WorldWideScience

Sample records for test section length

  1. Effect of evaporation section and condensation section length on thermal performance of flat plate heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuangfeng; Chen Jinjian; Hu Yanxin; Zhang Wei

    2011-01-01

    Flat plate heat pipes (FPHPs) are one of the available technologies to deal with the high density electronic cooling problem due to their high thermal conductivity, reliability, and low weight penalty. A series of experiments were performed to investigate the effect of evaporation and condensation length on thermal performance of flat plate heat pipes. In the experiments, the FPHP had heat transfer length of 255 mm and width of 25 mm, and pure water was used as the working fluid. The results show that comparing to vapor chamber, the FPHP could realize long-distance heat transfer; comparing to the traditional heat pipe, the FPHP has large area contact with heat sources; the thermal resistance decreased and the heat transfer limit increased with the increase of evaporation section length; the FPHP would dry out at a lower heating power with the increase of condensation section length, which indicated that the heat transfer limit decreased, but the evaporator temperature also decreased; when the condensation section length approached to evaporation section length, the FPHP had a better thermal performance. - Highlights: → A strip sintered FPHP is proposed and tested. → The total heat transfer length reaches 255 mm → The efficiency of heat transport reaches 94.4%. → When the condensation section length approached to evaporation section length, the FPHP has better overall performance.

  2. Isthmus Dependent Atrial Flutter Cycle Length Correlates with Right Atrial Cross-Sectional Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousik Krishnan

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Right atrial flutter cycle length can prolong in the presence of antiarrhythmic drug therapy. We hypothesized that the cycle length of right atrial isthmus dependent flutter would correlate with right atrial cross-sectional area measurements. Methods: 60 patients who underwent ablation for electrophysiologically proven isthmus dependent right atrial flutter, who were not on Class I or Class III antiarrhythmic drugs and had recent 2-dimensional echocardiographic data comprised the study group. Right atrial length and width were measured in the apical four chamber view. Cross-sectional area was estimated by multiplying the length and width. 35 patients had an atrial flutter rate ≥250 bpm (Normal Flutter Group and 25 patients had an atrial flutter rate < 250 bpm (Slow Flutter Group. Results: Mean atrial flutter rate was 283 bpm in the normal flutter group and 227 bpm in the slow flutter group. Mean atrial flutter cycle length was 213 ms in the Normal Flutter Group and 265 ms in the Slow Flutter Group (p<0.0001. Mean right atrial cross sectional area was 1845 mm2 in the Normal Flutter group and 2378 mm2 in the Slow Flutter Group, (p< 0.0001. Using linear regression, CSA was a significant predictor of cycle length (β =0.014 p = 0.0045. For every 1 mm2 increase in cross-sectional area, cycle length is 0.014 ms longer.Conclusion: In the absence of antiarrhythmic medications, right atrial cross sectional area enlargement correlates with atrial flutter cycle length. These findings provide further evidence that historical rate-related definitions of typical isthmus dependent right atrial are not mechanistically valid.

  3. Abdominal girth and vertebral column length aid in predicting intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine dose for elective cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chang-Na; Zhou, Qing-He; Wang, Li-Zhong

    2017-08-01

    Currently, there is no consensus on how to determine the optimal dose of intrathecal bupivacaine for an individual undergoing an elective cesarean section. In this study, we developed a regression equation between intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine volume and abdominal girth and vertebral column length, to determine a suitable block level (T5) for elective cesarean section patients.In phase I, we analyzed 374 parturients undergoing an elective cesarean section that received a suitable dose of intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine after a combined spinal-epidural (CSE) was performed at the L3/4 interspace. Parturients with T5 blockade to pinprick were selected for establishing the regression equation between 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine volume and vertebral column length and abdominal girth. Six parturient and neonatal variables, intrathecal 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine volume, and spinal anesthesia spread were recorded. Bivariate line correlation analyses, multiple line regression analyses, and 2-tailed t tests or chi-square test were performed, as appropriate. In phase II, another 200 parturients with CSE for elective cesarean section were enrolled to verify the accuracy of the regression equation.In phase I, a total of 143 parturients were selected to establish the following regression equation: YT5 = 0.074X1 - 0.022X2 - 0.017 (YT5 = 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine volume for T5 block level; X1 = vertebral column length; and X2 = abdominal girth). In phase II, a total of 189 participants were enrolled in the study to verify the accuracy of the regression equation, and 155 parturients with T5 blockade were deemed eligible, which accounted for 82.01% of all participants.This study evaluated parturients with T5 blockade to pinprick after a CSE for elective cesarean section to establish a regression equation between parturient vertebral column length and abdominal girth and 0.5% hyperbaric intrathecal bupivacaine volume. This equation can accurately

  4. Length bias correction in one-day cross-sectional assessments - The nutritionDay study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantal, Sophie; Pernicka, Elisabeth; Hiesmayr, Michael; Schindler, Karin; Bauer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    A major problem occurring in cross-sectional studies is sampling bias. Length of hospital stay (LOS) differs strongly between patients and causes a length bias as patients with longer LOS are more likely to be included and are therefore overrepresented in this type of study. To adjust for the length bias higher weights are allocated to patients with shorter LOS. We determined the effect of length-bias adjustment in two independent populations. Length-bias correction is applied to the data of the nutritionDay project, a one-day multinational cross-sectional audit capturing data on disease and nutrition of patients admitted to hospital wards with right-censoring after 30 days follow-up. We applied the weighting method for estimating the distribution function of patient baseline variables based on the method of non-parametric maximum likelihood. Results are validated using data from all patients admitted to the General Hospital of Vienna between 2005 and 2009, where the distribution of LOS can be assumed to be known. Additionally, a simplified calculation scheme for estimating the adjusted distribution function of LOS is demonstrated on a small patient example. The crude median (lower quartile; upper quartile) LOS in the cross-sectional sample was 14 (8; 24) and decreased to 7 (4; 12) when adjusted. Hence, adjustment for length bias in cross-sectional studies is essential to get appropriate estimates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. Torsion of the bar of the round transverse section from the variable on length and the transverse section porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shlyakhov S.M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is devoted to the task of finding of level of the secondary tangent voltages arising in sections because of a variable on porosity length. The decision of such task will allow to consider secondary tangent voltages in case of determination of bearing capacity of a porous bar. Distribution of porosity on a transverse section is set rationally - pro-ceeding from early the solved tasks on selection of porosity in case of torsion of a bar of a round transverse section, on bar length – under the linear law. A research objective is to determine the level of secondary tangent voltages and to evaluate from value.

  6. Is sonographically measured cervical length at 37 weeks of gestation associated with intrapartum cesarean section? A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Bradley; Narayan, Rajit; McGeechan, Kevin; Santiagu, Stanley; Vairavan, Ramesh; Burke, Minke; Phipps, Hala; Hyett, Jon

    2018-02-16

    Cesarean section rates continue to increase globally. Prediction of intrapartum cesarean section could lead to preventive measures. Our aim was to assess the association between sonographically measured cervical length at 37 weeks of gestation and cesarean section among women planning a vaginal birth. The population was women with a low-risk pregnancy or with gestational diabetes. This was a prospective cohort study conducted in a tertiary referral hospital in Sydney, Australia. In all, 212 women with a low-risk pregnancy or with gestational diabetes were recruited including 158 nulliparous and 54 parous women. Maternal demographic, clinical and ultrasound characteristics were collected at 37 weeks of gestation. Semi-Bayesian logistic regression and Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation were used to assess the relationship between cervical length and cesarean section in labor. Rates of cesarean section were 5% (2/55) for cervical length ≤20 mm, 17% (17/101) for cervical length 20-32 mm, and 27% (13/56) for cervical length >32 mm. These rates were 4, 22 and 33%, respectively, in nulliparous women. In the semi-Bayesian analysis, the odds ratio for cesarean section was 6.2 (95% confidence interval 2.2-43) for cervical length 20-32 mm and 10 (95% confidence interval 4.8-74) for cervical length >32 mm compared with the lowest quartile of cervical length, after adjusting for maternal age, parity, height, prepregnancy body mass index, gestational diabetes, induction of labor, neonatal sex and birthweight centile. Cervical length at 37 weeks of gestation is associated with intrapartum cesarean section. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  7. Dividing the Force Concept Inventory into two equivalent half-length tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Han

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Force Concept Inventory (FCI is a 30-question multiple-choice assessment that has been a building block for much of the physics education research done today. In practice, there are often concerns regarding the length of the test and possible test-retest effects. Since many studies in the literature use the mean score of the FCI as the primary variable, it would be useful then to have different shorter tests that can produce FCI-equivalent scores while providing the benefits of being quicker to administer and overcoming the test-retest effects. In this study, we divide the 1995 version of the FCI into two half-length tests; each contains a different subset of the original FCI questions. The two new tests are shorter, still cover the same set of concepts, and produce mean scores equivalent to those of the FCI. Using a large quantitative data set collected at a large midwestern university, we statistically compare the assessment features of the two half-length tests and the full-length FCI. The results show that the mean error of equivalent scores between any two of the three tests is within 3%. Scores from all tests are well correlated. Based on the analysis, it appears that the two half-length tests can be a viable option for score based assessment that need to administer tests quickly or need to measure short-term gains where using identical pre- and post-test questions is a concern.

  8. UHV testing of spare straight section chambers of Indus-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, S.K.; Ratnakala, K.C.; Sridhar, R.; Bhange, N.J.; Netram; Shukla, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    The vacuum system of Synchrotron Radiation Source, Indus-2, in RRCAT has been functioning up to the mark, continuously for last 10 years. To continue the same trouble-free functioning, it was planned to procure spares for all critical vacuum components, test for UHV performance and keep ready for installation, in case of requirement. As a part of this planning, fifteen chambers made of Aluminium alloy (6063 T6), procured as spare straight section chambers for Indus-2, and were tested for UHV performance. They were tested in batches of 2 or 3 chambers, depending upon their length, and the similar testing-procedure was followed. This paper narrates the tests carried out, and the results obtained. Ultimate vacuum in the range (2 to 9) x 10 -10 mbar was achieved. (author)

  9. Analytical Work in Support of the Design and Operation of Two Dimensional Self Streamlining Test Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, M.; Wolf, S. W. D.; Goodyer, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    A method has been developed for accurately computing the imaginary flow fields outside a flexible walled test section, applicable to lifting and non-lifting models. The tolerances in the setting of the flexible walls introduce only small levels of aerodynamic interference at the model. While it is not possible to apply corrections for the interference effects, they may be reduced by improving the setting accuracy of the portions of wall immediately above and below the model. Interference effects of the truncation of the length of the streamlined portion of a test section are brought to an acceptably small level by the use of a suitably long test section with the model placed centrally.

  10. Testing independence of fragment lengths within VNTR loci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisser, S. (Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)); Johnson, W. (Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States))

    1993-11-01

    Methods that were devised to test independence of the bivariate fragment lengths obtained from VNTR loci are applied to several population databases. It is shown that for many of the probes independence (Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium) cannot be sustained. 3 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Experimental investigation of span length for flexural test of fiber reinforced polymer composite laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhil Mehndiratta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing and evaluation of mechanical properties for FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer composite parts play a significant role to qualify it for the end use. Among the mechanical properties, the flexural strength is significant and vital as it may vary with specimen depth, temperature and the test span length. The flexural strength varies for different materials with varying the test span length hence the current work aims to find an optimum span length to test flexural strength for the specimens made of Glass (7781, EC9756 and Carbon (HTA7, G801 prepreg materials. Experiments are conducted as per the ASTM Standard D 790 for flexural test by varying the span lengths to understand the behavior of the flexural strength and flexural modulus. The experimental data were compared with those obtained from the finite element program software Altair Hyper works 14.0. The results indicate that flexural modulus increases with the span length to a point and then it decreases. Thereby, an optimum span length can be obtained for testing flexural strength, which will be useful to the designers and the composite manufacturers to accomplish better standard testing procedures.

  12. Scattering cross section of unequal length dipole arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed and systematic analytical treatment of scattering by an arbitrary dipole array configuration with unequal-length dipoles, different inter-element spacing and load impedance. It provides a physical interpretation of the scattering phenomena within the phased array system. The antenna radar cross section (RCS) depends on the field scattered by the antenna towards the receiver. It has two components, viz. structural RCS and antenna mode RCS. The latter component dominates the former, especially if the antenna is mounted on a low observable platform. The reduction in the scattering due to the presence of antennas on the surface is one of the concerns towards stealth technology. In order to achieve this objective, a detailed and accurate analysis of antenna mode scattering is required. In practical phased array, one cannot ignore the finite dimensions of antenna elements, coupling effect and the role of feed network while estimating the antenna RCS. This book presents the RCS estimati...

  13. Ab initio calculation of scattering length and cross sections at very low energies for electron-helium scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    The multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method for continuum wave functions has been used to calculate the scattering length and phase shifts over extremely low energies ranging from 0 to 1 eV very accurately for electron-helium scattering. The scattering length is calculated very accurately with wave functions computed exactly at zero energy, resulting in an upper bound of 1.1784. The electron correlation and polarization of the target by the scattering electron, which are very important in these calculations, have been taken into account in an accurate ab initio manner through the configuration-interaction procedure by optimizing both bound and continuum orbitals simultaneously at each kinetic energy of the scattered electron. Detailed results for scattering length, differential, total, and momentum-transfer cross sections obtained from the phase shifts are presented. The present scattering length is found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental result of Andrick and Bitsch [J. Phys. B 8, 402 (1975)] and the theoretical result of O'Malley, Burke, and Berrington [J. Phys. B 12, 953 (1979)]. There is excellent agreement between the present total cross sections and the corresponding experimental measurements of Buckman and Lohmann [J. Phys. B 19, 2547 (1986)]. The present momentum-transfer cross sections also show remarkable agreement with the experimental results of Crompton, Elford, and Robertson [Aust. J. Phys. 23, 667 (1970)

  14. A simple method for estimating the length density of convoluted tubular systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz de Carvalho, Cláudio A; de Campos Boldrini, Silvia; Nishimaru, Flávio; Liberti, Edson A

    2008-10-01

    We present a new method for estimating the length density (Lv) of convoluted tubular structures exhibiting an isotropic distribution. Although the traditional equation Lv=2Q/A is used, the parameter Q is obtained by considering the collective perimeters of tubular sections. This measurement is converted to a standard model of the structure, assuming that all cross-sections are approximately circular and have an average perimeter similar to that of actual circular cross-sections observed in the same material. The accuracy of this method was tested in eight experiments using hollow macaroni bent into helical shapes. After measuring the length of the macaroni segments, they were boiled and randomly packed into cylindrical volumes along with an aqueous suspension of gelatin and India ink. The solidified blocks were cut into slices 1.0 cm thick and 33.2 cm2 in area (A). The total perimeter of the macaroni cross-sections so revealed was stereologically estimated using a test system of straight parallel lines. Given Lv and the reference volume, the total length of macaroni in each section could be estimated. Additional corrections were made for the changes induced by boiling, and the off-axis position of the thread used to measure length. No statistical difference was observed between the corrected estimated values and the actual lengths. This technique is useful for estimating the length of capillaries, renal tubules, and seminiferous tubules.

  15. Differential neutron production cross sections and neutron yields from stopping-length targets for 113-MeV protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, M.M.; Amian, W.B.; Clark, D.A.; Goulding, C.A.; McClelland, J.B.; Morgan, G.L.; Moss, C.E.

    1989-03-01

    We have measured differential (P,ξn) cross sections, d 2 σ/dΩdE/sub n/, from thin targets and absolute neutron yields from stopping-length targets at angles of 7.5/degree/, 30/degree/, 60/degree/, and 150/degree/, for the 113--MeV proton bombardment of elemental beryllium, carbon, aluminum, iron, and depleted uranium. Additional cross-section measurements are reported for oxygen, tungsten, and lead. We used time-of-flight techniques to identify and discriminate against backgrounds and to determine the neutron energy spectrum. Comparison of the experimental data with intranuclear-cascade evaporation-model calculations with the code HETC showed discrepancies as high as a factor of 7 in the differential cross sections. These discrepancies in the differential cross sections make it possible to identify some of the good agreement seen in the stopping-length yield comparisons as fortuitous cancellation of incorrect production estimates in different energy regimes. 13 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Lower limb muscle volume estimation from maximum cross-sectional area and muscle length in cerebral palsy and typically developing individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanmechelen, Inti M; Shortland, Adam P; Noble, Jonathan J

    2018-01-01

    Deficits in muscle volume may be a significant contributor to physical disability in young people with cerebral palsy. However, 3D measurements of muscle volume using MRI or 3D ultrasound may be difficult to make routinely in the clinic. We wished to establish whether accurate estimates of muscle volume could be made from a combination of anatomical cross-sectional area and length measurements in samples of typically developing young people and young people with bilateral cerebral palsy. Lower limb MRI scans were obtained from the lower limbs of 21 individuals with cerebral palsy (14.7±3years, 17 male) and 23 typically developing individuals (16.8±3.3years, 16 male). The volume, length and anatomical cross-sectional area were estimated from six muscles of the left lower limb. Analysis of Covariance demonstrated that the relationship between the length*cross-sectional area and volume was not significantly different depending on the subject group. Linear regression analysis demonstrated that the product of anatomical cross-sectional area and length bore a strong and significant relationship to the measured muscle volume (R 2 values between 0.955 and 0.988) with low standard error of the estimates of 4.8 to 8.9%. This study demonstrates that muscle volume may be estimated accurately in typically developing individuals and individuals with cerebral palsy by a combination of anatomical cross-sectional area and muscle length. 2D ultrasound may be a convenient method of making these measurements routinely in the clinic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Testing Testing Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Craig; O'Neill, Thomas; Wright, Benjamin D.; Woodcock, Richard W.; Munoz-Sandoval, Ana; Gershon, Richard C.; Bergstrom, Betty

    1998-01-01

    Articles in this special section consider (1) flow in test taking (Craig Deville); (2) testwiseness (Thomas O'Neill); (3) test length (Benjamin Wright); (4) cross-language test equating (Richard W. Woodcock and Ana Munoz-Sandoval); (5) computer-assisted testing and testwiseness (Richard Gershon and Betty Bergstrom); and (6) Web-enhanced testing…

  18. Telomere length and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Ørsted, David Dynnes; Rode, Line

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well...... as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication....... RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0...

  19. Full-length high-temperature severe fuel damage test No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanning, D.D.; Lombardo, N.J.; Hensley, W.K.; Fitzsimmons, D.E.; Panisko, F.E.; Hartwell, J.K.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes and presents data from a severe fuel damage test that was conducted in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), Ontario, Canada. The test, designated FLHT-5, was the fourth in a series of full-length high-temperature (FLHT) tests on light-water reactor fuel. The tests were designed and performed by staff from the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. The test operation and test results are described in this report. The fuel bundle in the FLHT-5 experiment included 10 unirradiated full-length pressurized-water reactor (PWR) rods, 1 irradiated PWR rod and 1 dummy gamma thermometer. The fuel rods were subjected to a very low coolant flow while operating at low fission power. This caused coolant boilaway, rod dryout and overheating to temperatures above 2600 K, severe fuel rod damage, hydrogen generation, and fission product release. The test assembly and its effluent path were extensively instrumented to record temperatures, pressures, flow rates, hydrogen evolution, and fission product release during the boilaway/heatup transient. Post-test gamma scanning of the upper plenum indicated significant iodine and cesium release and deposition. Both stack gas activity and on-line gamma spectrometer data indicated significant (∼50%) release of noble fission gases. Post-test visual examination of one side of the fuel bundle revealed no massive relocation and flow blockage; however, rundown of molten cladding was evident

  20. Double Length Regressions for Testing the Box-Cox Difference Transformation.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Timothy

    1991-01-01

    The Box-Cox difference transformation is used to determine the appropriate specification for estimation of hedge ratios and a new double length regression form of the Lagrange multiplier test is presented for the difference transformation. The Box-Cox difference transformation allows the testing of the first difference model and the returns model as special cases of the Box-Cox difference transformation. Copyright 1991 by MIT Press.

  1. Non-destructive testing of full-length bonded rock bolts based on HHT signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Z. M.; Liu, L.; Peng, M.; Liu, C. C.; Tao, F. J.; Liu, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    Full-length bonded rock bolts are commonly used in mining, tunneling and slope engineering because of their simple design and resistance to corrosion. However, the length of a rock bolt and grouting quality do not often meet the required design standards in practice because of the concealment and complexity of bolt construction. Non-destructive testing is preferred when testing a rock bolt's quality because of the convenience, low cost and wide detection range. In this paper, a signal analysis method for the non-destructive sound wave testing of full-length bonded rock bolts is presented, which is based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT). First, we introduce the HHT analysis method to calculate the bolt length and identify defect locations based on sound wave reflection test signals, which includes decomposing the test signal via empirical mode decomposition (EMD), selecting the intrinsic mode functions (IMF) using the Pearson Correlation Index (PCI) and calculating the instantaneous phase and frequency via the Hilbert transform (HT). Second, six model tests are conducted using different grouting defects and bolt protruding lengths to verify the effectiveness of the HHT analysis method. Lastly, the influence of the bolt protruding length on the test signal, identification of multiple reflections from defects, bolt end and protruding end, and mode mixing from EMD are discussed. The HHT analysis method can identify the bolt length and grouting defect locations from signals that contain noise at multiple reflected interfaces. The reflection from the long protruding end creates an irregular test signal with many frequency peaks on the spectrum. The reflections from defects barely change the original signal because they are low energy, which cannot be adequately resolved using existing methods. The HHT analysis method can identify reflections from the long protruding end of the bolt and multiple reflections from grouting defects based on mutations in the instantaneous

  2. Testing the time-of-flight model for flagellar length sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Marshall, Wallace F

    2017-11-07

    Cilia and flagella are microtubule-based organelles that protrude from the surface of most cells, are important to the sensing of extracellular signals, and make a driving force for fluid flow. Maintenance of flagellar length requires an active transport process known as intraflagellar transport (IFT). Recent studies reveal that the amount of IFT injection negatively correlates with the length of flagella. These observations suggest that a length-dependent feedback regulates IFT. However, it is unknown how cells recognize the length of flagella and control IFT. Several theoretical models try to explain this feedback system. We focused on one of the models, the "time-of-flight" model, which measures the length of flagella on the basis of the travel time of IFT protein in the flagellar compartment. We tested the time-of-flight model using Chlamydomonas dynein mutant cells, which show slower retrograde transport speed. The amount of IFT injection in dynein mutant cells was higher than that in control cells. This observation does not support the prediction of the time-of-flight model and suggests that Chlamydomonas uses another length-control feedback system rather than that described by the time-of-flight model. © 2017 Ishikawa and Marshall. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. Time-dependent evolution of strand transfer length in pretensioned prestressed concrete members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caro, L. A.; Martí-Vargas, J. R.; Serna, P.

    2013-11-01

    For design purposes, it is generally considered that prestressing strand transfer length does not change with time. However, some experimental studies on the effect of time on transfer lengths show contradictory results. In this paper, an experimental research to study transfer length changes over time is presented. A test procedure based on the ECADA testing technique to measure prestressing strand force variation over time in pretensioned prestressed concrete specimens has been set up. With this test method, an experimental program that varies concrete strength, specimen cross section, age of release, prestress transfer method, and embedment length has been carried out. Both the initial and long-term transfer lengths of 13-mm prestressing steel strands have been measured. The test results show that transfer length variation exists for some prestressing load conditions, resulting in increased transfer length over time. The applied test method based on prestressing strand force measurements has shown more reliable results than procedures based on measuring free end slips and longitudinal strains of concrete. An additional factor for transfer length models is proposed in order to include the time-dependent evolution of strand transfer length in pretensioned prestressed concrete members.

  4. Combustor Section Acoustic Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    .... Following successful coupon and subelement tests on laser welding of Inco 625 heat exchangers, a full-scale scramjet flowpath section was fabricated to more realistically demonstrate the viability of the design concept...

  5. Vivitron dead section pumping tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heugel, J.; Bayet, J.P.; Brandt, C.; Delhomme, C.; Krieg, C.; Kustner, F.; Meiss, R.; Riehl, R.; Roth, C.; Schlewer, B.; Six, P.; Weber, A.

    1990-10-01

    Pumping tests have been conducted on a simulated accelerator dead section. The behavior of different pump types are compared and analyzed. Vacuum conditions to be expected in the Vivitron are reached and several parameters are verified. Selection of a pump for the Vivitron dead section is confirmed

  6. Quantitative analysis of length-diameter distribution and cross-sectional properties of fibers from three-dimensional tomographic images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miettinen, Arttu; Joffe, Roberts; Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    obtained from optical microscopy of polished cross-sections of a composite. This approach gives accurate yet local results, but a rather large number of optical images have to be processed to achieve a representative description of the morphology of the material. In this work a fully automatic algorithm......A number of rule-of-mixture micromechanical models have been successfully used to predict the mechanical properties of short fiber composites. However, in order to obtain accurate predictions, a detailed description of the internal structure of the material is required. This information is often...... for estimating the length-diameter distribution of solid or hollow fibers, utilizing three-dimensional X-ray tomographic images, is presented. The method is based on a granulometric approach for fiber length distribution measurement, combined with a novel algorithm that relates cross-sectional fiber properties...

  7. Dividing the Force Concept Inventory into Two Equivalent Half-Length Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Bao, Lei; Chen, Li; Cai, Tianfang; Pi, Yuan; Zhou, Shaona; Tu, Yan; Koenig, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    The Force Concept Inventory (FCI) is a 30-question multiple-choice assessment that has been a building block for much of the physics education research done today. In practice, there are often concerns regarding the length of the test and possible test-retest effects. Since many studies in the literature use the mean score of the FCI as the…

  8. Problems With Section Two ITP TOEFL Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizki Ananda

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate (1 the difficulties faced by EFL university students with section two of the ITP, and (2 whether part A or part B was more difficult for them and why. A number of 26 students from two different universities, Syiah Kuala University and the State Islamic University Ar-Raniry were the samples for the test. The data was obtained from a multiple choice questionnaire test consisting of 46 questions, each with 4 answers to choose from. The results showed that inversions (12%, subject-verb agreements (10%, adverb clause connectors (7%, passives (6%, reduced adjective clauses (5%, parallel structures (5% and use of verbs (5% were the most difficult questions for the students. Furthermore, they felt that part B was more difficult than part A, as finding an error in a sentence was harder than completing a sentence from a multiple choice. Furthermore, the length of questions in part A did not affect the amount of time the students spent to complete part A and did not cause them to panic. Also, unfamiliar words in part A were not regarded as a problem by the students. Hence, TOEFL teachers and trainers are highly encouraged to pay more attention to doing study exercises for the seven topics with the highest percentages above in part A and also to more practice for part B.

  9. Full-length high-temperature severe fuel damage test No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesson, G.M.; Lombardo, N.J.; Pilger, J.P.; Rausch, W.N.; King, L.L.; Hurley, D.E.; Parchen, L.J.; Panisko, F.E.

    1993-09-01

    Hazardous conditions associated with performing the Full-Length High- Temperature (FLHT). Severe Fuel Damage Test No. 2 experiment have been analyzed. Major hazards that could cause harm or damage are (1) radioactive fission products, (2) radiation fields, (3) reactivity changes, (4) hydrogen generation, (5) materials at high temperature, (6) steam explosion, and (7) steam pressure pulse. As a result of this analysis, it is concluded that with proper precautions the FLHT- 2 test can be safely conducted

  10. Design criteria and fabrication in-pile test section of HANARO fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.

    1997-10-01

    Safety state fuel test loop will be equipped in HANARO to obtain the development and betterments of advanced fuel and materials through the irradiation tests. The objective of this study is to determine the design criteria and technical specification of in-pile test section and to specify the manufacturing requirements of in-pile test section. HANARO fuel test loop was designed to meet the CANDU and PWR fuel testing and in-pile section will be manufactured and installed in HANARO. The design criteria and technical specification of in-pile test section could be used the fuel and materials design with for irradiation testing IPS of HANARO fuel test loop. This results will become guidances for the planning and programming of irradiation testing. (author). 12 refs., tabs., figs.

  11. A Study of Aerodynamics in Kevlar-Wall Test Sections

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Kenneth Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This study is undertaken to characterize the aerodynamic behavior of Kevlar-wall test sections and specifically those containing two-dimensional, lifting models. The performance of the Kevlar-wall test section can be evaluated against the standard of the hard-wall test section, which in the case of the Stability Wind Tunnel (SWT) at Virginia Tech can be alternately installed or replaced by the Kevlar-wall test section. As a first step towards the evaluation of the Kevlar-wall test section aer...

  12. Experimental Investigation of Tensile Test on Connection of Cold-formed Cut-curved Steel Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Mohd Syahrul Hisyam Mohd; Muftah, Fadhluhartini; Rahman, Nurul Farraheeda Abdul; Fakri Muda, Mohd

    2017-08-01

    Cold-formed steel (CFS) is widely used as structural and non-structural components such as roof trusses and purlin. A CFS channel section with double intermediate web stiffener and lipped is chosen based on the broader usage in roof truss construction. CFS section is cut to form cold-formed pre-cut-curved steel section and lastly strengthened by several types of method or likely known as connection to establish the cold-formed cut-curved steel (CFCCS) section. CFCCS is proposed to be used as a top chord section in the roof truss system. The CFCCS is to resist the buckling phenomena of the roof truss structure and reduced the compression effect on the top chord. The tensile test connection of CFCCS section, especially at the flange element with eight types of connection by welding, plate with self-drilling screw and combination is investigated. The flange element is the weakest part that must be solved first other than the web element because they are being cut totally, 100% of their length for curving process. The testing is done using a universal testing machine for a tensile load. From the experiment, specimen with full welding has shown as a good result with an ultimate load of 13.37 kN and reported having 35.41% when compared with normal specimen without any of connection methods. Furthermore, the experimental result is distinguished by using Eurocode 3. The failure of a full welding specimen is due to breaking at the welding location. Additionally, all specimens with either full weld or spot weld or combination failed due to breaking on weld connection, but specimen with flange plate and self-drilling screw failed due to tilting and bearing. Finally, the full welding specimen is chosen as a good connection to perform the strengthening method of CFCCS section.

  13. The comparison between the length of vertical dimension of occlusion and the length of thumb on undergraduate Mongoloid students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Li Teng

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Thumb Rule of Leonardo da Vinci states that many proportions of the face show relationship with the length of thumb which is measured from the proximal tip of the proximal phalanx to the distal tip of the distal phalanx. Previous studies have shown that the length of the vertical dimension of occlusion (VDO is similar to the length of thumb of the Caucasoid race. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the length of VDO have correlations with the length of thumb among those of the Mongoloid race. This study took a survey method with the analytical cross-sectional approach. A total of 80 students of Faculty of Dentistry who have fulfilled all population criteria were randomly chosen to measure the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. Results analyzed with Student's t-test statistic revealed that there was a significant difference between males and females in the length of VDO and the length of the thumb, however, there was no significant difference between the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. There were very strong correlations (P<0.05 between the length of VDO and the length of the thumb. As a conclusion, the length of thumb can be suggested as an objective method to determine the length of VDO in this population.

  14. Modeling study on axial wetting length of meniscus in vertical rectangular microgrooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, Xuelei; Hu, Xuegong; Tang, Dawei

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the traditional model for predicting axial wetting length of meniscus in vertical microgrooves is introduced firstly. The traditional model may cause inaccurate results in predicting wetting length in vertical microgrooves because of the assumption of round meniscus in cross sections of microgrooves and the way of calculating curvature. In order to develop this model and make it more accurate, a revised micro-PIV system is built to test the meniscus shapes in cross sections of vertical and horizontal microgrooves, and the experimental results prove that the real shapes of meniscus are parabolic other than round. The fitting formulas of meniscus shapes are obtained with software Origin 7.5. Based on experimental results and fitting formulas, the traditional model is revised by changing the way to calculate curvature. In the modified model, the curvature for calculating axial wetting length of meniscus equals average curvature of meniscus in cross section of vertical microgrooves minus the average curvature of meniscus in cross section of horizontal microgrooves. It is proved that the modified model can predict the wetting length in vertical microgrooves better than the original model. The average difference between experiment and modified model is 2.5% while that between experiment and traditional model is 174.2%. The disadvantage of the modified model is that using the new model to predict wetting length needs to know the real shapes of meniscus in vertical and horizontal microgrooves. -- Highlights: ► An experimental system is designed to test the shapes of meniscus in microgrooves. ► The real shapes of meniscus in microgrooves are obtained for first time. ► The shapes of meniscus in microgrooves is compared and analyzed. ► The model for predicting wetting length of meniscus in microgrooves is developed

  15. Effect of interference of capillary length on evaporation at meniscus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Shu; Kunugi, Tomoaki; Yokomine, Takehiko; Kawara, Zensaku

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the experimental results on the evaporation characteristics of meniscus in various geometrical configurations which enable to vary a perimeter of liquid-vapor interface and a meniscus curvature were obtained, and the main factor in evaporation process was clarified. As the experimental conditions, the perimeter was adjusted from 1mm to 100mm order, and the curvature from the inverse of capillary length, κ( 0.4mm-1) , to about 10mm-1 . Measuring devices for evaporation rate, which consisted of a test section on an electric balance, was set to a reduced pressure environment for making the purified water in the test section evaporate. There is no heater in the test section and system was set to be isolated from outside environment. It was found that the evaporation rate and flux could be organized by the perimeter if the curvature is constant at κ. On the other hand, when the curvature is larger than κ, it was found that the curvature is the dominant factor in the evaporation process. It can be considered that an interference of capillary length is a key to understand these results.

  16. Testes mass, but not sperm length, increases with higher levels of polyandry in an ancient sex model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E Vrech

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence that polyandrous taxa have evolved relatively larger testes than monogamous relatives. Sperm size may either increase or decrease across species with the risk or intensity of sperm competition. Scorpions represent an ancient direct mode with spermatophore-mediated sperm transfer and are particularly well suited for studies in sperm competition. This work aims to analyze for the first time the variables affecting testes mass, ejaculate volume and sperm length, according with their levels of polyandry, in species belonging to the Neotropical family Bothriuridae. Variables influencing testes mass and sperm length were obtained by model selection analysis using corrected Akaike Information Criterion. Testes mass varied greatly among the seven species analyzed, ranging from 1.6 ± 1.1 mg in Timogenes dorbignyi to 16.3 ± 4.5 mg in Brachistosternus pentheri with an average of 8.4 ± 5.0 mg in all the species. The relationship between testes mass and body mass was not significant. Body allocation in testes mass, taken as Gonadosomatic Index, was high in Bothriurus cordubensis and Brachistosternus ferrugineus and low in Timogenes species. The best-fitting model for testes mass considered only polyandry as predictor with a positive influence. Model selection showed that body mass influenced sperm length negatively but after correcting for body mass, none of the variables analyzed explained sperm length. Both body mass and testes mass influenced spermatophore volume positively. There was a strong phylogenetic effect on the model containing testes mass. As predicted by the sperm competition theory and according to what happens in other arthropods, testes mass increased in species with higher levels of sperm competition, and influenced positively spermatophore volume, but data was not conclusive for sperm length.

  17. Blood capillary length estimation from three-dimensional microscopic data by image analysis and stereology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubínová, Lucie; Mao, Xiao Wen; Janáček, Jiří

    2013-08-01

    Studies of the capillary bed characterized by its length or length density are relevant in many biomedical studies. A reliable assessment of capillary length from two-dimensional (2D), thin histological sections is a rather difficult task as it requires physical cutting of such sections in randomized directions. This is often technically demanding, inefficient, or outright impossible. However, if 3D image data of the microscopic structure under investigation are available, methods of length estimation that do not require randomized physical cutting of sections may be applied. Two different rat brain regions were optically sliced by confocal microscopy and resulting 3D images processed by three types of capillary length estimation methods: (1) stereological methods based on a computer generation of isotropic uniform random virtual test probes in 3D, either in the form of spatial grids of virtual "slicer" planes or spherical probes; (2) automatic method employing a digital version of the Crofton relations using the Euler characteristic of planar sections of the binary image; and (3) interactive "tracer" method for length measurement based on a manual delineation in 3D of the axes of capillary segments. The presented methods were compared in terms of their practical applicability, efficiency, and precision.

  18. Laser interferometry in length measurement. Proceedings. Laserinterferometrie in der Laengenmesstechnik. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Wavelength-stabilized lasers for length measurement, measurements of the refractive index of air, laser interferometers, acceptance tests of laser interferometer systems, the Michelson interferometer with semiconductor laser, and the state of the art of optical gyroscopes for angular position measurement are described in the general section. The examples of laser interferometer applications in production engineering comprise automatic acceptance testing of coordinate measuring systems, simultaneous laser measurements of the position and the pitching, yansing and rolling angles along a measuring line, a 3D-interferometer length measuring system, the calibration of standard measures, angular position measurements, straightness measurements, and laser interferometers as installed length measuring systems in machine tools and measuring machinery. There are no separate records of the 13 lectures presented at the meeting. (DG).

  19. Cross-sectional study on the weight and length of infants in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil: associations with sociodemographic variables and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Julia Laura Delbue; Jordão, Regina Esteves; Barros Filho, Antônio de Azevedo

    2009-07-01

    Increasing obesity is starting to occur among Brazilians. The aim of this study was to investigate the weight and length of children under two years of age in relation to sociodemographic variables and according to whether they were breastfed. Cross-sectional randomized study conducted in 2004-2005, based on the declaration of live births (SINASC) in Campinas, Brazil. 2,857 mothers of newborns were interviewed and answered a questionnaire seeking socioeconomic and breastfeeding information. The newborns' weights and lengths were measured at the end of the interviews and the body mass index was calculated. Percentiles ( 85) and Z-scores ( +1) were used for classification based on the new growth charts recommended by WHO (2006). The log-rank test, multiple linear regression and binomial test (Z) were used. The statistical significance level used was 5%. The predominant social level was class C. The median for exclusive breastfeeding was 90 days; 61.25% of the children were between P15 and P85 for body mass index and 61.12% for length, respectively. Children whose mothers studied for nine to eleven years and children whose mothers were unemployed presented lower weight. Children whose mothers worked in health-related professions presented lower length when correlated with breastfeeding. The breastfeeding, maternal schooling and maternal occupation levels had an influence on nutrition status and indicated that obesity is occurring in early childhood among the infants living in the municipality.

  20. Cross-sectional study on the weight and length of infants in the interior of the State of São Paulo, Brazil: associations with sociodemographic variables and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Laura Delbue Bernardi

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Increasing obesity is starting to occur among Brazilians. The aim of this study was to investigate the weight and length of children under two years of age in relation to sociodemographic variables and according to whether they were breastfed. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional randomized study conducted in 2004-2005, based on the declaration of live births (SINASC in Campinas, Brazil. METHODS: 2,857 mothers of newborns were interviewed and answered a questionnaire seeking socioeconomic and breastfeeding information. The newborns' weights and lengths were measured at the end of the interviews and the body mass index was calculated. Percentiles ( 85 and Z-scores ( +1 were used for classification based on the new growth charts recommended by WHO (2006. The log-rank test, multiple linear regression and binomial test (Z were used. The statistical significance level used was 5%. RESULTS: The predominant social level was class C. The median for exclusive breastfeeding was 90 days; 61.25% of the children were between P15 and P85 for body mass index and 61.12% for length, respectively. Children whose mothers studied for nine to eleven years and children whose mothers were unemployed presented lower weight. Children whose mothers worked in health-related professions presented lower length when correlated with breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: The breastfeeding, maternal schooling and maternal occupation levels had an influence on nutrition status and indicated that obesity is occurring in early childhood among the infants living in the municipality.

  1. Full length prototype SSC dipole test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, J.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented from tests of the first full length prototype SSC dipole magnet. The cryogenic behavior of the magnet during a slow cooldown to 4.5K and a slow warmup to room temperature has been measured. Magnetic field quality was measured at currents up to 2000 A. Averaged over the body field all harmonics with the exception of b 2 and b 8 are at or within the tolerances specified by the SSC Central Design Group. (The values of b 2 and b 8 result from known design and construction defects which will be be corrected in later magnets.) Using an NMR probe the average body field strength is measured to be 10.283 G/A with point to point variations on the order of one part in 1000. Data are presented on quench behavior of the magnet up to 3500 A (approximately 55% of full field) including longitudinal and transverse velocities for the first 250 msec of the quench

  2. The test section of the COSIMA blowdown test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruederle, F.; Hain, K.

    1980-08-01

    The test section of the COSIMA blowdown test facility has been designed as a geometric analogy of the core of a pressurized water reactor for a shortened single fuel rod simulator. Its design and instrumentation together with the whole loop allow to simulate out of pile and trace by measurements the energy and hydraulic conditions arising in a blowdown. Special attention is being given in this report to one particular design problem: the number of load cycles up to incipient cracking of the test section as a pressure vessel containing hot water at high pressures and subjected to extreme rates of temperature variation in excess of 300 K/min. The methods of calculating cyclic loads as specified in the German Technical Rules for Boilers (TRD) have been supplemented in such a way that the number of load cycles up to incipient cracking may now be determined not only by the mean wall temperature, which is difficult to measure, but equally also well by the outer wall temperature, which is easy to measure precisely. (orig.) [de

  3. Dependence of flame length on cross sections of burners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackeschmidt, M.

    1983-06-01

    This article analyzes the relation between the shape of burner muzzle and the resulting flame jet in a combustion chamber. Geometrical shapes of burner muzzles, either square, circular or triangular are compared as well as proportions of flame dimensions. A formula for calculating flame lengths is derived, for which the mathematical value 'contact profile radius' for burner muzzle shape is introduced. The formula for calculating flame lengths allows a partial replacement of the empirical flame mixing factor according to N.Q. Toai, 1981. The geometrical analysis does not include thermodynamic and reaction kinetic studies, which may be necessary for evaluating heterogenous (coal dust) combustion flames with longer burning time. (12 refs.)

  4. Construction of In-core Structure Test Section in HENDEL, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunitomi, Kazuhiko; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Ioka, Ikuo; Kondoh, Yasuo; Nekoya, Shinichi; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Akisada, Toshihiro; Yamaguchi, Shigeru.

    1988-01-01

    An In-core Structure Test Section (T 2 ) in Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop (HENDEL) simulates a part of the core bottom structure with the same scale as that of a high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) designed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The design and construction of T 2 test section were started in March 1983, and completed in June 1986. The main objectives of the T 2 test section are to verify thermal-hydraulic performance and integrity of the core bottom structure. The report describes the general outline of T 2 test section, and experience gained from construction and preliminary test with regard to the simulated core bottom structure. (author)

  5. IMPROVEMENT OF WELDED CONNECTIONS WITH SIDE LAP WELDS BY REDISTRIBUTION OF ALL-WELD METAL ALONG LENGTHS AND CROSS-SECTIONS THEREOF USING MECHANIZED AND ROBOTIC WELDING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Evgeniy Igorevich

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study of bearing capacity of samples of two series performed by semiautomatic welding in CO2 on the axis, and by robotic welding machine in mixture (CO2 + Ar, is presented. Welds of constant cross section, welds with extended leg on end sections, and welds in the form of two dowels on end sections were performed. Efficiency of pilot samples of the first series (with extended leg on end sections by way of a smooth transition defined by the ratio of weld metal volume to a crushing load reaches 28 % relative to samples with a leg constant as per length. Samples of the first series with an extended leg on end sections also showed efficiency increased to 17 %. According to the second series samples test results, the exceeding of bearing capacity of the samples performed with an extended leg on end sections by 24 % in comparison with the samples with a leg of constant cross section was determined. Samples of the second series performed in the form of two dowels on end sections demonstrated the exceeding of the relative bearing capacity by 42 % in comparison with the samples with a continuous leg of constant cross-section.

  6. The Effects of Test Length and Sample Size on Item Parameters in Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Alper; Anil, Duygu

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of sample size and test length on item-parameter estimation in test development utilizing three unidimensional dichotomous models of item response theory (IRT). For this purpose, a real language test comprised of 50 items was administered to 6,288 students. Data from this test was used to obtain data sets of…

  7. Section 608 Technician Certification Test Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identifies some of the topics covered on Section 608 Technician Certification tests such as ozone depletion, the Clean Air Act and Montreal Protocol, Substitute Refrigerants and oils, Refrigeration and Recovery Techniques.

  8. An Experimental Study of Natural Circulation in a Loop with Parallel Flow Test Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathisen, R P; Eklind, O

    1965-10-15

    The dynamic behaviour of a natural circulation loop parallel round duct channels has been studied. The test sections were both electrically heated and the power distribution was uniform along the 4300 mm heated length of the 20 mm dia. channels. The inter channel interference and the threshold of flow instability were obtained by using a dynamically calibrated flowmeter in each channel. The pressure was 50 bars and the sub-cooling 6 deg C. The main parameters varied, were the flow restrictions in the one-phase and two-phase sections. The instability data were correlated to the resistance coefficients due to these restrictions. Theoretical calculations for parallel channels in natural circulation have been compared with the experimental results. For the conditions determined by the above mentioned magnitudes, the steady-state computations are in excellent agreement with experiment. The transients are also nearly similar, except for the resonance frequency which for the theoretical case is higher by an amount between 0.3 and 0.5 c.p.s.

  9. An Experimental Study of Natural Circulation in a Loop with Parallel Flow Test Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathisen, R.P.; Eklind, O.

    1965-10-01

    The dynamic behaviour of a natural circulation loop parallel round duct channels has been studied. The test sections were both electrically heated and the power distribution was uniform along the 4300 mm heated length of the 20 mm dia. channels. The inter channel interference and the threshold of flow instability were obtained by using a dynamically calibrated flowmeter in each channel. The pressure was 50 bars and the sub-cooling 6 deg C. The main parameters varied, were the flow restrictions in the one-phase and two-phase sections. The instability data were correlated to the resistance coefficients due to these restrictions. Theoretical calculations for parallel channels in natural circulation have been compared with the experimental results. For the conditions determined by the above mentioned magnitudes, the steady-state computations are in excellent agreement with experiment. The transients are also nearly similar, except for the resonance frequency which for the theoretical case is higher by an amount between 0.3 and 0.5 c.p.s

  10. A population-based study on the association between educational length, prostate-specific antigen testing and use of prostate biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Tobias; Bratt, Ola; Örtegren, Joakim; Aly, Markus; Adolfsson, Jan; Grönberg, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether educational length affects prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and the time to prostate biopsy for men with raised PSA values. Using register data on all men in Stockholm County in 2013 (n = 1,052,841), the limited-duration point prevalence of PSA testing and time between test and prostate biopsy or repeat testing were analysed. Patterns of follow-up were assessed using Kaplan-Meier product limit estimators and Cox proportional hazard models. Educational length was categorized as short (≤ 9 years), intermediate (10-12 years) or long (≥ 13 years). PSA testing increased with educational length in all age groups. Among men aged 50-69 years, 61% with long and 54% with short education had had a PSA test within the preceding 10 years (p prostate biopsy within 12 months. After adjusting for PSA level and age, educational length was still associated with the chance of having a prostate biopsy in men with PSA 4-10 ng/ml (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% CI 1.12-1.31), but not in men with higher PSA values. PSA testing increased with educational length. Men with long education were more likely to have a prostate biopsy after an increased PSA value below 10 ng/ml than men with short education. These differences may contribute to the worse prostate cancer outcomes observed among men with lower socioeconomic status.

  11. Full-Length High-Temperature Severe Fuel Damage Test No. 5: Final safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanning, D.D.; Lombardo, N.J.; Panisko, F.E.

    1993-09-01

    This report presents the final safety analysis for the preparation, conduct, and post-test discharge operation for the Full-Length High Temperature Experiment-5 (FLHT-5) to be conducted in the L-24 position of the National Research Universal (NRU) Reactor at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), Ontario, Canada. The test is sponsored by an international group organized by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The test is designed and conducted by staff from Pacific Northwest Laboratory with CRNL staff support. The test will study the consequences of loss-of-coolant and the progression of severe fuel damage

  12. Complot test section outlet CFD optimization (pre - test and dimensioning)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Profir, M. M.; Moreau, V.; Kennedy, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of the FP7 MAXSIMA European project, the COMPLOT (COMPonent LOop Testing) LBE experimental facility is employed for thermal-hydraulic experiments aimed to test and qualify, among other components, a buoyancy driven safety/control rods (SR/CR) system, as key components for the safe operation of the MYRRHA reactor. This paper focuses mainly on a simplified CFD representation of the SR test section outlet in order to optimise it for the testing program. Parametric cases, associated with different positions of the SR assembly have been set up and analysed. A quasi-static analysis has been performed for each case, accounting for the LBE volume displaced by the insertion of the SR bundle, by introducing appropriately positioned additional mass sources. Velocity and pressure fields, as well as pressure drop magnitudes and mass flow rates through relevant guide tube hole outlets have been calculated and compared. The CFD analysis proved that the outer boundary of the test section does not impact the expected performance of the SR (rapid transient downward insertion). Preliminary simulations reproducing the timely repositioning of the SR/CR in COMPLOT using procedures of automatic volume mesh regeneration, consistently with the rod imposed displacement, are illustrated. (authors)

  13. Nuclear reactor with scrammable part length rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    A new part length rod is provided. It may be used to control xenon induced power oscillations but to contribute to shutdown reactivity when a rapid shutdown of the reactor is required. The part length rod consists of a control rod with three regions. The lower control region is a longer weaker active portion separated from an upper stronger shorter poison section by an intermediate section which is a relative non-absorber of neutrons. The combination of the longer weaker control section with the upper high worth poison section permits the part length rod of this to be scrammed into the core when a reactor shutdown is required but also permits the control rod to be used as a tool to control power distribution in both the axial and radial directions during normal operation

  14. A comparison of computerized adaptive testing and fixed-length short forms for the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-MTM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amtmann, Dagmar; Bamer, Alyssa M; Kim, Jiseon; Bocell, Fraser; Chung, Hyewon; Park, Ryoungsun; Salem, Rana; Hafner, Brian J

    2017-09-01

    New health status instruments can be administered by computerized adaptive test or short forms. The Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-M TM ) is a self-report measure of mobility for prosthesis users with lower limb loss. This study used the PLUS-M to examine advantages and disadvantages of computerized adaptive test and short forms. To compare scores obtained from computerized adaptive test to scores obtained from fixed-length short forms (7-item and 12-item) in order to provide guidance to researchers and clinicians on how to select the best form of administration for different uses. Cross-sectional, observational study. Individuals with lower limb loss completed the PLUS-M by computerized adaptive test and short forms. Administration time, correlations between the scores, and standard errors were compared. Scores and standard errors from the computerized adaptive test, 7-item short form, and 12-item short form were highly correlated and all forms of administration were efficient. Computerized adaptive test required less time to administer than either paper or electronic short forms; however, time savings were minimal compared to the 7-item short form. Results indicate that the PLUS-M computerized adaptive test is most efficient, and differences in scores between administration methods are minimal. The main advantage of the computerized adaptive test was more reliable scores at higher levels of mobility compared to short forms. Clinical relevance Health-related item banks, like the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-M TM ), can be administered by computerized adaptive testing (CAT) or as fixed-length short forms (SFs). Results of this study will help clinicians and researchers decide whether they should invest in a CAT administration system or whether SFs are more appropriate.

  15. Fiber Length of Calabrian Pine as Related to Position in Cross Section and Growing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim BEKTAS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a better understanding of the variation of growing regions and differences in distance from pith to bark on wood fiber lengths. For this aim, Calabrian pines collected from five different growth regions, namely Kahramanmaras, Burdur, Muğla, İzmir and Balıkesir, were used to determine fiber lengths. In experiment, specimens prepared from logs cross section which is taken from three different distances from pith to bark (r/6, 3r/6 and 5r/6 were evaluated. As a result of analysis, distance from pith in the same area have shown a significant effect on fiber dimensions. In the evaluation among the habitat, it was obtained that r/6 and 3r/6 have a significant effect (p<0.001, p<0.05 respectively on fiber dimensions, however; 5r/6 has a nonsignificant. The results showed that, the quite suitable habitat in terms of fiber lenghts is Balıkesir which has high sand (64.4%, moderate clay (24.2% and lime-poor (3.1% soils. These results will make a positive contribution undoubtedly for the plantations will be established in the future of this species.

  16. Testing an Alternative Method for Estimating the Length of Fungal Hyphae Using Photomicrography and Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qinhua; Kirschbaum, Miko U F; Hedley, Mike J; Camps Arbestain, Marta

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and test an unbiased and rapid methodology to estimate the length of external arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) hyphae in soil. The traditional visual gridline intersection (VGI) method, which consists in a direct visual examination of the intersections of hyphae with gridlines on a microscope eyepiece after aqueous extraction, membrane-filtration, and staining (e.g., with trypan blue), was refined. For this, (i) images of the stained hyphae were taken by using a digital photomicrography technique to avoid the use of the microscope and the method was referred to as "digital gridline intersection" (DGI) method; and (ii), the images taken in (i) were processed and the hyphal length was measured by using ImageJ software, referred to as the "photomicrography-ImageJ processing" (PIP) method. The DGI and PIP methods were tested using known grade lengths of possum fur. Then they were applied to measure the hyphal lengths in soils with contrasting phosphorus (P) fertility status. Linear regressions were obtained between the known lengths (Lknown) of possum fur and the values determined by using either the DGI (LDGI) (LDGI = 0.37 + 0.97 × Lknown, r2 = 0.86) or PIP (LPIP) methods (LPIP = 0.33 + 1.01 × Lknown, r2 = 0.98). There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences between the LDGI and LPIP values. While both methods provided accurate estimation (slope of regression being 1.0), the PIP method was more precise, as reflected by a higher value of r2 and lower coefficients of variation. The average hyphal lengths (6.5-19.4 m g-1) obtained by the use of these methods were in the range of those typically reported in the literature (3-30 m g-1). Roots growing in P-deficient soil developed 2.5 times as many hyphae as roots growing in P-rich soil (17.4 vs 7.2 m g-1). These tests confirmed that the use of digital photomicrography in conjunction with either the grid-line intersection principle or image processing is a suitable method for the

  17. The predictive value of quantitative fibronectin testing in combination with cervical length measurement in symptomatic women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, Merel M. C.; Kamphuis, Esme I.; Hoesli, Irene M.; Martinez de Tejada, Begoña; Loccufier, Anne R.; Kühnert, Maritta; Helmer, Hanns; Franz, Marie; Porath, Martina M.; Oudijk, Martijn A.; Jacquemyn, Yves; Schulzke, Sven M.; Vetter, Grit; Hoste, Griet; Vis, Jolande Y.; Kok, Marjolein; Mol, Ben W. J.; van Baaren, Gert-Jan

    2016-01-01

    The combination of the qualitative fetal fibronectin test and cervical length measurement has a high negative predictive value for preterm birth within 7 days; however, positive prediction is poor. A new bedside quantitative fetal fibronectin test showed potential additional value over the

  18. Influence of the Testing Gage Length on the Strength, Young's Modulus and Weibull Modulus of Carbon Fibres and Glass Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pardini

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fibres and glass fibres are reinforcements for advanced composites and the fiber strength is the most influential factor on the strength of the composites. They are essentially brittle and fail with very little reduction in cross section. Composites made with these fibres are characterized by a high strength/density ratio and their properties are intrisically related to their microstructure, i.e., amount and orientation of the fibres, surface treatment, among other factors. Processing parameters have an important role in the fibre mechanical behaviour (strength and modulus. Cracks, voids and impurities in the case of glass fibres and fibrillar misalignments in the case of carbon fibres are created during processing. Such inhomogeneities give rise to an appreciable scatter in properties. The most used statistical tool that deals with this characteristic variability in properties is the Weibull distribution. The present work investigates the influence of the testing gage length on the strength, Young's modulus and Weibull modulus of carbon fibres and glass fibres. The Young's modulus is calculated by two methods: (i ASTM D 3379M, and (ii interaction between testing equipment/specimen The first method resulted in a Young modulus of 183 GPa for carbon fibre, and 76 GPa for glass fibre. The second method gave a Young modulus of 250 GPa for carbon fibre and 50 GPa for glass fibre. These differences revelead differences on how the interaction specimen/testing machine can interfere in the Young modulus calculations. Weibull modulus can be a tool to evaluate the fibre's homogeneity in terms of properties and it is a good quality control parameter during processing. In the range of specimen gage length tested the Weibull modulus for carbon fibre is ~ 3.30 and for glass fibres is ~ 5.65, which indicates that for the batch of fibres tested, the glass fibre is more uniform in properties.

  19. A "Projective" Test of the Golden Section Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chris; Adams-Webber, Jack

    1987-01-01

    In a projective test of the golden section hypothesis, 24 high school students rated themselves and 10 comic strip characters on basis of 12 bipolar constructs. Overall proportion of cartoon figures which subjects assigned to positive poles of constructs was very close to golden section. (Author/NB)

  20. Standard practice for fracture testing with surface-crack tension specimens

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the design, preparation, and testing of surface-crack tension (SCT) specimens. It relates specifically to testing under continuously increasing force and excludes cyclic and sustained loadings. The quantity determined is the residual strength of a specimen having a semielliptical or circular-segment fatigue crack in one surface. This value depends on the crack dimensions and the specimen thickness as well as the characteristics of the material. 1.2 Metallic materials that can be tested are not limited by strength, thickness, or toughness. However, tests of thick specimens of tough materials may require a tension test machine of extremely high capacity. The applicability of this practice to nonmetallic materials has not been determined. 1.3 This practice is limited to specimens having a uniform rectangular cross section in the test section. The test section width and length must be large with respect to the crack length. Crack depth and length should be chosen to suit the ultimate pu...

  1. CFRMF spectrum update and application to dosimeter cross-section data testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Harker, Y.D.; Millsap, D.A.; Rogers, J.W.; Ryskamp, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The Coupled Fast Reactivity Measurements Facility (CFRMF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is a Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) benchmark for data testing of dosimetry, fission-product and actinide cross sections important to fast-reactor technology. In this paper we present the results of our work in updating the CFRMF spectrum characterization and in applying CFRMF integral data to testing ENDF/B-V dosimeter cross sections. Updated characterization of the central neutron spectrum includes the results of neutronics calculations with ENDF/B-V nuclear data, the generation of a fine-group spectrum representation for integral data-testing applications, and a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis which provides a flux-spectrum covariance matrix related to uncertainties and correlations in the nuclear data used in a neutronics calculation. Our application of CFRMF integral data to cross section testing has included both conventional integral testing analyses and least-squares-adjustment analyses with the FERRET code. The conventional integral data-testing analysis, based on C/E ratios, indicates discrepancies outside the estimated integral test uncertainty for the 6 Li(n,He), 10 B(n,He), 47 Ti(n,p), 58 Fe(n,γ), 197 Au(n,γ) and 232 Th(n,γ) cross sections. The integral test uncertainty included contributions from the measured integral data and from the spectrum and cross sections used to obtain the calculated integral data. Within the uncertainty and correlation specifications for the input spectrum and dosimeter cross sections, the least-squares-adjustment analysis indicated a high degree of consistency between the measured integral data and the ENDF/B-V dosimeter cross sections for all reactions except 10 B

  2. Characteristic Length Scales in Fracture Networks: Hydraulic Connectivity through Periodic Hydraulic Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, M.; Bour, O.; Le Borgne, T.; Longuevergne, L.; Lavenant, N.; Cole, M. C.; Guiheneuf, N.

