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Sample records for test score increase

  1. ITC Guidelines on Quality Control in Scoring, Test Analysis, and Reporting of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allalouf, Avi

    2014-01-01

    The Quality Control (QC) Guidelines are intended to increase the efficiency, precision, and accuracy of the scoring, analysis, and reporting process of testing. The QC Guidelines focus on large-scale testing operations where multiple forms of tests are created for use on set dates. However, they may also be used for a wide variety of other testing…

  2. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia.

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    Jaiprakash, Heethal; Min, Aung Ko Ko; Ghosh, Sarmishtha

    2016-03-01

    This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors' performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL) course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group's tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group's tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors' performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors' scores in group 1 was 0.099 (pcorrelation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.

  3. Increased correlation coefficient between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores after training of tutors for assessment of medical students during problem-based learning course in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heethal Jaiprakash

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at finding if there was a change of correlation between the written test score and tutors’ performance test scores in the assessment of medical students during a problem-based learning (PBL course in Malaysia. This is a cross-sectional observational study, conducted among 264 medical students in two groups from November 2010 to November 2012. The first group’s tutors did not receive tutor training; while the second group’s tutors were trained in the PBL process. Each group was divided into high, middle and low achievers based on their end-of-semester exam scores. PBL scores were taken which included written test scores and tutors’ performance test scores. Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the two kinds of scores in each group. The correlation coefficient between the written scores and tutors’ scores in group 1 was 0.099 (p<0.001 and for group 2 was 0.305 (p<0.001. The higher correlation coefficient in the group where tutors received the PBL training reinforces the importance of tutor training before their participation in the PBL course.

  4. What Do Test Scores Really Mean? A Latent Class Analysis of Danish Test Score Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; McIntosh, James

    2014-01-01

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyze a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-55, tested in 1968, and followed until 2011. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. We show that the test scores...... of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture and possible incentive problems make it more di¢ cult to understand what the tests measure....

  5. Improving personality facet scores with multidimensional computer adaptive testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cees A W

    2013-01-01

    personality tests contain many highly correlated facets. This article investigates the possibility of increasing the precision of the NEO PI-R facet scores by scoring items with multidimensional item response theory and by efficiently administering and scoring items with multidimensional computer adaptive...

  6. Do Test Scores Buy Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Neal

    2017-01-01

    Since at least the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002, standardized test scores have served as the primary measures of public school effectiveness. Yet, such scores fail to measure the ultimate goal of education: maximizing happiness. This exploratory analysis assesses nation level associations between test scores and happiness, controlling…

  7. Reporting Diagnostic Scores in Educational Testing: Temptations, Pitfalls, and Some Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip; Puhan, Gautam; Haberman, Shelby J.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic scores are of increasing interest in educational testing due to their potential remedial and instructional benefit. Naturally, the number of educational tests that report diagnostic scores is on the rise, as are the number of research publications on such scores. This article provides a critical evaluation of diagnostic score reporting…

  8. Predicting occupational personality test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A; Drakeley, R

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between students' actual test scores and their self-estimated scores on the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI; R. Hogan & J. Hogan, 1992), an omnibus personality questionnaire, was examined. Despite being given descriptive statistics and explanations of each of the dimensions measured, the students tended to overestimate their scores; yet all correlations between actual and estimated scores were positive and significant. Correlations between self-estimates and actual test scores were highest for sociability, ambition, and adjustment (r = .62 to r = .67). The results are discussed in terms of employers' use and abuse of personality assessment for job recruitment.

  9. Exploring a Source of Uneven Score Equity across the Test Score Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne; Qiu, Yuxi; Penfield, Randall D.

    2018-01-01

    Score equity assessment (SEA) refers to an examination of population invariance of equating across two or more subpopulations of test examinees. Previous SEA studies have shown that score equity may be present for examinees scoring at particular test score ranges but absent for examinees scoring at other score ranges. No studies to date have…

  10. Including osteoprotegerin and collagen IV in a score-based blood test for liver fibrosis increases diagnostic accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosselut, Nelly; Taibi, Ludmia; Guéchot, Jérôme; Zarski, Jean-Pierre; Sturm, Nathalie; Gelineau, Marie-Christine; Poggi, Bernard; Thoret, Sophie; Lasnier, Elisabeth; Baudin, Bruno; Housset, Chantal; Vaubourdolle, Michel

    2013-01-16

    Noninvasive methods for liver fibrosis evaluation in chronic liver diseases have been recently developed, i.e. transient elastography (Fibroscan™) and blood tests (Fibrometer®, Fibrotest®, and Hepascore®). In this study, we aimed to design a new score in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) by selecting blood markers in a large panel and we compared its diagnostic performance with those of other noninvasive methods. Sixteen blood tests were performed in 306 untreated CHC patients included in a multicenter prospective study (ANRS HC EP 23 Fibrostar) using METAVIR histological fibrosis stage as reference. The new score was constructed by non linear regression using the most accurate biomarkers. Five markers (alpha-2-macroglobulin, apolipoprotein-A1, AST, collagen IV and osteoprotegerin) were included in the new function called Coopscore©. Using the Obuchowski Index, Coopscore© shows higher diagnostic performances than for Fibrometer®, Fibrotest®, Hepascore® and Fibroscan™ in CHC. Association between Fibroscan™ and Coopscore© might avoid 68% of liver biopsies for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis. Coopscore© provides higher accuracy than other noninvasive methods for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in CHC. The association of Coopscore© with Fibroscan™ increases its predictive value. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    To validate an interpretation or use of test scores is to evaluate the plausibility of the claims based on the scores. An argument-based approach to validation suggests that the claims based on the test scores be outlined as an argument that specifies the inferences and supporting assumptions needed to get from test responses to score-based…

  12. Prediction of true test scores from observed item scores and ancillary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J; Yao, Lili; Sinharay, Sandip

    2015-05-01

    In many educational tests which involve constructed responses, a traditional test score is obtained by adding together item scores obtained through holistic scoring by trained human raters. For example, this practice was used until 2008 in the case of GRE(®) General Analytical Writing and until 2009 in the case of TOEFL(®) iBT Writing. With use of natural language processing, it is possible to obtain additional information concerning item responses from computer programs such as e-rater(®). In addition, available information relevant to examinee performance may include scores on related tests. We suggest application of standard results from classical test theory to the available data to obtain best linear predictors of true traditional test scores. In performing such analysis, we require estimation of variances and covariances of measurement errors, a task which can be quite difficult in the case of tests with limited numbers of items and with multiple measurements per item. As a consequence, a new estimation method is suggested based on samples of examinees who have taken an assessment more than once. Such samples are typically not random samples of the general population of examinees, so that we apply statistical adjustment methods to obtain the needed estimated variances and covariances of measurement errors. To examine practical implications of the suggested methods of analysis, applications are made to GRE General Analytical Writing and TOEFL iBT Writing. Results obtained indicate that substantial improvements are possible both in terms of reliability of scoring and in terms of assessment reliability. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Test/score/report: Simulation techniques for automating the test process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Barbara H.; Sigman, Clayton B.; Koslosky, John T.

    1994-01-01

    A Test/Score/Report capability is currently being developed for the Transportable Payload Operations Control Center (TPOCC) Advanced Spacecraft Simulator (TASS) system which will automate testing of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Payload Operations Control Center (POCC) and Mission Operations Center (MOC) software in three areas: telemetry decommutation, spacecraft command processing, and spacecraft memory load and dump processing. Automated computer control of the acceptance test process is one of the primary goals of a test team. With the proper simulation tools and user interface, the task of acceptance testing, regression testing, and repeatability of specific test procedures of a ground data system can be a simpler task. Ideally, the goal for complete automation would be to plug the operational deliverable into the simulator, press the start button, execute the test procedure, accumulate and analyze the data, score the results, and report the results to the test team along with a go/no recommendation to the test team. In practice, this may not be possible because of inadequate test tools, pressures of schedules, limited resources, etc. Most tests are accomplished using a certain degree of automation and test procedures that are labor intensive. This paper discusses some simulation techniques that can improve the automation of the test process. The TASS system tests the POCC/MOC software and provides a score based on the test results. The TASS system displays statistics on the success of the POCC/MOC system processing in each of the three areas as well as event messages pertaining to the Test/Score/Report processing. The TASS system also provides formatted reports documenting each step performed during the tests and the results of each step. A prototype of the Test/Score/Report capability is available and currently being used to test some POCC/MOC software deliveries. When this capability is fully operational it should greatly reduce the time necessary

  14. Online pre-race education improves test scores for volunteers at a marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Shane; Renier, Colleen; Sikka, Robby; Widstrom, Luke; Paulson, William; Christensen, Trent; Olson, David; Nelson, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    This study examined whether an online course would lead to increased knowledge about the medical issues volunteers encounter during a marathon. Health care professionals who volunteered to provide medical coverage for an annual marathon were eligible for the study. Demographic information about medical volunteers including profession, specialty, education level and number of marathons they had volunteered for was collected. A 15-question test about the most commonly encountered medical issues was created by the authors and administered before and after the volunteers took the online educational course and compared to a pilot study the previous year. Seventy-four subjects completed the pre-test. Those who participated in the pilot study last year (N = 15) had pre-test scores that were an average of 2.4 points higher than those who did not (mean ranks: pilot study = 51.6 vs. non-pilot = 33.9, p = 0.004). Of the 74 subjects who completed the pre-test, 54 also completed the post-test. The overall post-pre mean score difference was 3.8 ± 2.7 (t = 10.5 df = 53 p online education demonstrated a long-term (one-year) increase in test scores. Testing also continued to show short-term improvement in post-course test scores, compared to pre-course test scores. In general, marathon medical volunteers who had no volunteer experience demonstrated greater improvement than those who had prior volunteer experience.

  15. Adaptive testing with equated number-correct scoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1999-01-01

    A constrained CAT algorithm is presented that automatically equates the number-correct scores on adaptive tests. The algorithm can be used to equate number-correct scores across different administrations of the same adaptive test as well as to an external reference test. The constraints are derived

  16. Summary of Score Changes (in other Tests).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, T. Anne; McCandless, Sam A.

    Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) scores have declined during the last 14 years. Similar score declines have been observed in many different testing programs, many groups, and tested areas. The declines, while not large in any given year, have been consistent over time, area, and group. The period around 1965 is critical for the interpretation of…

  17. Effects of Classroom Ventilation Rate and Temperature on Students' Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla; Shaughnessy, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Using a multilevel approach, we estimated the effects of classroom ventilation rate and temperature on academic achievement. The analysis is based on measurement data from a 70 elementary school district (140 fifth grade classrooms) from Southwestern United States, and student level data (N = 3109) on socioeconomic variables and standardized test scores. There was a statistically significant association between ventilation rates and mathematics scores, and it was stronger when the six classrooms with high ventilation rates that were indicated as outliers were filtered (> 7.1 l/s per person). The association remained significant when prior year test scores were included in the model, resulting in less unexplained variability. Students' mean mathematics scores (average 2286 points) were increased by up to eleven points (0.5%) per each liter per second per person increase in ventilation rate within the range of 0.9-7.1 l/s per person (estimated effect size 74 points). There was an additional increase of 12-13 points per each 1°C decrease in temperature within the observed range of 20-25°C (estimated effect size 67 points). Effects of similar magnitude but higher variability were observed for reading and science scores. In conclusion, maintaining adequate ventilation and thermal comfort in classrooms could significantly improve academic achievement of students.

  18. Data-driven efficient score tests for deconvolution hypotheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langovoy, M.

    2008-01-01

    We consider testing statistical hypotheses about densities of signals in deconvolution models. A new approach to this problem is proposed. We constructed score tests for the deconvolution density testing with the known noise density and efficient score tests for the case of unknown density. The

  19. Effects of Classroom Ventilation Rate and Temperature on Students' Test Scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Haverinen-Shaughnessy

    Full Text Available Using a multilevel approach, we estimated the effects of classroom ventilation rate and temperature on academic achievement. The analysis is based on measurement data from a 70 elementary school district (140 fifth grade classrooms from Southwestern United States, and student level data (N = 3109 on socioeconomic variables and standardized test scores. There was a statistically significant association between ventilation rates and mathematics scores, and it was stronger when the six classrooms with high ventilation rates that were indicated as outliers were filtered (> 7.1 l/s per person. The association remained significant when prior year test scores were included in the model, resulting in less unexplained variability. Students' mean mathematics scores (average 2286 points were increased by up to eleven points (0.5% per each liter per second per person increase in ventilation rate within the range of 0.9-7.1 l/s per person (estimated effect size 74 points. There was an additional increase of 12-13 points per each 1°C decrease in temperature within the observed range of 20-25°C (estimated effect size 67 points. Effects of similar magnitude but higher variability were observed for reading and science scores. In conclusion, maintaining adequate ventilation and thermal comfort in classrooms could significantly improve academic achievement of students.

  20. Effects of Classroom Ventilation Rate and Temperature on Students’ Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Using a multilevel approach, we estimated the effects of classroom ventilation rate and temperature on academic achievement. The analysis is based on measurement data from a 70 elementary school district (140 fifth grade classrooms) from Southwestern United States, and student level data (N = 3109) on socioeconomic variables and standardized test scores. There was a statistically significant association between ventilation rates and mathematics scores, and it was stronger when the six classrooms with high ventilation rates that were indicated as outliers were filtered (> 7.1 l/s per person). The association remained significant when prior year test scores were included in the model, resulting in less unexplained variability. Students’ mean mathematics scores (average 2286 points) were increased by up to eleven points (0.5%) per each liter per second per person increase in ventilation rate within the range of 0.9–7.1 l/s per person (estimated effect size 74 points). There was an additional increase of 12–13 points per each 1°C decrease in temperature within the observed range of 20–25°C (estimated effect size 67 points). Effects of similar magnitude but higher variability were observed for reading and science scores. In conclusion, maintaining adequate ventilation and thermal comfort in classrooms could significantly improve academic achievement of students. PMID:26317643

  1. The Effect of Pretest Exercise on Baseline Computerized Neurocognitive Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlukiewicz, Alec; Yengo-Kahn, Aaron M; Solomon, Gary

    2017-10-01

    Baseline neurocognitive assessment plays a critical role in return-to-play decision making following sport-related concussions. Prior studies have assessed the effect of a variety of modifying factors on neurocognitive baseline test scores. However, relatively little investigation has been conducted regarding the effect of pretest exercise on baseline testing. The aim of our investigation was to determine the effect of pretest exercise on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) scores in adolescent and young adult athletes. We hypothesized that athletes undergoing self-reported strenuous exercise within 3 hours of baseline testing would perform more poorly on neurocognitive metrics and would report a greater number of symptoms than those who had not completed such exercise. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. The ImPACT records of 18,245 adolescent and young adult athletes were retrospectively analyzed. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, participants were dichotomized into groups based on a positive (n = 664) or negative (n = 6609) self-reported history of strenuous exercise within 3 hours of the baseline test. Participants with a positive history of exercise were then randomly matched, based on age, sex, education level, concussion history, and hours of sleep prior to testing, on a 1:2 basis with individuals who had reported no pretest exercise. The baseline ImPACT composite scores of the 2 groups were then compared. Significant differences were observed for the ImPACT composite scores of verbal memory, visual memory, reaction time, and impulse control as well as for the total symptom score. No significant between-group difference was detected for the visual motor composite score. Furthermore, pretest exercise was associated with a significant increase in the overall frequency of invalid test results. Our results suggest a statistically significant difference in ImPACT composite scores between

  2. A Human Capital Model of Educational Test Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyze a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-55 and tested in 1968. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. The bulk of unobservable effects are uncorrelated...... with observable parental attributes and, thus, are environmental rather than genetic in origin. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has evolved over the life of the respondent and is, thus, more a product of the human capital formation process than some latent or fundamental...... measure of pure cognitive ability. We find that variables which are not closely associated with traditional notions of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture, attitudes...

  3. Facilitating the Interpretation of English Language Proficiency Scores: Combining Scale Anchoring and Test Score Mapping Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald; Schedl, Mary; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, for the benefit of both test takers and test score users, enhanced "TOEFL ITP"® test score reports that go beyond the simple numerical scores that are currently reported. To do so, we applied traditional scale anchoring (proficiency scaling) to item difficulty data in order to develop performance…

  4. The Truth about Scores Children Achieve on Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jonathan R.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of using the standard error of measurement (SEm) in determining reliability in test scores is emphasized. The SEm is compared to the hypothetical true score for standardized tests, and procedures for calculation of the SEm are explained. (JDD)

  5. Increasing the reliability of the fluid/crystallized difference score from the Kaufman Adolescent and Adult Intelligence Test with reliable component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, J C

    2001-06-01

    The unreliability of difference scores is a well documented phenomenon in the social sciences and has led researchers and practitioners to interpret differences cautiously, if at all. In the case of the Kaufman Adult and Adolescent Intelligence Test (KAIT), the unreliability of the difference between the Fluid IQ and the Crystallized IQ is due to the high correlation between the two scales. The consequences of the lack of precision with which differences are identified are wide confidence intervals and unpowerful significance tests (i.e., large differences are required to be declared statistically significant). Reliable component analysis (RCA) was performed on the subtests of the KAIT in order to address these problems. RCA is a new data reduction technique that results in uncorrelated component scores with maximum proportions of reliable variance. Results indicate that the scores defined by RCA have discriminant and convergent validity (with respect to the equally weighted scores) and that differences between the scores, derived from a single testing session, were more reliable than differences derived from equal weighting for each age group (11-14 years, 15-34 years, 35-85+ years). This reliability advantage results in narrower confidence intervals around difference scores and smaller differences required for statistical significance.

  6. Validation of new prognostic and predictive scores by sequential testing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieder, Carsten; Haukland, Ellinor; Pawinski, Adam; Dalhaug, Astrid

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose: For practitioners, the question arises how their own patient population differs from that used in large-scale analyses resulting in new scores and nomograms and whether such tools actually are valid at a local level and thus can be implemented. A recent article proposed an easy-to-use method for the in-clinic validation of new prediction tools with a limited number of patients, a so-called sequential testing approach. The present study evaluates this approach in scores related to radiation oncology. Material and Methods: Three different scores were used, each predicting short overall survival after palliative radiotherapy (bone metastases, brain metastases, metastatic spinal cord compression). For each scenario, a limited number of consecutive patients entered the sequential testing approach. The positive predictive value (PPV) was used for validation of the respective score and it was required that the PPV exceeded 80%. Results: For two scores, validity in the own local patient population could be confirmed after entering 13 and 17 patients, respectively. For the third score, no decision could be reached even after increasing the sample size to 30. Conclusion: In-clinic validation of new predictive tools with sequential testing approach should be preferred over uncritical adoption of tools which provide no significant benefit to local patient populations. Often the necessary number of patients can be reached within reasonable time frames even in small oncology practices. In addition, validation is performed continuously as the data are collected. (orig.)

  7. Validation of new prognostic and predictive scores by sequential testing approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieder, Carsten [Radiation Oncology Unit, Nordland Hospital, Bodo (Norway); Inst. of Clinical Medicine, Univ. of Tromso (Norway); Haukland, Ellinor; Pawinski, Adam; Dalhaug, Astrid [Radiation Oncology Unit, Nordland Hospital, Bodo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    Background and Purpose: For practitioners, the question arises how their own patient population differs from that used in large-scale analyses resulting in new scores and nomograms and whether such tools actually are valid at a local level and thus can be implemented. A recent article proposed an easy-to-use method for the in-clinic validation of new prediction tools with a limited number of patients, a so-called sequential testing approach. The present study evaluates this approach in scores related to radiation oncology. Material and Methods: Three different scores were used, each predicting short overall survival after palliative radiotherapy (bone metastases, brain metastases, metastatic spinal cord compression). For each scenario, a limited number of consecutive patients entered the sequential testing approach. The positive predictive value (PPV) was used for validation of the respective score and it was required that the PPV exceeded 80%. Results: For two scores, validity in the own local patient population could be confirmed after entering 13 and 17 patients, respectively. For the third score, no decision could be reached even after increasing the sample size to 30. Conclusion: In-clinic validation of new predictive tools with sequential testing approach should be preferred over uncritical adoption of tools which provide no significant benefit to local patient populations. Often the necessary number of patients can be reached within reasonable time frames even in small oncology practices. In addition, validation is performed continuously as the data are collected. (orig.)

