using two...

  17. An Improved SEL Test of the ADV212 Video Codec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Edward P.; Campola, Michael J.; Nadendla, Seshagiri; Kadari, Madhusudhan; Gigliuto, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Single-event effect (SEE) test data is presented on the Analog Devices ADV212. Focus is given to the test setup used to improve data quality and validate single-event latch-up (SEL) protection circuitry.

  18. A Simulation Study on Patient Setup Errors in External Beam Radiotherapy Using an Anthropomorphic 4D Phantom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Samadi Miandoab

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Patient set-up optimization is required in radiotherapy to fill the accuracy gap between personalized treatment planning and uncertainties in the irradiation set-up. In this study, we aimed to develop a new method based on neural network to estimate patient geometrical setup using 4-dimensional (4D XCAT anthropomorphic phantom. Materials and Methods To access 4D modeling of motion of dynamic organs, a phantom employs non-uniform rational B-splines (NURBS-based Cardiac-Torso method with spline-based model to generate 4D computed tomography (CT images. First, to generate all the possible roto-translation positions, the 4D CT images were imported to Medical Image Data Examiner (AMIDE. Then, for automatic, real time verification of geometrical setup, an artificial neural network (ANN was proposed to estimate patient displacement, using training sets. Moreover, three external motion markers were synchronized with a patient couch position as reference points. In addition, the technique was validated through simulated activities by using reference 4D CT data acquired from five patients. Results The results indicated that patient geometrical set-up is highly depended on the comprehensiveness of training set. By using ANN model, the average patient setup error in XCAT phantom was reduced from 17.26 mm to 0.50 mm. In addition, in the five real patients, these average errors were decreased from 18.26 mm to 1.48 mm various breathing phases ranging from inhalation to exhalation were taken into account for patient setup. Uncertainty error assessment and different setup errors were obtained from each respiration phase. Conclusion This study proposed a new method for alignment of patient setup error using ANN model. Additionally, our correlation model (ANN could estimate true patient position with less error.

  19. Influence of the Pulse Duration in the Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) Lower-Leg Loading Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    6 Fig. 7 Velocity histories on the floor plate in FEAs for 10-m/s loading .................................... 6 Fig. 8 Test ...setup for the lower leg loading test with the whole-body ATD and floor mat ........ 7 Fig. 9 Sheets of the butyl rubber as the floor mat on the CSBES... floor plate ............................. 7 Fig. 10 Arrangements of sensors in the test setup

  20. SU-E-J-15: A Patient-Centered Scheme to Mitigate Impacts of Treatment Setup Error

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, L [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Tian, Z; Gu, X; Jia, X; Jiang, S [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Current Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) is plan-centered. At each treatment fraction, we position the patient to match the setup in treatment plan. Inaccurate setup can compromise delivered dose distribution, and hence leading to suboptimal treatments. Moreover, current setup approach via couch shift under image guidance can correct translational errors, while rotational and deformation errors are hard to address. To overcome these problems, we propose in this abstract a patient-centered scheme to mitigate impacts of treatment setup errors. Methods: In the patient-centered scheme, we first position the patient on the couch approximately matching the planned-setup. Our Supercomputing Online Replanning Environment (SCORE) is then employed to design an optimal treatment plan based on the daily patient geometry. It hence mitigates the impacts of treatment setup error and reduces the requirements on setup accuracy. We have conducted simulations studies in 10 head-and-neck (HN) patients to investigate the feasibility of this scheme. Rotational and deformation setup errors were simulated. Specifically, 1, 3, 5, 7 degrees of rotations were put on pitch, roll, and yaw directions; deformation errors were simulated by splitting neck movements into four basic types: rotation, lateral bending, flexion and extension. Setup variation ranges are based on observed numbers in previous studies. Dosimetric impacts of our scheme were evaluated on PTVs and OARs in comparison with original plan dose with original geometry and original plan recalculated dose with new setup geometries. Results: With conventional plan-centered approach, setup error could lead to significant PTV D99 decrease (−0.25∼+32.42%) and contralateral-parotid Dmean increase (−35.09∼+42.90%). The patientcentered approach is effective in mitigating such impacts to 0∼+0.20% and −0.03∼+5.01%, respectively. Computation time is <128 s. Conclusion: Patient-centered scheme is proposed to

  1. The impact of androgen deprivation therapy on setup errors during external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onal, Cem; Dolek, Yemliha; Ozdemir, Yurday [Baskent University, Faculty of Medicine, Adana Dr. Turgut Noyan Research and Treatment Centre, Department of Radiation Oncology, Adana (Turkey)

    2017-06-15

    To determine whether setup errors during external beam radiation therapy (RT) for prostate cancer are influenced by the combination of androgen deprivation treatment (ADT) and RT. Data from 175 patients treated for prostate cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Treatment was as follows: concurrent ADT plus RT, 33 patients (19%); neoadjuvant and concurrent ADT plus RT, 91 patients (52%); RT only, 51 patients (29%). Required couch shifts without rotations were recorded for each megavoltage (MV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan, and corresponding alignment shifts were recorded as left-right (x), superior-inferior (y), and anterior-posterior (z). The nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was used to compare shifts by group. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to measure the correlation of couch shifts between groups. Mean prostate shifts and standard deviations (SD) were calculated and pooled to obtain mean or group systematic error (M), SD of systematic error (Σ), and SD of random error (σ). No significant differences were observed in prostate shifts in any direction between the groups. Shifts on CBCT were all less than setup margins. A significant positive correlation was observed between prostate volume and the z-direction prostate shift (r = 0.19, p = 0.04), regardless of ADT group, but not between volume and x- or y-direction shifts (r = 0.04, p = 0.7; r = 0.03, p = 0.7). Random and systematic errors for all patient cohorts and ADT groups were similar. Hormone therapy given concurrently with RT was not found to significantly impact setup errors. Prostate volume was significantly correlated with shifts in the anterior-posterior direction only. (orig.) [German] Ziel war zu untersuchen, ob Konfigurationsfehler bei der externen Radiotherapie (RT) des Prostatakarzinoms durch die Kombination aus Androgendeprivationstherapie (ADT) und RT beeinflusst werden. Retrospektiv wurden die Daten von 175 wegen eines Prostatakarzinoms behandelten Patienten

  2. Diffusing-wave spectroscopy in a standard dynamic light scattering setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahimi, Zahra; Aangenendt, Frank J.; Voudouris, Panayiotis; Mattsson, Johan; Wyss, Hans M.

    2017-12-01

    Diffusing-wave spectroscopy (DWS) extends dynamic light scattering measurements to samples with strong multiple scattering. DWS treats the transport of photons through turbid samples as a diffusion process, thereby making it possible to extract the dynamics of scatterers from measured correlation functions. The analysis of DWS data requires knowledge of the path length distribution of photons traveling through the sample. While for flat sample cells this path length distribution can be readily calculated and expressed in analytical form; no such expression is available for cylindrical sample cells. DWS measurements have therefore typically relied on dedicated setups that use flat sample cells. Here we show how DWS measurements, in particular DWS-based microrheology measurements, can be performed in standard dynamic light scattering setups that use cylindrical sample cells. To do so we perform simple random-walk simulations that yield numerical predictions of the path length distribution as a function of both the transport mean free path and the detection angle. This information is used in experiments to extract the mean-square displacement of tracer particles in the material, as well as the corresponding frequency-dependent viscoelastic response. An important advantage of our approach is that by performing measurements at different detection angles, the average path length through the sample can be varied. For measurements performed on a single sample cell, this gives access to a wider range of length and time scales than obtained in a conventional DWS setup. Such angle-dependent measurements also offer an important consistency check, as for all detection angles the DWS analysis should yield the same tracer dynamics, even though the respective path length distributions are very different. We validate our approach by performing measurements both on aqueous suspensions of tracer particles and on solidlike gelatin samples, for which we find our DWS-based microrheology

  3. Ion mass and energy selective hyperthermal ion-beam assisted deposition setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, J. W.; Schumacher, P.; Mensing, M.; Rauschenbach, S.; Cermak, I.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2017-06-01

    For the synthesis of high-quality thin films, ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) is a frequently used technique providing precise control over several substantial film properties. IBAD typically relies on the use of a broad-beam ion source. Such ion sources suffer from the limitation that they deliver a blend of ions with different ion masses, each of them possessing a certain distribution of kinetic energy. In this paper, a compact experimental setup is presented that enables the separate control of ion mass and ion kinetic energy in the region of hyperthermal energies (few 1 eV - few 100 eV). This ion energy region is of increasing interest not only for ion-assisted film growth but also for the wide field of preparative mass spectrometry. The setup consists of a constricted glow-discharge plasma beam source and a tailor-made, compact quadrupole system equipped with entry and exit ion optics. It is demonstrated that the separation of monoatomic and polyatomic nitrogen ions (N+ and N2+) is accomplished. For both ion species, the kinetic energy is shown to be selectable in the region of hyperthermal energies. At the sample position, ion current densities are found to be in the order of 1 μA/cm2 and the full width at half maximum of the ion beam profile is in the order of 10 mm. Thus, the requirements for homogeneous deposition processes in sufficiently short periods of time are fulfilled. Finally, employing the described setup, for the first time in practice epitaxial GaN films were deposited. This opens up the opportunity to fundamentally study the influence of the simultaneous irradiation with hyperthermal ions on the thin film growth in IBAD processes and to increase the flexibility of the technique.