    2017-12-01

    Determining hydraulic and transport connectivity in fractured bedrock has long been an important objective in contaminant hydrogeology, petroleum engineering, and geothermal operations. A persistent obstacle to making this determination is that the characteristic length scale is nearly impossible to determine in sparsely fractured networks. Both flow and transport occur through an unknown structure of interconnected fracture and/or fracture zones making the actual length that water or solutes travel undetermined. This poses difficulties for flow and transport models. For, example, hydraulic equations require a separation distance between pumping and observation well to determine hydraulic parameters. When wells pairs are close, the structure of the network can influence the interpretation of well separation and the flow dimension of the tested system. This issue is explored using hydraulic tests conducted in a shallow fractured crystalline rock. Periodic (oscillatory) slug tests were performed at the Ploemeur fractured rock test site located in Brittany, France. Hydraulic connectivity was examined between three zones in one well and four zones in another, located 6 m apart in map view. The wells are sufficiently close, however, that the tangential distance between the tested zones ranges between 6 and 30 m. Using standard periodic formulations of radial flow, estimates of storativity scale inversely with the square of the separation distance and hydraulic diffusivity directly with the square of the separation distance. Uncertainty in the connection paths between the two wells leads to an order of magnitude uncertainty in estimates of storativity and hydraulic diffusivity, although estimates of transmissivity are unaffected. The assumed flow dimension results in alternative estimates of hydraulic parameters. In general, one is faced with the prospect of assuming the hydraulic parameter and inverting the separation distance, or vice versa. Similar uncertainties exist

  3. Design and construction of an optical test bed for LISA imaging systems and tilt-to-length coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chwalla, M; Fitzsimons, E; Danzmann, K; Fernández Barranco, G; Gerberding, O; Heinzel, G; Lieser, M; Schuster, S; Schwarze, T S; Tröbs, M; Zwetz, M; Killow, C J; Perreur-Lloyd, M; Robertson, D I; Ward, H

    2016-01-01

    The laser interferometer space antenna (LISA) is a future space-based interferometric gravitational-wave detector consisting of three spacecraft in a triangular configuration. The interferometric measurements of path length changes between satellites will be performed on optical benches in the satellites. Angular misalignments of the interfering beams couple into the length measurement and represent a significant noise source. Imaging systems will be used to reduce this tilt-to-length coupling. We designed and constructed an optical test bed to experimentally investigate tilt-to-length coupling. It consists of two separate structures, a minimal optical bench and a telescope simulator. The minimal optical bench comprises the science interferometer where the local laser is interfered with light from a remote spacecraft. In our experiment, a simulated version of this received beam is generated on the telescope simulator. The telescope simulator provides a tilting beam, a reference interferometer and an additional static beam as a phase reference. The tilting beam can either be a flat-top beam or a Gaussian beam. We avoid tilt-to-length coupling in the reference interferometer by using a small photo diode placed at an image of the beam rotation point. We show that the test bed is operational with an initial measurement of tilt-to-length coupling without imaging systems. Furthermore, we show the design of two different imaging systems whose performance will be investigated in future experiments. (paper)

  4. Modification of heating system on HeaTiNG-02 test section of beta test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagino; Dedy Haryanto; Riswan Djambiar; Edy Sumarno

    2013-01-01

    Modifications have been carried out on the heating test section heating-02 on the integration strand Beta Test (UUB). The activities carried out to overcome the obstacles that arise in the test section when used. Constraint that often arises is the fall of the heating source super chantal when it reaches a certain temperature. To mitigate the super chantal is initially converted into a horizontal vertical position. Change from vertical to horizontal position on super chantal aims to stabilize the position of super chantal, so it needs to be modified in the heating system. Modification activities include manufacturing, installation and testing of super chantal and refractory stone as super chantal support. Manufacturing refractory stone formation and assembly into the heater in accordance with design modifications that have been done in electromechanical workshop obtained using some machine tools. Testing results of fabrication has been done by providing voltage 110 volts until it reaches operating temperature 400°C. Test results obtained super chantal stable position when it reaches operating temperature, and heater of heating-02 test section feasible to be used for experiments. (author)

  5. A test section design to simulate horizontal two-phase air-water flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccini, Jose Luiz H.; Cesar, Silvia B.G.; Coutinho, Jorge A.; Freitas, Sergio Carlos; Addor, Pedro N.

    2002-01-01

    In this work an air-water two-phase flow horizontal test section assembling at Nuclear Engineering Institute (IEN) is presented. The test section was designed to allow four-phase flow patterns to be simulated: bubble flow, stratified flow, wave flow and slug flow. These flow patterns will be identified by non-conventional ultrasonic techniques which have been developed to meet this particular application. Based on the separated flow and drift-flux models the test section design steps are shown. A description of the test section and its instrumentation and data acquisition system is also provided. (author)

  6. Pilot instrumentation of a Superpave test section at the Kansas Accelerated Testing laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Two Superpave test sections were constructed at the Kansas Accelerated Testing Laboratory (K-ATL) with 12.5 mm (2 in) nominal maximum size Superpave mixture (SM-2A) with varying percentages (15 and 30 percent) of river sand. A 150 kN (34 kip) tandem ...

  7. Reducing tilt-to-length coupling for the LISA test mass interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröbs, M.; Schuster, S.; Lieser, M.; Zwetz, M.; Chwalla, M.; Danzmann, K.; Fernández Barránco, G.; Fitzsimons, E. D.; Gerberding, O.; Heinzel, G.; Killow, C. J.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Robertson, D. I.; Schwarze, T. S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.

    2018-05-01

    Objects sensed by laser interferometers are usually not stable in position or orientation. This angular instability can lead to a coupling of angular tilt to apparent longitudinal displacement—tilt-to-length coupling (TTL). In LISA this is a potential noise source for both the test mass interferometer and the long-arm interferometer. We have experimentally investigated TTL coupling in a setup representative for the LISA test mass interferometer and used this system to characterise two different imaging systems (a two-lens design and a four-lens design) both designed to minimise TTL coupling. We show that both imaging systems meet the LISA requirement of  ±25 μm rad‑1 for interfering beams with relative angles of up to  ±300 μrad. Furthermore, we found a dependency of the TTL coupling on beam properties such as the waist size and location, which we characterised both theoretically and experimentally.

  8. Sealing performance test for main flange of pressure vessel of T2 test section in HENDEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioka, Ikuo; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Kiminori; Kondou, Yasuo; Suzuki, Kunihiko; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Asami, Masanobu.

    1990-12-01

    A pressure vessel of T 2 test section in helium engineering demonstration loop (HENDEL) was fabricated to the same scale of the reactor pressure vessel made of 2(1/4)Cr-1Mo steel in high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR). Also, the sealing structure of a main flange of pressure vessel in T 2 test section was composed of the double metal O-rings and Ω-seal which would be used in the sealing structure of HTTR. The sealing performance test for the main flange of the pressure vessel in T 2 test section was carried out to confirm the integrity of sealing structure of a main flange in HTTR. T 2 test section has been operated about 7700 hours in previous 18 cycles. The leakage of helium gas from inner metal O-ring was measured by the static pressurized process under the operating condition of HTTR (helium gas: 400degC, 40kg/cm 2 G, 4gk/s). The calculated leakage of helium gas was less than 9.6x10 -7 atm·cm 3 /sec. From the result, it is expected that the sealing structure of main flange in HTTR would maintain the leak tightness in the life. (author)

  9. Length of Stay After Childbirth in 92 Countries and Associated Factors in 30 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Compilation of Reported Data and a Cross-sectional Analysis from Nationally Representative Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oona M R Campbell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Following childbirth, women need to stay sufficiently long in health facilities to receive adequate care. Little is known about length of stay following childbirth in low- and middle-income countries or its determinants.We described length of stay after facility delivery in 92 countries. We then created a conceptual framework of the main drivers of length of stay, and explored factors associated with length of stay in 30 countries using multivariable linear regression. Finally, we used multivariable logistic regression to examine the factors associated with stays that were "too short" (<24 h for vaginal deliveries and <72 h for cesarean-section deliveries. Across countries, the mean length of stay ranged from 1.3 to 6.6 d: 0.5 to 6.2 d for singleton vaginal deliveries and 2.5 to 9.3 d for cesarean-section deliveries. The percentage of women staying too short ranged from 0.2% to 83% for vaginal deliveries and from 1% to 75% for cesarean-section deliveries. Our conceptual framework identified three broad categories of factors that influenced length of stay: need-related determinants that required an indicated extension of stay, and health-system and woman/family dimensions that were drivers of inappropriately short or long stays. The factors identified as independently important in our regression analyses included cesarean-section delivery, birthweight, multiple birth, and infant survival status. Older women and women whose infants were delivered by doctors had extended lengths of stay, as did poorer women. Reliance on factors captured in secondary data that were self-reported by women up to 5 y after a live birth was the main limitation.Length of stay after childbirth is very variable between countries. Substantial proportions of women stay too short to receive adequate postnatal care. We need to ensure that facilities have skilled birth attendants and effective elements of care, but also that women stay long enough to benefit from these. The

  10. Design modification of the in-pile test section for increase of sealing capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, J T; Ahn, S H; Joung, C Y; Jeong, H Y; Lee, J M; Sim, B S [Department of Research Reactor Utilization and Development, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Since KAERI established the fuel test loop (FTL) at HANARO in 2009, KAERI has carried out several experiments to verify the performances of the equipment. Based on the experiments, the design modification of the In-Pile test Section (IPS) has been processed to improve some difficulties such as difficulty in ejecting the inner assembly of the IPS from the pressure vessel, difficulty of the sealing process of the cooling water, etc. At first, because the cooling water of HANARO in KAERI consists of an open-pool type, if a certain shock is generated during the disassembly process, the cooling water can be spattered out of the pool. Therefore, two jacking bolts will be added on the top flange part of the inner assembly to decrease the shock. Second, at the pressure boundary of the IPS where MI-cables go through, the brazing process has been used to seal out the cooling water. However, because the length of the IPS is up to 5.5 meters, it is too difficult and time consuming to carry out the brazing process at the end part of the IPS. Therefore, the brazing process will be replaced with the mechanical sealing structure to simplify the assembly process. (author)

  11. Testing Cross-Sectional Correlation in Large Panel Data Models with Serial Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badi H. Baltagi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of testing cross-sectional correlation in large panel data models with serially-correlated errors. It finds that existing tests for cross-sectional correlation encounter size distortions with serial correlation in the errors. To control the size, this paper proposes a modification of Pesaran’s Cross-sectional Dependence (CD test to account for serial correlation of an unknown form in the error term. We derive the limiting distribution of this test as N , T → ∞ . The test is distribution free and allows for unknown forms of serial correlation in the errors. Monte Carlo simulations show that the test has good size and power for large panels when serial correlation in the errors is present.

  12. 2-D Model Test Study of the Breakwater at Porto de Dande , Angola

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Ramirez, Jorge Robert Rodriguez; Burcharth, Hans F.

    This report deals with a two-dimensional model test study of the new breakwater at Porto de Dande, Angola. One cross-section was tested for stability and overtopping in various sea conditions. The length scale used for the model tests was 1:32. Unless otherwise specified all values given in this ......This report deals with a two-dimensional model test study of the new breakwater at Porto de Dande, Angola. One cross-section was tested for stability and overtopping in various sea conditions. The length scale used for the model tests was 1:32. Unless otherwise specified all values given...

  13. Correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length in birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between the pectoral module (the pectoral girdle and limbs and the pelvic module (the pelvic girdle and limbs plays a key role in shaping avian evolution, but prior empirical studies on trait covariation between the two modules are limited. Here we empirically test whether (size-corrected sternal keel length and ilium length are correlated during avian evolution using phylogenetic comparative methods. Our analyses on extant birds and Mesozoic birds both recover a significantly positive correlation. The results provide new evidence regarding the integration between the pelvic and pectoral modules. The correlated evolution of sternal keel length and ilium length may serve as a mechanism to cope with the effect on performance caused by a tradeoff in muscle mass between the pectoral and pelvic modules, via changing moment arms of muscles that function in flight and in terrestrial locomotion.

  14. Construction and validation of a long-channel membrane test cell for representative monitoring of performance and characterization of fouling over the length of spiral-wound membrane modules

    KAUST Repository

    Siebdrath, Nadine

    2017-12-03

    A long-channel membrane test cell (LCMTC) with the same length as full-scale elements was developed to simulate performance and fouling in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis spiral-wound membrane modules (SWMs). The transparent LCMTC enabled simultaneous monitoring of SWM performance indicators: feed channel pressure drop, permeate flux and salt passage. Both permeate flux and salt passage were monitored over five sections of the test cell and were related to the amount and composition of the accumulated foulant in these five sections, illustrating the unique features of the test cell. Validation experiments at various feed pressures showed the same flow profile and the same hydraulic behaviour as SWMs used in practice, confirming the representativeness and suitability of the test cell to study SWM operation and fouling. The importance to apply feed spacers matching the flow channel height in test cell systems was demonstrated. Biofouling studies showed that the dosage of a biodegradable substrate to the feed of the LCMTC accelerated the gradual decrease of membrane performance and the accumulation of biomass on the spacer and membrane sheets. The strongest permeate flux decline and the largest amount of accumulated biomass was found in the first 18 cm of the test cell. The LCMTC showed to be suitable to study the impact of biofilm development and biofouling control strategies under representative conditions for full-scale membrane elements.

  15. Construction and validation of a long-channel membrane test cell for representative monitoring of performance and characterization of fouling over the length of spiral-wound membrane modules

    KAUST Repository

    Siebdrath, Nadine; Ding, Wei; Pietsch, Elisabeth; Kruithof, Joop; Uhl, Wolfgang; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2017-01-01

    A long-channel membrane test cell (LCMTC) with the same length as full-scale elements was developed to simulate performance and fouling in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis spiral-wound membrane modules (SWMs). The transparent LCMTC enabled simultaneous monitoring of SWM performance indicators: feed channel pressure drop, permeate flux and salt passage. Both permeate flux and salt passage were monitored over five sections of the test cell and were related to the amount and composition of the accumulated foulant in these five sections, illustrating the unique features of the test cell. Validation experiments at various feed pressures showed the same flow profile and the same hydraulic behaviour as SWMs used in practice, confirming the representativeness and suitability of the test cell to study SWM operation and fouling. The importance to apply feed spacers matching the flow channel height in test cell systems was demonstrated. Biofouling studies showed that the dosage of a biodegradable substrate to the feed of the LCMTC accelerated the gradual decrease of membrane performance and the accumulation of biomass on the spacer and membrane sheets. The strongest permeate flux decline and the largest amount of accumulated biomass was found in the first 18 cm of the test cell. The LCMTC showed to be suitable to study the impact of biofilm development and biofouling control strategies under representative conditions for full-scale membrane elements.

  16. Effective Cross Section of Cold Formed Steel Column Under Axial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, P.; Pradeep, T.

    2018-06-01

    The compressive resistance of cold-formed steel (CFS) section may be governed by local, distortional or overall buckling and any apparent interaction between these modes. A new inventive stiffened CFS section is elected in this study, selected cross sections geometries and lengths are chosen such that all the types of buckling modes are met with. Buckling plot is plotted using linear elastic buckling analysis software (CUFSM). Using the test results obtained in the literature, the developed finite element model is calibrated and furthers a total of 126 parametric study is conducted such as a consequence of dimensions and the length of the cross section, thickness and yield stress. The FEA included relevant material and geometric imperfections. All the columns are analyzed under pin end conditions with axial compression. The analysis results demonstrate that the DSM equations generally assess the strength of stiffened section conservatively. Modifications to the DSM equations are recommended to evaluate the strength of stiffened section more precisely.

  17. Effective Cross Section of Cold Formed Steel Column Under Axial Compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, P.; Pradeep, T.

    2018-02-01

    The compressive resistance of cold-formed steel (CFS) section may be governed by local, distortional or overall buckling and any apparent interaction between these modes. A new inventive stiffened CFS section is elected in this study, selected cross sections geometries and lengths are chosen such that all the types of buckling modes are met with. Buckling plot is plotted using linear elastic buckling analysis software (CUFSM). Using the test results obtained in the literature, the developed finite element model is calibrated and furthers a total of 126 parametric study is conducted such as a consequence of dimensions and the length of the cross section, thickness and yield stress. The FEA included relevant material and geometric imperfections. All the columns are analyzed under pin end conditions with axial compression. The analysis results demonstrate that the DSM equations generally assess the strength of stiffened section conservatively. Modifications to the DSM equations are recommended to evaluate the strength of stiffened section more precisely.

  18. Beam test of a full-length prototype of the BESIII drift chamber with the readout electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Z.H.; Chen, Y.B.; Sheng, H.Y.; Wu, L.H.; Liu, J.B.; Zhuang, B.A.; Jiang, X.S.; Zhao, Y.B.; Zhu, K.J.; Yan, Z.K.; Chen, C.; Xu, M.H.; Wang, L.; Ma, X.Y.; Tang, X.; Liu, R.G.; Jin, Y.; Zhu, Q.M.; Zhang, G.F.; Wu, Z.; Li, R.Y.; Zhao, P.P.; Dai, H.L.; Li, X.P.; Li, J.

    2007-01-01

    A full-length prototype of the BESIII drift chamber together with its readout electronics was built and a beam test was performed. Two different methods, namely 'single-threshold method' and 'double-threshold method' for timing measurement, were studied. Test results show that the BESIII drift chamber and its readout electronics can reach their design specifications. The 'double-threshold method' results in a better timing accuracy and noise suppression capabilities as compared with the 'single-threshold method'

  19. Full-length enriched multistage cDNA library construction covering ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI NYEROVWO

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... Full Length Research Paper. Full-length enriched ... complementary DNA; pfu, plaque-forming unit. ... Chinese-native tree species in Populus section Leuce ... the infected bacteria, 2 ml melted top agar was added, and the.

  20. Increased hallux angle in children and its association with insufficient length of footwear: A community based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kundi Michael

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wearing shoes of insufficient length during childhood has often been cited as leading to deformities of the foot, particularly to the development of hallux valgus disorders. Until now, these assumptions have not been confirmed through scientific research. This study aims to investigate whether this association can be statistically proven, and if children who wear shoes of insufficient length actually do have a higher risk of a more pronounced lateral deviation of the hallux. Methods 858 pre-school children were included in the study. The study sample was stratified by sex, urban/rural areas and Austrian province. The hallux angle and the length of the feet were recorded. The inside length of the children's footwear (indoor shoes worn in pre-school and outdoor shoes were assessed. Personal data and different anthropometric measurements were taken. The risk of hallux valgus deviation was statistically tested by a stepwise logistic regression analysis and the relative risk (odds ratio for a hallux angle ≥ 4 degrees was calculated. Results Exact examinations of the hallux angle could be conducted on a total of 1,579 individual feet. Only 23.9% out of 1,579 feet presented a straight position of the great toe. The others were characterized by lateral deviations (valgus position at different degrees, equalling 10 degrees or greater in 14.2% of the children's feet. 88.8% of 808 children examined wore indoor footwear that was of insufficient length, and 69.4% of 812 children wore outdoor shoes that were too short. A significant relationship was observed between the lengthwise fit of the shoes and the hallux angle: the shorter the shoe, the higher the value of the hallux angle. The relative risk (odds ratio of a lateral hallux deviation of ≥ 4 degrees in children wearing shoes of insufficient length was significantly increased. Conclusions There is a significant relationship between the hallux angle in children and footwear that is

  1. Increased hallux angle in children and its association with insufficient length of footwear: A community based cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Wearing shoes of insufficient length during childhood has often been cited as leading to deformities of the foot, particularly to the development of hallux valgus disorders. Until now, these assumptions have not been confirmed through scientific research. This study aims to investigate whether this association can be statistically proven, and if children who wear shoes of insufficient length actually do have a higher risk of a more pronounced lateral deviation of the hallux. Methods 858 pre-school children were included in the study. The study sample was stratified by sex, urban/rural areas and Austrian province. The hallux angle and the length of the feet were recorded. The inside length of the children's footwear (indoor shoes worn in pre-school and outdoor shoes) were assessed. Personal data and different anthropometric measurements were taken. The risk of hallux valgus deviation was statistically tested by a stepwise logistic regression analysis and the relative risk (odds ratio) for a hallux angle ≥ 4 degrees was calculated. Results Exact examinations of the hallux angle could be conducted on a total of 1,579 individual feet. Only 23.9% out of 1,579 feet presented a straight position of the great toe. The others were characterized by lateral deviations (valgus position) at different degrees, equalling 10 degrees or greater in 14.2% of the children's feet. 88.8% of 808 children examined wore indoor footwear that was of insufficient length, and 69.4% of 812 children wore outdoor shoes that were too short. A significant relationship was observed between the lengthwise fit of the shoes and the hallux angle: the shorter the shoe, the higher the value of the hallux angle. The relative risk (odds ratio) of a lateral hallux deviation of ≥ 4 degrees in children wearing shoes of insufficient length was significantly increased. Conclusions There is a significant relationship between the hallux angle in children and footwear that is too short in length. The

  2. Tool for assistance in testing the safety logic section of nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulc'h, J.; Meur, M. le; Collart, J.M.; Segalard, J.; Uberschlag, J.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis of the protection system logic section (SPIN) of the PALUEL plant performed manually have led to the study of a logical tool for testing the safety logic section having or having not failures. It is a dynamic analyser which from a terminal in a sharing time system will be able to generate testing sequences, to simulate a processor and its environment and to analyse the logic sections with their workable code

  3. Case Management Reduces Length of Stay, Charges, and Testing in Emergency Department Frequent Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Sughair

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Case management is an effective, short-term means to reduce emergency department (ED visits in frequent users of the ED. This study sought to determine the effectiveness of case management on frequent ED users, in terms of reducing ED and hospital length of stay (LOS, accrued costs, and utilization of diagnostic tests. Methods: The study consisted of a retrospective chart review of ED and inpatient visits in our hospital’s ED case management program, comparing patient visits made in the one year prior to enrollment in the program, to the visits made in the one year after enrollment in the program. We examined the LOS, use of diagnostic testing, and monetary charges incurred by these patients one year prior and one year after enrollment into case management. Results: The study consisted of 158 patients in case management. Comparing the one year prior to enrollment to the one year after enrollment, ED visits decreased by 49%, inpatient admissions decreased by 39%, the use of computed tomography imaging decreased 41%, the use of ultrasound imaging decreased 52%, and the use of radiographs decreased 38%. LOS in the ED and for inpatient admissions decreased by 39%, reducing total LOS for these patients by 178 days. ED and hospital charges incurred by these patients decreased by 5.8 million dollars, a 41% reduction. All differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Case management for frequent users of the ED is an effective method to reduce patient visits, the use of diagnostic testing, length of stay, and cost within our institution.

  4. Method for operating a nuclear reactor with scrammable part length rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.

    1979-01-01

    A new part length rod is provided which may be used to control xenon induced power oscillations but also to contribute to shutdown reactivity when a rapid shutdown of the reactor is required. The part length rod consists of a control rod with three regions. The lower control region is a longer weaker active portion separated from an upper stronger shorter poison section by an intermediate section which is a relative non-absorber of neutrons. The combination of the longer weaker control section with the upper high worth poison section permits the part length rod to be scrammed into the core. When a reactor shutdown is required but also permits the control rod to be used as a tool to control power distribution in both the axial and radial directions during normal operation

  5. The design of in-pile test section for fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, K. N.; Lee, J. M.; Shim, B. S.; Zee, D. Y.; Park, S. H.; Ahn, S. H.; Lee, J. Y.; Kim, Y. J. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    As an equipment for nuclear fuel's general performance irradiation test in HANARO, Fuel Test Loop(FTL) has been developed that can irradiate the pin to the maximum number of 3 at the core irradiation hole(IR1 hole) by considering for it's utility and user's irradiation requirement. 3-Pin FTL consists of In-Pile Test Section (IPS) and Out-of-Pile System (OPS). IPS consists for IPS Vessel assembly, In-Pool Piping, IPS Support, In-Pool Piping Support etc. Design that such IPS considers interference item consisted to do not bear in existing facilities by one. IVA that is connected to the OPS are controlled and regulated by means of system pressure, system temperature and the water quality. IPS Vessel assembly is consisted of outer pressure vessel, inner pressure vessel, IPS head, inner assembly and test fuel carrier. After 3-Pin FTL development which is expected to be finished by the 2006, FTL will be used for the irradiation test of the new PWR-type fuel and can maximize the usage of HANARO.

  6. Does length or neighborhood size cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalbert, Annie; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-10-01

    Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, and Surprenant (2011) suggested that past demonstrations of the word length effect, the finding that words with fewer syllables are recalled better than words with more syllables, included a confound: The short words had more orthographic neighbors than the long words. The experiments reported here test two predictions that would follow if neighborhood size is a more important factor than word length. In Experiment 1, we found that concurrent articulation removed the effect of neighborhood size, just as it removes the effect of word length. Experiment 2 demonstrated that this pattern is also found with nonwords. For Experiment 3, we factorially manipulated length and neighborhood size, and found only effects of the latter. These results are problematic for any theory of memory that includes decay offset by rehearsal, but they are consistent with accounts that include a redintegrative stage that is susceptible to disruption by noise. The results also confirm the importance of lexical and linguistic factors on memory tasks thought to tap short-term memory.

  7. Test anxiety and telomere length: Academic stress in adolescents may not cause rapid telomere erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yaru; Leong, Waiian; Yao, Mingling; Hu, Xuefei; Lu, Sixiao; Zhu, Xiaowei; Chen, Lianxiang; Tong, Jianjing; Shi, Jingyi; Gilson, Eric; Ye, Jing; Lu, Yiming

    2017-02-14

    Academic stress (AS) is one of the most important health problems experienced by students, but no biomarker of the potential psychological or physical problems associated with AS has yet been identified. As several cross-sectional studies have shown that psychiatric conditions accelerate aging and shorten telomere length (TL), we explored whether AS affected TL.Between June 2014 and July 2014, we recruited 200 junior high school students with imminent final examinations for participation in this study. The students were divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate, and severe anxiety) using the Sarason Test Anxiety Scale (TAS). Saliva samples were collected for TL measurement via quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR).Students from both a specialized and a general school suffered from anxiety (p > 0.05). A total 35% had severe anxiety (score: 26.09±3.87), 33% had moderate anxiety (16.98±2.64), and 32% had mild anxiety (7.89±1.92). The TAS values differed significantly (p 0.05): 1.14±0.46 for those with severe anxiety, 1.02±0.40 for those with moderate anxiety, and 1.12±0.45 for those with mild anxiety.Previous reports have found that AS is very common in Asian adolescents. We found no immediate telomere shortening in adolescents with AS. Longitudinal observations are required to determine if TL is affected by AS.

  8. Augmented Cross-Sectional Prevalence Testing for Estimating HIV Incidence

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, R.; Lagakos, S. W.

    2010-01-01

    Estimation of an HIV incidence rate based on a cross-sectional sample of individuals evaluated with both a sensitive and less-sensitive diagnostic test offers important advantages to incidence estimation based on a longitudinal cohort study. However, the reliability of the cross-sectional approach has been called into question because of two major concerns. One is the difficulty in obtaining a reliable external approximation for the mean “window period” between detectability of HIV infection ...

  9. Model Test Study of the Breakwater at the Dubai Port Terminal in Callao, Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.

    This report deals with a two-dimensional model test study of the new breakwater for the Dubai Port terminal in Callao, Peru. Two cross-sections were tested namely the outer part of the breakwater (Section C) and a cross-section at the container terminal area (Section A). The length scale used...

  10. Experimental test results of multi-channel test rig of T1 test section, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Ryutaro; Takase, Kazuyuki; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    1990-09-01

    Channel blockage test on a fuel column of the high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) has been performed under the helium gas atmosphere at a high temperature and a high pressure in order to obtain safety data on flow rate and temperature distributions in the fuel column with the multi-channel test rig of the fuel stack test section (T 1 ) in HENDEL. In the test, one of 12 fuel channels was blockaded to 90% of flow area at the channel inlet. Experimental results showed that the helium gas flow rate in the blockaded channel was 28%∼33% lower than the average flow rate for Reynolds number from 2300 to 14000 in isothermal flow. When simulated fuel rods were heated, the flow rate in the blockaded channel did not decrease down in comparison with the isothermal flow. This is due to that the heat generated in the fuel rods conducts to the other fuel channels in graphite fuel blocks, so that accelerated pressure losses in the fuel channels change with helium gas temperatures. (author)

  11. Suppression of background noise in a transonic wind-tunnel test section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzenhofer, L. A.; Howard, P. W.

    1975-01-01

    Some exploratory tests were recently performed in the transonic test section of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center 14-in. wind tunnel to suppress the background noise. In these tests, the perforated walls of the test section were covered with fine wire screens. The screens eliminated the edge tones generated by the holes in the perforated walls and significantly reduced the tunnel background noise. The tunnel noise levels were reduced to such a degree by this simple modification at Mach numbers 0.75, 0.9, 1.1, 1.2, and 1.46 that the fluctuating pressure levels of a turbulent boundary layer could be measured on a 5-deg half-angle cone.

  12. Test of RIPL-2 cross section calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, M.

    2002-01-01

    The new levels and optical segments and microscopic HF-BCS level densities (part of the density segment) were tested in practical calculations of cross sections for neutron induced reactions on 22 targets (40-Ca, 47-Ti, 52-Cr, 55-Mn, 58-Ni, 63-Cu, 71-Ga, 80-Se, 92-Mo, 93-Nb, 100-Mo, 109-Ag, 114-Cd, 124-Sn, 127-I, 133-Cs, 140-Ce, 153-Eu, 169-Tm, 186-W, 197-Au, 208-Pb). For each target all reactions involving up to 3 neutron, 1 proton and 1 α-particle emissions (subject to actual reaction thresholds) were considered in the incident energy range from 1 keV up to 20 MeV (in some cases up to 27 MeV). In addition, total, elastic, and neutron capture cross sections were calculated

  13. Vertical drop test of a transport fuselage center section including the wheel wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. S.; Hayduk, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    A Boeing 707 fuselage section was drop tested to measure structural, seat, and anthropomorphic dummy response to vertical crash loads. The specimen had nominally zero pitch, roll and yaw at impact with a sink speed of 20 ft/sec. Results from this drop test and other drop tests of different transport sections will be used to prepare for a full-scale crash test of a B-720.

  14. The mean visible labial length of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, F.; Abbas, M.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the mean visible labial length of maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth at rest. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Prosthodontics, Dr. Ishrat-ul-Ebad Khan Institute of Oral Health Sciences, Karachi, from October 2012 to March 2013. Methodology: A total of 200 subjects were included. Measurements were carried out using digital caliper from the border of the lip to the incisal edges of incisor and to the cusp tip for the canines. The length of the upper lip was measured from subnasale to stomion. Statistical analyses were performed by Mann Whitney-U test and Kruskal Walli's test. Results: The age of the participant ranged between 20 and 65 years. At rest, females significantly displayed more of the maxillary central incisor (2.93 +- 1.57 mm; p=0.003), lateral incisor (1.87 +- 1.12 mm; p=0.005) and canine (0.59 +- 0.62 mm; p=0.031). With increasing age, the amount of maxillary anterior teeth visible at rest significantly decreased (p < 0.001), and increased for the mandibular teeth (p < 0.001). Subjects with shorter upper lips significantly displayed more maxillary anterior incisor structure than subjects with longer upper lip (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Females displayed significantly more labial length of the maxillary anterior teeth. The mean visible labial length of maxillary anterior teeth significantly decreased with increasing age and increased for the mandibular teeth. As the upper lip length increased, the mean visible labial length of maxillary anterior teeth significantly decreased. (author)

  15. Rank-based testing of equal survivorship based on cross-sectional survival data with or without prospective follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwun Chuen Gary; Qin, Jing

    2015-10-01

    Existing linear rank statistics cannot be applied to cross-sectional survival data without follow-up since all subjects are essentially censored. However, partial survival information are available from backward recurrence times and are frequently collected from health surveys without prospective follow-up. Under length-biased sampling, a class of linear rank statistics is proposed based only on backward recurrence times without any prospective follow-up. When follow-up data are available, the proposed rank statistic and a conventional rank statistic that utilizes follow-up information from the same sample are shown to be asymptotically independent. We discuss four ways to combine these two statistics when follow-up is present. Simulations show that all combined statistics have substantially improved power compared with conventional rank statistics, and a Mantel-Haenszel test performed the best among the proposal statistics. The method is applied to a cross-sectional health survey without follow-up and a study of Alzheimer's disease with prospective follow-up. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [Impact of DRG payment on the length of stay and the number of outpatient visits after discharge for caesarean section during 2004-2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Changwoo; Chung, Seolhee; Yi, Seonju; Kwon, Soonman

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG)-based payment on the length of stay and the number of outpatient visits after discharge in for patients who had undergone caesarean section. This study used the health insurance data of the patients in health care facilities that were paid by the Fee-For-Service (FFS) in 2001-2004, but they participated in the DRG payment system in 2005-2007. In order to examine the net effects of DRG payment, the difference-in-differences (DID) method was adopted to observe the difference in health care utilization before and after the participation in the DRG payment system. The dependent variables of the regression model were the length of stay and number of outpatient visits after discharge, and the explanatory variables included the characteristics of the patients and the health care facilities. The length of stay in DRG-paid health care facilities was greater than that in the FFS-paid ones. Yet, DRG payment has no statistically significant effect on the number of outpatient visits after discharge. The results of this study that DRG payment was not effective in reducing the length of stay can be related to the nature of voluntary participation in the DRG system. Only those health care facilities that are already efficient in terms of the length of stay or that can benefit from the DRG payment may decide to participate in the program.

  17. The value of Sonographic measurement of cervical length and fetal fibronectin testing in predicting preterm delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Salar

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the combination of both fetal fibronectin and sonographic measurement of cervical length in women with preterm labor provides a better prediction than the individual tests alone.\tMETHODS: We examined 40 women with singleton pregnancies presenting at 24–35 (median 31 weeks of gestation with regular and painful uterine contractions, intact membranes and cervical dilatation of less than 3 cm. On admission to the hospital, fetal fibronectin positivity in cervicovaginal secretions was determined and transvaginal sonographic measurement of cervical length was carried out. The primary outcome measure was delivery within 14 days of presentation.\tRESULTS: Total of 40 eligible women at a mean gestational age of 28,3±4,8 weeks were enrolled from a population of 196 subjects screened. The overall prevalence of preterm delivery CONCLUSIONS: Combined the assessment of fetal fibronectin in cervico-vaginal secretions and the sonographic cervical length measurement improve the prediction of preterm delivery within 14 days in women with threatened preterm labor

  18. Finite Element Simulations of Two Vertical Drop Tests of F-28 Fuselage Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E.; Littell, Justin D.; Annett, Martin S.; Haskin, Ian M.

    2018-01-01

    In March 2017, a vertical drop test of a forward fuselage section of a Fokker F-28 MK4000 aircraft was conducted as part of a joint NASA/FAA project to investigate the performance of transport aircraft under realistic crash conditions. In June 2017, a vertical drop test was conducted of a wing-box fuselage section of the same aircraft. Both sections were configured with two rows of aircraft seats, in a triple-double configuration. A total of ten Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) were secured in seats using standard lap belt restraints. The forward fuselage section was also configured with luggage in the cargo hold. Both sections were outfitted with two hat racks, each with added ballast mass. The drop tests were performed at the Landing and Impact Research facility located at NASA Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The measured impact velocity for the forward fuselage section was 346.8-in/s onto soil. The wing-box section was dropped with a downward facing pitch angle onto a sloping soil surface in order to create an induced forward acceleration in the airframe. The vertical impact velocity of the wing-box section was 349.2-in/s. A second objective of this project was to assess the capabilities of finite element simulations to predict the test responses. Finite element models of both fuselage sections were developed for execution in LS-DYNA(Registered Trademark), a commercial explicit nonlinear transient dynamic code. The models contained accurate representations of the airframe structure, the hat racks and hat rack masses, the floor and seat tracks, the luggage in the cargo hold for the forward section, and the detailed under-floor structure in the wing-box section. Initially, concentrated masses were used to represent the inertial properties of the seats, restraints, and ATD occupants. However, later simulations were performed that included finite element representations of the seats, restraints, and ATD occupants. These models were developed to more

  19. Resonance effects in neutron scattering lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-06-01

    The nature of neutron scattering lengths is described and the nuclear effects giving rise to their variation is discussed. Some examples of the shortcomings of the available nuclear data base, particularly for heavy nuclei, are given. Methods are presented for improving this data base, in particular for obtaining the energy variation of the complex coherent scattering length from long to sub-/angstrom/ wave lengths from the available sources of slow neutron cross section data. Examples of this information are given for several of the rare earth nuclides. Some examples of the effect of resonances in neutron reflection and diffraction are discussed. This report documents a seminar given at Argonne National Laboratory in March 1989. 18 refs., 18 figs.

  20. Resonance effects in neutron scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynn, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    The nature of neutron scattering lengths is described and the nuclear effects giving rise to their variation is discussed. Some examples of the shortcomings of the available nuclear data base, particularly for heavy nuclei, are given. Methods are presented for improving this data base, in particular for obtaining the energy variation of the complex coherent scattering length from long to sub-angstrom wave lengths from the available sources of slow neutron cross section data. Examples of this information are given for several of the rare earth nuclides. Some examples of the effect of resonances in neutron reflection and diffraction are discussed. This report documents a seminar given at Argonne National Laboratory in March 1989. 18 refs., 18 figs

  1. Modeling and Simulation of a Nuclear Fuel Element Test Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert P.; Emrich, William

    2011-01-01

    "The Nuclear Thermal Rocket Element Environmental Simulator" test section closely simulates the internal operating conditions of a thermal nuclear rocket. The purpose of testing is to determine the ideal fuel rod characteristics for optimum thermal heat transfer to their hydrogen cooling/working fluid while still maintaining fuel rod structural integrity. Working fluid exhaust temperatures of up to 5,000 degrees Fahrenheit can be encountered. The exhaust gas is rendered inert and massively reduced in temperature for analysis using a combination of water cooling channels and cool N2 gas injectors in the H2-N2 mixer portion of the test section. An extensive thermal fluid analysis was performed in support of the engineering design of the H2-N2 mixer in order to determine the maximum "mass flow rate"-"operating temperature" curve of the fuel elements hydrogen exhaust gas based on the test facilities available cooling N2 mass flow rate as the limiting factor.

  2. Study on the Connecting Length of CFRP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiongfei; Li, Yue; Li, Zhanguo

    2018-05-01

    The paper studied the varying mode of shear stress in the connecting zone of CFRP. Using epoxy resin (EP) as bond material, performance of specimens with different connecting length of CFRP was tested to obtain the conclusion. CFRP-confined concrete column was tested subsequently to verify the conclusion. The results show that: (1) The binding properties of modified epoxy resin with CFRP is good; (2) As the connecting length increased, the ultimate tensile strength of CFRP increased as well in the range of the experiment parameters; (3) Tensile strength of CFRP can reach the ultimate strength when the connecting length is 90mm;(4) The connecting length of 90mm of CFRP meet the reinforcement requirements.

  3. Leg length, skull circumference, and the prevalence of dementia in low and middle income countries; a 10/66 population-based cross sectional survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Dangour, Alan D; Uauy, Ricardo; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, KS; Llibre Rodriguez, Juan J.; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D.; Acosta, Isaac; Albanese, Emiliano; Dewey, Michael E.; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Stewart, Robert; Gaona, Ciro; Jotheeswaran, AT.; Senthil Kumar, P; Li, Shuran; Llibre Guerra, Juan C.; Rodriguez, Diana; Rodriguez, Guillermina

    2017-01-01

    Background Adult leg length is influenced by nutrition in the first few years of life. Adult head circumference is an indicator of brain growth. There is a limited literature linking short legs and small skulls to an increased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia in late life. Methods One phase cross-sectional surveys of all over 65 year old residents (n=14,960) in 11 catchment areas in China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico and Peru. The cross-culturally validated 10/66 dementia diagnosis, and a sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaire were administered to all participants, and anthropometric measures taken. Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios for the effect of leg length and skull circumference upon 10/66 Dementia, controlling for age, gender, education and family history of dementia. Results The pooled meta-analysed fixed effect for leg length (highest vs. lowest quarter) was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.68-0.98) and for skull circumference 0.75 (95% CI, 0.63-0.89). While point estimates varied between sites, the proportion of the variability attributable to heterogeneity between studies as opposed to sampling error (I2) was 0% for leg length and 22% for skull circumference. The effects were independent and not mediated by family history of dementia. The effect of skull circumference was not modified by educational level or gender, and the effect of leg length was not modified by gender. Conclusions Since leg length and skull circumference are said to remain stable throughout adulthood into old age, reverse causality is an unlikely explanation for the findings. Early life nutritional programming, as well as neurodevelopment may protect against neurodegeneration. PMID:20701817

  4. Leg length, skull circumference, and the prevalence of dementia in low and middle income countries: a 10/66 population-based cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Dangour, Alan D; Uauy, Ricardo; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, K S; Rodriguez, Juan J Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Williams, Joseph D; Acosta, Isaac; Albanese, Emiliano; Dewey, Michael E; Ferri, Cleusa P; Stewart, Robert; Gaona, Ciro; Jotheeswaran, A T; Kumar, P Senthil; Li, Shuran; Guerra, Juan C Llibre; Rodriguez, Diana; Rodriguez, Guillermina

    2011-03-01

    Adult leg length is influenced by nutrition in the first few years of life. Adult head circumference is an indicator of brain growth. There is a limited literature linking short legs and small skulls to an increased risk for cognitive impairment and dementia in late life. One phase cross-sectional surveys were carried out of all residents aged over 65 years in 11 catchment areas in China, India, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Venezuela, Mexico and Peru (n = 14,960). The cross-culturally validated 10/66 dementia diagnosis, and a sociodemographic and risk factor questionnaire were administered to all participants, and anthropometric measures taken. Poisson regression was used to calculate prevalence ratios for the effect of leg length and skull circumference upon 10/66 dementia, controlling for age, gender, education and family history of dementia. The pooled meta-analyzed fixed effect for leg length (highest vs. lowest quarter) was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.68-0.98) and for skull circumference 0.75 (95% CI, 0.63-0.89). While point estimates varied between sites, the proportion of the variability attributable to heterogeneity between studies as opposed to sampling error (I2) was 0% for leg length and 22% for skull circumference. The effects were independent and not mediated by family history of dementia. The effect of skull circumference was not modified by educational level or gender, and the effect of leg length was not modified by gender. Since leg length and skull circumference are said to remain stable throughout adulthood into old age, reverse causality is an unlikely explanation for the findings. Early life nutritional programming, as well as neurodevelopment may protect against neurodegeneration.

  5. Length-dependent optical properties of single-walled carbon nanotube samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, Anton V.; Tsyboulski, Dmitri A.; Bachilo, Sergei M.; Weisman, R. Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Length-independent absorption per atom in single-walled carbon nanotubes. ► Reduced fluorescence quantum yield for short nanotubes. ► Exciton quenching at nanotube ends, sidewall defects probably limits quantum yield. - Abstract: Contradictory findings have been reported on the length dependence of optical absorption cross sections and fluorescence quantum yields in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). To clarify these points, studies have been made on bulk SWCNT dispersions subjected to length fractionation by electrophoretic separation or by ultrasonication-induced scission. Fractions ranged from ca. 120 to 760 nm in mean length. Samples prepared by shear-assisted dispersion were subsequently shortened by ultrasonic processing. After accounting for processing-induced changes in the surfactant absorption background, SWCNT absorption was found constant within ±11% as average nanotube length changed by a factor of 3.8. This indicates that the absorption cross-section per carbon atom is not length dependent. By contrast, in length fractions prepared by both methods, the bulk fluorescence efficiency or average quantum yield increased with SWCNT average length and approached an apparent asymptotic limit near 1 μm. This result is interpreted as reflecting the combined contributions of exciton quenching by sidewall defects and by the ends of shorter nanotubes

  6. The fabrication of a vanadium-stainless steel test section for MHD testing of insulator coatings in flowing lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, C.B.; Mattas, R.F.; Smith, D.L.; Chung, H.; Tsai, H.-C.; Morgan, G.D.; Wille, G.W.; Young, C.

    1996-01-01

    To test the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) pressure drop reduction performance of candidate insulator coatings for the ITER Vanadium/Lithium Breeding Blanket, a test section comprised of a V- 4Cr-4Ti liner inside a stainless steel pipe was designed and fabricated. Theoretically, the MHD pressure drop reduction benefit resulting, from an electrically insulating coating on a vanadium- lined pipe is identical to the benefit derived from an insulated pipe fabricated of vanadium alone. A duplex test section design consisting of a V alloy liner encased in a SS pressure boundary provided protection for vanadium from atmospheric contamination during operation at high temperature and obviated any potential problems with vanadium welding while also minimizing the amount of V alloy material required. From the MHD and insulator coating- point of view, the test section outer SS wall and inner V alloy liner can be modeled simply as a wall having a sandwich construction. Two 52.3 mm OD x 2.9 m long V-alloy tubes were fabricated by Century Tubes from 64 mm x 200 mm x 1245 mm extrusions produced by Teledyne Wah Chang. The test section's duplex structure was subsequently fabricated at Century Tubes by drawing down a SS pipe (2 inch schedule 10) over one of the 53.2 mm diameter V tubes

  7. Weather, day length and physical activity in older adults: Cross-sectional results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC Norfolk Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tzu Wu

    Full Text Available A wide range of environmental factors have been related to active ageing, but few studies have explored the impact of weather and day length on physical activity in older adults. We investigate the cross-sectional association between weather conditions, day length and activity in older adults using a population-based cohort in England, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC Norfolk study.Physical activity was measured objectively over 7 days using an accelerometer and this was used to calculate daily total physical activity (counts per minute, daily minutes of sedentary behaviour and light, moderate and vigorous physical activity (LMVPA. Day length and two types of weather conditions, precipitation and temperature, were obtained from a local weather station. The association between these variables and physical activity was examined by multilevel first-order autoregressive modelling.After adjusting for individual factors, short day length and poor weather conditions, including high precipitation and low temperatures, were associated with up to 10% lower average physical activity (p<0.01 and 8 minutes less time spent in LMVPA but 15 minutes more sedentary time, compared to the best conditions.Day length and weather conditions appear to be an important factor related to active ageing. Future work should focus on developing potential interventions to reduce their impact on physical activity behaviours in older adults.

  8. Design heating test section HeaTiNG-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riswan Djambiar; Sagino; Dedy Haryanto; Joko Prasetio Witoko

    2013-01-01

    HeaTiNG-02 is a component test loop BETA which serves as a heater in conducting experimental heat transfer processes in two-phase flow in narrow slit-shaped plate, considering this phenomenon is one of the conditions postulated accident scenarios a NPP type PWR. To produce heat for the heating component takes the AC power the source voltage can be set from 0 Volts to 220 Volts with no more than a maximum power of 25 KVA. To obtain the thermal conditions on HeaTiNG-02 heating wire dimensions need to be determined and the corresponding voltage so that it will an expected power. Determination of the dimensions of the heater wire through calculations using electricity formulations. Retrieved draft heater test BETA (UUB) HeaTiNG-02 use material super kanthal (FeCuAl) in diameter (Ø) = 2 mm and wire length 3770 mm. Voltage regulators with a maximum power of 25 kVA with a minimum voltage of 0 volts and a maximum of 220 volts. Heater is used as the base to form refractory stone trench. (author)

  9. 23 CFR 658.13 - Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Length. 658.13 Section 658.13 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS TRUCK SIZE AND WEIGHT, ROUTE... Network or in transit between these highways and terminals or service locations pursuant to § 658.19. (b...

  10. Determination of a test section parameters for Iris nuclear reactor pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mario A.B. da; Lira, Carlos A.B. de O.

    2009-01-01

    An integral, modular and medium size nuclear reactor, known as IRIS, is being developed by Westinghouse and by research centers. IRIS is characterized by having most of its components inside the pressure vessel, eliminating the probability of accidents. Due to its integral configuration, there is no spray system for boron homogenization, which may cause power transients. Thus, boron mixing must be investigated. The aim of this paper is to establish the conditions under which a test section has to be built for boron dispersion analysis inside IRIS reactor pressurizer. Through Fractional Scaling Analysis, which is a new methodology of similarity, the main parameters for a test section are obtained. By combining Fractional Scaling Analysis with local scaling for the densimetric Froude number and a previously established volumetric scale factor, the values of recirculation orifices, inlet water temperature, time scale factor and recirculation flow for the test section (model) are determined so that boron distribution is well represented in IRIS reactor pressurizer (prototype). Analytical solutions were used to validate the adopted methodology and when the results simulated in the model are compared to those that characterize the prototype, the agreement for both systems is absolute. The thermal power also influences boron distribution inside the test section. This power is determined by condensation laws in the vapor region and by suitable correlations for free convection. The fractions for rising inlet recirculation water enthalpy and vapor formation are also considered. (author)

  11. Integration of length and curvature in haptic perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Virjanand; Tiest, Wouter M Bergmann; Kappers, Astrid M L

    2014-01-24

    We investigated if and how length and curvature information are integrated when an object is explored in one hand. Subjects were asked to explore four types of objects between thumb and index finger. Objects differed in either length, curvature, both length and curvature correlated as in a circle, or anti-correlated. We found that when both length and curvature are present, performance is significantly better than when only one of the two cues is available. Therefore, we conclude that there is integration of length and curvature. Moreover, if the two cues are correlated in a circular cross-section instead of in an anti-correlated way, performance is better than predicted by a combination of two independent cues. We conclude that integration of curvature and length is highly efficient when the cues in the object are combined as in a circle, which is the most common combination of curvature and length in daily life.

  12. Cervical length measurement: comparison of transabdominal and transvaginal approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerway, Sue C; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Hyett, Jon

    2015-01-01

    to external cervical os. Bland- Altman plots and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to evaluate differences between TA and TV measurements. Results: The validity of the TA method depended on cervical length. Although the TA method underestimated cervical length by 2.0 mm on average (P ... plots showed an inverse trend with shorter cervixes. In women with a cervix test to detect cervical length

  13. Finite Element Analysis and Test Results Comparison for the Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This report documents the comparison of test measurements and predictive finite element analysis results for a hybrid wing body center section test article. The testing and analysis efforts were part of the Airframe Technology subproject within the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project. Test results include full field displacement measurements obtained from digital image correlation systems and discrete strain measurements obtained using both unidirectional and rosette resistive gauges. Most significant results are presented for the critical five load cases exercised during the test. Final test to failure after inflicting severe damage to the test article is also documented. Overall, good comparison between predicted and actual behavior of the test article is found.

  14. Neutron scattering lengths of 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfimenkov, V.P.; Akopian, G.G.; Wierzbicki, J.; Govorov, A.M.; Pikelner, L.B.; Sharapov, E.I.

    1976-01-01

    The total neutron scattering cross-section of 3 He has been measured in the neutron energy range from 20 meV to 2 eV. Together with the known value of coherent scattering amplitude it leads to the two sts of n 3 He scattering lengths

  15. Cross-Sectional Association between Length of Incarceration and Selected Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases in Two Male Prisons of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman-Retana, Omar; Lopez-Ridaura, Ruy; Servan-Mori, Edson; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2015-01-01

    Mexico City prisons are characterized by overcrowded facilities and poor living conditions for housed prisoners. Chronic disease profile is characterized by low prevalence of self reported hypertension (2.5%) and diabetes (1.8%) compared to general population; 9.5% of male inmates were obese. There is limited evidence regarding on the exposure to prison environment over prisoner's health status; particularly, on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs). We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from two large male prisons in Mexico City (n = 14,086). Using quantile regression models we assessed the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for NCDs; stratified analysis by age at admission to prison was performed. We found a significant negative trend in BMI and WC across incarceration length quintiles. BP had a significant positive trend with a percentage change increase around 5% mmHg. The greatest increase in systolic blood pressure was observed in the older age at admission group. This analysis provides insight into the relationship between length of incarceration and four selected risk factors for NCDs; screening for high blood pressure should be guarantee in order to identify at risk individuals and linked to the prison's health facility. It is important to assess prison environment features to approach potential risk for developing NCDs in this context.

  16. Cross-Sectional Association between Length of Incarceration and Selected Risk Factors for Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases in Two Male Prisons of Mexico City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Silverman-Retana

    Full Text Available Mexico City prisons are characterized by overcrowded facilities and poor living conditions for housed prisoners. Chronic disease profile is characterized by low prevalence of self reported hypertension (2.5% and diabetes (1.8% compared to general population; 9.5% of male inmates were obese. There is limited evidence regarding on the exposure to prison environment over prisoner's health status; particularly, on cardiovascular disease risk factors. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs.We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from two large male prisons in Mexico City (n = 14,086. Using quantile regression models we assessed the relationship between length of incarceration and selected risk factors for NCDs; stratified analysis by age at admission to prison was performed. We found a significant negative trend in BMI and WC across incarceration length quintiles. BP had a significant positive trend with a percentage change increase around 5% mmHg. The greatest increase in systolic blood pressure was observed in the older age at admission group.This analysis provides insight into the relationship between length of incarceration and four selected risk factors for NCDs; screening for high blood pressure should be guarantee in order to identify at risk individuals and linked to the prison's health facility. It is important to assess prison environment features to approach potential risk for developing NCDs in this context.

  17. Demonstration tests for HTGR fuel elements and core components with test sections in HENDEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Yoshiaki; Hino, Ryutaro; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment] [and others

    1995-03-01

    In the fuel stack test section (T{sub 1}) of the Helium Engineering Demonstration Loop (HENDEL), thermal and hydraulic performances of helium gas flows through a fuel rod channel and a fuel stack have been investigated for the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) core thermal design. The test data showed that the turbulent characteristics appearing in the Reynolds number above 2000: no typical behavior in the transition zone, and friction factors and heat transfer coefficients in the fuel channel were found to be higher than those in a smooth annular channel. Heat transfer behavior of gas flow in a fuel element channel with blockage and cross-flow through a gap between upper and lower fuel elements stacked was revealed using the mock-up models. On the other hand, demonstration tests have been performed to verify thermal and hydraulic characteristics and structural integrity related to the core bottom structure using a full-scale test facility named as the in-core structure test section (T{sub 2}). The sealing performance test revealed that the leakage of low-temperature helium gas through gaps between the permanent reflector blocks to the core was very low level compared with the HTTR design value and no change of the leakage flow rate were observed after a long term operation. The heat transfer tests including thermal transient at shutdown of gas circulators verified good insulating performance of core insulation structures in the core bottom structure and the hot gas duct; the temperature of the metal portion of these structure was below the design value. Examination of the thermal mixing characteristics indicated that the mixing of the hot helium gas started at a hot plenum and finished completely at downstream of the outlet hot gas duct. The present results obtained from these demonstration tests have been practically applied to the detailed design works and licensing procedures of the HTTR. (J.P.N.) 92 refs.

  18. Neutron-triton scattering lengths for interactions reproducing low-energy trinucleon data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levashev, V.P.

    1981-01-01

    By solving the integral equations for four nucleons the neutron-triton scattering lengths and total cross section are calculated using different S-wave rank-one separable potentials. A number of linear correlations between the neutron-triton scattering lengths and triton binding energy are found. The scattering lengths consistent with low-energy trinucleon data. The results obtained are compared with available experimental data [ru

  19. The expression of the skeletal muscle force-length relationship in vivo: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Samantha L; Challis, John H

    2010-02-21

    The force-length relationship is one of the most important mechanical characteristics of skeletal muscle in humans and animals. For a physiologically realistic joint range of motion and therefore range of muscle fibre lengths only part of the force-length curve may be used in vivo, i.e. only a section of the force-length curve is expressed. A generalised model of a mono-articular muscle-tendon complex was used to examine the effect of various muscle architecture parameters on the expressed section of the force-length relationship for a 90 degrees joint range of motion. The parameters investigated were: the ratio of tendon resting length to muscle fibre optimum length (L(TR):L(F.OPT)) (varied from 0.5 to 11.5), the ratio of muscle fibre optimum length to average moment arm (L(F.OPT):r) (varied from 0.5 to 5), the normalised tendon strain at maximum isometric force (c) (varied from 0 to 0.08), the muscle fibre pennation angle (theta) (varied from 0 degrees to 45 degrees) and the joint angle at which the optimum muscle fibre length occurred (phi). The range of values chosen for each parameter was based on values reported in the literature for five human mono-articular muscles with different functional roles. The ratios L(TR):L(F.OPT) and L(F.OPT):r were important in determining the amount of variability in the expressed section of the force-length relationship. The modelled muscle operated over only one limb at intermediate values of these two ratios (L(TR):L(F.OPT)=5; L(F.OPT):r=3), whether this was the ascending or descending limb was determined by the precise values of the other parameters. It was concluded that inter-individual variability in the expressed section of the force-length relationship is possible, particularly for muscles with intermediate values of L(TR):L(F.OPT) and L(F.OPT):r such as the brachialis and vastus lateralis. Understanding the potential for inter-individual variability in the expressed section is important when using muscle models to

  20. 2-D Model Test Study of the Suape Breakwater, Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.; Sopavicius, A.

    This report deals with a two-dimensional model test study of the extension of the breakwater in Suape, Brazil. One cross-section was tested for stability and overtopping in various sea conditions. The length scale used for the model tests was 1:35. Unless otherwise specified all values given...

  1. Recording length criteria as applied in ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, E.; Kroening, M.; Schober, H.; Fischdick, H.

    1983-01-01

    An appreciable method used to assess the quality and integrity of safety-related components in light water reactors is the ultrasonic examination, in which case great importance is attributed to the criteria pertaining to recording length and permissible defect size. The development of the recording length criteria as applied when employing this method of examination is portrayed, the latter being based on the criteria which have proven themselves throughout long years of practice in the examination of conventional components. When taking these criteria into account the application of conventional ultrasonic techniques often leads to problems in the case of thick-walled components the reason being that indications are overrated. Taking the design of reactor components as the basic point of consideration, modified criteria are derived particularly when the size of discontinuities calculated by fracture mechanics analyses is taken into account. The introduction of new ultrasonic examination techniques such as, for example, focussed probes revealed that a considerably more realistic assessment is possible and consequently results in a reduction of unnecessary repairs. A comparison of the size of indications determined using conventional and analytical technqiues renders possible the anchoring of an intermediate stage in the evaluation of indications which is encompassed in the consideration of the bundle divergence. Thus a new concept is realized for the evaluation of ultrasonic indications detected in reactor components, which in the meantime has found its way into the associated regulatory guides. (orig.)

  2. Good mixing length: Digital simulation of fluid mixing with and without obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.; Burgos, D.

    2006-07-01

    The good mixing length of a tracer assures that the samples or measures taken are fair. A non homogeneous tracer mixing through the cross section of the fluid medium involved in the experiment (eg. a river or a pipe) may conduct to erroneous conclusions. For establishing that length, a digital simulation of a two dimensional fluid flow, using Navier-Stokes equations, was done. A continuous tracer injection was simulated.The good mixing length was studied in two cases, first with a free of obstacles situation and then the effect of a significant obstacle located after the tracer injection point. As usual in practice, the good mixing length was estimated using a suitable upper bound for the concentration deviations from the mean in a given cross section. An analytical discussion of the obtained results is done

  3. Is telomere length a biomarker for aging: cross-sectional evidence from the west of Scotland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der, Geoff; Batty, G David; Benzeval, Michaela; Deary, Ian J; Green, Michael J; McGlynn, Liane; McIntyre, Alan; Robertson, Tony; Shiels, Paul G

    2012-01-01

    The search for biomarkers of aging (BoAs) has been largely unsuccessful to-date and there is widespread skepticism about the prospects of finding any that satisfy the criteria developed by the American Federation of Aging Research. This may be because the criteria are too strict or because a composite measure might be more appropriate. Telomere length has attracted a great deal of attention as a candidate BoA. We investigate whether it meets the criteria to be considered as a single biomarker of aging, and whether it makes a useful contribution to a composite measure. Using data from a large population based study, we show that telomere length is associated with age, with several measures of physical and cognitive functioning that are related to normal aging, and with three measures of overall health. In the majority of cases, telomere length adds predictive power to that of age, although it was not nearly as good a predictor overall. We used principal components analysis to form two composites from the measures of functioning, one including telomere length and the other not including it. These composite BoAs were better predictors of the health outcomes than chronological age. There was little difference between the two composites. Telomere length does not satisfy the strict criteria for a BoA, but does add predictive power to that of chronological age. Equivocal results from previous studies might be due to lack of power or the choice of measures examined together with a focus on single biomarkers. Composite biomarkers of aging have the potential to outperform age and should be considered for future research in this area.

  4. Is telomere length a biomarker for aging: cross-sectional evidence from the west of Scotland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Der

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The search for biomarkers of aging (BoAs has been largely unsuccessful to-date and there is widespread skepticism about the prospects of finding any that satisfy the criteria developed by the American Federation of Aging Research. This may be because the criteria are too strict or because a composite measure might be more appropriate. Telomere length has attracted a great deal of attention as a candidate BoA. We investigate whether it meets the criteria to be considered as a single biomarker of aging, and whether it makes a useful contribution to a composite measure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from a large population based study, we show that telomere length is associated with age, with several measures of physical and cognitive functioning that are related to normal aging, and with three measures of overall health. In the majority of cases, telomere length adds predictive power to that of age, although it was not nearly as good a predictor overall. We used principal components analysis to form two composites from the measures of functioning, one including telomere length and the other not including it. These composite BoAs were better predictors of the health outcomes than chronological age. There was little difference between the two composites. CONCLUSIONS: Telomere length does not satisfy the strict criteria for a BoA, but does add predictive power to that of chronological age. Equivocal results from previous studies might be due to lack of power or the choice of measures examined together with a focus on single biomarkers. Composite biomarkers of aging have the potential to outperform age and should be considered for future research in this area.

  5. Spanwise transition section for blended wing-body aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, Arthur V. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A blended wing-body aircraft includes a central body, a wing, and a transition section which interconnects the body and the wing on each side of the aircraft. The two transition sections are identical, and each has a variable chord length and thickness which varies in proportion to the chord length. This enables the transition section to connect the thin wing to the thicker body. Each transition section has a negative sweep angle.