  8. Do later wake times and increased sleep duration of 12th graders result in more studying, higher grades, and improved SAT/ACT test scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep duration, wake time, and hours studying on high school grades and performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)/ American College Testing (ACT) college entrance exams. Data were collected from 13,071 recently graduated high school seniors who were entering college in the fall of 2014. A column proportions z test with a Bonferroni adjustment was used to analyze proportional differences. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine mean group differences. Students who woke up prior to 6 a.m. and got less than 8 h of sleep (27 %) were significantly more likely to report studying 11 or more hours per week (30 %), almost double the rate compared to students who got more than 8 h of sleep and woke up the latest (16 %). Post hoc results revealed students who woke up at 7 a.m. or later reported significantly higher high school grades than all other groups (p students who woke up between 6:01 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. and got eight or more hours of sleep. The highest reported SAT/ACT scores were from the group that woke up after 7 a.m. but got less than 8 h sleep (M = 1099.5). Their scores were significantly higher than all other groups. This study provides additional evidence that increased sleep and later wake time are associated with increased high school grades. However, this study also found that students who sleep the longest also reported less studying and lower SAT/ACT scores.

  9. The Effect of Mock Tests on Iranian EFL learners’ Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khodabakhshzadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of using tests in test preparation courses has been subject to debate. While some scholars such as Yang and Badger (2015 believe it is a cause of positive washback effect, others argue that this issue is tentative and context-bound (Green, 2007. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of using Mock tests in International English Language Testing System (IELTS preparation courses on students’ overall IELTS scores. Fifty one IELTS students were selected non-randomly through the quota sampling approach out of 76 students at Mahan Language Institute in Birjand, Iran.  These participants were distributed into Group 1 (n=25 and Group 2 (n=26. A complete IELTS test was administered to ensure that the Groups were homogeneous and to serve as pretest. After 10 sessions of intervention, a different IELTS test was administered as posttest. The results of between subject analysis through independent samples t-test revealed that using Mock tests in the IELTS preparation courses can positively affect the participants scores on IELTS exam. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  10. Testing statistical significance scores of sequence comparison methods with structure similarity

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    Leunissen Jack AM

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past years the Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm has gained popularity due to improved implementations and rapidly increasing computing power. However, the quality and sensitivity of a database search is not only determined by the algorithm but also by the statistical significance testing for an alignment. The e-value is the most commonly used statistical validation method for sequence database searching. The CluSTr database and the Protein World database have been created using an alternative statistical significance test: a Z-score based on Monte-Carlo statistics. Several papers have described the superiority of the Z-score as compared to the e-value, using simulated data. We were interested if this could be validated when applied to existing, evolutionary related protein sequences. Results All experiments are performed on the ASTRAL SCOP database. The Smith-Waterman sequence comparison algorithm with both e-value and Z-score statistics is evaluated, using ROC, CVE and AP measures. The BLAST and FASTA algorithms are used as reference. We find that two out of three Smith-Waterman implementations with e-value are better at predicting structural similarities between proteins than the Smith-Waterman implementation with Z-score. SSEARCH especially has very high scores. Conclusion The compute intensive Z-score does not have a clear advantage over the e-value. The Smith-Waterman implementations give generally better results than their heuristic counterparts. We recommend using the SSEARCH algorithm combined with e-values for pairwise sequence comparisons.

  11. A process dissociation approach to objective-projective test score interrelationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2002-02-01

    Even when self-report and projective measures of a given trait or motive both predict theoretically related features of behavior, scores on the 2 tests correlate modestly with each other. This article describes a process dissociation framework for personality assessment, derived from research on implicit memory and learning, which can resolve these ostensibly conflicting results. Research on interpersonal dependency is used to illustrate 3 key steps in the process dissociation approach: (a) converging behavioral predictions, (b) modest test score intercorrelations, and (c) delineation of variables that differentially affect self-report and projective test scores. Implications of the process dissociation framework for personality assessment and test development are discussed.

  12. A prognostic scoring system for arm exercise stress testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Xian, Hong; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Wan, Leping; Martin, Wade H

    2016-01-01

    Arm exercise stress testing may be an equivalent or better predictor of mortality outcome than pharmacological stress imaging for the ≥50% for patients unable to perform leg exercise. Thus, our objective was to develop an arm exercise ECG stress test scoring system, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, for predicting outcome in these individuals. In this retrospective observational cohort study, arm exercise ECG stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans aged 64.1 (11.1) years. (mean (SD)) between 1997 and 2002. From multivariate Cox models, arm exercise scores were developed for prediction of 5-year and 12-year all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and 5-year cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction (MI). Arm exercise capacity in resting metabolic equivalents (METs), 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR) and ST segment depression ≥1 mm were the stress test variables independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality by step-wise Cox analysis (all pstatistic of 0.81 before and 0.88 after adjustment for significant demographic and clinical covariates. Arm exercise scores for the other outcome end points yielded C-statistic values of 0.77-0.79 before and 0.82-0.86 after adjustment for significant covariates versus 0.64-0.72 for best fit pharmacological myocardial perfusion imaging models in a cohort of 1730 veterans who were evaluated over the same time period. Arm exercise scores, analogous to the Duke Treadmill Score, have good power for prediction of mortality or MI in patients who cannot perform leg exercise.

  13. Score Gains on g-loaded Tests: No g

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Nijenhuis, J.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; van der Flier, H.

    2007-01-01

    IQ scores provide the best general predictor of success in education, job training, and work. However, there are many ways in which IQ scores can be increased, for instance by means of retesting or participation in learning potential training programs. What is the nature of these score gains? Jensen

  14. What do educational test scores really measure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyze a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-55 and tested in 1968. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. The bulk of unobservable effects are uncorrelate......, and possible incentive problems make it more difficult to elicit true values of what the tests measure....

  15. Effects of white noise on Callsign Acquisition Test and Modified Rhyme Test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue-Terry, Misty; Letowski, Tomasz

    2011-02-01

    The Callsign Acquisition Test (CAT) is a speech intelligibility test developed by the US Army Research Laboratory. The test has been used to evaluate speech transmission through various communication systems but has not been yet sufficiently standardised and validated. The aim of this study was to compare CAT and Modified Rhyme Test (MRT) performance in the presence of white noise across a range of signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). A group of 16 normal-hearing listeners participated in the study. The speech items were presented at 65 dB(A) in the background of white noise at SNRs of -18, -15, -12, -9 and -6 dB. The results showed a strong positive association (75.14%) between the two tests, but significant differences between the CAT and MRT absolute scores in the range of investigated SNRs. Based on the data, a function to predict CAT scores based on existing MRT scores and vice versa was formulated. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This work compares performance data of a common speech intelligibility test (MRT) with a new test (CAT) in the presence of white noise. The results here can be used as a part of the standardisation procedures and provide insights to the predictive capabilities of the CAT to quantify speech intelligibility communication in high-noise military environments.

  16. ANOVA Analysis of Student Daily Test Scores in Multi-Day Test Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouritsen, Matthew L.; Davis, Jefferson T.; Jones, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Instructors are often concerned when giving multiple-day tests because students taking the test later in the exam period may have an advantage over students taking the test early in the exam period due to information leakage. However, exam scores seemed to decline as students took the same test later in a multi-day exam period (Mouritsen and…

  17. The Effect of Mock Tests on Iranian EFL learners’ Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Khodabakhshzadeh; Reza Zardkanloo

    2016-01-01

    The effect of using tests in test preparation courses has been subject to debate. While some scholars such as Yang and Badger (2015) believe it is a cause of positive washback effect, others argue that this issue is tentative and context-bound (Green, 2007). Therefore, this study investigated the effect of using Mock tests in International English Language Testing System (IELTS) preparation courses on students’ overall IELTS scores. Fifty one IELTS students were selected non-randomly through ...

  18. Biering-Sorensen test scores in coal miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tekin, Y.; Ortancil, O.; Ankarali, H.; Basaran, A.; Sarikaya, S.; Ozdolap, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2009-05-15

    Biering-Sorensen test is an isometric back endurance test. Biering-Sorensen test scores have varied in different cultural and occupational groups. The aims of this study were to collect normative data on Biering-Sorensen holding times, to determine the discriminative ability of the Biering-Sorensen test in Turkish coal miners, and to examine the association between Biering-Sorensen test result and functional disability. One hundred and fifty male coal miners participated in this study. Trunk extensor muscle strength was measured using the Biering-Sorensen test. Oswestry disability index was used to measure the functional disability level of low back pain. The mean Biering-Sorensen holding time for the total subject group was 107.3 {+-} 22.5 s. The mean time of Biering-Sorensen test of the subjects with and without low back pain were 99.9 {+-} 19.8 and 128.6 {+-} 15.2 s, respectively. The difference between the subjects with and without low back pain was statistically significant (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant negative correlation between Oswestry functional disability score and Biering-Sorensen holding time (R = -0.824, p < 0.001). Turkish coal miners have low mean back extensor endurance holding times. Biering-Sorensen test had a good discriminative ability in our study group. Trunk muscle strength has a significant effect on the disability level of low back pain. Thus trunk muscle endurance training exercise therapy may be effective for the reduction of disability in patients with low back pain.

  19. Power and sample size evaluation for the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel mean score (Wilcoxon rank sum) test and the Cochran-Armitage test for trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachin, John M

    2011-11-10

    The power of a chi-square test, and thus the required sample size, are a function of the noncentrality parameter that can be obtained as the limiting expectation of the test statistic under an alternative hypothesis specification. Herein, we apply this principle to derive simple expressions for two tests that are commonly applied to discrete ordinal data. The Wilcoxon rank sum test for the equality of distributions in two groups is algebraically equivalent to the Mann-Whitney test. The Kruskal-Wallis test applies to multiple groups. These tests are equivalent to a Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel mean score test using rank scores for a set of C-discrete categories. Although various authors have assessed the power function of the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests, herein it is shown that the power of these tests with discrete observations, that is, with tied ranks, is readily provided by the power function of the corresponding Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel mean scores test for two and R > 2 groups. These expressions yield results virtually identical to those derived previously for rank scores and also apply to other score functions. The Cochran-Armitage test for trend assesses whether there is an monotonically increasing or decreasing trend in the proportions with a positive outcome or response over the C-ordered categories of an ordinal independent variable, for example, dose. Herein, it is shown that the power of the test is a function of the slope of the response probabilities over the ordinal scores assigned to the groups that yields simple expressions for the power of the test. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The effect of instructional methodology on high school students natural sciences standardized tests scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, P. E.

    Educators have recently come to consider inquiry based instruction as a more effective method of instruction than didactic instruction. Experience based learning theory suggests that student performance is linked to teaching method. However, research is limited on inquiry teaching and its effectiveness on preparing students to perform well on standardized tests. The purpose of the study to investigate whether one of these two teaching methodologies was more effective in increasing student performance on standardized science tests. The quasi experimental quantitative study was comprised of two stages. Stage 1 used a survey to identify teaching methods of a convenience sample of 57 teacher participants and determined level of inquiry used in instruction to place participants into instructional groups (the independent variable). Stage 2 used analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to compare posttest scores on a standardized exam by teaching method. Additional analyses were conducted to examine the differences in science achievement by ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status by teaching methodology. Results demonstrated a statistically significant gain in test scores when taught using inquiry based instruction. Subpopulation analyses indicated all groups showed improved mean standardized test scores except African American students. The findings benefit teachers and students by presenting data supporting a method of content delivery that increases teacher efficacy and produces students with a greater cognition of science content that meets the school's mission and goals.

  1. Gender, Stereotype Threat and Mathematics Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Tsui; Xiao Y. Xu; Edmond Venator

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Stereotype threat has repeatedly been shown to depress womens scores on difficult math tests. An attempt to replicate these findings in China found no support for the stereotype threat hypothesis. Our math test was characterized as being personally important for the student participants, an atypical condition in most stereotype threat laboratory research. Approach: To evaluate the effects of this personal demand, we conducted three experiments. Results: ...

  2. School accountability and the black-white test score gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddis, S Michael; Lauen, Douglas Lee

    2014-03-01

    Since at least the 1960s, researchers have closely examined the respective roles of families, neighborhoods, and schools in producing the black-white achievement gap. Although many researchers minimize the ability of schools to eliminate achievement gaps, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) increased pressure on schools to do so by 2014. In this study, we examine the effects of NCLB's subgroup-specific accountability pressure on changes in black-white math and reading test score gaps using a school-level panel dataset on all North Carolina public elementary and middle schools between 2001 and 2009. Using difference-in-difference models with school fixed effects, we find that accountability pressure reduces black-white achievement gaps by raising mean black achievement without harming mean white achievement. We find no differential effects of accountability pressure based on the racial composition of schools, but schools with more affluent populations are the most successful at reducing the black-white math achievement gap. Thus, our findings suggest that school-based interventions have the potential to close test score gaps, but differences in school composition and resources play a significant role in the ability of schools to reduce racial inequality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A physical function test for use in the intensive care unit: validity, responsiveness, and predictive utility of the physical function ICU test (scored).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, Linda; de Morton, Natalie A; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Edbrooke, Lara; Haines, Kimberley; Warrillow, Stephen; Berney, Sue

    2013-12-01

    Several tests have recently been developed to measure changes in patient strength and functional outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU). The original Physical Function ICU Test (PFIT) demonstrates reliability and sensitivity. The aims of this study were to further develop the original PFIT, to derive an interval score (the PFIT-s), and to test the clinimetric properties of the PFIT-s. A nested cohort study was conducted. One hundred forty-four and 116 participants performed the PFIT at ICU admission and discharge, respectively. Original test components were modified using principal component analysis. Rasch analysis examined the unidimensionality of the PFIT, and an interval score was derived. Correlations tested validity, and multiple regression analyses investigated predictive ability. Responsiveness was assessed using the effect size index (ESI), and the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) was calculated. The shoulder lift component was removed. Unidimensionality of combined admission and discharge PFIT-s scores was confirmed. The PFIT-s displayed moderate convergent validity with the Timed "Up & Go" Test (r=-.60), the Six-Minute Walk Test (r=.41), and the Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score (rho=.49). The ESI of the PFIT-s was 0.82, and the MCID was 1.5 points (interval scale range=0-10). A higher admission PFIT-s score was predictive of: an MRC score of ≥48, increased likelihood of discharge home, reduced likelihood of discharge to inpatient rehabilitation, and reduced acute care hospital length of stay. Scoring of sit-to-stand assistance required is subjective, and cadence cutpoints used may not be generalizable. The PFIT-s is a safe and inexpensive test of physical function with high clinical utility. It is valid, responsive to change, and predictive of key outcomes. It is recommended that the PFIT-s be adopted to test physical function in the ICU.

  4. Opportunity to learn: Investigating possible predictors for pre-course Test Of Astronomy STandards TOAST scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Katie J.

    As astronomy education researchers become more interested in experimentally testing innovative teaching strategies to enhance learning in introductory astronomy survey courses ("ASTRO 101"), scholars are placing increased attention toward better understanding factors impacting student gain scores on the widely used Test Of Astronomy STandards (TOAST). Usually used in a pre-test and post-test research design, one might naturally assume that the pre-course differences observed between high- and low-scoring college students might be due in large part to their pre-existing motivation, interest, experience in science, and attitudes about astronomy. To explore this notion, 11 non-science majoring undergraduates taking ASTRO 101 at west coast community colleges were interviewed in the first few weeks of the course to better understand students' pre-existing affect toward learning astronomy with an eye toward predicting student success. In answering this question, we hope to contribute to our understanding of the incoming knowledge of students taking undergraduate introductory astronomy classes, but also gain insight into how faculty can best meet those students' needs and assist them in achieving success. Perhaps surprisingly, there was only weak correlation between students' motivation toward learning astronomy and their pre-test scores. Instead, the most fruitful predictor of TOAST pre-test scores was the quantity of pre-existing, informal, self-directed astronomy learning experiences.

  5. Validity and reliability of Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS) among older Iranian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughan, Mahshid; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Jafari, Zahra; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Farahani, Ida G; Rashedi, Vahid

    2017-11-01

    Cognitive impairment is common among older people and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of the Persian version of the Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS) as a screening tool for dementia. Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study. One hundred and one older adults who were members of Iranian Alzheimer Association and 101 of their siblings were entered into this study by convenient sampling. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, criteria for diagnosing dementia and the Mini-Mental State Examination were used as the study tools. The gathered data were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U-test, the Kruskal-Wallis test, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, and the receiver-operating characteristic. The AMTS could successfully differentiate the dementia group from the non-dementia group. Scores were significantly correlated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders diagnosis for dementia and Mini-Mental State Examination scores (P < 0.001). Educational level (P < 0.001) and male sex (P = 0.015) were positively associated with AMTS, whereas (P < 0.001) was negatively associated with AMTS. Total Cronbach's α coefficient was 0.90. The scores 6 and 7 showed the optimum balance between sensitivity (99% and 94%, respectively) and specificity (85% and 86%, respectively). The Persian version of the AMTS is a valid cognitive assessment tool for older Iranian adults and can be used for dementia screening in Iran. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  6. The Weighted Airman Promotion System: Standardizing Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    u th o ri ze d Top 3/E6 ratio, inventory 1401206040 100 70 130 5R 2F 2G 3N 2M 2A 4J 4C 4P 4T 4B 1W 2T 3P 1T 4A 2S 5J 1A 1S1C 6F 4N 7S 4R 4E 1N 3A 3V...System: Standardizing Test Scores AFHRL convened a panel to identify the relevant factors to consider, and then sit as a promotion board and rank...Costs If the Air Force decided to standardize test scores, there would be three basic types of costs: implementation costs, marketing costs, and

  7. Clock Drawing Test and the diagnosis of amnestic mild cognitive impairment: can more detailed scoring systems do the work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubínová, Eva; Nikolai, Tomáš; Marková, Hana; Siffelová, Kamila; Laczó, Jan; Hort, Jakub; Vyhnálek, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Clock Drawing Test is a frequently used cognitive screening test with several scoring systems in elderly populations. We compare simple and complex scoring systems and evaluate the usefulness of the combination of the Clock Drawing Test with the Mini-Mental State Examination to detect patients with mild cognitive impairment. Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (n = 48) and age- and education-matched controls (n = 48) underwent neuropsychological examinations, including the Clock Drawing Test and the Mini-Mental State Examination. Clock drawings were scored by three blinded raters using one simple (6-point scale) and two complex (17- and 18-point scales) systems. The sensitivity and specificity of these scoring systems used alone and in combination with the Mini-Mental State Examination were determined. Complex scoring systems, but not the simple scoring system, were significant predictors of the amnestic mild cognitive impairment diagnosis in logistic regression analysis. At equal levels of sensitivity (87.5%), the Mini-Mental State Examination showed higher specificity (31.3%, compared with 12.5% for the 17-point Clock Drawing Test scoring scale). The combination of Clock Drawing Test and Mini-Mental State Examination scores increased the area under the curve (0.72; p Drawing Test did not differentiate between healthy elderly and patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment in our sample. Complex scoring systems were slightly more efficient, yet still were characterized by high rates of false-positive results. We found psychometric improvement using combined scores from the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Clock Drawing Test when complex scoring systems were used. The results of this study support the benefit of using combined scores from simple methods.