  4. Initial verification of an induction heating set-up for injection molding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menotti, Stefano; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2013-01-01

    Molding of thin and long parts by injection molding leads to special requirements for the mold in order to ensure proper filling and acceptable cycle time. This paper investigates the applicability of embedded induction heating for the improvement of the filling of thin long parts. The object...... selected for the investigation is a thin spiral. For the complete molding of the component, elevated mold temperatures are required. For this propose a new injection molding set-up was developed, which allows rapid heating of the cavity wall by an induction heating system. The temperature was measured...

  5. Emulating Spherical Wave Channel Models in Multi-probe Anechoic Chamber Setups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Wei; Carreño, Xavier; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum

    2015-01-01

    Spherical wave channel modeling has attracted huge research attention for massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) and short-distance MIMO systems. Current research work in multi-probe anechoic chamber systems is limited to reproduce radio channels assuming planar wavefronts. There is a need...... to emulate spherical wave channel models in multi-probe anechoic chamber setups. In this paper, a technique based on the field synthesis principle is proposed to approximate spherical waves emitted from arbitrarily located point sources with arbitrary polarizations. Simulation results show that static...

  6. Generation of primary cultures of bovine brain endothelial cells and setup of cocultures with rat astrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Hans C; Brodin, Birger

    2014-01-01

    In vitro models of the blood-brain barrier are useful tools to study blood-brain barrier function as well as drug permeation from the systemic circulation to the brain parenchyma. However, a large number of the available in vitro models fail to reflect the tightness of the in vivo blood-brain...... barrier. The present protocol describes the setup of an in vitro coculture model based on primary cultures of endothelial cells from bovine brain microvessels and primary cultures of rat astrocytes. The model displays a high electrical tightness and expresses blood-brain barrier marker proteins....

  7. An innovative experimental setup for Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry measurements in riverine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Olivieri, Giorgio; Porfiri, Maurizio; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2014-05-01

    Large Scale Particle Image Velocimetry (LSPIV) is a powerful methodology to nonintrusively monitor surface flows. Its use has been beneficial to the development of rating curves in riverine environments and to map geomorphic features in natural waterways. Typical LSPIV experimental setups rely on the use of mast-mounted cameras for the acquisition of natural stream reaches. Such cameras are installed on stream banks and are angled with respect to the water surface to capture large scale fields of view. Despite its promise and the simplicity of the setup, the practical implementation of LSPIV is affected by several challenges, including the acquisition of ground reference points for image calibration and time-consuming and highly user-assisted procedures to orthorectify images. In this work, we perform LSPIV studies on stream sections in the Aniene and Tiber basins, Italy. To alleviate the limitations of traditional LSPIV implementations, we propose an improved video acquisition setup comprising a telescopic, an inexpensive GoPro Hero 3 video camera, and a system of two lasers. The setup allows for maintaining the camera axis perpendicular to the water surface, thus mitigating uncertainties related to image orthorectification. Further, the mast encases a laser system for remote image calibration, thus allowing for nonintrusively calibrating videos without acquiring ground reference points. We conduct measurements on two different water bodies to outline the performance of the methodology in case of varying flow regimes, illumination conditions, and distribution of surface tracers. Specifically, the Aniene river is characterized by high surface flow velocity, the presence of abundant, homogeneously distributed ripples and water reflections, and a meagre number of buoyant tracers. On the other hand, the Tiber river presents lower surface flows, isolated reflections, and several floating objects. Videos are processed through image-based analyses to correct for lens

  8. 60 GHz antenna measurement setup using a VNA without external frequency conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popa, Paula Irina; Pivnenko, Sergey; Nielsen, Jeppe Majlund

    2014-01-01

    and phase, 0.06 dB and 6 degrees peak-to-peak deviations over 4 hours. A PNF measurement of a 25 dBi Standard Gain Horn was carried out and the results were compared to those from the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Facility with a good agreement in the validity region. Uncertainty investigations regarding...... cable flexing effects at 60 GHz have shown that these introduce an uncertainty of about 0.02 dB (1 sigma) around the main beam region indicating a very good performance of the PNF setup....

  9. Calibration of wavefront distortion in light modulator setup by Fourier analysis of multi-beam interference

    CERN Document Server

    Leszczyński, Adam

    2015-01-01

    We present a method to calibrate wavefront distortion of the spatial light modulator setup by registering far field images of several gaussian beams diffracted off the modulator. The Fourier transform of resulting interference images reveals phase differences between typically 5 movable points on the modulator. Repeating this measurement yields wavefront surface. Next, the amplitude efficiency is calibrated be registering near field image. As a verification we produced a superposition of 7th and 8th Bessel beams with different phase velocities and observed their interference.

  10. The Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experimental setup at CERN-ISOLDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolios, T. E.; Al Suradi, H. H.; Billowes, J.; Budinčević, I.; de Groote, R. P.; De Schepper, S.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Heylen, H.; Le Blanc, F.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Mason, P. J. R.; Neyens, G.; Papuga, J.; Procter, T. J.; Rajabali, M. M.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Simpson, G. S.; Smith, A. J.; Strashnov, I.; Stroke, H. H.; Verney, D.; Walker, P. M.; Wendt, K. D. A.; Wood, R. T.

    2013-12-01

    The CRIS setup at CERN-ISOLDE is a laser spectroscopy experiment dedicated to the high-resolution study of the spin, hyperfine structure and isotope shift of radioactive nuclei with low production rates (a few per second). It combines the Doppler-free resolution of the in-flight collinear geometry with the high detection efficiency of resonant ionisation. A recent commissioning campaign has demonstrated a 1% experimental efficiency, and as low as a 0.001% non-resonant ionisation. The current status of the experiment and its recent achievements with beams of francium isotopes are reported. The first identified systematic effects are discussed.

  11. Optomechanically induced transparency in a membrane-in-the-middle setup at room temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuza, M.; Biancofiore, C.; Bawaj, M.; Molinelli, C.; Galassi, M.; Natali, R.; Tombesi, P.; Di Giuseppe, G.; Vitali, D.

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate the analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in a room temperature cavity optomechanics setup formed by a thin semitransparent membrane within a Fabry-Pérot cavity. Due to destructive interference, a weak probe field is completely reflected by the cavity when the pump beam is resonant with the motional red sideband of the cavity. Under this condition we infer a significant slowing down of light of hundreds of microseconds, which is easily tuned by shifting the membrane along the cavity axis. We also observe the associated phenomenon of electromagnetically induced amplification which occurs due to constructive interference when the pump is resonant with the blue sideband.

  12. Resolving octant degeneracy at LBL experiment by combining Daya Bay reactor setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Kalpana; Dutta, Debajyoti

    2014-03-01

    Long baseline Experiment(LBL) have promised to be a very powerful experimental setup to study various issues related to Neutrinos. Some ongoing and planned LBL and medium baseline experiments are- T2K, MINOS, NOvA, LBNE, LBNO etc. But, the long baseline experiments are crippled due to presence of some parameter degeneracies, like the Octant -degeneracy. In this work, we first show the presence of Octant degeneracy in LBL experiments and then combine it with Daya Bay Reactor experiment at different values of CP violation phase. We show that the Octant degeneracy in LBNE can be resolved completely with this proposal.

  13. Automated patient setup and gating using cone beam computed tomography projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Hanlin; Bertholet, Jenny; Ge, Jiajia

    2016-01-01

    in the planning CT. This step is time-intensive and user-dependent, and often results in a suboptimal patient setup. We propose a fully automated, robust method based on dynamic programming (DP) for segmenting radiopaque fiducial markers in CBCT projection images, which are then used to automatically optimize...... the treatment couch position and/or gating window bounds. The mean of the absolute 2D segmentation error of our DP algorithm is [Formula: see text] mm for 87 markers on 39 patients. Intrafraction images were acquired every 3 s during treatment at two different institutions. For gated patients from Institution...

  14. GIOVE: a new detector setup for high sensitivity germanium spectroscopy at shallow depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, G.; Weber, M.; Hakenmüller, J.; Laubenstein, M.; Lindner, M.; Maneschg, W.; Simgen, H.; Stolzenburg, D.; Strecker, H.