  6. Nonlinear Analysis and Preliminary Testing Results of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Rouse, Marshall; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2015-01-01

    A large test article was recently designed, analyzed, fabricated, and successfully tested up to the representative design ultimate loads to demonstrate that stiffened composite panels with through-the-thickness reinforcement are a viable option for the next generation large transport category aircraft, including non-conventional configurations such as the hybrid wing body. This paper focuses on finite element analysis and test data correlation of the hybrid wing body center section test article under mechanical, pressure and combined load conditions. Good agreement between predictive nonlinear finite element analysis and test data is found. Results indicate that a geometrically nonlinear analysis is needed to accurately capture the behavior of the non-circular pressurized and highly-stressed structure when the design approach permits local buckling.

  7. Screening length in dusty plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, V S; Timofeev, A V

    2016-01-01

    Particles interaction and value of the screening length in dusty plasma systems are of great interest in dusty plasma area. Three inter-particle potentials (Debye potential, Gurevich potential and interaction potential in the weakly collisional regime) are used to solve equilibrium equations for two dusty particles suspended in a parabolic trap. The inter-particle distance dependence on screening length, trap parameter and particle charge is obtained. The functional form of inter-particle distance dependence on ion temperature is investigated and compared with experimental data at 200-300 K in order to test used potentials applicability to dusty plasma systems at room temperatures. The preference is given to the Yukawa-type potential including effective values of particle charge and screening length. The estimated effective value of the screening length is 5-15 times larger than the Debye length. (paper)

  8. Delta's Key to the Next Generation TOEFL[R] Test: Six Practice Tests for the iBT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Six Practice Tests for the iBT gives students plenty of practice as they prepare for the Internet-based TOEFL (iBT) or the new form of the institutional TOEFL (ITP). This new book/audio set contains a concise description of the TOEFL and the types of questions in each section, as well as six full-length tests that have not been published before.…

  9. Investigating the relationship between consultation length and patient experience: a cross-sectional study in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Natasha; Burt, Jenni; Abel, Gary; Maratos, Frances A; Montague, Jane; Campbell, John; Roland, Martin

    2016-12-01

    Longer consultations in primary care have been linked with better quality of care and improved health-related outcomes. However, there is little evidence of any potential association between consultation length and patient experience. To examine the relationship between consultation length and patient-reported communication, trust and confidence in the doctor, and overall satisfaction. Analysis of 440 videorecorded consultations and associated patient experience questionnaires from 13 primary care practices in England. Patients attending a face-to-face consultation with participating GPs consented to having their consultations videoed and completed a questionnaire. Consultation length was calculated from the videorecording. Linear regression (adjusting for patient and doctor demographics) was used to investigate associations between patient experience (overall communication, trust and confidence, and overall satisfaction) and consultation length. There was no evidence that consultation length was associated with any of the three measures of patient experience (P >0.3 for all). Adjusted changes on a 0-100 scale per additional minute of consultation were: communication score 0.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.20 to 0.25), trust and confidence in the doctor 0.07 (95% CI = -0.27 to 0.41), and satisfaction -0.14 (95% CI = -0.46 to 0.18). The authors found no association between patient experience measures of communication and consultation length, and patients may sometimes report good experiences from very short consultations. However, longer consultations may be required to achieve clinical effectiveness and patient safety: aspects also important for achieving high quality of care. Future research should continue to study the benefits of longer consultations, particularly for patients with complex multiple conditions. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  10. On the burnout in annular channels at non-uniform heat release distribution in length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ornatskij, A.P.; Chernobaj, V.A.; Vasil'ev, A.F.; Struts, G.V.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of axial heat release non-uniformity on the conditions of the burnout in annular channels is investigated. The investigation is carried out in annular channels with different laws of heat flux density distribution by channel length. The heat release non-uniformity coefficient was varied from 4.4 to 10, the pressure from 9.8 to 17.6 MPa, mass rate from 500 to 1700 kg (m 2 xS), liquid temperature (chemically desalted water) at the channel inlet constituted 30-300 deg C. The experiments have been performed at the test bench with a closed circulation circuit. The data obtained testify to the fact that under non-uniform heat release the influence of main operating parameters on the value of critical power is of the same character as under uniform heat release. The character of wall temperature variation by channel length before the burnout is determined by the form of heat supply temperature profile. The temperature maximum is observed in the region lying behind the cross section with maximum heat flux. The conclusion is drawn that the dominant influence on the position of the cross section in which the burnout arises is exerted by the form of heat flux density distribution by length. Independently of this distribution form the burnout developes when the vapour content near the wall reaches a limiting value

  11. Predictive accuracy of changes in transvaginal sonographic cervical length over time for preterm birth: a systematic review and metaanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Romero, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    To determine the accuracy of changes in transvaginal sonographic cervical length over time in predicting preterm birth in women with singleton and twin gestations. PubMed, Embase, Cinahl, Lilacs, and Medion (all from inception to June 30, 2015), bibliographies, Google scholar, and conference proceedings. Cohort or cross-sectional studies reporting on the predictive accuracy for preterm birth of changes in cervical length over time. Two reviewers independently selected studies, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted the data. Summary receiver-operating characteristic curves, pooled sensitivities and specificities, and summary likelihood ratios were generated. Fourteen studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 7 provided data on singleton gestations (3374 women) and 8 on twin gestations (1024 women). Among women with singleton gestations, the shortening of cervical length over time had a low predictive accuracy for preterm birth at predictive accuracy for preterm birth at predictive accuracies for preterm birth of cervical length shortening over time and the single initial and/or final cervical length measurement in 8 of 11 studies that provided data for making these comparisons. In the largest and highest-quality study, a single measurement of cervical length obtained at 24 or 28 weeks of gestation was significantly more predictive of preterm birth than any decrease in cervical length between these gestational ages. Change in transvaginal sonographic cervical length over time is not a clinically useful test to predict preterm birth in women with singleton or twin gestations. A single cervical length measurement obtained between 18 and 24 weeks of gestation appears to be a better test to predict preterm birth than changes in cervical length over time. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Cross sections, benchmarks, etc.: What is data testing all about

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagschal, J.; Yeivin, Y.

    1985-01-01

    In order to determine the consistency of two distinct measurements of a physical quantity, the discrepancy d between the two should be compared with its own standard deviation, σ = √(σ/sub 1//sup 2/+σ/sub 2//sup 2/). To properly test a given cross-section library by a set of benchmark (integral) measurements, the quantity corresponding to (d/σ)/sup 2/ is the quadratic d/sup dagger/C/sup -1/d. Here d is the vector of which the components are the discrepancies between the calculated values of the integral parameters and their corresponding measured values, and C is the uncertainty matrix of these discrepancies. This quadratic form is the only true measure of the joint consistency of the library and benchmarks. On the other hand, the very matrix C is essentially all one needs to adjust the library by the benchmarks. Therefore, any argument against adjustment simultaneously disqualifies all serious attempts to test cross-section libraries against integral benchmarks

  13. Fundamental length and relativistic length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1988-01-01

    It si noted that the introduction of fundamental length contradicts the conventional representations concerning the contraction of the longitudinal size of fast-moving objects. The use of the concept of relativistic length and the following ''elongation formula'' permits one to solve this problem

  14. Evaluation of Efficient Line Lengths for Better Readability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahid Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the major findings of a formal experiment about onscreen text line lengths are presented. The experiment examined the effects of four different line lengths on the reading speed and the reading efficiency. Efficiency is defined as a combination of reading speed and accuracy. Sixteen people between the age of 24 and 36 participated at the experiment. The subjects had to read four different texts with an average line length around 2000 characters. The texts contained substitution words, which had to be detected by the subjects to measure reading accuracy. Besides objective measures like reading speed and accuracy, the subjects were asked to subjectively vote on their reading experience. The results from our objective measures show strong similarities to those of the work done previously by different researchers. The absolute reading speed grows when the line length grows from CPL (Characters Per Line 30-120. The measured reading efficiency, however, doesn\\\\\\'t grow steadily, although a growing trend can be seen. This is due to the fact, that the test persons found in average more substitution words from the 60 CPL text than they did from the 30 and 90 CPL texts. The reading speed seems to increase while the line length increases but the overall comprehension seems to peak at medium line lengths. As in the previous studies, our test persons also prefer the medium (60 and 90 CPL line lengths, although they perform better when reading longer lines. In the overall subjective opinion 13 out of 16 test persons selected the 60 or 90 CPL line length as their favorite. The literature doesn\\\\\\'t truly provide a scientific explanation for the difference between the objective performance and the subjective preference. A natural hypothesis would be that the line length that is the fastest to read would also feel most comfortable to the readers but in the light of this and the earlier research it seems like this is not the case.

  15. Drop test and crash simulation of a civil airplane fuselage section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiaochuan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Crashworthiness of a civil airplane fuselage section was studied in this paper. Firstly, the failure criterion of a rivet was studied by test, showing that the ultimate tension and shear failure loads were obviously affected by the loading speed. The relations between the loading speed and the average ultimate shear, tension loads were expressed by two logarithmic functions. Then, a vertical drop test of a civil airplane fuselage section was conducted with an actual impact velocity of 6.85 m/s, meanwhile the deformation of cabin frame and the accelerations at typical locations were measured. The finite element model of a main fuselage structure was developed and validated by modal test, and the error between the calculated frequencies and the test ones of the first four modes were less than 5%. Numerical simulation of the drop test was performed by using the LS-DYNA code and the simulation results show a good agreement with that of drop test. Deforming mode of the analysis was the same as the drop test; the maximum average rigid acceleration in test was 8.81g while the calculated one was 9.17g, with an error of 4.1%; average maximum test deformation at four points on the front cabin floor was 420 mm, while the calculated one was 406 mm, with an error of 3.2%; the peak value of the calculated acceleration at a typical location was 14.72g, which is lower than the test result by 5.46%; the calculated rebound velocity result was greater than the test result 17.8% and energy absorption duration was longer than the test result by 5.73%.

  16. Length bias correction in gene ontology enrichment analysis using logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Gu; Di, Yanming; Emerson, Sarah; Cumbie, Jason S; Chang, Jeff H

    2012-01-01

    When assessing differential gene expression from RNA sequencing data, commonly used statistical tests tend to have greater power to detect differential expression of genes encoding longer transcripts. This phenomenon, called "length bias", will influence subsequent analyses such as Gene Ontology enrichment analysis. In the presence of length bias, Gene Ontology categories that include longer genes are more likely to be identified as enriched. These categories, however, are not necessarily biologically more relevant. We show that one can effectively adjust for length bias in Gene Ontology analysis by including transcript length as a covariate in a logistic regression model. The logistic regression model makes the statistical issue underlying length bias more transparent: transcript length becomes a confounding factor when it correlates with both the Gene Ontology membership and the significance of the differential expression test. The inclusion of the transcript length as a covariate allows one to investigate the direct correlation between the Gene Ontology membership and the significance of testing differential expression, conditional on the transcript length. We present both real and simulated data examples to show that the logistic regression approach is simple, effective, and flexible.

  17. Topological analysis of polymeric melts: chain-length effects and fast-converging estimators for entanglement length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Robert S; Foteinopoulou, Katerina; Kröger, Martin

    2009-09-01

    Primitive path analyses of entanglements are performed over a wide range of chain lengths for both bead spring and atomistic polyethylene polymer melts. Estimators for the entanglement length N_{e} which operate on results for a single chain length N are shown to produce systematic O(1/N) errors. The mathematical roots of these errors are identified as (a) treating chain ends as entanglements and (b) neglecting non-Gaussian corrections to chain and primitive path dimensions. The prefactors for the O(1/N) errors may be large; in general their magnitude depends both on the polymer model and the method used to obtain primitive paths. We propose, derive, and test new estimators which eliminate these systematic errors using information obtainable from the variation in entanglement characteristics with chain length. The new estimators produce accurate results for N_{e} from marginally entangled systems. Formulas based on direct enumeration of entanglements appear to converge faster and are simpler to apply.

  18. Finger Length Ratio (2D:4D) in Central India and an Attempt to Verify Fraternal Birth Order Effect: A Population Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, Arjun; Maitra, Chaitali; Jha, Dilip Kumar; Biswas, Rakesh

    2016-12-01

    A normal physiology of a human being is not mere a series of functions occurring with specific intensities and timing. There are lot of factors that may change the normal physiological activity within normal limits. Finger length ratio is one of the markers of intrauterine androgen exposure and it is debated and contradicted by many authors. Digit ratio varies among the ethnicities. Many Indian studies show that there is considerable difference in finger length ratio in different population. Data regarding Central India was not found on extensive search. To find out the finger length ratio and explore the birth order effect on finger length ratio among the first two successive born in the said population. We conducted a survey on 1500 volunteer persons (800 male and 700 female) over two years of time. We measured the length of the index finger (2D) and ring finger (4D) of both the hands and asked about their birth order history to find out the digit ratio for Central India population and any existing correlation of the same with birth order. T Test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used for the measure of significance and difference among the groups. The peffect among the eldest, second born with elder brother and second born with elder sister groups, no significant (p>0.05) variation for finger length ratio of right and left hands observed in both male and female population. Our study reports that the finger length ratio (2D:4D) for Central India population did not show significant association between finger length ratio and fraternal birth order among the first two successive born.

  19. Heavy Section Steel Technology Program. Part II. Intermediate vessel testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, G.D.

    1975-01-01

    The testing of the intermediate pressure vessels is a major activity under the Heavy Section Steel Technology Program. A primary objective of these tests is to develop or verify methods of fracture prediction, through the testing of selected structures and materials, in order that a valid basis can be established for evaluating the serviceability and safety of light-water reactor pressure vessels. These vessel tests were planned with sufficiently specific objectives that substantial quantitative weight could be given to the results. Each set of testing conditions was chosen so as to provide specific data by which analytical methods of predicting flaw growth, and in some cases crack arrest, could be evaluated. Every practical effort was made to assure that results would be relevant to some aspect of real reactor pressure vessel performance through careful control of material properties, selection of test temperatures, and design of prepared flaws. 5 references

  20. Design of in-pile section monitoring system in fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, B. S.; Park, K. N.; Park, S. K.; Chi, D. Y.; Lee, J. M.; Ahn, S. H.; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, Y. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    In this paper a brief summary of the monitoring system of In-Pile Section(IPS) is described. To meet the user requirements on the test fuel and irradiation conditions, various instruments are installed on the test fuel pin itself and the appropriate locations in IPS. The requirements and descriptions for instruments, gas supply system, and the data acquisition system to sample and record parameters are described.

  1. Design Improvement of Double Pressure Vessel in the In-pile Test Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jintae; Heo, Sung-Ho; Joung, Chang-Young; Kim, Ka-Hye [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    To carry out an irradiation test of nuclear fuels, a nuclear fuel test rig should be fabricated and installed in the in-pile test section (IPS), which is installed in the reactor hall. While carrying out an irradiation test, sealing out coolant which passes through the test rig is one of the most important issues. In particular, although the double pressure vessel is assembled with the IPS head by two o-rings and six bolts, 15.5 MPa of highly pressurized coolant leaks through the gap between the vessel and IPS head. Because the temperature of the coolant in the test loop is 300 .deg. C , and the pool of HANARO is 40 .deg. C, the double pressure vessel is necessary to insulate them. Therefore, a new design to prevent the leakage of coolant needs to be developed. In this study, EB welding technique is considered to assemble the double pressure vessel and the IPS head, and their mechanical design is modified to enable the welding process. In this study, an improved design for sealing out the coolant at the pressure boundary between the double pressure vessel and the IPS head has been developed. An EB weld is applied to seal out the pressure boundary, and its sealing performance is verified by NDE, a cross section test, and a hydraulic pressure test. From the verification test results, the improved design can be used in fabricating the IPS for a nuclear fuel irradiation test.

  2. Simulation of Model Force-Loading with Changing Its Position in the Wind Tunnel Test Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Bui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available When planning and implementing an aerodynamic experiment, model sizes and its position in the test section of the wind tunnel (WT play very important role. The paper focuses on the value variations of the aerodynamic characteristics of a model through changing its position in the WT test section and on the attenuation of the velocity field disturbance in front of the model. Flow around aerodynamic model profile in the open test section of the low-speed WT T-500 is simulated at BMSTU Department SM3. The problem is solved in a two-dimensional case using the ANSYS Fluent package. The mathematical model of flow is based on the Reynolds equations closed by the SST turbulence model. The paper also presents the results of the experiment. Experiments conducted in WT T-500 well correlate with the calculated data and show the optimal position in the middle of the test section when conducting the weighing and drainage experiments. Disturbance of tunnel dynamic pressure (velocity head and flow upwash around the model profile and circular cylinder in the WT test section is analyzed. It was found that flow upstream from the front stagnation point on the body weakly depends on the Reynolds number and obtained results can be used to assess the level of disturbances in the flow around a model by incompressible airflow.

  3. Open test assembly (OTA) shear demonstration testing work/test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiller, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the development testing phase associated with the OTA Shear activity and defines the controls to be in place throughout the testing. The purpose of the OTA Shear Program was to provide equipment that is needed for the processing of 40 foot long, sodium wetted, irradiated core components previously used in the FFTF reactor to monitor fuel and materials tests. There are currently 15 of these OTA test stalks located in the Test Assembly Conditioning Station (TACS) inerted vault. These need to be dispositioned for a shutdown mission to eliminate this highly activated, high dose inventory prior to turnover to the ERC since they must be handled by remote operations. These would also need to be dispositioned for a restart mission to free up the vault they currently reside in. The waste handling and cleaning equipment in the J33M Cell was designed and built for the handling of reactor components up to the standard 12 foot length. This program will provide the equipment to the IEM Cell to remotely section the OTAS into pieces less than 12 feet in length to allow for the necessary handling and cleaning operations required for proper disposition. Due to the complexity of all operations associated with remote handling, the availability of the IEM Cell training facility, and the major difficulty with reworking contaminated equipment, it was determined that preliminary testing of the equipment was desirable, This testing activity would provide the added assurance that the equipment will operate as designed prior to performance of the formal Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) at the IEM Cell, This testing activity will also allow for some operator familiarity and procedure checkout prior to actual installation into the IEM Cell. This development testing will therefore be performed at the conclusion of equipment fabrication and prior to transfer of the equipment to the 400 Area

  4. New Tools to Prepare ACE Cross-section Files for MCNP Analytic Test Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Forrest B.

    2016-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations using one-group cross sections, multigroup cross sections, or simple continuous energy cross sections are often used to: (1) verify production codes against known analytical solutions, (2) verify new methods and algorithms that do not involve detailed collision physics, (3) compare Monte Carlo calculation methods with deterministic methods, and (4) teach fundamentals to students. In this work we describe 2 new tools for preparing the ACE cross-section files to be used by MCNP ® for these analytic test problems, simple a ce.pl and simple a ce m g.pl.

  5. Integral test on activation cross section of tag gas nuclides using fast neutron spectrum fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoyama, Takafumi; Suzuki, Soju [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-03-01

    Activation cross sections of tag gas nuclides, which will be used for the failed fuel detection and location in FBR plants, were evaluated by the irradiation tests in the fast neutron spectrum fields in JOYO and YAYOI. The comparison of their measured radioactivities and the calculated values using the JENDL-3.2 cross section set showed that the C/E values ranged from 0.8 to 2.8 for the calibration tests in YAYOI and that the present accuracies of these cross sections were confirmed. (author)

  6. Test of a q-fractional V{sup (N-q)} Hartree-Fock potential for the calculation of double photoionization cross sections of neon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilin, V.A. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lazarev, D.V.; Lazarev, Dm.A.; Zelichenko, V.M. [Tomsk Pedagogic University, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Amusia, M. Ya. [A.F. Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Schartner, K.-H. [I Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Giessen (Germany); Ehresmann, A.; Schmoranzer, H. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2001-10-28

    The approach of a parametric V{sup (N-q)} Hartree-Fock potential with fractional q is developed and applied for the first time for the calculation of the double photoionization cross sections of Ne. A minimum of the squared difference between the length-form and velocity-form cross sections is used as a criterion for calculating the values of q. It is found that the minimization procedure leads to a practically exact equality of the length-form and velocity-form cross sections for the Ne III 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}[{sup 3}P,{sup 1}D,{sup 1}S], 2s{sup 1}2p{sup 5}[{sup 3}P,{sup 1}P] and 2s{sup 0}2p{sup 6}[{sup 1}S] states in the exciting-photon energy region from the double-ionization threshold up to 325 eV, if q is considered as a function of the exciting-photon energy. The calculated V{sup (N-q)} cross sections are in better agreement with the experimental data than those for the V{sup (N-1)} and V{sup (N-2)} potentials. (author)

  7. Full-length fuel rod behavior under severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, N.J.; Lanning, D.D.; Panisko, F.E.

    1992-12-01

    This document presents an assessment of the severe accident phenomena observed from four Full-Length High-Temperature (FLHT) tests that were performed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River, Ontario, Canada. These tests were conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as part of the Severe Accident Research Program. The objectives of the test were to simulate conditions and provide information on the behavior of full-length fuel rods during hypothetical, small-break, loss-of-coolant severe accidents, in commercial light water reactors

  8. Equilibrium quality and mass flux distributions in an adiabatic three-subchannel test section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, G.; Maganas, A.

    1993-01-01

    An experiment was designed to measure the fully-developed quality and mass flux distributions in an adiabatic three-subchannel test section. The three subchannels had the geometrical characteristics of the corner, side, and interior subchannels of a BWR-5 rod bundle. Data collected with Refrigerant-144 at pressures ranging from 7 to 14 bar, simulating operation with water in the range 55 to 103 bar are reported. The average mass flux and quality in the test section were in the ranges 1300 to 1750 kg/m s and -0.03 to 0.25, respectively. The data are analyzed and presented in various forms

  9. Emotions and family interactions in childhood: Associations with leukocyte telomere length emotions, family interactions, and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Theodore F; Carroll, Judith E; Bai, Sunhye; Reynolds, Bridget M; Esquivel, Stephanie; Repetti, Rena L

    2016-01-01

    Conceptualizations of links between stress and cellular aging in childhood suggest that accumulating stress predicts shorter leukocyte telomere length (LTL). At the same time, several models suggest that emotional reactivity to stressors may play a key role in predicting cellular aging. Using intensive repeated measures, we tested whether exposure or emotional "reactivity" to conflict and warmth in the family were related to LTL. Children (N=39; 30 target children and 9 siblings) between 8 and 13 years of age completed daily diary questionnaires for 56 consecutive days assessing daily warmth and conflict in the marital and the parent-child dyad, and daily positive and negative mood. To assess exposure to conflict and warmth, diary scale scores were averaged over the 56 days. Mood "reactivity" was operationalized by using multilevel modeling to generate estimates of the slope of warmth or conflict scores (marital and parent-child, separately) predicting same-day mood for each individual child. After diary collection, a blood sample was collected to determine LTL. Among children aged 8-13 years, a stronger association between negative mood and marital conflict, suggesting greater negative mood reactivity to marital conflict, was related to shorter LTL (B=-1.51, pfamily and marital conflict and warmth, and positive and negative mood over a two-month period. To our knowledge, these findings, although cross-sectional, represent the first evidence showing that link between children's affective responses and daily family interactions may have implications for telomere length. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The cryogenic pumping section of KATRIN and the test experiment TRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Eichelhardt, F

    2011-01-01

    The Karlsruhe Tritium Neutrino experiment (KATRIN) employs a Cryogenic Pumping Section (CPS) at ~ 4.5 K to suppress the tritium penetration into the spectrometers. A test experiment (TRAP - Tritium Argon frost Pump) has been set up to investigate the tritium pumping performance of the CPS.

  11. A time and imaging cost analysis of low-risk ED observation patients: a conservative 64-section computed tomography coronary angiography "triple rule-out" compared to nuclear stress test strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakuwa, Kevin M; Halpern, Ethan J; Shofer, Frances S

    2011-02-01

    The study aimed to examine time and imaging costs of 2 different imaging strategies for low-risk emergency department (ED) observation patients with acute chest pain or symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndrome. We compared a "triple rule-out" (TRO) 64-section multidetector computed tomography protocol with nuclear stress testing. This was a prospective observational cohort study of consecutive ED patients who were enrolled in our chest pain observation protocol during a 16-month period. Our standard observation protocol included a minimum of 2 sets of cardiac enzymes at least 6 hours apart followed by a nuclear stress test. Once a week, observation patients were offered a TRO (to evaluate for coronary artery disease, thoracic dissection, and pulmonary embolus) multidetector computed tomography with the option of further stress testing for those patients found to have evidence of coronary artery disease. We analyzed 832 consecutive observation patients including 214 patients who underwent the TRO protocol. Mean total length of stay was 16.1 hours for TRO patients, 16.3 hours for TRO plus other imaging test, 22.6 hours for nuclear stress testing, 23.3 hours for nuclear stress testing plus other imaging tests, and 23.7 hours for nuclear stress testing plus TRO (P < .0001 for TRO and TRO + other test compared to stress test ± other test). Mean imaging times were 3.6, 4.4, 5.9, 7.5, and 6.6 hours, respectively (P < .05 for TRO and TRO + other test compared to stress test ± other test). Mean imaging costs were $1307 for TRO patients vs $945 for nuclear stress testing. Triple rule-out reduced total length of stay and imaging time but incurred higher imaging costs. A per-hospital analysis would be needed to determine if patient time savings justify the higher imaging costs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Contrasting the roles of section length and instream habitat enhancement for river restoration success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hering, Daniel; Aroviita, Jukka; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Brabec, Karel; Buijse, Tom; Ecke, Frauke; Friberg, Nikolai; Gielczewski, Marek; Januschke, Kathrin; Köhler, Jan; Kupilas, Benjamin; Lorenz, Armin W.; Muhar, Susanne; Paillex, Amael; Poppe, Michaela; Schmidt, Torsten; Schmutz, Stefan; Vermaat, Jan; Verdonschot, Piet F.M.; Verdonschot, Ralf C.M.; Wolter, Christian; Kail, Jochem

    2015-01-01

    Restoration of river hydromorphology often has limited detected effects on river biota. One frequently discussed reason is that the restored river length is insufficient to allow populations to develop and give the room for geomorphological processes to occur. We investigated ten pairs of

  13. Aminophylline increases seizure length during electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, L; Dannon, P N; Hirschmann, S; Schriber, S; Amytal, D; Dolberg, O T; Grunhaus, L

    1999-12-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is considered to be one of the most effective treatments for patients with major depression and persistent psychosis. Seizure characteristics probably determine the therapeutic effect of ECT; as a consequence, short seizures are accepted as one of the factors of poor outcome. During most ECT courses seizure threshold increases and seizure duration decreases. Methylxanthine preparations, caffeine, and theophylline have been used to prolong seizure duration. The use of aminophylline, more readily available than caffeine, has not been well documented. The objective of this study was to test the effects of aminophylline on seizure length. Fourteen drug-free patients with diagnoses of affective disorder or psychotic episode receiving ECT participated in this study. Seizure length was assessed clinically and per EEG. Statistical comparisons were done using paired t tests. A significant increase (p < 0.04) in seizure length was achieved and maintained on three subsequent treatments with aminophylline. No adverse events were noted from the addition of aminophylline.

  14. Seedling length test in the evaluation of the physiological quality of Erythrina velutina Willd seeds / Teste de comprimento de plântula na avaliação da qualidade fisiológica de sementes de Erythrina velutina Willd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmo Rufino de Lima

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the vigor tests, the test of length of seedlings has potential to give complementary informations to the germination test and makes possible to estimate the potential of emergence of seedlings in the field. The aim of this research work was to inquire the possibility of use of the length of seedlings test as a method of vigor to classify lots of seeds of Erythrina velutina. The physiological quality of five lots of E. velutina was evaluated by tests of viability and vigor, developed in laboratory and field. The length of the root of seedlings of E. velutina was more sensible to differentiate lots than the traditional methods. The length of seedlins, or its parts, distinguished the five lots from seeds only when its average results were divided by the number of seeds in test, showing to be the most efficient form to classify lots of high quality and with subtle differences of vigor.Dentre os testes de vigor, o teste de comprimento de plântulas tem potencial para fornecer informações complementares às obtidas no teste de germinação e que possibilitem estimar o potencial de emergência de plântulas em campo. Deste modo, objetivou-se averiguar a possibilidade de utilização do teste de comprimento de plântulas como um método de vigor para classificar lotes de sementes de Erythrina velutina. A qualidade fisiológica de cinco lotes de E. velutina foi avaliada por testes de viabilidade e vigor, desenvolvidos em laboratório e campo. O comprimento da raiz das plântulas de E. velutina foi mais sensível para diferenciar lotes do que os métodos tradicionais. O comprimento de plântulas, ou de suas partes, distinguiu os cinco lotes de sementes somente quando seus resultados médios foram divididos pelo número de sementes em teste, mostrando ser a forma mais eficaz para classificar lotes de alta qualidade e com diferenças sutis de vigor.

  15. Sectional pipeline bundles. Design, fabrication and testing of a subsea pipeline connection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-01

    The tests of the prototype system indicated that the system is applicable for connecting pipeline bundle sections. The overall performance of the system is therefore concluded to be satisfactory. Some modifications are required though, for improving the reliability of the system to the level required for offshore North Sea application. The tests showed that connection of the pipeline bundle sections can be performed for alignment tolerances larger than those expected during a typical subsea installation. Pull-in of bundle end sections can be performed with pull-in wires deployed from surface. The offshore tests showed that handling of wires must be done with great care to avoid possibility for wire entanglement, especially if a fully diverless system is to be used. The flowline connection tool was found to be suitable for final alignment of the individual spool ends. It was demonstrated that face to face contact between the hub faces in the connector was obtained after tie-in. Pressure tests showed that the connector could be sealed by the tie-in force applied by the connection tool tie-in system. However, the standard connector clamp which was used, was found to be insuficient for maintaining the connector effectively sealed after removal of the pull-in force applied by the connection tool. Based on the results proposals for improvements of the system are included. Improvements are applicable to the current system for connection of bundle sections or for tie-in operations, relating to conventional pipelines. The improvements also includes a strong connection clamp suitable for subsea use. The connection clamp will replace the standard clamp devise used in this project. (au) EFP-96. 41 refs.

  16. Equilibrium quality and mass flux distributions in an adiabatic three-subchannel test section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, G.; Maganas, A.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment was designed to measure the fully developed quality and mass flux distributions in an adiabatic three-subchannel test section. The three subchannels had the geometrical characteristics of the corner, side, and interior subchannels of a boiling water reactor (BWR-5) rod bundle. Data collected with Refrigerant-114 at pressures ranging from 7 to 14 bars, simulating operation with water in the range 55 to 103 bars are reported. The average mass flux and quality in the test section were in the ranges 1,300 to 1,750 kg/m 2 · s and -0.03 to 0.25, respectively. The data are analyzed and presented in various forms

  17. Augmented cross-sectional studies with abbreviated follow-up for estimating HIV incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claggett, B; Lagakos, S W; Wang, R

    2012-03-01

    Cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation based on a sensitive and less-sensitive test offers great advantages over the traditional cohort study. However, its use has been limited due to concerns about the false negative rate of the less-sensitive test, reflecting the phenomenon that some subjects may remain negative permanently on the less-sensitive test. Wang and Lagakos (2010, Biometrics 66, 864-874) propose an augmented cross-sectional design that provides one way to estimate the size of the infected population who remain negative permanently and subsequently incorporate this information in the cross-sectional incidence estimator. In an augmented cross-sectional study, subjects who test negative on the less-sensitive test in the cross-sectional survey are followed forward for transition into the nonrecent state, at which time they would test positive on the less-sensitive test. However, considerable uncertainty exists regarding the appropriate length of follow-up and the size of the infected population who remain nonreactive permanently to the less-sensitive test. In this article, we assess the impact of varying follow-up time on the resulting incidence estimators from an augmented cross-sectional study, evaluate the robustness of cross-sectional estimators to assumptions about the existence and the size of the subpopulation who will remain negative permanently, and propose a new estimator based on abbreviated follow-up time (AF). Compared to the original estimator from an augmented cross-sectional study, the AF estimator allows shorter follow-up time and does not require estimation of the mean window period, defined as the average time between detectability of HIV infection with the sensitive and less-sensitive tests. It is shown to perform well in a wide range of settings. We discuss when the AF estimator would be expected to perform well and offer design considerations for an augmented cross-sectional study with abbreviated follow-up. © 2011, The

  18. A comparison between burn-out data for 19-rod cluster test-sections cooled by Freon-12 at 155 lb/in2 (abs), and by water at 1000 lb/in2 in vertical upflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.F.; Wood, R.W.

    1966-01-01

    Previous experiments on the Winfrith Freon Rig have produced scaling factors which relate these Freon experiments to the corresponding experiments in water with an accuracy of about 10%. It has also been found that the Freon rig is accurate, economical and easy to use. The scaling factors so obtained have now been tested against data for 19-rod clusters which had previously been tested at Columbia University. This report presents the results of the rod cluster tests in which comparison is made between Freon-12 and water for three test-sections which differ in the means of spacing the individual rods. All the test-sections were heated uniformly with respect to length, but had a radial flux depression of nominally 0.70/1.0. The results provide strong evidence that the scaling factor method using Freon-12 at 155 lb/in 2 (abs) is a useful technique for predicting the behaviour at burn-out of complicated test-sections cooled by boiling water at 1000 lb/in 2 with only one-eighteenth of the power required for the water experiment. In particular, the Freon tests reproduce closely the relative burn-out powers previously measured in water. It has also been found that repeated rebuilding of a nominally unchanged cluster from the same components can produce burn-out powers differing by ± 6%. This new result illustrates the power and value of the Freon technique. (author)

  19. Investigation of the required length for fully developed pipe flow with drag-reducing polymer solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsiani, Yasaman; Elbing, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Adding trace amounts of long chain polymers into a liquid flow is known to reduce skin friction drag by up to 80%. While polymer drag reduction (PDR) has been successfully implemented in internal flows, diffusion and degradation have limited its external flow applications. A weakness in many previous PDR studies is that there was no characterization of the polymer being injected into the turbulent boundary layer, which can be accomplished by testing a sample in a pressure-drop tube. An implicit assumption in polymer characterization is that the flow is fully developed at the differential pressure measurement. While available data in the literature shows that the entry length to achieve fully developed flow increases with polymeric solutions, it is unclear how long is required to achieve fully developed flow for non-Newtonian turbulent flows. In the present study, the pressure-drop is measured across a 1.05 meter length section of a 1.04 cm inner diameter pipe. Differential pressure is measured with a pressure transducer for different entry lengths, flow and polymer solution properties. This presentation will present preliminary data on the required entrance length as well as characterization of polymer solution an estimate of the mean molecular weight.

  20. Effect of practice and span length on the dual-task coordination executive test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwan R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The measure "mu", proposed as an index of the ability to coordinate concurrent box-crossing (BC and digit-span (DS tasks in the dual task (DT, should reflect the capacity of the executive component of the working memory system. We investigated the effect of practice in BC and of a change in the digit span on mu by adding previous practice trials in BC and diminishing, maintaining or increasing the digit sequence length. The mu behavior was evaluated throughout three trials of the test. Reported strategies in digit tasks were also analyzed. Subjects with diminished span showed the best performance in DT due to a stable performance in DS and BC in the single- and dual-task conditions. These subjects also showed a more stable performance throughout trials. Subjects with diminished span tended to employ effortless strategies, whereas subjects with increased span employed effort-requiring strategies and showed the lowest means of mu. Subjects with initial practice trials showed the best performance in BC and the most differentiated performance between the single- and dual-task conditions in BC. The correlation coefficient between the mu values obtained in the first and second trials was 0.814 for subjects with diminished span and practice trials in BC. It seems that the within-session practice in BC and the performance variability in DS affect the reliability of the index mu. To control these factors we propose the introduction of previous practice trials in BC and a modification of the current method to determine the digit sequence length. This proposal should contribute to the development of a more reliable method to evaluate the executive capacity of coordination in the dual-task paradigm.

  1. The influence of presentation method on auditory length perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length...

  2. Spatial correlation length of normalized cone data in sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Firouzianbandpey, Sarah; Griffiths, D. V.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2014-01-01

    The main topic of this study is to assess the anisotropic spatial correlation lengths of a sand layer deposit based on cone penetration testing with pore pressure measurement (CPTu) data. Spatial correlation length can be an important factor in reliability analysis of geotechnical systems, yet it...

  3. The Influence of Presentation Method on Auditory Length Perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkwood, Brent Christopher

    Humans are capable of hearing the lengths of wooden rods dropped onto hard floors. In an attempt to understand the influence of the stimulus presentation method for testing this kind of everyday listening task, listener performance was compared for three presentation methods in an auditory length...

  4. A Small Crack Length Evaluation Technique by Electronic Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Sang; Kim, Jae Hoon

    2009-01-01

    The results of crack evaluation by conventional UT(Ultrasonic Test)is highly depend on the inspector's experience or knowledge of ultrasound. Phased array UT system and its application methods for small crack length evaluation will be a good alternative method which overcome present UT weakness. This study was aimed at checking the accuracy of crack length evaluation method by electronic scanning and discuss about characteristics of electronic scanning for crack length evaluation. Especially ultrasonic phased array with electronic scan technique was used in carrying out both sizing and detect ability of crack as its length changes. The response of ultrasonic phased array was analyzed to obtain the special method of determining crack length without moving the transducer and detectability of crack minimal length and depth from the material. A method of crack length determining by electronic scanning for the small crack is very real method which has it's accuracy and verify the effectiveness of method compared to a conventional crack length determination

  5. From Concrete to Abstract in the Measurement of Length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephanou, Andreas; Fisher, William P Jr

    2013-01-01

    The concatenation of units of length is widely viewed as the paradigmatic expression of fundamental measurement. Survey, assessment, and test scores in educational and psychological measurement are often interpreted in ways that assume a concatenation of units to have been established, even though these assumptions are rarely stated or tested. A concatenation model for measurement is shown to be equivalent to a Rasch model: any two units of measurement placed end to end must together be of the same length as either one of them added to itself. This additive principle and a concatenation model of measurement together serve as a heuristic guide for organizing two experimental approaches to calibrating instruments for measuring length. The capacity to reproduce the unit of measurement from theory with no need for repeated empirical calibration experiments, as in the geometrical bisection of the line and the resultant halving of the length measure, is highlighted as essential to demonstrating a thorough understanding of the construct

  6. Alternatives Generation Analysis Long Length Contaminated Equipment Removal System Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Major pieces of Characterization sampling equipment are currently stored outdoors. This includes the Long Length Contaminated Equipment receiver trailer and transportation trailer. A decision is required to determine the preferred alternative for facilities to store and maintain this equipment. The Long Length Contaminated Equipment Removal System (LLCERS) consists of many tools, mechanisms, and controllers currently stored in various locations. Much of this equipment should be protected from the elements while being stored. Some of the LLCERS equipment should be protected with some kind of roof cover. This decision analysis is to determine the best alternative for weather protection for the large equipment requiring a cover. Additional details are included in Sections 2.0 and 5.0. Key assumptions used in this analysis are detailed in Section 3.2

  7. Optimised design and thermal-hydraulic analysis of the IFMIF/HFTM test section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordeev, S.; Heinzel, V.; Lang, K.H.; Moeslang, A.; Schleisiek, K.; Slobodtchouk, V.; Stratmanns, E.

    2003-10-01

    On the basis of previous concepts, analyses and experiments, the high flux test module (HFTM) for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) was further optimised. The work focused on the design and the thermal hydraulic analysis of the HFTM section containing the material specimens to be irradiated, the ''test section'', with the main objective to improve the concept with respect to the optimum use of the available irradiation volume and to the temperature of the specimens. Particular emphasis was laid on the application of design principles which assure stable and reproducible thermal conditions. The present work has confirmed the feasibility and suitability of the optimised design of the HFTM test section with chocolate plate like shaped rigs. In particular it has been shown that the envisaged irradiation temperatures can be reached with acceptable temperature differences inside the specimen stack. The latter can be achieved only by additional electrical heating of the axial ends of the capsules. Division of the heater in three sections with separate power supply and control units is necessary. Maintaining of the temperatures during beam-off periods likewise requires electrical heating. The required electrical heaters - mineral isolated wires - are commercially available. The potential of the CFD code STAR-CD for the thermal hydraulic analysis of complex systems like the HFTM was confirmed. Nevertheless, experimental confirmation is desirable. Suitable experiments are under preparation. To verify the assumptions made on the thermal conductivity of the contact faces and layers between the two shells of the rig, dedicated experiments are suggested. The present work must be complemented by a thermal mechanical analysis of the module. Most critical component in this respect seems to be the rig wall. Furthermore, it will be necessary to investigate the response of the HFTM to power transients, and to determine the requirements

  8. Optimised design and thermal-hydraulic analysis of the IFMIF/HFTM test section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordeev, S.; Heinzel, V.; Lang, K.H.; Moeslang, A.; Schleisiek, K.; Slobodtchouk, V.; Stratmanns, E.

    2003-10-01

    On the basis of previous concepts, analyses and experiments, the high flux test module (HFTM) for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) was further optimised. The work focused on the design and the thermal hydraulic analysis of the HFTM section containing the material specimens to be irradiated, the ''test section'', with the main objective to improve the concept with respect to the optimum use of the available irradiation volume and to the temperature of the specimens. Particular emphasis was laid on the application of design principles which assure stable and reproducible thermal conditions. The present work has confirmed the feasibility and suitability of the optimised design of the HFTM test section with chocolate plate like shaped rigs. In particular it has been shown that the envisaged irradiation temperatures can be reached with acceptable temperature differences inside the specimen stack. The latter can be achieved only by additional electrical heating of the axial ends of the capsules. Division of the heater in three sections with separate power supply and control units is necessary. Maintaining of the temperatures during beam-off periods likewise requires electrical heating. The required electrical heaters - mineral isolated wires - are commercially available. The potential of the CFD code STAR-CD for the thermal hydraulic analysis of complex systems like the HFTM was confirmed. Nevertheless, experimental confirmation is desirable. Suitable experiments are under preparation. To verify the assumptions made on the thermal conductivity of the contact faces and layers between the two shells of the rig, dedicated experiments are suggested. The present work must be complemented by a thermal mechanical analysis of the module. Most critical component in this respect seems to be the rig wall. Furthermore, it will be necessary to investigate the response of the HFTM to power transients, and to determine the requirements on the electrical

  9. Analysis of a Hybrid Wing Body Center Section Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsi-Yung T.; Shaw, Peter; Przekop, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The hybrid wing body center section test article is an all-composite structure made of crown, floor, keel, bulkhead, and rib panels utilizing the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure (PRSEUS) design concept. The primary goal of this test article is to prove that PRSEUS components are capable of carrying combined loads that are representative of a hybrid wing body pressure cabin design regime. This paper summarizes the analytical approach, analysis results, and failure predictions of the test article. A global finite element model of composite panels, metallic fittings, mechanical fasteners, and the Combined Loads Test System (COLTS) test fixture was used to conduct linear structural strength and stability analyses to validate the specimen under the most critical combination of bending and pressure loading conditions found in the hybrid wing body pressure cabin. Local detail analyses were also performed at locations with high stress concentrations, at Tee-cap noodle interfaces with surrounding laminates, and at fastener locations with high bearing/bypass loads. Failure predictions for different composite and metallic failure modes were made, and nonlinear analyses were also performed to study the structural response of the test article under combined bending and pressure loading. This large-scale specimen test will be conducted at the COLTS facility at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  10. Monte Carlo Simulations Comparing Fisher Exact Test and Unequal Variances t Test for Analysis of Differences Between Groups in Brief Hospital Lengths of Stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Bayman, Emine O; Dexter, Elisabeth U

    2017-12-01

    We examined type I and II error rates for analysis of (1) mean hospital length of stay (LOS) versus (2) percentage of hospital LOS that are overnight. These 2 end points are suitable for when LOS is treated as a secondary economic end point. We repeatedly resampled LOS for 5052 discharges of thoracoscopic wedge resections and lung lobectomy at 26 hospitals. Unequal variances t test (Welch method) and Fisher exact test both were conservative (ie, type I error rate less than nominal level). The Wilcoxon rank sum test was included as a comparator; the type I error rates did not differ from the nominal level of 0.05 or 0.01. Fisher exact test was more powerful than the unequal variances t test at detecting differences among hospitals; estimated odds ratio for obtaining P < .05 with Fisher exact test versus unequal variances t test = 1.94, with 95% confidence interval, 1.31-3.01. Fisher exact test and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney had comparable statistical power in terms of differentiating LOS between hospitals. For studies with LOS to be used as a secondary end point of economic interest, there is currently considerable interest in the planned analysis being for the percentage of patients suitable for ambulatory surgery (ie, hospital LOS equals 0 or 1 midnight). Our results show that there need not be a loss of statistical power when groups are compared using this binary end point, as compared with either Welch method or Wilcoxon rank sum test.

  11. Full-length U-xPu-10Zr (x = 0, 8, 19 wt.%) fast reactor fuel test in FFTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, D.L., E-mail: Douglas.Porter@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-6188 (United States); Tsai Hanchung [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4803 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    The Integral Fast Reactor-1 (IFR-1) experiment performed in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was the only U-Pu-10Zr (Pu-0, 8 and 19 wt.%) metallic fast reactor test with commercial-length (91.4-cm active fuel-column length) conducted to date. With few remaining test reactors, there is little opportunity for performing another test with a long active fuel column. The assembly was irradiated to the goal burnup of 10 at.%. The beginning-of-life (BOL) peak cladding temperature of the hottest pin was 608 Degree-Sign C, cooling to 522 Degree-Sign C at end-of-life (EOL). Selected fuel pins were examined non-destructively using neutron radiography, precision axial gamma scanning, and both laser and spiral contact cladding profilometry. Destructive exams included plenum gas pressure, volume, and gas composition determinations on a number of pins followed by optical metallography, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and alpha and beta-gamma autoradiography on a single U-19Pu-10Zr pin. The post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) showed very few differences compared to the short-pin (34.3-cm fuel column) testing performed on fuels of similar composition in Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). The fuel column grew axially slightly less than observed in the short pins, but with the same pattern of decreasing growth with increasing Pu content. There was a difference in the fuel-cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) in that the maximum cladding penetration by interdiffusion with fuel/fission products did not occur at the top of the fuel column where the cladding temperature is highest, as observed in EBR-II tests. Instead, the more exaggerated fission-rate profile of the FFTF pins resulted in a peak FCCI at {approx}0.7 X/L axial location along the fuel column. This resulted from a higher production of rare-earth fission products at this location and a higher {Delta}T between fuel center and cladding than at core center, together providing more rare earths at the cladding and

  12. Three decades of development and achievements: the heavy vehicle simulator in accelerated pavement testing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available , 1975, 10; Paterson, 1977, 11). The test section length remained at approx. 6m and loads of up to 200 kN were possible. Test wheel speed was about 8 kph, allowing approx. 18000 bi-directional wheel load repetitions per day. At a test wheel load of 40... tanks placed above the aircraft wheel supported by the Bailey Bridge structure. The facility produced useful results but was not mobile. As a result, Van Vuuren in 1972 (6) recommended that, due to atypical construction of test sections...

  13. Lexical patterns in the reading comprehension section of the toefl test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Macmillan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The TOEFL (Test of English as a Foreign Language is currently one of the most widely accepted English language proficiency tests. Designed by the ETS (Educational Testing Service, the main purpose of the TOEFL is to determine whether the English language skills of a student applying to a North American college or university are adequate for enrollment into the selected program of study. This study will focus upon the third section of the TOEFL, Reading Comprehension, which consists of several passages followed by questions with different testing purposes. An adaptation of Hoey's (1991 analytical system for the analysis of lexical cohesion in authentic texts will be used to identify bonds connecting reading comprehension questions on the test to key excerpts in the passages they are related to. A number of sample reading comprehension questions taken from practice tests produced by the ETS will be analyzed. The analysis will focus on the relationship between the testing purpose of each question and the type(s of lexical link involved in the identification of the correct answer.

  14. Sonographic Evaluation of the Splenic Length in Normal Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A prospective descriptive cross sectional study of the sonographic measurements of the splenic length was performed on 150 healthy normal pregnant women correlating this with the body mass index, gestational age and parity. Data were analyzed using software SPSS version 15 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).

  15. Appointment length, psychiatrists' communication behaviors, and medication management appointment adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Mario; Roter, Debra L; Cruz, Robyn F; Wieland, Melissa; Larson, Susan; Cooper, Lisa A; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2013-09-01

    The authors explored the relationship between critical elements of medication management appointments (appointment length, patient-centered talk, and positive nonverbal affect among providers) and patient appointment adherence. The authors used an exploratory, cross-sectional design employing quantitative analysis of 83 unique audio recordings of split treatment medication management appointments for 46 African-American and 37 white patients with 24 psychiatrists at four ambulatory mental health clinics. All patients had a diagnosis of depression. Data collected included demographic information; Patient Health Questionnaire-9 scores for depression severity; psychiatrist verbal and nonverbal communication behaviors during medication management appointments, identified by the Roter Interaction Analysis System during analysis of audio recordings; and appointment adherence. Bivariate analyses were employed to identify covariates that might influence appointment adherence. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were employed to assess the relationship between appointment length, psychiatrist patient-centered talk, and positive voice tone ratings and patient appointment adherence, while adjusting for covariates and the clustering of observations within psychiatrists. Wald chi square analyses were used to test whether all or some variables significantly influenced appointment adherence. GEE revealed a significant relationship between positive voice tone ratings and appointment adherence (p=.03). Chi square analyses confirmed the hypothesis of a positive and significant relationship between appointment adherence and positive voice tone ratings (p=.03) but not longer visit length and more patient-centered communication. The nonverbal conveyance of positive affect was associated with greater adherence to medication management appointments by depressed patients. These findings potentially have important implications for communication skills training and adherence research.

  16. Development and testing of a double length pets for the CLIC experimental area

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, L; Gavela, D; Lara, A; Rodríguez, E; Gutiérrez, J L; Calero, J; Toral, F; Samoshkin, A; Gudkov, D; Riddone, G

    2014-01-01

    CLIC (compact linear collider) is a future e þ e collider based on normal-conducting technology, currently under study at CERN. Its design is based on a novel two-beam acceleration scheme. The main beam gets RF power extracted from a drive beam through power extraction and transfer structures (PETS). The technical feasibility of CLIC is currently being proved by its Third Test Facility (CTF3) which includes the CLIC experimental area (CLEX). Two Double Length CLIC PETS will be installed in CLEX to validate their performance with beam. This paper is focused on the engineering design, fabrication and validation of this PETS fi rst prototype. The design consists of eight identical bars, separated by radial slots in which damping material is located to absorb transverse wake fi elds, and two compact couplers placed at both ends of the bars to extract the generated power. The PETS bars are housed inside a vacuum tank designed to make the PETS as compact as possible. Several joint techniques such as vacuum brazing...

  17. Diagnostic value of newborn foot length to predict gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutia Farah Fawziah

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Identification of gestational age, especially within 48 hours of birth, is crucial for newborns, as the earlier preterm status is detected, the earlier the child can receive optimal management. Newborn foot length is an anthropometric measurement which is easy to perform, inexpensive, and potentially efficient for predicting gestational age. Objective  To analyze the diagnostic value of newborn foot length in predicting gestational age. Methods  This diagnostic study was performed between October 2016 and February 2017 in the High Care Unit of Neonates at Dr. Moewardi General Hospital, Surakarta. A total of 152 newborns were consecutively selected and underwent right foot length measurements before 96 hours of age. The correlation between newborn foot length to classify as full term and gestational age was analyzed with Spearman’s correlation test because of non-normal data distribution. The cut-off point of newborn foot length was calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and diagnostic values of newborn foot length were analyzed by 2 x 2 table with SPSS 21.0 software. Results There were no significant differences between male and female newborns in terms of gestational age, birth weight, choronological age, and newborn foot length (P>0.05. Newborn foot length and gestational age had a significant correlation (r=0.53; P=0.000. The optimal cut-off newborn foot length to predict full term status was 7.1 cm. Newborn foot length below 7.1 cm had sensitivity 75%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 94.3%, negative predictive value 90.6%, positive likelihood ratio 40.5, negative likelihood ratio 0.25, and post-test probability 94.29%, to predict preterm status in newborns. Conclusion  Newborn foot length can be used to predict gestational age, especially for the purpose of differentiating between preterm and full term newborns.

  18. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand, posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007. The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  19. Musculoskeletal pain and posture decrease step length in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Regina Rachmawati

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Pain of the musculoskeletal system, especially low back pain, is one of the most frequent problems with a high risk of disability. The aim of this research study was to determine the existence of an association between low back pain on one hand,  posture and step length on the other. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 77 healthy young adult subjects. Step length was measured with the Biodex Gait Trainer 2 (230 VAC. The study results indicate that 62.3% of the young adult subjects had suffered from low back pain. There was no significant association between gender and pain. In male subjects no significant association was found between pain on one hand and mean difference in step length and posture on the other. However, in female subjects with abnormal posture, there was a highly significant difference in left step length between subjects with back pain and those without (p=0.007.  The results of a multiple regression analysis indicate that posture has the greatest influence on left step length (B=4.135; 95% Confidence Interval 0.292-7.977. It is recommended that in the examination of low back pain an assessment be made of posture, step length and difference in step lengths.

  20. Contingent use of fetal fibronectin testing and cervical length measurement in women with preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audibert, François; Fortin, Suzanne; Delvin, Edgard; Djemli, Anissa; Brunet, Suzanne; Dubé, Johanne; Fraser, William D

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the contingent use of fetal fibronectin (fFN) testing and cervical length (CL) measurement to predict preterm delivery, and to validate the use of phosphorylated IGFBP-1 as a predictor of preterm delivery. We recruited 71 women with a clinical diagnosis of preterm labour between 24 and 34 weeks, and tested for the presence of fFN and IGFBP-1 in the cervicovaginal secretions of all women immediately before CL measurement. Among the 66 women with complete outcome, four were excluded from the final analysis as two had assessment for fFN but no CL measurement, and another two had CL measured but no screening for fFN. Among 62 women with complete results, the mean gestational age at recruitment was 29.4 +/- 2.5 weeks. Six women (9.6%) delivered within two weeks of assessment, and 14 (22.5%) delivered before 34 weeks. A positive fFN test resulted in a sensitivity of 83%, a specificity of 84%, a positive predictive value of 36%, and a negative predictive value of 98% for delivery within two weeks; for CL contingent use of fFN (in which the test was assumed to be positive if CL contingent use protocol, only one third of women needed fFN screening after CL measurement. In this study, IGFBP-1 screening did not predict preterm delivery and fFN screening provided the best predictive capacity. A policy of contingent use of testing for fFN after CL measurement, or contingent use of CL measurement after fFN screening (depending on available resources) is a promising approach to limit use of resources.

  1. Maternal telomere length inheritance in the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, S; Rojas, E R; Zahn, S; Robin, J-P; Criscuolo, F; Massemin, S

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are emerging as a biomarker for ageing and survival, and are likely important in shaping life-history trade-offs. In particular, telomere length with which one starts in life has been linked to lifelong survival, suggesting that early telomere dynamics are somehow related to life-history trajectories. This result highlights the importance of determining the extent to which telomere length is inherited, as a crucial factor determining early life telomere length. Given the scarcity of species for which telomere length inheritance has been studied, it is pressing to assess the generality of telomere length inheritance patterns. Further, information on how this pattern changes over the course of growth in individuals living under natural conditions should provide some insight on the extent to which environmental constraints also shape telomere dynamics. To fill this gap partly, we followed telomere inheritance in a population of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). We tested for paternal and maternal influence on chick initial telomere length (10 days old after hatching), and how these relationships changed with chick age (at 70, 200 and 300 days old). Based on a correlative approach, offspring telomere length was positively associated with maternal telomere length early in life (at 10 days old). However, this relationship was not significant at older ages. These data suggest that telomere length in birds is maternally inherited. Nonetheless, the influence of environmental conditions during growth remained an important factor shaping telomere length, as the maternal link disappeared with chicks' age.

  2. Cutting work in thick section cryomicrotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saubermann, A J; Riley, W D; Beeuwkes, R

    1977-09-01

    The forces during cryosectioning were measured using miniature strain gauges attached to a load cell fitted to the drive arm of the Porter-Blum MT-2 cryomicrotome. Work was calculated and the data normalized to a standard (1 mm X 1 mm X 0.5 micrometer) section. Thermal energy generated was also calculated. Five parameters were studied: cutting angle, thickness, temperature, hardness, and block shape. Force patterns could be divided into three major groups thought to represent cutting (Type I), large fracture planes greater than 10 micrometer in length (Type II), and small fracture planes less than 10 micrometer in length (Type III). Type I and Type II produced satisfactory sections. Work in cutting ranged from an average of 78.4 muJ to 568.8 muJ. Cutting angle and temperature had the greatest effect on sectioning. Heat generated would be sufficient to cause through-section melting for 0.5 micrometer thick sections assuming the worst possible case, namely that all heat went into the section without loss. Presence of a Type II pattern (large fracture pattern) is thought to be presumptive evidence against thawing.

  3. Construction of a full-length prototype of the BESIII drift chamber and on-detector test for the BESIII drift chamber electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Zhonghua; Wu Linghui; Liu Jianbei; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Yan Zhikang; Hunan Univ., Changsha; Chen Yuanbo; Chen Chang; Xu Meihang; Wang Lan; Ma Xiaoyan; Jin Yan; Liu Rongguang; Tang Xiao; Zhang Guifang; Zhu Qiming; Sheng Huayi; Zhu Kejun

    2007-01-01

    A full-length prototype of the BESIII drift chamber was built. The experience gained on gas sealing, high voltage supply and front-end electronics installation should be greatly beneficial to the successful construction of the BESIII drift chamber. An on-detector test of the BESIII drift chamber electronics was carried out with the constructed prototype chamber. The noise performance, drift time and charge measurements, and electronics gains were examined specifically. The final test results indicate that the electronics have a good performance and can satisfy their design requirements. (authors)

  4. Experimental evaluation of wall Mach number distributions of the octagonal test section proposed for NASA Lewis Research Center's altitude wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Douglas E.; Burley, Richard R.; Corban, Robert R.

    1986-01-01

    Wall Mach number distributions were determined over a range of test-section free-stream Mach numbers from 0.2 to 0.92. The test section was slotted and had a nominal porosity of 11 percent. Reentry flaps located at the test-section exit were varied from 0 (fully closed) to 9 (fully open) degrees. Flow was bled through the test-section slots by means of a plenum evacuation system (PES) and varied from 0 to 3 percent of tunnel flow. Variations in reentry flap angle or PES flow rate had little or no effect on the Mach number distributions in the first 70 percent of the test section. However, in the aft region of the test section, flap angle and PES flow rate had a major impact on the Mach number distributions. Optimum PES flow rates were nominally 2 to 2.5 percent wtih the flaps fully closed and less than 1 percent when the flaps were fully open. The standard deviation of the test-section wall Mach numbers at the optimum PES flow rates was 0.003 or less.

  5. Four-Point Bending Strength Testing of Pultruded Fiberglass Composite Wind Turbine Blade Sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musial, W.; Bourne, B; Hughes, S; Zuteck, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    The ultimate strength of the PS Enterprises pultruded blade section was experimentally determined under four-point bending at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Thirteen 8-foot long full-scale blade segments were individually tested to determine their maximum moment carrying capability. Three airfoil-bending configurations were tested: high- and low-pressure skin buckling, and low pressure skin buckling with foam interior reinforcement. Maximum strain was recorded for each sample on the compressive and tensile surfaces of each test blade. Test data are compared to the results of three analytical buckling prediction methods. Based on deviations from the linear strain versus load curve, data indicate a post-buckling region. High-pressure side buckling occurred sooner than low-pressure side buckling. The buckling analyses were conservative for both configurations, but high-pressure side buckling in particular was substantially under-predicted. Both high- and low-pressure buckling configurations had very similar failure loads. These results suggests that a redundant load path may be providing strength to the section in the post-buckling region, making the onset of panel buckling a poor predictor of ultimate strength for the PS Enterprises pultrusion

  6. Age and Heat Stress as Determinants of Telomere Length in a Long-Lived Fish, the Siberian Sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simide, Rémy; Angelier, Frédéric; Gaillard, Sandrine; Stier, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten at each cell division due to the end-replication problem but also in response to oxidative stress. Consequently, telomeres shorten with age in many endotherms, and this shortening is accelerated under stressful environmental conditions. Data in ectotherm vertebrates remain scarce so far, so our goal was to review existing data for fish and to test the influence of age and stress on telomere length in a very long-lived fish, the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Our review of the literature revealed age-related telomere shortening in approximately half of the published studies. In the Siberian sturgeon, we found a significant telomere shortening with age, both at the intraindividual level using red blood cells (-12.5% in 16 mo) and at the interindividual level using cross-sectional samples of fin over an age range of 8 yr. We also found that heat stress (30°C) significantly reduced telomere length by 15.0% after only 1 mo of exposure. Our results highlight that both age and stressful environmental conditions might be important determinants of telomere length in fish.