  8. Effects of correcting for prematurity on cognitive test scores in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Ching, Michelle; Pascoe, Leona; Doyle, Lex W; Anderson, Peter J

    2014-03-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that test scores should be corrected for prematurity up to 3 years of age, but this practice varies greatly in both clinical and research settings. The aim of this study was to contrast the effects of using chronological age and those of using corrected age on measures of cognitive outcome across childhood. A theoretical model was constructed using norms from the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition; the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition Australian; and the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children, Fourth Edition Australian. Baseline scores representing different levels of functioning (70, below average; 85, borderline; and 100, average) were recalculated using the normative data for ages 6 months to 16 years to account for 1, 2, 3 and 4 months of prematurity. The model created depicted the difference in standardised scores between chronological and corrected age. Compared with scores corrected for prematurity, the absolute reduction in scores using chronological age was greater for increasing degree of prematurity, younger ages at assessment and higher baseline scores and was substantial even beyond 3 years of age. However, the pattern was erratic, with considerable fluctuation evident across different ages and baseline scores. Chronological age results in a lowering of scores at all ages for preterm-born subjects that is greater in the first few years and in those born at earlier gestational ages. Whether or not to correct for prematurity depends upon the context of the assessment. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  9. Generalization of the Lord-Wingersky Algorithm to Computing the Distribution of Summed Test Scores Based on Real-Number Item Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghoon

    2013-01-01

    With known item response theory (IRT) item parameters, Lord and Wingersky provided a recursive algorithm for computing the conditional frequency distribution of number-correct test scores, given proficiency. This article presents a generalized algorithm for computing the conditional distribution of summed test scores involving real-number item…

  10. Impact of Answer-Switching Behavior on Multiple-Choice Test Scores in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan BAŞTÜRK

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The multiple- choice format is one of the most popular selected-response item formats used in educational testing. Researchers have shown that Multiple-choice type test is a useful vehicle for student assessment in core university subjects that usually have large student numbers. Even though the educators, test experts and different test recourses maintain the idea that the first answer should be retained, many researchers argued that this argument is not dependent with empirical findings. The main question of this study is to examine how the answer switching behavior affects the multiple-choice test score. Additionally, gender differences and relationship between number of answer switching behavior and item parameters (item difficulty and item discrimination were investigated. The participants in this study consisted of 207 upper-level College of Education students from mid-sized universities. A Midterm exam consisted of 20 multiple-choice questions was used. According to the result of this study, answer switching behavior statistically increase test scores. On the other hand, there is no significant gender difference in answer-switching behavior. Additionally, there is a significant negative relationship between answer switching behavior and item difficulties.

  11. Unexplained Graft Dysfunction after Heart Transplantation—Role of Novel Molecular Expression Test Score and QTc-Interval: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurram Shahzad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current era of immunosuppressive medications there is increased observed incidence of graft dysfunction in the absence of known histological criteria of rejection after heart transplantation. A noninvasive molecular expression diagnostic test was developed and validated to rule out histological acute cellular rejection. In this paper we present for the first time, longitudinal pattern of changes in this novel diagnostic test score along with QTc-interval in a patient who was admitted with unexplained graft dysfunction. Patient presented with graft failure with negative findings on all known criteria of rejection including acute cellular rejection, antibody mediated rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy. The molecular expression test score showed gradual increase and QTc-interval showed gradual prolongation with the gradual decline in graft function. This paper exemplifies that in patients presenting with unexplained graft dysfunction, GEP test score and QTc-interval correlate with the changes in the graft function.

  12. The Impact of Correction for Guessing Formula on MC and Yes/No Vocabulary Tests' Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    abdollah baradaran

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A standard correction for random guessing (cfg formula on multiple-choice and Yes/Noexaminations was examined retrospectively in the scores of the intermediate female EFL learners in an English language school. The correctionwas a weighting formula for points awarded for correct answers,incorrect answers, and unanswered questions so that the expectedvalue of the increase in test score due to guessing was zero. The researcher compared uncorrected and corrected scores on examinationsusing multiple-choice and Yes/No formats. These short-answer formats eliminatedor at least greatly reduced the potential for guessing the correctanswer. The expectation for students to improve their grade by guessingon multiple-choice and Yes/No format examinations is well known. The researcher examined a method for correcting for random guessing (cfg " no knowledge" on multiple- choice and Yes/No vocabulary examinations by comparing application and non-application of correction for guessing (cfg formula on scores on these examinations. It was done to determine whether the test takers really knew the correct answer, or they had resorted to a kind of guessing. This study represented a unique opportunity to compare scores from multiple-choice and Yes/No examinations in a settingin which students were given the same number of questions ineach of the two format types testing their knowledge over thesame subject matter. The results of this study indicated that the significant differences were highlighted between the subjects' scores when cfg formula was applied and when it was not.

  13. Using Raters from India to Score a Large-Scale Speaking Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xiaoming; Mollaun, Pam

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the scoring of the Speaking section of the Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM] Internet-based (TOEFL iBT[R]) test by speakers of English and one or more Indian languages. We explored the extent to which raters from India, after being trained and certified, were able to score the TOEFL examinees with mixed first languages…

  14. Group differences in the heritability of items and test scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicherts, J.M.; Johnson, W.

    2009-01-01

    It is important to understand potential sources of group differences in the heritability of intelligence test scores. On the basis of a basic item response model we argue that heritabilities which are based on dichotomous item scores normally do not generalize from one sample to the next. If groups

  15. Testing the applicability of the SASS5 scoring procedure for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken between 29th January and 17th February 2004 to test the applicability of the South African Scoring System Version 5 (SASS5) scoring and calculation procedure in nutrient-enriched palustrine wetlands in the midlands of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Four reference wetlands and three dairy-effluent ...

  16. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireci, Stephen G.; Talento-Miller, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    Admissions data and first-year grade point average (GPA) data from 11 graduate management schools were analyzed to evaluate the predictive validity of Graduate Management Admission Test[R] (GMAT[R]) scores and the extent to which predictive validity held across sex and race/ethnicity. The results indicated GMAT verbal and quantitative scores had…

  17. Effects of Test Media on Different EFL Test-Takers in Writing Scores and in the Cognitive Writing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Yan-Min

    2016-01-01

    The effects of computer and paper test media on EFL test-takers with different computer familiarity in writing scores and in the cognitive writing process have been comprehensively explored from the learners' aspect as well as on the basis of related theories and practice. The results indicate significant differences in test scores among the…

  18. Does breastfeeding contribute to the racial gap in reading and math test scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Kristen E; Huang, Jin; Vaughn, Michael G; Witko, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of divergent breastfeeding practices between Caucasian and African American mothers on the lingering achievement test gap between Caucasian and African American children. The Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, beginning in 1997, followed a cohort of 3563 children aged 0-12 years. Reading and math test scores from 2002 for 1928 children were linked with breastfeeding history. Regression analysis was used to examine associations between ever having been breastfed and duration of breastfeeding and test scores, controlling for characteristics of child, mother, and household. African American students scored significantly lower than Caucasian children by 10.6 and 10.9 points on reading and math tests, respectively. After accounting for the impact of having been breastfed during infancy, the racial test gap decreased by 17% for reading scores and 9% for math scores. Study findings indicate that breastfeeding explains 17% and 9% of the observed gaps in reading and math scores, respectively, between African Americans and Caucasians, an effect larger than most recent educational policy interventions. Renewed efforts around policies and clinical practices that promote and remove barriers for African American mothers to breastfeed should be implemented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Accountancy, teaching methods, sex, and American College Test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heritage, J; Harper, B S; Harper, J P

    1990-10-01

    This study examines the significance of sex, methodology, academic preparation, and age as related to development of judgmental and problem-solving skills. Sex, American College Test (ACT) Mathematics scores, Composite ACT scores, grades in course work, grade point average (GPA), and age were used in studying the effects of teaching method on 96 students' ability to analyze data in financial statements. Results reflect positively on accounting students compared to the general college population and the women students in particular.

  20. Reduce, Reuse, Recycle: The Longitudinal Value of Local Cut Scores Using State Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter M.; Van Norman, Ethan R.; VanDerHeyden, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    We used existing reading (n = 1,498) and math (n = 2,260) data to evaluate state test scores for screening middle school students. In Phase 1, state test data were used to create a research-derived cut score that was optimal for predicting state test performance the following year. In Phase 2, those cut scores were applied with future cohorts.…

  1. A weighted generalized score statistic for comparison of predictive values of diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski, Andrzej S

    2013-03-15

    Positive and negative predictive values are important measures of a medical diagnostic test performance. We consider testing equality of two positive or two negative predictive values within a paired design in which all patients receive two diagnostic tests. The existing statistical tests for testing equality of predictive values are either Wald tests based on the multinomial distribution or the empirical Wald and generalized score tests within the generalized estimating equations (GEE) framework. As presented in the literature, these test statistics have considerably complex formulas without clear intuitive insight. We propose their re-formulations that are mathematically equivalent but algebraically simple and intuitive. As is clearly seen with a new re-formulation we presented, the generalized score statistic does not always reduce to the commonly used score statistic in the independent samples case. To alleviate this, we introduce a weighted generalized score (WGS) test statistic that incorporates empirical covariance matrix with newly proposed weights. This statistic is simple to compute, always reduces to the score statistic in the independent samples situation, and preserves type I error better than the other statistics as demonstrated by simulations. Thus, we believe that the proposed WGS statistic is the preferred statistic for testing equality of two predictive values and for corresponding sample size computations. The new formulas of the Wald statistics may be useful for easy computation of confidence intervals for difference of predictive values. The introduced concepts have potential to lead to development of the WGS test statistic in a general GEE setting. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Snacking Is Longitudinally Associated with Declines in Body Mass Index z Scores for Overweight Children, but Increases for Underweight Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Wang, Dantong; Popkin, Barry M

    2016-06-01

    Few studies, to our knowledge, have examined the longitudinal association of snacking with child body mass index (BMI), especially in China, where the incidence of overweight and obesity has increased rapidly. Our objective was to examine the longitudinal association between snacking and BMI z score and to test whether this association differs by baseline weight status. Using data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (2006, 2009, and 2011), we characterized snack intake for 9 provinces and 3 megacities. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine longitudinally the association between snacking (none, low, medium, and high tertiles according to energy) and BMI z score in children aged 2-13 y at baseline, controlling for sex, urbanicity, parental education, physical activity, and foods consumed at meals (n = 2277 observations). We tested whether this association differed by baseline underweight, normal weight, or overweight/obese. Snacking is prevalent in Chinese children, with fruit being the most common snack. Snacking was not associated with meaningful BMI z score changes in normal-weight children. However, in children who were underweight at baseline, snacking in the top tertiles was associated with increases in BMI z scores from 2006 to 2011 (+1.2 and +1.1 BMI z score units for ages 2-6 and 7-13 y, respectively) (P overweight/obese 2- to 6-y-old children at baseline, being in the lowest snacking tertile was associated with declines in BMI z score (-3.3), whereas in overweight 7- to 13-y-old children, being in the top tertile of snacking was associated with the greatest decline in BMI z score (-2.1) (P overweight/obese children and increased BMI in underweight children. More work will be needed to monitor this relation as Chinese diets continue to westernize. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Validity of GRE General Test scores and TOEFL scores for graduate admission to a technical university in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Judith; von Davier, Alina A.; Buhmann, Joachim M.; Heinimann, Hans R.

    2018-01-01

    Graduate admission has become a critical process in tertiary education, whereby selecting valid admissions instruments is key. This study assessed the validity of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test scores for admission to Master's programmes at a technical university in Europe. We investigated the indicative value of GRE scores for the Master's programme grade point average (GGPA) with and without the addition of the undergraduate GPA (UGPA) and the TOEFL score, and of GRE scores for study completion and Master's thesis performance. GRE scores explained 20% of the variation in the GGPA, while additional 7% were explained by the TOEFL score and 3% by the UGPA. Contrary to common belief, the GRE quantitative reasoning score showed only little explanatory power. GRE scores were also weakly related to study progress but not to thesis performance. Nevertheless, GRE and TOEFL scores were found to be sensible admissions instruments. Rigorous methodology was used to obtain highly reliable results.

  4. The Performance of the Upper Limb scores correlate with pulmonary function test measures and Egen Klassifikation scores in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ha Neul; Sawnani, Hemant; Horn, Paul S; Rybalsky, Irina; Relucio, Lani; Wong, Brenda L

    2016-01-01

    The Performance of the Upper Limb scale was developed as an outcome measure specifically for ambulant and non-ambulant patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy and is implemented in clinical trials needing longitudinal data. The aim of this study is to determine whether this novel tool correlates with functional ability using pulmonary function test, cardiac function test and Egen Klassifikation scale scores as clinical measures. In this cross-sectional study, 43 non-ambulatory Duchenne males from ages 10 to 30 years and on long-term glucocorticoid treatment were enrolled. Cardiac and pulmonary function test results were analyzed to assess cardiopulmonary function, and Egen Klassifikation scores were analyzed to assess functional ability. The Performance of the Upper Limb scores correlated with pulmonary function measures and had inverse correlation with Egen Klassifikation scores. There was no correlation with left ventricular ejection fraction and left ventricular dysfunction. Body mass index and decreased joint range of motion affected total Performance of the Upper Limb scores and should be considered in clinical trial designs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Relative Merits of Four Methods for Scoring Cloze Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    1980-01-01

    Describes study comparing merits of exact answer, acceptable answer, clozentropy and multiple choice methods for scoring tests. Results show differences among reliability, mean item facility, discrimination and usability, but not validity. (BK)

  6. The Mediating Effect of Listening Metacognitive Awareness between Test-Taking Motivation and Listening Test Score: An Expectancy-Value Theory Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated test-taking motivation in L2 listening testing context by applying Expectancy-Value Theory as the framework. Specifically, this study was intended to examine the complex relationships among expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, listening metacognitive awareness, and listening test score using data from a large-scale and high-stakes language test among Chinese first-year undergraduates. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating effect of listening metacognitive awareness on the relationship between expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score. According to the results, test takers' listening scores can be predicted by expectancy, interest, and listening anxiety significantly. The relationship between expectancy, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score was mediated by listening metacognitive awareness. The findings have implications for test takers to improve their test taking motivation and listening metacognitive awareness, as well as for L2 teachers to intervene in L2 listening classrooms.

  7. The Mediating Effect of Listening Metacognitive Awareness between Test-Taking Motivation and Listening Test Score: An Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Xu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated test-taking motivation in L2 listening testing context by applying Expectancy-Value Theory as the framework. Specifically, this study was intended to examine the complex relationships among expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, listening metacognitive awareness, and listening test score using data from a large-scale and high-stakes language test among Chinese first-year undergraduates. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating effect of listening metacognitive awareness on the relationship between expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score. According to the results, test takers’ listening scores can be predicted by expectancy, interest, and listening anxiety significantly. The relationship between expectancy, interest, listening anxiety, and listening test score was mediated by listening metacognitive awareness. The findings have implications for test takers to improve their test taking motivation and listening metacognitive awareness, as well as for L2 teachers to intervene in L2 listening classrooms.

  8. The Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests and the American College Testing Program Tests as Predictors of Scores on the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenbecker, Sueann; Wood, Peter H.

    1984-01-01

    Scores from the National Board Dental Hygiene Examination (NBDHE) served as the criterion variable in a comparison of the predictive validity of the Dental Hygiene Aptitude Tests (DHAT) and the ACT Assessment tests. The DHAT-Science and Verbal tests combined to produce the highest multiple correlation with NBDHE scores. (Author/DWH)

  9. Reformulation of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT): factor structure and scoring method in a non-clinical population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, S D; Han, H; Newton, R L; Martin, C K; York-Crowe, E; Stewart, T M; Williamson, D A

    2006-12-01

    The primary aims of this study were to empirically test the factor structure of the Children's Eating Attitudes Test (ChEAT) through both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and to interpret the factor structure of the ChEAT within the context of a new scoring method. The ChEAT was administered to 728 children in the 2nd through 6th grades (from five schools) at two different time points. Exactly half the students were male and half were female. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to empirically test the merits of an alternative 6-point scoring system as compared to the traditionally used 4-point scoring system. With the new scoring procedure, the skewness for all factor scores decreased, which resulted in increased variance in the item scores, as well as the total ChEAT score. Since the internal consistency of two factors in a recently proposed model was not acceptable (ChEAT reported by previous investigations. Intercorrelations among the factors suggested three higher order constructs. These findings indicate that the ChEAT subscales may be sufficiently stable to allow use in non-clinical samples of children.

  10. Effect on intelligence test score of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, Masanori; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi.

    1988-10-01

    Analyses of intelligence test scores (Koga) at 10-11 years of age of individuals exposed prenatally to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki using estimates of the uterine absorbed dose based on the recently introduced system of dosimetry, the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), reveal the following: 1) there is no evidence of a radiation-related effect on intelligence among those individuals exposed within 0-7 weeks after fertilization or in the 26th or subsequent weeks; 2) for individuals exposed at 8-15 weeks after fertilization, and to a lesser extent those exposed at 16-25 weeks, the mean tests scores but not the variances are significantly heterogeneous among exposure categories; 3) the cumulative distribution of test scores suggests a progressive shift downwards in individual scores with increasing exposure; and 4) within the group most sensitive to the occurrence of clinically recognizable severe mental retardation, individuals exposed 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, the regression of intelligence score on estimated DS86 uterine absorbed dose is more linear than with T65DR fetal dose, the diminution in intelligence score under the linear model is 21-29 points at 1Gy. The effect is somewhat greater when the controls receiving less than 0.01 Gy are excluded, 24-33 points at 1 Gy. These findings are discussed in the light of the earlier analysis of the frequency of occurrence of mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It is suggested that both are the consequences of the same underlying biological process or processes. (author)

  11. Contributions of Hamstring Stiffness to Straight-Leg-Raise and Sit-and-Reach Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naokazu; Hirata, Kosuke; Kimura, Noriko; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri

    2018-02-01

    The passive straight-leg-raise (PSLR) and the sit-and-reach (SR) tests have been widely used to assess hamstring extensibility. However, it remains unclear to what extent hamstring stiffness (a measure of material properties) contributes to PSLR and SR test scores. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the relationship between hamstring stiffness and PSLR and SR scores using ultrasound shear wave elastography. Ninety-eight healthy subjects completed the study. Each subject completed PSLR testing, and classic and modified SR testing of the right leg. Muscle shear modulus of the biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus was quantified as an index of muscle stiffness. The relationships between shear modulus of each muscle and PSLR or SR scores were calculated using Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients. Shear modulus of the semitendinosus and semimembranosus showed negative correlations with the two PSLR and two SR scores (absolute r value≤0.484). Shear modulus of the biceps femoris was significantly correlated with the PSLR score determined by the examiner and the modified SR score (absolute r value≤0.308). The present findings suggest that PSLR and SR test scores are strongly influenced by factors other than hamstring stiffness and therefore might not accurately evaluate hamstring stiffness. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Manual for Scoring the Test of Directed Imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldman, Donald J.; And Others

    A scoring manual for the Directed Imagination Test, a projective technique wherein the subject is instructed to write four fictional stories (four minutes are allowed for each) about teachers and their experiences, is presented. The manual provides detailed instructions for rating each story by fifteen dimensions relevant to teacher education…

  13. AP Trends: Tests Soar, Scores Slip--Gaps between Groups Spur Equity Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    More students are taking Advanced Placement tests, but the proportion of tests receiving what is deemed a passing score has dipped, and the mean score is down for the fourth year in a row. Data released here this week by the New York City-based nonprofit organization that owns the AP brand shows that a greater-than-ever proportion of students…

  14. Validity of GRE General Test Scores and TOEFL Scores for Graduate Admission to a Technical University in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Judith; von Davier, Alina A.; Buhmann, Joachim M.; Heinimann, Hans R.

    2018-01-01

    Graduate admission has become a critical process in tertiary education, whereby selecting valid admissions instruments is key. This study assessed the validity of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test scores for admission to Master's programmes at a technical university in Europe. We investigated the indicative value of GRE scores for the…

  15. The Formalization of Fairness: Issues in Testing for Measurement Invariance Using Subtest Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Dylan; Borsboom, Denny

    2013-01-01

    Measurement invariance is an important prerequisite for the adequate comparison of group differences in test scores. In psychology, measurement invariance is typically investigated by means of linear factor analyses of subtest scores. These subtest scores typically result from summing the item scores. In this paper, we discuss 4 possible problems…

  16. Effect of Mindfulness Meditation on Perceived Stress Scores and Autonomic Function Tests of Pregnant Indian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukrishnan, Shobitha; Jain, Reena; Kohli, Sangeeta; Batra, Swaraj

    2016-04-01

    Various pregnancy complications like hypertension, preeclampsia have been strongly correlated with maternal stress. One of the connecting links between pregnancy complications and maternal stress is mind-body intervention which can be part of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM). Biologic measures of stress during pregnancy may get reduced by such interventions. To evaluate the effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and autonomic function tests of pregnant Indian women. Pregnant Indian women of 12 weeks gestation were randomised to two treatment groups: Test group with Mindfulness meditation and control group with their usual obstetric care. The effect of Mindfulness meditation on perceived stress scores and cardiac sympathetic functions and parasympathetic functions (Heart rate variation with respiration, lying to standing ratio, standing to lying ratio and respiratory rate) were evaluated on pregnant Indian women. There was a significant decrease in perceived stress scores, a significant decrease of blood pressure response to cold pressor test and a significant increase in heart rate variability in the test group (pwomen. The results of this study suggest that mindfulness meditation improves parasympathetic functions in pregnant women and is a powerful modulator of the sympathetic nervous system during pregnancy.