    2015-11-01

    We report on the development and construction of the high-purity germanium spectrometer setup GIOVE (Germanium Inner Outer VEto), recently built and now operated at the shallow underground laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg. Particular attention was paid to the design of a novel passive and active shield, aiming at efficient rejection of environmental and muon induced radiation backgrounds. The achieved sensitivity level of ≤ 100 \\upmu Bq kg^{-1} for primordial radionuclides from U and Th in typical γ ray sample screening measurements is unique among instruments located at comparably shallow depths and can compete with instruments at far deeper underground sites.

  15. A user-friendly technical set-up for infrared photography of forensic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Thomas; Kalberer, Nicole; Scheurer, Eva

    2017-09-01

    Infrared photography is interesting for a use in forensic science and forensic medicine since it reveals findings that normally are almost invisible to the human eye. Originally, infrared photography has been made possible by the placement of an infrared light transmission filter screwed in front of the camera objective lens. However, this set-up is associated with many drawbacks such as the loss of the autofocus function, the need of an external infrared source, and long exposure times which make the use of a tripod necessary. These limitations prevented up to now the routine application of infrared photography in forensics. In this study the use of a professional modification inside the digital camera body was evaluated regarding camera handling and image quality. This permanent modification consisted of the replacement of the in-built infrared blocking filter by an infrared transmission filter of 700nm and 830nm, respectively. The application of this camera set-up for the photo-documentation of forensically relevant post-mortem findings was investigated in examples of trace evidence such as gunshot residues on the skin, in external findings, e.g. hematomas, as well as in an exemplary internal finding, i.e., Wischnewski spots in a putrefied stomach. The application of scattered light created by indirect flashlight yielded a more uniform illumination of the object, and the use of the 700nm filter resulted in better pictures than the 830nm filter. Compared to pictures taken under visible light, infrared photographs generally yielded better contrast. This allowed for discerning more details and revealed findings which were not visible otherwise, such as imprints on a fabric and tattoos in mummified skin. The permanent modification of a digital camera by building in a 700nm infrared transmission filter resulted in a user-friendly and efficient set-up which qualified for the use in daily forensic routine. Main advantages were a clear picture in the viewfinder, an auto

  16. An algorithm for a single machine scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup times and scheduling windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    An enumeration algorithm is presented for solving a scheduling problem similar to the single machine job shop problem with sequence dependent setup times. The scheduling problem differs from the job shop problem in two ways. First, its objective is to select an optimum subset of the available tasks to be performed during a fixed period of time. Secondly, each task scheduled is constrained to occur within its particular scheduling window. The algorithm is currently being used to develop typical observational timelines for a telescope that will be operated in earth orbit. Computational times associated with timeline development are presented.

  17. Impact of defective items on (Q, r, L inventory model involving controllable setup cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Bor-Ren

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper, Ouyang et al. [10] proposed a (Q, r, L inventory model with defective items in an arrival lot. The purpose of this study is to generalize Ouyang et al.’s [10] model by allowing setup cost (A as a decision variable in conjunction with order quantity (Q, reorder point (r and lead time (L. In this study, we first assume that the lead time demand follows a normal distribution, and then relax this assumption by only assuming that the first two moments of the lead time demand are given. For each case, an algorithm procedure of finding the optimal solution is developed.

  18. A comparison of interfraction setup error, patient comfort, and therapist acceptance for 2 different prostate radiation therapy immobilization devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pei Ping Pang, MSc

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions: The CIS demonstrated stability and reproducibility in prostate treatment setup comparable to LI. The CIS device had no impact on patient comfort; however, RTs indicated a preference for LI over the CIS mainly because of its weight and bulkiness.

  19. Vortex-Concept for Radioactivity Release Prevention at NPP: Development of Computational Model of Lab-Scale Experimental Setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullah, Sana; Sung, Yim Man; Park, Jin Soo; Sung Hyung Jin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The experimental validation of the vortex-like air curtain concept and use of an appropriate CFD modelling approach for analyzing the problem becomes crucial. A lab-scale experimental setup is designed to validate the proposed concept and CFD modeling approach as a part of validation process. In this study, a computational model of this lab-scale experiment setup is developed using open source CFD code OpenFOAM. The computational results will be compared with experimental data for validation purposes in future, when experimental data is available. 1) A computation model of a lab-scale experimental setup, designed to validate the concept of artificial vortex-like airflow generation for application to radioactivity dispersion prevention in the event of severe accident, was developed. 2) The mesh sensitivity study was performed and a mesh of about 2 million cells was found to be sufficient for this setup.

  20. Tools to prevent process safety events at university research facility - chemical risk assessment and experimental set-up risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the two forms developed to examine the hazards of the chemicals to be used in the experiments in the experimental setup in the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering of the Technical University of Denmark. A system for the safety assessment of new experimental...... setups in university research and teaching laboratories is presented. The significance of the forms for the effort of researchers in improving work with significant hazards is described....

  1. ILS Heuristics for the Single-Machine Scheduling Problem with Sequence-Dependent Family Setup Times to Minimize Total Tardiness

    OpenAIRE

    Vilar Jacob, Vinícius; Arroyo, José Elias C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses a single-machine scheduling problem with sequence-dependent family setup times. In this problem the jobs are classified into families according to their similarity characteristics. Setup times are required on each occasion when the machine switches from processing jobs in one family to jobs in another family. The performance measure to be minimized is the total tardiness with respect to the given due dates of the jobs. The problem is classified as $\\mathcal{N}\\mathcal{P}$...

  2. A compact and stable eddy covariance set-up for methane measurements using off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. D. Hendriks

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A Fast Methane Analyzer (FMA is assessed for its applicability in a closed path eddy covariance field set-up in a peat meadow. The FMA uses off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy combined with a highly specific narrow band laser for the detection of CH4 and strongly reflective mirrors to obtain a laser path length of 2–20×103 m. Statistical testing and a calibration experiment showed high precision (7.8×10−3 ppb and accuracy (<0.30% of the instrument, while no drift was observed. The instrument response time was determined to be 0.10 s. In the field set-up, the FMA is attached to a scroll pump and combined with a 3-axis ultrasonic anemometer and an open path infrared gas analyzer for measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour. The power-spectra and co-spectra of the instruments were satisfactory for 10 Hz sampling rates.

    Due to erroneous measurements, spikes and periods of low turbulence the data series consisted for 26% of gaps. Observed CH4 fluxes consisted mainly of emission, showed a diurnal cycle, but were rather variable over. The average CH4 emission was 29.7 nmol m−2 s−1, while the typical maximum CH4 emission was approximately 80.0 nmol m−2 s−1 and the typical minimum flux was approximately 0.0 nmol m−2 s−1. The correspondence of the measurements with flux chamber measurements in the footprint was good and the observed CH4 emission rates were comparable with eddy covariance CH4 measurements in other peat areas.

    Additionally, three measurement techniques with lower sampling frequencies were simulated, which might give the possibility to measure CH4 fluxes without an external pump and save energy. Disjunct eddy covariance appeared to be the most reliable substitute for 10 Hz eddy covariance, while relaxed eddy accumulation gave

  3. Versatile pulsed laser setup for depth profiling analysis of multilayered samples in the field of cultural heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, N. F. C.; Osticioli, I.; Striova, J.; Sansonetti, A.; Becucci, M.; Castellucci, E.

    2009-04-01

    The present study considers the use of a nanosecond pulsed laser setup capable of performing laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and pulsed Raman spectroscopy for the study of multilayered objects in the field of cultural heritage. Controlled etching using the 4th harmonic 266 nm emission of a Nd:YAG laser source with a 8 ns pulse duration was performed on organic films and mineral strata meant to simulate different sequence of layers usually found in art objects such as in easel and mural paintings. The process of micro ablation coupled with powerful spectroscopic techniques operating with the same laser source, constitutes an interesting alternative to mechanical sampling especially when dealing with artworks such as ceramics and metal works which are problematic due to their hardness and brittleness. Another case is that of valuable pieces where sampling is not an option and the materials to analyse lie behind the surface. The capabilities and limitations of such instrumentation were assessed through several tests in order to characterize the trend of the laser ablation on different materials. Monitored ablation was performed on commercial sheets of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), a standard material of known thickness and mechanical stability, and rabbit glue, an adhesive often used in works of art. Measurements were finally carried out on a specimen with a stratigraphy similar to those found in real mural paintings.