  7. Foot length measurements of newborns of high and low risk pregnancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karina Marques Salge

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Comparing foot length measurements of newborns in high and low risk pregnancies at a public hospital in Goiânia, GO, Brazil. METHOD A cross-sectional study carried out between April, 2013 and May, 2015, with a sample consisting of 180 newborns; 106 infants of women from high-risk pregnancies and 74 of women from low-risk pregnancies. Data were descriptively analyzed. Foot length measurement was performed using a stiff transparent plastic ruler, graduated in millimeters. The length of both feet was measured from the tip of the hallux (big toe to the end of the heel. RESULTS A statistically significant relationship was found between the foot length and newborn’s weight, between the cephalic and thoracic perimeters in the high-risk group and between the cephalic perimeter in the control group. CONCLUSION There is a need for creating cut-off points to identify newborns with intrauterine growth disorders using foot length.

  8. Study of the thermal and hydraulic phenomena occurring during power excursion on a heated test section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyer, M.

    1969-01-01

    The thermal and hydrodynamic phenomena occurring during a power excursion were studied in an out-of-pile loop with a water cooled channel at low pressure (1 to 4 atm. abs. ). Circular and rectangular test sections with electrically heated walls of two different thermal diffusivity materials(aluminium and stainless steel) were used. The rectangular test sections were 600 mm long, 35 mm wide and had a 2, 9 mm gap; they simulate two half plates of the M.T.R. fuel element. Natural or forced convection are possible in the test section; the water height above it can be varied from 2.8 to 8 meters and the maximum allowed pressure at its outlet is 4 atm. abs.The heating source is a series of lead batteries which is able to generate, for short periods of time, 85 volts and 25000 amperes; linear, square or exponential power rise versus time can be realized. A 14 channels tape recorder (0-10 000 Hz bandwidth; is used for the measurements of temperature (8/100 mm diameter thermocouple), pressure ('Statham' pressure transducers) and void fraction (X rays). More than 500 tests have been carried out. The influence of the initial water temperature, flow rate, pressure, water height on the water ejections, pressure variations and void fraction in the test section were studied. Tests with energies up to 3000 W/cm in 50 milliseconds were attempted. The energy above which the instabilities appear was determined. An interpretation of the observed phenomena and a simplified theoretical model are presented [fr

  9. Length dependence of staircase potentiation: interactions with caffeine and dantrolene sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassier, D E; MacIntosh, B R

    2000-04-01

    In skeletal muscle, there is a length dependence of staircase potentiation for which the mechanism is unclear. In this study we tested the hypothesis that abolition of this length dependence by caffeine is effected by a mechanism independent of enhanced Ca2+ release. To test this hypothesis we have used caffeine, which abolishes length dependence of potentiation, and dantrolene sodium, which inhibits Ca2+ release. In situ isometric twitch contractions of rat gastrocnemius muscle before and after 20 s of repetitive stimulation at 5 Hz were analyzed at optimal length (Lo), Lo - 10%, and Lo + 10%. Potentiation was observed to be length dependent, with an increase in developed tension (DT) of 78 +/- 12, 51 +/- 5, and 34 +/- 9% (mean +/- SEM), at Lo - 10%, Lo, and Lo + 10%, respectively. Caffeine diminished the length dependence of activation and suppressed the length dependence of staircase potentiation, giving increases in DT of 65+/-13, 53 +/- 11, and 45 +/- 12% for Lo - 10%, Lo, and Lo + 10%, respectively. Dantrolene administered after caffeine did not reverse this effect. Dantrolene alone depressed the potentiation response, but did not affect the length dependence of staircase potentiation, with increases in DT of 58 +/- 17, 26 +/- 8, and 18 +/- 7%, respectively. This study confirms that there is a length dependence of staircase potentiation in mammalian skeletal muscle which is suppressed by caffeine. Since dantrolene did not alter this suppression of the length dependence of potentiation by caffeine, it is apparently not directly modulated by Ca2+ availability in the myoplasm.

  10. Developing Scientific Reasoning Through Drawing Cross-Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannula, K. A.

    2012-12-01

    Cross-sections and 3D models of subsurface geology are typically based on incomplete information (whether surface geologic mapping, well logs, or geophysical data). Creating and evaluating those models requires spatial and quantitative thinking skills (including penetrative thinking, understanding of horizontality, mental rotation and animation, and scaling). However, evaluating the reasonableness of a cross-section or 3D structural model also requires consideration of multiple possible geometries and geologic histories. Teaching students to create good models requires application of the scientific methods of the geosciences (such as evaluation of multiple hypotheses and combining evidence from multiple techniques). Teaching these critical thinking skills, especially combined with teaching spatial thinking skills, is challenging. My Structural Geology and Advanced Structural Geology courses have taken two different approaches to developing both the abilities to visualize and to test multiple models. In the final project in Structural Geology (a 3rd year course with a pre-requisite sophomore mapping course), students create a viable cross-section across part of the Wyoming thrust belt by hand, based on a published 1:62,500 geologic map. The cross-section must meet a number of geometric criteria (such as the template constraint), but is not required to balance. Each student tries many potential geometries while trying to find a viable solution. In most cases, the students don't visualize the implications of the geometries that they try, but have to draw them and then erase their work if it does not meet the criteria for validity. The Advanced Structural Geology course used Midland Valley's Move suite to test the cross-sections that they made in Structural Geology, mostly using the flexural slip unfolding algorithm and testing whether the resulting line lengths balanced. In both exercises, students seemed more confident in the quality of their cross-sections when the

  11. Quantitative study of neurofilament-positive fiber length in rat spinal cord lesions using isotropic virtual planes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Euler, Mia; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Janson, A M

    1998-01-01

    analysis after spinal cord injury is needed. Length quantification of the putatively spontaneously regenerating fibers has been difficult until recently, when two length estimators based on sampling with isotropic virtual planes within thick physical sections were introduced. The applicability...

  12. The length-weight and length-length relationships of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766 from Samsun, middle Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek Özpiçak

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, length-weight relationship (LWR and length-length relationship (LLR of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix were determined. A total of 125 specimens were sampled from Samsun, the middle Black Sea in 2014 fishing season. Bluefish specimens were monthly collected from commercial fishing boats from October to December 2014. All captured individuals (N=125 were measured to the nearest 0.1 cm for total, fork and standard lengths. The weight of each fish (W was recorded to the nearest 0.01 g. According to results of analyses, there were no statistically significant differences between sexes in term of length and weight (P˃0.05. The minimum and maximum total, fork and standard lengths of bluefish ranged between 13.5-23.6 cm, 12.50-21.80 cm and 10.60-20.10 cm, respectively. The equation of length-weight relationship were calculated as W=0.008TL3.12 (r2>0.962. Positive allometric growth was observed for bluefish (b>3. Length-length relationship was also highly significant (P<0.001 with coefficient of determination (r2 ranging from 0.916 to 0.988.

  13. Heavy-Section Steel Technology Program intermediate-scale pressure vessel tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, R.H.; Merkle, J.G.; Smith, G.C.; Whitman, G.D.

    1977-01-01

    The tests of intermediate-size vessels with sharp flaws permitted the comparison of experimentally observed behavior with analytical predictions of the behavior of flawed pressure vessels. Fracture strains estimated by linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) were accurate in the cases in which the flaws resided in regions of high transverse restraint and the fracture toughness was sufficiently low for unstable fracture to occur prior to yielding through the vessel wall. When both of these conditions were not present, unstable fracture did occur, always preceded by stable crack growth; and the cylinders with flaws initially less than halfway through the wall attained gross yield prior to burst. Predictions of failure pressure of the vessels with flawed nozzles, based upon LEFM estimates of failure strain, were very conservative. LEFM calculations of critical load were based upon small-specimen fracture toughness test data. Whenever gross yielding preceded failure, the actual strains achieved were considerably greater than the estimated strains at failure based on LEFM. In such cases the strength of the vessel may be no longer dependent upon plane-strain fracture toughness but upon the capacity of the cracked section to carry the imposed load stably in the plastic range. Stable crack growth, which has not been predictable quantitatively, is an important factor in elastic-plastic analysis of strength. The ability of the flawed vessels to attain gross yield in unflawed sections has important qualitative implications on pressure vessel safety margins. The gross yield condition occurs in light-water-reactor pressure vessels at about 2 x design pressure. The intermediate vessel tests that demonstrated a capacity for exceeding this load confirm that the presumed margin of safety is not diminished by the presence of flaws of substantial size, provided that material properties are adequate

  14. Construction of experimental HMA test sections in order to monitor the compaction process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; van de Ven, M.F.C.

    2003-01-01

    For getting better understanding about the process of HMA compaction, a test section was constructed while the governing process parameters, like; compaction progress, temperature of the material at which activities were employed, equipment properties and meteorological circumstances, were

  15. The effect of cutting length on the rooting and growth of subtropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The length of a cutting can affect both the rooting and plug colonisation of container-grown stock. Using hedges from conventional clonebanks established in the ground, four cutting length treatments (13, 10, 8 and 5 cm) were tested using five Eucalyptus grandis × E. urophylla clones. The smallest cutting length had the ...

  16. Testing quantum chromodynamics in anti-proton reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1987-10-01

    An experimental program with anti-protons at intermediate energy can serve as an important testing ground for QCD. Detailed predictions for exclusive cross sections at large momentum transfer based on perturbative QCD and the QCD sum rule form of the proton distribution amplitude are available for anti p p → γγ for both real and virtual photons. Meson-pair and lepton-pair final states also give sensitive tests of the theory. The production of charmed hadrons in exclusive anti p p channels may have a non-negligible cross section. Anti-proton interactions in a nucleus, particularly J/psi production, can play an important role in clarifying fundamental QCD issues, such as color transparency, critical length phenomena, and the validity of the reduced nuclear amplitude phenomenology

  17. Testing for Unit Roots in Small Panels with Short-run and Long-run Cross-sectional Dependencies

    OpenAIRE

    Yoosoon Chang; Wonho Song

    2009-01-01

    An IV approach, using as instruments non-linear transformations of the lagged levels, is explored to test for unit roots in panels with general dependency and heterogeneity across cross-sectional units. We allow not only for the cross-sectional dependencies of innovations, but also for the presence of co-integration across cross-sectional levels. Unbalanced panels and panels with differing individual short-run dynamics and cross-sectionally related dynamics are also permitted. We also more ca...

  18. Benchmark experiments to test plutonium and stainless steel cross sections. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenquin, U.P.; Bierman, S.R.

    1978-06-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) commissioned Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to ascertain the accuracy of the neutron cross sections for the isotopes of plutonium and the constituents of stainless steel and determine if improvements can be made in application to criticality safety analysis. NRC's particular area of interest is in the transportation of light-water reactor spent fuel assemblies. The project was divided into two tasks. The first task was to define a set of integral experimental measurements (benchmarks). The second task is to use these benchmarks in neutronics calculations such that the accuracy of ENDF/B-IV plutonium and stainless steel cross sections can be assessed. The results of the first task are given in this report. A set of integral experiments most pertinent to testing the cross sections has been identified and the code input data for calculating each experiment has been developed

  19. Reliability of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) and BESTest sections for adults with hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Letícia C.; Marques, Aline P.; Barros, Paula B.; Michaelsen, Stella M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) was recently created to allow the development of treatments according to the specific balance system affected in each patient. The Brazilian version of the BESTest has not been specifically tested after stroke. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intra- and inter-rater reliability and concurrent and convergent validity of the total score of the BESTest and BESTest sections for adults with hemiparesis after stroke. METHOD: The study included 16 subjects (61.1±7.5 years) with chronic hemiparesis (54.5±43.5 months after stroke). The BESTest was administered by two raters in the same week and one of the raters repeated the test after a one-week interval. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to assess intra- and interrater reliability. Concurrent validity with the Berg Balance Scale (BBS) and convergent validity with the Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale (ABC-Brazil) were assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: Both the BESTest total score (ICC=0.98) and the BESTest sections (ICC between 0.85 and 0.96) have excellent intrarater reliability. Interrater reliability for the total score was excellent (ICC=0.93) and, for the sections, it ranged between 0.71 and 0.94. The correlation coefficient between the BESTest and the BBS and ABC-Brazil were 0.78 and 0.59, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The Brazilian version of the BESTest demonstrated adequate reliability when measured by sections and could identify what balance system was affected in patients after stroke. Concurrent validity was excellent with the BBS total score and good to excellent with the sections. The total scores but not the sections present adequate convergent validity with the ABC-Brazil. However, other psychometric properties should be further investigated. PMID:25003281

  20. NEPTUN/5052, PWR LOCA Cooling Heat Transfer Tests for Loft, Reflood Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richner, M.; Analytis, G.Th.; Aksan, S.N.

    1993-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: NEPTUN is designed to perform PWR LOCA simulation experiments, which provide the full length emergency cooling heat transfer tests for LOFT. Therefore the NEPTUN heater bundle with 33 electrical heater elements and 4 guide tubes simulates a section of the LOFT nuclear core. The main test loop also contains measuring systems for the carry-over rate and for the steam expelled, and a back-pressure control system. A water loop brings the water to the initial reflooding conditions. In addition, auxiliary systems maintain normal operating conditions. 2 - Description of test: Test 5052 is one of a series of 40 reflood tests performed in NEPTUN. Before the start of the test, the flooding water in its circuit is brought to the following conditions: pressure = 4.1 bar; velocity = 2.5 cm/sec; subcooling temperature = 78 C; single rod power = 2.45 kW; maximal initial cladding temperature = 867 C. 3 - Status: CSNI1013/01, 21-Jul-1993 Arrived at NEADB

  1. Wind tunnel test of musi VI bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permata, Robby; Andika, Matza Gusto; Syariefatunnisa, Risdhiawan, Eri; Hermawan, Budi; Noordiana, Indra

    2017-11-01

    Musi VI Bridge is planned to cross the Musi River in Palembang City, South Sumatera Province, Indonesia. The main span is a steel arch type with 200 m length and side span length is 75 m. Finite element analysis results showed that the bridge has frequency ratio for torsional and heaving mode (torsional frequency/heaving frequency)=1.14. This close to unity value rises concern about aerodynamic behaviour and stability of the bridge deck under wind loading. Sectional static and free vibration wind tunnel test were performed to clarify this phenomena in B2TA3 facility in Serpong, Indonesia. The test followed the draft of Guide of Wind Tunnel Test for Bridges developed by Indonesian Ministry of Public Works. Results from wind tunnel testing show that the bridge is safe from flutter instability and no coupled motion vibration observed. Therefore, low value of frequency ratio has no effect to aerodynamic behaviour of the bridge deck. Vortex-induced vibration in heaving mode occurred in relatively low wind velocity with permissible maximum amplitude value.

  2. Extending electronic length frequency analysis in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, M. H.; Mildenberger, Tobias K.

    2017-01-01

    VBGF (soVBGF) requires a more intensive search due to two additional parameters. This work describes the implementation of two optimisation approaches ("simulated annealing" and "genetic algorithm") for growth function fitting using the open-source software "R." Using a generated LFQ data set......Electronic length frequency analysis (ELEFAN) is a system of stock assessment methods using length-frequency (LFQ) data. One step is the estimation of growth from the progression of LFQ modes through time using the von Bertalanffy growth function (VBGF). The option to fit a seasonally oscillating...... of the asymptotic length parameter (L-infinity) are found to have significant effects on parameter estimation error. An outlook provides context as to the significance of the R-based implementation for further testing and development, as well as the general relevance of the method for data-limited stock assessment....

  3. Commissioning of the Ground Test Accelerator Intertank Matching Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, K.F.; Sander, O.R.; Atkins, W.H.; Bolme, G.O.; Cole, R.; Connolly, R.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Ingalls, W.B.; Kersteins, D.; Little, C.; Lohsen, R.A.; Lysenko, W.P.; Mottershead, C.T.; Power, J.; Rusthoi, D.P.; Sandoval, D.P.; Stevens, R.R.; Vaughn, G.; Wadlinger, E.A.; Weiss, R.; Yuan, V.

    1992-01-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) has the objective of verifying much of the technology (physics and engineering) required for producing high-brightness, high-current H - beams. GTA commissioning is staged to verify the beam dynamics design of each major accelerator component as it is brought on-line. The commissioning stages are the 35 keV H - injector, the 2.5 MeV Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ), the Intertank Matching Section (IMS), the 3.2 MeV first 2βγ Drift Tube Linac (DTL-1) module, the 8.7 MeV 2βγ DTL (modules 1--5), and the 24 MeV GTA; all 10 DTL modules. Commissioning results from the IMS beam experiments will be presented

  4. MARVIKEN-CFT, Marviken Full Scale Critical Flow Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The major components of the facility are: - The pressure vessel with a net volume = 425 m 3 , a maximum design pressure = 5.75 MPa and a maximum design temperature = 545 K. - The discharge pipe attached to the pressure vessel bottom. The discharge pipe consists of a ball valve and pipe spools which house the instrumentation upstream of the test nozzle. - The test nozzles and rupture disc assemblies. A set of test nozzles of specified lengths and diameters (tubular section lengths from 0.166 to 1.809 m and tubular section diameters from 0.2 to 0.509 m) were used to which the rupture disc assemblies were attached. - The containment and exhaust pipes, consisting of the drywell, the wet-well, fuel element transport hall, the ground level exhaust pipe, and the upper exhaust pipe. 2 - Description of the tests: Before each test the vessel was filled with degassed water up to a certain level which varied between the tests (from about 16.5 to 20 m above vessel bottom). The pressure was around 5 MPa (one test around 4 MPa). A pre-test warm-up period produced a temperature profile along the vessel height. After a stabilizing period of several hours, the test was initiated by failing the discs contained in the rupture disc assembly. Measurements recorded in the vessel, the discharge pipe, and the test nozzle, provided the data, while the vessel fluid was discharged through the test nozzle into the containment and further through the exhaust pipes to the ambient atmosphere. The test was terminated when the ball valve begun to close or when pure steam was entered the discharge pipe. 3 - Experimental limitations or shortcomings: Initial maximum pressure was limited to about 5 MPa

  5. Study on effective MOSFET channel length extracted from gate capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Katsuhiro; Terada, Kazuo; Fujisaka, Hisato

    2018-01-01

    The effective channel length (L GCM) of metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) is extracted from the gate capacitances of actual-size MOSFETs, which are measured by charge-injection-induced-error-free charge-based capacitance measurement (CIEF CBCM). To accurately evaluate the capacitances between the gate and the channel of test MOSFETs, the parasitic capacitances are removed by using test MOSFETs having various channel sizes and a source/drain reference device. A strong linear relationship between the gate-channel capacitance and the design channel length is obtained, from which L GCM is extracted. It is found that L GCM is slightly less than the effective channel length (L CRM) extracted from the measured MOSFET drain current. The reason for this is discussed, and it is found that the capacitance between the gate electrode and the source and drain regions affects this extraction.

  6. In vivo myograph measurement of muscle contraction at optimal length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Aminul

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current devices for measuring muscle contraction in vivo have limited accuracy in establishing and re-establishing the optimum muscle length. They are variable in the reproducibility to determine the muscle contraction at this length, and often do not maintain precise conditions during the examination. Consequently, for clinical testing only semi-quantitative methods have been used. Methods We present a newly developed myograph, an accurate measuring device for muscle contraction, consisting of three elements. Firstly, an element for adjusting the axle of the device and the physiological axis of muscle contraction; secondly, an element to accurately position and reposition the extremity of the muscle; and thirdly, an element for the progressive pre-stretching and isometric locking of the target muscle. Thus it is possible to examine individual in vivo muscles in every pre-stretched, specified position, to maintain constant muscle-length conditions, and to accurately re-establish the conditions of the measurement process at later sessions. Results In a sequence of experiments the force of contraction of the muscle at differing stretching lengths were recorded and the forces determined. The optimum muscle length for maximal force of contraction was established. In a following sequence of experiments with smaller graduations around this optimal stretching length an increasingly accurate optimum muscle length for maximal force of contraction was determined. This optimum length was also accurately re-established at later sessions. Conclusion We have introduced a new technical solution for valid, reproducible in vivo force measurements on every possible point of the stretching curve. Thus it should be possible to study the muscle contraction in vivo to the same level of accuracy as is achieved in tests with in vitro organ preparations.

  7. Influence of Test Section Geometry on the Blast Environment in an Explosively Driven Conical Shock Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-30

    ARL-TR-8335•MAR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Influence of Test Section Geometry on theBlast Environment in an Explosively DrivenConical Shock...ARL-TR-8335•MAR 2018 US Army Research Laboratory Influence of Test Section Geometry on theBlast Environment in an Explosively DrivenConical Shock...TITLE AND SUBTITLE    5a. CONTRACT NUMBER  5b. GRANT NUMBER  5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S)    5d.  PROJECT  NUMBER  5e. TASK NUMBER  5f

  8. Caffeine and length dependence of staircase potentiation in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassier, D E; Tubman, L A; MacIntosh, B R

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle sensitivity to Ca2+ is greater at long lengths, and this results in an optimal length for twitch contractions that is longer than optimal length for tetanic contractions. Caffeine abolishes this length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity. Muscle length (ML) also affects the degree of staircase potentiation. Since staircase potentiation is apparently caused by an increased Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofilaments, we tested the hypothesis that caffeine depresses the length dependence of staircase potentiation. In situ isometric twitch contractions of rat gastrocnemius muscle before and after 10 s of 10-Hz stimulation were analyzed at seven different lengths to evaluate the length dependence of staircase potentiation. In the absence of caffeine, length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity was observed, and the degree of potentiation after 10-Hz stimulation showed a linear decrease with increased length (DT = 1.47 - 0.05 ML, r2 = 0.95, where DT is developed tension). Length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity was decreased by caffeine when caffeine was administered in amounts estimated to result in 0.5 and 0.75 mM concentrations. Furthermore, the negative slope of the relationship between staircase potentiation and muscle length was diminished at the lower caffeine dose, and the slope was not different from zero after the higher dose (DT = 1.53 - 0.009 ML, r2 = 0.43). Our study shows that length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity in intact skeletal muscle is diminished by caffeine. Caffeine also suppressed the length dependence of staircase potentiation, suggesting that the mechanism of this length dependence may be closely related to the mechanism for length dependence of Ca2+ sensitivity.

  9. The length-weight and length-length relationships of bluefish, Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus, 1766) from Samsun, middle Black Sea region

    OpenAIRE

    Özpiçak, Melek; Saygın, Semra; Polat, Nazmi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, length-weight relationship (LWR) and length-length relationship (LLR) of bluefish,Pomatomus saltatrix were determined. A total of 125 specimens were sampled from Samsun, themiddle Black Sea in 2014 fishing season. Bluefish specimens were monthly collected fromcommercial fishing boats from October to December 2014. All captured individuals (N=125) weremeasured to the nearest 0.1 cm for total, fork and standard lengths. The weight of each fish (W)was recorded to the nearest 0.01 ...

  10. To test or not to test: A cross-sectional survey of the psychosocial determinants of self-testing for cholesterol, glucose, and HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinant Geert-Jan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although self-tests are increasingly available and widely used, it is not clear whether their use is beneficial to the users, and little is known concerning the determinants of self-test use. The aim of this study was to identify the determinants of self-test use for cholesterol, glucose, and HIV, and to examine whether these are similar across these tests. Self-testing was defined as using in-vitro tests on body materials, initiated by consumers with the aim of diagnosing a particular disorder, condition, or risk factor for disease. Methods A cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among 513 self-testers and 600 non-testers, assessing possible determinants of self-test use. The structured questionnaire was based on the Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behavior, and Protection Motivation Theory. Data were analyzed by means of logistic regression. Results The results revealed that perceived benefits and self-efficacy were significantly associated with self-testing for all three conditions. Other psychosocial determinants, e.g. gender, cues to action, perceived barriers, subjective norm, and moral obligation, seemed to be more test-specific. Conclusions Psychosocial determinants of self-testing are not identical for all tests and therefore information about self-testing needs to be tailored to a specific test. The general public should not only be informed about advantages of self-test use but also about the disadvantages. Designers of information about self-testing should address all aspects related to self-testing to stimulate informed decision making which, in turn, will result in more effective self-test use.

  11. Assessment of colorectal length using the electromagnetic capsule tracking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, E B; Poulsen, J L; Haase, A M

    2017-01-01

    AIM: We aimed to determine colorectal length with the 3D-Transit system by describing a 'centerline' of capsule movement and compare it to known anatomy, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Further, we aimed to test the day-to-day variation of colorectal length assessed......: Computation of colorectal length from capsule passage was possible in 60 of the 67 3D-Transit recordings. Length of the colorectum measured with MRI and 3D-Transit was respectively 95 cm (75-153 cm) and 99 cm (77-147 cm), P = 0.15. Coefficient of variation (CV) between MRI and 3D-Transit was 7.8%. Apart from...... the cecum / ascending colon being 26% (P = 0.002) shorter on MRI, there were no other differences in total or segmental colorectal lengths between methods (all P > 0.05). Length of the colorectum measured with 3D-Transit on two consecutive days was 102 cm (73-119 cm) and 103 cm (75-123 cm), P = 0.67. CV...

  12. Development and test of a space-reactor-core heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merrigan, M.A.; Runyan, J.E.; Martinez, H.E.; Keddy, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    A heat pipe designed to meet the heat transfer requirements of a 100-kW/sub e/ space nuclear power system has been developed and tested. General design requirements for the device included an operating temperature of 1500 0 K with an evaporator radial flux density of 100 w/cm 2 . The total heat-pipe length of 2 m comprised an evaporator length of 0.3 m, a 1.2-m adiabatic section, and a condenser length of 0.5 m. A four-artery design employing screen arteries and distribution wicks was used with lithium serving as the working fluid. Molybdenum alloys were used for the screen materials and tube shell. Hafnium and zirconium gettering materials were used in connection with a pre-purified distilled lithium charge to ensure internal chemical compatibility. After initial performance verification, the 14.1-mm i.d. heat pipe was operated at 15 kW throughput at 1500 0 K for 100 hours. No performance degradation was observed during the test

  13. Increased mean aliphatic lipid chain length in left ventricular hypertrophy secondary to arterial hypertension: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaristi, Maria Francesca; Caubère, Céline; Harmancey, Romain; Desmoulin, Franck; Peacock, William Frank; Berry, Matthieu; Turkieh, Annie; Barutaut, Manon; Galinier, Michel; Dambrin, Camille; Polidori, Carlo; Miceli, Cristina; Chamontin, Bernard; Koukoui, François; Roncalli, Jerôme; Massabuau, Pierre; Smih, Fatima; Rouet, Philippe

    2016-11-01

    About 77.9 million (1 in 4) American adults have high blood pressure. High blood pressure is the primary cause of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), which represents a strong predictor of future heart failure and cardiovascular mortality. Previous studies have shown an altered metabolic profile in hypertensive patients with LVH. The goal of this study was to identify blood metabolomic LVH biomarkers by H NMR to provide novel diagnostic tools for rapid LVH detection in populations of hypertensive individuals. This cross-sectional study included 48 hypertensive patients with LVH matched with 48 hypertensive patients with normal LV size, and 24 healthy controls. Two-dimensional targeted M-mode echocardiography was performed to measure left ventricular mass index. Partial least squares discriminant analysis was used for the multivariate analysis of the H NMR spectral data. From the H NMR-based metabolomic profiling, signals coming from methylene (-CH2-) and methyl (-CH3) moieties of aliphatic chains from plasma lipids were identified as discriminant variables. The -CH2-/-CH3 ratio, an indicator of the mean length of the aliphatic lipid chains, was significantly higher (P hypertensive group without LVH and controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve showed that a cutoff of 2.34 provided a 52.08% sensitivity and 85.42% specificity for discriminating LVH (AUC = 0.703, P-value hypertension.

  14. Determinants for Labour Contract Length: A French Microeconometric Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Halima, Mohamed; Ben Halima, Bassem

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Two types of analyses are conducted to explain the determinants of labour contracts length. The first analysis emphasizes on the contracting costs and the level of uncertainty. The second analysis focuses on the incentive and selection effect of the contract length. This paper test the determinants for contract duration by means of econometric duration models. The estimates are carried out from French data (TDE). An econometric treatment of the endogeneity of the labou...

  15. Sectional analysis for volume determination and selection of volume equations for the Tapajos Nacional Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Bezerra da Silva Ribeiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze different sections lengths for volume determination, fitting of volumetric models for timber production estimation in an area of forest management in the Tapajós National Forest (FNT. Six treatments for sectioning were tested in 152 logs of 12 commercial species. The obtained volumes were statistically compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA for the choice of the best method of sectioning and calculating the actual volume of 2,094 sample trees in different diameter commercial classes. Ten mathematical models were fitted to the whole data and to the species Manilkara huberi (Ducke Chevalier (maçaranduba Lecythis lurida (Miers Samori (jarana and Hymenaea courbaril L. (Jatobá. The criteria to choose the best model were adjusted coefficient of determination in percentage (R2adj%, standard error of estimate in percentage (Syx%, significance of the parameters, normality of residuals, Variance Inflation Factor (VIF and residuals graphic distribution. There was no statistical difference between the methods of sectioning and thus the total length of the logs was more operational in the field. The models in logarithmic form of Schumacher and Hall and Spurr were the best to estimate the volume for the species and for the whole sample set.

  16. Telomere length analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Andrés; Klatt, Peter; Blasco, María A

    2007-01-01

    Most somatic cells of long-lived species undergo telomere shortening throughout life. Critically short telomeres trigger loss of cell viability in tissues, which has been related to alteration of tissue function and loss of regenerative capabilities in aging and aging-related diseases. Hence, telomere length is an important biomarker for aging and can be used in the prognosis of aging diseases. These facts highlight the importance of developing methods for telomere length determination that can be employed to evaluate telomere length during the human aging process. Telomere length quantification methods have improved greatly in accuracy and sensitivity since the development of the conventional telomeric Southern blot. Here, we describe the different methodologies recently developed for telomere length quantification, as well as their potential applications for human aging studies.

  17. Influence of step length and landing pattern on patellofemoral joint kinetics during running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willson, J D; Ratcliff, O M; Meardon, S A; Willy, R W

    2015-12-01

    Elevated patellofemoral joint kinetics during running may contribute to patellofemoral joint symptoms. The purpose of this study was to test for independent effects of foot strike pattern and step length on patellofemoral joint kinetics while running. Effects were tested relative to individual steps and also taking into account the number of steps required to run a kilometer with each step length. Patellofemoral joint reaction force and stress were estimated in 20 participants running at their preferred speed. Participants ran using a forefoot strike and rearfoot strike pattern during three different step length conditions: preferred step length, long (+10%) step length, and short (-10%) step length. Patellofemoral kinetics was estimated using a biomechanical model of the patellofemoral joint that accounted for cocontraction of the knee flexors and extensors. We observed independent effects of foot strike pattern and step length. Patellofemoral joint kinetics per step was 10-13% less during forefoot strike conditions and 15-20% less with a shortened step length. Patellofemoral joint kinetics per kilometer decreased 12-13% using a forefoot strike pattern and 9-12% with a shortened step length. To the extent that patellofemoral joint kinetics contribute to symptoms among runners, these running modifications may be advisable for runners with patellofemoral pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Verification Test for Ultra-Light Deployment Mechanism for Sectioned Deployable Antenna Reflectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Kai; Schmidt, Tilo; Schiller, Marko; Seifart, Klaus; Schmalbach, Matthias; Scolamiero, Lucio

    2013-09-01

    The ultra-light deployment mechanism (UDM) is based on three carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) curved tape springs made of carbon fibre / cyanate ester prepregs.In the frame of the activity its space application suitability for the deployment of solid reflector antenna sections was investigated. A projected diameter of the full reflector of 4 m to 7 m and specific mass in the order of magnitude of 2.6kg/m2 was focused for requirement derivation.Extensive verification tests including health checks, environmental and functional tests were carried out with an engineering model to enable representative characterizing of the UDM unit.This paper presents the design and a technical description of the UDM as well as a summary of achieved development status with respect to test results and possible design improvements.

  19. Modelling of the glass fiber length and the glass fiber length distribution in the compounding of short glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloke, P.; Herken, T.; Schöppner, V.; Rudloff, J.; Kretschmer, K.; Heidemeyer, P.; Bastian, M.; Walther, Dridger, A.

    2014-05-01

    The use of short glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics for the production of highly stressed parts in the plastics processing industry has experienced an enormous boom in the last few years. The reasons for this are primarily the improvements to the stiffness and strength properties brought about by fiber reinforcement. These positive characteristics of glass fiber-reinforced polymers are governed predominantly by the mean glass fiber length and the glass fiber length distribution. It is not enough to describe the properties of a plastics component solely as a function of the mean glass fiber length [1]. For this reason, a mathematical-physical model has been developed for describing the glass fiber length distribution in compounding. With this model, it is possible on the one hand to optimize processes for the production of short glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, and, on the other, to obtain information on the final distribution, on the basis of which much more detailed statements can be made about the subsequent properties of the molded part. Based on experimental tests, it was shown that this model is able to accurately describe the change in glass fiber length distribution in compounding.

  20. Structural damping results from vibration tests of straight piping sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Thinnes, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    EG and G Idaho is assisting the USNRC and the Pressure Vessel Research Committee in supporting a final position on revised damping values for structural analyses of nuclear piping systems. As part of this program, a series of vibrational tests on 76-mm and 203-mm (3-in. amd 8-in.) Schedule 40 carbon steel piping was conducted to determine the changes in structural damping due to various parametric effects. The 10-m (33-ft) straight sections of piping were rigidly supported at the ends. Spring, rod, and constant force hangers, as well as a sway brace and snubbers were included as intermediate supports. Excitation was provided by low-force level hammer inpacts, a hydraulic shaker, and a 445-kN (50-ton) overhead crane. Data was recorded using acceleration, strain, and displacement time histories. This paper presents results from the testing showing the effect of stress level and type of supports on structural damping in piping

  1. Hypervapotron flow testing with rapid prototype models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driemeyer, D.; Hellwig, T.; Kubik, D.; Langenderfer, E.; Mantz, H.; McSmith, M.; Jones, B.; Butler, J.

    1995-01-01

    A flow test model of the inlet section of a three channel hypervapotron plate that has been proposed as a heat sink in the ITER divertor was prepared using a rapid prototyping stereolithography process that is widely used for component development in US industry. An existing water flow loop at the University of Illinois is being used for isothermal flow tests to collect pressure drop data for comparison with proposed vapotron friction factor correlations. Differential pressure measurements are taken, across the test section inlet manifold, the vapotron channel (about a seven inch length), the outlet manifold and the inlet-to-outlet. The differential pressures are currently measured with manometers. Tests were conducted at flow velocities from 1--10 m/s to cover the full range of ITER interest. A tap was also added for a small hypodermic needle to inject dye into the flow channel at several positions to examine the nature of the developing flow field at the entrance to the vapotron section. Follow-on flow tests are planned using a model with adjustable flow channel dimensions to permit more extensive pressure drop data to be collected. This information will be used to update vapotron design correlations for ITER

  2. Cross-dimensional mapping of number, length and brightness by preschool children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dolores de Hevia

    Full Text Available Human adults in diverse cultures, children, infants, and non-human primates relate number to space, but it is not clear whether this ability reflects a specific and privileged number-space mapping. To investigate this possibility, we tested preschool children in matching tasks where the dimensions of number and length were mapped both to one another and to a third dimension, brightness. Children detected variation on all three dimensions, and they reliably performed mappings between number and length, and partially between brightness and length, but not between number and brightness. Moreover, children showed reliably better mapping of number onto the dimension of length than onto the dimension of brightness. These findings suggest that number establishes a privileged mapping with the dimension of length, and that other dimensions, including brightness, can be mapped onto length, although less efficiently. Children's adeptness at number-length mappings suggests that these two dimensions are intuitively related by the end of the preschool years.

  3. Association of Telomere Length with Breast Cancer Prognostic Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoutar Ennour-Idrissi

    Full Text Available Telomere length, a marker of cell aging, seems to be affected by the same factors thought to be associated with breast cancer prognosis.To examine associations of peripheral blood cell-measured telomere length with traditional and potential prognostic factors in breast cancer patients.We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data collected before surgery from 162 breast cancer patients recruited consecutively between 01/2011 and 05/2012, at a breast cancer reference center. Data on the main lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity were collected using standardized questionnaires. Anthropometric factors were measured. Tumor biological characteristics were extracted from pathology reports. Telomere length was measured using a highly reproducible quantitative PCR method in peripheral white blood cells. Spearman partial rank-order correlations and multivariate general linear models were used to evaluate relationships between telomere length and prognostic factors.Telomere length was positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.17, P = 0.033; Ptrend = 0.069, occupational physical activity (rs = 0.15, P = 0.054; Ptrend = 0.054 and transportation-related physical activity (rs = 0.19, P = 0.019; P = 0.005. Among post-menopausal women, telomere length remained positively associated with total physical activity (rs = 0.27, P = 0.016; Ptrend = 0.054 and occupational physical activity (rs = 0.26, P = 0.021; Ptrend = 0.056 and was only associated with transportation-related physical activity among pre-menopausal women (rs = 0.27, P = 0.015; P = 0.004. No association was observed between telomere length and recreational or household activities, other lifestyle factors or traditional prognostic factors.Telomeres are longer in more active breast cancer patients. Since white blood cells are involved in anticancer immune responses, these findings suggest that even regular low-intensity physical activity, such as that

  4. Longitudinal Acceleration Tests of Overhead Luggage Bins and Auxiliary Fuel Tank in a Transport Airplane Airframe Section

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGuire, Robert

    1999-01-01

    This report contains the description and test results of overhead stowage bin calibrations and longitudinal impact testing of a 10-foot transport airframe section conducted at the Transportation Research Center Inc. (TRC...

  5. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-26

    This report contains appendices 3 through 6 for the Clay Cap Test Section Construction Report for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure at the Savannah River Plant. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, lab. permeability, in-situ permeability, and compaction characteristics, representative of kaolin clays from the Aiken, South Carolina vicinity. (KJD)

  6. Evaluation of the Normal Fetal Kidney Length and Its Correlation with Gestational Age

    OpenAIRE

    Farrokh Seilanian Toosi; Hossein Rezaie-Delui

    2013-01-01

    A true estimation of gestational age (GA) plays an important role in quality maternity care and scheduling the labor date. This study aimed to evaluate the normal fetal kidney length (KL) and its correlation with GA. A cross-sectional study on 92 pregnant women between 8th and 10th week of gestation with normal singleton pregnancy underwent standard ultrasound fetal biometry and kidney length measurement. univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to create a predictive e...

  7. Weight-for-length/height growth curves for children and adolescents in China in comparison with body mass index in prevalence estimates of malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Xinnan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Yaqin; Wu, Huahong

    2017-05-01

    It is important to update weight-for-length/height growth curves in China and re-examine their performance in screening malnutrition. To develop weight-for-length/height growth curves for Chinese children and adolescents. A total of 94 302 children aged 0-19 years with complete sex, age, weight and length/height data were obtained from two cross-sectional large-scaled national surveys in China. Weight-for-length/height growth curves were constructed using the LMS method before and after average spermarcheal/menarcheal ages, respectively. Screening performance in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity was compared between weight-for-height and body mass index (BMI) criteria based on a test population of 21 416 children aged 3-18. The smoothed weight-for-length percentiles and Z-scores growth curves with length 46-110 cm for both sexes and weight-for-height with height 70-180 cm for boys and 70-170 cm for girls were established. The weight-for-height and BMI-for-age had strong correlation in screening wasting, overweight and obesity in each age-sex group. There was no striking difference in prevalence estimates of wasting, overweight and obesity between two indicators except for obesity prevalence at ages 6-11. This set of smoothed weight-for-length/height growth curves may be useful in assessing nutritional status from infants to post-pubertal adolescents.

  8. Does neighborhood size really cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Dominic; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Tehan, Gerald; Tolan, Anne

    2018-02-01

    In short-term serial recall, it is well-known that short words are remembered better than long words. This word length effect has been the cornerstone of the working memory model and a benchmark effect that all models of immediate memory should account for. Currently, there is no consensus as to what determines the word length effect. Jalbert and colleagues (Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, & Surprenant, 2011a; Jalbert, Neath, & Surprenant, 2011b) suggested that neighborhood size is one causal factor. In six experiments we systematically examined their suggestion. In Experiment 1, with an immediate serial recall task, multiple word lengths, and a large pool of words controlled for neighborhood size, the typical word length effect was present. In Experiments 2 and 3, with an order reconstruction task and words with either many or few neighbors, we observed the typical word length effect. In Experiment 4 we tested the hypothesis that the previous abolition of the word length effect when neighborhood size was controlled was due to a confounded factor: frequency of orthographic structure. As predicted, we reversed the word length effect when using short words with less frequent orthographic structures than the long words, as was done in both of Jalbert et al.'s studies. In Experiments 5 and 6, we again observed the typical word length effect, even if we controlled for neighborhood size and frequency of orthographic structure. Overall, the results were not consistent with the predictions of Jalbert et al. and clearly showed a large and reliable word length effect after controlling for neighborhood size.

  9. Skin Sensitive Difference of Human Body Sections under Clothing-Smirnov Test of Skin Surface Temperatures' Dynamic Changing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun; WU Hai-yan; WANG Yun-yi

    2004-01-01

    Skin sensitive difference of human body sections under clothing is the theoretic foundation of thermal insulation clothing design.By a new method of researching on clothing comfort perception,the skin temperature live changing procedure of human body sections affected by the same cold stimulation is inspected.Furthermore with the Smirnov test the skin temperatures dynamic changing patterns of main human body sections are obtained.

  10. ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC CAPABILITIES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS IN RELATION WITH LENGTH OF THEIR SPORTS ENGAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Cvetković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The general objective of this research is to determine how much influence the length of sports engagement has on anaerobic endurance of the football players, as well as on the maximum sprint ability of the players. In addition to the primary objective, the research seeks to determine the maximum power, minimum power, average power and fatigue index in players of cadet age group. Methods: The total sample of respondents in this study is made of 60 players of cadet age group (14-16 years of age, divided in relation to length of their sports engagement, into groups of up to 5 years (11 respondents, 6-7 years (21 respondents and from 8 to 10 years (28 respondents. The study used field RAST test. The RAST test was designed for sports where running is a basic form of movement. According to the protocol of the test respondents have ten minutes to warm up and five minutes to recover. That is followed by the performance of the test, which is composed of six 35-meter sprints at maximum speed. Between sprints respondent is allowed to pause for 10 seconds, intended primarily for turning and preparing for the next section. Based on the obtained time results from six 35-meter sprints, power is calculated for each run and then the following parameters are determined: maximum power (the highest value; minimum power (the lowest value ; average power (the sum of all six values/six and fatigue index which indicates the extent to which strength decreases for each respondent. This paper shall present a descriptive parameters, mean, standard deviation (SD, minimum and maximum of all values, the coefficient of variation (CV of confidence intervals, skewness as measure of asymmetry, kurtosis as measure of flatness and value of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Multivariate procedures MANOVA and discriminant analysis shall be used. Out of univariate procedures ANOVA t-test and Roy’s test shall be applied. Results: Results obtained by multivariate analysis of

  11. Length-weight and length-length relationships of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-jebory, Taymaa A.; Das, Simon K.; Usup, Gires; Bakar, Y.; Al-saadi, Ali H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, length-weight and length-length relationships of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces were determined. Fish specimens were procured from seven provinces from July to December, 2015. A negative and positive allometric growth pattern was obtained, where the total length (TL) ranged from 25.60 cm to 33.53 cm, and body weight (BW) ranged from 700 g to 1423 g. Meanwhile, the lowest of 1.03 and highest of 3.54 in "b" value was recorded in group F and group C, respectively. Therefore, Fulton condition factor (K) range from 2.57 to 4.94. While, relative condition factor (Kn) was in the ranged of 0.95 to 1.01. A linear relationship between total length (TL) and standard length (SL) among the provinces for fish groups was obtained. The variances in "b" value ranged from 0.10 to 0.93 with correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.02 to 0.97. This research could be used as a guide to study the ecology and biology of common Carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) in the middle and southern Iraq provinces.

  12. Round robin test programmes in the reliability of thick section ultrasonic inspections: state of the art report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, B.

    1987-03-01

    Inspection reliability is firstly defined and it is shown how difficult it is to be assessed as the influence of such factors as human performance, equipment malfunction and intrinsic technique capability are difficult to quantify. The manufacture of round robin test specimens is then considered: types of flaw, fabrication of test samples. The results of various round robin test programmes that have been carried out to determine both the capability and reliability of NDE to detect and size flaws in steel section for thick sections directly relevant to the requirements of the nuclear industry, are then reviewed and discussed: US Pressure Vessel research committee programme, PISC I Programme, the defect detection trials, and PISC II Programme

  13. All-optical, thermo-optical path length modulation based on the vanadium-doped fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasec, Ziga; Campelj, Stanislav; Donlagic, Denis

    2013-05-20

    This paper presents an all-fiber, fully-optically controlled, optical-path length modulator based on highly absorbing optical fiber. The modulator utilizes a high-power 980 nm pump diode and a short section of vanadium-co-doped single mode fiber that is heated through absorption and a non-radiative relaxation process. The achievable path length modulation range primarily depends on the pump's power and the convective heat-transfer coefficient of the surrounding gas, while the time response primarily depends on the heated fiber's diameter. An absolute optical length change in excess of 500 µm and a time-constant as short as 11 ms, were demonstrated experimentally. The all-fiber design allows for an electrically-passive and remote operation of the modulator. The presented modulator could find use within various fiber-optics systems that require optical (remote) path length control or modulation.

  14. Critical Heat Flux Experiments on the Reactor Vessel Wall Using 2-D Slice Test Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Hoon; Chang, Soon Heung; Baek, Won-Pil

    2005-01-01

    The critical heat flux (CHF) on the reactor vessel outer wall was measured using the two-dimensional slice test section. The radius and the channel area of the test section were 2.5 m and 10 cm x 15 cm, respectively. The flow channel area and the heater width were smaller than those of the ULPU experiments, but the radius was greater than that of the ULPU. The CHF data under the inlet subcooling of 2 to 25 deg. C and the mass flux 0 to 300 kg/m 2 .s had been acquired. The measured CHF value was generally slightly lower than that of the ULPU. The difference possibly comes from the difference of the test section material and the thickness. However, the general trend of CHF according to the mass flux was similar with that of the ULPU. The experimental CHF data were compared with the predicted values by SULTAN correlation. The SULTAN correlation predicted well this study's data only for the mass flux higher than 200 kg/m 2 .s, and for the exit quality lower than 0.05. The local condition-based correlation was developed, and it showed good prediction capability for broad quality (-0.01 to 0.5) and mass flux ( 2 .s) conditions with a root-mean-square error of 2.4%. There were increases in the CHF with trisodium phosphate-added water

  15. Evaluation of mechanical design fire brick at test section on the HeaTiNG-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedy Haryanto; Riswan Djambiar; Sagino; Edy Sumarno

    2013-01-01

    The activity was carried out due to the modification of the heating in the HeaTiNG-02 test section. Modification of the heater needs to be done to overcome the obstacles that arise as part of the test section is used. Constraint that often arises is the fall of the heating source with super khantal material when it reaches a certain temperature. To mitigate the super khantal position is initially converted into a vertical position horizontal. The change from vertical to horizontal position on super khantal cause any deformities in refractory fire brick which serves as a support super khantal. Manufacture of refractory design fire brick formation and mechanical strength evaluation performed using CATIA V5 R20 software. Evaluation of fireproof rock mechanics to be based on the mechanical properties of alumina as a refractory material of fire brick. The results of the analysis have a fire brick design stress greater than the bend strength alumina materials, so that the necessary checks before and after the experiment as well as the replacement of refractory fire brick if something is broken. Translational greatest displacement 0.453 mm at a temperature of 1575 K did not give any meaningful form. Thus the refractory fire brick design can be used as heating source support in the HeaTiNG-02 test section with checks before and after the operation. (author)

  16. Improving clinical cognitive testing: report of the AAN Behavioral Neurology Section Workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffner, Kirk R; Gale, Seth A; Barrett, A M; Boeve, Bradley F; Chatterjee, Anjan; Coslett, H Branch; D'Esposito, Mark; Finney, Glen R; Gitelman, Darren R; Hart, John J; Lerner, Alan J; Meador, Kimford J; Pietras, Alison C; Voeller, Kytja S; Kaufer, Daniel I

    2015-09-08

    To evaluate the evidence basis of single-domain cognitive tests frequently used by behavioral neurologists in an effort to improve the quality of clinical cognitive assessment. Behavioral Neurology Section members of the American Academy of Neurology were surveyed about how they conduct clinical cognitive testing, with a particular focus on the Neurobehavioral Status Exam (NBSE). In contrast to general screening cognitive tests, an NBSE consists of tests of individual cognitive domains (e.g., memory or language) that provide a more comprehensive diagnostic assessment. Workgroups for each of 5 cognitive domains (attention, executive function, memory, language, and spatial cognition) conducted evidence-based reviews of frequently used tests. Reviews focused on suitability for office-based clinical practice, including test administration time, accessibility of normative data, disease populations studied, and availability in the public domain. Demographic and clinical practice data were obtained from 200 respondents who reported using a wide range of cognitive tests. Based on survey data and ancillary information, between 5 and 15 tests in each cognitive domain were reviewed. Within each domain, several tests are highlighted as being well-suited for an NBSE. We identified frequently used single-domain cognitive tests that are suitable for an NBSE to help make informed choices about clinical cognitive assessment. Some frequently used tests have limited normative data or have not been well-studied in common neurologic disorders. Utilizing standardized cognitive tests, particularly those with normative data based on the individual's age and educational level, can enhance the rigor and utility of clinical cognitive assessment. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  17. Multivariate Analysis of Factors Influencing Length of Hospital Stay after Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Torabipour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Length of hospital stay (LOS is a key indicator for hospital management. Reducing hospital stay is a priority for all health systems. We aimed to determine the length of hospital stay following Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery (CABG based on its clinical and non-clinical factors. A cross-sectional study of 649 consecutive patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft surgery was conducted in Imam Khomeini and Shariati university hospitals, Tehran, Iran. Data was analyzed by using non-parametric univariate tests and multiple linier regression models. Thirty seven independent variables including pre-operative, intra-operative and post-operative variables were analyzed. Finally, an appropriate model was constructed based on the associated factors. The results showed that 70.3% of the patients were male, and the mean age of the patients was 59.3 ± 10.4 years. The Mean (±SD and median of the LOS were 11.7 ± 7.1 and 9 days, respectively. Of 37 investigated variables, 24 qualitative and quantitative variables were significantly associated with length of stay (p<0.05. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that independent variables including age, medical insurance type, body mass index, and prior myocardial infarction; admission day, admission season, Cross-clamp time, pump usage, admission type, the number of laboratory tests and the number of specialty consultation had more effect on the hospital stay. We concluded that some significant factors influencing hospital stay after CABG were predictable and modifiable by hospital managers and decision makers to manage hospital beds.

  18. New Finnish growth references for children and adolescents aged 0 to 20 years: Length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and body mass index-for-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saari, Antti; Sankilampi, Ulla; Hannila, Marja-Leena; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Kesseli, Kari; Dunkel, Leo

    2011-05-01

    Growth curves require regular updates due to secular trends in linear growth. We constructed contemporary growth curves, assessed secular trends in height, and defined body mass index (BMI) cut-off points for thinness, overweight, and obesity in Finnish children. Mixed cross-sectional/longitudinal data of 73,659 healthy subjects aged 0-20 years (born 1983-2008) were collected from providers in the primary health care setting. Growth references for length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and BMI-for-age were fitted using generalized additive models for location, scale, and shape (GAMLSS). BMI percentile curves passing through BMIs 30, 25, 18.5, 17, and 16 kg/m(2) at the age of 18 years were calculated to define limits for obesity, overweight, and various grades of thinness. Increased length/height-for-age was seen in virtually all age-groups when compared to previous Finnish growth data from 1959 to 1971. Adult height was increased by 1.9 cm in girls and 1.8 cm in boys. The largest increases were seen during the peripubertal years: up to 2.8 cm in girls and 5.6 cm in boys. Median weight-for-length/height had not increased. New Finnish references for length/height-for-age, weight-for-length/height, and BMI-for-age were constructed and should be implemented to monitor growth of children in Finland.

  19. Copoly(Imide Siloxane) Abhesive Materials with Varied Siloxane Oligomer Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Christopher J.; Atkins, Brad M.; Belcher, Marcus A.; Connell, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Incorporation of PDMS moieties into a polyimide matrix lowered the surface energy resulting in enhanced adhesive interactions. Polyimide siloxane materials were generated using amine-terminated PDMS oligomers of different lengths to study changes in surface migration behavior, phase segregation, mechanical, thermal, and optical properties. These materials were characterized using contact angle goniometry, tensile testing, and differential scanning calorimetry. The surface migration behavior of the PDMS component depended upon the siloxane molecular weight as indicated by distinct relationships between PDMS chain length and advancing water contact angles. Similar correlations were observed for percent elongation values obtained from tensile testing, while the addition of PDMS reduced the modulus. High fidelity topographical modification via laser ablation patterning further reduced the polyimide siloxane surface energy. Initial particulate adhesion testing experiments demonstrated that polyimide siloxane materials exhibited greater abhesive interactions relative to their respective homopolyimides.

  20. Thermal response test data of five quadratic cross section precast pile heat exchangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberdi-Pagola, Maria

    2018-06-01

    This data article comprises records from five Thermal Response Tests (TRT) of quadratic cross section pile heat exchangers. Pile heat exchangers, typically referred to as energy piles, consist of traditional foundation piles with embedded heat exchanger pipes. The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Comparing heat flow models for interpretation of precast quadratic pile heat exchanger thermal response tests" (Alberdi-Pagola et al., 2018) [1]. The TRT data consists of measured inlet and outlet temperatures, fluid flow and injected heat rate recorded every 10 min. The field dataset is made available to enable model verification studies.

  1. Study on optimum length of raw material in stainless steel high-lock nuts forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Meiwen; Liu, Fenglei; Zhao, Qingyun; Wang, Lidong

    2018-04-01

    Taking 302 stainless steel (1Cr18Ni9) high-lock nuts for research objects, adjusting the length of raw material, then using DEFORM software to simulate the isothermal forging process of each station and conducting the corresponding field tests to study the effects of raw material size on the stainless steel high-lock nuts forming performance. The tests show that the samples of each raw material length is basically the same as the results of the DEFORM software. When the length of the raw material is 10mm, the appearance size of the parts can meet the design requirements.

  2. CORRELATION BETWEEN PENIS LENGTH AND ANTHOPOMETRY OF 5 YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddy Kurnia Indrawan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Short penis still a problem for parents. Penis lenght is associated with  weight and considered abnormal in obese children. The purpose of this study was to find out the correlation between penis length and the anthropometry children aged 5 years. A cross sectional study was conducted, at the Division of Endocrinology, Department of Child Health, Medical Faculty of Udayana University, Sanglah Hospital Denpasar, during October 2010, at TK Sayang Ibu Sanglah Hospital. The calculation of the sample with a correlation coefficient of weight and  height obtained  9 people, taking in consecutive sampling and analyzed  with Pearson’s correlation. The mean body weight was 23.6 (SD 7.70 kg;  mean child height was 108.4 (SD 5.3 cm, and 47.1% were obese. The mean length of the penis was 4.7(SD1.30 cm. The correlation between weight and penis lenght was strong negative (r = -0.876; P = 0.000 and between penis length and height was r = -0.597; P = 0,011.There was a strong negative correlation between body weight and penis length and also negative correlation between penis length and height in kindergarten children. (MEDICINA 2012;43:19-22.

  3. Analysis of in-R12 CHF data: influence of hydraulic diameter and heating length; test of Weisman boiling crisis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czop, V.; Herer, C.; Souyri, A.; Garnier, J.

    1993-09-01

    In order to progress on the comprehensive modelling of the boiling crisis phenomenon, Electricite de France (EDF), Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) and FRAMATOME have set up experimental programs involving in-R12 tests: the EDF APHRODITE program and the CEA-EDF-FRAMATOME DEBORA program. The first phase in these programs aims to acquire critical heat flux (CHF) data banks, within large thermal-hydraulic parameter ranges, both in cylindrical and annular configurations, and with different hydraulic diameters and heating lengths. Actually, three data banks have been considered in the analysis, all of them concerning in-R12 round tube tests: - the APHRODITE data bank, obtained at EDF with a 13 mn inside diameter, - the DEBORA data bank, obtained at CEA with a 19.2 mm inside diameter, - the KRISTA data bank, obtained at KfK with a 8 mm inside diameter. The analysis was conducted using CHF correlations and with the help of an advanced mathematical tool using pseudo-cubic thin plate type Spline functions. Two conclusions were drawn: -no influence of the heating length on our CHF results, - the influence of the diameter on the CHF cannot be simply expressed by an exponential function of this parameter, as thermal-hydraulic parameters also have an influence. Some calculations with Weisman and Pei theoretical boiling crisis model have been compared to experimental values: fairly good agreement was obtained, but further study must focus on improving the modelling of the influence of pressure and mass velocity. (authors). 12 figs., 4 tabs., 21 refs

  4. A new laser reflectance system capable of measuring changing cross-sectional area of soft tissues during tensile testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhai, Gabriel G; Oliver, Michele L; Gordon, Karen D

    2009-09-01

    Determination of the biomechanical properties of soft tissues such as tendons and ligaments is dependent on the accurate measurement of their cross-sectional area (CSA). Measurement methods, which involve contact with the specimen, are problematic because soft tissues are easily deformed. Noncontact measurement methods are preferable in this regard, but may experience difficulty in dealing with the complex cross-sectional shapes and glistening surfaces seen in soft tissues. Additionally, existing CSA measurement systems are separated from the materials testing machine, resulting in the inability to measure CSA during testing. Furthermore, CSA measurements are usually made in a different orientation, and with a different preload, prior to testing. To overcome these problems, a noncontact laser reflectance system (LRS) was developed. Designed to fit in an Instron 8872 servohydraulic test machine, the system measures CSA by orbiting a laser transducer in a circular path around a soft tissue specimen held by tissue clamps. CSA measurements can be conducted before and during tensile testing. The system was validated using machined metallic specimens of various shapes and sizes, as well as different sizes of bovine tendons. The metallic specimens could be measured to within 4% accuracy, and the tendons to within an average error of 4.3%. Statistical analyses showed no significant differences between the measurements of the LRS and those of the casting method, an established measurement technique. The LRS was successfully used to measure the changing CSA of bovine tendons during uniaxial tensile testing. The LRS developed in this work represents a simple, quick, and accurate way of reconstructing complex cross-sectional profiles and calculating cross-sectional areas. In addition, the LRS represents the first system capable of automatically measuring changing CSA of soft tissues during tensile testing, facilitating the calculation of more accurate biomechanical properties.

  5. Evaluating Multispectral Snowpack Reflectivity With Changing Snow Correlation Lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Do Hyuk; Barros, Ana P.; Kim, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of multispectral reflectivity to changing snow correlation lengths. Matzler's ice-lamellae radiative transfer model was implemented and tested to evaluate the reflectivity of snow correlation lengths at multiple frequencies from the ultraviolet (UV) to the microwave bands. The model reveals that, in the UV to infrared (IR) frequency range, the reflectivity and correlation length are inversely related, whereas reflectivity increases with snow correlation length in the microwave frequency range. The model further shows that the reflectivity behavior can be mainly attributed to scattering rather than absorption for shallow snowpacks. The largest scattering coefficients and reflectivity occur at very small correlation lengths (approximately 10(exp -5 m) for frequencies higher than the IR band. In the microwave range, the largest scattering coefficients are found at millimeter wavelengths. For validation purposes, the ice-lamella model is coupled with a multilayer snow physics model to characterize the reflectivity response of realistic snow hydrological processes. The evolution of the coupled model simulated reflectivities in both the visible and the microwave bands is consistent with satellite-based reflectivity observations in the same frequencies. The model results are also compared with colocated in situ snow correlation length measurements (Cold Land Processes Field Experiment 2002-2003). The analysis and evaluation of model results indicate that the coupled multifrequency radiative transfer and snow hydrology modeling system can be used as a forward operator in a data-assimilation framework to predict the status of snow physical properties, including snow correlation length.

  6. Telomere Length and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimura, Masayuki; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Gardner, Jeffrey P

    2008-01-01

    Leukocyte telomere length, representing the mean length of all telomeres in leukocytes, is ostensibly a bioindicator of human aging. The authors hypothesized that shorter telomeres might forecast imminent mortality in elderly people better than leukocyte telomere length. They performed mortality...

  7. Irradiation performance of full-length metallic IFR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, H.; Neimark, L.A.