  17. A high COPD assessment test score may predict anxiety in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harryanto H

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hilman Harryanto,1 Sally Burrows,2 Yuben Moodley1,2 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia; 2Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Medical School, University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, AustraliaThe prevalence of anxiety is 55% in patients with COPD,1 and it is associated with worse disease control. Therefore, early recognition and institution of treatment of this comorbidity significantly improve patient’s quality of life. Recently, a questionnaire called the COPD assessment test (CAT has been incorporated into the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD guidelines for the management of COPD, and a higher score is associated with increased COPD symptoms.2 Considering the regular use of CAT, it was evaluated whether this tool can also be used to identify anxiety. The CAT score was correlated with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS to determine the level at which CAT may predict anxiety.

  18. Explaining the black-white gap in cognitive test scores: Toward a theory of adverse impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Jonathan M; Newman, Daniel A; Roisman, Glenn I

    2015-11-01

    In understanding the causes of adverse impact, a key parameter is the Black-White difference in cognitive test scores. To advance theory on why Black-White cognitive ability/knowledge test score gaps exist, and on how these gaps develop over time, the current article proposes an inductive explanatory model derived from past empirical findings. According to this theoretical model, Black-White group mean differences in cognitive test scores arise from the following racially disparate conditions: family income, maternal education, maternal verbal ability/knowledge, learning materials in the home, parenting factors (maternal sensitivity, maternal warmth and acceptance, and safe physical environment), child birth order, and child birth weight. Results from a 5-wave longitudinal growth model estimated on children in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development from ages 4 through 15 years show significant Black-White cognitive test score gaps throughout early development that did not grow significantly over time (i.e., significant intercept differences, but not slope differences). Importantly, the racially disparate conditions listed above can account for the relation between race and cognitive test scores. We propose a parsimonious 3-Step Model that explains how cognitive test score gaps arise, in which race relates to maternal disadvantage, which in turn relates to parenting factors, which in turn relate to cognitive test scores. This model and results offer to fill a need for theory on the etiology of the Black-White ethnic group gap in cognitive test scores, and attempt to address a missing link in the theory of adverse impact. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. A Maturing Global Testing Regime Meets the World Economy: Test Scores and Economic Growth, 1960-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamens, David H.

    2015-01-01

    This article considers the growth of the international testing regime. It discusses sources of growth and empirically examines two related sets of issues: (1) the stability of countries' achievement scores, and (2) the influence of those national scores on subsequent economic development over different time lags. The article suggests that…

  20. Psychometric Properties of Raw and Scale Scores on Mixed-Format Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…

  1. Optimal Scoring Methods of Hand-Strength Tests in Patients with Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheau-Ling; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Chen, Hui-Mei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal scoring methods for measuring strength of the more-affected hand in patients with stroke by examining the effect of reducing measurement errors. Three hand-strength tests of grip, palmar pinch, and lateral pinch were administered at two sessions in 56 patients with stroke. Five scoring methods…

  2. High Test Scores: The Wrong Road to National Economic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Keith

    2011-01-01

    A widely held view is that good schools are essential to a nation's international economic success and that high test scores on international tests of academic skills and knowledge indicate how good a nation's schools are. The widespread belief that good schools are an important contributor to a nation's economic success in the world is supported…

  3. Relationships between spatial activities and scores on the mental rotation test as a function of sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Sheryl R; Pickens, Stefanie J

    2005-06-01

    Previous results suggested that female college students' scores on the Mental Rotations Test might be related to their prior experience with spatial tasks. For example, women who played video games scored better on the test than their non-game-playing peers, whereas playing video games was not related to men's scores. The present study examined whether participation in different types of spatial activities would be related to women's performance on the Mental Rotations Test. 31 men and 59 women enrolled at a small, private church-affiliated university and majoring in art or music as well as students who participated in intercollegiate athletics completed the Mental Rotations Test. Women's scores on the Mental Rotations Test benefitted from experience with spatial activities; the more types of experience the women had, the better their scores. Thus women who were athletes, musicians, or artists scored better than those women who had no experience with these activities. The opposite results were found for the men. Efforts are currently underway to assess how length of experience and which types of experience are related to scores.

  4. The quantitative LOD score: test statistic and sample size for exclusion and linkage of quantitative traits in human sibships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, G P; Amos, C I; Boerwinkle, E

    1998-04-01

    We present a test statistic, the quantitative LOD (QLOD) score, for the testing of both linkage and exclusion of quantitative-trait loci in randomly selected human sibships. As with the traditional LOD score, the boundary values of 3, for linkage, and -2, for exclusion, can be used for the QLOD score. We investigated the sample sizes required for inferring exclusion and linkage, for various combinations of linked genetic variance, total heritability, recombination distance, and sibship size, using fixed-size sampling. The sample sizes required for both linkage and exclusion were not qualitatively different and depended on the percentage of variance being linked or excluded and on the total genetic variance. Information regarding linkage and exclusion in sibships larger than size 2 increased as approximately all possible pairs n(n-1)/2 up to sibships of size 6. Increasing the recombination (theta) distance between the marker and the trait loci reduced empirically the power for both linkage and exclusion, as a function of approximately (1-2theta)4.

  5. The effect of an intervention program on functional movement screen test scores in mixed martial arts athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodden, Jamie G; Needham, Robert A; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the basic fundamental movements of mixed martial arts (MMA) athletes using the functional movement screen (FMS) assessment and determined if an intervention program was successful at improving results. Participants were placed into 1 of the 2 groups: intervention and control groups. The intervention group was required to complete a corrective exercise program 4 times per week, and all participants were asked to continue their usual MMA training routine. A mid-intervention FMS test was included to examine if successful results were noticed sooner than the 8-week period. Results highlighted differences in FMS test scores between the control group and intervention group (p = 0.006). Post hoc testing revealed a significant increase in the FMS score of the intervention group between weeks 0 and 8 (p = 0.00) and weeks 0 and 4 (p = 0.00) and no significant increase between weeks 4 and 8 (p = 1.00). A χ analysis revealed that the intervention group participants were more likely to have an FMS score >14 than participants in the control group at week 4 (χ = 7.29, p < 0.01) and week 8 (χ = 5.2, p ≤ 0.05). Finally, a greater number of participants in the intervention group were free from asymmetry at week 4 and week 8 compared with the initial test period. The results of the study suggested that a 4-week intervention program was sufficient at improving FMS scores. Most if not all, the movements covered on the FMS relate to many aspects of MMA training. The knowledge that the FMS can identify movement dysfunctions and, furthermore, the fact that the issues can be improved through a standardized intervention program could be advantageous to MMA coaches, thus, providing the opportunity to adapt and implement new additions to training programs.

  6. Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test Scores and Lower Extremity Injury in NCAA Division I Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wilson C; Wang, Dean; Chen, James B; Vail, Jeremy; Rugg, Caitlin M; Hame, Sharon L

    2017-08-01

    Functional movement tests that are predictive of injury risk in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes are useful tools for sports medicine professionals. The Lower Quarter Y-Balance Test (YBT-LQ) measures single-leg balance and reach distances in 3 directions. To assess whether the YBT-LQ predicts the laterality and risk of sports-related lower extremity (LE) injury in NCAA athletes. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. The YBT-LQ was administered to 294 NCAA Division I athletes from 21 sports during preparticipation physical examinations at a single institution. Athletes were followed prospectively over the course of the corresponding season. Correlation analysis was performed between the laterality of reach asymmetry and composite scores (CS) versus the laterality of injury. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine the optimal asymmetry cutoff score for YBT-LQ. A multivariate regression analysis adjusting for sex, sport type, body mass index, and history of prior LE surgery was performed to assess predictors of earlier and higher rates of injury. Neither the laterality of reach asymmetry nor the CS correlated with the laterality of injury. ROC analysis found optimal cutoff scores of 2, 9, and 3 cm for anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral reach, respectively. All of these potential cutoff scores, along with a cutoff score of 4 cm used in the majority of prior studies, were associated with poor sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, none of the asymmetric cutoff scores were associated with earlier or increased rate of injury in the multivariate analyses. YBT-LQ scores alone do not predict LE injury in this collegiate athlete population. Sports medicine professionals should be cautioned against using the YBT-LQ alone to screen for injury risk in collegiate athletes.

  7. A knowledge-based theory of rising scores on "culture-free" tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mark C; Mitchum, Ainsley L

    2013-08-01

    Secular gains in intelligence test scores have perplexed researchers since they were documented by Flynn (1984, 1987). Gains are most pronounced on abstract, so-called culture-free tests, prompting Flynn (2007) to attribute them to problem-solving skills availed by scientifically advanced cultures. We propose that recent-born individuals have adopted an approach to analogy that enables them to infer higher level relations requiring roles that are not intrinsic to the objects that constitute initial representations of items. This proposal is translated into item-specific predictions about differences between cohorts in pass rates and item-response patterns on the Raven's Matrices (Flynn, 1987), a seemingly culture-free test that registers the largest Flynn effect. Consistent with predictions, archival data reveal that individuals born around 1940 are less able to map objects at higher levels of relational abstraction than individuals born around 1990. Polytomous Rasch models verify predicted violations of measurement invariance, as raw scores are found to underestimate the number of analogical rules inferred by members of the earlier cohort relative to members of the later cohort who achieve the same overall score. The work provides a plausible cognitive account of the Flynn effect, furthers understanding of the cognition of matrix reasoning, and underscores the need to consider how test-takers select item responses. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. A Latent Class Approach to Estimating Test-Score Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ark, L. Andries; van der Palm, Daniel W.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a general framework for single-administration reliability methods, such as Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, and method MS. This general framework was used to derive a new approach to estimating test-score reliability by means of the unrestricted latent class model. This new approach is the latent class reliability…

  9. Computerized scoring algorithms for the Autobiographical Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Keisuke; Gutenbrunner, Charlotte; Martens, Kris; Salmon, Karen; Raes, Filip

    2018-02-01

    Reduced specificity of autobiographical memories is a hallmark of depressive cognition. Autobiographical memory (AM) specificity is typically measured by the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT), in which respondents are asked to describe personal memories in response to emotional cue words. Due to this free descriptive responding format, the AMT relies on experts' hand scoring for subsequent statistical analyses. This manual coding potentially impedes research activities in big data analytics such as large epidemiological studies. Here, we propose computerized algorithms to automatically score AM specificity for the Dutch (adult participants) and English (youth participants) versions of the AMT by using natural language processing and machine learning techniques. The algorithms showed reliable performances in discriminating specific and nonspecific (e.g., overgeneralized) autobiographical memories in independent testing data sets (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve > .90). Furthermore, outcome values of the algorithms (i.e., decision values of support vector machines) showed a gradient across similar (e.g., specific and extended memories) and different (e.g., specific memory and semantic associates) categories of AMT responses, suggesting that, for both adults and youth, the algorithms well capture the extent to which a memory has features of specific memories. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Robust joint score tests in the application of DNA methylation data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Fu, Yuejiao; Wang, Xiaogang; Qiu, Weiliang

    2018-05-18

    Recently differential variability has been showed to be valuable in evaluating the association of DNA methylation to the risks of complex human diseases. The statistical tests based on both differential methylation level and differential variability can be more powerful than those based only on differential methylation level. Anh and Wang (2013) proposed a joint score test (AW) to simultaneously detect for differential methylation and differential variability. However, AW's method seems to be quite conservative and has not been fully compared with existing joint tests. We proposed three improved joint score tests, namely iAW.Lev, iAW.BF, and iAW.TM, and have made extensive comparisons with the joint likelihood ratio test (jointLRT), the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test, and the AW test. Systematic simulation studies showed that: 1) the three improved tests performed better (i.e., having larger power, while keeping nominal Type I error rates) than the other three tests for data with outliers and having different variances between cases and controls; 2) for data from normal distributions, the three improved tests had slightly lower power than jointLRT and AW. The analyses of two Illumina HumanMethylation27 data sets GSE37020 and GSE20080 and one Illumina Infinium MethylationEPIC data set GSE107080 demonstrated that three improved tests had higher true validation rates than those from jointLRT, KS, and AW. The three proposed joint score tests are robust against the violation of normality assumption and presence of outlying observations in comparison with other three existing tests. Among the three proposed tests, iAW.BF seems to be the most robust and effective one for all simulated scenarios and also in real data analyses.

  11. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4 Graders: Evidence from TIMSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2008-02-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4(th) graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,.

  12. America's Mediocre Test Scores: Education Crisis or Poverty Crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Michael J.; Wright, Brandon L.

    2016-01-01

    At a time when the national conversation is focused on lagging upward mobility, it is no surprise that many educators point to poverty as the explanation for mediocre test scores among U.S. students compared to those of students in other countries. If American teachers in struggling U.S. schools taught in Finland, says Finnish educator Pasi…

  13. The Implications of Family Size and Birth Order for Test Scores and Behavioral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silles, Mary A.

    2010-01-01

    This article, using longitudinal data from the National Child Development Study, presents new evidence on the effects of family size and birth order on test scores and behavioral development at age 7, 11 and 16. Sibling size is shown to have an adverse causal effect on test scores and behavioral development. For any given family size, first-borns…

  14. A score based on screening tests to differentiate mild cognitive impairment from subjective memory complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Henrique de Gobbi Porto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is not easy to differentiate patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI from subjective memory complainers (SMC. Assessments with screening cognitive tools are essential, particularly in primary care where most patients are seen. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of screening cognitive tests and to propose a score derived from screening tests. Elderly subjects with memory complaints were evaluated using the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the Brief Cognitive Battery (BCB. We added two delayed recalls in the MMSE (a delayed recall and a late-delayed recall, LDR, and also a phonemic fluency test of letter P fluency (LPF. A score was created based on these tests. The diagnoses were made on the basis of clinical consensus and neuropsychological testing. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine area under the curve (AUC, the sensitivity and specificity for each test separately and for the final proposed score. MMSE, LDR, LPF and delayed recall of BCB scores reach statistically significant differences between groups (P=0.000, 0.03, 0.001 and 0.01, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity and AUC were MMSE: 64%, 79% and 0.75 (cut off <29; LDR: 56%, 62% and 0.62 (cut off <3; LPF: 71%, 71% and 0.71 (cut off <14; delayed recall of BCB: 56%, 82% and 0.68 (cut off <9. The proposed score reached a sensitivity of 88% and 76% and specificity of 62% and 75% for cut off over 1 and over 2, respectively. AUC were 0.81. In conclusion, a score created from screening tests is capable of discriminating MCI from SMC with moderate to good accurancy.

  15. Allele-sharing models: LOD scores and accurate linkage tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, A; Cox, N J

    1997-11-01

    Starting with a test statistic for linkage analysis based on allele sharing, we propose an associated one-parameter model. Under general missing-data patterns, this model allows exact calculation of likelihood ratios and LOD scores and has been implemented by a simple modification of existing software. Most important, accurate linkage tests can be performed. Using an example, we show that some previously suggested approaches to handling less than perfectly informative data can be unacceptably conservative. Situations in which this model may not perform well are discussed, and an alternative model that requires additional computations is suggested.

  16. An Argument against Using Standardized Test Scores for Placement of International Undergraduate Students in English as a Second Language (ESL) Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhan, Kateryna

    2013-01-01

    Development and administration of institutional ESL placement tests require a great deal of financial and human resources. Due to a steady increase in the number of international students studying in the United States, some US universities have started to consider using standardized test scores for ESL placement. The English Placement Test (EPT)…

  17. Identifying genetic marker sets associated with phenotypes via an efficient adaptive score test

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, T.

    2012-06-25

    In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene-expression profiling have generated a large number of valuable datasets for assessing how genetic variations are related to disease outcomes. With such datasets, it is often of interest to assess the overall effect of a set of genetic markers, assembled based on biological knowledge. Genetic marker-set analyses have been advocated as more reliable and powerful approaches compared with the traditional marginal approaches (Curtis and others, 2005. Pathways to the analysis of microarray data. TRENDS in Biotechnology 23, 429-435; Efroni and others, 2007. Identification of key processes underlying cancer phenotypes using biologic pathway analysis. PLoS One 2, 425). Procedures for testing the overall effect of a marker-set have been actively studied in recent years. For example, score tests derived under an Empirical Bayes (EB) framework (Liu and others, 2007. Semiparametric regression of multidimensional genetic pathway data: least-squares kernel machines and linear mixed models. Biometrics 63, 1079-1088; Liu and others, 2008. Estimation and testing for the effect of a genetic pathway on a disease outcome using logistic kernel machine regression via logistic mixed models. BMC bioinformatics 9, 292-2; Wu and others, 2010. Powerful SNP-set analysis for case-control genome-wide association studies. American Journal of Human Genetics 86, 929) have been proposed as powerful alternatives to the standard Rao score test (Rao, 1948. Large sample tests of statistical hypotheses concerning several parameters with applications to problems of estimation. Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 44, 50-57). The advantages of these EB-based tests are most apparent when the markers are correlated, due to the reduction in the degrees of freedom. In this paper, we propose an adaptive score test which up- or down-weights the contributions from each member of the marker-set based on the Z-scores of

  18. Comparing the Effects of Elementary Music and Visual Arts Lessons on Standardized Mathematics Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Molly Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, causal-comparative study was to compare the effect elementary music and visual arts lessons had on third through sixth grade standardized mathematics test scores. Inferential statistics were used to compare the differences between test scores of students who took in-school, elementary, music instruction during the…

  19. Test and Score Data Summary for TOEFL[R] Internet-Based and Paper-Based Tests. January 2008-December 2008 Test Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Testing Service, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Test of English as a Foreign Language[TM], better known as TOEFL[R], is designed to measure the English-language proficiency of people whose native language is not English. TOEFL scores are accepted by more than 6,000 colleges, universities, and licensing agencies in 130 countries. The test is also used by governments, and scholarship and…

  20. Use of Standardized Test Scores to Predict Success in a Computer Applications Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Robert V.; King, Stephanie B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to see if a relationship existed between American College Testing (ACT) scores (i.e., English, reading, mathematics, science reasoning, and composite) and student success in a computer applications course at a Mississippi community college. The study showed that while the ACT scores were excellent predictors of…

  1. A Comparison of the Approaches of Generalizability Theory and Item Response Theory in Estimating the Reliability of Test Scores for Testlet-Composed Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Guemin; Park, In-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Previous assessments of the reliability of test scores for testlet-composed tests have indicated that item-based estimation methods overestimate reliability. This study was designed to address issues related to the extent to which item-based estimation methods overestimate the reliability of test scores composed of testlets and to compare several…

  2. Effects of Public Preschool Expenditures on the Test Scores of 4th Graders: Evidence from TIMSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane; Zhai, Fuhua

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders, holding constant child, family, and school characteristics, other relevant social expenditures, and country and year effects, in seven Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries -- Australia, Japan, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, U.K., and U.S -- using data from the 1995 and 2003 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Our results indicate that there are small but significant positive effects of public preschool expenditures on the math and science scores of 4th graders and preschool expenditures reduce the risk of children scoring at the low level of proficiency. We also find some evidence that children from low-resource homes and homes where the test language is not always spoken may tend to gain more from increased public preschool expenditures than other children,. PMID:21442008

  3. Racial Differences in Mathematics Test Scores for Advanced Mathematics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Elizabeth Covay

    2016-01-01

    Research on achievement gaps has found that achievement gaps are larger for students who take advanced mathematics courses compared to students who do not. Focusing on the advanced mathematics student achievement gap, this study found that African American advanced mathematics students have significantly lower test scores and are less likely to be…

  4. TOEFL iBT Speaking Test Scores as Indicators of Oral Communicative Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Brent; Powers, Donald; Stone, Elizabeth; Mollaun, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Scores assigned by trained raters and by an automated scoring system (SpeechRater[TM]) on the speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] were validated against a communicative competence criterion. Specifically, a sample of 555 undergraduate students listened to speech samples from 184 examinees who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language…

  5. Association between the gait pattern characteristics of older people and their two-step test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Ogata, Toru

    2018-04-27

    The Two-Step test is one of three official tests authorized by the Japanese Orthopedic Association to evaluate the risk of locomotive syndrome (a condition of reduced mobility caused by an impairment of the locomotive organs). It has been reported that the Two-Step test score has a good correlation with one's walking ability; however, its association with the gait pattern of older people during normal walking is still unknown. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the associations between the gait patterns of older people observed during normal walking and their Two-Step test scores. We analyzed the whole waveforms obtained from the lower-extremity joint angles and joint moments of 26 older people in various stages of locomotive syndrome using principal component analysis (PCA). The PCA was conducted using a 260 × 2424 input matrix constructed from the participants' time-normalized pelvic and right-lower-limb-joint angles along three axes (ten trials of 26 participants, 101 time points, 4 angles, 3 axes, and 2 variable types per trial). The Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient between the scores of the principal component vectors (PCVs) and the scores of the Two-Step test revealed that only one PCV (PCV 2) among the 61 obtained relevant PCVs is significantly related to the score of the Two-Step test. We therefore concluded that the joint angles and joint moments related to PCV 2-ankle plantar-flexion, ankle plantar-flexor moments during the late stance phase, ranges of motion and moments on the hip, knee, and ankle joints in the sagittal plane during the entire stance phase-are the motions associated with the Two-Step test.