  4. TRIGA-SPEC: A setup for mass spectrometry and laser spectroscopy at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz

    CERN Document Server

    Ketelaer, J; Beck, D; Blaum, K; Block, M; Eberhardt, K; Eitel, G; Ferrer, R; Geppert, C; George, S; Herfurth, F; Ketter, J; Nagy, Sz; Neidherr, D; Neugart, R; Nörtershäuser, W; Repp, J; Smorra, C; Trautmann, N; Weber, C

    2008-01-01

    The research reactor TRIGA Mainz is an ideal facility to provide neutron-rich nuclides with production rates sufficiently large for mass spectrometric and laser spectroscopic studies. Within the TRIGA-SPEC project, a Penning trap as well as a beam line for collinear laser spectroscopy are being installed. Several new developments will ensure high sensitivity of the trap setup enabling mass measurements even on a single ion. Besides neutron-rich fission products produced in the reactor, also heavy nuclides such as 235-U or 252-Cf can be investigated for the first time with an off-line ion source. The data provided by the mass measurements will be of interest for astrophysical calculations on the rapid neutron-capture process as well as for tests of mass models in the heavy-mass region. The laser spectroscopic measurements will yield model-independent information on nuclear ground-state properties such as nuclear moments and charge radii of neutron-rich nuclei of refractory elements far from stability. This pub...

  5. TANGRA - an experimental setup for basic and applied nuclear research by means of 14.1 MeV neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruskov, Ivan; Kopatch, Yury; Bystritsky, Vyacheslav; Skoy, Vadim; Shvetsov, Valery; Hambsch, Franz-Josef; Oberstedt, Stephan; Noy, Roberto Capote; Grozdanov, Dimitar; Zontikov, Artem; Rogov, Yury; Zamyatin, Nikolay; Sapozhnikov, Mikhail; Slepnev, Vyacheslav; Bogolyubov, Evgeny; Sadovsky, Andrey; Barmakov, Yury; Ryzhkov, Valentin; Yurkov, Dimitry; Valković, Vladivoj; Obhođaš, Jasmina; Aliyev, Fuad

    2017-09-01

    For investigation of the basic characteristics of 14.1 MeV neutron induced nuclear reactions on a number of important isotopes for nuclear science and engineering, a new experimental setup TANGRA has been constructed at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna. For testing its performance, the angular distribution of γ-rays (and neutrons) from the inelastic scattering of 14.1 MeV neutrons on high-purity carbon was measured and the angular anisotropy of γ-rays from the reaction 12C(n, n'γ)12C was determined. This reaction is important from fundamental (differential cross-sections) and practical (non-destructive elemental analysis of materials containing carbon) point of view. The preliminary results for the anisotropy of the γ-ray emission from the inelastic scattering of 14.1- MeV neutrons on carbon are compared with already published literature data. A detailed data analysis for determining the correlations between inelastic scattered neutron and γ-ray emission will be published elsewhere.

  6. An Environmental Friendly Procedure for Photometric Determination of Hypochlorite in Tap Water Employing a Miniaturized Multicommuted Flow Analysis Setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Sivanildo S.; Reis, Boaventura F.

    2011-01-01

    A photometric procedure for the determination of ClO− in tap water employing a miniaturized multicommuted flow analysis setup and an LED-based photometer is described. The analytical procedure was implemented using leucocrystal violet (LCV; 4,4′,4′′-methylidynetris (N,N-dimethylaniline), C25H31N3) as a chromogenic reagent. Solenoid micropumps employed for solutions propelling were assembled together with the photometer in order to compose a compact unit of small dimensions. After control variables optimization, the system was applied for the determination of ClO− in samples of tap water, and aiming accuracy assessment samples were also analyzed using an independent method. Applying the paired t-test between results obtained using both methods, no significant difference at the 95% confidence level was observed. Other useful features include low reagent consumption, 2.4 μg of LCV per determination, a linear response ranging from 0.02 up to 2.0 mg L−1  ClO−, a relative standard deviation of 1.0% (n = 11) for samples containing 0.2 mg L−1  ClO−, a detection limit of 6.0 μg L−1  ClO−, a sampling throughput of 84 determinations per hour, and a waste generation of 432 μL per determination. PMID:21747732

  7. An Insight into Health Care Setup in National Capital Region of India using Dimensions of Learning Organizations Questionnaire (DLOQ)- A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jishnu Krishna; Gupta, Ritu; Basavaraj, Patthi; Singla, Ashish; Prasad, Monika; Pandita, Venisha; Malhi, Ravneet; Vashishtha, Vaibhav

    2016-06-01

    Over the past decades India, though being a developing country has progressed in multiple sectors but has not shown a substantial qualitative progress in healthcare. To be able to evaluate learning organization in a healthcare setup would thrust millennium development goals and infuse continuous learning model into health sector. To assess health care context using the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) in a health care setting in National Capital Region of India. DLOQ proforma were distributed among 315 employees at all levels of the hospital. Data was analysed using SPSS software version 19.0 and was subjected to quantitative analysis and non-parametric tests. The Kruskal-Wallis test indicated a significant difference between the means of the different professions where as Mann-Whitney tests compared the relation between each of the profession and a significant difference (p learning organization capacity of a health care setting in a rapidly developing country.

  8. Detection of actinides and rare earths in natural matrices with the AGLAE new, high sensitivity detection set-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro; Alonso, Ursula; Lemasson, Quentin; Missana, Tiziana; Moignard, Brice; Pacheco, Claire; Pichon, Laurent; Camarena de la Mora, Sandra

    2014-08-01

    tolerated.This kind of set-up should be advantageous for the detection of elements that are present in a geological, archaeological or artistic samples to the level of a few tens ppm. This is true in particular for the rare earths which are relevant to the provenance attribution of various classes of cultural heritage objects (clays, glasses, …) and the actinides which are relevant in very specific and highly impacting dating problems and, more generally, critical environmental elements with special reference to the radionuclide mobility in deep geological formations hosting radioactive waste [2]. Geological materials are highly heterogeneous and consequently their retention of contaminants is heterogeneous as well. In this frame, the capabilities of the AGLAE set-up would allow an improved characterization of natural heterogeneous rock, detecting the presence of the elements of interest (actinides and rare earth) at concentration levels of tens of ppm. This provides a better definition of the initial system, avoiding biased interpretation of the retention properties of the material for the analysis of possible contamination. Additionally, if lower detection limits were achieved, new perspectives to evaluate retention of low solubility contaminants in a wider range of geochemical conditions would be opened.A glass standard and a series of reference granite samples (Grimsel and Äspö), either enriched by sorption with natU and La or kept natural, have been scanned by PIXE at the New-AGLAE detection system, to test measurement protocols and assess the MDL's allowed by the five detectors system.

  9. Comparing para-rowing set-ups on an ergometer using kinematic movement patterns of able-bodied rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, B; Eger, T; Merritt, T; Godwin, A

    2017-04-01

    While numerous studies have investigated the biomechanics of able-bodied rowing, few studies have been completed with para-rowing set-ups. The purpose of this research was to provide benchmark data for handle kinetics and joint kinematics for able-bodied athletes rowing in para- rowing set-ups on an indoor ergometer. Able-bodied varsity rowers performed maximal trials in three para-rowing set-ups; Legs, Trunk and Arms (LTA), Trunk and Arms (TA) and Arms and Shoulders (AS) rowing. The handle force kinetics of the LTA stroke were comparable to the values for able-bodied literature. Lumbar flexion at the catch, extension at the finish and total range of motion were, however, greater than values in the literature for able-bodied athletes in the LTA set-up. Additionally, rowers in TA and AS set-ups utilised more extreme ranges of motion for lumbar flexion, elbow flexion and shoulder abduction than the LTA set-up. This study provides the first biomechanical values of the para-rowing strokes for researchers, coaches and athletes to use while promoting the safest training programmes possible for para-rowing.

  10. Design Of A Novel Online Experiment Setup For PID Controller Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezgin Kaçar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an internet based remote access experiment setup was developed for induction direct current motor speed control with PID controller which can be used as a support material in engineering education. The experiment setup is wireless and communicates with the remote server using transfer control protocol/internet protocol through a wireless ADSL modem. Users can perform the experiments as real time accessing the web pages in the remote server by using any computer which has internet connection. By means of interactively-designed web pages, users can monitor the speed change executing alterations of the PID controller parameter and motor reference speed. Also users can save the measured values on their own computers. In addition to this, with the support of a webcam, the running of the experimental set can be monitored on the web page. Additionally, for the experimental set, preparing the peripheral units card, the interaction was expanded between the user and the experimental set. Relatively to this, the user can monitor the ambient temperature of the experimental set’s current place on the web page and can make his/her own message write on LCD of the experimental set and can enlighten it if he/she wants.

  11. Experimental setup for evaluating an adaptive user interface for teleoperation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijayasinghe, Indika B.; Peetha, Srikanth; Abubakar, Shamsudeen; Saadatzi, Mohammad Nasser; Cremer, Sven; Popa, Dan O.