    1992-07-01

    An assembly irradiation of 169 full-length U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel pins was successfully completed in FFTF to a goal burnup of 10 at.%. All test fuel pins maintained their cladding integrity during the irradiation. Postirradiation examination showed minimal fuel/cladding mechanical interaction and excellent stability of the fuel column. Fission-gas release was normal and consistent with the existing data base from irradiation testing of shorter metallic fuel pins in EBR-II

  8. Review Report on the Design of In-Pile Test Section(IPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Park, Kook Nam; Shim, Bong Sik; Lee, Chung Young; Chi, Dae Young; Park, Su Ki; Ahn, Sung Ho; Kim, Young Ki; Lee, Kye Hong; Kim, Kwan Hyun

    2009-01-01

    The In-Pile Test Section(IPS) accommodating fuel pins has loaded IR-1 hole in HANARO has double pressure vessel for the design conditions of 350 deg. C, 17.5 MPa and is composed of outer assembly and inner assembly. Dummy fuel, dummy fuel supports and Top flange are the main components in inner assembly and inner pressure vessel, outer pressure vessel and head are the components in outer assembly. The IPS at current status has dummy fuels and confirm the requirements for the IPS design improvements during the design, manufacturing and installation process. Head, Top Flange, Instrumentation Feed through, Lifting Eye, Fuel Carrier Leg, Retainer and Nozzle cover are the main parts that the design needs to be changed. This report suggest the needs for the IPS design modification and it would be reflected to the new IPS design which would accommodating test fuel pins

  9. Review Report on the Design of In-Pile Test Section(IPS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Min; Park, Kook Nam; Shim, Bong Sik; Lee, Chung Young; Chi, Dae Young; Park, Su Ki; Ahn, Sung Ho; Kim, Young Ki; Lee, Kye Hong; Kim, Kwan Hyun

    2009-01-15

    The In-Pile Test Section(IPS) accommodating fuel pins has loaded IR-1 hole in HANARO has double pressure vessel for the design conditions of 350 deg. C, 17.5 MPa and is composed of outer assembly and inner assembly. Dummy fuel, dummy fuel supports and Top flange are the main components in inner assembly and inner pressure vessel, outer pressure vessel and head are the components in outer assembly. The IPS at current status has dummy fuels and confirm the requirements for the IPS design improvements during the design, manufacturing and installation process. Head, Top Flange, Instrumentation Feed through, Lifting Eye, Fuel Carrier Leg, Retainer and Nozzle cover are the main parts that the design needs to be changed. This report suggest the needs for the IPS design modification and it would be reflected to the new IPS design which would accommodating test fuel pins.

  10. Relation of Stump Length with Various Gait Parameters in Trans-tibial Amputee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyel Majumdar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is evaluating the impact of stump length of unilateral below knee amputees (BKA on different gait parameters. Nine unilateral BKA were chosen and divided into three groups comprising patients with short, medium, and long stump length. Each of them underwent gait analysis test by Computer Dynography (CDG system to measure the gait parameters. It was found that the ground reaction force is higher in the patients with medium stump length whereas the velocity, step length both for the prosthetic and sound limb and cadence were high in longer stump length. Statistical analysis shows a significant difference (p<0.05 between the gait parameters of BKA with medium and longer stump length. The patients with longer stump length were more efficient than medium and short stump patients as they consumed comparatively lesser energy while walking with self-selected velocity and conventional (Solid ankle cushioned heel SACH foot.

  11. Compliant walking appears metabolically advantageous at extreme step lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaehoon; Bertram, John E A

    2018-05-19

    Humans alter gait in response to unusual gait circumstances to accomplish the task of walking. For instance, subjects spontaneously increase leg compliance at a step length threshold as step length increases. Here we test the hypothesis that this transition occurs based on the level of energy expenditure, where compliant walking becomes less energetically demanding at long step lengths. To map and compare the metabolic cost of normal and compliant walking as step length increases. 10 healthy individuals walked on a treadmill using progressively increasing step lengths (100%, 120%, 140% and 160% of preferred step length), in both normal and compliant leg walking as energy expenditure was recorded via indirect calorimetry. Leg compliance was controlled by lowering the center-of-mass trajectory during stance, forcing the leg to flex and extend as the body moved over the foot contact. For normal step lengths, compliant leg walking was more costly than normal walking gait, but compliant leg walking energetic cost did not increase as rapidly for longer step lengths. This led to an intersection between normal and compliant walking cost curves at 114% relative step length (regression analysis; r 2  = 0.92 for normal walking; r 2  = 0.65 for compliant walking). Compliant leg walking is less energetically demanding at longer step lengths where a spontaneous shift to compliant walking has been observed, suggesting the human motor control system is sensitive to energetic requirements and will employ alternate movement patterns if advantageous strategies are available. The transition could be attributed to the interplay between (i) leg work controlling body travel during single stance and (ii) leg work to control energy loss in the step-to-step transition. Compliant leg walking requires more stance leg work at normal step lengths, but involves less energy loss at the step-to-step transition for very long steps. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Association of day length and weather conditions with physical activity levels in older community dwelling people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles D Witham

    Full Text Available Weather is a potentially important determinant of physical activity. Little work has been done examining the relationship between weather and physical activity, and potential modifiers of any relationship in older people. We therefore examined the relationship between weather and physical activity in a cohort of older community-dwelling people.We analysed prospectively collected cross-sectional activity data from community-dwelling people aged 65 and over in the Physical Activity Cohort Scotland. We correlated seven day triaxial accelerometry data with daily weather data (temperature, day length, sunshine, snow, rain, and a series of potential effect modifiers were tested in mixed models: environmental variables (urban vs rural dwelling, percentage of green space, psychological variables (anxiety, depression, perceived behavioural control, social variables (number of close contacts and health status measured using the SF-36 questionnaire.547 participants, mean age 78.5 years, were included in this analysis. Higher minimum daily temperature and longer day length were associated with higher activity levels; these associations remained robust to adjustment for other significant associates of activity: age, perceived behavioural control, number of social contacts and physical function. Of the potential effect modifier variables, only urban vs rural dwelling and the SF-36 measure of social functioning enhanced the association between day length and activity; no variable modified the association between minimum temperature and activity.In older community dwelling people, minimum temperature and day length were associated with objectively measured activity. There was little evidence for moderation of these associations through potentially modifiable health, environmental, social or psychological variables.

  13. Prediction of the Length of Upcoming Solar Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakad, Bharati; Kakad, Amar; Ramesh, Durbha Sai

    2017-12-01

    The forecast of solar cycle (SC) characteristics is crucial particularly for several space-based missions. In the present study, we propose a new model for predicting the length of the SC. The model uses the information of the width of an autocorrelation function that is derived from the daily sunspot data for each SC. We tested the model on Versions 1 and 2 of the daily international sunspot number data for SCs 10 - 24. We found that the autocorrelation width Aw n of SC n during the second half of its ascending phase correlates well with the modified length that is defined as T_{cy}^{n+2} - Tan. Here T_{cy}^{n+2} and T_{ a}n are the length and ascent time of SCs n+2 and n, respectively. The estimated correlation coefficient between the model parameters is 0.93 (0.91) for Version 1 (Version 2) sunspot series. The standard errors in the observed and predicted lengths of the SCs for Version 1 and Version 2 data are 0.38 and 0.44 years, respectively. The advantage of the proposed model is that the predictions of the length of the upcoming two SCs ( i.e., n+1, n+2) are readily available at the time of the peak of SC n. The present model gives a forecast of 11.01, 10.52, and 11.91 years (11.01, 12.20, and 11.68 years) for the length of SCs 24, 25, and 26, respectively, for Version 1 (Version 2).

  14. Direct comparison of flow-FISH and qPCR as diagnostic tests for telomere length measurement in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Gutierrez-Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Telomere length measurement is an essential test for the diagnosis of telomeropathies, which are caused by excessive telomere erosion. Commonly used methods are terminal restriction fragment (TRF analysis by Southern blot, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with flow cytometry (flow-FISH, and quantitative PCR (qPCR. Although these methods have been used in the clinic, they have not been comprehensively compared. Here, we directly compared the performance of flow-FISH and qPCR to measure leukocytes' telomere length of healthy individuals and patients evaluated for telomeropathies, using TRF as standard. TRF and flow-FISH showed good agreement and correlation in the analysis of healthy subjects (R(2 = 0.60; p<0.0001 and patients (R(2 = 0.51; p<0.0001. In contrast, the comparison between TRF and qPCR yielded modest correlation for the analysis of samples of healthy individuals (R(2 = 0.35; p<0.0001 and low correlation for patients (R(2 = 0.20; p = 0.001; Bland-Altman analysis showed poor agreement between the two methods for both patients and controls. Quantitative PCR and flow-FISH modestly correlated in the analysis of healthy individuals (R(2 = 0.33; p<0.0001 and did not correlate in the comparison of patients' samples (R(2 = 0.1, p = 0.08. Intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV was similar for flow-FISH (10.8 ± 7.1% and qPCR (9.5 ± 7.4%; p = 0.35, but the inter-assay CV was lower for flow-FISH (9.6 ± 7.6% vs. 16 ± 19.5%; p = 0.02. Bland-Altman analysis indicated that flow-FISH was more precise and reproducible than qPCR. Flow-FISH and qPCR were sensitive (both 100% and specific (93% and 89%, respectively to distinguish very short telomeres. However, qPCR sensitivity (40% and specificity (63% to detect telomeres below the tenth percentile were lower compared to flow-FISH (80% sensitivity and 85% specificity. In the clinical setting, flow-FISH was more accurate, reproducible, sensitive, and specific in the measurement of human

  15. Design of a new SI engine intake manifold with variable length plenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceviz, M.A.; Akin, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of intake plenum length/volume on the performance characteristics of a spark-ignited engine with electronically controlled fuel injectors. Previous work was carried out mainly on the engine with carburetor producing a mixture desirable for combustion and dispatching the mixture to the intake manifold. The more stringent emission legislations have driven engine development towards concepts based on electronic-controlled fuel injection rather than the use of carburetors. In the engine with multipoint fuel injection system using electronically controlled fuel injectors has an intake manifold in which only the air flows and, the fuel is injected onto the intake valve. Since the intake manifolds transport mainly air, the supercharging effects of the variable length intake plenum will be different from carbureted engine. Engine tests have been carried out with the aim of constituting a base study to design a new variable length intake manifold plenum. Engine performance characteristics such as brake torque, brake power, thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption were taken into consideration to evaluate the effects of the variation in the length of intake plenum. The results showed that the variation in the plenum length causes an improvement on the engine performance characteristics especially on the fuel consumption at high load and low engine speeds which are put forward the system using for urban roads. According to the test results, plenum length must be extended for low engine speeds and shortened as the engine speed increases. A system taking into account the results of the study was developed to adjust the intake plenum length.

  16. Determination of Optimum Cross-section for Oran Highway Revetment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velioglu, Deniz; Sogut, Erdinc; Guler, Isikhan

    2017-04-01

    Revetments are shore parallel, sloping coastal structures which are built to provide protection from the negative effects of the sea. The revetment mentioned in this study is located in the City of Oran, Algeria and is currently under construction. This study investigates the determination of the optimum revetment cross section for Oran highway, considering both the hydraulic stability of the revetment and economy. The existence of cliffs in the region and the settlement of the City of Oran created a necessity to re-align Oran highway; therefore, it was shifted towards the Gulf of Oran. Approximately 1 km of the highway is to be constructed on the Mediterranean Sea due to the new alignment. In order to protect the sea side of the road from the adverse effects of the sea, a revetment was designed. The proposed cross section had an armour layer composed of 23 tons of antifer units and regular placement of armour units was recommended. In order to check the hydraulic stability of the proposed section, physical model tests were performed in the laboratory of LEM (Laboratoire d'Etudes Maritimes) in Algeria, using the pre-determined design wave conditions. The physical model tests revealed that the trunk of the revetment was totaly damaged. Accordingly, the proposed section was found insufficient and certain modifications were required. The first modification was made in the arrangement of armour units, changing them from regular to irregular. After testing the new cross section, it was observed that the revetment was vulnerable to breaking wave attack due to the toe geometry and thus the toe of the revetment had to be re-shaped. Therefore, the second option was to reduce the toe elevation. It was observed that even though the revetment trunk was safe, the damage in the toe was not in acceptable limits. The new cross section was found insufficient and as the final option, the weight of the antifer units used in the armour layer was increased, the toe length of the

  17. Infants' Memory Processing of a Serial List: List Length Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulya, Michele; Sweeney, Becky; Rovee-Collier, Carolyn

    1999-01-01

    Three experiments demonstrated that increasing the length of a mobile serial list impaired 6-month olds' memory for serial order. Findings indicated that the primacy effect was absent on a 24-hour delayed recognition test and was exhibited on a reactivation test, adding to growing evidence that young infants possess two functionally distinct…

  18. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy Caucasian and African-American Adolescents : Relationships with Race, Sex, Adiposity, Adipokines, and Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Haidong; Wang, Xiaoling; Gutin, Bernard; Davis, Catherine L.; Keeton, Daniel; Thomas, Jeffrey; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger; Mooken, Grace; Bundy, Vanessa; Snieder, Harold; van der Harst, Pim; Dong, Yanbin

    Objective To examine the relationships of race, sex, adiposity, adipokines, and physical activity to telomere length in adolescents. Study design Leukocyte telomere length (T/S ratio) was assessed cross-sectionally in 667 adolescents (aged 14-18 years; 48% African-Americans; 51% girls) using a

  19. The evaluation on clamping force of high strength bolts by length parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kang-Seok; Nah, Hwan-Seon; Lee, Hyeon-Ju; Lee, Kang-Min

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that the length parameter of high strength bolts results in the variance in tension loads. The required turn for each length is specified in AISC RCSC specification. This study was focused on evaluating any influence on the clamping torque subjected to length parameter of high strength bolts. The two kinds of high strength bolts of specimen are as follows; High Strength Hexagon bolt defined on ASTM A490 and Torque Shear Bolt on KS B 2819. The length parameter ranged from 60mm(3d) to 140mm(7d). The torque, turn of nut and the clamping force were analyzed to review whether length parameter can be affected on the required tension load. To test whether the length parameter has an impact on the torque and turn of nut for the required strength and clamping force, statistical analysis is carried out. (author)

  20. Constraints on food chain length arising from regional metacommunity dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Vincent; Massol, François; Mouquet, Nicolas; Jarne, Philippe; David, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Classical ecological theory has proposed several determinants of food chain length, but the role of metacommunity dynamics has not yet been fully considered. By modelling patchy predator–prey metacommunities with extinction–colonization dynamics, we identify two distinct constraints on food chain length. First, finite colonization rates limit predator occupancy to a subset of prey-occupied sites. Second, intrinsic extinction rates accumulate along trophic chains. We show how both processes concur to decrease maximal and average food chain length in metacommunities. This decrease is mitigated if predators track their prey during colonization (habitat selection) and can be reinforced by top-down control of prey vital rates (especially extinction). Moreover, top-down control of colonization and habitat selection can interact to produce a counterintuitive positive relationship between perturbation rate and food chain length. Our results show how novel limits to food chain length emerge in spatially structured communities. We discuss the connections between these constraints and the ones commonly discussed, and suggest ways to test for metacommunity effects in food webs. PMID:21367786

  1. Detection of an amphiphilic biosample in a paper microchannel based on length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Tzu; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2015-01-01

    We developed a simple method to achieve semiquantitative detection of an amphiphilic biosample through measuring the length of flow on a microfluidic analytical device (μPAD) based on paper. When an amphiphilic sample was dripped into a straight microchannel defined with a printed wax barrier (hydrophobic) on filter paper (hydrophilic), the length of flow was affected by the reciprocal effect between the sample, the filter-paper channel and the wax barrier. The flow length decreased with increasing concentration of an amphiphilic sample because of adsorption of the sample on the hydrophobic barrier. Measurement of the flow length enabled a determination of the concentration of the amphiphilic sample. The several tested samples included surfactants (Tween 20 and Triton X-100), oligonucleotides (DNA), bovine serum albumin (BSA), human albumin, nitrite, glucose and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). The results show that the measurement of the flow length determined directly the concentration of an amphiphilic sample, whereas a non-amphiphilic sample was not amenable to this method. The proposed method features the advantages of small cost, simplicity, convenience, directness, rapidity (<5 min) and requirement of only a small volume (5 μL) of sample, with prospective applications in developing areas and sites near patients for testing at a point of care (POCT).

  2. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  3. Development of the Heated Length Correction Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ho-Young; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Nahm, Kee-Yil; Jung, Yil-Sup; Park, Eung-Jun

    2008-01-01

    The Critical Heat Flux (CHF) on a nuclear fuel is defined by the function of flow channel geometry and flow condition. According to the selection of the explanatory variable, there are three hypotheses to explain CHF at uniformly heated vertical rod (inlet condition hypothesis, exit condition hypothesis, local condition hypothesis). For inlet condition hypothesis, CHF is characterized by function of system pressure, rod diameter, rod length, mass flow and inlet subcooling. For exit condition hypothesis, exit quality substitutes for inlet subcooling. Generally the heated length effect on CHF in exit condition hypothesis is smaller than that of other variables. Heated length is usually excluded in local condition hypothesis to describe the CHF with only local fluid conditions. Most of commercial plants currently use the empirical CHF correlation based on local condition hypothesis. Empirical CHF correlation is developed by the method of fitting the selected sensitive local variables to CHF test data using the multiple non-linear regression. Because this kind of method can not explain physical meaning, it is difficult to reflect the proper effect of complex geometry. So the recent CHF correlation development strategy of nuclear fuel vendor is making the basic CHF correlation which consists of basic flow variables (local fluid conditions) at first, and then the geometrical correction factors are compensated additionally. Because the functional forms of correction factors are determined from the independent test data which represent the corresponding geometry separately, it can be applied to other CHF correlation directly only with minor coefficient modification

  4. A comparative phylogenetic analysis of full-length mariner elements ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    recent study showing non-occurance of inter-subfamily excisions because of .... length shown in our figure is greater because of the gaps introduced to maintain an ... to test the feasibility of transforming silkmoths with a foreign gene of ...

  5. Bound coherent and incoherent thermal neutron scattering cross sections of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, V.F.

    1982-12-01

    An up-to-date table of bound coherent and incoherent thermal neutron scattering cross sections of the elements is presented. Values from two different data sources are calculated and compared. These sources are: (1) the free-atom cross sections listed in the Σbarn bookΣ and (2) the Julich scattering length tables. We also call attention to, and clarify, the confusion that exists in the literature concerning the sign of the imaginary part of the complex scattering length

  6. Accelerated load testing of geosynthetic base reinforced pavement test sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The main objective of this research is to evaluate the benefits of geosynthetic stabilization and reinforcement of subgrade/base aggregate layers in flexible pavements built on weak subgrades and the effect of pre-rut pavement sections, prior to the ...

  7. Depressive Symptoms and Length of U.S. Residency Are Associated with Obesity among Low-Income Latina Mothers: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Lindsay

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Latinos are the largest minority population group in the United States (U.S., and low-income Latina women are at elevated risk of depression and obesity. Thus, the prevention of these two problems is a pressing public health concern in this population. Both depressive symptoms and obesity are modifiable factors that can be addressed by culturally relevant interventions. However, the association between depressive symptoms and obesity in Latina immigrant women is not well understood. Therefore, this cross-sectional study examined the association between depressive symptoms and obesity among Latina women of childbearing age (15–44. Participants (n = 147 were low-income, predominantly immigrant Latina mothers enrolled in the Latina Mothers′ Child Feeding Practices and Style Study. Women were eligible to participate if they self-identified as Latina; were enrolled in or eligible for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children program; had a child between ages two and five years; and were living in the U.S. for at least one year, and residing in Rhode Island. Enrolled participants completed a survey in their language of preference (English or Spanish administered by bilingual interviewers. About one-third (34% of participants were classified as having obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, 28.3% had elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16, and 70.1% were immigrants. Women with elevated depressive symptoms had increased odds of having obesity (odds ratio (OR = 2.80, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.24–6.33. Additionally, among immigrants, length of U.S. residency was associated with increased odds of obesity (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02–1.09. Findings underscore the need for screening and culturally relevant interventions designed to address both depressive symptoms and obesity among low-income Latina women of childbearing age. Furthermore, findings highlight the importance of taking into account the length of residency in

  8. Depressive Symptoms and Length of U.S. Residency Are Associated with Obesity among Low-Income Latina Mothers: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Greaney, Mary L; Wallington, Sherrie F; Wright, Julie A; Hunt, Anne T

    2017-08-02

    Latinos are the largest minority population group in the United States (U.S.), and low-income Latina women are at elevated risk of depression and obesity. Thus, the prevention of these two problems is a pressing public health concern in this population. Both depressive symptoms and obesity are modifiable factors that can be addressed by culturally relevant interventions. However, the association between depressive symptoms and obesity in Latina immigrant women is not well understood. Therefore, this cross-sectional study examined the association between depressive symptoms and obesity among Latina women of childbearing age (15-44). Participants ( n = 147) were low-income, predominantly immigrant Latina mothers enrolled in the Latina Mothers' Child Feeding Practices and Style Study. Women were eligible to participate if they self-identified as Latina; were enrolled in or eligible for the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children program; had a child between ages two and five years; and were living in the U.S. for at least one year, and residing in Rhode Island. Enrolled participants completed a survey in their language of preference (English or Spanish) administered by bilingual interviewers. About one-third (34%) of participants were classified as having obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m²), 28.3% had elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16), and 70.1% were immigrants. Women with elevated depressive symptoms had increased odds of having obesity (odds ratio (OR) = 2.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.24-6.33). Additionally, among immigrants, length of U.S. residency was associated with increased odds of obesity (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02-1.09). Findings underscore the need for screening and culturally relevant interventions designed to address both depressive symptoms and obesity among low-income Latina women of childbearing age. Furthermore, findings highlight the importance of taking into account the length of residency in the U.S. when

  9. Fundamental length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, T.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of fundamental length was first put forward by Heisenberg from purely dimensional reasons. From a study of the observed masses of the elementary particles known at that time, it is sumrised that this length should be of the order of magnitude 1 approximately 10 -13 cm. It was Heisenberg's belief that introduction of such a fundamental length would eliminate the divergence difficulties from relativistic quantum field theory by cutting off the high energy regions of the 'proper fields'. Since the divergence difficulties arise primarily due to infinite number of degrees of freedom, one simple remedy would be the introduction of a principle that limits these degrees of freedom by removing the effectiveness of the waves with a frequency exceeding a certain limit without destroying the relativistic invariance of the theory. The principle can be stated as follows: It is in principle impossible to invent an experiment of any kind that will permit a distintion between the positions of two particles at rest, the distance between which is below a certain limit. A more elegant way of introducing fundamental length into quantum theory is through commutation relations between two position operators. In quantum field theory such as quantum electrodynamics, it can be introduced through the commutation relation between two interpolating photon fields (vector potentials). (K.B.)

  10. Test of virtual photon theory. [Cross sections, square-well potential, 0 to 300 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressler, E T; Tomusiak, E L [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon (Canada). Saskatchewan Accelerator Lab.

    1976-11-30

    In order to extract a photodisintegration cross section in the c.m. system from an electrodisintegration cross section measured in the lab system, one has to assume that the electrons are mostly scattered forward and that the monopole contributions are negligible. To test the validity of these approximations, a square well potential was assumed for the initial and final states and the photodisintegration cross section was calculated exactly within this model. These results were then compared with the results one would obtain using the virtual photon theory approximations for electron energies of 0-300 MeV and excitation energies up to 40 MeV. In comparing the two results, it is shown how and why the virtual photon theory approximations fail in certain kinematical regions.

  11. Austenite Grain Size Estimtion from Chord Lengths of Logarithmic-Normal Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian H.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Linear section of grains in polyhedral material microstructure is a system of chords. The mean length of chords is the linear grain size of the microstructure. For the prior austenite grains of low alloy structural steels, the chord length is a random variable of gamma- or logarithmic-normal distribution. The statistical grain size estimation belongs to the quantitative metallographic problems. The so-called point estimation is a well known procedure. The interval estimation (grain size confidence interval for the gamma distribution was given elsewhere, but for the logarithmic-normal distribution is the subject of the present contribution. The statistical analysis is analogous to the one for the gamma distribution.

  12. Investment, Reprocurement and Franchise Contract Length in the British Railway Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Affuso, Luisa; Newbery, David M G

    2000-01-01

    This Paper studies the interaction between repeated auctions of rail franchises of different lengths, uncertainty, and incentives for investment in rolling stock, following the privatization of British Rail. Theoretical predictions are tested empirically using a unique panel of data. Theory suggests that short franchise lengths reduce incentives to invest in specific assets. Our empirical results suggest that competition and strategic behaviour at the re-procurement stage can create incentive...

  13. Tests for development of estimation technology of reactor core deformation. Report No.1: fundamental mechanical properties of wrapper tube (test report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiura, Takeo; Shimazaki, Yuji; Horikiri, Morito

    1998-10-01

    Mechanical properties such as local contact compression stiffness, bending stiffness, deformation properties, material properties, and friction properties of a wrapper tube structure were clarified experimentally, which can be used as the basic data for development of estimation technology of reactor core deformation. Contents of the Tests data as follows: (1) Effects of load supporting boundary conditions, whether or not a contact-proof pad is attached, and length of duct, on cross section deformation of wrapper tube were made clear as the local contact compression stiffness characteristics. (2) Bending stiffness does not depend on the difference of load supporting boundary conditions. The property of cross section deformation under bending load was obtained. (3) The deformation modes and the strain distributions were obtained by the deformation tests of wrapper tube. (4) The stress-strain diagrams including plastic range under various strain variation rates were obtained by the material tests at room temperature. (5) The static and the dynamic friction coefficients by various contact angles and the contact loads between contact-proof pads of two wrapper tubes were obtained by friction property tests. (author)

  14. A new subgrid characteristic length for turbulence simulations on anisotropic grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trias, F. X.; Gorobets, A.; Silvis, M. H.; Verstappen, R. W. C. P.; Oliva, A.

    2017-11-01

    Direct numerical simulations of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are not feasible yet for most practical turbulent flows. Therefore, dynamically less complex mathematical formulations are necessary for coarse-grained simulations. In this regard, eddy-viscosity models for Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) are probably the most popular example thereof. This type of models requires the calculation of a subgrid characteristic length which is usually associated with the local grid size. For isotropic grids, this is equal to the mesh step. However, for anisotropic or unstructured grids, such as the pancake-like meshes that are often used to resolve near-wall turbulence or shear layers, a consensus on defining the subgrid characteristic length has not been reached yet despite the fact that it can strongly affect the performance of LES models. In this context, a new definition of the subgrid characteristic length is presented in this work. This flow-dependent length scale is based on the turbulent, or subgrid stress, tensor and its representations on different grids. The simplicity and mathematical properties suggest that it can be a robust definition that minimizes the effects of mesh anisotropies on simulation results. The performance of the proposed subgrid characteristic length is successfully tested for decaying isotropic turbulence and a turbulent channel flow using artificially refined grids. Finally, a simple extension of the method for unstructured meshes is proposed and tested for a turbulent flow around a square cylinder. Comparisons with existing subgrid characteristic length scales show that the proposed definition is much more robust with respect to mesh anisotropies and has a great potential to be used in complex geometries where highly skewed (unstructured) meshes are present.

  15. Normal telomere lengths in naive and memory CD4+ T cells in HIV type 1 infection: a mathematical interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, K. C.; Noest, A. J.; Otto, S. A.; Miedema, F.; de Boer, R. J.

    1999-01-01

    To study CD4+ T cell productivity during HIV-1 infection, CD4+ T cell telomere lengths were measured. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T cells counts >300 cells/mm3 showed normal average telomeric restriction fragment (TRF) length and normal

  16. Normal telomere lengths in naive and memory CD4 T cells in HIV type 1 infection : a mathematical interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthers, K.C.; Noest, A.J.; Otto, S.A.; Miedema, F.; Boer, R.J. de

    1999-01-01

    To study CD4+ T cell productivity during HIV-1 infection, CD4+ T cell telomere lengths were measured. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T cells counts >300 cells/mm3 showed normal average telomeric restriction fragment (TRF) length and normal

  17. 77 FR 28281 - Withdrawal of Revocation of TSCA Section 4 Testing Requirements for One High Production Volume...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... Withdrawal of Revocation of TSCA Section 4 Testing Requirements for One High Production Volume Chemical...]amino]- (CAS No. 1324-76-1), also known as C.I. Pigment Blue 61. EPA received an adverse comment regarding C.I. Pigment Blue 61. This document withdraws the revocation of testing requirements for C.I...

  18. Area, length and thickness conservation: Dogma or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Isabelle; Callot, Jean Paul

    2012-08-01

    The basic assumption of quantitative structural geology is the preservation of material during deformation. However the hypothesis of volume conservation alone does not help to predict past or future geometries and so this assumption is usually translated into bed length in 2D (or area in 3D) and thickness conservation. When subsurface data are missing, geologists may extrapolate surface data to depth using the kink-band approach. These extrapolations, preserving both thicknesses and dips, lead to geometries which are restorable but often erroneous, due to both disharmonic deformation and internal deformation of layers. First, the Bolivian Sub-Andean Zone case is presented to highlight the evolution of the concepts on which balancing is based, and the important role played by a decoupling level in enhancing disharmony. Second, analogue models are analyzed to test the validity of the balancing techniques. Chamberlin's excess area approach is shown to be on average valid. However, neither the length nor the thicknesses are preserved. We propose that in real cases, the length preservation hypothesis during shortening could also be a wrong assumption. If the data are good enough to image the decollement level, the Chamberlin excess area method could be used to compute the bed length changes.

  19. Investigating the effects of exam length on performance and cognitive fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Jensen

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of exam length on student performance and cognitive fatigue in an undergraduate biology classroom. Exams tested higher order thinking skills. To test our hypothesis, we administered standard- and extended-length high-level exams to two populations of non-majors biology students. We gathered exam performance data between conditions as well as performance on the first and second half of exams within conditions. We showed that lengthier exams led to better performance on assessment items shared between conditions, possibly lending support to the spreading activation theory. It also led to greater performance on the final exam, lending support to the testing effect in creative problem solving. Lengthier exams did not result in lower performance due to fatiguing conditions, although students perceived subjective fatigue. Implications of these findings are discussed with respect to assessment practices.

  20. Crack Length Detection by Digital Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune

    1990-01-01

    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better then that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  1. Determination of carrier diffusion length in GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Shopan; Zhang, Fan; Monavarian, Morteza; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Morkoç, Hadis; Özgür, Ümit; Metzner, Sebastian; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jürgen; Gil, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion lengths of photo-excited carriers along the c-direction were determined from photoluminescence (PL) and cross-sectional cathodoluminescence (CL) measurements in p- and n-type GaN epitaxial layers grown on c-plane sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The investigated samples incorporate a 6 nm thick In0.15Ga0.85N active layer capped with either 500 nm p-GaN or 1500 nm n-GaN. The top GaN layers were etched in steps and PL from the InGaN active region and the underlying layers was monitored as a function of the top GaN thickness upon photo-generation near the surface region by above bandgap excitation. Taking into consideration the absorption in the top GaN layer as well as active and underlying layers, the diffusion lengths at 295 K and at 15 K were measured to be 93 ± 7 nm and 70 ± 7 nm for Mg-doped p-type GaN and 432 ± 30 nm and 316 ± 30 nm for unintentionally doped n-type GaN, respectively, at photogenerated carrier densities of 4.2 × 1018 cm-3 using PL spectroscopy. CL measurements of the unintentionally doped n-type GaN layer at much lower carrier densities of 1017 cm-3 revealed a longer diffusion length of 525 ± 11 nm at 6 K.

  2. Engineering of multi-segmented light tunnel and flattop focus with designed axial lengths and gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanzhong; Huang, Han; Zhou, Mianmian; Zhan, Qiwen

    2018-01-01

    Based on the radiation pattern from a sectional-uniform line source antenna, a three-dimensional (3D) focus engineering technique for the creation of multi-segmented light tunnel and flattop focus with designed axial lengths and gaps is proposed. Under a 4Pi focusing system, the fields radiated from sectional-uniform magnetic and electromagnetic current line source antennas are employed to generate multi-segmented optical tube and flattop focus, respectively. Numerical results demonstrate that the produced light tube and flattop focus remain homogeneous along the optical axis; and their lengths of the nth segment and the nth gap between consecutive segments can be easily adjusted and only depend on the sizes of the nth section and the nth blanking between adjacent sectional antennas. The optical tube is a pure azimuthally polarized field but for the flattop focus the longitudinal polarization is dominant on the optical axis. To obtain the required pupil plane illumination for constructing the above focal field with prescribed characteristics, the inverse problem of the antenna radiation field is solved. These peculiar focusing fields might find potential applications in multi-particle acceleration, multi-particle trapping and manipulation.

  3. Investigation of entrance length in circular and noncircular conduits by computational fluid dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimpun Tongpun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated entrance length of circular and noncircular conduits, including circle, triangle, square and hexagon cross-sectional conduit, by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. For simulation condition, the length of noncircular conduit was 10 m and the hydraulic diameter was 0.2 m. The laminar flow with Reynolds number of 500 and turbulent flow with Reynolds number of 50,000 were applied to investigate water flow in conduits. The governing equations were solved iteratively by using ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. For turbulent flow simulation, standard k-epsilon and RNG k-epsilon model were employed to simulate turbulence. The preliminary results were validated by comparison with theoretical data. At first, grid independency was evaluated to optimize the model. Norm* was employed to investigate the entrance length, which is related to velocity. The simulated results revealed that the entrance length for laminar flow was longer than turbulent flow.

  4. Acute effects of anterior thigh foam rolling on hip angle, knee angle, and rectus femoris length in the modified Thomas test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D. Vigotsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Foam rolling has been shown to acutely increase range of motion (ROM during knee flexion and hip flexion with the experimenter applying an external force, yet no study to date has measured hip extensibility as a result of foam rolling with controlled knee flexion and hip extension moments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of foam rolling on hip extension, knee flexion, and rectus femoris length during the modified Thomas test.Methods. Twenty-three healthy participants (male = 7; female = 16; age = 22 ± 3.3 years; height = 170 ± 9.18 cm; mass = 67.7 ± 14.9 kg performed two, one-minute bouts of foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh. Hip extension and knee flexion were measured via motion capture before and after the foam rolling intervention, from which rectus femoris length was calculated.Results. Although the increase in hip extension (change = +1.86° (+0.11, +3.61; z(22 = 2.08; p = 0.0372; Pearson’s r = 0.43 (0.02, 0.72 was not due to chance alone, it cannot be said that the observed changes in knee flexion (change = −1.39° (−5.53, +2.75; t(22 = −0.70; p = 0.4933; Cohen’s d = − 0.15 (−0.58, 0.29 or rectus femoris length (change = −0.005 (−0.013, +0.003; t(22 = −1.30; p = 0.2070; Cohen’s d = − 0.27 (−0.70, 0.16 were not due to chance alone.Conclusions. Although a small change in hip extension was observed, no changes in knee flexion or rectus femoris length were observed. From these data, it appears unlikely that foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh will improve passive hip extension and knee flexion ROM, especially if performed in combination with a dynamic stretching protocol.

  5. The vulnerability of electric equipment to carbon fibers of mixed lengths: An analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elber, W.

    1980-01-01

    The susceptibility of a stereo amplifier to damage from a spectrum of lengths of graphite fibers was calculated. A simple analysis was developed by which such calculations can be based on test results with fibers of uniform lengths. A statistical analysis was applied for the conversation of data for various logical failure criteria.

  6. Pipe rupture test results: 4-inch pipe whip tests under PWR LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Ueda, Shuzo; Isozaki, Toshikuni; Kato, Rokuro; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Yano, Toshikazu; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of 4-inch pipe whip tests (RUN No. 5506, 5507, 5508 and 5604) under the PWR LOCA conditions. The dynamic behaviors of the test pipe and restraints were studied in the tests. In the tests, the gap between the test pipe and the restraints was kept at the constant value of 8.85 mm and the overhang length was varied from 250 mm to 650 mm. The dynamic behaviors of the test pipe and the restraint were made clear by the outputs of strain gages and the measurements of residual deformations. The data of water hammer in subcooled water were also obtained by the pressure transducers mounted on the test pipe. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are as follows. (1) The whipping of pipe can be prevented more effectively as the overhang length becomes shorter. (2) The load acting on the restraint-support structure becomes larger as the overhang length becomes shorter. (3) The restraint farther from the break location does not limit the pipe movement except for the first impact when the overhang length is long. (4) The ultimate moment M sub(u) of the pipe at the restraint location can be used to predict the plastic collapse of the whipping pipe. (5) The restraints slide along the pipe axis and are subjected to bending moment, when the overhang length is long. (author)

  7. Influence of carbon nanotube length on toxicity to zebrafish embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jinping Cheng,1,2 Shuk Han Cheng11Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; 2State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai, ChinaAbstract: There is currently a large difference of opinion in nanotoxicology studies of nanomaterials. There is concern about why some studies have indicated that there is strong toxicity, while others have not. In this study, the length of carbon nanotubes greatly affected their toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs were sonicated in a nitric acid solution for 24 hours and 48 hours. The modified MWCNTs were tested in early developing zebrafish embryo. MWCNTs prepared with the longer sonication time resulted in severe developmental toxicity; however, the shorter sonication time did not induce any obvious toxicity in the tested developing zebrafish embryos. The cellular and molecular changes of the affected zebrafish embryos were studied and the observed phenotypes scored. This study suggests that length plays an important role in the in vivo toxicity of functionalized CNTs. This study will help in furthering the understanding on current differences in toxicity studies of nanomaterials.Keywords: length, carbon nanotubes, sonication, developmental toxicity, zebrafish

  8. On the calculation of length scales for turbulent heat transfer correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, M.J.; Hollingsworth, D.K.

    1999-07-01

    Turbulence length scale calculation methods were critically reviewed for their usefulness in boundary layer heat transfer correlations. Merits and deficiencies in each calculation method were presented. A rigorous method for calculating an energy-based integral scale was introduced. The method uses the variance of the streamwise velocity and a measured dissipation spectrum to calculate the length scale. Advantages and disadvantages of the new method were discussed. A principal advantage is the capability to decisively calculate length scales in a low-Reynolds-number turbulent boundary layer. The calculation method was tested with data from grid-generated, free-shear-layer, and wall-bounded turbulence. In each case, the method proved successful. The length scale is well behaved in turbulent boundary layers with momentum thickness Reynolds numbers from 400 to 2,100 and in flows with turbulent Reynolds numbers as low as 90.

  9. Testing of the IRDF-90 cross-section library in benchmark neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolthenius, H.J.; Zsolnay, E.M.; Szondi, E.J.

    1993-09-01

    The new version of the International Reactor Dosimetry File IRDF-90 (called ''Version April 1993'') has been tested by calculation of average cross-sections and their uncertainties in a coarse three energy group structure and by neutron spectrum adjustments in reference neutron spectra. This paper presents the results obtained and compares them with the corresponding ones of the old IRDF-85 and with the data of the Nuclear Data Guide for Reactor Neutron Metrology. The applicability of the new library in the field of neutron metrology is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Healthy lifestyle and leukocyte telomere length in U.S. women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Sun

    Full Text Available Whether a healthy lifestyle may be associated with longer telomere length is largely unknown.To examine healthy lifestyle practices, which are primary prevention measures against major age-related chronic diseases, in relation to leukocyte telomere length.Cross-sectional analysis in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS.The population consisted of 5,862 women who participated in multiple prospective case-control studies within the NHS cohort. Z scores of leukocyte telomere length were derived within each case-control study. Based on prior work, we defined low-risk or healthy categories for five major modifiable factors assessed in 1988 or 1990: non-current smoking, maintaining a healthy body weight (body mass index in 18.5-24.9 kg/m(2, engaging in regular moderate or vigorous physical activities (≥150 minutes/week, drinking alcohol in moderation (1 drink/week to <2 drinks/day, and eating a healthy diet (Alternate Healthy Eating Index score in top 50%. We calculated difference (% of the z scores contrasting low-risk groups with reference groups to evaluate the association of interest.Although none of the individual low-risk factors was significantly associated with larger leukocyte telomere length z scores, we observed a significant, positive relationship between the number of low-risk factors and the z scores. In comparison with women who had zero low-risk factors (1.9% of the total population and were, therefore, considered the least healthy group, the leukocyte telomere length z scores were 16.4%, 22.1%, 28.7%, 22.6%, and 31.2% (P for trend = 0.015 higher for women who had 1 to 5 low-risk factors, respectively.Adherence to a healthy lifestyle, defined by major modifiable risk factors, was associated with longer telomere length in leukocytes.

  11. The Chain-Length Distribution in Subcritical Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, Steven Douglas

    2000-01-01

    The individual fission chains that appear in any neutron multiplying system provide a means, via neutron noise analysis, to unlock a wealth of information regarding the nature of the system. This work begins by determining the probability density distributions for fission chain lengths in zero-dimensional systems over a range of prompt neutron multiplication constant (K) values. This section is followed by showing how the integral representation of the chain-length distribution can be used to obtain an estimate of the system's subcritical prompt multiplication (MP). The lifetime of the chains is then used to provide a basis for determining whether a neutron noise analysis will be successful in assessing the neutron multiplication constant, k, of the system in the presence of a strong intrinsic source. A Monte Carlo transport code, MC++, is used to model the evolution of the individual fission chains and to determine how they are influenced by spatial effects. The dissertation concludes by demonstrating how experimental validation of certain global system parameters by neutron noise analysis may be precluded in situations in which the system K is relatively low and in which realistic detector efficiencies are simulated

  12. The Chain-Length Distribution in Subcritical Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolen, Steven Douglas [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2000-06-01

    The individual fission chains that appear in any neutron multiplying system provide a means, via neutron noise analysis, to unlock a wealth of information regarding the nature of the system. This work begins by determining the probability density distributions for fission chain lengths in zero-dimensional systems over a range of prompt neutron multiplication constant (K) values. This section is followed by showing how the integral representation of the chain-length distribution can be used to obtain an estimate of the system's subcritical prompt multiplication (MP). The lifetime of the chains is then used to provide a basis for determining whether a neutron noise analysis will be successful in assessing the neutron multiplication constant, k, of the system in the presence of a strong intrinsic source. A Monte Carlo transport code, MC++, is used to model the evolution of the individual fission chains and to determine how they are influenced by spatial effects. The dissertation concludes by demonstrating how experimental validation of certain global system parameters by neutron noise analysis may be precluded in situations in which the system K is relatively low and in which realistic detector efficiencies are simulated.

  13. Longitudinal Acceleration Test of Overhead Luggage Bins and Auxiliary Fuel Tank in a Transport Airplane Airframe Section, Part 2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McGuire, Robert

    2000-01-01

    This report contains the description and test results of overhead stowage bin calibrations and longitudinal impact testing of a 10-foot transport airframe section conducted at the Transportation Research Center Inc. (TRC...

  14. Corridor Length and Patch Colonization by a Butterfly Junonia coenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Haddad

    2000-06-01

    Habitat corridors have been proposed to reduce patch isolation and increase population persistence in fragmented landscapes. This study tested whether patch colonization was increased by the presence and various length corridors. The specific butterfly species tested has been shown to use corridors, however, the results indicate that neither the distance between patches or the presence of a corridor influenced colonization.

  15. Numerical Simulations of Finite-Length Effects in Diocotron Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Grant W.; Spencer, Ross L.

    2000-10-01

    Over a decade ago Driscoll and Fine(C. F. Driscoll and K. S. Fine, Phys. Fluids B 2) (6), 1359, June 1990. reported experimental observations of an exponential instability in the self-shielded m=1 diocotron mode for an electron plasma confined in a Malmberg-Penning trap. More recently, Finn et al(John M. Finn, Diego del-Castillo-Negrete and Daniel C. Barnes, Phys. Plasmas 6) (10), 3744, October 1999. have given a theoretical explanation of the instability as a finite-length end effect patterned after an analogy to theory for shallow water fluid vortices. However, in a test case selected for comparison, the growth rate in the experiment exceeds the theoretical value by a factor of two. We present results from a two-dimensional, finite length drift-kinetic code and a fully three-dimensional particle-in-cell code written to explore details of finite-length effects in diocotron modes.

  16. Construction of a 2- by 2-foot transonic adaptive-wall test section at the NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Daniel G.; Lee, George

    1986-01-01

    The development of a new production-size, two-dimensional, adaptive-wall test section with ventilated walls at the NASA Ames Research Center is described. The new facility incorporates rapid closed-loop operation, computer/sensor integration, and on-line interference assessment and wall corrections. Air flow through the test section is controlled by a series of plenum compartments and three-way slide vales. A fast-scan laser velocimeter was built to measure velocity boundary conditions for the interference assessment scheme. A 15.2-cm- (6.0-in.-) chord NACA 0012 airfoil model will be used in the first experiments during calibration of the facility.

  17. Coal Ash Corrosion Resistant Materials Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. K. McDonald; P. L. Daniel; D. J. DeVault

    2007-12-31

    , due to excessive wastage, certain tube samples needed to be removed and replaced in order to ensure that Test Sections B and C would have a chance of remaining in the boiler for their intended exposure period. These suspect tube samples were replaced and the two remaining test sections were put back into service. The tube samples that were removed from Test Sections B and C were set aside for later analysis at the end of the planned exposure period. Test Sections B and C were again examined approximately six months later. At that time, measured wall thickness losses raised concerns about additional tube samples. These suspect samples were also removed, set aside for later analysis, and replaced. The test sections then went back into service until the end of the second exposure period, which was concluded in May 2003 when, due to evidence of excessive wastage, the valves were opened increasing cooling steam flow and thereby effectively stopping corrosion. In August 2003, Test Sections B and C were removed for closer examination. Section C had experienced about 42 months of service at the desired team temperature set point with 28.5 months at temperature at full temperature. Additional suspect samples were removed from Test Section B, then, it was re-installed into the boiler (at the location originally occupied by Section C), where it remained in service until the end of the program. Due to this removal history, the samples from Test Section B had a total service duration that varied from a minimum of 15.5 months (for samples that performed poorly) to 37 months for samples the survived for the full intended service exposure for Section B. The figure below shows a schematic of Test Section B and indicates the length of service exposure for different locations. This report provides the results of the evaluation of Test Section B, including the samples that remained in the Test Section for the full exposure period as well as those that were removed early. This report also

  18. BUGLE-93 (ENDF/B-VI) cross-section library data testing using shielding benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, H.T.; Slater, C.O.; White, J.E.

    1994-01-01

    Several integral shielding benchmarks were selected to perform data testing for new multigroup cross-section libraries compiled from the ENDF/B-VI data for light water reactor (LWR) shielding and dosimetry. The new multigroup libraries, BUGLE-93 and VITAMIN-B6, were studied to establish their reliability and response to the benchmark measurements by use of radiation transport codes, ANISN and DORT. Also, direct comparisons of BUGLE-93 and VITAMIN-B6 to BUGLE-80 (ENDF/B-IV) and VITAMIN-E (ENDF/B-V) were performed. Some benchmarks involved the nuclides used in LWR shielding and dosimetry applications, and some were sensitive specific nuclear data, i.e. iron due to its dominant use in nuclear reactor systems and complex set of cross-section resonances. Five shielding benchmarks (four experimental and one calculational) are described and results are presented

  19. Choosing a proper working length can improve the lifespan of locked plates. A biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmeier, Konrad L; Hofmann, Gunther O; Mückley, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    It is hypothesized that the working length influences the implants fatigue behavior. However, few studies addressing this issue came to contrary results. Therefore, we tested systematically the influence of working length and implant material on the plate's endurance. We used an artificial model providing the substantial angle and length conditions of a human femur. A fracture gap of 10mm was bridged with identical shaped plate implants made of stainless steel and grade-2 titanium. The fatigue strength was tested for a short, medium and long working length. Aiming at an implant failure within 80,000 loading cycles the upper load threshold was set to 265N for the titanium plates and to 420N for the steel plates. The lower load threshold was -20N for both plates. For the steel plates there was no correlation between fatigue strength and working length. The construct stiffness did not differ at short and medium working length and was reduced by 10% (P=0.047) at long working length. For the titanium plates the fatigue strength tends to increase with the working length but this correlation was not significant (τ=0.417, P=0.051). Further there was a negative correlation between working length and construct stiffness (τ=0.552; P=0.01). The working length has no appreciable effect on the endurance of the steel plates. Compared to the grade 2-titanium plates the stainless steel plates sustain a larger amount of cyclic load. However, for the titanium plates a larger working length tends to improve the endurance. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. How do people respond to self-test results? A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Vries Nanne K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-tests, tests on medical conditions that can be performed by consumers without consulting a doctor first, are frequently used. Nevertheless, there are concerns about the safety of self-testing, as it may delay diagnosis and appropriate treatment in the case of inappropriate use of the test, or false-negative results. It is unclear whether self-tests stimulate appropriate follow-up behaviour. Our aim was to examine the frequency of self-test use, consumers' response to self-test results in terms of their confidence in the result, reassurance by the test result, and follow-up behaviour. Methods A two step cross-sectional survey was designed. A random sample of 6700 Internet users in an existing Internet panel received an online questionnaire on the use of self-tests. Self-tests were defined as tests on body materials, initiated by consumers with the aim to diagnose a disease or risk factor. A second questionnaire on consumers' response to self-test results was sent to the respondents that were identified as a self-tester in the first questionnaire (n = 703. Results 18.1% (799/4416 of the respondents had ever performed a self-test, the most frequently used tests being those for diabetes (5.3%, kidney disease (4.9%, cholesterol (4.5%, urinary tract infection (1.9% and HIV/AIDS and Chlamydia (both 1.6%. A total of 78.1% of the testers with a normal test result and 81.4% of those with an abnormal result reported confidence in this result. Almost all (95.6% of the testers with a normal result felt reassured. After a normal result, 78.1% did not take any further action and 5.8% consulted a doctor. The corresponding figures after an abnormal test result were 9.3% and 72.2%, respectively. Conclusions Respondents who had performed a self-test seemed to base their follow-up behaviour on the result of the test. They had confidence in the test result, and were often reassured by a normal result. After an abnormal result, most self

  1. Mechanical properties of rubberwood oriented strand lumber (OSL: The effect of strand length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buhnnum Kyokong

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Effect of strand length on mechanical properties (tension, compression and bending of oriented strand lumber (OSL made of rubberwood (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg. was reported. Three strand lengths of 50 mm, 100 mm, and 150 mm with 1 mm thickness and 15 mm width were used. The strands were mixed with 5% pMDI glue (weight basis in a tumble mixer. The OSL specimens were formed by hot pressing process of unidirectionally aligned strands. Average specific gravity and moisture content were 0.76 and 8.34%, respectively. Tension and compression tests were carried out for directions both parallel and perpendicular to grain while bending test was performed only in parallel direction. Ultimate stresses and moduli of elasticity were examined from the stress-strain curves. It was found that for the parallel-to-grain direction, the longer strand OSL gave higher strength. The role of the strand length did not appear for the direction normal to the grain. The relationship between the mechanical properties of OSL and strand length was well described by the modified Hankinson formula.

  2. The relationship between Test Takers’ Multiple Intelligences and Their Performance on the Reading Sections of TOEFL and IELTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Alemi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating the hypothetical relationship between the multiple intelligences of test takers and their performance on the reading sections of TOEFL and IELTS. Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences suggests that intelligence is not a single and solely inborn capacity, rather a multiple construct which is only partly genetic, and can be crystallized or paralyzed over one’s lifetime. Based on the theory, there are eight types of intelligence: linguistic, mathematical, musical, bodily, spatial, intrapersonal, interpersonal and naturalist, but the list is not exhaustive. The multiple intelligences of test takers were estimated by means of MIDAS, the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales, developed by Shearer (1994. Subsequently, the bias detection for the reading section of TOEFL was carried out on 90 participants, and this subtest was found to correlate positively with linguistic and logical intelligences. By the same token, 89 out of the 163 participants in the study were included in the analysis of the relationship between the multiple intelligences of test takers and their performance on the reading section of IELTS, and this test proved biased toward linguistic and spatial intelligences. The implications concern the inadequacy of the definition of language proficiency .Moreover, Measurement-Driven Instruction courses and preparatory materials of the two proficiency tests, TOEFL and IELTS, can benefit from the results of the study by being designed in such a way as to represent the intelligences which are positively correlated with performance on the tests in question.

  3. [Myopia: frequency of lattice degeneration and axial length].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Sánchez, M D; Roldán Pallarés, M

    2001-05-01

    To evaluate the relationship between lattice retinal degeneration and axial length of the eye in different grades of myopia. A sample of 200 eyes from 124 myopic patients was collected by chance. The average age was 34.8 years (20-50 years) and the myopia was between 0.5 and 20 diopters (D). The eyes were grouped according to the degree of refraction defect, the mean axial length of each group (Scan A) and the frequency of lattice retinal degeneration and the relationship between these variables was studied. The possible influence of age on our results was also considered. For the statistical analysis, the SAS 6.07 program with the variance analysis for quantitative variables, and chi(2) test for qualitative variables with a 5% significance were used. A multivariable linear regression model was also adjusted. The highest frequency of lattice retinal degeneration occurred in those myopia patients having more than 15 D, and also in the group of myopia patients between 3 and 6 D, but this did not show statistical significance when compared with the other myopic groups. If the axial length is assessed, a greater frequency of lattice retinal degeneration is also found when the axial length is 25-27 mm and 29-30 mm, which correspond, respectively, to myopias between 3-10 D and more than 15 D. When the multivariable linear regression model was adjusted, the axial length showed the existence of lattice retinal degeneration (beta 0.41 mm; p=0.08) adjusted by the number of diopters (beta 0.38 mm; plattice retinal degeneration was found for myopias with axial eye length between 29-30 mm (more than 15 D), and 25-27 mm (between 3-10 D).

  4. Study on the Workspace of a 6-DOF Parallel Topology Robot Related to Binary Link Lengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calin-Octavian Miclosina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study on the workspace of a parallel topology robot with the structure FP3+6•SPS+MP3. The variable parameters are the binary link lengths, from both upper and lower levels, and the driving kinematical joint strokes. The workspace boundary is determined by SolidWorks software simulations. For different binary link lengths, workspace volume is determined and sections through the workspace are presented.

  5. Fracture characterization in patterned thin films by cross-sectional nanoindentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocana, I.; Molina-Aldareguia, J.M.; Gonzalez, D.; Elizalde, M.R.; Sanchez, J.M.; Martinez-Esnaola, J.M.; Gil Sevillano, J.; Scherban, T..; Pantuso, D.; Sun, B.; Xu, G.; Miner, B.; He, J.; Maiz, J.

    2006-01-01

    A testing technique based on cross-sectional nanoindentation has been used to assess the mechanical reliability of interconnect structures. A Berkovich indenter was used to initiate fracture in a silicon substrate and cracks propagated through the structure. To better control crack growth and to convert the problem into two dimensions, a trench parallel to the indentation surface was previously machined using a focused ion beam. The crack lengths obtained for different material systems in the interconnect structure correlate well with the fracture energies measured for the same materials in blanket films. Finite element model simulations incorporating cohesive elements have been used to model the fracture processes and to explain the different cracking behaviour observed

  6. Fracture characterization in patterned thin films by cross-sectional nanoindentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocana, I. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Molina-Aldareguia, J.M. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Gonzalez, D. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Elizalde, M.R. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)]. E-mail: relizalde@ceit.es; Sanchez, J.M. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Martinez-Esnaola, J.M. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Gil Sevillano, J. [CEIT and TECNUN (University of Navarra), P. Manuel Lardizabal 15, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Scherban, T.. E-mail: Tracey_Scherban@Hotmail.com; Pantuso, D. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Sun, B. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Xu, G. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Miner, B. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); He, J. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Maiz, J. [Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    A testing technique based on cross-sectional nanoindentation has been used to assess the mechanical reliability of interconnect structures. A Berkovich indenter was used to initiate fracture in a silicon substrate and cracks propagated through the structure. To better control crack growth and to convert the problem into two dimensions, a trench parallel to the indentation surface was previously machined using a focused ion beam. The crack lengths obtained for different material systems in the interconnect structure correlate well with the fracture energies measured for the same materials in blanket films. Finite element model simulations incorporating cohesive elements have been used to model the fracture processes and to explain the different cracking behaviour observed.

  7. A further evaluation of the sperm length in aleocharines (Coleoptera Staphylinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi De Marzo

    2010-01-01

    and maximum values are respectively 100 μm for Aleochara intricata Mannerheim and 3.000 μm for Heterota plumbea (Waterhouse). E valuations for most species were carried out either on spermatozoa separated from the spermatheca or on bundles extracted from testes. Sperm length of Atheta inquinula was supposedly assumed as corresponding to that of the vasa deferentia. Conclusive diagrams show sperm length in some species to be disproportionate if compared with the size of the receptacle.

  8. Effect of marital distance on birth weight and length of offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozieł Sławomir

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marital distance (MD, the geographical distance between birthplaces of spouses, is considered an agent favouring occurrence of heterosis and can be used as a measure of its level. Heterosis itself is a phenomenon of hybrid vigour and seems to be an important factor regulating human growth and development. The main aim of the study is to examine potential effects of MD on birth weight and length of offspring, controlling for socioeconomic status (SES, mother’s age and birth order. Birth weight (2562 boys and 2572 girls and length (2526 boys, 2542 girls of children born in Ostrowiec Swietokrzyski (Poland in 1980, 1983, 1985 and 1988 were recorded during cross-sectional surveys carried out between 1994-1999. Data regarding the socio-demographic variables of families were provided by the parents. Analysis of covariance showed that MD significantly affected both birth weight and length, allowing for sex, birth order, mother’s age and SES of family. For both sexes, a greater marital distance was associated with a higher birth weight and a longer birth length. Our results support the hypothesis that a greater geographical distance between the birth places of parents may contribute to the heterosis effects in offspring. Better birth outcomes may be one of the manifestations of these effects.

  9. Transportation assimilation revisited: New evidence from repeated cross-sectional survey data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Based on single cross-sectional data, prior research finds evidence of “transportation assimilation” among U.S. immigrants: the length of stay in the U.S. is negatively correlated with public transit use. This paper revisits this question by using repeated cross-sectional data, and examines the trend of transportation assimilation over time. Methods and results Using 1980, 1990, 2000 1% census and 2010 (1%) American Community Survey, I examine the relationship between the length of stay in the U.S. and public transit ridership among immigrants. I first run regressions separately in four data sets: I regress public transit ridership on the length of stay, controlling for other individual and geographic variables. I then compare the magnitudes of the relationship in four regressions. To study how the rate of transportation assimilation changes over time, I pool the data set and regress public transit ridership on the length of stay and its interactions with year dummies to compare the coefficients across surveys. Results confirm the conclusion of transportation assimilation: as the length of stay in the U.S. increases, an immigrant’s public transit use decreases. However, the repeated cross-section analysis suggests the assimilation rate has been decreasing in the past few decades. Conclusions This paper finds evidence of transportation assimilation: immigrants become less likely to ride public transit as the length of stay in the U.S. increases. The assimilation rate, however, has been decreasing over time. This paper finds that the rate of public transit ridership among new immigrants upon arrival, the geographic distribution of immigrants, and the changing demographics of the U.S. immigrants play roles in affecting the trend of transportation assimilation. PMID:29668676

  10. Generation of Length Distribution, Length Diagram, Fibrogram, and Statistical Characteristics by Weight of Cotton Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Azzouz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The textile fibre mixture as a multicomponent blend of variable fibres imposes regarding the proper method to predict the characteristics of the final blend. The length diagram and the fibrogram of cotton are generated. Then the length distribution, the length diagram, and the fibrogram of a blend of different categories of cotton are determined. The length distributions by weight of five different categories of cotton (Egyptian, USA (Pima, Brazilian, USA (Upland, and Uzbekistani are measured by AFIS. From these distributions, the length distribution, the length diagram, and the fibrogram by weight of four binary blends are expressed. The length parameters of these cotton blends are calculated and their variations are plotted against the mass fraction x of one component in the blend .These calculated parameters are compared to those of real blends. Finally, the selection of the optimal blends using the linear programming method, based on the hypothesis that the cotton blend parameters vary linearly in function of the components rations, is proved insufficient.

  11. In vitro comparison of working length determination using three different electronic apex locators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper Kuştarci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of the apex-locating functions of DentaPort ZX, Raypex 5 and Endo Master electronic apex locators (EALs in vitro. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted human single-rooted teeth with mature apices were used for the study. The real working length (RWL was established by subtracting 0.5 mm from the actual root canal length. All teeth were mounted in an alginate model that was especially developed to test the EALs and the teeth were then measured with each EAL. The results were compared with the corresponding RWL, which was subtracted from the electronically determined distance. Data were analyzed using a paired-samples t-test, a Chi-square test and a repeated measure analysis of variance evaluation at the 0.05 level of significance. Results: Statistical analysis showed that no significant difference was found among all EALs (P > 0.05. Conclusion: The accuracy of the EALs was evaluated and all of the devices showed an acceptable determination of electronic working length between the ranges of ±0.5 mm.