  6. A general equation to obtain multiple cut-off scores on a test from multinomial logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersabé, Rosa; Rivas, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    The authors derive a general equation to compute multiple cut-offs on a total test score in order to classify individuals into more than two ordinal categories. The equation is derived from the multinomial logistic regression (MLR) model, which is an extension of the binary logistic regression (BLR) model to accommodate polytomous outcome variables. From this analytical procedure, cut-off scores are established at the test score (the predictor variable) at which an individual is as likely to be in category j as in category j+1 of an ordinal outcome variable. The application of the complete procedure is illustrated by an example with data from an actual study on eating disorders. In this example, two cut-off scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) scores are obtained in order to classify individuals into three ordinal categories: asymptomatic, symptomatic and eating disorder. Diagnoses were made from the responses to a self-report (Q-EDD) that operationalises DSM-IV criteria for eating disorders. Alternatives to the MLR model to set multiple cut-off scores are discussed.

  7. Detection of acute deterioration in health status visit among COPD patients by monitoring COPD assessment test score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothirat C

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Chaicharn Pothirat, Warawut Chaiwong, Atikun Limsukon, Athavudh Deesomchok, Chalerm Liwsrisakun, Chaiwat Bumroongkit, Theerakorn Theerakittikul, Nittaya PhetsukDivision of Pulmonary, Critical Care and Allergy, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, ThailandBackground: The Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Assessment Test (CAT could play a role in detecting acute deterioration in health status during monitoring visits in routine clinical practice.Objective: To evaluate the discriminative property of a change in CAT score from a stable baseline visit for detecting acute deterioration in health status visits of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients.Methods: The CAT questionnaire was administered to stable COPD patients routinely attending the chest clinic of Chiang Mai University Hospital who were monitored using the CAT score every 1–3 months for 15 months. Acute deterioration in health status was defined as worsening or exacerbation. CAT scores at baseline, and subsequent visits with acute deterioration in health status were analyzed using the t-test. The receiver operating characteristic curve was performed to evaluate the discriminative property of change in CAT score for detecting acute deterioration during a health status visit.Results: A total of 354 follow-up visits were made by 140 patients, aged 71.1±8.4 years, with a forced expiratory volume in 1 second of 47.49%±18.2% predicted, who were monitored for 15 months. The mean CAT score change between stable baseline visits, by patients’ and physicians’ global assessments, were 0.05 (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.37–0.46 and 0.18 (95% CI, -0.23–0.60, respectively. At worsening visits, as assessed by patients, there was significant increase in CAT score (6.07; 95% CI, 4.95–7.19. There were also significant increases in CAT scores at visits with mild and moderate exacerbation (5.51 [95% CI, 4.39–6

  8. Source Country Differences in Test Score Gaps: Evidence from Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangvid, Beatrice Schindler

    2010-01-01

    We combine data from three studies for Denmark in the PISA 2000 framework to investigate differences in the native-immigrant test score gap by country of origin. In addition to the controls available from PISA data sources, we use student-level data on home background and individual migration histories linked from administrative registers. We find…

  9. The Effects of Group Members' Personalities on a Test Taker's L2 Group Oral Discussion Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockey, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    The second language group oral is a test of second language speaking proficiency, in which a group of three or more English language learners discuss an assigned topic without interaction with interlocutors. Concerns expressed about the extent to which test takers' personal characteristics affect the scores of others in the group have limited its…

  10. Standardised test protocol (Constant Score) for evaluation of functionality in patients with shoulder disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Troelsen, Anders; Christiansen, David Høyrup

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Constant Score (CS), developed as a scoring system to evaluate overall functionality of patients with shoulder disorders, is widely used but has been criticised for relying on an imprecise terminology and for lack of a standardised methodology. A modified guideline was therefore...... differences. One of the authors of the modified CS approved both the English and the Danish test protocol. CONCLUSION: A simple test protocol of the modified CS was developed in both English and Danish. With precise terminology and definitions, the test protocol is the first of its kind. We suggest its use...

  11. Individual Differences in Digit Span, Susceptibility to Proactive Interference, and Aptitude/Achievement Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempster, Frank N.; Cooney, John B.

    1982-01-01

    Individual differences in digit span, susceptibility to proactive interference, and various aptitude/achievement test scores were investigated in two experiments with college students. Results indicated that digit span was strongly correlated with aptitude/achievement scores, but did not indicate that susceptibility to proactive interference…

  12. Construction of an Exome-Wide Risk Score for Schizophrenia Based on a Weighted Burden Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, David

    2018-01-01

    Polygenic risk scores obtained as a weighted sum of associated variants can be used to explore association in additional data sets and to assign risk scores to individuals. The methods used to derive polygenic risk scores from common SNPs are not suitable for variants detected in whole exome sequencing studies. Rare variants, which may have major effects, are seen too infrequently to judge whether they are associated and may not be shared between training and test subjects. A method is proposed whereby variants are weighted according to their frequency, their annotations and the genes they affect. A weighted sum across all variants provides an individual risk score. Scores constructed in this way are used in a weighted burden test and are shown to be significantly different between schizophrenia cases and controls using a five-way cross-validation procedure. This approach represents a first attempt to summarise exome sequence variation into a summary risk score, which could be combined with risk scores from common variants and from environmental factors. It is hoped that the method could be developed further. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  13. Increased Prognostic Value of Query Amyloid Late Enhancement Score in Light-Chain Cardiac Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ke; Sun, Jiayu; Han, Yuchi; Liu, Hong; Yang, Dan; Li, Weihao; Wang, Jie; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Qing; Zeng, Zhi; Chen, Yucheng

    2018-02-23

    Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) pattern is a powerful imaging biomarker for prognosis of cardiac amyloidosis. It is unknown if the query amyloid late enhancement (QALE) score in light-chain (AL) amyloidosis could provide increased prognostic value compared with LGE pattern.Methods and Results:Seventy-eight consecutive patients with AL amyloidosis underwent contrast-enhanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with cardiac involvement were grouped by LGE pattern and analyzed using QALE score. Receiver operating characteristic curve was used to identify the optimal cut-off for QALE score in predicting all-cause mortality. Survival of these patients was analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression. During a median follow-up of 34 months, 53 of 78 patients died. The optimal cut-off for QALE score to predict mortality at 12-month follow-up was 9.0. On multivariate Cox analysis, QALE score ≥9 (HR, 5.997; 95% CI: 2.665-13.497; Pvalue in AL cardiac amyloidosis. QALE score ≥9 has added value to differentiate prognosis in AL amyloidosis patients with a subendocardial LGE pattern.

  14. Pediatric residents' learning styles and temperaments and their relationships to standardized test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuli, Sanjeev Y; Thompson, Lindsay A; Saliba, Heidi; Black, Erik W; Ryan, Kathleen A; Kelly, Maria N; Novak, Maureen; Mellott, Jane; Tuli, Sonal S

    2011-12-01

    Board certification is an important professional qualification and a prerequisite for credentialing, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) assesses board certification rates as a component of residency program effectiveness. To date, research has shown that preresidency measures, including National Board of Medical Examiners scores, Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society membership, or medical school grades poorly predict postresidency board examination scores. However, learning styles and temperament have been identified as factors that 5 affect test-taking performance. The purpose of this study is to characterize the learning styles and temperaments of pediatric residents and to evaluate their relationships to yearly in-service and postresidency board examination scores. This cross-sectional study analyzed the learning styles and temperaments of current and past pediatric residents by administration of 3 validated tools: the Kolb Learning Style Inventory, the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, and the Felder-Silverman Learning Style test. These results were compared with known, normative, general and medical population data and evaluated for correlation to in-service examination and postresidency board examination scores. The predominant learning style for pediatric residents was converging 44% (33 of 75 residents) and the predominant temperament was guardian 61% (34 of 56 residents). The learning style and temperament distribution of the residents was significantly different from published population data (P  =  .002 and .04, respectively). Learning styles, with one exception, were found to be unrelated to standardized test scores. The predominant learning style and temperament of pediatric residents is significantly different than that of the populations of general and medical trainees. However, learning styles and temperament do not predict outcomes on standardized in-service and board examinations in pediatric residents.

  15. Spinal appearance questionnaire: factor analysis, scoring, reliability, and validity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreon, Leah Y; Sanders, James O; Polly, David W; Sucato, Daniel J; Parent, Stefan; Roy-Beaudry, Marjolaine; Hopkins, Jeffrey; McClung, Anna; Bratcher, Kelly R; Diamond, Beverly E

    2011-08-15

    Cross sectional. This study presents the factor analysis of the Spinal Appearance Questionnaire (SAQ) and its psychometric properties. Although the SAQ has been administered to a large sample of patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated surgically, its psychometric properties have not been fully evaluated. This study presents the factor analysis and scoring of the SAQ and evaluates its psychometric properties. The SAQ and the Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) were administered to AIS patients who were being observed, braced or scheduled for surgery. Standard demographic data and radiographic measures including Lenke type and curve magnitude were also collected. Of the 1802 patients, 83% were female; with a mean age of 14.8 years and mean initial Cobb angle of 55.8° (range, 0°-123°). From the 32 items of the SAQ, 15 loaded on two factors with consistent and significant correlations across all Lenke types. There is an Appearance (items 1-10) and an Expectations factor (items 12-15). Responses are summed giving a range of 5 to 50 for the Appearance domain and 5 to 20 for the Expectations domain. The Cronbach's α was 0.88 for both domains and Total score with a test-retest reliability of 0.81 for Appearance and 0.91 for Expectations. Correlations with major curve magnitude were higher for the SAQ Appearance and SAQ Total scores compared to correlations between the SRS Appearance and SRS Total scores. The SAQ and SRS-22 Scores were statistically significantly different in patients who were scheduled for surgery compared to those who were observed or braced. The SAQ is a valid measure of self-image in patients with AIS with greater correlation to curve magnitude than SRS Appearance and Total score. It also discriminates between patients who require surgery from those who do not.

  16. Patients With Knee Osteoarthritis Who Score Highly on the PainDETECT Questionnaire Present With Multimodality Hyperalgesia, Increased Pain, and Impaired Physical Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Penny; Benson, Heather A E; Will, Rob; Wright, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    PainDETECT is a self-report questionnaire that can be used to identify features of neuropathic pain. A proportion of patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) score highly on the PainDETECT questionnaire. This study aimed to determine whether those with a higher "positive neuropathic" score on the PainDETECT questionnaire also had greater pain, hypersensitivity, and reduced function compared with individuals with knee OA with lower PainDETECT scores. In total, 130 participants with knee OA completed the PainDETECT, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), and Pain Quality Assessment Scale questionnaires. Quantitative sensory testing was carried out at 3 sites (both knees and elbow) using standard methods. Cold and heat pain thresholds were tested using a Peltier thermode and pressure pain thresholds using a digital algometer. Physical function was assessed using 3 timed locomotor function tests. In total, 22.3% of participants scored in the "positive neuropathic" category with a further 35.4% in the unclear category. Participants in the "positive neuropathic" category reported higher levels of pain and more impaired function based on the WOMAC questionnaire (Ppain thresholds at the OA knee. They were also slower to complete 2 of the locomotion tasks. This study identified a specific subgroup of people with knee OA who exhibited PainDETECT scores in the "positive neuropathic" category. These individuals experienced increased levels of pain, widespread, multimodality hyperalgesia, and greater functional impairment than the remaining cohort. Identification of OA patients with this pain phenotype may permit more targeted and effective pain management.

  17. ACER Mathematics Profile Series: Number Test. (Test Booklet, Answer and Record Sheet, Score Key, and Teachers Handbook).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornish, Greg; Wines, Robin

    The Number Test of the ACER Mathematics Profile Series, contains 30 items, for each of three suggested grade levels: 7-8, 8-9, and 9-10. Raw scores on all tests in the ACER Mathematics Profile Series (Number, Operations, Space and Measurement) are converted to a common scale called MAPS, a major feature of the Series. Based on the Rasch Model,…

  18. Associations between cadmium exposure and neurocognitive test scores in a cross-sectional study of US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Timothy; Bellinger, David C; Schwartz, Joel; Hauser, Russ; Wright, Robert O

    2013-02-05

    Low-level environmental cadmium exposure and neurotoxicity has not been well studied in adults. Our goal was to evaluate associations between neurocognitive exam scores and a biomarker of cumulative cadmium exposure among adults in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). NHANES III is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the U.S. population conducted between 1988 and 1994. We analyzed data from a subset of participants, age 20-59, who participated in a computer-based neurocognitive evaluation. There were four outcome measures: the Simple Reaction Time Test (SRTT: visual motor speed), the Symbol Digit Substitution Test (SDST: attention/perception), the Serial Digit Learning Test (SDLT) trials-to-criterion, and the SDLT total-error-score (SDLT-tests: learning recall/short-term memory). We fit multivariable-adjusted models to estimate associations between urinary cadmium concentrations and test scores. 5662 participants underwent neurocognitive screening, and 5572 (98%) of these had a urinary cadmium level available. Prior to multivariable-adjustment, higher urinary cadmium concentration was associated with worse performance in each of the 4 outcomes. After multivariable-adjustment most of these relationships were not significant, and age was the most influential variable in reducing the association magnitudes. However among never-smokers with no known occupational cadmium exposure the relationship between urinary cadmium and SDST score (attention/perception) was significant: a 1 μg/L increase in urinary cadmium corresponded to a 1.93% (95%CI: 0.05, 3.81) decrement in performance. These results suggest that higher cumulative cadmium exposure in adults may be related to subtly decreased performance in tasks requiring attention and perception, particularly among those adults whose cadmium exposure is primarily though diet (no smoking or work based cadmium exposure). This association was observed among exposure levels

  19. Linear-rank testing of a non-binary, responder-analysis, efficacy score to evaluate pharmacotherapies for substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Tyson H; Li, Shou-Hua; McCann, David J

    2016-11-23

    The design of pharmacological trials for management of substance use disorders is shifting toward outcomes of successful individual-level behavior (abstinence or no heavy use). While binary success/failure analyses are common, McCann and Li (CNS Neurosci Ther 2012; 18: 414-418) introduced "number of beyond-threshold weeks of success" (NOBWOS) scores to avoid dichotomized outcomes. NOBWOS scoring employs an efficacy "hurdle" with values reflecting duration of success. Here, we evaluate NOBWOS scores rigorously. Formal analysis of mathematical structure of NOBWOS scores is followed by simulation studies spanning diverse conditions to assess operating characteristics of five linear-rank tests on NOBWOS scores. Simulations include assessment of Fisher's exact test applied to hurdle component. On average, statistical power was approximately equal for five linear-rank tests. Under none of conditions examined did Fisher's exact test exhibit greater statistical power than any of the linear-rank tests. These linear-rank tests provide good Type I and Type II error control for comparing distributions of NOBWOS scores between groups (e.g. active vs. placebo). All methods were applied to re-analyses of data from four clinical trials of differing lengths and substances of abuse. These linear-rank tests agreed across all trials in rejecting (or not) their null (equality of distributions) at ≤ 0.05. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Decision making under internal uncertainty: the case of multiple-choice tests with different scoring rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Meyer, Joachim; Budescu, David V

    2003-02-01

    This paper assesses framing effects on decision making with internal uncertainty, i.e., partial knowledge, by focusing on examinees' behavior in multiple-choice (MC) tests with different scoring rules. In two experiments participants answered a general-knowledge MC test that consisted of 34 solvable and 6 unsolvable items. Experiment 1 studied two scoring rules involving Positive (only gains) and Negative (only losses) scores. Although answering all items was the dominating strategy for both rules, the results revealed a greater tendency to answer under the Negative scoring rule. These results are in line with the predictions derived from Prospect Theory (PT) [Econometrica 47 (1979) 263]. The second experiment studied two scoring rules, which allowed respondents to exhibit partial knowledge. Under the Inclusion-scoring rule the respondents mark all answers that could be correct, and under the Exclusion-scoring rule they exclude all answers that might be incorrect. As predicted by PT, respondents took more risks under the Inclusion rule than under the Exclusion rule. The results illustrate that the basic process that underlies choice behavior under internal uncertainty and especially the effect of framing is similar to the process of choice under external uncertainty and can be described quite accurately by PT. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  1. An Analysis of Cross Racial Identity Scale Scores Using Classical Test Theory and Rasch Item Response Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Joshua; Beaujean, A. Alexander; Worrell, Frank C.; Watson, Stevie

    2013-01-01

    Item response models (IRMs) were used to analyze Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores. Rasch analysis scores were compared with classical test theory (CTT) scores. The partial credit model demonstrated a high goodness of fit and correlations between Rasch and CTT scores ranged from 0.91 to 0.99. CRIS scores are supported by both methods.…

  2. Association testing for next-generation sequencing data using score statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skotte, Line; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    computationally feasible due to the use of score statistics. As part of the joint likelihood, we model the distribution of the phenotypes using a generalized linear model framework, which works for both quantitative and discrete phenotypes. Thus, the method presented here is applicable to case-control studies...... of genotype calls into account have been proposed; most require numerical optimization which for large-scale data is not always computationally feasible. We show that using a score statistic for the joint likelihood of observed phenotypes and observed sequencing data provides an attractive approach...... to association testing for next-generation sequencing data. The joint model accounts for the genotype classification uncertainty via the posterior probabilities of the genotypes given the observed sequencing data, which gives the approach higher power than methods based on called genotypes. This strategy remains...

  3. Effects of Analytical and Holistic Scoring Patterns on Scorer Reliability in Biology Essay Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuoh, Casmir N.

    2018-01-01

    Literature revealed that the patterns/methods of scoring essay tests had been criticized for not being reliable and this unreliability is more likely to be more in internal examinations than in the external examinations. The purpose of this study is to find out the effects of analytical and holistic scoring patterns on scorer reliability in…

  4. [Relationship between unipedal stance test score and center of pressure velocity in elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo Antonio, Guzmán; Rony, Silvestre; Francisco Aniceto, Rodríguez; David Andrés, Arriagada; Pablo Andrés, Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Frequent falls are one of the most important health problems in the elderly population. The unipedal stance test (UPST), asses postural stability and is used in fall risk measures. Despite this, there is little information about its relationship with posturographic parameters (PP) that characterizes postural stability. Center of pressure velocity (CoPV) is one of the best PP that describes postural stability. The aim of this study was to analyze the relation between UST score and CoPV in elderly population. A sample of 38 healthy elderly subjects where divided in two groups according to their UPST score, low performance (LP, n=11) and high performance (HP, n=27). The correlation between UPST score and COP mean velocity (CoPmV), recorded from a posturographic test, was analyzed between both groups. An inverse correlation between UPST score and CoPmV was found in both groups. However, this was higher in the LP group (r=-0.69, P=.02) compared to the HP (r=-0.39, P=.04). Based on the results of this investigation, it may be concluded that the achievement on UPST has an inverse relationship with CoPmV, especially in subjects with low performance in the UPST. Copyright © 2010 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Linkage analysis in nuclear families. 2: Relationship between affected sib-pair tests and lod score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, M; Seuchter, S A; Baur, M P

    1994-01-01

    It is believed that the main advantage of affected sib-pair tests is that their application requires no information about the underlying genetic mechanism of the disease. However, here it is proved that the mean test, which can be considered the most prominent of the affected sib-pair tests, is equivalent to lod score analysis for an assumed recessive mode of inheritance, irrespective of the true mode of the disease. Further relationships of certain sib-pair tests and lod score analysis under specific assumed genetic modes are investigated.