    2017-05-01

    A vital part of human interactions with a machine is the control interface, which single-handedly could define the user satisfaction and the efficiency of performing a task. This paper elaborates the implementation of an experimental setup to study an adaptive algorithm that can help the user better tele-operate the robot. The formulation of the adaptive interface and associate learning algorithms are general enough to apply when the mapping between the user controls and the robot actuators is complex and/or ambiguous. The method uses a genetic algorithm to find the optimal parameters that produce the input-output mapping for teleoperation control. In this paper, we describe the experimental setup and associated results that was used to validate the adaptive interface to a differential drive robot from two different input devices; a joystick, and a Myo gesture control armband. Results show that after the learning phase, the interface converges to an intuitive mapping that can help even inexperienced users drive the system to a goal location.

  12. Six dimensional X-ray Tensor Tomography with a compact laboratory setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Y.; Wieczorek, M.; Schaff, F.; Seyyedi, S.; Prade, F.; Pfeiffer, F.; Lasser, T.

    2016-09-01

    Attenuation based X-ray micro computed tomography (XCT) provides three-dimensional images with micrometer resolution. However, there is a trade-off between the smallest size of the structures that can be resolved and the measurable sample size. In this letter, we present an imaging method using a compact laboratory setup that reveals information about micrometer-sized structures within samples that are several orders of magnitudes larger. We combine the anisotropic dark-field signal obtained in a grating interferometer and advanced tomographic reconstruction methods to reconstruct a six dimensional scattering tensor at every spatial location in three dimensions. The scattering tensor, thus obtained, encodes information about the orientation of micron-sized structures such as fibres in composite materials or dentinal tubules in human teeth. The sparse acquisition schemes presented in this letter enable the measurement of the full scattering tensor at every spatial location and can be easily incorporated in a practical, commercially feasible laboratory setup using conventional X-ray tubes, thus allowing for widespread industrial applications.

  13. A Noninvasive Body Setup Method for Radiotherapy by Using a Multimodal Image Fusion Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Chen, Ying; Chen, Yunxia; Wang, Chenchen; Cai, Jing; Chu, Kaiyue; Jin, Jianhua; Ge, Yun; Huang, Xiaolin; Guan, Yue; Li, Weifeng

    2017-12-01

    To minimize the mismatch error between patient surface and immobilization system for tumor location by a noninvasive patient setup method. The method, based on a point set registration, proposes a shift for patient positioning by integrating information of the computed tomography scans and that of optical surface landmarks. An evaluation of the method included 3 areas: (1) a validation on a phantom by estimating 100 known mismatch errors between patient surface and immobilization system. (2) Five patients with pelvic tumors were considered. The tumor location errors of the method were measured using the difference between the proposal shift of cone-beam computed tomography and that of our method. (3) The collected setup data from the evaluation of patients were compared with the published performance data of other 2 similar systems. The phantom verification results showed that the method was capable of estimating mismatch error between patient surface and immobilization system in a precision of <0.22 mm. For the pelvic tumor, the method had an average tumor location error of 1.303, 2.602, and 1.684 mm in left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. The performance comparison with other 2 similar systems suggested that the method had a better positioning accuracy for pelvic tumor location. By effectively decreasing an interfraction uncertainty source (mismatch error between patient surface and immobilization system) in radiotherapy, the method can improve patient positioning precision for pelvic tumor.

  14. Development of an advanced electropolishing setup for multicell high gradient niobium cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Éozénou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Reproducible operation at high performances of superconducting cavities is required for linear accelerators. High beta elliptical cavities are thus of concern and, to achieve required performances for such resonators, surface preparation including electropolishing is recommended. We have designed and operate a setup for electropolishing in the vertical position of multicell cavities in order to: (i obtain high yield with large elliptical cavities for Superconducting Linac (SPL or European Spallation Source projects; (ii develop a reference installation demonstrating that this process is appropriate for the large scale treatment of cavities in industry. The setup described here is the first one able to electropolish vertically multicell cavities with circulating acid and high safety standards. This equipment makes it possible to use a wide range of parameters such as voltage, acid flow rate, temperature, and nitrogen injection with an R&D purpose in mind. Optimization is studied using modeling with COMSOL software for different cavities. As examples, we present some results for the 704 MHz high-beta SPL cavity and the 1300 MHz International Linear Collider cavity and show the influence of cathode shape on both acid flow and electric field distribution during the process. Importance of the size of the cavity and first results achieved on single-cell and nine-cell cavities will be discussed.

  15. Seminar | Development of a PET Cyclotron Based Irradiation Setup for Proton Radiobiology | 25 June

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Sharif Hasan Mahmoud Ghithan, a Palestinian postdoctoral researcher at the Laboratory of Instrumentation and Experimental Particle Physics (Portugal), will discuss the development of an out-of-yoke irradiation setup using the proton beam from a cyclotron that ordinarily produces radioisotopes for Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The speaker will also discuss possible future use of the results of this research for CERN’s new LEIR biomedical facility. The seminar will be proposed in the framework of a meeting of the CERN Medical Applications Study Group.   25 June, 2 p.m. to 3 p.m. Room 13-2-005 ABSTRACT: In this new irradiation setup, the current from a 20 mm thick aluminum transmission foil is read out by homemade transimpedance electronics, providing online dose information. The main monitoring variables, delivered in real-time, include beam current, integrated charge and dose rate. Hence the dose and integrated current delivered at a given instant to an experimental setu...

  16. A new mechatronic set-up and technique for investigation of firearms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesenciuc, Ioan; Suciu, Cornel

    2016-12-01

    Since ancient times, mankind has manifested interest in the development and improvement of weapons, either for military or hunting purposes. Today, in competition with these legal practices, the number of those who commit crimes by non-compliance with the regime of weapons and ammunition has increased exponentially. This is why the technology and methods employed in the area of judicial ballistics, requires constant research and continuous learning. The present paper advances a new experimental set-up and its corresponding methodology, meant to measure the force deployed by the firing pin. The new experimental set-up and procedure consists of a mechatronic structure, based on a piezoelectric force transducer, which allows to measure, in-situ, the force produced by the firing pin when it is deployed. The obtained information can further be used to establish a correspondence between this force and the imprint left on the firing cap. This correspondence furthers the possibility of elaborating a model that would permit ballistic experts to correctly identify a smoothbore weapon.

  17. A dedicated AMS setup for 53Mn/60Fe at the Cologne FN tandem accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffer, M.; Dewald, A.; Feuerstein, C.; Altenkirch, R.; Stolz, A.; Heinze, S.

    2015-10-01

    Following demands for AMS measurements of medium mass isotopes, especially for 53Mn and 60Fe, we started to build a dedicated AMS setup at the Cologne FN tandem accelerator. This accelerator with a maximum terminal voltage of 10 MV can be reliably operated at a terminal voltage of 9.5 MV which corresponds to energies of 93-102 MeV for 60Fe or 53Mn beams using the 9+ or 10+ charge state. These charge states can be obtained by foil stripping with efficiencies of 30% and 20%, respectively. Energies around 100 MeV are sufficient to effectively suppress the stable isobars 60Ni and 53Cr by (dE/dx) techniques using combinations of energy degrader foils and dispersive elements like electrostatic analyzers and time of flight (TOF) systems as well as (dE/dx)E ion detectors. In this contribution we report on the actual status of the AMS setup and discuss details and expected features.

  18. Complex magnetic susceptibility setup for spectroscopy in the extremely low-frequency range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, B W M; Bakelaar, I A; Klokkenburg, M; Erné, B H

    2008-01-01

    A sensitive balanced differential transformer was built to measure complex initial parallel magnetic susceptibility spectra in the 0.01-1000 Hz range. The alternating magnetic field can be chosen sufficiently weak that the magnetic structure of the samples is only slightly perturbed and the low frequencies make it possible to study the rotational dynamics of large magnetic colloidal particles or aggregates dispersed in a liquid. The distinguishing features of the setup are the novel multilayered cylindrical coils with a large sample volume and a large number of secondary turns (55 000) to measure induced voltages with a good signal-to-noise ratio, the use of a dual channel function generator to provide an ac current to the primary coils and an amplitude- and phase-adjusted compensation voltage to the dual phase differential lock-in amplifier, and the measurement of several vector quantities at each frequency. We present the electrical impedance characteristics of the coils, and we demonstrate the performance of the setup by measurement on magnetic colloidal dispersions covering a wide range of characteristic relaxation frequencies and magnetic susceptibilities, from chi approximately -10(-5) for pure water to chi>1 for concentrated ferrofluids.