  12. Determination of the pion-nucleon coupling constant and scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, T.E.O.; Loiseau, B.; Thomas, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    We critically evaluate the isovector Goldberger-Miyazawa-Oehme (GMO) sum rule for forward πN scattering using the recent precision measurements of π - p and π - d scattering lengths from pionic atoms. We deduce the charged-pion-nucleon coupling constant, with careful attention to systematic and statistical uncertainties. This determination gives, directly from data, g c 2 (GMO)/4π=14.11±0.05(statistical)±0.19(systematic) or f c 2 /4π=0.0783(11). This value is intermediate between that of indirect methods and the direct determination from backward np differential scattering cross sections. We also use the pionic atom data to deduce the coherent symmetric and antisymmetric sums of the pion-proton and pion-neutron scattering lengths with high precision, namely, (a π - p +a π - n )/2=[-12±2(statistical)±8(systematic)]x10 -4 m π -1 and (a π - p -a π - n )/2=[895±3(statistical)±13 (systematic)]x10 -4 m π -1 . For the need of the present analysis, we improve the theoretical description of the pion-deuteron scattering length

  13. IR1 flow tube and In-Pile Test Section Pressure drop test for the 3-Pin Fuel Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. H.; Park, K. N.; Chi, D. Y.; Sim, B. S.; Park, S. K.; Lee, J. M.; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, H. N

    2006-02-15

    The in-pile Section (IPS) of 3-pin Fuel Test Loop(FTL) shall be installed in the vertical hole call IR1 of HANARO reactor core. In order to verify the pressure drop and flow rate both the inside region of IPS at the annular region between IPS and IR1 flow tube, a pressure drop was measured by varing the flow rate on both regions. The measured pressure drop in the annular region is 209kpa at 14.9kg/s which meets the limiting condition of operation of 200kpa. The measured pressure drop in side the IPS becomes 260.25kpa which is lower than the designed value of 306.65kpa. As the pressure drop is lower than the design value, it is quite conservative from the safety and operating point of view.

  14. Word length, set size, and lexical factors: Re-examining what causes the word length effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Dominic; Gabel, Andrew J; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Surprenant, Aimée M; Neath, Ian

    2018-04-19

    The word length effect, better recall of lists of short (fewer syllables) than long (more syllables) words has been termed a benchmark effect of working memory. Despite this, experiments on the word length effect can yield quite different results depending on set size and stimulus properties. Seven experiments are reported that address these 2 issues. Experiment 1 replicated the finding of a preserved word length effect under concurrent articulation for large stimulus sets, which contrasts with the abolition of the word length effect by concurrent articulation for small stimulus sets. Experiment 2, however, demonstrated that when the short and long words are equated on more dimensions, concurrent articulation abolishes the word length effect for large stimulus sets. Experiment 3 shows a standard word length effect when output time is equated, but Experiments 4-6 show no word length effect when short and long words are equated on increasingly more dimensions that previous demonstrations have overlooked. Finally, Experiment 7 compared recall of a small and large neighborhood words that were equated on all the dimensions used in Experiment 6 (except for those directly related to neighborhood size) and a neighborhood size effect was still observed. We conclude that lexical factors, rather than word length per se, are better predictors of when the word length effect will occur. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Feasibility of supervised self-testing using an oral fluid-based HIV rapid testing method: a cross-sectional, mixed method study among pregnant women in rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Archana; Mburu, Gitau; Shivkumar, Poonam Varma; Sharma, Pankhuri; Campbell, Fiona; Behera, Jagannath; Dargan, Ritu; Mishra, Surendra Kumar; Mehra, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: HIV self-testing can increase coverage of essential HIV services. This study aimed to establish the acceptability, concordance and feasibility of supervised HIV self-testing among pregnant women in rural India. Methods: A cross-sectional, mixed methods study was conducted among 202 consenting pregnant women in a rural Indian hospital between August 2014 and January 2015. Participants were provided with instructions on how to self-test using OraQuick® HIV antibody test, and subse...

  16. Effects of wall roughness and entry length on void profile in vertical bubbly flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji

    1988-01-01

    An experimental study of upward air-water bubbly two-phase flow in an entry region was performed with various rough wall test tubes. The objective of the work is to clarify the effects of wall roughness and entry length on void profile. The fluid flows in the vertical circular test tube of 25 mm I.D. under nearly atmospheric pressure, at room temperature. The void profile changes from a pattern similar in appearance to the saddle shape which has local void peaks near the wall, into the power law shape whose curve is approximated by a power law formula, with increasing wall roughness and/or entry length. That is, wall roughness and entry length have a similar effect upon void profile. There are two patterns in the power law shape, a pattern with sharp center peak and a pattern with obtuse center peak. As wall roughness and/or entry length increase, the void profile changes from the former pattern to the latter pattern. At enough long entry length (L/D ≅ 150), every void profile has almost the same power law shape independent of wall roughness. Some void profiles are asymmetric to the axis. (author)

  17. Variation in Hospital Length of Stay : Do Physicians Adapt Their Length of Stay Decisions to What Is Usual in the Hospital Where They Work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Judith D. de; Westert, Gert P.; Lagoe, Ronald; Groenewegen, Peter P.

    2006-01-01

    Objective. To test the hypothesis that physicianswho work in different hospitals adapt their length of stay decisions to what is usual in the hospital under consideration. Data Sources. Secondary data were used, originating from the Statewide Planning and ResearchCooperative System (SPARCS). SPARCS

  18. Variation in hospital length of stay: do physicians adapt their length of stay decisions to what is usual in the hospital where they work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, J.D. de; Westert, G.P.; Lagoe, R.; Groenewegen, P.P.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that physicians who work in different hospitals adapt their length of stay decisions to what is usual in the hospital under consideration. DATA SOURCES: Secondary data were used, originating from the Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS).

  19. Gap length distributions by PEPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warszawer, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    Conditions guaranteeing exponential gap length distributions are formulated and discussed. Exponential gap length distributions of bubble chamber tracks first obtained on a CRT device are presented. Distributions of resulting average gap lengths and their velocity dependence are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Measurement of single-top cross section and test of anomalous $Wtb$ coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ji-Eun [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-01

    The top quark is most often produced in tt pairs via the strong interaction, however electroweak production of a singly-produced top quark is also possible. Electroweak single-top production is more difficult to observe than tt production. Studying single-top production is important for the following reasons. It provides direct measurement of the CKM matrix element and also single-top events are a background to several searches for SM or non-SM signals, such as Higgs boson searches. The information of spin polarization of top-quark can be used to t est anomalous W-t-b coupling. This thesis describes the result of a measurement of single-top cross-section and a test of anomalous W-t-b coupling using 4.8 f b-1 of data collected by the CDF Run II experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. The measured cross-section is 1.83$+0.7\\atop{-0.6}$ pb and measured limit of |Vtb| is 0.41 at 95% CL. The fraction of V+A coupling is 0 ± 28 (%).

  1. Tubing length for long-term oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Carolina; Davidson, Josy; Carvalho, Andréa K; Iamonti, Vinícius C; Cortopassi, Felipe; Nascimento, Oliver A; Jardim, José R

    2015-02-01

    Most patients on long-term oxygen therapy use stationary oxygen delivery systems. It is not uncommon for guidelines to instruct patients to use tubing lengths no longer than 19.68 ft (6 m) when using an oxygen concentrator and 49.21 ft (15 m) when using cylinders. However, these concepts are not based on sufficient evidence. Thus, our objective was to evaluate whether a 98.42-ft (30-m) tubing length affects oxygen flow and FIO2 delivery from 1 cylinder and 2 oxygen concentrators. The 3 oxygen delivery systems were randomly selected, and 1, 3, and 5 L/min flows and FIO2 were measured 5 times at each flow at the proximal and distal outlets of the tubing by a gas-flow analyzer. Paired Student t test was used to analyze the difference between flows and FIO2 at proximal and distal outlets of tubing length. A total of 45 flows were measured between proximal and distal outlets of the 98.42-ft (30-m) tubing. Flows were similar for 1 and 3 L/min, but distal flow was higher than proximal flow at 5 L/min (5.57×5.14 L/min, Ptubing at flows 1, 3, and 5 L/min, but the mean difference between measurements was less than 1%. Tubing length of 98.42 ft (30 m) may be used by patients for home delivery oxygen with flows up to 5 L/min, as there were no important changes in flows or FIO2. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  2. Cap Bubble Drift Velocity in a Confined Test Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiaodong Sun; Seungjin Kim; Mamoru Ishii; Lincoln, Frank W.; Beus, Stephen G.

    2002-01-01

    In the two-group interfacial area transport equation, bubbles are categorized into two groups, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as group 1 and cap/slug/churn-turbulent bubbles as group 2. The bubble rise velocities for both groups of bubbles may be estimated by the drift flux model by applying different distribution parameters and drift velocities for both groups. However, the drift velocity for group 2 bubbles is not always applicable (when the wall effect becomes important) as in the current test loop of interest where the flow channel is confined by two parallel flat walls, with a dimension of 200-mm in width and 10-mm in gap. The previous experiments indicated that no stable slug flow existed in this test section, which was designed to permit visualization of the flow patterns and bubble characteristics without the distortion associated with curved surfaces. In fact, distorted cap bubbly and churn-turbulent flow was observed. Therefore, it is essential to developed a correlation for cap bubble drift velocity in this confined flow channel. Since the rise velocity of a cap bubble depends on its size, a high-speed movie camera is used to capture images of cap bubbles to obtain the bubble size information. Meanwhile, the rise velocity of cap and elongated bubbles (called cap bubbles hereafter) is investigated by examining the captured images frame by frame. As a result, the conventional correlation of drift velocity for slug bubbles is modified and acceptable agreements between the measurements and correlation estimation are achieved

  3. Testing of cross section libraries for TRIGA criticality benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snoj, L.; Trkov, A.; Ravnik, M.

    2007-01-01

    Influence of various up-to-date cross section libraries on the multiplication factor of TRIGA benchmark as well as the influence of fuel composition on the multiplication factor of the system composed of various types of TRIGA fuel elements was investigated. It was observed that keff calculated by using the ENDF/B VII cross section library is systematically higher than using the ENDF/B-VI cross section library. The main contributions (∼ 2 20 pcm) are from 235 U and Zr. (author)

  4. HIV testing and tolerance to gender based violence: a cross-sectional study in Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Gari

    Full Text Available This paper explores the effect of social relations and gender-based conflicts on the uptake of HIV testing in the South and Central provinces of Zambia. We conducted a community-based cross-sectional study of 1716 randomly selected individuals. Associations were examined using mixed-effect multivariable logistic regression. A total of 264 men (64% and 268 women (56% had never tested for HIV. The strongest determinants for not being tested were disruptive couple relationships (OR = 2.48 95% CI = 1.00-6.19; tolerance to gender-based violence (OR = 2.10 95% CI = 1.05-4.32 and fear of social rejection (OR = 1.48 95% CI = 1.23-1.80. In the Zambian context, unequal power relationships within the couple and the community seem to play a pivotal role in the decision to test which until now have been largely underestimated. Policies, programs and interventions to rapidly increase HIV testing need to urgently address gender-power inequity in relationships and prevent gender-based violence to reduce the negative impact on the lives of couples and families.

  5. A New Measurement of the 1S0 Neutron-Neutron Scattering Length using the Neutron-Proton Scattering Length as a Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Trotter, D. E. Gonzalez; Salinas, F.; Chen, Q.; Crowell, A. S.; Gloeckle, W.; Howell, C. R.; Roper, C. D.; Schmidt, D.; Slaus, I.; Tang, H.; Tornow, W.; Walter, R. L.; Witala, H.; Zhou, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The present paper reports high-accuracy cross-section data for the 2H(n,nnp) reaction in the neutron-proton (np) and neutron-neutron (nn) final-state-interaction (FSI) regions at an incident mean neutron energy of 13.0 MeV. These data were analyzed with rigorous three-nucleon calculations to determine the 1S0 np and nn scattering lengths, a_np and a_nn. Our results are a_nn = -18.7 +/- 0.6 fm and a_np = -23.5 +/- 0.8 fm. Since our value for a_np obtained from neutron-deuteron (nd) breakup agr...

  6. Cutting Whole Length or Partial Length of Internal Anal Sphincter in Managementof Fissure in Ano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furat Shani Aoda

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A chronic anal fissure is a common painful perianal condition.The main operative procedure to treat this painful condition is a lateral internal sphincteretomy (LIS.The aim of study is to compare the outcome and complications of closed LIS up to the dentate line (whole length of internal sphincter or up to the fissure apex (partial length of internal sphincter in the treatment of anal fissure.It is a prospective comparativestudy including 100 patients with chronic fissure in ano. All patients assigned to undergo closed LIS. Those patients were randomly divided into two groups: 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of dentate line (whole length and other 50 patients underwent LIS to the level of fissure apex (partial length. Patients were followed up weekly in the 1st month, twice monthly in the second month then monthly   for next 2 months and finally after 1 year. There was satisfactory relief of pain in all patients in both groups & complete healing of the fissure occurred. Regarding post operative incontinence no major degree of incontinence occur in both group but minor degree of incontinence persists In 7 patients after whole length LIS after one year. In conclusion, both whole length & partial length LIS associated with improvement of pain, good chance of healing but whole length LIS associated with more chance of long term  flatus incontinence. Hence,we recommend partial length LIS as treatment forchronic anal fissure.

  7. Obesity, diabetes, and length of time in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Tsujimoto, Tetsuro; Kajio, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Takehiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity prevalence remains high in the United States (US), and is rising in most other countries. This is a repeated cross-sectional study using a nationally representative sample of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 to 2012. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were separately performed for adults (n?=?37,639) and children/adolescents (n?=?28,282) to assess the associations between the length of time in the US, and the prevalences of obesity and diabetes...

  8. The development of flow test technology for PWR fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Moon Ki; Cha, Chong Hee; Chung, Chang Hwan; Chun, Se Young; Song, Chul Hwa; Chung, Heung Joon; Won, Soon Yeun; Cho, Yeong Rho; Kim, Bok Deuk

    1988-05-01

    KAERI has an extensive program to develope PWR fuel assembly. In relation to the program, development of flow test technology is needed to evaluate the thermal hydraulic compactibility and mechanical integrity of domestically fabricated nuclear fuels. A high-pressure and high-temperature flow test facility was designed to test domestically fabricated fuel assembly. The test section of the facility has capacity of a 6x6 full length PWR fuel assembly. A flow test rig was designed and installed at Cold Test Loop to carry out model experiments with 5x5 rod assembly under atmosphere pressure to get information about the characteristics of pressure loss of spacer grids and velocity distribution in the subchannels. LDV measuring technology was established using TSI's Laser Dopper Velocimeter 9100-3 System

  9. One picture or a thousand words? Influence of question length and illustration support on the success and skip rates on online tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest REDONDO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of automatically graded online tests, either as an evaluation or self-assessment tool in online or blended education, demands a review of how these questions are designed and delivered to their intended audience. This paper analyzes the results of over 20,000 pre-university mock online quizzes designed to train the students for the Spanish university admission test (known as “Pruebas de Acceso a la Universidad” or “Selectividad” in the technical drawing subject, corresponding to the June and September intakes of 2009 and 2015. The influence of two key aspects on the questions success and skip rates is assessed: (a the presence or absence of illustration support and (b the length of the question as a proxy of reading comprehension difficulty. The results support that the presence of an accompanying illustration in the questions result in fewer skipped questions and mode successful answers, while the length of the question has the opposite effect. The performance difference in the 6-year span is also discussed, showing a slight decline over time in the pass rates while the skip rates remain stable. When comparing both two intakes, corresponding to different academic profiles of students that passed the June exam and those who did not, the success ratio is unsurprisingly lower for the students in the second intake. These findings should help improving the design of online quizzes, including more visual content and/or rephrasing the questions to be more concise, to fit the requirements of students educated in a more visual environment of multimedia technologies.

  10. Evaluation of the normal fetal kidney length and its correlation with gestational age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilanian Toosi, Farrokh; Rezaie-Delui, Hossein

    2013-05-30

    A true estimation of gestational age (GA) plays an important role in quality maternity care and scheduling the labor date. This study aimed to evaluate the normal fetal kidney length (KL) and its correlation with GA. A cross-sectional study on 92 pregnant women between 8th and 10th week of gestation with normal singleton pregnancy underwent standard ultrasound fetal biometry and kidney length measurement. univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to create a predictive equation to estimate GA on the KL and fetobiometry parameters. A significant correlation was found between GA and KL (r=0.83, P<0.002). The best GA predictor was obtained by combining head circumference, fetal biparietal diameter, femur length and KL with a standard error (SE) about 14.2 days. Our findings showed that KL measurements combination with other fetal biometric parameters could predict age of pregnancy with a better precision.

  11. International standards for newborn weight, length, and head circumference by gestational age and sex: the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study of the INTERGROWTH-21st Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, José; Cheikh Ismail, Leila; Victora, Cesar G; Ohuma, Eric O; Bertino, Enrico; Altman, Doug G; Lambert, Ann; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Carvalho, Maria; Jaffer, Yasmin A; Gravett, Michael G; Purwar, Manorama; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Noble, Alison J; Pang, Ruyan; Barros, Fernando C; Chumlea, Cameron; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Kennedy, Stephen H

    2014-09-06

    In 2006, WHO published international growth standards for children younger than 5 years, which are now accepted worldwide. In the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project, our aim was to complement them by developing international standards for fetuses, newborn infants, and the postnatal growth period of preterm infants. INTERGROWTH-21(st) is a population-based project that assessed fetal growth and newborn size in eight geographically defined urban populations. These groups were selected because most of the health and nutrition needs of mothers were met, adequate antenatal care was provided, and there were no major environmental constraints on growth. As part of the Newborn Cross-Sectional Study (NCSS), a component of INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project, we measured weight, length, and head circumference in all newborn infants, in addition to collecting data prospectively for pregnancy and the perinatal period. To construct the newborn standards, we selected all pregnancies in women meeting (in addition to the underlying population characteristics) strict individual eligibility criteria for a population at low risk of impaired fetal growth (labelled the NCSS prescriptive subpopulation). Women had a reliable ultrasound estimate of gestational age using crown-rump length before 14 weeks of gestation or biparietal diameter if antenatal care started between 14 weeks and 24 weeks or less of gestation. Newborn anthropometric measures were obtained within 12 h of birth by identically trained anthropometric teams using the same equipment at all sites. Fractional polynomials assuming a skewed t distribution were used to estimate the fitted centiles. We identified 20,486 (35%) eligible women from the 59,137 pregnant women enrolled in NCSS between May 14, 2009, and Aug 2, 2013. We calculated sex-specific observed and smoothed centiles for weight, length, and head circumference for gestational age at birth. The observed and smoothed centiles were almost identical. We present the 3rd, 10th, 50th, 90

  12. Effect of length scale on mechanical properties of Al-Cu eutectic alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, C. S.; Roy Mahapatra, D.; Chattopadhyay, K.

    2012-10-01

    This paper attempts a quantitative understanding of the effect of length scale on two phase eutectic structure. We first develop a model that considers both the elastic and plastic properties of the interface. Using Al-Al2Cu lamellar eutectic as model system, the parameters of the model were experimentally determined using indentation technique. The model is further validated using the results of bulk compression testing of the eutectics having different length scales.

  13. Is the word-length effect linked to subvocal rehearsal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemot, Charlotte; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Bachoud-Lévi, Anne-Catherine

    2011-04-01

    Models of phonological short-term memory (pSTM) generally distinguish between two components: a phonological buffer and a subvocal rehearsal. Evidence for these two components comes, respectively, from the phonological similarity effect and the word-length effect which disappears under articulatory suppression. But alternative theories posit that subvocal rehearsal is only an optional component of the pSTM. According to them, the depletion of the length effect under articulatory suppression results from the interference of the self-produced speech rather than the disruption of subvocal rehearsal. In order to disentangle these two theories, we tested two patients with a short-term memory deficit. FA, who presents a pseudoword repetition deficit, and FL, who does not. FA's deficit allowed for the observance of an ecological case of subvocal rehearsal disruption without any articulatory suppression task. FA's performance in pSTM tasks reveals as controls a phonological similarity effect, and contrary to controls no word-length effect. In contrast, the second patient, FL, exhibits the same effects as control subjects. This result is in accordance with models of pSTM in which the word-length effect emerges from subvocal rehearsal and disappears when this latter is disrupted. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  14. Bending Test of Conductor for ALICE and LHCb Dipole Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Giudici, P A; CERN. Geneva; Flegel, W

    2000-01-01

    Abstract It is foreseen that the coils for the two magnets will be manufactured by winding flat pancakes, which are subsequently shaped to a semi-cylindrical form (ALICE) or bent by 45 degrees (LHCb). We propose here several methods and describe tests that were performed to estimate tolerances and forces which will have to be expected during the manufacturing process. To this end, short Aluminium conductor lengths of adequate cross-section were bent around a shaper piece to an angle of 90 degrees. The tests were repeated for conductors both wrapped with prepreg insulation tape and without this tape. The different test set-ups and the obtained results are described in this note.

  15. Relationship between Achilles tendon length and running performance in well-trained male endurance runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Hiromasa; Suga, Tadashi; Takao, Kenji; Tanaka, Takahiro; Misaki, Jun; Miyake, Yuto; Nagano, Akinori; Isaka, Tadao

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between Achilles tendon (AT) length and running performance, including running economy, in well-trained endurance runners. We also examined the reasonable portion of the AT related to running performance among AT lengths measured in three different portions. The AT lengths at three portions and cross-sectional area (CSA) of 30 endurance runners were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Each AT length was calculated as the distance from the calcaneal tuberosity to the muscle-tendon junction of the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis (GM AT ), and gastrocnemius lateralis, respectively. These AT lengths were normalized with shank length. The AT CSA was calculated as the average of 10, 20, and 30 mm above the distal insertion of the AT and normalized with body mass. Running economy was evaluated by measuring energy cost during three 4-minutes submaximal treadmill running trials at 14, 16, and 18 km/h, respectively. Among three AT lengths, only a GM AT correlated significantly with personal best 5000-m race time (r=-.376, P=.046). Furthermore, GM AT correlated significantly with energy cost during submaximal treadmill running trials at 14 km/h and 18 km/h (r=-.446 and -.429, respectively, Prunning performance. These findings suggest that longer AT, especially GM AT , may be advantageous to achieve superior running performance, with better running economy, in endurance runners. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Fracture toughness testing of core from the Cambro-Ordovician Section on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemiszki, P.J.; Landes, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    The modified ring test was used to determine the mode I fracture toughness of bedrock cores from the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation in east Tennessee. Low porosity sandstones, limestones, and dolostones from the lower part of the Paleozoic section in Copper Creek and Whiteoak Mountain thrust sheets were sampled. In general, the average mode I fracture toughness decreases from sandstone, dolostone, and limestone. The fracture toughness of the limestones varies between rock units, which is related to different sedimentologic characteristics. Quality of results was evaluated by testing cores of Berea Sandstone and Indiana Limestone, which produced results similar to published results

  17. Sonographic fetal weight estimation using femoral length: Honarvar Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firoozabadi, Raziah Dehghani; Ghasemi, N.; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Dehghani

    2007-01-01

    Fetal growth is the result of interactions between various factors and can be estimated by ultrasonic measurements. Fetal femur length is a scale for estimating the fetal weight in individual races because fetal growth patterns differ among different races. This was a prospective study involving 500 pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestational age. Real-time sonography was done to measure the femoral length and the weight of the fetus was estimated by the Honarvar 2 equation. The correlation between estimated fetal weight (EFW) and real weight was tested by Pearson correlation coefficient and relationships with the age and BMI of mother, the sex of the neonate and parity were tested by multiple regression. EFW by the Honarvar 2 equation correlated significantly with actual birthweight. Therefore, this equation is valid for fetal weight estimation. It also does not depend on the age and BMI of the mother, sex of the neonate, parity. Ethnicity potentially plays an important role in the fetal weight estimation. The Honarvar formula produced the best estimate of the actual birthweight for Iranian fetuses, and its use is recommended. (author)

  18. Systematic and Cell Type-Specific Telomere Length Changes in Subsets of Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomeres, the protective DNA-protein complexes at the ends of linear chromosomes, are important for genome stability. Leukocyte or peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC telomere length is a potential biomarker for human aging that integrates genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors and is associated with mortality and risks for major diseases. However, only a limited number of studies have examined longitudinal changes of telomere length and few have reported data on sorted circulating immune cells. We examined the average telomere length (TL in CD4+, CD8+CD28+, and CD8+CD28− T cells, B cells, and PBMCs, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, in a cohort of premenopausal women. We report that TL changes over 18 months were correlated among these three T cell types within the same participant. Additionally, PBMC TL change was also correlated with those of all three T cell types, and B cells. The rate of shortening for B cells was significantly greater than for the three T cell types. CD8+CD28− cells, despite having the shortest TL, showed significantly more rapid attrition when compared to CD8+CD28+ T cells. These results suggest systematically coordinated, yet cell type-specific responses to factors and pathways contribute to telomere length regulation.

  19. Research and field tests of staged fracturing technology for casing deformation sections in horizontal shale gas wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimeng Liao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal shale gas well fracturing is mostly carried out by pumping bridge plugs. In the case of casing deformation, the bridge plug can not be pumped down to the designated position, so the hole sections below the deformation could not be stimulated according to the design program. About 30% of horizontal shale gas wells in the Changning and Weiyuan Blocks, Sichuan Basin, suffer various casing deformation after fracturing. Previously, the hole sections which could not be stimulated due to casing deformation were generally abandoned. As a result, the resources controlled by shale gas wells weren't exploited effectively and the fracturing effect was impacted greatly. There are a lot of difficulties in investigating casing deformation, such as complex mechanisms, various influencing factors and unpredictable deformation time. Therefore, it is especially important to seek a staged fracturing technology suitable for the casing deformation sections. In this paper, the staged fracturing technology with sand plugs inside fractures and the staged fracturing technology with temporary plugging balls were tested in casing deformation wells. The staged fracturing technology with sand plugs inside fractures was carried out in the mode of single-stage perforation and single-stage fracturing. The staged fracturing technology with temporary plugging balls was conducted in the mode of single perforation, continuous fracturing and staged ball dropping. Then, two kinds of technologies were compared in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, they were tested on site. According to the pressure response, the pressure monitoring of the adjacent wells and the microseismic monitoring in the process of actual fracturing, both technologies are effective in the stimulation of the casing deformation sections, realizing well control reserves efficiently and guaranteeing fracturing effects. Keywords: Shale gas, Horizontal well, Casing deformation, Staged

  20. Damping test results for straight sections of 3-inch and 8-inch unpressurized pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Thinnes, G.L.

    1984-04-01

    EG and G Idaho is assisting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Pressure Vessel Research Committee in supporting a final position on revised damping values for structural analyses of nuclear piping systems. As part of this program, a series of vibrational tests on unpressurized 3-in. and 8-in. Schedule 40 carbon steel piping was conducted to determine the changes in structural damping due to various parametric effects. The 33-ft straight sections of piping were supported at the ends. Additionally, intermediate supports comprising spring, rod, and constant-force hangers, as well as a sway brace and snubbers, were used. Excitation was provided by low-force-level hammer impacts, a hydraulic shaker, and a 50-ton overhead crane for snapback testing. Data was recorded using acceleration, strain, and displacement time histories. This report presents test results showing the effect of stress level and type of supports on structural damping in piping

  1. Laser interferometric method for determining the carrier diffusion length in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manukhov, V. V. [Saint Petersburg State University (Russian Federation); Fedortsov, A. B.; Ivanov, A. S., E-mail: ivaleks58@gmail.com [Saint Petersburg Mining University (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    A new laser interferometric method for measuring the carrier diffusion length in semiconductors is proposed. The method is based on the interference–absorption interaction of two laser radiations in a semiconductor. Injected radiation generates additional carriers in a semiconductor, which causes a change in the material’s optical constants and modulation of the probing radiation passed through the sample. When changing the distance between carrier generation and probing points, a decrease in the carrier concentration, which depends on the diffusion length, is recorded. The diffusion length is determined by comparing the experimental and theoretical dependences of the probe signal on the divergence of the injector and probe beams. The method is successfully tested on semiconductor samples with different thicknesses and surface states and can be used in scientific research and the electronics industry.

  2. Dietary intakes among South Asian adults differ by length of residence in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talegawkar, Sameera A; Kandula, Namratha R; Gadgil, Meghana D; Desai, Dipika; Kanaya, Alka M

    2016-02-01

    To examine whether nutrient and food intakes among South Asian adult immigrants differ by length of residence in the USA. Cross-sectional analysis to examine differences in nutrient and food intakes by length of residence in the USA. Dietary data were collected using an interviewer-administered, culturally appropriate FFQ, while self-reported length of residence was assessed using a questionnaire and modelled as tertiles. The Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study. Eight hundred and seventy-four South Asians (mean age=55 (sd 9) years; 47 % women; range of length of residence in the USA=2-58 years), part of the baseline examination of the MASALA study. Intakes of fat, including saturated and trans fats, dietary cholesterol and n-6 fatty acids, were directly associated with length of residence, while intakes of energy, carbohydrate, glycaemic index and load, protein, dietary fibre, folate and K were inversely associated with length of residence (P trend USA was also associated with higher intakes of alcoholic beverages, mixed dishes including pizza and pasta, fats and oils, and lower intakes of beans and lentils, breads, grains and flour products, milk and dairy products, rice, starchy vegetables and sugar, candy and jam (P for differences across groups USA influences diet and nutrient intakes among South Asian adult immigrants and should be considered when investigating and planning dietary interventions to mitigate chronic disease risk.

  3. Post-test thermal calculations and data analyses for the Spent Fuel Test, Climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montan, D.N.; Patrick, W.C.

    1986-06-01

    After the Spent Fuel Test - Climax (SFT-C) was completed, additional calculations were performed using the best available (directly measured or inferred from measurements made during the test) input parameters, thermal properties, and power levels. This report documents those calculations and compares the results with measurements made during the three-year heating phase and six-month posttest cooling phase of the SFT-C. Three basic types of heat-transfer calculations include a combined two-dimensional/three-dimensional, infinite-length, finite-difference model; a fully three-dimensional, finite-length, finite-difference model; and a fully three-dimensional, finite-length, analytical solution. The finite-length model much more accurately reflects heat flow near the ends of the array and produces cooler temperatures everywhere than does its infinite-length counterpart. 14 refs., 144 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Tests of compressed geometry NEC acceleration tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raatz, J.E.; Rathmell, R.D.; Stelson, P.H.; Ziegler, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    Tests have been performed in the 3 MV Pelletron test machine at NEC on a compressed geometry tube which increases the insulating length of the tube by eliminating the heated electrode assemblies (approx.2.5 cm thick) at the end of each tube section. Some insert electrodes are changed to provide some trapping of secondary ions. The geometry tested provided an 18% increase in live ceramic in the tube. The compressed geometry tube allowed a terminal voltage of 3.55 MV on the 3 MV column at normal gradients of 30.3 kv/tube gap. The tube was also conditioned to more than 4 MV and remained stable in voltage with few sparks and with low x-ray levels for days at about 4 MV. This same performance could be achieved with or without arc discharge cleaning. 4 refs., 4 figs

  5. Second-trimester cervical length as risk indicator for Cesarean delivery in women with twin pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Mheen, L.; Schuit, E.; Liem, S. M. S.; Lim, A. C.; Bekedam, D. J.; Goossens, S. M. T. A.; Franssen, M. T. M.; Porath, M. M.; Oudijk, M. A.; Bloemenkamp, K. W. M.; Duvekot, J. J.; Woiski, M. D.; De Graaf, I.; Sikkema, J. M.; Scheepers, H. C. J.; Van Eijk, J.; De Groot, C. J. M.; Van Pampus, M. G.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine whether second-trimester cervical length (CL) in women with a twin pregnancy is associated with the risk of emergency Cesarean section. Methods This was a secondary analysis of two randomized trials conducted in 57 hospitals in The Netherlands. We assessed the univariable

  6. Relationship between high quality CHF and boiling length in annulus geometry with uniformly heated rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, S. Y.; Mun, S. K.; Park, J. K.; Yang, S. K.; Jung, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between the boiling length and the CHF in annulus geometry with uniformly heated rod has been studied. In this study the CHF data under pressure of 0.57∼15.01 MPa, flow rate of 200∼650 kg/m 2 s, inlet subcooling of 85∼353 kJ/kg and exit quality of 0.106∼0.536 have been applied. As a result of examining the flow pattern over the heated section, all of the CHF data were the dryout type CHF in annular flow and the locations of the churn to annular flow transition moved down stream of the heated section with increasing the pressure. The effect of pressure on the boiling length under the CHF conditions showed the trends similar to the effect of pressure on the CHF. The relationship between the non-dimensional CHF, q CHF and mass flux taking into account of the boiling length, G ( L h / L B ) indicated the linear relationship without scatter and regardless of pressure and inlet subcooling. The CHF calculated by using the relationship between the non-dimensionless CHF, q CHF and mass flux, G ( L h / L B ) predicted very well the experimental CHF data with the pressure dependence

  7. Collisional scattering for binary Coulomb interactions that are cut off at a distance different than the Debye length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, J.R.; Chang Yongbin; Ordonez, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Collisional scattering is considered within a system of charged particles experiencing binary Coulomb interactions when the scale length for the range of each interaction is not isotropic and is not necessarily equal to the Debye length. For example, one or more dimensions of the system could be smaller than the Debye length. The effect is assessed by evaluating integrals over the impact cross section. Cutoffs on both the impact parameter and the Coulomb interaction potential are employed, and no assumption is made regarding the value of the Coulomb logarithm. Two expressions are found that have a dependence on the cutoff lengths, with one of the expressions being associated with the Coulomb logarithm. Collisional scattering within an electrostatic ion trap is considered by way of example

  8. Application of the Region-Time-Length algorithm to study of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    51

    analyzed using the Region-Time-Length (RTL) algorithm based statistical technique. The utilized earthquake data were obtained from the International Seismological Centre. Thereafter, the homogeneity and completeness of the catalogue were improved. After performing iterative tests with different values of the r0 and t0 ...

  9. Thin filament length in the cardiac sarcomere varies with sarcomere length but is independent of titin and nebulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Justin; Li, Frank; Methawasin, Mei; Adler, Maya; Escobar, Yael-Natalie; Nedrud, Joshua; Pappas, Christopher T; Harris, Samantha P; Granzier, Henk

    2016-08-01

    Thin filament length (TFL) is an important determinant of the force-sarcomere length (SL) relation of cardiac muscle. However, the various mechanisms that control TFL are not well understood. Here we tested the previously proposed hypothesis that the actin-binding protein nebulin contributes to TFL regulation in the heart by using a cardiac-specific nebulin cKO mouse model (αMHC Cre Neb cKO). Atrial myocytes were studied because nebulin expression has been reported to be most prominent in this cell type. TFL was measured in right and left atrial myocytes using deconvolution optical microscopy and staining for filamentous actin with phalloidin and for the thin filament pointed-end with an antibody to the capping protein Tropomodulin-1 (Tmod1). Results showed that TFLs in Neb cKO and littermate control mice were not different. Thus, deletion of nebulin in the heart does not alter TFL. However, TFL was found to be ~0.05μm longer in the right than in the left atrium and Tmod1 expression was increased in the right atrium. We also tested the hypothesis that the length of titin's spring region is a factor controlling TFL by studying the Rbm20(ΔRRM) mouse which expresses titins that are ~500kDa (heterozygous mice) and ~1000kDa (homozygous mice) longer than in control mice. Results revealed that TFL was not different in Rbm20(ΔRRM) mice. An unexpected finding in all genotypes studied was that TFL increased as sarcomeres were stretched (~0.1μm per 0.35μm of SL increase). This apparent increase in TFL reached a maximum at a SL of ~3.0μm where TFL was ~1.05μm. The SL dependence of TFL was independent of chemical fixation or the presence of cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C). In summary, we found that in cardiac myocytes TFL varies with SL in a manner that is independent of the size of titin or the presence of nebulin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of the Normal Fetal Kidney Length and Its Correlation with Gestational Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrokh Seilanian Toosi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A true estimation of gestational age (GA plays an important role in quality maternity care and scheduling the labor date. This study aimed to evaluate the normal fetal kidney length (KL and its correlation with GA. A cross-sectional study on 92 pregnant women between 8th and 10th week of gestation with normal singleton pregnancy underwent standard ultrasound fetal biometry and kidney length measurement. univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was used to create a predictive equation to estimate GA on the KL and fetobiometry parameters. A significant correlation was found between GA and KL (r=0.83, P<0.002. The best GA predictor was obtained by combining head circumference, fetal biparietal diameter, femur length and KL with a standard error (SE about 14.2 days. Our findings showed that KL measurements combination with other fetal biometric parameters could predict age of pregnancy with a better precision.

  11. Visualization test using piping group mock up specimen for evaluation of wastage phenomena in steam generator for FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Keisuke; Yoshida, Atsuro; Arae, Kunihiko; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Ohshima, Hiroyuki; Kurihara, Akikazu

    2012-01-01

    There is a need for quantitative evaluation of wastage phenomena in steam generator for FBR. We focused attention on liquid droplet impingement erosion (LDIE) in wastage phenomena and performed basic study with piping group mock up specimen for quantitative evaluation of LDIE. First, we did visualization test of high pressure and high speed jet into the water. Test section mock up the crack of heat exchanger tube and neighboring heat exchanger tubes. We did the test under the following test conditions. Upstream pressure is 0.3MPa, vapor temperature is 300K, crack width is 0.1mm, and crack length is 40mm. (crack diameter is 0.2mm) Second, we did pressure and temperature measurement test in the same test conditions as before. We evaluated jet behavior at test section by those two tests. In addition, we did two phase flow analysis of the jet with TRAC code. (author)

  12. Approximating a free-field blast environment in the test section of an explosively driven conical shock tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J. B.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents experimental data on incident overpressures and the corresponding impulses obtained in the test section of an explosively driven 10° (full angle) conical shock tube. Due to the shock tube's steel walls approximating the boundary conditions seen by a spherical sector cut out of a detonating sphere of energetic material, a 5.3-g pentolite shock tube driver charge produces peak overpressures corresponding to a free-field detonation from an 816-g sphere of pentolite. The four test section geometries investigated in this paper (open air, cylindrical, 10° inscribed square frustum, and 10° circumscribed square frustum) provide a variety of different time histories for the incident overpressures and impulses, with a circumscribed square frustum yielding the best approximation of the estimated blast environment that would have been produced by a free-field detonation.

  13. Does structural leg-length discrepancy affect postural control? Preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliks, Małgorzata; Ostiak-Tomaszewska, Wioleta; Lisiński, Przemysław; Koczewski, Paweł

    2017-08-09

    Leg-length inequality results in an altered position of the spine and pelvis. Previous studies on the influence of leg asymmetry on postural control have been inconclusive. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the effect of structural leg-length discrepancy (LLD) on the control of posture. We studied 38 individuals (19 patients with structural LLD, 19 healthy subjects). The examination included measurement of the length of the lower limbs and weight distribution as well as a static posturography. All statistical analyses were performed with Statistica software version 10.0. Non-parametrical Kruskal-Wallis with Dunn's post test and Spearman test were used. Differences between the groups and correlation between mean COP sway velocity and the value of LLD as well as the value of LLD and weight distribution were assumed as statistically significant at p  0.05). Meaningful differences in mean COP velocity in mediolateral direction between tandem stance with eyes open and closed were detected in both groups (in controls p = 0.000134, in patients both with the shorter leg in a front and rear position, p = 0.029, p = 0.026 respectively). There was a positive moderate correlation between the value of LLD and the value of mean COP velocity in normal standing in mediolateral direction with eyes open (r = 0.47) and closed (r = 0.54) and in anterioposterior plane with eyes closed (r = 0.05). The fact that there were no significant differences in posturography between the groups might indicate compensations to the altered posture and neuromuscular adaptations in patients with structural leg-length inequality. LLD causes an increased asymmetry of weight distribution. This study confirmed a fundamental role of the sight in postural control, especially in unstable conditions. The analysis of mean COP sway velocity may suggest a proportional deterioration of postural control with the increase of the value of leg-length asymmetry. Trial registry: Clinical

  14. Kidney Length in Normal Korean Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In One; Cheon, Jung Eun; Lee, Young Seok; Lee, Sun Wha; Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Hong Dae; Sim, Jung Suk

    2010-01-01

    Renal length offers important information to detect or follow-up various renal diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the kidney length of normal Korean children in relation to age, height, weight, body surface area (BSA), and body mass index (BMI). Children between 1 month and 15 years of age without urological abnormality were recruited. Children below 3rd percentile and over 97th percentile for height or weight were excluded. Both renal lengths were measured in the prone position three times and then averaged by experienced radiologists. The mean length and standard deviation for each age group was obtained, and regression equation was calculated between renal length and age, weight, height, BSA, and BMI, respectively. Renal length was measured in 550 children. Renal length grows rapidly until 24 month, while the growth rate is reduced thereafter. The regression equation for age is: renal length (mm) = 45.953 + 1.064 x age (month, ≤ 24 months) (R2 = 0.720) or 62.173 + 0.203 x age (months, > 24 months) (R2 = 0.711). The regression equation for height is: renal length (mm) = 24.494 + 0.457 x height (cm) (R2 = 0.894). The regression equation for weight is: renal length (mm) = 38.342 + 2.117 x weight (kg, ≤18 kg) (R2 = 0.852) or 64.498 + 0.646 x weight (kg, > 18 kg) (R2 = 0.651). The regression equation for BSA is: renal length (mm) = 31.622 + 61.363 x BSA (m2, ≤ 0.7) (R2 = 0.857) or 52.717 + 29.959 x BSA (m2, > 0.7) (R2 = 0.715). The regression equation for BMI is: renal length (mm) = 44.474 + 1.163 x BMI (R2 = 0.079). This study provides data on the normal renal length and its association with age, weight, height, BSA and BMI. The results of this study will guide the detection and follow-up of renal diseases in Korean children

  15. Spatial linear flows of finite length with nonuniform intensity distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylov Ivan Evgrafovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Irrotational flows produced by spatial linear flows of finite length with different uneven lows of discharge over the flow length are represented in cylindrical coordinate system. Flows with the length 2a are placed in infinite space filled with ideal (inviscid fluid. In “А” variant discharge is fading linearly downward along the length of the flow. In “B” variant in upper half of the flow (length a discharge is fading linearly downward, in lower half of the flow discharge is fading linearly from the middle point to lower end. In “C” variant discharge of the flow is growing linearly from upper and lower ends to middle point.Equations for discharge distribution along the length of the flow are provided for each variant. Equations consist of two terms and include two dimensional parameters and current coordinate that allows integrating on flow length. Analytical expressions are derived for speed potential functions and flow speed components for flow speeds produced by analyzed flows. These analytical expressions consist of dimensional parameters of discharge distribution patterns along the length of the flow. Flow lines equation (meridional sections of flow surfaces for variants “A”, “B”, “C” is unsolvable in quadratures. Flow lines plotting is proposed to be made by finite difference method. Equations for flow line plotting are provided for each variant. Calculations of these equations show that the analyzed flows have the following flow lines: “A” has confocal hyperbolical curves, “B” and “C” have confocal hyperboles. Flow surfaces are confocal hyperboloids produced by rotation of these hyperboles about the axis passing through the flows. In “A” variant the space filled with fluid is separated by vividly horizontal flow surface in two parts. In upper part that includes the smaller part of the flow length flow lines are oriented downward, in lower part – upward. The equation defining coordinate of

  16. Differences in caregiver daily impression by sex, education and career length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ae, Ryusuke; Kojo, Takao; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Okayama, Masanobu; Kuwabara, Masanari; Makino, Nobuko; Aoyama, Yasuko; Sano, Takashi; Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2017-03-01

    We previously proposed the concept of caregiver daily impression (CDI) as a practical tool for emergency triage. We herein assessed how CDI varies by sex, education and career length by determining CDI scores as quantitative outcome measures. We carried out a cross-sectional study using a self-reported questionnaire among caregivers in 20 long-term care facilities in Hyogo, Japan. A total of 10 CDI variables measured participants' previous experience of emergency transfers using a scale from 0-10. The resulting total was defined as the CDI score. We hypothetically considered that higher scores indicated greater caregiver focus. The CDI scores were compared by sex, education and career length using analysis of covariance. A total of 601 personal caregivers were evaluated (mean age 36.7 years; 36% men). The mean career length was 6.9 years, with the following groupings: 1-4 years (38%), 5-9 years (37%) and >10 years (24%). After adjustment for sex and education, the CDI scores for the variable, "poor eye contact," significantly differed between caregivers with ≥10 and Sex-related differences in CDI might also exist. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2016; 17: 410-415. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Influence of recording length on reporting status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Fagt, Sisse

    2009-01-01

    : To investigate the impact of recording length on reporting status, expressed as the ratio between energy intake and calculated basal metabolic rate (EI/BMR), the percentage of consumers of selected food items and the number reported food items per meal and eating occasions per day. Methods: Data from two...... in a validation study and the Danish National Survey of Dietary Habits and Physical Activity 2000-2002, respectively. Both studies had a cross-sectional design. Volunteers and participants completed a pre-coded food diary every day for 7 consecutive days. BMR was predicted from equations. Results......: In the validation study, EI/BMR was significantly lower on 1st, 2nd and 3rd consecutive recording days compared to 4-7 recording days (P food items...

  18. Texas flexible pavements and overlays : year 1 report, test sections, data collection, analyses, and data storage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This five-year project was initiated to collect materials and pavement performance data on a minimum of 100 highway test sections around the State of Texas, incorporating both flexible pavements and overlays. Besides being used to calibrate and valid...

  19. Comparison between two pencil-type ionization chambers with sensitive volume length of 30 cm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Maysa C. de; Xavier, Marcos; Silva, Natalia F.; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) for imaging procedures has been growing due to advances in the equipment technology, providing a higher dose to the patient, in relation to other diagnostic radiology tests, resulting in a concern for the patients. The dosimetry in CT is carried out with a pencil-type ionization chamber with sensitive volume length of 10 cm. Studies have shown the underestimation of the dose values. In this work two ionization chambers with the sensitive volume length of 30 cm were developed. They were submitted to the main characterization tests; the results showed to be within the international recommended limits. (author)

  20. Determination of the pion-nucleon coupling constant and scattering lengths

    CERN Document Server

    Ericson, Torleif Eric Oskar; Thomas, A W

    2002-01-01

    We critically evaluate the isovector GMO sum rule for forward pion-nucleon scattering using the recent precision measurements of negatively charged pion-proton and pion-deuteron scattering lengths from pionic atoms. We deduce the charged-pion-nucleon coupling constant, with careful attention to systematic and statistical uncertainties. This determination gives, directly from data a pseudoscalar coupling constant of 14.17+-0.05(statistical)+-0.19(systematic) or a pseudovector one of 0.0786(11). This value is intermediate between that of indirect methods and the direct determination from backward neutron-proton differential scattering cross sections. We also use the pionic atom data to deduce the coherent symmetric and antisymmetric sums of the negatively charged pion-proton and pion-neutron scattering lengths with high precision. The symmetric sum gives 0.0017+-0.0002(statistical)+-0.0008 (systematic) and the antisymmetric one 0.0900+-0.0003(statistical)+-0.0013(systematic), both in units of inverse charged pi...

  1. Flame Length

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Flame length was modeled using FlamMap, an interagency fire behavior mapping and analysis program that computes potential fire behavior characteristics. The tool...

  2. List length and overlap effects in forced-choice associative recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S E; Hori, A

    1995-07-01

    Two experiments examined forced-choice associative recognition for OLAP and NOLAP test conditions. OLAP test trials consist of pairs with overlapping items (e.g., AB vs. AD), whereas NOLAP test trials contain no overlapping items (e.g., AB vs. CF). Previous results show better performance for NOLAP than for OLAP tests, contrary to the predictions of global memory models. The present experiments varied list length to examine the hypothesis that the NOLAP advantage is produced by recall-like retrieval processes. The use of longer lists either eliminated (Experiment 1) or greatly reduced (Experiment 2) the NOLAP advantage. However, a reliable OLAP advantage was not obtained. Implications for models are discussed.

  3. Leukocyte Telomere Length and Cognitive Function in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Frith

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the specific association between leukocyte telomere length and cognitive function among a national sample of the broader U.S. older adult population. Data from the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES were used to identify 1,722 adults, between 60-85 years, with complete data on selected study variables. DNA was extracted from whole blood via the LTL assay, which is administered using quantitative polymerase chain reaction to measure telomere length relative to standard reference DNA (T/S ratio. Average telomere length was recorded, with two to three assays performed to control for individual variability. The DSST (Digit Symbol Substitution Test was used to assess participant executive cognitive functioning tasks of pairing and free recall. Individuals were excluded if they had been diagnosed with coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, heart attack or stroke at the baseline assessment. Leukocyte telomere length was associated with higher cognitive performance, independent of gender, race-ethnicity, physical activity status, body mass index and other covariates. In this sample, there was a strong association between LTL and cognition; for every 1 T/S ratio increase in LTL, there was a corresponding 9.9 unit increase in the DSST (β = 9.9; 95% CI: 5.6-14.2; P [JCBPR 2018; 7(1.000: 14-18

  4. Analysis of severe accidents on fast reactor test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cenerini, R.; Verzelletti, G.; Curioni, S.

    1975-01-01

    The Pec reactor is a sodium cooled fast reactor which is being designed for the primary purpose of accomodating closed sodium cooled test loops for the developmental and proof testing of fast reactor fuel assemblies. The test loops are located in the central test region of reactor. The basic function for which the loop is designed is burn-up to failure testing of fuel under advanced performance conditions. It is therefore necessary to design the loop for failure conditions. Basically two types of accidents can occur within the loops: rupture of gas plenum in the fuel pins and coolant starvation. Explosive tests on Pec loop, whose first set is described in this report, are devoted to investigate the effects of an accidental energy release on loop containment. The loop model reproduces in the test section the prototype dimensions in radial scale 1:1. Using a wire explosive charge of 300mm, the height of test section is sufficient for determining the containment capability of the loop that has a nearly constant deformation in a length of. 3-4 time the diameter. The inertial effects of the coolant column are reproduced by two tubes at the extremities of test section, closed with top plugs. Some tests has been performed by wrapping around the test section four layers of steel wire in order to evaluate the influence on the containment of tungsten wire that is foreseen in prototype loop. The influence of the coolant around the loop was evaluated by inserting the model in water. Dummy sub-assemblies was used and explosive substitutes the central rods. Piezoelectric pressure transducers were mounted on the three plugs and radial deformation was measured directly at different height. From experiments performed it resulted the importance of harmonic wires and inertial reaction of external water on loop containment; maximum containable energy is about 50 Cal with E.1 explosive

  5. Length and elasticity of side reins affect rein tension at trot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Hilary M; Larson, Britt; Kaiser, LeeAnn J; Lavagnino, Michael

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the horse's contribution to tension in the reins. The experimental hypotheses were that tension in side reins (1) increases biphasically in each trot stride, (2) changes inversely with rein length, and (3) changes with elasticity of the reins. Eight riding horses trotted in hand at consistent speed in a straight line wearing a bit and bridle and three types of side reins (inelastic, stiff elastic, compliant elastic) were evaluated in random order at long, neutral, and short lengths. Strain gauge transducers (240 Hz) measured minimal, maximal and mean rein tension, rate of loading and impulse. The effects of rein type and length were evaluated using ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests. Rein tension oscillated in a regular pattern with a peak during each diagonal stance phase. Within each rein type, minimal, maximal and mean tensions were higher with shorter reins. At neutral or short lengths, minimal tension increased and maximal tension decreased with elasticity of the reins. Short, inelastic reins had the highest maximal tension and rate of loading. Since the tension variables respond differently to rein elasticity at different lengths, it is recommended that a set of variables representing different aspects of rein tension should be reported. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Intraflagellar transport particle size scales inversely with flagellar length: revisiting the balance-point length control model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Benjamin D; Ludington, William B; Marshall, Wallace F

    2009-10-05

    The assembly and maintenance of eukaryotic flagella are regulated by intraflagellar transport (IFT), the bidirectional traffic of IFT particles (recently renamed IFT trains) within the flagellum. We previously proposed the balance-point length control model, which predicted that the frequency of train transport should decrease as a function of flagellar length, thus modulating the length-dependent flagellar assembly rate. However, this model was challenged by the differential interference contrast microscopy observation that IFT frequency is length independent. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to quantify protein traffic during the regeneration of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii flagella, we determined that anterograde IFT trains in short flagella are composed of more kinesin-associated protein and IFT27 proteins than trains in long flagella. This length-dependent remodeling of train size is consistent with the kinetics of flagellar regeneration and supports a revised balance-point model of flagellar length control in which the size of anterograde IFT trains tunes the rate of flagellar assembly.

  7. Authoritarian personality and rape sentence length in conservative and liberal states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2009-06-01

    The author tested the claim that authoritarians desire exceptionally strong punishment for rapists. Given data on 55,966 felons sentenced in 32 U.S. states in 1986 for homicide, rape, assault, robbery, burglary, larceny, and drug offenses (D. A. Bowers & J. L. Waltman, 1993) and given state conservatism scores of 141,798 respondents to 122 1976-1988 CBS and The New York Times national telephone polls (R. Erikson, G. Wright, & J. McIver, 1993) as proxies for authoritarianism, regression analyses showed state conservatism accounted for 18.9%, F(1, 18) = 7.11, p < .01, of the rape sentence length variance when sentence lengths for the 7 other offenses were controlled for and 12.5%, F(1, 27) = 8.16, p < .01, with means substituted for missing data. In both analyses, state conservatism and rape sentence length were positively correlated.

  8. Genetic association of telomere length with hepatocellular carcinoma risk: A Mendelian randomization analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yue; Yu, Chengxiao; Huang, Mingtao; Du, Fangzhi; Song, Ci; Ma, Zijian; Zhai, Xiangjun; Yang, Yuan; Liu, Jibin; Bei, Jin-Xin; Jia, Weihua; Jin, Guangfu; Li, Shengping; Zhou, Weiping; Liu, Jianjun; Dai, Juncheng; Hu, Zhibin

    2017-10-01

    Observational studies show an association between telomere length and Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk, but the relationship is controversial. Particularly, it remains unclear whether the association is due to confounding or biases inherent in conventional epidemiological studies. Here, we applied Mendelian randomization approach to evaluate whether telomere length is causally associated with HCC risk. Individual-level data were from HBV-related HCC Genome-wide association studies (1,538 HBV positive HCC patients and 1,465 HBV positive controls). Genetic risk score, as proxy for actual measured telomere length, derived from nine telomere length-associated genetic variants was used to evaluate the effect of telomere length on HCC risk. We observed a significant risk signal between genetically increased telomere length and HBV-related HCC risk (OR=2.09, 95% CI 1.32-3.31, P=0.002). Furthermore, a U-shaped curve was fitted by the restricted cubic spline curve, which indicated that either short or long telomere length would increase HCC risk (P=0.0022 for non-linearity test). Subgroup analysis did not reveal significant heterogeneity between different age, gender, smoking status and drinking status groups. Our results indicated that a genetic background that favors longer or shorter telomere length may increase HBV-related HCC risk-a U-shaped association. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Controlling the optical path length in turbid media using differential path-length spectroscopy: fiber diameter dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaspers, O. P.; Sterenborg, H. J. C. M.; Amelink, A.

    2008-01-01

    We have characterized the path length for the differential path-length spectroscopy (DPS) fiber optic geometry for a wide range of optical properties and for fiber diameters ranging from 200 mu m to 1000 mu m. Phantom measurements show that the path length is nearly constant for scattering

  10. Test results from recent 1.8-m SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] model dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, P.; Cottingham, J.G.; Dahl, P.

    1988-01-01

    We report results from four 1.8 m-long dipoles built as part of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) RandD program. Except for length, these models have the features of the SSC design, which is based on a two-layer cosine theta coil with 4 cm aperture. As compared to the 17 m design length SSC dipoles, these 1.8 m magnets are a faster and more economical way of testing design changes in field shape, conductor support in the coil straight-section and ends, etc. The four magnets reported here all reach fields in excess of 7.5T with little training and have excellent field shape. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Benchmark test of MORSE-DD code using double-differential form cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Masayuki; Mori, Takamasa; Ishiguro, Yukio

    1985-02-01

    The multi-group double-differential form cross sections (DDX) and the three dimensional Monte Carlo code MORSE-DD devised to utilize the DDX, which were developed for the fusion neutronics analysis, have been validated through many benchmark tests. All the problems tested have a 14 MeV neutron source. To compare the calculated results with the measured values, the following experiments were adopted as the benchmark problems; leakage neutron spectra from spheres composed of nine kinds of materials measured at LLNL, neutron angular spectra from the Li 2 O slab measured at FNS in JAERI, tritium production rate (TPR) in the graphite-reflected Li 2 O sphere measured at FNS and the TPR in the metallic Li sphere measured at KfK. In addition in order to test an accuracy of the calculation method in detail, spectra of neutrons scattered from a small sample and various reaction rates in a Li 2 O cylinder were compared between the present method and the continuous energy Monte Carlo method. The nuclear data files used are mainly ENDF/B4 and partly JENDL-3PR1. The tests were carried out through a comparison with the measured values and also with the results obtained from the conventional Legendre expansion method and the continuous energy Monte Carlo method. It is found that the results by the present method are more accurate than those by the conventional one and agree well with those by the continuous energy Monte Carlo calculations. Discrepancies due to the nuclear data are also discussed. (author)

  12. Geomaterial characterizations of full scale pavement test sections for mechanistic analysis and design

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kwon, J

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available roller compactor. The compaction effort was monitored with nuclear density gauge and DCP measurements taken from each pavement test section. As-built density of each subgrade lift obtained using the nuclear gauge satisfied a minimum relative density... was monitored with a nuclear gauge to maintain a minimum 95% relative compaction in the field. 0 100 200 300 400 500 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 CBR (%) Pe n et ra tio n (m m ) Pe n et ra tio n (m m ) Figure 2...

  13. Chapter A6. Section 6.3. Specific Electrical Conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Dean B.; Davis, Jerri V.; Wilde, Franceska D.

    2005-01-01

    Electrical conductance is a measure of the capacity of a substance to conduct an electrical current. The specific electrical conductance (conductivity) of water is a function of the types and quantities of dissolved substances it contains, normalized to a unit length and unit cross section at a specified temperature. This section of the National Field Manual (NFM) describes U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) guidance and protocols for measurement of conductivity in ground and surface waters.

  14. Extended-length fiber optic carbon dioxide monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Alonso, Jesus; Lieberman, Robert A.

    2013-05-01

    This paper discusses the design and performance of fiber optic distributed intrinsic sensors for dissolved carbon dioxide, based on the use optical fibers fabricated so that their entire lengths are chemically sensitive. These fibers use a polymer-clad, silica-core structure where the cladding undergoes a large, reversible, change in optical absorbance in the presence of CO2. The local "cladding loss" induced by this change is thus a direct indication of the carbon dioxide concentration in any section of the fiber. To create these fibers, have developed a carbon dioxide-permeable polymer material that adheres well to glass, is physically robust, has a refractive index lower than fused silica, and acts as excellent hosts for a unique colorimetric indicator system that respond to CO2. We have used this proprietary material to produce carbon-dioxide sensitive fibers up to 50 meters long, using commercial optical fiber fabrication techniques. The sensors have shown a measurement range of dissolved CO2 of 0 to 1,450 mg/l (0 to 100% CO2 saturation), limit of detection of 0.3 mg/l and precision of 1.0 mg/l in the 0 to 50 mg/l dissolved CO2 range, when a 5 meter-long sensor fiber segment is used. Maximum fiber length, minimum detectable concentration, and spatial resolution can be adjusted by adjusting indicator concentration and fiber design.

  15. The length of the male urethra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias. S. Kohler

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Catheter-based medical devices are an important component of the urologic armamentarium. To our knowledge, there is no population-based data regarding normal male urethral length. We evaluated the length of the urethra in men with normal genitourinary anatomy undergoing either Foley catheter removal or standard cystoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male urethral length was obtained in 109 men. After study permission was obtained, the subject's penis was placed on a gentle stretch and the catheter was marked at the tip of the penis. The catheter was then removed and the distance from the mark to the beginning of the re-inflated balloon was measured. Alternatively, urethral length was measured at the time of cystoscopy, on removal of the cystoscope. Data on age, weight, and height was obtained in patients when possible. RESULTS: The mean urethral length was 22.3 cm with a standard deviation of 2.4 cm. Urethral length varied between 15 cm and 29 cm. No statistically significant correlation was found between urethral length and height, weight, body mass index (BMI, or age. CONCLUSIONS: Literature documenting the length of the normal male adult urethra is scarce. Our data adds to basic anatomic information of the male urethra and may be used to optimize genitourinary device design.