  6. Association of Health Sciences Reasoning Test scores with academic and experiential performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Wendy C; McLaughlin, Jacqueline E

    2014-05-15

    To assess the association of scores on the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) with academic and experiential performance in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. The HSRT was administered to 329 first-year (P1) PharmD students. Performance on the HSRT and its subscales was compared with academic performance in 29 courses throughout the curriculum and with performance in advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). Significant positive correlations were found between course grades in 8 courses and HSRT overall scores. All significant correlations were accounted for by pharmaceutical care laboratory courses, therapeutics courses, and a law and ethics course. There was a lack of moderate to strong correlation between HSRT scores and academic and experiential performance. The usefulness of the HSRT as a tool for predicting student success may be limited.

  7. Do Standardized Tests Penalize Deep-Thinking, Creative, or Conscientious Students?: Some Personality Correlates of Graduate Record Examinations Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald E.; Kaufman, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the study reported here was to explore the relationship of Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) General Test scores to selected personality traits--conscientiousness, rationality, ingenuity, quickness, creativity, and depth. A sample of 342 GRE test takers completed short personality inventory scales for each trait. Analyses…

  8. CaPTHUS scoring model in primary hyperparathyroidism: can it eliminate the need for ioPTH testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfenbein, Dawn M; Weber, Sara; Schneider, David F; Sippel, Rebecca S; Chen, Herbert

    2015-04-01

    The CaPTHUS model was reported to have a positive predictive value of 100 % to correctly predict single-gland disease in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, thus obviating the need for intraoperative parathyroid hormone (ioPTH) testing. We sought to apply the CaPTHUS scoring model in our patient population and assess its utility in predicting long-term biochemical cure. We retrospective reviewed all parathyroidectomies for primary hyperparathyroidism performed at our university hospital from 2003 to 2012. We routinely perform ioPTH testing. Biochemical cure was defined as a normal calcium level at 6 months. A total of 1,421 patients met the inclusion criteria: 78 % of patients had a single adenoma at the time of surgery, 98 % had a normal serum calcium at 1 week postoperatively, and 96 % had a normal serum calcium level 6 months postoperatively. Using the CaPTHUS scoring model, 307 patients (22.5 %) had a score of ≥ 3, with a positive predictive value of 91 % for single adenoma. A CaPTHUS score of ≥ 3 had a positive predictive value of 98 % for biochemical cure at 1 week as well as at 6 months. In our population, where ioPTH testing is used routinely to guide use of bilateral exploration, patients with a preoperative CaPTHUS score of ≥ 3 had good long-term biochemical cure rates. However, the model only predicted adenoma in 91 % of cases. If minimally invasive parathyroidectomy without ioPTH testing had been done for these patients, the cure rate would have dropped from 98 % to an unacceptable 89 %. Even in these patients with high CaPTHUS scores, multigland disease is present in almost 10 %, and ioPTH testing is necessary.

  9. Do candidate reactions relate to job performance or affect criterion-related validity? A multistudy investigation of relations among reactions, selection test scores, and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Julie M; Van Iddekinge, Chad H; Lievens, Filip; Kung, Mei-Chuan; Sinar, Evan F; Campion, Michael A

    2013-09-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that how candidates react to selection procedures can affect their test performance and their attitudes toward the hiring organization (e.g., recommending the firm to others). However, very few studies of candidate reactions have examined one of the outcomes organizations care most about: job performance. We attempt to address this gap by developing and testing a conceptual framework that delineates whether and how candidate reactions might influence job performance. We accomplish this objective using data from 4 studies (total N = 6,480), 6 selection procedures (personality tests, job knowledge tests, cognitive ability tests, work samples, situational judgment tests, and a selection inventory), 5 key candidate reactions (anxiety, motivation, belief in tests, self-efficacy, and procedural justice), 2 contexts (industry and education), 3 continents (North America, South America, and Europe), 2 study designs (predictive and concurrent), and 4 occupational areas (medical, sales, customer service, and technological). Consistent with previous research, candidate reactions were related to test scores, and test scores were related to job performance. Further, there was some evidence that reactions affected performance indirectly through their influence on test scores. Finally, in no cases did candidate reactions affect the prediction of job performance by increasing or decreasing the criterion-related validity of test scores. Implications of these findings and avenues for future research are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  10. The HAT Score-A Simple Risk Stratification Score for Coagulopathic Bleeding During Adult Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, Terence; Herr, Daniel; Kon, Zachary; Menaker, Jay; Rector, Raymond; Tanaka, Kenichi; Mazzeffi, Michael

    2017-06-01

    The study objective was to create an adult extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) coagulopathic bleeding risk score. Secondary analysis was performed on an existing retrospective cohort. Pre-ECMO variables were tested for association with coagulopathic bleeding, and those with the strongest association were included in a multivariable model. Using this model, a risk stratification score was created. The score's utility was validated by comparing bleeding and transfusion rates between score levels. Bleeding also was examined after stratifying by nadir platelet count and overanticoagulation. Predictive power of the score was compared against the risk score for major bleeding during anti-coagulation for atrial fibrillation (HAS-BLED). Tertiary care academic medical center. The study comprised patients who received venoarterial or venovenous ECMO over a 3-year period, excluding those with an identified source of surgical bleeding during exploration. None. Fifty-three (47.3%) of 112 patients experienced coagulopathic bleeding. A 3-variable score-hypertension, age greater than 65, and ECMO type (HAT)-had fair predictive value (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] = 0.66) and was superior to HAS-BLED (AUC = 0.64). As the HAT score increased from 0 to 3, bleeding rates also increased as follows: 30.8%, 48.7%, 63.0%, and 71.4%, respectively. Platelet and fresh frozen plasma transfusion tended to increase with the HAT score, but red blood cell transfusion did not. Nadir platelet count less than 50×10 3 /µL and overanticoagulation during ECMO increased the AUC for the model to 0.73, suggesting additive risk. The HAT score may allow for bleeding risk stratification in adult ECMO patients. Future studies in larger cohorts are necessary to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Lord-Wingersky Algorithm Version 2.0 for Hierarchical Item Factor Models with Applications in Test Scoring, Scale Alignment, and Model Fit Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li

    2015-06-01

    Lord and Wingersky's (Appl Psychol Meas 8:453-461, 1984) recursive algorithm for creating summed score based likelihoods and posteriors has a proven track record in unidimensional item response theory (IRT) applications. Extending the recursive algorithm to handle multidimensionality is relatively simple, especially with fixed quadrature because the recursions can be defined on a grid formed by direct products of quadrature points. However, the increase in computational burden remains exponential in the number of dimensions, making the implementation of the recursive algorithm cumbersome for truly high-dimensional models. In this paper, a dimension reduction method that is specific to the Lord-Wingersky recursions is developed. This method can take advantage of the restrictions implied by hierarchical item factor models, e.g., the bifactor model, the testlet model, or the two-tier model, such that a version of the Lord-Wingersky recursive algorithm can operate on a dramatically reduced set of quadrature points. For instance, in a bifactor model, the dimension of integration is always equal to 2, regardless of the number of factors. The new algorithm not only provides an effective mechanism to produce summed score to IRT scaled score translation tables properly adjusted for residual dependence, but leads to new applications in test scoring, linking, and model fit checking as well. Simulated and empirical examples are used to illustrate the new applications.

  12. Associations of maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores with cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaara, Jani P; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Niemi, Jaakko; Ohrankämmen, Olli; Häkkinen, Arja; Kocay, Sheila; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the relationships between maximal strength and muscular endurance test scores additionally to previously widely studied measures of body composition and maximal aerobic capacity. 846 young men (25.5 ± 5.0 yrs) participated in the study. Maximal strength was measured using isometric bench press, leg extension and grip strength. Muscular endurance tests consisted of push-ups, sit-ups and repeated squats. An indirect graded cycle ergometer test was used to estimate maximal aerobic capacity (V(O2)max). Body composition was determined with bioelectrical impedance. Moreover, waist circumference (WC) and height were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. Maximal bench press was positively correlated with push-ups (r = 0.61, p strength (r = 0.34, p strength correlated positively (r = 0.36-0.44, p test scores were related to maximal aerobic capacity and body fat content, while fat free mass was associated with maximal strength test scores and thus is a major determinant for maximal strength. A contributive role of maximal strength to muscular endurance tests could be identified for the upper, but not the lower extremities. These findings suggest that push-up test is not only indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity but also maximal strength of upper body, whereas repeated squat test is mainly indicative of body fat content and maximal aerobic capacity, but not maximal strength of lower extremities.

  13. Student Test Scores: How the Sausage Is Made and Why You Should Care. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Brian A.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, modern cognitive assessments--including the new Common Core tests--produce test scores based on sophisticated statistical models rather than the simple percent of items a student answers correctly. While there are good reasons for this, it means that reported test scores depend on many decisions made by test designers,…

  14. Postpartum body condition score and results from the first test day milk as predictors of disease, fertility, yield, and culling in commercial dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, C; Schukken, Y H; Dobbelaar, P

    1999-02-01

    The study used field data from a regular herd health service to investigate the relationships between body condition scores or first test day milk data and disease incidence, milk yield, fertility, and culling. Path model analysis with adjustment for time at risk was applied to delineate the time sequence of events. Milk fever occurred more often in fat cows, and endometritis occurred between calving and 20 d of lactation more often in thin cows. Fat cows were less likely to conceive at first service than were cows in normal condition. Fat body condition postpartum, higher first test day milk yield, and a fat to protein ratio of > 1.5 increased body condition loss. Fat or thin condition or condition loss was not related to other lactation diseases, fertility parameters, milk yield, or culling. First test day milk yield was 1.3 kg higher after milk fever and was 7.1 kg lower after displaced abomasum. Higher first test day milk yield directly increased the risk of ovarian cyst and lameness, increased 100-d milk yield, and reduced the risk of culling and indirectly decreased reproductive performance. Cows with a fat to protein ratio of > 1.5 had higher risks for ketosis, displaced abomasum, ovarian cyst, lameness, and mastitis. Those cows produced more milk but showed poor reproductive performance. Given this type of herd health data, we concluded that the first test day milk yield and the fat to protein ratio were more reliable indicators of disease, fertility, and milk yield than was body condition score or loss of body condition score.

  15. Critique of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal Test: The More You Know, the Lower Your Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Possin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal Test is one of the oldest, most frequently used, multiple-choice critical-thinking tests on the market in business, government, and legal settings for purposes of hiring and promotion. I demonstrate, however, that the test has serious construct-validity issues, stemming primarily from its ambiguous, unclear, misleading, and sometimes mysterious instructions, which have remained unaltered for decades. Erroneously scored items further diminish the test’s validity. As a result, having enhanced knowledge of formal and informal logic could well result in test subjects receiving lower scores on the test. That’s not how things should work for a CT assessment test.

  16. Test Scores, Class Rank and College Performance: Lessons for Broadening Access and Promoting Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Sunny X; Tienda, Marta

    2012-04-01

    Using administrative data for five Texas universities that differ in selectivity, this study evaluates the relative influence of two key indicators for college success-high school class rank and standardized tests. Empirical results show that class rank is the superior predictor of college performance and that test score advantages do not insulate lower ranked students from academic underperformance. Using the UT-Austin campus as a test case, we conduct a simulation to evaluate the consequences of capping students admitted automatically using both achievement metrics. We find that using class rank to cap the number of students eligible for automatic admission would have roughly uniform impacts across high schools, but imposing a minimum test score threshold on all students would have highly unequal consequences by greatly reduce the admission eligibility of the highest performing students who attend poor high schools while not jeopardizing admissibility of students who attend affluent high schools. We discuss the implications of the Texas admissions experiment for higher education in Europe.

  17. Relationships between the handball-specific complex test, non-specific field tests and the match performance score in elite professional handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermassi, Souhail; Chelly, Mohamed-Souhaiel; Wollny, Rainer; Hoffmeyer, Birgit; Fieseler, Georg; Schulze, Stephan; Irlenbusch, Lars; Delank, Karl-Stefan; Shephard, Roy J; Bartels, Thomas; Schwesig, René

    2018-06-01

    This study assessed the validity of the handball-specific complex test (HBCT) and two non-specific field tests in professional elite handball athletes, using the match performance score (MPS) as the gold standard of performance. Thirteen elite male handball players (age: 27.4±4.8 years; premier German league) performed the HBCT, the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery (YYIR) test and a repeated shuttle sprint ability (RSA) test at the beginning of pre-season training. The RSA results were evaluated in terms of best time, total time, and fatigue decrement. Heart rates (HR) were assessed at selected times throughout all tests; the recovery HR was measured immediately post-test and 10 minutes later. The match performance score was based on various handball specific parameters (e.g., field goals, assists, steals, blocks, and technical mistakes) as seen during all matches of the immediately subsequent season (2015/2016). The parameters of run 1, run 2, and HR recovery at minutes 6 and 10 of the RSA test all showed a variance of more than 10% (range: 11-15%). However, the variance of scores for the YYIR test was much smaller (range: 1-7%). The resting HR (r2=0.18), HR recovery at minute 10 (r2=0.10), lactate concentration at rest (r2=0.17), recovery of heart rate from 0 to 10 minutes (r2=0.15), and velocity of second throw at first trial (r2=0.37) were the most valid HBCT parameters. Much effort is necessary to assess MPS and to develop valid tests. Speed and the rate of functional recovery seem the best predictors of competitive performance for elite handball players.

  18. College Math Assessment: SAT Scores vs. College Math Placement Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley-Peres, Kathleen; Poirier, Dawn

    2008-01-01

    Many colleges and university's use SAT math scores or math placement tests to place students in the appropriate math course. This study compares the use of math placement scores and SAT scores for 188 freshman students. The student's grades and faculty observations were analyzed to determine if the SAT scores and/or college math assessment scores…

  19. A Comparison of Scores on the WISC-R and Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Test for Disadvantaged Black Elementary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, James D.; Karnes, Frances A.

    1976-01-01

    It is indicated that, although the scores [obtained on both tests] are significantly correlated, the tests yield significantly different scores with the Lorge-Thorndike consistently overestimating the WISC-R full scale I.Q. (Author)

  20. The Mediating Effect of Listening Metacognitive Awareness between Test-Taking Motivation and Listening Test Score: An Expectancy-Value Theory Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated test-taking motivation in L2 listening testing context by applying Expectancy-Value Theory as the framework. Specifically, this study was intended to examine the complex relationships among expectancy, importance, interest, listening anxiety, listening metacognitive awareness, and listening test score using data from a large-scale and high-stakes language test among Chinese first-year undergraduates. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating...

  1. International Test Score Comparisons and Educational Policy: A Review of the Critiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Stanford education professor Martin Carnoy examines four main critiques of how international test results are used in policymaking. Of particular interest are critiques of the policy analyses published by the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Using average PISA scores as a comparative measure of student achievement is misleading…

  2. Parent Ratings of Impulsivity and Inhibition Predict State Testing Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A. Lundwall

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One principle of cognitive development is that earlier intervention for educational difficulties tends to improve outcomes such as future educational and career success. One possible way to help students who struggle is to determine if they process information differently. Such determination might lead to clues for interventions. For example, early information processing requires attention before the information can be identified, encoded, and stored. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether parent ratings of inattention, inhibition, and impulsivity, and whether error rate on a reflexive attention task could be used to predict child scores on state standardized tests. Finding such an association could provide assistance to educators in identifying academically struggling children who might require targeted educational interventions. Children (N = 203 were invited to complete a peripheral cueing task (which measures the automatic reorienting of the brain’s attentional resources from one location to another. While the children completed the task, their parents completed a questionnaire. The questionnaire gathered information on broad indicators of child functioning, including observable behaviors of impulsivity, inattention, and inhibition, as well as state academic scores (which the parent retrieved online from their school. We used sequential regression to analyze contributions of error rate and parent-rated behaviors in predicting six academic scores. In one of the six analyses (for science, we found that the improvement was significant from the simplified model (with only family income, child age, and sex as predictors to the full model (adding error rate and three parent-rated behaviors. Two additional analyses (reading and social studies showed near significant improvement from simplified to full models. Parent-rated behaviors were significant predictors in all three of these analyses. In the reading score analysis

  3. The Impact of the Use of Hierarchical Teaching on Test Scores of Students’ Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guorong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Test scores of students’ technology is the main basis for physical examination of college students’ physical, fitness evaluation based on test results. To change the view by the stratified teaching method consistent system of teaching mode, special movement technical level of students is improved significantly.

  4. The Effects of Listening to Music Just Before Reading Test on Students’ Test Score

    OpenAIRE

    MAHDAVI, Mojtaba

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. In this study the researcher  examined  the  effect  of  music  on  reading  comprehension played just before the test .  Because the emotional consequences of music listening are evident in stress and anxiety removal, it was used as a tool to pacify the mind of the tastes and boost their memory and the related cognitive processes. Experimental group did well with the mean score of) and control group (). This study confirmed that using multimedia devices such as music can not only i...

  5. The Apgar score has survived the test of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Mieczyslaw; Wood, Margaret

    2005-04-01

    In 1953, Virginia Apgar, M.D. published her proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant. The avowed purpose of this paper was to establish a simple and clear classification of newborn infants which can be used to compare the results of obstetric practices, types of maternal pain relief and the results of resuscitation. Having considered several objective signs pertaining to the condition of the infant at birth she selected five that could be evaluated and taught to the delivery room personnel without difficulty. These signs were heart rate, respiratory effort, reflex irritability, muscle tone and color. Sixty seconds after the complete birth of the baby a rating of zero, one or two was given to each sign, depending on whether it was absent or present. Virginia Apgar reviewed anesthesia records of 1025 infants born alive at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center during the period of this report. All had been rated by her method. Infants in poor condition scored 0-2, infants in fair condition scored 3-7, while scores 8-10 were achieved by infants in good condition. The most favorable score 1 min after birth was obtained by infants delivered vaginally with the occiput the presenting part (average 8.4). Newborns delivered by version and breech extraction had the lowest score (average 6.3). Infants delivered by cesarean section were more vigorous (average score 8.0) when spinal was the method of anesthesia versus an average score of 5.0 when general anesthesia was used. Correlating the 60 s score with neonatal mortality, Virginia found that mature infants receiving 0, 1 or 2 scores had a neonatal death rate of 14%; those scoring 3, 4, 5, 6 or 7 had a death rate of 1.1%; and those in the 8-10 score group had a death rate of 0.13%. She concluded that the prognosis of an infant is excellent if he receives one of the upper three scores, and poor if one of the lowest three scores.

  6. Identifying genetic marker sets associated with phenotypes via an efficient adaptive score test

    KAUST Repository

    Cai, T.; Lin, X.; Carroll, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    the overall effect of a marker-set have been actively studied in recent years. For example, score tests derived under an Empirical Bayes (EB) framework (Liu and others, 2007. Semiparametric regression of multidimensional genetic pathway data: least

  7. Gender Gaps in High School GPA and ACT Scores: High School Grade Point Average and ACT Test Score by Subject and Gender. Information Brief 2014-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    ACT, Inc., 2014

    2014-01-01

    Female students who graduated from high school in 2013 averaged higher grades than their male counterparts in all subjects, but male graduates earned higher scores on the math and science sections of the ACT. This information brief looks at high school grade point average and ACT test score by subject and gender

  8. The Changes of Students’ Toefl Score After One Year Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienneke Indra Dewi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BINUS students are supposed to increase their English competence indicated by their TOEFL scores. This paper aims to observe the differences between studens TOEFL scores obtained when they entered BINUS and the scores after they joined TOEFL courses at BINUS for one year. The participants were 121 students. The data for the entrance test were taken from the BINUS data center and the final test data were taken from their final test at English class. The data were analysed using statistics especially the descriptive statistics, comparing means, and correlation. To support the quantative data, a set of questionnaires was distributed to those 121 students. The results show that the students’ TOEFL scores have increased significantly in the final test compared to those in the entrance test. The low achiever students showed a better performance than the higher ones. Students’ motivation and background support their English study. Students proved to have the most problem in listening. The results of the research are expected to be the input for English lecturers to improve their teaching especially the existence of SALLC (Self Access Language Learning Center. 