  19. Ocular MR imaging: evaluation of different coil setups in a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb-Eigner, Katharina; Warmuth, Carsten; Taupitz, Matthias; Bertelmann, Eckart; Hamm, Bernd; Asbach, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Small loop surface coils are generally recommended for ocular magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, but the optimal coil setup has not been systematically investigated. In this phantom study, we investigated which coil setup of those coils available for our MR imaging system provides the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in ocular MR imaging at 1.5 tesla. Using a phantom to simulate the eyeball and the orbital fat, we employed loop surface coils of 4- and 6-cm diameter and a multi-channel head coil to obtain images using a T1-weighted spin-echo sequence and then measured the SNR for each coil and coil combination. Use of the 6-cm loop coil alone yielded the highest mean SNR (27.5). Even in superficial regions (mesial and temporal), the SNR was higher using the 6-cm loop coil (33.6 and 45.5) than the 4-cm loop coil (28.0 and 33.8). Additional use of the head coil reduced the mean SNR to 10.4. This quantitative analysis suggests that use of a 6-cm loop surface coil offers the best results in ocular MR imaging. Combinations of loop coils or additional use of a head coil cannot be recommended because higher noise degrades image quality.

  20. A robust optimisation approach accounting for the effect of fractionation on setup uncertainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Matthew; Aitkenhead, Adam; Albertini, Francesca; Lomax, Antony J; MacKay, Ranald I

    2017-10-04

    Proton plans are subject to a number of uncertainties which must be accounted for to ensure that they are delivered safely. Misalignment resulting from residual errors in daily patient positioning can result in both a displacement and distortion of dose distributions. This can be particularly important for intensity modulated proton therapy treatments where the accurate alignment of highly modulated fields may be required to deliver the intended treatment. A number of methods to generate plans that are robust to these uncertainties exist. These include robust optimisation approaches which account for the effect of uncertainties on the dose distribution within the optimisation process. However, robustness to uncertainty comes at the cost of plan quality. For this reason, it is important that the uncertainties considered are realistic. Existing approaches to robust optimisation have neglected the role of fractionated treatment deliveries in reducing the uncertainties that result from random setup errors. Here, a method of robust optimisation which accounts for this effect is presented and is evaluated using a 2D planning environment. The optimisation algorithm considers the dose in the estimated upper and lower bounds of the dose distribution under the effect of setup and range errors. A comparison with plans robustly optimised without consideration of the effect of fractionation and conventionally optimised plans is presented. Fractionation incorporated robust optimisation demonstrates a reduced sensitivity to uncertainty compared to conventionally optimised plans and a reduced integral dose compared to robustly optimised plans.

  1. Monitoring electro-magnetic field in urban areas: new set-ups and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubritto, C.; Petraglia, A.; Paribello, G.; Formosi, R.; Rosa, M. de; Vetromile, C.; Palmieri, A.; D' Onofrio, A. [Seconda Universita di Napoli, Dipt. di Scienze Ambientali, Caserta (Italy); Di Bella, G.; Giannini, V. [Vector Group, Roma (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    In this paper two different set-ups for continuous monitoring of electromagnetic levels are presented: the first one (Continuous Time E.M.F. Monitoring System) is based upon a network of fixed stations, allowing a detailed field monitoring as function of the time; the second one (Mobile Measurements Units) resorts to portable stations mounted on standard bicycles, allowing a positional screening in limited time intervals. For both set-ups a particular attention has been paid to the data management, by means of tools like web geographic information systems (Web-Gis). Moreover the V.I.C.R.E.M./E.L.F. software has been used for a predictive analysis of the electromagnetic field levels along with the geo referenced data coming from the field measurements. Starting from these results it has been realized that there is a need for an efficient and correct action of monitoring and information/formation in this domain, where dis-information or bad information is very often spread in the population, in particular in a field where the process of the appreciation and assessment of risk does not necessarily make use of a rationale, technically-informed procedure, but the judgement is rather based on a personal feeling, which may derive from a limited, unstructured set of information, using a set of qualitative attributes rather than a quantity. (N.C.)

  2. A flexible setup for angle-resolved X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with laboratory sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spanier, M., E-mail: mspanier@physik.tu-berlin.de; Herzog, C.; Grötzsch, D.; Kramer, F.; Mantouvalou, I.; Malzer, W.; Kanngießer, B. [Institute for Optics and Atomic Physics, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Lubeck, J.; Weser, J.; Streeck, C.; Beckhoff, B. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Abbestraße 2-12, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is one of the standard tools for the analysis of stratified materials and is widely applied for the investigation of electronics and coatings. The composition and thickness of the layers can be determined quantitatively and non-destructively. Recent work showed that these capabilities can be extended towards retrieving stratigraphic information like concentration depth profiles using angle-resolved XRF (ARXRF). This paper introduces an experimental sample chamber which was developed as a multi-purpose tool enabling different measurement geometries suited for transmission measurements, conventional XRF, ARXRF, etc. The chamber was specifically designed for attaching all kinds of laboratory X-ray sources for the soft and hard X-ray ranges as well as various detection systems. In detail, a setup for ARXRF using an X-ray tube with a polycapillary X-ray lens as source is presented. For such a type of setup, both the spectral and lateral characterizations of the radiation field are crucial for quantitative ARXRF measurements. The characterization is validated with the help of a stratified validation sample.

  3. Optical digital to analog conversion performance analysis for indoor set-up conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobesch, Aleš; Alves, Luis Nero; Wilfert, Otakar; Ribeiro, Carlos Gaspar

    2017-10-01

    In visible light communication (VLC) the optical digital to analog conversion (ODAC) approach was proposed as a suitable driving technique able to overcome light-emitting diode's (LED) non-linear characteristic. This concept is analogous to an electrical digital-to-analog converter (EDAC). In other words, digital bits are binary weighted to represent an analog signal. The method supports elementary on-off based modulations able to exploit the essence of LED's non-linear characteristic allowing simultaneous lighting and communication. In the ODAC concept the reconstruction error does not simply rely upon the converter bit depth as in case of EDAC. It rather depends on communication system set-up and geometrical relation between emitter and receiver as well. The paper describes simulation results presenting the ODAC's error performance taking into account: the optical channel, the LED's half power angle (HPA) and the receiver field of view (FOV). The set-up under consideration examines indoor conditions for a square room with 4 m length and 3 m height, operating with one dominant wavelength (blue) and having walls with a reflection coefficient of 0.8. The achieved results reveal that reconstruction error increases for higher data rates as a result of interference due to multipath propagation.

  4. Design of the plasma grid for a short pulse negative ion source experimental setup at HUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, C.; Li, D.; Chen, D.; Zhao, P.; Xu, Q.; Liao, Z.

    2017-08-01

    An experimental setup of a radio frequency (RF) driven negative hydrogen ion source has been developed at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). The setup without cesium oven and an extraction system had been completed and the plasma was ignited in the driver successfully in 2014. An extraction system with small area (5540 mm2) for short pulse (˜ 4 s) was designed to extract the negative hydrogen ions. Generally, the plasma grid temperature is controlled to reach 150 °C by the cooling channels inside the grid. But another method that we could use the PG current to raise the temperature is being considered only for the short pulse condition. An experiment was introduced to prove the feasibility of this method. A magnetic field produced by current flowing through the plasma grid is required to reduce the electron temperature and suppress the co-extraction electrons. The filter field homogeneity has been studied in detail by finite element method. There have been significant improvements regarding the field homogeneity by means of the grid geometry optimization.

  5. Long-term electromagnetic exposure of developing neuronal networks: A flexible experimental setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Stefan; Daus, Andreas W; Erbes, Christian; Goldhammer, Michael; Bochtler, Ulrich; Thielemann, Christiane

    2016-05-01

    Neuronal networks in vitro are considered one of the most promising targets of research to assess potential electromagnetic field induced effects on neuronal functionality. A few exposure studies revealed there is currently no evidence of any adverse health effects caused by weak electromagnetic fields. Nevertheless, some published results are inconsistent. Particularly, doubts have been raised regarding possible athermal biological effects in the young brain during neuronal development. Therefore, we developed and characterized a flexible experimental setup based on a transverse electromagnetic waveguide, allowing controlled, reproducible exposure of developing neuronal networks in vitro. Measurement of S-parameters confirmed very good performance of the Stripline in the band of 800-1000 MHz. Simulations suggested a flexible positioning of cell culture dishes throughout a large exposure area, as specific absorption rate values were quite independent of their position (361.7 ± 11.4 mW/kg) at 1 W, 900 MHz. During exposure, thermal drift inside cellular medium did not exceed 0.1 K. Embryonic rat cortical neurons were cultivated on microelectrode array chips to non-invasively assess electrophysiological properties of electrogenic networks. Measurements were taken for several weeks, which attest to the experimental setup being a reliable system for long-term studies on developing neuronal tissue. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A robust optimisation approach accounting for the effect of fractionation on setup uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Matthew; Aitkenhead, Adam; Albertini, Francesca; Lomax, Antony J.; MacKay, Ranald I.