  16. Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J

    2004-01-01

    Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.

  17. Crack initiation and propagation on the polymeric material ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, under ultrasonic fatigue testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Domínguez Almaraz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Crack initiation and propagation have been investigated on the polymeric material ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, under ultrasonic fatigue testing. Three controlled actions were implemented in order to carry out fatigue tests at very high frequency on this material of low thermal conductivity, they are: a The applying load was low to limit heat dissipation at the specimen neck section, b The dimensions of testing specimen were small (but fitting the resonance condition, in order to restraint the temperature gradient at the specimen narrow section, c Temperature at the specimen neck section was restrained by immersion in water or oil during ultrasonic fatigue testing. Experimental results are discussed on the basis of thermo-mechanical behaviour: the tail phenomenon at the initial stage of fatigue, initial shear yielding deformation, crazed development on the later stage, plastic strain on the fracture surface and the transition from low to high crack growth rate. In addition, a numerical analysis is developed to evaluate the J integral of energy dissipation and the stress intensity factor K, with the crack length

  18. Evaluated cross section libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqurno, B.A.

    1976-01-01

    The dosimetry tape (ENDF/B-IV tape 412) was issued in a general CSEWG distribution, August 1974. The pointwise cross section data file was tested with specified reference spectra. A group averaged cross section data file (620 groups based on tape 412) was tested with the above spectra and the results are presented in this report

  19. Calculation of the KIc using the average increase in crack length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uskov, E.I.; Babak, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    The test results from high temperature tensile testing of tungsten specimens were analytically examined. The specimens were tested for crack resistance over the temperature range 2200 C down to the temperature of embrittlement. The critical stress intensity factor (KIc) was selected as the controlling parameter for determining the resistance to cracking. Although KIc values are normally obtained by repeatedly removing the specimens from the test chamber and assaying the crack lengths, a correction coefficient was defined in order to accommodate the use of the specimen for performing fracture toughness trials at different temperatures without repeatedly removing the specimen from the test chamber. 8 references

  20. Imaging of patent foramen ovale with 64-section multidetector CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Farhood; Channual, Stephanie; Raney, Aidan; Gurudevan, Swaminatha V; Narula, Jagat; Fowler, Steven; Abolhoda, Amir; Milliken, Jeffrey C

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the feasibility of 64-section multidetector computed tomography (CT) by using CT angiography (a) to demonstrate anatomic detail of the interatrial septum pertinent to the patent foramen ovale (PFO), and (b) to visually detect left-to-right PFO shunts and compare these findings in patients who also underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE). In this institutional review board-approved HIPAA-compliant study, electrocardiographically gated coronary CT angiograms in 264 patients (159 men, 105 women; mean age, 60 years) were reviewed for PFO morphologic features. The length and diameter of the opening of the PFO tunnel, presence of atrial septal aneurysm (ASA), and PFO shunts were evaluated. A left-to-right shunt was assigned a grade according to length of contrast agent jet (grade 1, 1 cm to 2 cm; grade 3, >2 cm). In addition, 23 patients who underwent both modalities were compared (Student t test and linear regression analysis). A difference with P patent at the entry into the right atrium (PFO) in 62 patients (61.4% of patients with flap valve, 23.5% of total patients). A left-to-right shunt was detected in 44 (16.7% of total) patients (grade 1, 61.4%; grade 2, 34.1%; grade 3, 4.5%). No shunt was seen in patients without a flap valve. Mean length of PFO tunnel was 7.1 mm in 44 patients with a shunt and 12.1 mm in 57 patients with a flap valve without a shunt (P < .0001). In patients with a tunnel length of 6 mm or shorter, 92.6% of the shunts were seen. ASA was seen in 11 (4.2%) patients; of these patients, a shunt was seen in seven (63.6%). In 23 patients who underwent CT angiography and TEE, both modalities showed a PFO shunt in seven. Multidetector CT provides detailed anatomic information about size, morphologic features, and shunt grade of the PFO. Shorter tunnel length and septal aneurysms are frequently associated with left-to-right shunts in patients with PFO. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  1. Testing a self-determination theory model of children's physical activity motivation: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell; Fox, Kenneth R; Edwards, Mark J; Thompson, Janice L

    2013-09-26

    Understanding children's physical activity motivation, its antecedents and associations with behavior is important and can be advanced by using self-determination theory. However, research among youth is largely restricted to adolescents and studies of motivation within certain contexts (e.g., physical education). There are no measures of self-determination theory constructs (physical activity motivation or psychological need satisfaction) for use among children and no previous studies have tested a self-determination theory-based model of children's physical activity motivation. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of scores derived from scales adapted to measure self-determination theory constructs among children and test a motivational model predicting accelerometer-derived physical activity. Cross-sectional data from 462 children aged 7 to 11 years from 20 primary schools in Bristol, UK were analysed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of adapted behavioral regulation and psychological need satisfaction scales. Structural equation modelling was used to test cross-sectional associations between psychological need satisfaction, motivation types and physical activity assessed by accelerometer. The construct validity and reliability of the motivation and psychological need satisfaction measures were supported. Structural equation modelling provided evidence for a motivational model in which psychological need satisfaction was positively associated with intrinsic and identified motivation types and intrinsic motivation was positively associated with children's minutes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The study provides evidence for the psychometric properties of measures of motivation aligned with self-determination theory among children. Children's motivation that is based on enjoyment and inherent satisfaction of physical activity is associated with their objectively-assessed physical

  2. Length dependent properties of SNS microbridges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvageau, J.E.; Jain, R.K.; Li, K.; Lukens, J.E.; Ono, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    Using an in-situ, self-aligned deposition scheme, arrays of variable length SNS junctions in the range of 0.05 μm to 1 μm have been fabricated. Arrays of SNS microbridges of lead-copper and niobium-copper fabricated using this technique have been used to study the length dependence, at constant temperature, of the critical current I and bridge resistance R /SUB d/ . For bridges with lengths pounds greater than the normal metal coherence length xi /SUB n/ (T), the dependence of I /SUB c/ on L is consistent with an exponential dependence on the reduced length l=L/xi /SUB n/ (T). For shorter bridges, deviations from this behavior is seen. It was also found that the bridge resistance R /SUB d/ does not vary linearly with the geometric bridge length but appears to approach a finite value as L→O

  3. Automatic Determination of Fiber-Length Distribution in Composite Material Using 3D CT Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teßmann, Matthias; Mohr, Stephan; Gayetskyy, Svitlana; Haßler, Ulf; Hanke, Randolf; Greiner, Günther

    2010-12-01

    Determining fiber length distribution in fiber reinforced polymer components is a crucial step in quality assurance, since fiber length has a strong influence on overall strength, stiffness, and stability of the material. The approximate fiber length distribution is usually determined early in the development process, as conventional methods require a destruction of the sample component. In this paper, a novel, automatic, and nondestructive approach for the determination of fiber length distribution in fiber reinforced polymers is presented. For this purpose, high-resolution computed tomography is used as imaging method together with subsequent image analysis for evaluation. The image analysis consists of an iterative process where single fibers are detected automatically in each iteration step after having applied image enhancement algorithms. Subsequently, a model-based approach is used together with a priori information in order to guide a fiber tracing and segmentation process. Thereby, the length of the segmented fibers can be calculated and a length distribution can be deduced. The performance and the robustness of the segmentation method is demonstrated by applying it to artificially generated test data and selected real components.

  4. Changes in root lengths of maxillary incisors during orthodontic retention period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravanmehr H

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: External apical root resorption is a common iatrogenic consequence of orthodontic treatment. Much controversy exists in the literature about changes in root lengths at post treatment periods. Although many practitioners believe that resorption becomes stable after active treatment, quantitative data are scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine quantitative changes in root lengths of maxillary incisors during fixed orthodontic post treatment period, and to assess if it is influenced by gender and factors related to active treatment. Materials and Methods: This was a case cross over study, performed on 80 patients (52 females and 28 males aged between 13 and 22 years. At debonding stage and beginning of retention phase of fixed orthodontic treatment, Hawley type retainer was fabricated for maxillary arch. Periapical radiographs of maxillary incisors using standard parallel technique were obtained immediately after debonding, and 3 and 7 months later. Crown and root lengths of maxillary incisors were measured using computer program. Changes in root lengths were calculated considering correction factors. Also associations between some factors and the change in root lengths during post treatment periods were assessed. These included gender, type of treatment plan (non extraction/extraction, technique (standard edgewise/straight-wire edgewise and duration of active treatment (less than 2 years/2 years and more. T-test and 4-way ANOVA were used for statistical analysis with P0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: No significant relation was found between apical root resorption of maxillary central incisors and time elapsed after treatment. Significant relation was observed between apical root resorption of maxillary lateral incisors and the length of post treatment period. No significant relation was found between root length changes of maxillary incisors during post treatment period and gender, type of treatment

  5. Prediction of Monte Carlo errors by a theory generalized to treat track-length estimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Booth, T.E.; Amster, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    Present theories for predicting expected Monte Carlo errors in neutron transport calculations apply to estimates of flux-weighted integrals sampled directly by scoring individual collisions. To treat track-length estimators, the recent theory of Amster and Djomehri is generalized to allow the score distribution functions to depend on the coordinates of two successive collisions. It has long been known that the expected track length in a region of phase space equals the expected flux integrated over that region, but that the expected statistical error of the Monte Carlo estimate of the track length is different from that of the flux integral obtained by sampling the sum of the reciprocals of the cross sections for all collisions in the region. These conclusions are shown to be implied by the generalized theory, which provides explicit equations for the expected values and errors of both types of estimators. Sampling expected contributions to the track-length estimator is also treated. Other general properties of the errors for both estimators are derived from the equations and physically interpreted. The actual values of these errors are then obtained and interpreted for a simple specific example

  6. Effective Debye length in closed nanoscopic systems: a competition between two length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Frédéric; Slater, Gary W

    2006-02-01

    The Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) is widely employed in fields where the thermal motion of free ions is relevant, in particular in situations involving electrolytes in the vicinity of charged surfaces. The applications of this non-linear differential equation usually concern open systems (in osmotic equilibrium with an electrolyte reservoir, a semi-grand canonical ensemble), while solutions for closed systems (where the number of ions is fixed, a canonical ensemble) are either not appropriately distinguished from the former or are dismissed as a numerical calculation exercise. We consider herein the PBE for a confined, symmetric, univalent electrolyte and quantify how, in addition to the Debye length, its solution also depends on a second length scale, which embodies the contribution of ions by the surface (which may be significant in high surface-to-volume ratio micro- or nanofluidic capillaries). We thus establish that there are four distinct regimes for such systems, corresponding to the limits of the two parameters. We also show how the PBE in this case can be formulated in a familiar way by simply replacing the traditional Debye length by an effective Debye length, the value of which is obtained numerically from conservation conditions. But we also show that a simple expression for the value of the effective Debye length, obtained within a crude approximation, remains accurate even as the system size is reduced to nanoscopic dimensions, and well beyond the validity range typically associated with the solution of the PBE.

  7. Estimation of vertical load on a tire from contact patch length and its use in vehicle stability control

    OpenAIRE

    Dhasarathy, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    The vertical load on a moving tire was estimated by using accelerometers attached to the inner liner of a tire. The acceleration signal was processed to obtain the contact patch length created by the tire on the road surface. Then an appropriate equation relating the patch length to the vertical load is used to calculate the load. In order to obtain the needed data, tests were performed on a flat-track test machine at the Goodyear Innovation Center in Akron, Ohio; tests were also conducted on...

  8. The effect of tensioning and sectioning on residual stresses in aluminium AA7749 friction stir welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altenkirch, J.; Steuwer, A.; Peel, M.; Richards, D.G.; Withers, P.J.

    2008-01-01

    Using synchrotron X-ray diffraction the residual stress distribution has been measured in a series of AA7449-W51 aluminium friction stir welds that had been tensioned to different loads during welding. By modifying the stress accumulation path, the application of a tensioning stress has reduced the tensile magnitude of the final residual weld stresses. In the present case the residual stresses were minimised when the applied load is ∼35% of the room temperature yield stress of the parent material. Subsequent sectioning of the weld into shorter test lengths, as might be necessary for weld testing, resulted in a progressive and significant relaxation of the residual stress field. The effect of tensioning on the weld component distortion also has been investigated

  9. Sighting optics including an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, David Lynn [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-08-01

    One embodiment of sighting optics according to the teachings provided herein may include a front sight and a rear sight positioned in spaced-apart relation. The rear sight includes an optical element having a first focal length and a second focal length. The first focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a distance separating the optical element and the front sight and the second focal length is selected so that it is about equal to a target distance. The optical element thus brings into simultaneous focus, for a user, images of the front sight and the target.

  10. The Association of Telomere Length With Family Violence and Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabile, Emily; Brett, Zoë H.; Esteves, Kyle; Jones, Edward; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Theall, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To enhance the understanding of biological mechanisms connecting early adversity and negative health, we examine the association between family interpersonal violence and disruption and telomere length in youth. These specific exposures were selected because of their established links with negative health consequences across the life-course. METHODS: Children, age 5 to 15, were recruited from the greater New Orleans area, and exposure to family disruption and violence was assessed through caregiver report. Telomere length, from buccal cell DNA (buccal telomere length [bTL]), was determined by using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The association between bTL and adversity exposure was tested (n = 80). RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to interpersonal violence and family disruption was correlated with bTL. Controlling for other sociodemographic factors, bTL was significantly shorter in children with higher exposure to family violence and disruption. Witnessing family violence exerted a particularly potent impact. A significant gender interaction was found (β = −0.0086, SE = 0.0031, z test= −2.79, P = .0053) and analysis revealed the effect only in girls. CONCLUSIONS: bTL is a molecular biomarker of adversity and allostatic load that is detectable in childhood. The present results extend previous studies by demonstrating that telomeres are sensitive to adversity within the overarching family domain. These findings suggest that the family ecology may be an important target for interventions to reduce the biological impact of adversity in the lives of children. PMID:24936002

  11. The association of telomere length with family violence and disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S; Mabile, Emily; Brett, Zoë H; Esteves, Kyle; Jones, Edward; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Theall, Katherine P

    2014-07-01

    To enhance the understanding of biological mechanisms connecting early adversity and negative health, we examine the association between family interpersonal violence and disruption and telomere length in youth. These specific exposures were selected because of their established links with negative health consequences across the life-course. Children, age 5 to 15, were recruited from the greater New Orleans area, and exposure to family disruption and violence was assessed through caregiver report. Telomere length, from buccal cell DNA (buccal telomere length [bTL]), was determined by using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The association between bTL and adversity exposure was tested (n = 80). Cumulative exposure to interpersonal violence and family disruption was correlated with bTL. Controlling for other sociodemographic factors, bTL was significantly shorter in children with higher exposure to family violence and disruption. Witnessing family violence exerted a particularly potent impact. A significant gender interaction was found (β = -0.0086, SE = 0.0031, z test= -2.79, P = .0053) and analysis revealed the effect only in girls. bTL is a molecular biomarker of adversity and allostatic load that is detectable in childhood. The present results extend previous studies by demonstrating that telomeres are sensitive to adversity within the overarching family domain. These findings suggest that the family ecology may be an important target for interventions to reduce the biological impact of adversity in the lives of children. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Flying-Boat Hull Having a Length-Beam Ratio of 15, TED No. NACA 2206

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebe, John M.; Naeseth, Rodger L.

    1951-01-01

    An investigation was made in the Langley 300 MPH 7- by 10-foot tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a flying-boat hull of a length-beam ratio of 15 in the presence of a wing. The investigation was an extension of previous tests made on hulls of length-beam ratios of 6, 9, and 12; these hulls were designed to have approximately the same hydrodynamic performance with respect to spray and resistance characteristics. Comparison with the previous investigation at lower length-beam ratios indicated a reduction in minimum drag coefficients of 0.0006 (10 peroent)with fixed transition when the length-beam ratio was extended from 12 to 15. As with the hulls of lower length-beam ratio, the drag reduction with a length-beam ratio of 15 occurred throughout the range of angle of attack tested and the angle of attack for minimum drag was in the range from 2deg to 3deg. Increasing the length-beam ratio from 12 to 15 reduced the hull longitudinal instability by an mount corresponding to an aerodynamic-center shift of about 1/2 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord of the hypothetical flying boat. At an angle of attack of 2deg, the value of the variation of yawing-moment coefficient with angle of yaw for a length-beam ratio of 15 was 0.00144, which was 0.00007 larger than the value for a length-beam ratio of 12.

  13. Amplitude-independent flaw length determination using differential eddy current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, E.

    2013-01-01

    Military engine component manufacturers typically specify the eddy current (EC) inspection requirements as a crack length or depth with the assumption that the cracks in both the test specimens and inspected component are of a similar fixed aspect ratio. However, differential EC response amplitude is dependent on the area of the crack face, not the length or depth. Additionally, due to complex stresses, in-service cracks do not always grow in the assumed manner. It would be advantageous to use more of the information contained in the EC data to better determine the full profile of cracks independent of the fixed aspect ratio amplitude response curve. A specimen with narrow width notches is used to mimic cracks of varying aspect ratios in a controllable manner. The specimen notches have aspect ratios that vary from 1:1 to 10:1. Analysis routines have been developed using the shape of the EC response signals that can determine the length of a surface flaw of common orientations without use of the amplitude of the signal or any supporting traditional probability of detection basis. Combined with the relationship between signal amplitude and area, the depth of the flaw can also be calculated.

  14. length-weight relationhip of freshwater wild fish species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Naeem

    2012-06-21

    Jun 21, 2012 ... Length-weight (LWR) and length-length relationships (LLR) were determined for a freshwater catfish ... Key words: Mystus bleekeri, length-weight relationship, length-length relationship, predictive equations. INTRODUCTION. Mystus bleekeri (freshwater catfish Day, 1877), locally ..... fish farmers, Aquacult.

  15. Impact of Sliding Window Length in Indoor Human Motion Modes and Pose Pattern Recognition Based on Smartphone Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaojing Wang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Human activity recognition (HAR is essential for understanding people’s habits and behaviors, providing an important data source for precise marketing and research in psychology and sociology. Different approaches have been proposed and applied to HAR. Data segmentation using a sliding window is a basic step during the HAR procedure, wherein the window length directly affects recognition performance. However, the window length is generally randomly selected without systematic study. In this study, we examined the impact of window length on smartphone sensor-based human motion and pose pattern recognition. With data collected from smartphone sensors, we tested a range of window lengths on five popular machine-learning methods: decision tree, support vector machine, K-nearest neighbor, Gaussian naïve Bayesian, and adaptive boosting. From the results, we provide recommendations for choosing the appropriate window length. Results corroborate that the influence of window length on the recognition of motion modes is significant but largely limited to pose pattern recognition. For motion mode recognition, a window length between 2.5–3.5 s can provide an optimal tradeoff between recognition performance and speed. Adaptive boosting outperformed the other methods. For pose pattern recognition, 0.5 s was enough to obtain a satisfactory result. In addition, all of the tested methods performed well.

  16. Length-weight relation and condition factor of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ in the Cochin Backwater

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.; Nair, K.K.C.; Balasubramanian, T.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Aravindakshan, P.N.; Kutty, M.K.

    Length-weight relation and condition factor of @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ were estimated using samples from Cochin backwater. Statistical tests support the view that the length-weight exponent of these species may be species...

  17. Association of Bruch's membrane opening and optic disc morphology to axial length and visual field defects in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Hideo; Suda, Kenji; Yoshikawa, Munemitsu; Akagi, Tadamichi; Kameda, Takanori; Ikeda, Hanako Ohashi; Yokota, Satoshi; Kurimoto, Yasuo; Tsujikawa, Akitaka

    2018-03-01

    To examine the morphology of Bruch's membrane opening (BMO), optic disc, and peripapillary atrophy (PPA) by scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and to determine their association with the axial length and visual field defects. This was a cross-sectional study of 94 eyes of 56 subjects; 77 eyes were diagnosed with primary open-angle glaucoma and 17 eyes as normal. The margins of the optic disc were determined in the SLO images, and that of the BMO in the SD-OCT images. The ovality and area of the BMO and the optic disc were measured. The beta and gamma-PPA areas were also measured. The association of each parameter with the axial length and the mean deviation (MD) of the visual field tests was determined by generalized estimating equations (GEEs). The optic disc ovality was associated with the axial length and the MD (β = -0.47, P = 7.6 × 10 -4 and β = 0.12, P = 0.040). The BMO ovality was not significantly associated with the axial length and the MD. The BMO area was associated with the axial length (β = 0.30, P = 0.029). A larger BMO area was associated with a thinner BMO-based neuroretinal rim width (BMO-MRW) after adjustments for the MD (β = -0.30, P = 2.1 × 10 -4 ). The beta- and gamma-PPA areas were associated with the axial length (β = 0.50, P = 7.4 × 10 -5 and β = 0.62, P = 4.2 × 10 -6 ). The optic disc ovality was associated with both the axial length and MD, whereas BMO ovality was not. Attention should be paid to the influence of the axial length-related enlargement of the BMO.

  18. Testing of elastomer seals using small-size rigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeks, C.W.E.; Dunford, B.; Barnfield, J.H.; Gray, I.L.S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper looks at the use of small size seal leakage test rigs to demonstrate the compliance of full size container seals against the IAEA Transport Regulation's limits for activity release for normal transport and accident conditions. The detailed requirements of the regulations are discussed and it is concluded that an appropriate test programme to meet these requirements using only small size test rigs, can normally be set up and carried out on a relatively short time scale. It is important that any small test rigs should be designed to represent the relevant features of the seal arrangement and the overall test programme should cover all of the conditions, specified by the regulations, for the type, classification and contents of the container under consideration. The parameters of elastomer O-rings, which affect their sealing ability, are considered and those which are amenable to small scale testing or have to be modelled at full size are identified. Generally, the seals used in leakage tests have to be modelled with a full size cross-section but can have a reduced peripheral length. (Author)

  19. Cervical Length & Leading Placental Edge to Internal OS Measurements - TA vs TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerway, Sue Campbell; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Hyett, Jon

    Brief Description of the Purpose of the Study: To compare cervical length/leading placental edge from the internal cervical os measurements obtained by both transabdominal (TA) and transvaginal (TV) approach and to assess intra / inter-observer variation for these measurements. Methods: Cross...... sectional study of 374 consecutive pregnancies with gestation 12 weeks to term. The cervical length was estimated as the distance from internal to external os, and the placenta / cervix distance as the leading placental edge to internal cervical os. Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate the two methods....... Importance of the Conclusions: TA estimates of cervix and placental edge position did not reflect the estimates obtained by TV assessment. As both measures are important markers of pregnancy outcome and management, the transabdominal method in the present form is insuffi- cient in clinical management....

  20. Diagnostic and laboratory test ordering in Northern Portuguese Primary Health Care: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Luísa; Teixeira, Andreia Sofia Costa; Tavares, Fernando; Costa-Santos, Cristina; Couto, Luciana; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Hespanhol, Alberto Pinto; Santos, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the test ordering pattern in Northern Portugal and to investigate the influence of context-related factors, analysing the test ordered at the level of geographical groups of family physicians and at the level of different healthcare organisations. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Northern Primary Health Care, Portugal. Participants Records about diagnostic and laboratory tests ordered from 2035 family physicians working at the Northern Regional Health Administration, who served approximately 3.5 million Portuguese patients, in 2014. Outcomes To determine the 20 most ordered diagnostic and laboratory tests in the Northern Regional Health Administration; to identify the presence and extent of variations in the 20 most ordered diagnostic and laboratory tests between the Groups of Primary Care Centres and between health units; and to study factors that may explain these variations. Results The 20 most ordered diagnostic and laboratory tests almost entirely comprise laboratory tests and account for 70.9% of the total tests requested. We can trace a major pattern of test ordering for haemogram, glucose, lipid profile, creatinine and urinalysis. There was a significant difference (P<0.001) in test orders for all tests between Groups of Primary Care Centres and for all tests, except glycated haemoglobin (P=0.06), between health units. Generally, the Personalised Healthcare Units ordered more than Family Health Units. Conclusions The results from this study show that the most commonly ordered tests in Portugal are laboratory tests, that there is a tendency for overtesting and that there is a large variability in diagnostic and laboratory test ordering in different geographical and organisational Portuguese primary care practices, suggesting that there may be considerable potential for the rationalisation of test ordering. The existence of Family Health Units seems to be a strong determinant in decreasing test ordering by Portuguese family

  1. Determination of carrier diffusion length in p- and n-type GaN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafiz, Shopan; Metzner, Sebastian; Zhang, Fan; Monavarian, Morteza; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Morkoç, Hadis; Karbaum, Christopher; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Jürgen; Gil, Bernard; Özgür, Ümit

    2014-03-01

    Diffusion lengths of photo-excited carriers along the c-direction were determined from photoluminescence (PL) measurements in p- and n-type GaN epitaxial layers grown on c-plane sapphire by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The investigated samples incorporate a 6 nm thick In0.15Ga0.85N active layer capped with either 500 nm p- GaN or 1300 nm n-GaN. The top GaN layers were etched in steps and PL from the InGaN active region and the underlying layers was monitored as a function of the top GaN thickness upon photogeneration near the surface region by above bandgap excitation. Taking into consideration the absorption in the active and underlying layers, the diffusion lengths at 295 K and at 15 K were measured to be about 92 ± 7 nm and 68 ± 7 nm for Mg-doped p-type GaN and 432 ± 30 nm and 316 ± 30 nm for unintentionally doped n-type GaN, respectively. Cross-sectional cathodoluminescence line-scan measurement was performed on a separate sample and the diffusion length in n-type GaN was measured to be 280 nm.

  2. Visual and tactile length matching in spatial neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisiach, Edoardo; McIntosh, Robert D; Dijkerman, H Chris; McClements, Kevin I; Colombo, Mariarosa; Milner, A David

    2004-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that many patients with spatial neglect underestimate the horizontal extent of leftwardly located shapes (presented on screen or on paper) relative to rightwardly located shapes. This has been used to help explain their leftward biases in line bisection. In the present study we have tested patients with right hemisphere damage, either with or without neglect, on a comparable length matching task, but using 3-dimensional objects. The task was executed first visually without tactile contact, and second through touch without vision. In both sense modalities, we found that patients with neglect, but not those without, tended to underestimate leftward located objects relative to rightward located objects, differing significantly in this regard from healthy subjects. However these lateral biases were not as frequent or as pronounced as in previous studies using 2-D visual shapes. Despite the similar asymmetries in the two sense modalities, we found only a small correlation between them, and clear double dissociations were observed among our patients. We conclude that leftward length underestimation cannot be attributed to any one single cause. First it cannot be entirely due to impairments in the visual pathways, such as hemianopia and/or processing biases, since the disorder is also seen in the tactile modality. At the same time, however, length underestimation phenomena cannot be fully explained as a disruption of a supramodal central size processor, since they can occur in either vision or touch alone. Our data would fit best with a multiple-factor model in which some patients show leftward length underestimation for modality-specific reasons, while others do so due to a more high-level disruption of size judgements.

  3. Correcting length-frequency distributions for imperfect detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, André R.; Hawkins, John A.; Winkelman, Dana L.

    2013-01-01

    Sampling gear selects for specific sizes of fish, which may bias length-frequency distributions that are commonly used to assess population size structure, recruitment patterns, growth, and survival. To properly correct for sampling biases caused by gear and other sources, length-frequency distributions need to be corrected for imperfect detection. We describe a method for adjusting length-frequency distributions when capture and recapture probabilities are a function of fish length, temporal variation, and capture history. The method is applied to a study involving the removal of Smallmouth Bass Micropterus dolomieu by boat electrofishing from a 38.6-km reach on the Yampa River, Colorado. Smallmouth Bass longer than 100 mm were marked and released alive from 2005 to 2010 on one or more electrofishing passes and removed on all other passes from the population. Using the Huggins mark–recapture model, we detected a significant effect of fish total length, previous capture history (behavior), year, pass, year×behavior, and year×pass on capture and recapture probabilities. We demonstrate how to partition the Huggins estimate of abundance into length frequencies to correct for these effects. Uncorrected length frequencies of fish removed from Little Yampa Canyon were negatively biased in every year by as much as 88% relative to mark–recapture estimates for the smallest length-class in our analysis (100–110 mm). Bias declined but remained high even for adult length-classes (≥200 mm). The pattern of bias across length-classes was variable across years. The percentage of unadjusted counts that were below the lower 95% confidence interval from our adjusted length-frequency estimates were 95, 89, 84, 78, 81, and 92% from 2005 to 2010, respectively. Length-frequency distributions are widely used in fisheries science and management. Our simple method for correcting length-frequency estimates for imperfect detection could be widely applied when mark–recapture data

  4. Thermal response test data of five quadratic cross section precast pile heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alberdi-Pagola

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This data article comprises records from five Thermal Response Tests (TRT of quadratic cross section pile heat exchangers. Pile heat exchangers, typically referred to as energy piles, consist of traditional foundation piles with embedded heat exchanger pipes. The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled “Comparing heat flow models for interpretation of precast quadratic pile heat exchanger thermal response tests” (Alberdi-Pagola et al., 2018 [1]. The TRT data consists of measured inlet and outlet temperatures, fluid flow and injected heat rate recorded every 10 min. The field dataset is made available to enable model verification studies.

  5. Comparison of Path Length and Ranges of Movement of the Center of Pressure and Reaction Time and Between Paired-Play and Solo-Play of a Virtual Reality Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portnoy, Sigal; Hersch, Ayelet; Sofer, Tal; Tresser, Sarit

    2017-06-01

    To test whether paired-play will induce longer path length and ranges of movement of the center of pressure (COP), which reflects on balance performance and stability, compared to solo-play and to test the difference in the path length and ranges of movement of the COP while playing the virtual reality (VR) game with the dominant hand compared to playing it with the nondominant hand. In this cross-sectional study 20 children (age 6.1 ± 0.7 years old) played an arm movement controlled VR game alone and with a peer while each of them stood on a pressure measuring pad to track the path length and ranges of movement of the COP. The total COP path was significantly higher during the paired-play (median 295.8 cm) compared to the COP path during the solo-play (median 189.2 cm). No significant differences were found in the reaction time and the mediolateral and anterior-posterior COP ranges between solo-play and paired-play. No significant differences were found between the parameters extracted during paired-play with the dominant or nondominant hand. Our findings imply that the paired-play is advantageous compared to solo-play since it induces a greater movement for the child, during which, higher COP velocities are reached that may contribute to improving the balance control of the child. Apart from the positive social benefits of paired-play, this positive effect on the COP path length is a noteworthy added value in the clinical setting when treating children with balance disorder.

  6. Lengths of the maxillary central incisor, the nasal bone, and the anterior cranial base in different skeletal malocclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arntsen, Torill; Kjær, Inger; Sonnesen, Liselotte

    2009-01-01

    with neutral occlusion and normal craniofacial morphology (n=39). Two-way ANOVA tests were used to evaluate differences in lengths between groups and gender. Results. Statistically shorter maxillary central incisor length was found in the open bite group (p

  7. Testing for Helicobacter pylori in dyspeptic patients suspected of peptic ulcer disease in primary care: cross sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijnen, C. F.; Numans, M. E.; de Wit, N. J.; Smout, A. J.; Moons, K. G.; Verheij, T. J.; Hoes, A. W.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To develop an easily applicable diagnostic scoring method to determine the presence of peptic ulcers in dyspeptic patients in a primary care setting; to evaluate whether Helicobacter pylori testing adds value to history taking. Design: Cross sectional study. SETTING: General

  8. Sexual Dimorphism and Estimation of Height from Body Length Anthropometric Parameters among the Hausa Ethnic Group of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaafar Aliyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the sexual dimorphism in length and other anthropometric parameters. To also generate formulae for height estimation using anthropometric measurements of some length parameters among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 500 subjects participated in this study which was mainly secondary school students between the age ranges of 16-27 years, anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard protocols. It was observed that there was significant sexual dimorphism in all the parameters except for body mass index. In all the parameters males tend to have significantly (P < 0.05 higher mean values except biaxillary distances. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length, followed by knee height, thigh length, sitting height, hand length, foot length, humeral length, forearm length and weight respectively. There were weak and positive correlations between height and neck length as well as biaxillary length. The demi span length showed the strongest correlation coefficient and low standard error of estimate indicating the strong estimation ability than other parameters. The combination of two parameters tends to give better estimations and low standard error of estimates, so also combining the three parameters gives better estimations with a lower standard error of estimates. The better correlation coefficient was also observed with the double and triple parameters respectively. Male Hausa tend to have larger body proportion compared to female. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length. Body length anthropometric proved to be useful in estimation of stature among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna state Nigeria.

  9. Slug-Tests in PP- and PVP-holes at Olkiluoto in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskitalo, K.

    2008-05-01

    As part of the program for the final disposal of the nuclear fuel waste, Posiva Oy investigates the hydrological conditions at the Olkiluoto island. The hydraulic conductivity in the shallow holes OL-PP9, OL-PP36, OL-PP39, OL-PVP3A, OL-PVP3B, OL-PVP4A, OL-PVP4B, OL-PVP6A, OL-PVP6B, OL-PVP7A, OL-PVP8A, OL-PVP8B, OL-PVP9A, OL-PVP9B, OL-PVP10A, OL-PVP10B, OL-PVP11, OL-PVP12, OL-PVP13, OL-PVP14, OL-PVP17, OL-PVP18A, OL-PVP18B, OL-PVP19 and OL-PVP20 was measured in summer 2007. The length of PP-holes varies between 12 and 15 m, and the test sections (1 m) are located in the bedrock. PVP-tubes have an average length between 3 - 9 m up to 17 m, and the test sections (mostly 2 m) are located in the overburden. The measurements were done using the slug-test technique. In the slug-test, the hydraulic head in the borehole is abruptly changed either by pouring water into the borehole or by lowering the pressure sensor. The conductivity is interpreted based on the recovery of the water level. This report presents the field measurements and their interpretation. The interpretation has been done using the Hvorslev's method, and for reference, conductivity has also been calculated according to Thiem's equation. According to the results, hydraulic conductivity in PP-holes ranges from 10-9 m/s to 10-6 m/s and in PVP-tubes from 10-8 m/s to 10-4 m/s. The range is similar as observed in measurements of years 2002, 2004, 2005 and 2006. In general, the results are consistent with the results obtained in earlier measurements. Some exceptions exist in OL-PVP6B, where the conductivity is higher than in the earlier measurements. In OL-PVP14, there seems to be a lowering trend of the conductivity. In OL-PP9, the conductivity in test section 5.3 - 6.3 m in 2007 was about one order of magnitude lower than in 2005 but the results from 2007, 2006, and 2002 correlate well in that section. Also, the results agree with hydraulic conductivity interpreted from the pre-pumping done in connection with

  10. Association of newborn diseases with weight/length ratio and the adequacy of weight for gestational age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Dias Bertagnon

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the frequencies of newborn diseases in thosenewborns classified according to a weight/length rate and thoseclassified by the adequacy weight for gestational age. Methods: Aretrospective cross-sectional study by record assessment was carriedout enclosing all the live newborns at Hospital Geral do Grajaú, fromSeptember to December, 2009 (n =577 classified according to therate weight/length and also to the adequacy weight for gestationalage. The 10 and 90 percentiles of the weight/length distribution, nowdesignated as “indices” were calculated leading to the followingclassification: low index, for newborns below 54.8 g/cm; high index,for those over 75.8 g/cm; and average index, for the remainingnewborns. According to the adequacy weight for gestational age thenewborns were designated as pre-term for gestational age; term smallfor gestational age; appropriate term and large term. In this samplethere were no small and large pre-term or post-term newborns. Majordiseases were related to the index and adequacy extracts by the χ2test for a contingency table. Results: A significant association wasfound among low index, pre-term for gestational age newborns andterm small for gestational age; between average index and appropriatefor gestational age term newborns; and high index with large termappropriate for gestational age newborns (p< 0.001. Hypoglycemia(3.4% was associated to both low and high indices, to appropriatefor gestational age preterm newborns and to small for gestational ageterm newborns. Sepsis (3.1% was associated to both low index andpre-term appropriate for gestational age newborns. The respiratorydistress syndrome (1.3% was associated to low index and pre-termappropriate for gestational age newborns. Other respiratory distresssyndromes (3.8% were associated to low and high indices but notto the adequacy for gestational age classification. Jaundice (14.9%was not associated to the studied classifications

  11. Size-dependent elastic/inelastic behavior of enamel over millimeter and nanometer length scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Siang Fung; Bortel, Emely L; Swain, Michael V; Klocke, Arndt; Schneider, Gerold A

    2010-03-01

    The microstructure of enamel like most biological tissues has a hierarchical structure which determines their mechanical behavior. However, current studies of the mechanical behavior of enamel lack a systematic investigation of these hierarchical length scales. In this study, we performed macroscopic uni-axial compression tests and the spherical indentation with different indenter radii to probe enamel's elastic/inelastic transition over four hierarchical length scales, namely: 'bulk enamel' (mm), 'multiple-rod' (10's microm), 'intra-rod' (100's nm with multiple crystallites) and finally 'single-crystallite' (10's nm with an area of approximately one hydroxyapatite crystallite). The enamel's elastic/inelastic transitions were observed at 0.4-17 GPa depending on the length scale and were compared with the values of synthetic hydroxyapatite crystallites. The elastic limit of a material is important as it provides insights into the deformability of the material before fracture. At the smallest investigated length scale (contact radius approximately 20 nm), elastic limit is followed by plastic deformation. At the largest investigated length scale (contact size approximately 2 mm), only elastic then micro-crack induced response was observed. A map of elastic/inelastic regions of enamel from millimeter to nanometer length scale is presented. Possible underlying mechanisms are also discussed. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparison of discriminant logistic regression and Item Response Theory Likelihood-Ratio Tests for Differential Item Functioning (IRTLRDIF) in polytomous short tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, María D; López-Martínez, María D; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Guilera, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Short scales are typically used in the social, behavioural and health sciences. This is relevant since test length can influence whether items showing DIF are correctly flagged. This paper compares the relative effectiveness of discriminant logistic regression (DLR) and IRTLRDIF for detecting DIF in polytomous short tests. A simulation study was designed. Test length, sample size, DIF amount and item response categories number were manipulated. Type I error and power were evaluated. IRTLRDIF and DLR yielded Type I error rates close to nominal level in no-DIF conditions. Under DIF conditions, Type I error rates were affected by test length DIF amount, degree of test contamination, sample size and number of item response categories. DLR showed a higher Type I error rate than did IRTLRDIF. Power rates were affected by DIF amount and sample size, but not by test length. DLR achieved higher power rates than did IRTLRDIF in very short tests, although the high Type I error rate involved means that this result cannot be taken into account. Test length had an important impact on the Type I error rate. IRTLRDIF and DLR showed a low power rate in short tests and with small sample sizes.

  13. The Effect of Length in Employment Sites’ Web Form Design on User Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ching Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Web form has become a critical component for many Web applications and services. Previous research has investigated into the general design of web form layout without examining the impact of variations in format, length and structure on user experience. This study explores users’ preference and performance over Web forms of different lengths deployed on an employment site. Three types of design of Web forms were developed as the experiment instruments for 48 participants to test and evaluate. Results show that participants’ preferences and satisfaction varied by the length of Web forms. Participants’ preferences were also affected by their previous Internet experiences with job websites. In the end, recommendations for design principles for Web forms used for job sites were presented. [Article content in Chinese

  14. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Hunter R; Kitzman, Jacob O; Hellwig, Sabine; Welker, Noah C; Daza, Riza; Baker, Daniel N; Gligorich, Keith M; Rostomily, Robert C; Bronner, Mary P; Shendure, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively). Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively). Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  15. A comparison of two reciprocating instruments using bending stress and cyclic fatigue tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantaleo SCELZA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the bending resistance at 45º, the static and dynamic cyclic fatigue life, and the fracture type of the WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland 25-08 and Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany 25-08 instruments. A total of 60 nickel-titanium (NiTi instruments (30 Reciproc and 30 WaveOne from three different lots, each of which was 25 mm in length, were tested. The bending resistance was evaluated through the results of a cantilever-bending test conducted using a universal testing machine. Static and dynamic cyclic fatigue testing was conducted using a custom-made device. For the static and dynamic tests, a cast Ni-Cr-Mo-Ti alloy metal block with an artificial canal measuring 1.77 mm in diameter and 20.00 mm in total length was used. A scanning electron microscope was used to determine the type of fracture. Statistical analyses were performed on the results. The WaveOne instrument was less flexible than the Reciproc (p < 0.05. The Reciproc instrument showed better resistance in the static and dynamic cyclic fatigue tests (p < 0.05. The transverse cross-section and geometry of the instruments were important factors in their resistance to bending and cyclic fracture. Both of the instruments showed ductile-type fracture characteristics. It can be concluded that the Reciproc 25-08 instrument was more resistant to static and dynamic cyclic fatigue than the WaveOne 25-08 instrument, while the WaveOne 25-08 instrument was less flexible. Bending and resistance to cyclic fracture were influenced by the instruments’ geometries and transverse cross-sections. Both of the instruments showed ductile-type fracture characteristics.

  16. Increasing average period lengths by switching of robust chaos maps in finite precision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, N.; Shastry, M. C.; Vaidya, P. G.

    2008-12-01

    Grebogi, Ott and Yorke (Phys. Rev. A 38, 1988) have investigated the effect of finite precision on average period length of chaotic maps. They showed that the average length of periodic orbits (T) of a dynamical system scales as a function of computer precision (ɛ) and the correlation dimension (d) of the chaotic attractor: T ˜ɛ-d/2. In this work, we are concerned with increasing the average period length which is desirable for chaotic cryptography applications. Our experiments reveal that random and chaotic switching of deterministic chaotic dynamical systems yield higher average length of periodic orbits as compared to simple sequential switching or absence of switching. To illustrate the application of switching, a novel generalization of the Logistic map that exhibits Robust Chaos (absence of attracting periodic orbits) is first introduced. We then propose a pseudo-random number generator based on chaotic switching between Robust Chaos maps which is found to successfully pass stringent statistical tests of randomness.

  17. Qualification tests for ITER TF conductors in SULTAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzone, P.; Stepanov, B.; Wesche, R.

    2009-01-01

    From February 2007 to May 2008, 18 short length conductor sections have been tested in SULTAN for design verification and manufacturer qualification of the ITER Toroidal Field (TF) conductor. The test program is focussed on the current sharing temperature, T cs , at the nominal operating conditions, 68 kA current and 11.15 T effective field, which can be fully reproduced in the SULTAN test facility. A broad range of results was observed, with over 2 K difference among the T cs of the conductors. In average, the results are poorer compared to the potential performance estimated from the strand scaling law. The key parameters to mitigate the degradation are not yet clearly identified. The experimental challenges to test conductors with performance degradation are highlighted, including enhanced instrumentation sets, the application of gas flow calorimetry to sense the current sharing power and the post-processing of voltage data to cancel the transverse potential across the cable. The updated schedule of the tests in SULTAN is presented with the short-term action plan for conductor test.

  18. Thermal significance of fission-track length distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowley, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    The semi-analytical solution of an equation describing the production and shortening of fission tracks in apatite suggests that certain thermal histories have unique length-distribution 'signatures'. Isothermal-heating histories should be characterized by flattened, length-shortened distributions; step-heating histories should be characterized by bimodal track length distributions; and linear-cooling histories should be characterized by negatively skewed, length-shortened distributions. The model formulated here to investigate track length distributions can be used to constrain the thermal histories of natural samples for which unbiased track length data are available - provided that the geologic history of the system of interest can be used to partially constrain one of the unknowns in the model equations, time or temperature. (author)

  19. Obstetrical correlates of the first time cesarean section, compared with the repeated cesarean section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rukh, G.; Akhtar, S.

    2007-01-01

    To determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics in patients having their first cesarean section (FCS) and compare it with findings in patients with repeated cesarean section (RCS). This study included all the women who gave birth by cesarean sections, 817 of the total 5992 deliveries, at this unit during the study period. Data on potential risk factors for the first cesarean section (FCS) and repeated cesarean section (RCS were extracted from medical records, which were reviewed and compared between these two groups of women. Data were statistically analyzed with student t-test for comparison between means and Chi-square test for comparison between percentages. Crude odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Significance was taken at p 0.05). The frequency of first cesarean section and repeat cesarean section is high in our setup. Adequate following of the programs to diminish the percentage of FCS by curtailing its predisposing factors is needed. (author)

  20. Zero-point length from string fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanini, Michele; Spallucci, Euro; Padmanabhan, T.

    2006-01-01

    One of the leading candidates for quantum gravity, viz. string theory, has the following features incorporated in it. (i) The full spacetime is higher-dimensional, with (possibly) compact extra-dimensions; (ii) there is a natural minimal length below which the concept of continuum spacetime needs to be modified by some deeper concept. On the other hand, the existence of a minimal length (zero-point length) in four-dimensional spacetime, with obvious implications as UV regulator, has been often conjectured as a natural aftermath of any correct quantum theory of gravity. We show that one can incorporate the apparently unrelated pieces of information-zero-point length, extra-dimensions, string T-duality-in a consistent framework. This is done in terms of a modified Kaluza-Klein theory that interpolates between (high-energy) string theory and (low-energy) quantum field theory. In this model, the zero-point length in four dimensions is a 'virtual memory' of the length scale of compact extra-dimensions. Such a scale turns out to be determined by T-duality inherited from the underlying fundamental string theory. From a low energy perspective short distance infinities are cutoff by a minimal length which is proportional to the square root of the string slope, i.e., α ' . Thus, we bridge the gap between the string theory domain and the low energy arena of point-particle quantum field theory

  1. Automatic Determination of Fiber-Length Distribution in Composite Material Using 3D CT Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Greiner

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Determining fiber length distribution in fiber reinforced polymer components is a crucial step in quality assurance, since fiber length has a strong influence on overall strength, stiffness, and stability of the material. The approximate fiber length distribution is usually determined early in the development process, as conventional methods require a destruction of the sample component. In this paper, a novel, automatic, and nondestructive approach for the determination of fiber length distribution in fiber reinforced polymers is presented. For this purpose, high-resolution computed tomography is used as imaging method together with subsequent image analysis for evaluation. The image analysis consists of an iterative process where single fibers are detected automatically in each iteration step after having applied image enhancement algorithms. Subsequently, a model-based approach is used together with a priori information in order to guide a fiber tracing and segmentation process. Thereby, the length of the segmented fibers can be calculated and a length distribution can be deduced. The performance and the robustness of the segmentation method is demonstrated by applying it to artificially generated test data and selected real components.

  2. A multiple length scale description of the mechanism of elastomer stretching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neuefeind, J.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Daniels, J. E.

    2016-01-01

    Conventionally, the stretching of rubber is modeled exclusively by rotations of segments of the embedded polymer chains; i.e. changes in entropy. However models have not been tested on all relevant length scales due to a lack of appropriate probes. Here we present a universal X-ray based method f...

  3. Testing of a "smart-pebble" for measuring particle transport statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsikoudis, Vasileios; Avgeris, Loukas; Valyrakis, Manousos

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from novel experiments aiming to assess coarse sediment transport statistics for a range of transport conditions, via the use of an innovative "smart-pebble" device. This device is a waterproof sphere, which has 7 cm diameter and is equipped with a number of sensors that provide information about the velocity, acceleration and positioning of the "smart-pebble" within the flow field. A series of specifically designed experiments are carried out to monitor the entrainment of a "smart-pebble" for fully developed, uniform, turbulent flow conditions over a hydraulically rough bed. Specifically, the bed surface is configured to three sections, each of them consisting of well packed glass beads of slightly increasing size at the downstream direction. The first section has a streamwise length of L1=150 cm and beads size of D1=15 mm, the second section has a length of L2=85 cm and beads size of D2=22 mm, and the third bed section has a length of L3=55 cm and beads size of D3=25.4 mm. Two cameras monitor the area of interest to provide additional information regarding the "smart-pebble" movement. Three-dimensional flow measurements are obtained with the aid of an acoustic Doppler velocimeter along a measurement grid to assess the flow forcing field. A wide range of flow rates near and above the threshold of entrainment is tested, while using four distinct densities for the "smart-pebble", which can affect its transport speed and total momentum. The acquired data are analyzed to derive Lagrangian transport statistics and the implications of such an important experiment for the transport of particles by rolling are discussed. The flow conditions for the initiation of motion, particle accelerations and equilibrium particle velocities (translating into transport rates), statistics of particle impact and its motion, can be extracted from the acquired data, which can be further compared to develop meaningful insights for sediment transport

  4. Influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' postural balance and risk of falls: a transversal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Oliveira Batista

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to ascertain the influence of the length of institutionalization on older adults' balance and risk of falls.METHOD: to evaluate the risk of falls, the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Get Up and Go test were used; and for measuring postural balance, static stabilometry was used, with acquisition of the elliptical area of 95% and mean velocities on the x and y axes of center of pressure displacement. Parametric and nonparametric measures of association and comparison (α<0.05 were used.RESULTS: there was no significant correlation between the length of institutionalization and the tests for evaluation of risk of falling, neither was there difference between groups and within subgroups, stratified by length of institutionalization and age. In the stabilometric measurements, there was a negative correlation between the parameters analyzed and the length of institutionalization, and difference between groups and within subgroups.CONCLUSION: this study's results point to the difficulty of undertaking postural control tasks, showing a leveling below the clinical tests' reference scores. In the stabilometric behavior, one should note the reduction of the parameters as the length of institutionalization increases, contradicting the assumptions. This study's results offer support for the development of a multi-professional model for intervention with the postural control and balance of older adults living in homes for the aged.

  5. Structure-guided investigation of lipopolysaccharide O-antigen chain length regulators reveals regions critical for modal length control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalynych, Sergei; Ruan, Xiang; Valvano, Miguel A; Cygler, Miroslaw

    2011-08-01

    The O-antigen component of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) represents a population of polysaccharide molecules with nonrandom (modal) chain length distribution. The number of the repeat O units in each individual O-antigen polymer depends on the Wzz chain length regulator, an inner membrane protein belonging to the polysaccharide copolymerase (PCP) family. Different Wzz proteins confer vastly different ranges of modal lengths (4 to >100 repeat units), despite having remarkably conserved structural folds. The molecular mechanism responsible for the selective preference for a certain number of O units is unknown. Guided by the three-dimensional structures of PCPs, we constructed a panel of chimeric molecules containing parts of two closely related Wzz proteins from Salmonella enterica and Shigella flexneri which confer different O-antigen chain length distributions. Analysis of the O-antigen length distribution imparted by each chimera revealed the region spanning amino acids 67 to 95 (region 67 to 95), region 200 to 255, and region 269 to 274 as primarily affecting the length distribution. We also showed that there is no synergy between these regions. In particular, region 269 to 274 also influenced chain length distribution mediated by two distantly related PCPs, WzzB and FepE. Furthermore, from the 3 regions uncovered in this study, region 269 to 274 appeared to be critical for the stability of the oligomeric form of Wzz, as determined by cross-linking experiments. Together, our data suggest that chain length determination depends on regions that likely contribute to stabilize a supramolecular complex.

  6. Microdose acquisition in adolescent leg length discrepancy using a low-dose biplane imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Janni; Mussmann, Bo R; Hjarbæk, John; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Pedersen, Niels W; Gerke, Oke; Torfing, Trine

    2017-09-01

    Background Children with leg length discrepancy often undergo repeat imaging. Therefore, every effort to reduce radiation dose is important. Using low dose preview images and noise reduction software rather than diagnostic images for length measurements might contribute to reducing dose. Purpose To compare leg length measurements performed on diagnostic images and low dose preview images both acquired using a low-dose bi-planar imaging system. Material and Methods Preview and diagnostic images from 22 patients were retrospectively collected (14 girls, 8 boys; mean age, 12.8 years; age range, 10-15 years). All images were anonymized and measured independently by two musculoskeletal radiologists. Three sets of measurements were performed on all images; the mechanical axis lines of the femur and the tibia as well as the anatomical line of the entire extremity. Statistical significance was tested with a paired t-test. Results No statistically significant difference was found between measurements performed on the preview and on the diagnostic image. The mean tibial length difference between the observers was -0.06 cm (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.12 to 0.01) and -0.08 cm (95% CI, -0.21 to 0.05), respectively; 0.10 cm (95% CI, 0.02-0.17) and 0.06 cm (95% CI, -0.02 to 0.14) for the femoral measurements and 0.12 cm (95% CI, -0.05 to 0.26) and 0.08 cm (95% CI, -0.02 to 0.19) for total leg length discrepancy. ICCs were >0.99 indicating excellent inter- and intra-rater reliability. Conclusion The data strongly imply that leg length measurements performed on preview images from a low-dose bi-planar imaging system are comparable to measurements performed on diagnostic images.

  7. Effect of digital noise reduction on the accuracy of endodontic file length determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdizadeh, Mojdeh; Khademi, Abbas Ali; Shokraneh, Ali; Farhadi, Nastaran

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the measurement accuracy of endodontic file length on periapical digital radiography after application of noise reduction digital enhancement. Thirty-five human single-rooted permanent teeth with canals measuring 20-24 mm in length were selected. ISO no.08 endodontic files were placed in the root canals of the teeth. The file lengths were measured with a digital caliper as the standard value. Standard periapical digital images were obtained using the Digora digital radiographic system and a dental X-ray unit. In order to produce the enhanced images, the noise reduction option was applied. Two blinded radiologists measured the file lengths on the original and enhanced images. The measurements were compared by repeated measures ANOVA and the Bonferroni test (a=0.05). Both the original and enhanced digital images provided significantly longer measurements compared with the standard value (P 0.05). Noise reduction digital enhancement did not influence the measurement accuracy of the length of the thin endodontic files on the digital periapical radiographs despite the fact that noise reduction could result in the elimination of fine details of the images.

  8. Diet, nutrition and telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ligi

    2011-10-01

    The ends of human chromosomes are protected by DNA-protein complexes termed telomeres, which prevent the chromosomes from fusing with each other and from being recognized as a double-strand break by DNA repair proteins. Due to the incomplete replication of linear chromosomes by DNA polymerase, telomeric DNA shortens with repeated cell divisions until the telomeres reach a critical length, at which point the cells enter senescence. Telomere length is an indicator of biological aging, and dysfunction of telomeres is linked to age-related pathologies like cardiovascular disease, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease and cancer. Telomere length has been shown to be positively associated with nutritional status in human and animal studies. Various nutrients influence telomere length potentially through mechanisms that reflect their role in cellular functions including inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA integrity, DNA methylation and activity of telomerase, the enzyme that adds the telomeric repeats to the ends of the newly synthesized DNA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Extended fuel cycle length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruyere, M.; Vallee, A.; Collette, C.

    1986-09-01

    Extended fuel cycle length and burnup are currently offered by Framatome and Fragema in order to satisfy the needs of the utilities in terms of fuel cycle cost and of overall systems cost optimization. We intend to point out the consequences of an increased fuel cycle length and burnup on reactor safety, in order to determine whether the bounding safety analyses presented in the Safety Analysis Report are applicable and to evaluate the effect on plant licensing. This paper presents the results of this examination. The first part indicates the consequences of increased fuel cycle length and burnup on the nuclear data used in the bounding accident analyses. In the second part of this paper, the required safety reanalyses are presented and the impact on the safety margins of different fuel management strategies is examined. In addition, systems modifications which can be required are indicated

  10. Determination of Hydrogen Bond Structure in Water versus Aprotic Environments To Test the Relationship Between Length and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigala, Paul A; Ruben, Eliza A; Liu, Corey W; Piccoli, Paula M B; Hohenstein, Edward G; Martínez, Todd J; Schultz, Arthur J; Herschlag, Daniel

    2015-05-06

    Hydrogen bonds profoundly influence the architecture and activity of biological macromolecules. Deep appreciation of hydrogen bond contributions to biomolecular function thus requires a detailed understanding of hydrogen bond structure and energetics and the relationship between these properties. Hydrogen bond formation energies (ΔGf) are enormously more favorable in aprotic solvents than in water, and two classes of contributing factors have been proposed to explain this energetic difference, focusing respectively on the isolated and hydrogen-bonded species: (I) water stabilizes the dissociated donor and acceptor groups much better than aprotic solvents, thereby reducing the driving force for hydrogen bond formation; and (II) water lengthens hydrogen bonds compared to aprotic environments, thereby decreasing the potential energy within the hydrogen bond. Each model has been proposed to provide a dominant contribution to ΔGf, but incisive tests that distinguish the importance of these contributions are lacking. Here we directly test the structural basis of model II. Neutron crystallography, NMR spectroscopy, and quantum mechanical calculations demonstrate that O-H···O hydrogen bonds in crystals, chloroform, acetone, and water have nearly identical lengths and very similar potential energy surfaces despite ΔGf differences >8 kcal/mol across these solvents. These results rule out a substantial contribution from solvent-dependent differences in hydrogen bond structure and potential energy after association (model II) and thus support the conclusion that differences in hydrogen bond ΔGf are predominantly determined by solvent interactions with the dissociated groups (model I). These findings advance our understanding of universal hydrogen-bonding interactions and have important implications for biology and engineering.

  11. Optical Path Length Calibration: A Standard Approach for Use in Absorption Cell-Based IR-Spectrometric Gas Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javis Anyangwe Nwaboh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We employed a comparison method to determine the optical path length of gas cells which can be used in spectroscopic setup based on laser absorption spectroscopy or FTIR. The method is based on absorption spectroscopy itself. A reference gas cell, whose length is a priori known and desirably traceable to the international system of units (SI, and a gas mixture are used to calibrate the path length of a cell under test. By comparing spectra derived from pressure-dependent measurements on the two cells, the path length of the gas cell under test is determined. The method relies neither on the knowledge of the gas concentration nor on the line strength parameter of the probed transition which is very rarely traceable to the SI and of which the uncertainty is often relatively large. The method is flexible such that any infrared light source and infrared active molecule with isolated lines can be used. We elaborate on the method, substantiate the method by reporting results of this calibration procedure applied to multipass and single pass gas cells of lengths from 0.38 m to 21 m, and compare this to other methods. The relative combined uncertainty of the path length results determined using the comparison method was found to be in the ±0.4% range.

  12. Nucleate pool boiling investigation on a silicon test section with micro-fabricated cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanna, A.; Kenning, D.B.R.; Karayiannis, T.G.; Hutter, C.; Sefiane, K.; Nelson, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The basic mechanisms of nucleate boiling are still not completely understood, in spite of the many numerical and experimental studies dedicated to the topic. The use of a hybrid code allows reasonable computational times for simulations of a solid plate with a large population of artificial micro-cavities with fixed distribution. This paper analyses the guidelines for the design, through numerical simulations, of the location and sizes of micro-fabricated cavities on a new silicon test section immersed in FC-72 at the saturation temperature for different pressures with an imposed heat flux applied at the back of the plate. Particular focus is on variations of wall temperature around nucleation sites. (author)

  13. Exploring the Effect of Teaching Test-Taking Strategies on Intermediate Level Learners on Reading Section of Ielts; Learners’ Attitude in Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooshang Khoshsima

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Language proficiency tests have become common instruments to judge people based on their performance. Thus, the scores on language proficiency tests, such as the International English Language Testing System (IELTS or Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL, play a crucial role in the test-takers’ lives. Because of increasing demands on the part of students to get a good score on these tests, test preparatory courses have emerged. These preparatory courses, characteristically short and limited in terms of time, equip IELTS candidates with the skills required for passing the test, called test-taking strategies. The present study explored the effect of strategy teaching- namely wash-back effect on reading section of academic IELTS on intermediate learners in Iran. Besides, learners’ attitude toward the strategy teaching was investigated as well. According to the descriptive statistics and t-test results, those learners who received strategy teaching outperformed those who had not received strategy teaching in reading section of IELTS.According to t-test results, there was a significant difference between the mean scores of the two groups since the p value was lower than .05 (p < .001.  Furthermore, the learners had positive attitudes toward receiving strategy teaching since there was a significant difference between the obtained mean score and the presupposed average because the p value was lower than .05.

  14. The elementary school teachers’ ability in the length measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julie, Hongki

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the elementary school teachers' mathematical ability (1) to develop students’ activities which constructed longer than, shorter than, and as long as concepts, (2) to develop students’ activities which constructed standard unit on the length measurement, and (3) to develop a problem which used by student to construct why a conversion activity on the unit of the length was useful in the daily life after they have participated in the Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) workshops. Curry and Outhread said if teachers knew more about the growth of students’ conceptual understanding of the length, they would be better able to teach that topic [4]. Therefore, in the workshop, teachers were asked to learn more on the stages of the measurement teaching and learning process and why each stage was important. This capability was described by the results of a test which was content of four problems given to teachers after they have attended the workshop. Research subjects in this study were 14 elementary school teachers at Yogyakarta. The results of the study were as follows: (1) only four of 14 teachers who had the first ability; (2) all teachers had the second ability; and (3) all the teachers did not have the third ability.