  9. From Test Scores to Language Use: Emergent Bilinguals Using English to Accomplish Academic Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Mojica, Claudia

    2018-01-01

    Prominent discourses about emergent bilinguals' academic abilities tend to focus on performance as measured by test scores and perpetuate the message that emergent bilinguals trail far behind their peers. When we remove the constraints of formal testing situations, what can emergent bilinguals do in English as they engage in naturally occurring…

  10. A Case Study About Why It Can Be Difficult To Test Whether Propensity Score Analysis Works in Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Cook

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peikes, Moreno and Orzol (2008 sensibly caution researchers that propensity score analysis may not lead to valid causal inference in field applications. But at the same time, they made the far stronger claim to have performed an ideal test of whether propensity score matching in quasi-experimental data is capable of approximating the results of a randomized experiment in their dataset, and that this ideal test showed that such matching could not do so. In this article we show that their study does not support that conclusion because it failed to meet a number of basic criteria for an ideal test. By implication, many other purported tests of the effectiveness of propensity score analysis probably also fail to meet these criteria, and are therefore questionable contributions to the literature on the effects of propensity score analysis.

  11. Use of Verbal Descriptors, Thermal Scores and Electrical Pulp Testing Scores as Predictors of Tooth Pain Before and After Application of Benzocaine Gels into Cavities of Teeth with Pulpitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangarosa, Louis P.; Ciarlone, Alfred E.; Neaverth, Elmer J.; Johnston, Carey A.; Snowden, J. Douglas; Thompson, William O.

    1989-01-01

    A double-blind pilot study was conducted on 27 consenting human volunteers who had irreversible pulpitis associated with persistent toothache pain from open carious lesions. Formulations tested contained either 0, 10%, or 20% benzocaine and were identified only by a numbered code. Before the experiment started, a small amount of a known 5% benzocaine gel was placed for 1 minute on the tongue of each patient to assure a sensation of numbness within the oral cavity. Then the test tooth was washed with a gentle stream of warm water and dried with gauze. A randomly selected test medication was placed into the open cavity and around the gingival margins for 5 minutes. Pre- and posttreatment tests were conducted at the following timed intervals: 0, 5, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 minutes. The tests included degree of pain (rated: 0 = none, 1 = mild, 2 = moderate, 3 = severe); electrical pulp testing (EPT) by a modified, voltage-ramping instrument; and ice water testing (0.5 mL directed quickly onto sound enamel of the tooth and rated: 0 to 4, with 4 being intolerable). After testing, or when pain returned to baseline, endodontic procedures were performed. There was a significant increase (p pulpitis and control teeth, 3) there were no correlations between direction of EPT scores and pain relief, 4) cold water testing was a good predictor of whether or not a tooth had pulpitis, and 5) changes in cold water testing scores after treatment could not be correlated to relief of pain according to verbal descriptors. The effectiveness of benzocaine in relieving toothache pain verifies previous studies; however, a difference between 10% and 20% benzocaine could not be demonstrated probably because of two factors: 1) the present experiment had a small sample size, and 2) there was no direct measurement of duration of local anesthesia. PMID:2490060

  12. The Disaggregation of Value-Added Test Scores to Assess Learning Outcomes in Economics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Wagner, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This study disaggregates posttest, pretest, and value-added or difference scores in economics into four types of economic learning: positive, retained, negative, and zero. The types are derived from patterns of student responses to individual items on a multiple-choice test. The micro and macro data from the "Test of Understanding in College…

  13. The TSCA interagency testing committee`s approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups: 1977-1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    This paper describes the TSCA interagency testing committee`s (ITC) approaches to screening and scoring chemicals and chemical groups between 1977 and 1983. During this time the ITC conducted five scoring exercises to select chemicals and chemical groups for detailed review and to determine which of these chemicals and chemical groups should be added to the TSCA Section 4(e) Priority Testing List. 29 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. A Case Study About Why It Can Be Difficult To Test Whether Propensity Score Analysis Works in Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Shadish

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peikes, Moreno and Orzol (2008 sensibly caution researchers that propensity score analysis may not lead to valid causal inference in field applications. But at the same time, they made the far stronger claim to have performed an ideal test of whether propensity score matching in quasi-experimental data is capable of approximating the results of a randomized experiment in their dataset, and that this ideal test showed that such matching could not do so. In this article we show that their study does not support that conclusion because it failed to meet a number of basic criteria for an ideal test. By implication, many other purported tests of the effectiveness of propensity score analysis probably also fail to meet these criteria, and are therefore questionable contributions to the literature on the effects of propensity score analysis. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v3i2.16475

  15. Ocular manifestation in Marfan syndrome: corneal biomechanical properties relate to increased systemic score points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheibenberger, Dido; Frings, Andreas; Steinberg, Johannes; Schüler, Helke; Druchkiv, Vasyl; Katz, Toam; von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Linke, Stephan

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate corneal deformation to an air puff as a new noninvasive tool to document disease status in Marfan syndrome (MFS) METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study. We included patients diagnosed with MFS who had their routine cardiovascular follow-up and applied the revised Ghent nosology to define two subgroups according to a high (≥ 7) and a low (< 7 points) systemic score. Dynamic Scheimpflug-based biomechanical analyses (CorvisST® [CST; Oculus GmbH]) were performed. The main outcome measure was the displacement of the corneal apex as given by the parameters highest concavity (HC; in ms), peak distance (PD; in mm), and highest concavity deformation amplitude (DA; mm). Forty-three eyes of 43 individuals (19 female, 24 male; mean age 42.0 ± 12.0 years, range 18-67 years) diagnosed with MFS were included. Applying the Ghent criteria, 21 patients had an advanced systemic score of ≥ 7, and 22 had score points < 7. There were no differences in age or sex between both groups. In contrast, HC was faster (P = 0.004), and PD (P < 0.001) was longer in those individuals with systemic score ≥ 7; maximum DA did not result in a statistically significant difference between the groups (P = 0.250). In vivo noninvasive biomechanical analyses with CST offer a new, non-invasive method to identify pathologic corneal deformation responses in adults with MFS. In the future, corneal deformation to an air puff could thus assist early identification of patients with high Ghent score as an adjunct to existing diagnostic tests.

  16. Are students' impressions of improved learning through active learning methods reflected by improved test scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everly, Marcee C

    2013-02-01

    To report the transformation from lecture to more active learning methods in a maternity nursing course and to evaluate whether student perception of improved learning through active-learning methods is supported by improved test scores. The process of transforming a course into an active-learning model of teaching is described. A voluntary mid-semester survey for student acceptance of the new teaching method was conducted. Course examination results, from both a standardized exam and a cumulative final exam, among students who received lecture in the classroom and students who had active learning activities in the classroom were compared. Active learning activities were very acceptable to students. The majority of students reported learning more from having active-learning activities in the classroom rather than lecture-only and this belief was supported by improved test scores. Students who had active learning activities in the classroom scored significantly higher on a standardized assessment test than students who received lecture only. The findings support the use of student reflection to evaluate the effectiveness of active-learning methods and help validate the use of student reflection of improved learning in other research projects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in Student Populations and Average Test Scores of Dutch Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyten, Hans; de Wolf, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the relation between student population characteristics and average test scores per school in the final grade of primary education from a dynamic perspective. Aggregated data of over 5,000 Dutch primary schools covering a 6-year period were used to study the relation between changes in school populations and shifts in mean…

  18. Developmental Scores at 1 Year With Increasing Gestational Age, 37–41 Weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Olga; Blanco, Estela; Martinez, Suzanna M.; Sim, Eastern Kang; Castillo, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Vaucher, Yvonne E.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between gestational age and mental and psychomotor development scores in healthy infants born between 37 and 41 weeks. METHODS: The cohort included 1562 participants enrolled during infancy in an iron deficiency anemia preventive trial in Santiago, Chile. All participants were healthy, full-term (37–41 weeks) infants who weighed 3 kg or more at birth. Development at 12 months was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. Using generalized linear modeling, we analyzed the association between gestational age and 1-year-old developmental status, taking into account potential confounders including birth weight percentile, gender, socioeconomic status, the home environment, iron status, and iron supplementation. RESULTS: For each additional week of gestation, the Mental Development Index increased by 0.8 points (95% confidence interval = 0.2–1.4), and the Psychomotor Development Index increased by 1.4 points (95% confidence interval = 0.6–2.1) controlling for birth weight percentile, gender, socioeconomic status, and home environment. CONCLUSIONS: In a large sample of healthy full-term infants, developmental scores obtained using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development at 12 months increased with gestational age (37–41 weeks). There is increasing evidence that birth at 39 to 41 weeks provides developmental advantages compared with birth at 37 to 38 weeks. Because cesarean deliveries and early-term inductions have increased to 40% of all births, consideration of ongoing brain development during the full-term period is an important medical and policy issue. PMID:23589812

  19. The Impact of the 2004 Hurricanes on Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test Scores: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggerly, Jennifer; Ferretti, Larissa K.

    2008-01-01

    What is the impact of natural disasters on students' statewide assessment scores? To answer this question, Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT) scores of 55,881 students in grades 4 through 10 were analyzed to determine if there were significant decreases after the 2004 hurricanes. Results reveal that there was statistical but no practical…

  20. Association Between Low IQ Scores and Early Mortality in Men and Women: Evidence From a Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenner, Matthew J; Greenberg, Jan S; Mailick, Marsha R

    2015-05-01

    Lower (versus higher) IQ scores have been shown to increase the risk of early mortality, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood and previous studies underrepresent individuals with intellectual disability (ID) and women. This study followed one third of all senior-year students (approximately aged 17) attending public high school in Wisconsin, U.S. in 1957 (n  =  10,317) until 2011. Men and women with the lowest IQ test scores (i.e., IQ scores ≤ 85) had increased rates of mortality compared to people with the highest IQ test scores, particularly for cardiovascular disease. Importantly, when educational attainment was held constant, people with lower IQ test scores did not have higher mortality by age 70 than people with higher IQ test scores. Individuals with lower IQ test scores likely experience multiple disadvantages throughout life that contribute to increased risk of early mortality.

  1. Depressive status explains a significant amount of the variance in COPD assessment test (CAT) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miravitlles, Marc; Molina, Jesús; Quintano, José Antonio; Campuzano, Anna; Pérez, Joselín; Roncero, Carlos

    2018-01-01

    COPD assessment test (CAT) is a short, easy-to-complete health status tool that has been incorporated into the multidimensional assessment of COPD in order to guide therapy; therefore, it is important to understand the factors determining CAT scores. This is a post hoc analysis of a cross-sectional, observational study conducted in respiratory medicine departments and primary care centers in Spain with the aim of identifying the factors determining CAT scores, focusing particularly on the cognitive status measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and levels of depression measured by the short Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). A total of 684 COPD patients were analyzed; 84.1% were men, the mean age of patients was 68.7 years, and the mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (%) was 55.1%. Mean CAT score was 21.8. CAT scores correlated with the MMSE score (Pearson's coefficient r =-0.371) and the BDI ( r =0.620), both p CAT scores and explained 45% of the variability. However, a model including only MMSE and BDI scores explained up to 40% and BDI alone explained 38% of the CAT variance. CAT scores are associated with clinical variables of severity of COPD. However, cognitive status and, in particular, the level of depression explain a larger percentage of the variance in the CAT scores than the usual COPD clinical severity variables.

  2. Pretest Score for Predicting Microbubble Contrast Agent Use in Stress Echocardiography: A Method to Increase Efficiency in the Echo Laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Bernier

    2009-01-01

    contrast. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between individual characteristics and contrast use. An 11-point score was derived from the significant characteristics. Results. Variables associated with microbubble use were age, sex, smoking, presence of multiple risk factors, bodymass index (BMI, referral for dobutamine stress echocardiography, history of coronary artery disease, and abnormal baseline electrocardiogram. All variables except BMI were given a score of 1 if present and 0 if absent; BMI was given a score of 0 to 4 according to its value. An increased score was directly proportional to increased likelihood of contrast use. The score cutoff value to optimize sensitivity and specificity was 5. Conclusions. A pretest score can be computed from information available before imaging. It may facilitate contrast agent use through early identification of patients who are likely to benefit from improved endocardial border definition.

  3. Renal dysfunction in liver cirrhosis and its correlation with Child-Pugh score and MELD score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, G. A.; Gurning, M.

    2018-03-01

    Renal dysfunction (RD) is a serious and common complication in a patient with liver cirrhosis. It provides a poor prognosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the renal function in liver cirrhosis, also to determine the correlation with the graduation of liver disease assessed by Child-Pugh Score (CPS) and MELD score. This was a cross-sectional study included patients with liver cirrhosis admitted to Adam Malik Hospital Medan in June - August 2016. We divided them into two groups as not having renal dysfunction (serum creatinine SPSS 22.0 was used. Statistical methods used: Chi-square, Fisher exact, one way ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis test and Pearson coefficient of correlation. The level of significance was p<0.05. 55 patients with presented with renal dysfunction were 16 (29.1 %). There was statistically significant inverse correlation between GFR and CPS (r = -0.308), GFR and MELD score (r = -0.278). There was a statistically significant correlation between creatinine and MELD score (r = 0.359), creatinine and CPS (r = 0.382). The increase of the degree of liver damage is related to the increase of renal dysfunction.

  4. Sequential Neighborhood Effects: The Effect of Long-Term Exposure to Concentrated Disadvantage on Children's Reading and Math Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Andrew L; Handcock, Mark S; Sastry, Narayan; Pebley, Anne R

    2018-02-01

    Prior research has suggested that children living in a disadvantaged neighborhood have lower achievement test scores, but these studies typically have not estimated causal effects that account for neighborhood choice. Recent studies used propensity score methods to account for the endogeneity of neighborhood exposures, comparing disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged neighborhoods. We develop an alternative propensity function approach in which cumulative neighborhood effects are modeled as a continuous treatment variable. This approach offers several advantages. We use our approach to examine the cumulative effects of neighborhood disadvantage on reading and math test scores in Los Angeles. Our substantive results indicate that recency of exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods may be more important than average exposure for children's test scores. We conclude that studies of child development should consider both average cumulative neighborhood exposure and the timing of this exposure.

  5. Refining Ovarian Cancer Test accuracy Scores (ROCkeTS): protocol for a prospective longitudinal test accuracy study to validate new risk scores in women with symptoms of suspected ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Sudha; Rick, Caroline; Dowling, Francis; Au, Pui; Rai, Nirmala; Champaneria, Rita; Stobart, Hilary; Neal, Richard; Davenport, Clare; Mallett, Susan; Sutton, Andrew; Kehoe, Sean; Timmerman, Dirk; Bourne, Tom; Van Calster, Ben; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Deeks, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ovarian cancer (OC) is associated with non-specific symptoms such as bloating, making accurate diagnosis challenging: only 1 in 3 women with OC presents through primary care referral. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommends sequential testing with CA125 and routine ultrasound in primary care. However, these diagnostic tests have limited sensitivity or specificity. Improving accurate triage in women with vague symptoms is likely to improve mortality by streamlining referral and care pathways. The Refining Ovarian Cancer Test Accuracy Scores (ROCkeTS; HTA 13/13/01) project will derive and validate new tests/risk prediction models that estimate the probability of having OC in women with symptoms. This protocol refers to the prospective study only (phase III). Methods and analysis ROCkeTS comprises four parallel phases. The full ROCkeTS protocol can be found at http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/ROCKETS. Phase III is a prospective test accuracy study. The study will recruit 2450 patients from 15 UK sites. Recruited patients complete symptom and anxiety questionnaires, donate a serum sample and undergo ultrasound scored as per International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) criteria. Recruitment is at rapid access clinics, emergency departments and elective clinics. Models to be evaluated include those based on ultrasound derived by the IOTA group and novel models derived from analysis of existing data sets. Estimates of sensitivity, specificity, c-statistic (area under receiver operating curve), positive predictive value and negative predictive value of diagnostic tests are evaluated and a calibration plot for models will be presented. ROCkeTS has received ethical approval from the NHS West Midlands REC (14/WM/1241) and is registered on the controlled trials website (ISRCTN17160843) and the National Institute of Health Research Cancer and Reproductive Health portfolios. PMID:27507231

  6. Performance on large-scale science tests: Item attributes that may impact achievement scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Janet Victoria

    Significant differences in achievement among ethnic groups persist on the eighth-grade science Washington Assessment of Student Learning (WASL). The WASL measures academic performance in science using both scenario and stand-alone question types. Previous research suggests that presenting target items connected to an authentic context, like scenario question types, can increase science achievement scores especially in underrepresented groups and thus help to close the achievement gap. The purpose of this study was to identify significant differences in performance between gender and ethnic subgroups by question type on the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL. MANOVA and ANOVA were used to examine relationships between gender and ethnic subgroups as independent variables with achievement scores on scenario and stand-alone question types as dependent variables. MANOVA revealed no significant effects for gender, suggesting that the 2005 eighth-grade science WASL was gender neutral. However, there were significant effects for ethnicity. ANOVA revealed significant effects for ethnicity and ethnicity by gender interaction in both question types. Effect sizes were negligible for the ethnicity by gender interaction. Large effect sizes between ethnicities on scenario question types became moderate to small effect sizes on stand-alone question types. This indicates the score advantage the higher performing subgroups had over the lower performing subgroups was not as large on stand-alone question types compared to scenario question types. A further comparison examined performance on multiple-choice items only within both question types. Similar achievement patterns between ethnicities emerged; however, achievement patterns between genders changed in boys' favor. Scenario question types appeared to register differences between ethnic groups to a greater degree than stand-alone question types. These differences may be attributable to individual differences in cognition

  7. Using College Admission Test Scores to Clarify High School Placement. Leading Indicator Spotlight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flug, Susanna

    2010-01-01

    In "Beyond Test Scores: Leading Indicators for Education," Foley and colleagues (2008) define leading indicators as those that "provide early signals of progress toward academic achievement" (p. 1) and stress that educators "need leading indicators to help them see the direction their efforts are going in and to take…

  8. Differences of wells scores accuracy, caprini scores and padua scores in deep vein thrombosis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatot, D.; Mardia, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is the venous thrombus in lower limbs. Diagnosis is by using venography or ultrasound compression. However, these examinations are not available yet in some health facilities. Therefore many scoring systems are developed for the diagnosis of DVT. The scoring method is practical and safe to use in addition to efficacy, and effectiveness in terms of treatment and costs. The existing scoring systems are wells, caprini and padua score. There have been many studies comparing the accuracy of this score but not in Medan. Therefore, we are interested in comparative research of wells, capriniand padua score in Medan.An observational, analytical, case-control study was conducted to perform diagnostic tests on the wells, caprini and padua score to predict the risk of DVT. The study was at H. Adam Malik Hospital in Medan.From a total of 72 subjects, 39 people (54.2%) are men and the mean age are 53.14 years. Wells score, caprini score and padua score has a sensitivity of 80.6%; 61.1%, 50% respectively; specificity of 80.65; 66.7%; 75% respectively, and accuracy of 87.5%; 64.3%; 65.7% respectively.Wells score has better sensitivity, specificity and accuracy than caprini and padua score in diagnosing DVT.