    2017-10-01

    Proton plans are subject to a number of uncertainties which must be accounted for to ensure that they are delivered safely. Misalignment resulting from residual errors in daily patient positioning can result in both a displacement and distortion of dose distributions. This can be particularly important for intensity modulated proton therapy treatments where the accurate alignment of highly modulated fields may be required to deliver the intended treatment. A number of methods to generate plans that are robust to these uncertainties exist. These include robust optimisation approaches which account for the effect of uncertainties on the dose distribution within the optimisation process. However, robustness to uncertainty comes at the cost of plan quality. For this reason, it is important that the uncertainties considered are realistic. Existing approaches to robust optimisation have neglected the role of fractionated treatment deliveries in reducing the uncertainties that result from random setup errors. Here, a method of robust optimisation which accounts for this effect is presented and is evaluated using a 2D planning environment. The optimisation algorithm considers the dose in the estimated upper and lower bounds of the dose distribution under the effect of setup and range errors. A comparison with plans robustly optimised without consideration of the effect of fractionation and conventionally optimised plans is presented. Fractionation incorporated robust optimisation demonstrates a reduced sensitivity to uncertainty compared to conventionally optimised plans and a reduced integral dose compared to robustly optimised plans.

  7. A distributed multicast label switched path setup scheme to solve the multi-destination reservation collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shu; Peng, Yunfeng; Long, Keping

    2008-11-01

    Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) appears as a promising candidate to implement the control plane for next-generation optical networks. In GMPLS-based wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical networks, existing resource reservation protocol (RSVP) may fail to setup a multicast Label Switched Path (LSP) with high probability, since multiple destinations in one multicast session may reserve different wavelengths and result in reservation collision at branch nodes. In this work, we extend the existing GMPLS RSVP signaling protocol and propose an efficient scheme to set up optical multicast LSP and avoid wavelength resources collision, called Last-hop Label Set (LLS) scheme, by introducing a new object called Last-hop Label Set object in Resv message. Once the setup of a multicast LSP fails caused by wavelength reservation collision at a branch node, the branch node can re-reserves a new wavelength according to the Last-hop Label Set object within Resv messages. The numerical results indicate that the proposed LLS scheme offers lower blocking probability compared to the existing GMPLS signaling scheme.

  8. High current table-top setup for femtosecond gas electron diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Zandi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We have constructed an experimental setup for gas phase electron diffraction with femtosecond resolution and a high average beam current. While gas electron diffraction has been successful at determining molecular structures, it has been a challenge to reach femtosecond resolution while maintaining sufficient beam current to retrieve structures with high spatial resolution. The main challenges are the Coulomb force that leads to broadening of the electron pulses and the temporal blurring that results from the velocity mismatch between the laser and electron pulses as they traverse the sample. We present here a device that uses pulse compression to overcome the Coulomb broadening and deliver femtosecond electron pulses on a gas target. The velocity mismatch can be compensated using laser pulses with a tilted intensity front to excite the sample. The temporal resolution of the setup was determined with a streak camera to be better than 400 fs for pulses with up to half a million electrons and a kinetic energy of 90 keV. The high charge per pulse, combined with a repetition rate of 5 kHz, results in an average beam current that is between one and two orders of magnitude higher than previously demonstrated.

  9. Development of innovative computer software to facilitate the setup and computation of water quality index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabizadeh, Ramin; Valadi Amin, Maryam; Alimohammadi, Mahmood; Naddafi, Kazem; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Yousefzadeh, Samira

    2013-04-26

    Developing a water quality index which is used to convert the water quality dataset into a single number is the most important task of most water quality monitoring programmes. As the water quality index setup is based on different local obstacles, it is not feasible to introduce a definite water quality index to reveal the water quality level. In this study, an innovative software application, the Iranian Water Quality Index Software (IWQIS), is presented in order to facilitate calculation of a water quality index based on dynamic weight factors, which will help users to compute the water quality index in cases where some parameters are missing from the datasets. A dataset containing 735 water samples of drinking water quality in different parts of the country was used to show the performance of this software using different criteria parameters. The software proved to be an efficient tool to facilitate the setup of water quality indices based on flexible use of variables and water quality databases.

  10. Using paraxial approximation to describe the optical setup of a typical EARLINET lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkalis, Panagiotis

    2017-08-01

    The mathematical formulation for the optical setup of a typical EARLINET lidar system is given here. The equations describing a lidar system from the emitted laser beam to the projection of the telescope aperture on the final receiving unit (i.e., photomultiplier or photodiode) are presented, based on paraxial approximation and geometric optics approach. The receiving optical setup includes a telescope, a collimating lens, an interference filter and the ensemble objective eyepiece. The set of the derived equations interconnects major parameters of the optical components (e.g., focal lengths, diameters, angles of incidence), revealing their association with the distance of full overlap of the system. These equations may used complementarily with an optical design software, for the preliminary design of a system or can be used as a quick check up tool of an existing lidar system. The evaluation of the formulation on a real system is performed with ray-tracing simulations, revealing an overall good performance with relative differences of the order of 5 % mainly attributed to the limitations of the thin lens approximation.

  11. A digital holography set-up for 3D vortex flow dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebon, Benoît; Perret, Gaële; Coëtmellec, Sébastien; Godard, Gilles; Gréhan, Gérard; Lebrun, Denis; Brossard, Jérôme

    2016-06-01

    In the present paper, a digital in-line holography (DIH) set-up, with a converging beam, is used to take three-dimensional (3D) velocity measurements of vortices. The vortices are formed periodically at the edges of a submerged horizontal plate submitted to regular waves. They take the form of vortex filaments that extend from side to side of the channel. They undergo strongly three-dimensional instability mechanisms that remain very complicated to characterize experimentally. The experiments are performed in a 10 × 0.3 × 0.3 m3 wave flume. The DIH set-up is performed using a modulated laser diode emitting at the wavelength of 640 nm and a lensless CCD camera. The beam crosses the channel side to side. To reveal the flow dynamics, 30-μm hydrogen bubbles are generated at the edge of the plate to serve as tracers. Their locations are recorded on the holograms multiple times to access the dynamics of the flow. This method leads to an accuracy in the order of 100 μm on the axial location. Those measurements have been validated with stereo-PIV measurements. A very good agreement is found on time-averaged velocity fields between the two techniques.

  12. Stochastic integrated vendor–buyer model with unstable lead time and setup cost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra K. Jaggi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new vendor-buyer system where there are different objectives for both sides. The proposed method of this paper is different from the other previously published works since it considers different objectives for both sides. In this paper, the vendor’s emphasis is on the crashing of the setup cost, which not only helps him compete in the market but also provides better services to his customers; and the buyer’s aim is to reduce the lead time, which not only facilitates the buyer to fulfill the customers’ demand on time but also enables him to earn a good reputation in the market or vice versa. In the light of the above stated facts, an integrated vendor-buyer stochastic inventory model is also developed. The propsed model considers two cases for demand during lead time: Case (i Complete demand information, Case (ii Partial demand information. The proposed model jointly optimizes the buyer’s ordered quantity and lead time along with vendor’s setup cost and the number of shipments. The results are demonstrated with the help of numerical examples.

  13. Diagnostic setup for investigation of plasma wall interactions at Wendelstein 7-X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neubauer, Olaf, E-mail: o.neubauer@fz-juelich.de [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Biel, Wolfgang; Czymek, Guntram; Denner, Peter [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Effenberg, Florian [University Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Krämer-Flecken, Andreas; Liang, Yunfeng; Marchuk, Oleksandr; Offermanns, Guido; Rack, Michael; Samm, Ulrich [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Schmitz, Oliver [University Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Schweer, Bernd [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas – Laboratorium voor Plasmafysica, ERM/KMS, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Terra, Alexis [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We are investigating plasma wall interactions at Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. • Steady state operation and island divertor are unique. • We are developing diagnostics for divertor plasma and plasma facing surfaces. • A multi-purpose fast manipulator allows for exposure of probes and samples. • Versatile endoscopes allow for local divertor spectroscopy from IR to UV. - Abstract: Wendelstein 7-X being the most advanced stellarator is currently prepared for commissioning at Greifswald. Forschungszentrum Jülich is preparing a research programme in the field of plasma wall interactions (PWI) by developing a dedicated set of diagnostic systems. The specific interest at Wendelstein 7-X is to understand PWI processes in presence of a 3D plasma boundary of an island divertor. Furthermore, for the first time steady state plasma at high density and low temperature in the divertor region will be available. Since PWI only could be understood in conjunction with the edge plasma properties the aim of the setup is to observe both the edge plasma as well as surface processes. For optimum combination of different diagnostic methods the edge diagnostic systems are aligned toroidally along one out of five magnetic islands. Main systems are a multipurpose fast probe manipulator, two gas boxes in opposite divertor modules together with two endoscopes each observing the divertor regions, a poloidal correlation reflectometer, a dispersion interferometer in the divertor, and VUV and X-ray spectroscopy in the plasma core. The concept of the diagnostic setup is presented in this paper.