  15. Prediction of unknown deep foundation lengths using the Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed T.M. Farid

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of unknown deep foundation embedment depth is a great deal nowadays, especially in case of upgrading or rehabilitation of old structures. Many old bridges and marine or pier structures in the United States are established using deep foundations system of timber piles and their foundation records do not exist. Non-Destructive Testing (NDT or Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE method for a great variety of materials and structures has become an integral part of many tests. However, the process of testing long piles, deeply embedded in the ground, is more complex than (NDT of the other structural materials. This paper summarizes some of the most common non-destructive test methods for deep foundations and presents a new method called the Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT. This Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT method is used now by a wide range in a different health monitoring of many systems. In this paper, some field tests on the timber Piles of one bridge at North Carolina was performed to verify the using the (HHT method for predicting the embedded depth of the unknown piles. Percentage of the accuracy achieved using HHT method for pile length compared to the actual pile length data was performed. Finally, a recommendation is presented for the limitation of using this new method as a new non-destructive method for deep foundations.

  16. Slug-tests in PP- and PVP-holes at Olkiluoto in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskitalo, K.; Lindgren, S.

    2007-11-01

    As part of the program for the final disposal of the nuclear fuel waste, Posiva Oy investigates the hydrological conditions at the Olkiluoto island. The hydraulic conductivity in the shallow holes OL-PP5, OL-PP9, OL-PP36, OL-PP39, OL-PVP4A, OL-PVP4B, OL-PVP6A, OL-PVP6B and OL-PVP14 was measured in summer 2006. The length of PP-holes varies between 12 and 15 m, and the test sections (1 m) are located in the bedrock. PVP-tubes have a length up to 10 m, and the test sections (2 m) are located in the overburden. The measurements were done using the slug-test technique. In the slug-test, the hydraulic head in the borehole is abruptly changed either by pouring water into the borehole or by lowering the pressure sensor. The conductivity is interpreted based on the recovery of the water level. This report presents the field measurements and their interpretation. The interpretation has been done using the Hvorslev's method, and for reference, conductivity has also been calculated according to Thiem's equation. According to the results, hydraulic conductivity in PP-holes ranges from 10 -9 m/s to 10 -6 m/s and in PVP-tubes from 10 -8 m/s to 10 -5 m/s. The range is similar as observed in measurements of years 2002, 2004 and 2005. In general the results are consistent with the results obtained in earlier measurements. Some exceptions exist in OL-PP9, where the conductivity is lower than in the 2005 measurements, but still at the same level as in the 2002 measurements. Also, the results agree with hydraulic conductivity interpreted from the pre-pumping done in connection with the groundwater sampling. (orig.)

  17. Bond-Length Distortions in Strained Semiconductor Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woicik, J.C.; Pellegrino, J.G.; Steiner, B.; Miyano, K.E.; Bompadre, S.G.; Sorensen, L.B.; Lee, T.; Khalid, S.

    1997-01-01

    Extended x-ray absorption fine structure measurements performed at In-K edge have resolved the outstanding issue of bond-length strain in semiconductor-alloy heterostructures. We determine the In-As bond length to be 2.581±0.004 Angstrom in a buried, 213 Angstrom thick Ga 0.78 In 0.22 As layer grown coherently on GaAs(001). This bond length corresponds to a strain-induced contraction of 0.015±0.004 Angstrom relative to the In-As bond length in bulk Ga 1-x In x As of the same composition; it is consistent with a simple model which assumes a uniform bond-length distortion in the epilayer despite the inequivalent In-As and Ga-As bond lengths. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. Heat transfer in the in-pile test section and penetration region of 3-pin fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Dae Young; Lee, Chung Young; Sim, Bong Shick; Park, Kook Nam; Park, Su Ki; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Young Jin

    2003-12-01

    This report studies two types of normal heat transfer. One is the heat loss from the pressure vessel of In-Pile Test Section to HANARO pool water via IPS insulation gas gap. The other is the heat transfer of the Penetration Cooling Water System including the effect of the Foamglas insulator at the penetration region. The heat transfer from IPS insulation gas gap has been performed according to the detail design results from NUKEM. The heat loss also occurs at the concrete penetration region between the HANARO pool water and the FTL pipe gallery. The Foamglas insulator has been already installed at the MCW piping of the penetration region. This insulation effect has been reviewed. The Penetration Cooling Water System has been designed to fulfill the design requirement not to exceed the allowable temperature at the penetration concrete wall. The cooling ability and heat loss of PCW system has been reviewed with the insulation effect.

  19. The roles of productivity and ecosystem size in determining food chain length in tropical terrestrial ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hillary S; McCauley, Douglas J; Dunbar, Robert B; Hutson, Michael S; Ter-Kuile, Ana Miller; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2013-03-01

    Many different drivers, including productivity, ecosystem size, and disturbance, have been considered to explain natural variation in the length of food chains. Much remains unknown about the role of these various drivers in determining food chain length, and particularly about the mechanisms by which they may operate in terrestrial ecosystems, which have quite different ecological constraints than aquatic environments, where most food chain length studies have been thus far conducted. In this study, we tested the relative importance of ecosystem size and productivity in influencing food chain length in a terrestrial setting. We determined that (1) there is no effect of ecosystem size or productive space on food chain length; (2) rather, food chain length increases strongly and linearly with productivity; and (3) the observed changes in food chain length are likely achieved through a combination of changes in predator size, predator behavior, and consumer diversity along gradients in productivity. These results lend new insight into the mechanisms by which productivity can drive changes in food chain length, point to potential for systematic differences in the drivers of food web structure between terrestrial and aquatic systems, and challenge us to consider how ecological context may control the drivers that shape food chain length.

  20. The impact of interpreted flow regimes during constant head injection tests on the estimated transmissivity from injection tests and difference flow logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hjerne, Calle; Ludvigsson, Jan-Erik; Harrstroem, Johan [Geosigma AB, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    recovery period are also discussed. The observed discrepancies between the estimated transmissivity from difference flow logging and injection tests can in most cases be correlated to the interpreted flow regimes during the injection tests. In particular, for tests with apparent no-flow boundaries (NFB) during the injection period the estimated transmissivity from the injection tests was frequently much higher than the reported transmissivity of PFL, while tests with pseudo-spherical flow regime (PSF) or pseudo-steady state (PSS) often display rather similar values from injection tests and PFL. This fact is likely to depend on conceptual differences between the two test types. In KFM04A and KFM10A pseudo-radial (PRF) and pseudo-spherical flow regimes (PSF) were more common than in KFM08A while pseudo-linear flow (PLF) and apparent no-flow boundaries (NFB) were more common in KFM08A than in KFM04A and KFM10A. Tests displaying NFB or PLF are more common in sections with a lower fracture frequency and/or sections in located in fracture domains. PSF is more common to find in sections located in deformation zones and/or sections with an increased fracture frequency. No clear relationship between interpreted flow regimes and evaluated transmissivity or borehole length (and depth) could be found in the three studied boreholes.

  1. Economic issues of broiler production length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szőllősi László

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The length of broiler production cycle is also an important factor when profitability is measured. This paper is to determine the effects of different market ages and down-time period, overall broiler production cycle length on performance and economic parameters based on Hungarian production and financial circumstances. A deterministic model was constructed to manage the function-like correlations of age-related daily weight gain, daily feed intake and daily mortality data. The results show that broiler production cycle length has a significant effect on production and economic performance. Cycle length is determined by the length of down-time and grow-out periods. If down-time period is reduced by one day, an average net income of EUR 0.55 per m2 is realizable. However, the production period is not directly proportional either with emerging costs or obtainable revenues. Profit maximization is attainable if the production period is 41-42 days.

  2. Determining the influence of muscle operating length on muscle performance during frog swimming using a bio-robotic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Christofer J; Richards, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Frogs are capable of impressive feats of jumping and swimming. Recent work has shown that anuran hind limb muscles can operate at lengths longer than the ‘optimal length’. To address the implications of muscle operating length on muscle power output and swimming mechanics, we built a robotic frog hind limb model based upon Xenopus laevis. The model simulated the force–length and force–velocity properties of vertebrate muscle, within the skeletal environment. We tested three muscle starting lengths, representing long, optimal and short starting lengths. Increasing starting length increased maximum muscle power output by 27% from 98.1 W kg −1 when muscle begins shortening from the optimal length, to 125.1 W kg −1 when the muscle begins at longer initial lengths. Therefore, longer starting lengths generated greater hydrodynamic force for extended durations, enabling faster swimming speeds of the robotic frog. These swimming speeds increased from 0.15 m s −1 at short initial muscle lengths, to 0.39 m s −1 for the longest initial lengths. Longer starting lengths were able to increase power as the muscle's force–length curve was better synchronized with the muscle's activation profile. We further dissected the underlying components of muscle force, separating force–length versus force–velocity effects, showing a transition from force–length limitations to force–velocity limitations as starting length increased. (paper)

  3. Testing a self-determination theory model of children’s physical activity motivation: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding children’s physical activity motivation, its antecedents and associations with behavior is important and can be advanced by using self-determination theory. However, research among youth is largely restricted to adolescents and studies of motivation within certain contexts (e.g., physical education). There are no measures of self-determination theory constructs (physical activity motivation or psychological need satisfaction) for use among children and no previous studies have tested a self-determination theory-based model of children’s physical activity motivation. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability and validity of scores derived from scales adapted to measure self-determination theory constructs among children and test a motivational model predicting accelerometer-derived physical activity. Methods Cross-sectional data from 462 children aged 7 to 11 years from 20 primary schools in Bristol, UK were analysed. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the construct validity of adapted behavioral regulation and psychological need satisfaction scales. Structural equation modelling was used to test cross-sectional associations between psychological need satisfaction, motivation types and physical activity assessed by accelerometer. Results The construct validity and reliability of the motivation and psychological need satisfaction measures were supported. Structural equation modelling provided evidence for a motivational model in which psychological need satisfaction was positively associated with intrinsic and identified motivation types and intrinsic motivation was positively associated with children’s minutes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions The study provides evidence for the psychometric properties of measures of motivation aligned with self-determination theory among children. Children’s motivation that is based on enjoyment and inherent satisfaction of physical activity is

  4. Correlation of Index Finger Length (2D with Height, Weight and BMI in Adult Bangladeshi Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Rezwan Hasan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human hand is one of the most versatile parts of the human body which plays an important role in modern medical science and evolutionary biology. By virtue of evolution and genetic arrangements, digital lengths vary from person to person according to age, sex, races, occupation or even environmental influences. It has been found that the digital lengths and their ratios are not same in different sexes and even in both hands of same individual. Specially, index to ring digit lengths and their ratios which already have been proved to represent sexual dimorphism may differ in both hands of an individual and show positive correlations with other morphological attributes like height, weight and BMI. Objectives: To analyze the variation of index finger (2D length and its correlation with height, weight and BMI in adult Bangladeshi male. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka from July 2012 to June 2013 on 100 male MBBS students (20−25 years of age. With the help of digital vernier caliper measurements of index finger length (2D was recorded. Height and weight were measured by the stadiometer and weighing scale respectively. BMI was calculated from height and weight. Pearson’s correlation analysis was done to find out the correlation of index finger length with height, weight and BMI. Results: Significant correlation has been found between the lengths of index fingers (2D and height (p0.05. Conclusion: In this study, we found variation in index finger lengths of both hands of Bangladeshi male subjects, which needs further study and comparison.

  5. Relativistic length agony continued

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redžić D.V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We made an attempt to remedy recent confusing treatments of some basic relativistic concepts and results. Following the argument presented in an earlier paper (Redžić 2008b, we discussed the misconceptions that are recurrent points in the literature devoted to teaching relativity such as: there is no change in the object in Special Relativity, illusory character of relativistic length contraction, stresses and strains induced by Lorentz contraction, and related issues. We gave several examples of the traps of everyday language that lurk in Special Relativity. To remove a possible conceptual and terminological muddle, we made a distinction between the relativistic length reduction and relativistic FitzGerald-Lorentz contraction, corresponding to a passive and an active aspect of length contraction, respectively; we pointed out that both aspects have fundamental dynamical contents. As an illustration of our considerations, we discussed briefly the Dewan-Beran-Bell spaceship paradox and the ‘pole in a barn’ paradox. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171028

  6. The effect of distal ulnar implant stem material and length on bone strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austman, Rebecca L; Beaton, Brendon J B; Quenneville, Cheryl E; King, Graham J W; Gordon, Karen D; Dunning, Cynthia E

    2007-01-01

    Implant design parameters can greatly affect load transfer from the implant stem to the bone. We have investigated the effect of length or material of distal ulnar implant stems on the surrounding bone strains. Eight cadaveric ulnas were instrumented with 12 strain gauges and secured in a customized jig. Strain data were collected while loads (5-30 N) were applied to the medial surface of the native ulnar head. The native ulnar head was removed, and a stainless steel implant with an 8-cm-long finely threaded stem was cemented into the canal. After the cement had cured, the 8-cm stem was removed, leaving a threaded cement mantle in the canal that could accept shorter threaded stems of interest. The loading protocol was then repeated for stainless steel stems that were 7, 5, and 3 cm in length, as well as for a 5-cm-long titanium alloy (TiAl(6)V(4)) stem. Other stainless steel stem lengths between 3 and 7 cm were tested at intervals of 0.5 cm, with only a 20 N load applied. No stem length tested matched the native strains at all gauge locations. No significant differences were found between any stem length and the native bone at the 5th and 6th strain gauge positions. Strains were consistently closer to the native bone strains with the titanium stem than the stainless steel stem for each gauge pair that was positioned on the bone overlying the stem. The 3-cm stem results were closer to the native strains than the 7-cm stem for all loads at gauges locations that were on top of the stem. The results from this study suggest that the optimal stem characteristics for distal ulnar implants from a load transfer point of view are possessed by shorter (approximately 3 to 4 cm) titanium stems.

  7. Analysis of ureteral length in adult cadavers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. F. Novaes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In some occasions, correlations between human structures can help planning surgical intra-abdominal interventions. The previous determination of ureteral length helps pre-operatory planning of surgeries, reduces costs of auxiliary exams, the correct choice of double-J catheter with low morbidity and fewer symptoms, and an adequate adhesion to treatment. Objective To evaluate ureteral length in adult cadavers and to analyze its correlation with anthropometric measures. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to January 2012 we determined ureteral length of adult cadavers submitted to necropsy and obtained the following measures: height, distance from shoulder to wrist, elbow-wrist, xiphoid appendix-umbilicus, umbilicus-pubis, xiphoid appendix-pubis and between iliac spines. We analyzed the correlations between ureteral length and those anthropometric measures. Results We dissected 115 ureters from 115 adult corpses from April 2009 to January 2012. Median ureteral length didn't vary between sexes or according to height. It was observed no correlation among ureteral length and all considered anthropometric measures in all analyzed subgroups and in general population. There were no significant differences between right and left ureteral measures. Conclusions There is no difference of ureteral length in relation to height or gender (male or female. There is no significant correlation among ureteral length and the considered anthropometric measures.

  8. Distance Between the Malleoli and the GroundA New Clinical Method to Measure Leg-Length Discrepancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Estela Gomez; Domínguez, Águeda Gómez; Peña-Algaba, Carolina; Castillo-López, José M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work is to introduce a useful method for the clinical diagnosis of leg-length inequality: distance between the malleoli and the ground (DMG). A transversal observational study was performed on 17 patients with leg-length discrepancy. Leg-length inequality was determined with different clinical methods: with a tape measure in a supine position from the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) to the internal and external malleoli, as the difference between the iliac crests when standing (pelvimeter), and as asymmetry between ASISs (PALpation Meter [PALM]; A&D Medical Products Healthcare, San Jose, California). The Foot Posture Index (FPI) and the navicular drop test were also used. The DMG with Perthes rule (perpendicular to the foot when standing), the distance between the internal malleolus and the ground (DIMG), and the distance between the external malleolus and the ground were designed by the authors. The DIMG is directly related to the traditional ASIS-external malleolus measurement (P = .003), the FPI (P = .010), and the navicular drop test (P DMG) is useful for diagnosing leg-length discrepancy and is related to the ASIS-external malleolus measurement. The DIMG is significantly inversely proportional to the degree of pronation according to the FPI. Conversely, determination of leg-length discrepancy with a tape measure from the ASIS to the malleoli cannot be performed interchangeably at the level of the internal or external malleolus.

  9. Adaptive treatment-length optimization in spatiobiologically integrated radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdari, Ali; Ghate, Archis; Kim, Minsun

    2018-04-01

    Recent theoretical research on spatiobiologically integrated radiotherapy has focused on optimization models that adapt fluence-maps to the evolution of tumor state, for example, cell densities, as observed in quantitative functional images acquired over the treatment course. We propose an optimization model that adapts the length of the treatment course as well as the fluence-maps to such imaged tumor state. Specifically, after observing the tumor cell densities at the beginning of a session, the treatment planner solves a group of convex optimization problems to determine an optimal number of remaining treatment sessions, and a corresponding optimal fluence-map for each of these sessions. The objective is to minimize the total number of tumor cells remaining (TNTCR) at the end of this proposed treatment course, subject to upper limits on the biologically effective dose delivered to the organs-at-risk. This fluence-map is administered in future sessions until the next image is available, and then the number of sessions and the fluence-map are re-optimized based on the latest cell density information. We demonstrate via computer simulations on five head-and-neck test cases that such adaptive treatment-length and fluence-map planning reduces the TNTCR and increases the biological effect on the tumor while employing shorter treatment courses, as compared to only adapting fluence-maps and using a pre-determined treatment course length based on one-size-fits-all guidelines.

  10. Relativistic distances, sizes, lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strel'tsov, V.N.

    1992-01-01

    Such notion as light or retarded distance, field size, formation way, visible size of a body, relativistic or radar length and wave length of light from a moving atom are considered. The relation between these notions is cleared up, their classification is given. It is stressed that the formation way is defined by the field size of a moving particle. In the case of the electromagnetic field, longitudinal sizes increase proportionally γ 2 with growing charge velocity (γ is the Lorentz-factor). 18 refs

  11. A cryogenic test stand for full length SSC magnets with superfluid capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, T.J.; Mazur, P.O.

    1989-02-01

    The Fermilab Magnet Test Facility performs testing of the full scale SSC magnets on test stands capable of simulating the cryogenic environment of the SSC main ring. One of these test stands, Stand 5, also has the ability to operate the magnet under test at temperatures from 1.8K to 4.5K with either supercritical helium or subcooled liquid, providing at least 25 Watts of refrigeration. At least 50 g/s flow is available from 2.3K to 4.5K, whereas superfluid operation occurs with zero flow. Cooldown time from 4.5K to 1.8K is 1.5 hours. A maximum current capability of 10,000 amps is provided, as is instrumentation to monitor and control the cryogenic conditions. This paper describes the cryogenic design of this test stand. 8 refs., 6 figs

  12. The association between intelligence and telomere length: a longitudinal population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M Kingma

    Full Text Available Low intelligence has been associated with poor health and mortality, but underlying mechanisms remain obscure. We hypothesized that low intelligence is associated with accelerated biological ageing as reflected by telomere length; we suggested potential mediation of this association by unhealthy behaviors and low socioeconomic position. The study was performed in a longitudinal population-based cohort study of 895 participants (46.8% males. Intelligence was measured with the Generalized Aptitude-Test Battery at mean age 52.8 years (33-79 years, SD=11.3. Leukocyte telomere length was measured by PCR. Lifestyle and socioeconomic factors were assessed using written self-report measures. Linear regression analyses, adjusted for age, sex, and telomere length measured at the first assessment wave (T1, showed that low intelligence was associated with shorter leukocyte telomere length at approximately 2 years follow-up (beta= .081, t=2.160, p= .031. Nearly 40% of this association was explained by an unhealthy lifestyle, while low socioeconomic position did not add any significant mediation. Low intelligence may be a risk factor for accelerated biological ageing, thereby providing an explanation for its association with poor health and mortality.

  13. Post test investigation of the bundle test ESBU-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, S.; Kapulla, H.; Malauschek, H.; Wallenfels, K.P.; Buescher, B.J.

    1986-08-01

    This KfK report describes the post test investigation of bundle experiment ESBU-1. ESBU-1 was the first of two bundle tests on the temperature escalation of Zircaloy clad fuel rods. The investigation of the temperature escalation is part of the program of out-of-pile experiments performed within the frame work of the PNS - Severe Fuel Damage program. The bundle was composed of a 3x3 fuel rod array of our fuel rod simulators (control tungsten heater, UO 2 -ring pellet and Zircaloy cladding). The length was 0.4 meter. After the test the bundle was embedded in epoxy and cut by a diamant saw. The cross sections are investigated by metallographic, SEM and EMP examinations. The results of these examinations are in good agreement with the seperate effects tests investigation of the PNS SFD-Program and inpile experiments of the Power Burst Facility. The investigations show that liquid Zircaloy dissolves UO 2 by taking away the oxygen from the oxide. Depending on the overall oxygen content the (U,Zr,O)-melt forms at refreezing a) three phases (low oxygen content): metallic α-Zry(U), a uranium-rich metallic (U,Zr)alloy, and a (U,Zr)O 2 mixed oxide, or b) two phases (high oxygen content): α-Zr(O) and the (U,Zr)O 2 mixed oxide. c) In melt regions where the local oxidation was very severe, such as in steam contact, only the (U,Zr)O 2 mixed oxide is formed already at test temperature. Also ZrO 2 formed during the initial time of the test is dissolved by the melt. (orig.) [de

  14. Effects of cross-section on mechanical properties of Au nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazinishayan, Ali; Yang, Shuming, E-mail: shuming.yang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Duongthipthewa, Anchalee; Wang, Yiming [State Key Laboratory for manufacturing system engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, 710049 (China)

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this paper is study of the effects of multiple cross-section of Au nanowire on mechanical properties. Different cross-section models of Au nanowires including circular, hexagonal, pentagonal and rectangular were simulated by finite element modeling using ABAQUS. In this study, the bending technique was applied so that both ends of the model were clamped with mid-span under loading condition. The cross-sections had the length of 400 nm and the diameter of 40 nm, except the circular cross-section while the rest of the cross-sections had an equivalent diameter. Von Misses stresses distribution were used to define the stress distribution in the cross-section under loading condition, and elastic deformation was analyzed by the beam theory. The results disclosed that the circular and the rectangular models had highest and lowest strengths against plastic deformation, respectively.

  15. Extreme telomere length dimorphism in the Tasmanian devil and related marsupials suggests parental control of telomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah S Bender

    Full Text Available Telomeres, specialised structures that protect chromosome ends, play a critical role in preserving chromosome integrity. Telomere dynamics in the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii are of particular interest in light of the emergence of devil facial tumour disease (DFTD, a transmissible malignancy that causes rapid mortality and threatens the species with extinction. We used fluorescent in situ hybridisation to investigate telomere length in DFTD cells, in healthy Tasmanian devils and in four closely related marsupial species. Here we report that animals in the Order Dasyuromorphia have chromosomes characterised by striking telomere length dimorphism between homologues. Findings in sex chromosomes suggest that telomere length dimorphism may be regulated by events in the parental germlines. Long telomeres on the Y chromosome imply that telomere lengthening occurs during spermatogenesis, whereas telomere diminution occurs during oogenesis. Although found in several somatic cell tissue types, telomere length dimorphism was not found in DFTD cancer cells, which are characterised by uniformly short telomeres. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of naturally occurring telomere length dimorphism in any species and suggests a novel strategy of telomere length control. Comparative studies in five distantly related marsupials and a monotreme indicate that telomere dimorphism evolved at least 50 million years ago.

  16. Continuous Extraction of Subway Tunnel Cross Sections Based on Terrestrial Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhizhong Kang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for the continuous extraction of subway tunnel cross sections using terrestrial point clouds is proposed. First, the continuous central axis of the tunnel is extracted using a 2D projection of the point cloud and curve fitting using the RANSAC (RANdom SAmple Consensus algorithm, and the axis is optimized using a global extraction strategy based on segment-wise fitting. The cross-sectional planes, which are orthogonal to the central axis, are then determined for every interval. The cross-sectional points are extracted by intersecting straight lines that rotate orthogonally around the central axis within the cross-sectional plane with the tunnel point cloud. An interpolation algorithm based on quadric parametric surface fitting, using the BaySAC (Bayesian SAmpling Consensus algorithm, is proposed to compute the cross-sectional point when it cannot be acquired directly from the tunnel points along the extraction direction of interest. Because the standard shape of the tunnel cross section is a circle, circle fitting is implemented using RANSAC to reduce the noise. The proposed approach is tested on terrestrial point clouds that cover a 150-m-long segment of a Shanghai subway tunnel, which were acquired using a LMS VZ-400 laser scanner. The results indicate that the proposed quadric parametric surface fitting using the optimized BaySAC achieves a higher overall fitting accuracy (0.9 mm than the accuracy (1.6 mm obtained by the plain RANSAC. The results also show that the proposed cross section extraction algorithm can achieve high accuracy (millimeter level, which was assessed by comparing the fitted radii with the designed radius of the cross section and comparing corresponding chord lengths in different cross sections and high efficiency (less than 3 s/section on average.

  17. Eccentric Torque-Producing Capacity is Influenced by Muscle Length in Older Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ruth C; Takahashi, Anielle C M; Quitério, Robison J; Salvini, Tânia F; Catai, Aparecida M

    2016-01-01

    Considering the importance of muscle strength to functional capacity in the elderly, the study investigated the effects of age on isokinetic performance and torque production as a function of muscle length. Eleven younger (24.2 ± 2.9 years) and 16 older men (62.7 ± 2.5 years) were subjected to concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee extension/flexion at 60 and 120° · s(-1) through a functional range of motion. The older group presented lower peak torque (in newton-meters) than the young group for both isokinetic contraction types (age effect, p torque deficits in the older group were near 30 and 29% for concentric and eccentric contraction, respectively. Concentric peak torque was lower at 120° · s(-1) than at 60° · s(-1) for both groups (angular velocity effect, p torque was the only exercise tested that showed an interaction effect between age and muscle length (p torque responses to the muscle length between groups. Compared with the young group, the eccentric knee extension torque was 22-56% lower in the older group, with the deficits being lower in the shortened muscle length (22-27%) and higher (33-56%) in the stretched muscle length. In older men, the production of eccentric knee strength seems to be dependent on the muscle length. At more stretched positions, older subjects lose the capacity to generate eccentric knee extension torque. More studies are needed to assess the mechanisms involved in eccentric strength preservation with aging and its relationship with muscle length.

  18. Impedance of finite length resistive cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Krinsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available We determine the impedance of a cylindrical metal tube (resistor of radius a, length g, and conductivity σ attached at each end to perfect conductors of semi-infinite length. Our main interest is in the asymptotic behavior of the impedance at high frequency (k≫1/a. In the equilibrium regime, ka^{2}≪g, the impedance per unit length is accurately described by the well-known result for an infinite length tube with conductivity σ. In the transient regime, ka^{2}≫g, where the contribution of transition radiation arising from the discontinuity in conductivity is important, we derive an analytic expression for the impedance and compute the short-range wakefield. The analytic results are shown to agree with numerical evaluation of the impedance.

  19. Design of Test Loops for Forced Convection Heat Transfer Studies at Supercritical State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balouch, Masih N.

    test sections provides the Joule heating required to heat up the fluid to supercritical conditions. A high-temperature dielectric gasket isolates the current carrying parts of the test section from the rest of the assembly. Temperature and pressure drop data are collected at the inlet and outlet, and along the heated length of the test section. The test loops and test sections are designed according to American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Pressure Piping B31.1, and Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII-Division 1 rules. The final test loops and test sections assemblies are certified by Technical Standards and Safety Authority (TSSA). Every attempt is made to use off-the-shelf components where possible in order to streamline the design process and reduce costs. Following a rigorous selection process, stainless steel Types 316 and 316H are selected as the construction materials for the test loops, and Inconel 625 is selected as the construction material for the test sections. This thesis describes the design of the SCW and R-134a loops along with the three test-section geometries (i.e., tubular, annular and bundle designs).

  20. Damping test results for straight sections of 3-inch and 8-inch unpressurized pipes. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, A.G.; Thinnes, G.L.

    1984-04-01

    EG and G Idaho is assisting the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Pressure Vessel Research Committee in supporting a final position on revised damping values for structural analyses of nuclear piping systems. As part of this program, a series of vibrational tests on unpressurized 3-in. and 8-in. Schedule 40 carbon steel piping was conducted to determine the changes in structural damping due to various parametric effects. The 33-ft straight sections of piping were supported at the ends. Additionally, intermediate supports comprising spring, rod, and constant-force hangers, as well as a sway brace and snubbers, were used. Excitation was provided by low-force-level hammer impacts, a hydraulic shaker, and a 50-ton overhead crane for snapback testing. Data was recorded using acceleration, strain, and displacement time histories. This report presents test results showing the effect of stress level and type of supports on structural damping in piping.

  1. Tension test system for irradiated small specimens operated by remote control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Akira

    1993-01-01

    A robot-based tension test system has been developed to aid in the mechanical testing of highly radioactive specimens. This system reduces radiation hazards from specimens and allows for the uniform precision of testing results independent of experimenters' skills. The robot system is designed to accommodate a miniaturized tension specimen with a gage section 5.5 by 1.2 mm, with a total length and width of 12.5 and 2.3 mm, respectively, and thickness of about 0.2 mm. The system is composed of a manipulating robot, a vibrational-type specimen feeder, a rotating-type specimen tray, a specimen observation system, a simulated tension text fixture, and a microcomputer for controlling the system. This system accomplishes specimen arrangement in the specimen tray, specimen transportation and loading to the test fixture and testing, and removal of the broken specimen from the fixture. These procedures are performed quickly, safely, and with uniform testing precision by computer control remotely by an unskilled experimenter

  2. Improved Road-Network-Flow Control Strategy Based on Macroscopic Fundamental Diagrams and Queuing Length in Connected-Vehicle Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Connected-vehicles network provides opportunities and conditions for improving traffic signal control, and macroscopic fundamental diagrams (MFD can control the road network at the macrolevel effectively. This paper integrated proposed real-time access to the number of mobile vehicles and the maximum road queuing length in the Connected-vehicles network. Moreover, when implementing a simple control strategy to limit the boundary flow of a road network based on MFD, we determined whether the maximum queuing length of each boundary section exceeds the road-safety queuing length in real-time calculations and timely adjusted the road-network influx rate to avoid the overflow phenomenon in the boundary section. We established a road-network microtraffic simulation model in VISSIM software taking a district as the experimental area, determined MFD of the region based on the number of mobile vehicles, and weighted traffic volume of the road network. When the road network was tending to saturate, we implemented a simple control strategy and our algorithm limits the boundary flow. Finally, we compared the traffic signal control indicators with three strategies: (1 no control strategy, (2 boundary control, and (3 boundary control with limiting queue strategy. The results show that our proposed algorithm is better than the other two.

  3. Microcomputer system for controlling fuel rod length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, E.R.; Bouldin, D.W.; Bolfing, B.J.

    1979-01-01

    A system is being developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to automatically measure and control the length of fuel rods for use in a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR). The system utilizes an LSI-11 microcomputer for monitoring fuel rod length and for adjusting the primary factor affecting length. Preliminary results indicate that the automated system can maintain fuel rod length within the specified limits of 1.940 +- 0.040 in. This system provides quality control documentation and eliminates the dependence of the current fuel rod molding process on manual length control. In addition, the microcomputer system is compatible with planned efforts to extend control to fuel rod fissile and fertile material contents

  4. Correlation length estimation in a polycrystalline material model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonovski, I.; Cizelj, L.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the correlation length estimated from a mesoscopic model of a polycrystalline material. The correlation length can be used in some macroscopic material models as a material parameter that describes the internal length. It can be estimated directly from the strain and stress fields calculated from a finite-element model, which explicitly accounts for the selected mesoscopic features such as the random orientation, shape and size of the grains. A crystal plasticity material model was applied in the finite-element analysis. Different correlation lengths were obtained depending on the used set of crystallographic orientations. We determined that the different sets of crystallographic orientations affect the general level of the correlation length, however, as the external load is increased the behaviour of correlation length is similar in all the analyzed cases. The correlation lengths also changed with the macroscopic load. If the load is below the yield strength the correlation lengths are constant, and are slightly higher than the average grain size. The correlation length can therefore be considered as an indicator of first plastic deformations in the material. Increasing the load above the yield strength creates shear bands that temporarily increase the values of the correlation lengths calculated from the strain fields. With a further load increase the correlation lengths decrease slightly but stay above the average grain size. (author)

  5. Construction experience with Fermilab-built full length 50mm SSC dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blessing, M.J.; Hoffman, D.E.; Packer, M.D.; Gordon, M.; Higinbotham, W.; Sims, R.

    1992-03-01

    Fourteen full length SSC dipole magnets are being built and tested at Fermilab. Their purpose is to verify the magnet design as well as transfer the construction technology to industry. Magnet design is summarized. Construction problems and their solutions are discussed. Topics include coil winding, curing and measuring, collaring, instrumentation, end clamp installation, yoking and electrical and mechanical interconnection

  6. High Heat Flux Test of the ITER FW Semi-prototype Mockups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Young Dug; Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Suk Kwon; Yoon, Jae Sung; Hong, Bong Guen

    2010-01-01

    As a procurement party of the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) blanket project, we have to pass the qualification program which comprises two distinct phases; Phases 1 is about qualifying joining techniques, and phase 2 covers production scaled up component which is so called 'semi-prototype' and the enhanced heat flux qualification. We have constructed the FWQMs (First Wall Qualification Mockups) and already passed the qualification thermal fatigue tests organized by the IO (ITER Organization). The tests were performed at the EB-1200 in the USA and at the BESTH /JUDITH-2 in the EU. For the phase 2 qualification, the semi-prototype design will be provided by the IO. Even though the design has not fixed because the generic design of the first wall is not fixed, it shall comprise a minimum of 3 full length pairs of first wall fingers. We designed and fabricated two semi-prototype mockups which have a full length pair of first wall finger. The two mockups were designed to have different types of the cooling channels; one has a plain rectangular cross-section and the other has a hypervapotron type cooling channel. In order to compare the cooling capability of the two types, we performed high heat flux tests of the two mockups at the KoHLT-2

  7. Determination of nn scattering length from data on nn final state interaction in nd-breakup reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konobeevski, E.S.; Mordovskoy, M.V.; Sergeev, V.A.; Potashev, S.I.; Zuev, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: An experiment is proposed for the high-precision determination of the neutron-neutron scattering length investigating the nn final state interaction in the nd breakup reaction. The singlet pp and nn scattering lengths are very sensitive probes of the NN-interaction, and their difference is a direct measure of charge-symmetry breaking (CSB) of the nuclear force. However CSB is a small effect, and accurate values of the scattering lengths are needed for a theoretical analysis. The proton-proton scattering length is well known from pp-scattering data (a pp = -17.3± 0.4 fm), and its uncertainty is mainly due to a model-dependent procedure of removing Coulomb effects. The neutron-neutron scattering length is determined from the following processes n+d→p+n+n, π - + d → γ +n+n, d+d→ 2 He+n+n by investigating the kinematic region of the nn final-state interaction (FSI) where two neutrons fly with low relative energy. The results obtained by now are characterized by a significant uncertainty in values of a nn ; they are grouped near -16 and -19 fm [1,2], so even the sign of the difference a nn - a pp is uncertain. In this experiment neutron-neutron scattering length is determined by measuring the yield of the nd breakup reaction as a function of the relative energy ε nn =(E 1 +E 2 -2(E 1 E 2 ) 1/2 cosθ)/2 of two neutrons in the FSI region (two neutrons fly in a narrow angular cone) where nn-interaction is strongly revealed. The theory of reactions in 3N system predicts the ε nn dependence of the FSI cross section being sensitive to the value of a nn . The measurements will be made using the neutron channel RADEX at Moscow meson factory of the Institute for Nuclear Research. The momenta and angles of the two emitted neutrons and the energy of the proton will be measured for each breakup event. The measured dependence of the reaction yield on the relative energy of the two neutrons will be compared to results of the Monte Carlo simulation that includes

  8. Performance of RC columns with partial length corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaohui; Liang Fayun

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and analytical studies on the load capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns with partial length corrosion are presented, where only a fraction of the column length was corroded. Twelve simply supported columns were eccentrically loaded. The primary variables were partial length corrosion in tensile or compressive zone and the corrosion level within this length. The failure of the corroded column occurs in the partial length, mainly developed from or located nearby or merged with the longitudinal corrosion cracks. For RC column with large eccentricity, load capacity of the column is mainly influenced by the partial length corrosion in tensile zone; while for RC column with small eccentricity, load capacity of the column greatly decreases due to the partial length corrosion in compressive zone. The destruction of the longitudinally mechanical integrality of the column in the partial length leads to this great reduction of the load capacity of the RC column

  9. Stress Mapping in Glass-to-Metal Seals using Indentation Crack Lengths.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Buchheit, Thomas E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Diebold, Thomas Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newton, Clay S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bencoe, Denise N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jamison, Ryan Dale [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Predicting the residual stress which develops during fabrication of a glass-to-metal compression seal requires material models that can accurately predict the effects of processing on the sealing glass. Validation of the predictions requires measurements on representative test geometries to accurately capture the interaction between the seal materials during a processing cycle required to form the seal, which consists of a temperature excursion through the glass transition temperature of the sealing glass. To this end, a concentric seal test geometry, referred to as a short cylinder seal, consisting of a stainless steel shell enveloping a commercial sealing glass disk has been designed, fabricated, and characterized as a model validation test geometry. To obtain data to test/validate finite element (FE) stress model predictions of this geometry, spatially-resolved residual stress was calculated from the measured lengths of the cracks emanating from radially positioned Vickers indents in the glass disk portion of the seal. The indentation crack length method is described, and the spatially-resolved residual stress determined experimentally are compared to FE stress predictions made using a nonlinear viscoelastic material model adapted to inorganic sealing glasses and an updated rate dependent material model for 304L stainless steel. The measurement method is a first to achieve a degree of success for measuring spatially resolved residual stress in a glass-bearing geometry and a favorable comparison between measurements and simulation was observed.

  10. Stress Mapping in Glass-to-Metal Seals using Indentation Crack Lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheit, Thomas E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Component & Systems Analysis; Strong, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Material Mechanics and Tribology; Newton, Clay S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Material Mechanics and Tribology; Diebold, Thomas Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Material Mechanics and Tribology; Bencoe, Denise N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electronic, Optical and Nano; Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Science; Jamison, Ryan Dale [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Transportation System Analysis

    2017-08-01

    Predicting the residual stress which develops during fabrication of a glass-to-metal compression seal requires material models that can accurately predict the effects of processing on the sealing glass. Validation of the predictions requires measurements on representative test geometries to accurately capture the interaction between the seal materials during a processing cycle required to form the seal, which consists of a temperature excursion through the glass transition temperature of the sealing glass. To this end, a concentric seal test geometry, referred to as a short cylinder seal, consisting of a stainless steel shell enveloping a commercial sealing glass disk has been designed, fabricated, and characterized as a model validation test geometry. To obtain data to test/validate finite element (FE) stress model predictions of this geometry, spatially-resolved residual stress was calculated from the measured lengths of the cracks emanating from radially positioned Vickers indents in the glass disk portion of the seal. The indentation crack length method is described, and the spatially-resolved residual stress determined experimentally are compared to FE stress predictions made using a nonlinear viscoelastic material model adapted to inorganic sealing glasses and an updated rate dependent material model for 304L stainless steel. The measurement method is a first to achieve a degree of success for measuring spatially resolved residual stress in a glass-bearing geometry and a favorable comparison between measurements and simulation was observed.

  11. Penile length and circumference: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Promodu, K; Shanmughadas, K V; Bhat, S; Nair, K R

    2007-01-01

    Apprehension about the normal size of penis is a major concern for men. Aim of the present investigation is to estimate the penile length and circumference of Indian males and to compare the results with the data from other countries. Results will help in counseling the patients worried about the penile size and seeking penis enlargement surgery. Penile length in flaccid and stretched conditions and circumference were measured in a group of 301 physically normal men. Erected length and circumference were measured for 93 subjects. Mean flaccid length was found to be 8.21 cm, mean stretched length 10.88 cm and circumference 9.14 cm. Mean erected length was found to be 13.01 cm and erected circumference was 11.46 cm. Penile dimensions are found to be correlated with anthropometric parameters. Insight into the normative data of penile size of Indian males obtained. There are significant differences in the mean penile length and circumference of Indian sample compared to the data reported from other countries. Study need to be continued with a large sample to establish a normative data applicable to the general population.

  12. Seismic analysis of the in-pile test section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. M.; Park, K. N.; Chi, D. Y.; Park, S. K.; Sim, B. S.; Ahn, S. H.; Lee, C. Y.; Kim, Y. J. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This study gives the results of the seismic analysis of the IPS (In Pile Section) with lower bracket support. The results cover the natural frequency and seismic response of the IPS for the SSE and OBE events. An FE (Finite Element) model which includes the two vessels of the IPS and its support structure were analyzed by ABAQUS.

  13. Pressure Drop Test of Hybrid Mixing Vane Spacer Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, D. S.; Chang, S. K.; Kim, B. D.; Chun, S. Y.; Chun, T. H

    2007-08-15

    The pressure loss test has been accomplished in the test section containing 5x5 rod bundle with a length of 2 m including 3 spacer grids. The test has been performed for the 5 kinds of spacer grids to compare the pressure loss characteristics: 1. Plain spacer grid which has the same body of the Hybrid but without vane (Plain), 2. Hybrid Vane spacer grid (Hybrid), 3. Hybrid-SC spacer grid which is constructed with coined, chamfered strip and is fabricated by spot welding, 4. Hybrid-LC spacer grid which is constructed with coined, chamfered strip and is fabricated by line welding along intersection line, 5. Westinghouse spacer grid with split vane (Plus-7). The pressure loss coefficient of the Plain, Hybrid, Hybrid-SC, Hybrid-LC, and Plus-7 spacer grid is 0.93, 1.15, 1.02, 1.04, and 1.08, respectively.

  14. Wall adjustment strategy software for use with the NASA Langley 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel adaptive wall test section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Stephen W. D.

    1988-01-01

    The Wall Adjustment Strategy (WAS) software provides successful on-line control of the 2-D flexible walled test section of the Langley 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. This software package allows the level of operator intervention to be regulated as necessary for research and production type 2-D testing using and Adaptive Wall Test Section (AWTS). The software is designed to accept modification for future requirements, such as 3-D testing, with a minimum of complexity. The WAS software described is an attempt to provide a user friendly package which could be used to control any flexible walled AWTS. Control system constraints influence the details of data transfer, not the data type. Then this entire software package could be used in different control systems, if suitable interface software is available. A complete overview of the software highlights the data flow paths, the modular architecture of the software and the various operating and analysis modes available. A detailed description of the software modules includes listings of the code. A user's manual is provided to explain task generation, operating environment, user options and what to expect at execution.

  15. Psoas muscle architectural design, in vivo sarcomere length range, and passive tensile properties support its role as a lumbar spine stabilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Gilad J; Kim, Choll W; Tomiya, Akihito; Lee, Yu Po; Ghofrani, Hossein; Garfin, Steven R; Lieber, Richard L; Ward, Samuel R

    2011-12-15

    Controlled laboratory and cross-sectional study designs. To determine psoas major (PM) muscle architectural properties, in vivo sarcomere-length operating range, and passive mechanical properties. PM is an important hip flexor but its role in lumbar spine function is not fully understood. Several investigators have detailed the gross anatomy of PM, but comprehensive architectural data and in vivo length-tension and passive mechanical behaviors have not been documented. PM was isolated in 13 cadaver specimens, permitting architectural measurements of physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA), normalized fiber length (Lf), and Lf:muscle length (Lm) ratio. Sarcomere lengths were measured in vivo from intraoperative biopsies taken with the hip joint in flexed and extended positions. Single-fiber and fiber bundle tensile properties and titin molecular weight were then measured from separate biopsies. Architecturally, average PCSA was 18.45 ± 1.32 cm2, average Lf was 12.70 ± 2 cm, and average Lf: Lm was 0.48 ± 0.06. Intraoperative sarcomere length measurements revealed that the muscle operates from 3.18 ± 0.20 μm with hip flexed at 10.7° ± 13.9° to 3.03 ± 0.22 μm with hip flexed at 55.9° ± 21.4°. Passive mechanical data demonstrated that the elastic modulus of the PM muscle fibers was 37.44 ± 9.11 kPa and of fiber bundles was 55.3 ± 11.8 kPa. Analysis of PM architecture demonstrates that its average Lf and passive biomechanical properties resemble those of the lumbar erector spinae muscles. In addition, PM sarcomere lengths were confined to the descending portion of the length-tension curve allowing the muscle to become stronger as the hip is flexed and the spine assumes a forward leaning posture. These findings suggest that the human PM has architectural and physiologic features that support its role as both a flexor of the hip and a dynamic stabilizer of the lumbar spine.

  16. Noise from Propellers with Symmetrical Sections at Zero Blade Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, A F

    1937-01-01

    A theory has been deduced for the "rotation noise" from a propeller with blades of symmetrical section about the chord line and set at zero blade angle. Owing to the limitation of the theory, the equations give without appreciable error only the sound pressure for cases where the wave lengths are large compared with the blade lengths. With the aid of experimental data obtained from a two-blade arrangement, an empirical relation was introduced that permitted calculation of higher harmonics. The generality of the final relation given is indicated by the fundamental and second harmonic of a four-blade arrangement.

  17. The method to design the length of thin-wall flexible rotor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yue; Yao Zengzhong; Baigu Lafu

    2014-01-01

    Thin-wall flexible rotor is frequently used in rotating machinery. For this rotor the vibration is very complex under the working speed. So the composition design is very difficult. In this paper, for a thin-wall flexible rotor, the material and rotor diameter are determined from spatial structure, the working speed is determined from strength of the material, the first bending critical speed is determined from working speed, then the influence of length on the critical speed is researched. According to the influence of critical speed on the vibration, the length design method is researched, the design steps and methods are given, the safety margin of vibration is analysed. Design validity is established by test. The method is generally suitable for thin-wall flexible rotor. (authors)

  18. Measurements of fatigue crack length at elevated temperature by D. C. electrical potential method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Masakatsu; Yamauchi, Isamu; Kodaira, Tsuneo

    1982-07-01

    The direct current (d.c.) electrical potential method was used to automatically and continuously measure the crack length in cyclic crack growth test at elevated temperature. This report describes some results concerning the calibration curves, i.e. the relation between electrical potential change and amount of crack extention, using SUS 304 and 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steels. It can be concluded that the measurements of fatigue crack length is possible even at elevated temperature as well as at room temperature with the equivalent accuracy. (author)

  19. Maternal and Fetal Outcome in Elective versus Emergency Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Suwal

    2013-12-01

    Results: The incidence of cesarean section was 254 (22.30% out of which emergency cesarean section accounted for 167 (65.7% and elective cesarean section for 87 (34.3%. The usual indications of emergency cesarean section were fetal distress, previous cesarean section in labour, non progress of labour and prolonged second stage of labour. The usual indications of elective cesarean section were previous cesarean section, breech, cephalopelvic disproportion and cesarean section on demand. There was found to be no significant difference in age, period of gestation, blood loss and blood transfusion in emergency vs. elective cesarean section. There was significant difference seen in the length of hospital stay, fever, urinary tract infection, wound infection and low APGAR in five minutes indicating that these were more common in emergency cesarean section. Significant difference was also seen in the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage indicating that it was seen more in elective cesarean section. Conclusions: The incidence of cesarean section in Nepal Medical College Teaching Hospital is high and the overall complication rate is higher in emergency cesarean section than in elective cesarean section. Keywords: cesarean section; fetal and maternal outcome.

  20. Bunch Length Measurements in SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbett, W.J.; Fisher, A.; Huang, X.; Safranek, J.; Sebek, J.; /SLAC; Lumpkin, A.; /Argonne; Sannibale, F.; /LBL, Berkeley; Mok, W.; /Unlisted

    2007-11-28

    A series of bunch length measurements were made in SPEAR3 for two different machine optics. In the achromatic optics the bunch length increases from the low-current value of 16.6ps rms to about 30ps at 25ma/bunch yielding an inductive impedance of -0.17{Omega}. Reducing the momentum compaction factor by a factor of {approx}60 [1] yields a low-current bunch length of {approx}4ps rms. In this paper we review the experimental setup and results.

  1. Cross-sectional study of serum antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona in cats tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, Mary G; Murphy, Alice J; Vrable, Ruth A; Vanzo, Nicole E; Lewis, Stacy K; Sheline, Katherine D; Kaneene, John B; Mansfield, Linda S

    2002-08-15

    To determine apparent seroprevalence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona in a population of domestic cats previously tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. Cross-sectional study. Serum from 196 domestic cats. Banked serum samples submitted to the Michigan State University Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory for T. gondii diagnostic testing were tested for antibodies against S. neurona by use of an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test and a western blot test. Submission records were analyzed to determine descriptive statistics and test for associations between positive results of a test for S. neurona and other variables in the data set. 10 of 196 (5%) samples yielded positive results for antibodies against S. neurona by use of western blot analysis, whereas 27 samples yielded positive results by use of the IFA. No association was found between S. neurona western blot test results and T. gondii test results, age, sex, or the reason for T. gondii testing. The S. neurona IFA titer was positively and significantly associated with positive results of western blot analysis. Domestic cats are not likely to play a substantial role as intermediate hosts in the natural life cycle of S. neurona. Results indicate that natural infection of domestic cats may occur, and small animal practitioners should be aware of this fact when evaluating cats with neurologic disease. The S. neurona IFA test had lower specificity than western blot analysis.

  2. LENGTH-WEIGHT RELATIONSHIP AND CONDITION FACTOR OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data Collection and Analysis. The measurements of length (cm), weight (g) and the condition factor of individual fish sampled were recorded. The relationship between length and weight of the fish was examined by simple linear regression using WINKS software. The variations in the length-weight represented by 'b' were.

  3. πK-scattering lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M.K.; Osipov, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The msub(π)asub(0)sup(1/2)=0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup(3/2)=-0.1, msub(π)asub(0)sup((-))=0.07, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup(1/2)=0.018, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)aup(3/2)=0.002, msub(π)sup(3)asub(1)sup((-))=0.0044, msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(1/2)=2.4x10sup(-4) and msub(π)sup(5)asub(2)sup(3/2)=-1.2x10sup(-4) scattering lengths are calculated in the framework of the composite meson model which is based on four-quark interaction. The decay form factors of (rho, epsilon, S*) → 2π, (K tilde, K*) → Kπ are used. The q 2 -terms of the quark box diagrams are taken into account. It is shown that the q 2 -terms of the box diagrams give the main contribution to the s-wave scattering lengths. The diagrams with the intermediate vector mesons begin to play the essential role at calculation of the p- and d-wave scattering lengths

  4. Investigation into the effects of steel wire rope specimen length on breaking force

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Brien, TM

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available (2000). The methodology employed was to test different length of triangular strand and non-spin rope to destruction, and to evaluate these results against SABS 0293:1996. For each rope construction, specimens were prepared both with and without cut wires...

  5. Test of the universal rise of hadronic total cross sections at super-high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Muneyuki; Igi, Keiji

    2007-01-01

    The increase of the total cross sections at very high energies described by log 2 (s/s 0 ) appears to be confirmed. In the analysis of the COMPETE collaboration in the Particle Data Group (2006), the Blog 2 (s/s 0 ) was assumed to extend the universal rise of all the total hadronic cross sections to reduce the number of adjustable parameters. We test if the assumption on the universality of B is justified, through investigation of the values of B for π ± p(K ± p) and pp,pp scatterings. We search for the simultaneous best fit to the σ tot and ρ ratios, using a constraint from the FESR of the P' type for π -+ p scatterings and constraints that are free from the unphysical regions for the pp, pp and K ± p scatterings. By including rich information of the low-energy scattering data owing to the use of FESR, the errors of the B parameters decrease especially for πp. The resulting value of B pp is consistent with B πp within two standard deviations, which appears to support the universality hypothesis. (orig.)

  6. Relationship Between Physician Assistant Program Length and Physician Assistant National Certifying Examination Pass Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Thomas P; Salisbury, Helen; Hertelendy, Attila J; Tseng, Tina

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to examine the relationship between physician assistant (PA) educational program length and PA programs' 5-year average Physician Assistant National Certifying Examination (PANCE) first-time pass rates. This was a retrospective correlational study that analyzed previously collected data from a nonprobability purposive sample of accredited PA program Web sites. Master's level PA programs (n = 108) in the United States with published average PANCE scores for 5 consecutive classes were included. Provisional and probationary programs were excluded (n = 4). Study data were not normally distributed per the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, P = .00. There was no relationship between program length and PANCE pass rates, ρ (108) = -0.04, P = .68. Further analyses examining a possible relationship between program phase length (didactic and clinical) and PANCE pass rates also demonstrated no differences (ρ [107] = -0.05, P = .60 and ρ [107] = 0.02, P = .80, respectively). The results of this study suggest that shorter length PA programs perform similarly to longer programs in preparing students to pass the PANCE. In light of rapid expansion of PA educational programs, educators may want to consider these findings when planning the length of study for new and established programs.

  7. Comparing mixing-length models of the diabatic wind profile over homogeneous terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Gryning, Sven-Erik; Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    2010-01-01

    Models of the diabatic wind profile over homogeneous terrain for the entire atmospheric boundary layer are developed using mixing-length theory and are compared to wind speed observations up to 300 m at the National Test Station for Wind Turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. The measurements are performe...

  8. AXMIX, ANISN Cross-Sections Mixing, Transport Corrections, Data Library Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Mixing, changing table length, adjoining, making scattering order adjustments (PN delta function subtraction), and transport corrections of ANISN-type cross sections, and management of cross section data sets and libraries. 2 - Method of solution: The number of energy groups which will fit into the core allocated is determined first. If all groups will fit, the solution is straightforward. If not, then the maximum number of groups which will fit is processed repeatedly using direct access I/O and storage disks. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Some flexibility in applying AXMIX is lost when cross sections to be processed contain up-scatter. A special section on up-scatter is therefore included in the report

  9. Lifetime and Path Length of the Virtual Particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyuboshitz, V.L.; Lyuboshitz, V.V.

    2005-01-01

    The concepts of the lifetime and path length of a virtual particle are introduced. It is shown that, near the mass surface of the real particle, these quantities constitute a 4-vector. At very high energies, the virtual particle can propagate over considerable (even macroscopic) distances. The formulas for the lifetime and path length of an ultrarelativistic virtual electron in the process of bremsstrahlung in the Coulomb field of a nucleus are obtained. The lifetime and path length of the virtual photon at its conversion into an electron-positron pair are discussed. The connection between the path length of the virtual particle and the coherence length (formation length) is analyzed

  10. Information, polarization and term length in democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers term lengths in a representative democracy where the political issue divides the population on the left-right scale. Parties are ideologically different and better informed about the consequences of policies than voters are. A short term length makes the government more...... accountable, but the re-election incentive leads to policy-distortion as the government seeks to manipulate swing voters' beliefs to make its ideology more popular. This creates a trade-off: A short term length improves accountability but gives distortions. A short term length is best for swing voters when...

  11. Science Library of Test Items. Volume Twelve. Mastery Testing Programme. [Mastery Tests Series 4.] Tests M39-M50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New South Wales Dept. of Education, Sydney (Australia).

    As part of a series of tests to measure mastery of specific skills in the natural sciences, copies of tests 39 through 50 include: (39) using a code; (40) naming the parts of a microscope; (41) calculating density and predicting flotation; (42) estimating metric length; (43) using SI symbols; (44) using s=vt; (45) applying a novel theory; (46)…

  12. Bending of marble with intrinsic length scales: a gradient theory with surface energy and size effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardoulakis, I.; Kourkoulis, S.K.; Exadaktylos, G.

    1998-01-01

    A gradient bending theory is developed based on a strain energy function that includes the classical Bernoulli-Euler term, the shape correction term (microstructural length scale) introduced by Timoshenko, and a term associated with surface energy (micromaterial length scale) accounting for the bending moment gradient effect. It is shown that the last term is capable to interpret the size effect in three-point bending (3PB), namely the decrease of the failure load with decreasing beam length for the same aspect ratio. This theory is used to describe the mechanical behaviour of Dionysos-Pentelikon marble in 3PB. Series of tests with prismatic marble beams of the same aperture but with different lengths were conducted and it was concluded that the present theory predicts well the size effect. (orig.)

  13. Effect Evaluation of Utterance Length on Speech Dysfluency in Stuttering and Nonstuttering Persian-Speaker Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Haresabadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The correlation of stuttering and different linguistic factors is assessed in many studies. The obtained results can pave the way to reach a better understanding of stuttering, as well as finding more appropriate treatments. This study investigates the effect of utterance length on speech dysfluency comparing stuttering Persian(Farsi -speaking children and nonstuttering ones.Methods: Ten stuttering and ten nonstuttering Persian-speaking children between 4 and 6 years of age, matched by age and gender where included in this cross-sectional study. All individuals were investigated by ten sets of simple and complex sentences. Morphemes were added one by one to sentences in each set in order to assess the impact of utterance length on dysfluency. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results: In practicing ten sets of sentences, the speech dysfluency shows significant enhance with increase of utterance length in both stuttering and nonstuttering children (p=0.001. Furthermore, while comparing two groups of simple and complex sentences, significant increase of speech dysfluency was observed by length enhance of utterance, in both stuttering and nonstuttering children (p<0.05. The comparison of stuttering and nonstuttering children showed significant difference between the two groups as well (p=0.001. Conclusions: The results of this study show that increase in utterance length in both simple and complex sentences lead to increase in dysfluency in stuttering and nonstuttering children. Stuttering children indicated more dysfluency than nonstuttering ones.

  14. Decomposing the queue length distribution of processor-sharing models into queue lengths of permanent customer queues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, S.K.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2005-01-01

    We obtain a decomposition result for the steady state queue length distribution in egalitarian processor-sharing (PS) models. In particular, for an egalitarian PS queue with $K$ customer classes, we show that the marginal queue length distribution for class $k$ factorizes over the number of other

  15. Section Preequating under the Equivalent Groups Design without IRT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongwen; Puhan, Gautam

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we introduce a section preequating (SPE) method (linear and nonlinear) under the randomly equivalent groups design. In this equating design, sections of Test X (a future new form) and another existing Test Y (an old form already on scale) are administered. The sections of Test X are equated to Test Y, after adjusting for the…

  16. Portuguese Family Physicians' Awareness of Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Costs: A Cross-Sectional Study.

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    Luísa Sá

    Full Text Available Physicians' ability to make cost-effective decisions has been shown to be affected by their knowledge of health care costs. This study assessed whether Portuguese family physicians are aware of the costs of the most frequently prescribed diagnostic and laboratory tests.A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of Portuguese family physicians, using computer-assisted telephone interviews for data collection. A Likert scale was used to assess physician's level of agreement with four statements about health care costs. Family physicians were also asked to estimate the costs of diagnostic and laboratory tests. Each physician's cost estimate was compared with the true cost and the absolute error was calculated.One-quarter (24%; 95% confidence interval: 23%-25% of all cost estimates were accurate to within 25% of the true cost, with 55% (95% IC: 53-56 overestimating and 21% (95% IC: 20-22 underestimating the true actual cost. The majority (76% of family physicians thought they did not have or were uncertain as to whether they had adequate knowledge of diagnostic and laboratory test costs, and only 7% reported receiving adequate education. The majority of the family physicians (82% said that they had adequate access to information about the diagnostic and laboratory test costs. Thirty-three percent thought that costs did not influence their decision to order tests, while 27% were uncertain.Portuguese family physicians have limited awareness of diagnostic and laboratory test costs, and our results demonstrate a need for improved education in this area. Further research should focus on identifying whether interventions in cost knowledge actually change ordering behavior, in identifying optimal methods to disseminate cost information, and on improving the cost-effectiveness of care.

  17. Portuguese Family Physicians’ Awareness of Diagnostic and Laboratory Test Costs: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Luísa; Costa-Santos, Cristina; Teixeira, Andreia; Couto, Luciana; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Hespanhol, Alberto; Santos, Paulo; Martins, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Background Physicians’ ability to make cost-effective decisions has been shown to be affected by their knowledge of health care costs. This study assessed whether Portuguese family physicians are aware of the costs of the most frequently prescribed diagnostic and laboratory tests. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a representative sample of Portuguese family physicians, using computer-assisted telephone interviews for data collection. A Likert scale was used to assess physician’s level of agreement with four statements about health care costs. Family physicians were also asked to estimate the costs of diagnostic and laboratory tests. Each physician’s cost estimate was compared with the true cost and the absolute error was c