  14. Experimental Setup for Determining Ammonia-Salt Adsorption and Desorption Behavior Under Typical Heat Pump Conditions. Experimental Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Pal, M.; De Boer, R.; Veldhuis, J.B.J. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-09-15

    For the aim of obtaining a better understanding of the performance of a salt-ammonia sorption reactor/heat exchanger a new test-rig was developed. This test-rig enables the measurement of the performance in adsorption and desorption mode of different sorption reactor designs. It measures the speed of uptake and release of ammonia gas of various salt-ammonia reactions under well-controlled and well-monitored process conditions, similar to the heat pump conditions. The test-rig measures the ammonia uptake and release under controlled pressure and temperature conditions. Temperatures of the salt reactor can be varied from ambient temperature up to 200{sup o}C and the ammonia pressure can be varied between 0.02 to 2 MPa. These conditions can be set independently and repeated at regular time-intervals. Besides NH3-mass-flow meters, pressure and temperature sensors, the setup also contains an endoscope to observe any macroscopic structural changes in the material during uptake and release of ammonia. Measurements so far have shown a liquid phase of LiCl.3NH3 at pressures of 0.5 MPa and temperatures exceeding 90{sup o}C. Voilent foaming is observed at 120{sup o}C resulting in salt losses. A correlation was determined between the reaction rate of MgCl{sub 2}(2-6)NH3 and the relative pressure gradient yielding a reaction time of about 1500 seconds for a relative pressure difference of 1. Multiple sorption cycles of the CaCl{sub 2}(2-4)NH3 reaction, showed a reduced activity from 85% of the theoretical maximum sorbed mass at the first sorption cycle, to 15% after 300+ cycles.

  15. Hybrid Pareto artificial bee colony algorithm for multi-objective single machine group scheduling problem with sequence-dependent setup times and learning effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Lei; Guan, Zailin; Saif, Ullah; Zhang, Fei; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Group scheduling is significant for efficient and cost effective production system. However, there exist setup times between the groups, which require to decrease it by sequencing groups in an efficient way. Current research is focused on a sequence dependent group scheduling problem with an aim to minimize the makespan in addition to minimize the total weighted tardiness simultaneously. In most of the production scheduling problems, the processing time of jobs is assumed as fixed. However, the actual processing time of jobs may be reduced due to "learning effect". The integration of sequence dependent group scheduling problem with learning effects has been rarely considered in literature. Therefore, current research considers a single machine group scheduling problem with sequence dependent setup times and learning effects simultaneously. A novel hybrid Pareto artificial bee colony algorithm (HPABC) with some steps of genetic algorithm is proposed for current problem to get Pareto solutions. Furthermore, five different sizes of test problems (small, small medium, medium, large medium, large) are tested using proposed HPABC. Taguchi method is used to tune the effective parameters of the proposed HPABC for each problem category. The performance of HPABC is compared with three famous multi objective optimization algorithms, improved strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm (SPEA2), non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGAII) and particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO). Results indicate that HPABC outperforms SPEA2, NSGAII and PSO and gives better Pareto optimal solutions in terms of diversity and quality for almost all the instances of the different sizes of problems.

  16. Evaluation of setup accuracy for NSCLC patients; studying the impact of different types of cone-beam CT matches based on whole thorax, columna vertebralis, and GTV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosson, W.; Baker, M.; Hedman, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    on the various CBCT matches, setups using 2D kV planar imaging or setups using skin markers only (non-IGRT). Material and methods. Setup images from 16 NSCLC patients with weekly CBCT and daily 2D kV planar imaging were analyzed retrospectively. The CBCT matches were based on the columna vertebralis (CV...

  17. Inverter Ground Fault Overvoltage Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoke, Andy [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nelson, Austin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chakraborty, Sudipta [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chebahtah, Justin [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); Wang, Trudie [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States); McCarty, Michael [SolarCity Corporation, San Mateo, CA (United States)

    2015-08-12

    This report describes testing conducted at NREL to determine the duration and magnitude of transient overvoltages created by several commercial PV inverters during ground fault conditions. For this work, a test plan developed by the Forum on Inverter Grid Integration Issues (FIGII) has been implemented in a custom test setup at NREL. Load rejection overvoltage test results were reported previously in a separate technical report.

  18. Evaluation of the setup margins for cone beam computed tomography-guided cranial radiosurgery: A phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo Ortega, Juan Francisco; Wunderink, Wouter; Delgado, David; Moragues, Sandra; Pozo, Miquel; Casals, Joan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the setup margins from the clinical target volume (CTV) to planning target volume (PTV) for cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) treatments guided by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). We designed an end-to-end (E2E) test using a skull phantom with an embedded 6mm tungsten ball (target). A noncoplanar plan was computed (E2E plan) to irradiate the target. The CBCT-guided positioning of the skull phantom on the linac was performed. Megavoltage portal images were acquired after 15 independent deliveries of the E2E plan. The displacement 2-dimensional (2D) vector between the centers of the square field and the ball target on each portal image was used to quantify the isocenter accuracy. Geometrical margins on each patient׳s direction (left-right or LR, anterior-posterior or AP, superior-inferior or SI) were calculated. Dosimetric validation of the margins was performed in 5 real SRS cases: 3-dimesional (3D) isocenter deviations were mimicked, and changes in CTV dose coverage and organs-at-risk (OARs) dosage were analyzed. The CTV-PTV margins of 1.1mm in LR direction, and 0.7mm in AP and SI directions were derived from the E2E tests. The dosimetric analysis revealed that a 1-mm uniform margin was sufficient to ensure the CTV dose coverage, without compromising the OAR dose tolerances. The effect of isocenter uncertainty has been estimated to be 1mm in our CBCT-guided SRS approach. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Medical Dosimetrists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Significance of data treatment and experimental setup on the determination of copper complexing parameters by anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omanović, Dario; Garnier, Cédric; Louis, Yoann; Lenoble, Véronique; Mounier, Stéphane; Pizeta, Ivanka

    2010-04-07

    Different procedures of voltammetric peak intensities determination, as well as various experimental setups were systematically tested on simulated and real experimental data in order to identify critical points in the determination of copper complexation parameters (ligand concentration and conditional stability constant) by anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV). Varieties of titration data sets (Cu(measured)vs. Cu(total)) were fitted by models encompassing discrete sites distribution of one-class and two-class of binding ligands (by PROSECE software). Examination of different procedures for peak intensities determination applied on voltammograms with known preset values revealed that tangent fit (TF) routine should be avoided, as for both simulated and experimental titration data it produced an additional class of strong ligand (actually not present). Peak intensities determination by fitting of the whole voltammogram was found to be the most appropriate, as it provided most reliable complexation parameters. Tests performed on real seawater samples under different experimental conditions revealed that in addition to importance of proper peak intensities determination, an accumulation time (control of the sensitivity) and an equilibration time needed for complete complexation of added copper during titration (control of complexation kinetics) are the keypoints to obtain reliable results free of artefacts. The consequence of overestimation and underestimation of complexing parameters is supported and illustrated by the example of free copper concentrations (the most bioavailable/toxic specie) calculated for all studied cases. Errors up to 80% of underestimation of free copper concentration and almost two orders of magnitude overestimation of conditional stability constant were registered for the simulated case with two ligands. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical Evaluation of a Laser Surface Scanning System in 120 Patients for Improving Daily Setup Accuracy in Fractionated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Torsten, E-mail: t.moser@dkfz.de [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Habl, Gregor; Uhl, Matthias; Schubert, Kai; Sroka-Perez, Gabriele; Debus, Jürgen; Herfarth, Klaus [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Karger, Christian P. [Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical suitability of a specific optical surface imaging system to detect setup errors in fractionated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: The setup correction accuracy of a 3-dimensional laser imaging system was analyzed for 6 different tumor locations with 20 patients each. For each patient, the setup corrections of the megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) images of a TomoTherapy unit (TomoTherapy, Madison, WI) were compared with those of the laser system for the first 10 fractions. For the laser system, the reference surface either was obtained from the DICOM (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine) surface structure delineated on the planning computed tomography images or was acquired with the system itself at the first fraction after the MVCT-based setup correction. Data analysis was performed for both reference types. Results: By use of the DICOM reference image, systematic shifts between 3 and 9 mm were found, depending on the tumor location. For the optical reference, no clinically relevant systematic shifts were found. MVCT-based setup corrections were detected with high accuracy, and only small movements were observed during treatment. Conclusions: Using a reference image acquired with the laser system itself after MVCT-based setup correction appears more reliable than importing the DICOM reference surface. After generation of the optical reference, the laser system may be used to derive setup corrections over a certain number of fractions, but additional radiologic imaging may still be necessary on a regular basis (eg, weekly) or if the corrections of the optical system appear implausibly large. Nevertheless, such a combined application may help to reduce the imaging dose for the patient.