  9. Exploration of analysis methods for diagnostic imaging tests: problems with ROC AUC and confidence scores in CT colonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallett, Susan; Halligan, Steve; Collins, Gary S; Altman, Doug G

    2014-01-01

    Different methods of evaluating diagnostic performance when comparing diagnostic tests may lead to different results. We compared two such approaches, sensitivity and specificity with area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC AUC) for the evaluation of CT colonography for the detection of polyps, either with or without computer assisted detection. In a multireader multicase study of 10 readers and 107 cases we compared sensitivity and specificity, using radiological reporting of the presence or absence of polyps, to ROC AUC calculated from confidence scores concerning the presence of polyps. Both methods were assessed against a reference standard. Here we focus on five readers, selected to illustrate issues in design and analysis. We compared diagnostic measures within readers, showing that differences in results are due to statistical methods. Reader performance varied widely depending on whether sensitivity and specificity or ROC AUC was used. There were problems using confidence scores; in assigning scores to all cases; in use of zero scores when no polyps were identified; the bimodal non-normal distribution of scores; fitting ROC curves due to extrapolation beyond the study data; and the undue influence of a few false positive results. Variation due to use of different ROC methods exceeded differences between test results for ROC AUC. The confidence scores recorded in our study violated many assumptions of ROC AUC methods, rendering these methods inappropriate. The problems we identified will apply to other detection studies using confidence scores. We found sensitivity and specificity were a more reliable and clinically appropriate method to compare diagnostic tests.

  10. Micronucleus test for radiation biodosimetry in mass casualty events: Evaluation of visual and automated scoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolognesi, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.bolognesi@istge.i [Environmental Carcinogenesis Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Balia, Cristina; Roggieri, Paola [Environmental Carcinogenesis Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Cardinale, Francesco [Clinical Epidemiology Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Department of Health Sciences, University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Bruzzi, Paolo [Clinical Epidemiology Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Sorcinelli, Francesca [Environmental Carcinogenesis Unit, National Cancer Research Institute, Largo R. Benzi 10, 16132 Genoa (Italy); Laboratory of Genetics, Histology and Molecular Biology Section, Army Medical and Veterinary, Research Center, Via Santo Stefano Rotondo 4, 00184 Roma (Italy); Lista, Florigio [Laboratory of Genetics, Histology and Molecular Biology Section, Army Medical and Veterinary, Research Center, Via Santo Stefano Rotondo 4, 00184 Roma (Italy); D' Amelio, Raffaele [Sapienza, Universita di Roma II Facolta di Medicina e Chirurgia and Ministero della Difesa, Direzione Generale Sanita Militare (Italy); Righi, Enzo [Frascati National Laboratories, National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    2011-02-15

    In the case of a large-scale nuclear or radiological incidents a reliable estimate of dose is an essential tool for providing timely assessment of radiation exposure and for making life-saving medical decisions. Cytogenetics is considered as the 'gold standard' for biodosimetry. The dicentric analysis (DA) represents the most specific cytogenetic bioassay. The micronucleus test (MN) applied in interphase in peripheral lymphocytes is an alternative and simpler approach. A dose-effect calibration curve for the MN frequency in peripheral lymphocytes from 27 adult donors was established after in vitro irradiation at a dose range 0.15-8 Gy of {sup 137}Cs gamma rays (dose rate 6 Gy min{sup -1}). Dose prediction by visual scoring in a dose-blinded study (0.15-4.0 Gy) revealed a high level of accuracy (R = 0.89). The scoring of MN is time consuming and requires adequate skills and expertise. Automated image analysis is a feasible approach allowing to reduce the time and to increase the accuracy of the dose estimation decreasing the variability due to subjective evaluation. A good correlation (R = 0.705) between visual and automated scoring with visual correction was observed over the dose range 0-2 Gy. Almost perfect discrimination power for exposure to 1-2 Gy, and a satisfactory power for 0.6 Gy were detected. This threshold level can be considered sufficient for identification of sub lethally exposed individuals by automated CBMN assay.

  11. Comprehensive School Reform and Standardized Test Scores in Illinois Elementary and Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnroe, James D.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effects of the federally funded Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program on student performance on mandated standardized tests. The study focused on the mathematics and reading scores of Illinois public elementary and middle and junior high school students. The federal CSR program provided Illinois schools with an annual…

  12. Evaluation of Factors Affecting Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version Score of Schizophrenic Patients in a Japanese Clinical Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takayoshi Koide

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia strongly relates to social outcome and is a good candidate for endophenotypes. When we accurately measure drug efficacy or effects of genes or variants relevant to schizophrenia on cognitive impairment, clinical factors that can affect scores on cognitive tests, such as age and severity of symptoms, should be considered. To elucidate the effect of clinical factors, we conducted multiple regression analysis using scores of the Continuous Performance Test Identical Pairs Version (CPT-IP, which is often used to measure attention/vigilance in schizophrenia. Methods. We conducted the CPT-IP (4-4 digit and examined clinical information (sex, age, education years, onset age, duration of illness, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS scores in 126 schizophrenia patients in Japanese population. Multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of clinical factors. Results. Age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose, and PANSS-negative symptom score were associated with mean d′ score in patients. These three clinical factors explained about 28% of the variance in mean d′ score. Conclusions. As conclusion, CPT-IP score in schizophrenia patients is influenced by age, chlorpromazine-equivalent dose and PANSS negative symptom score.

  13. Specific algorithm method of scoring the Clock Drawing Test applied in cognitively normal elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Chaves Mendes-Santos

    Full Text Available The Clock Drawing Test (CDT is an inexpensive, fast and easily administered measure of cognitive function, especially in the elderly. This instrument is a popular clinical tool widely used in screening for cognitive disorders and dementia. The CDT can be applied in different ways and scoring procedures also vary. OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to analyze the performance of elderly on the CDT and evaluate inter-rater reliability of the CDT scored by using a specific algorithm method adapted from Sunderland et al. (1989. METHODS: We analyzed the CDT of 100 cognitively normal elderly aged 60 years or older. The CDT ("free-drawn" and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE were administered to all participants. Six independent examiners scored the CDT of 30 participants to evaluate inter-rater reliability. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: A score of 5 on the proposed algorithm ("Numbers in reverse order or concentrated", equivalent to 5 points on the original Sunderland scale, was the most frequent (53.5%. The CDT specific algorithm method used had high inter-rater reliability (p<0.01, and mean score ranged from 5.06 to 5.96. The high frequency of an overall score of 5 points may suggest the need to create more nuanced evaluation criteria, which are sensitive to differences in levels of impairment in visuoconstructive and executive abilities during aging.

  14. Combination of synoptical-analogous and dynamical methods to increase skill score of monthly air temperature forecasts over Northern Eurasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Valentina; Tscepelev, Valery; Vilfand, Roman; Kulikova, Irina; Kruglova, Ekaterina; Tischenko, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Long-range forecasts at monthly-seasonal time scale are in great demand of socio-economic sectors for exploiting climate-related risks and opportunities. At the same time, the quality of long-range forecasts is not fully responding to user application necessities. Different approaches, including combination of different prognostic models, are used in forecast centers to increase the prediction skill for specific regions and globally. In the present study, two forecasting methods are considered which are exploited in operational practice of Hydrometeorological Center of Russia. One of them is synoptical-analogous method of forecasting of surface air temperature at monthly scale. Another one is dynamical system based on the global semi-Lagrangian model SL-AV, developed in collaboration of Institute of Numerical Mathematics and Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia. The seasonal version of this model has been used to issue global and regional forecasts at monthly-seasonal time scales. This study presents results of the evaluation of surface air temperature forecasts generated with using above mentioned synoptical-statistical and dynamical models, and their combination to potentially increase skill score over Northern Eurasia. The test sample of operational forecasts is encompassing period from 2010 through 2015. The seasonal and interannual variability of skill scores of these methods has been discussed. It was noticed that the quality of all forecasts is highly dependent on the inertia of macro-circulation processes. The skill scores of forecasts are decreasing during significant alterations of synoptical fields for both dynamical and empirical schemes. Procedure of combination of forecasts from different methods, in some cases, has demonstrated its effectiveness. For this study the support has been provided by Grant of Russian Science Foundation (№14-37-00053).

  15. D-score: a search engine independent MD-score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudel, Marc; Breiter, Daniela; Beck, Florian; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Martens, Lennart; Zahedi, René P

    2013-03-01

    While peptides carrying PTMs are routinely identified in gel-free MS, the localization of the PTMs onto the peptide sequences remains challenging. Search engine scores of secondary peptide matches have been used in different approaches in order to infer the quality of site inference, by penalizing the localization whenever the search engine similarly scored two candidate peptides with different site assignments. In the present work, we show how the estimation of posterior error probabilities for peptide candidates allows the estimation of a PTM score called the D-score, for multiple search engine studies. We demonstrate the applicability of this score to three popular search engines: Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem, and evaluate its performance using an already published high resolution data set of synthetic phosphopeptides. For those peptides with phosphorylation site inference uncertainty, the number of spectrum matches with correctly localized phosphorylation increased by up to 25.7% when compared to using Mascot alone, although the actual increase depended on the fragmentation method used. Since this method relies only on search engine scores, it can be readily applied to the scoring of the localization of virtually any modification at no additional experimental or in silico cost. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. The Dysexecutive Questionnaire advanced: item and test score characteristics, 4-factor solution, and severity classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenburg, Sebastian; Dopslaff, Nina

    2008-01-01

    The Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX, , Behavioral assessment of the dysexecutive syndrome, 1996) is a standardized instrument to measure possible behavioral changes as a result of the dysexecutive syndrome. Although initially intended only as a qualitative instrument, the DEX has also been used increasingly to address quantitative problems. Until now there have not been more fundamental statistical analyses of the questionnaire's testing quality. The present study is based on an unselected sample of 191 patients with acquired brain injury and reports on the data relating to the quality of the items, the reliability and the factorial structure of the DEX. Item 3 displayed too great an item difficulty, whereas item 11 was not sufficiently discriminating. The DEX's reliability in self-rating is r = 0.85. In addition to presenting the statistical values of the tests, a clinical severity classification of the overall scores of the 4 found factors and of the questionnaire as a whole is carried out on the basis of quartile standards.

  17. Keeping Your Audience in Mind: Applying Audience Analysis to the Design of Interactive Score Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Rivera, Juan Diego; Katz, Irvin R.

    2014-01-01

    Score reports have one or more intended audiences: the people who use the reports to make decisions about test takers, including teachers, administrators, parents and test takers. Attention to audience when designing a score report supports assessment validity by increasing the likelihood that score users will interpret and use assessment results…

  18. Zero Calcium Score as a Filter for Further Testing in Patients Admitted to the Coronary Care Unit with Chest Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Luis Cláudio Lemos; Esteves, Fábio P; Carvalhal, Manuela; Souza, Thiago Menezes Barbosa de; Sá, Nicole de; Correia, Vitor Calixto de Almeida; Alexandre, Felipe Kalil Beirão; Lopes, Fernanda; Ferreira, Felipe; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia

    2017-06-12

    The accuracy of zero coronary calcium score as a filter in patients with chest pain has been demonstrated at the emergency room and outpatient clinics, populations with low prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD). To test the gatekeeping role of zero calcium score in patients with chest pain admitted to the coronary care unit (CCU), where the pretest probability of CAD is higher than that of other populations. Patients underwent computed tomography for calcium scoring, and obstructive CAD was defined by a minimum 70% stenosis on invasive angiography. In 146 patients studied, the prevalence of CAD was 41%. A zero calcium score was present in 35% of the patients. The sensitivity and specificity of zero calcium score yielded a negative likelihood ratio of 0.16. After logistic regression adjustment for pretest probability, zero calcium score was independently associated with lower odds of CAD (OR = 0.12, 95%CI = 0.04-0.36), increasing the area under the ROC curve of the clinical model from 0.76 to 0.82 (p = 0.006). Zero calcium score provided a net reclassification improvement of 0.20 (p = 0.0018) over the clinical model when using a pretest probability threshold of 10% for discharging without further testing. In patients with pretest probability zero calcium score had a negative predictive value of 95% (95%CI = 83%-99%), with a number needed to test of 2.1 for obtaining one additional discharge. Zero calcium score substantially reduces the pretest probability of obstructive CAD in patients admitted to the CCU with acute chest pain. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2017; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0). A acurácia do escore de cálcio coronário zero como um filtro nos pacientes com dor torácica aguda tem sido demonstrada na sala de emergência e nos ambulatórios, populações com baixa prevalência de doença arterial coronariana (DAC). Testar o papel do escore de cálcio zero como filtro nos pacientes com dor torácica admitidos numa unidade coronariana intensiva (UCI), na

  19. A diagnostic scoring system for myxedema coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popoveniuc, Geanina; Chandra, Tanu; Sud, Anchal; Sharma, Meeta; Blackman, Marc R; Burman, Kenneth D; Mete, Mihriye; Desale, Sameer; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2014-08-01

    To develop diagnostic criteria for myxedema coma (MC), a decompensated state of extreme hypothyroidism with a high mortality rate if untreated, in order to facilitate its early recognition and treatment. The frequencies of characteristics associated with MC were assessed retrospectively in patients from our institutions in order to derive a semiquantitative diagnostic point scale that was further applied on selected patients whose data were retrieved from the literature. Logistic regression analysis was used to test the predictive power of the score. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to test the discriminative power of the score. Of the 21 patients examined, 7 were reclassified as not having MC (non-MC), and they were used as controls. The scoring system included a composite of alterations of thermoregulatory, central nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and metabolic systems, and presence or absence of a precipitating event. All 14 of our MC patients had a score of ≥60, whereas 6 of 7 non-MC patients had scores of 25 to 50. A total of 16 of 22 MC patients whose data were retrieved from the literature had a score ≥60, and 6 of 22 of these patients scored between 45 and 55. The odds ratio per each score unit increase as a continuum was 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01 to 1.16; P = .019); a score of 60 identified coma, with an odds ratio of 1.22. The area under the ROC curve was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.65 to 1.00), and the score of 60 had 100% sensitivity and 85.71% specificity. A score ≥60 in the proposed scoring system is potentially diagnostic for MC, whereas scores between 45 and 59 could classify patients at risk for MC.

  20. Using Automated Essay Scores as an Anchor When Equating Constructed Response Writing Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almond, Russell G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessments consisting of only a few extended constructed response items (essays) are not typically equated using anchor test designs as there are typically too few essay prompts in each form to allow for meaningful equating. This article explores the idea that output from an automated scoring program designed to measure writing fluency (a common…

  1. Implications of Deployed and Nondeployed Fathers on Seventh Graders' California Achievement Test Scores during a Military Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, Mark C.

    The differences in California Achievement Test (CAT) scores from 1990 to 1991 in seventh graders, currently enrolled in Albritton Junior High School in the Fort Bragg Schools, of deployed and nondeployed fathers were analyzed. CAT percentile scores from 1990 and 1991 (1991 being the year of "Desert Storm") were obtained in reading, math…

  2. Factors contributing to speech perception scores in long-term pediatric cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lisa S; Geers, Ann E; Blamey, Peter J; Tobey, Emily A; Brenner, Christine A

    2011-02-01

    The objectives of this report are to (1) describe the speech perception abilities of long-term pediatric cochlear implant (CI) recipients by comparing scores obtained at elementary school (CI-E, 8 to 9 yrs) with scores obtained at high school (CI-HS, 15 to 18 yrs); (2) evaluate speech perception abilities in demanding listening conditions (i.e., noise and lower intensity levels) at adolescence; and (3) examine the relation of speech perception scores to speech and language development over this longitudinal timeframe. All 112 teenagers were part of a previous nationwide study of 8- and 9-yr-olds (N = 181) who received a CI between 2 and 5 yrs of age. The test battery included (1) the Lexical Neighborhood Test (LNT; hard and easy word lists); (2) the Bamford Kowal Bench sentence test; (3) the Children's Auditory-Visual Enhancement Test; (4) the Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language at CI-E; (5) the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at CI-HS; and (6) the McGarr sentences (consonants correct) at CI-E and CI-HS. CI-HS speech perception was measured in both optimal and demanding listening conditions (i.e., background noise and low-intensity level). Speech perception scores were compared based on age at test, lexical difficulty of stimuli, listening environment (optimal and demanding), input mode (visual and auditory-visual), and language age. All group mean scores significantly increased with age across the two test sessions. Scores of adolescents significantly decreased in demanding listening conditions. The effect of lexical difficulty on the LNT scores, as evidenced by the difference in performance between easy versus hard lists, increased with age and decreased for adolescents in challenging listening conditions. Calculated curves for percent correct speech perception scores (LNT and Bamford Kowal Bench) and consonants correct on the McGarr sentences plotted against age-equivalent language scores on the Test of Auditory Comprehension of Language and Peabody

  3. How Well Does the Sum Score Summarize the Test? Summability as a Measure of Internal Consistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeman, J.J.; De, Jong N.H.

    2018-01-01

    Many researchers use Cronbach's alpha to demonstrate internal consistency, even though it has been shown numerous times that Cronbach's alpha is not suitable for this. Because the intention of questionnaire and test constructers is to summarize the test by its overall sum score, we advocate

  4. Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and the Oral Proficiency Interview: A Comparison of Test Scores and Examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalande, John F.; Schweckendiek, Jurgen

    1986-01-01

    Investigates what correlations might exist between an individual's score on the Zertifikat Deutsch als Fremdsprache and on the Oral Proficiency Interview. The tests themselves are briefly described. Results indicate that the two tests appear to correlate well in their evaluation of speaking skills. (SED)

  5. Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test scores can be predicted from whole brain MRI in Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT is a powerful neuropsychological tool for testing episodic memory, which is widely used for the cognitive assessment in dementia and pre-dementia conditions. Several studies have shown that an impairment in RAVLT scores reflect well the underlying pathology caused by Alzheimer's disease (AD, thus making RAVLT an effective early marker to detect AD in persons with memory complaints. We investigated the association between RAVLT scores (RAVLT Immediate and RAVLT Percent Forgetting and the structural brain atrophy caused by AD. The aim was to comprehensively study to what extent the RAVLT scores are predictable based on structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data using machine learning approaches as well as to find the most important brain regions for the estimation of RAVLT scores. For this, we built a predictive model to estimate RAVLT scores from gray matter density via elastic net penalized linear regression model. The proposed approach provided highly significant cross-validated correlation between the estimated and observed RAVLT Immediate (R = 0.50 and RAVLT Percent Forgetting (R = 0.43 in a dataset consisting of 806 AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI or healthy subjects. In addition, the selected machine learning method provided more accurate estimates of RAVLT scores than the relevance vector regression used earlier for the estimation of RAVLT based on MRI data. The top predictors were medial temporal lobe structures and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Immediate and angular gyrus, hippocampus and amygdala for the estimation of RAVLT Percent Forgetting. Further, the conversion of MCI subjects to AD in 3-years could be predicted based on either observed or estimated RAVLT scores with an accuracy comparable to MRI-based biomarkers.

  6. Clinical score and rapid antigen detection test to guide antibiotic use for sore throats: randomised controlled trial of PRISM (primary care streptococcal management).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Paul; Hobbs, F D Richard; Moore, Michael; Mant, David; Williamson, Ian; McNulty, Cliodna; Cheng, Ying Edith; Leydon, Geraldine; McManus, Richard; Kelly, Joanne; Barnett, Jane; Glasziou, Paul; Mullee, Mark

    2013-10-10

    To determine the effect of clinical scores that predict streptococcal infection or rapid streptococcal antigen detection tests compared with delayed antibiotic prescribing. Open adaptive pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial. Primary care in United Kingdom. Patients aged ≥ 3 with acute sore throat. An internet programme randomised patients to targeted antibiotic use according to: delayed antibiotics (the comparator group for analyses), clinical score, or antigen test used according to clinical score. During the trial a preliminary streptococcal score (score 1, n=1129) was replaced by a more consistent score (score 2, n=631; features: fever during previous 24 hours; purulence; attends rapidly (within three days after onset of symptoms); inflamed tonsils; no cough/coryza (acronym FeverPAIN). Symptom severity reported by patients on a 7 point Likert scale (mean severity of sore throat/difficulty swallowing for days two to four after the consultation (primary outcome)), duration of symptoms, use of antibiotics. For score 1 there were no significant differences between groups. For score 2, symptom severity was documented in 80% (168/207 (81%) in delayed antibiotics group; 168/211 (80%) in clinical score group; 166/213 (78%) in antigen test group). Reported severity of symptoms was lower in the clinical score group (-0.33, 95% confidence interval -0.64 to -0.02; P=0.04), equivalent to one in three rating sore throat a slight versus moderate problem, with a similar reduction for the antigen test group (-0.30, -0.61 to -0.00; P=0.05). Symptoms rated moderately bad or worse resolved significantly faster in the clinical score group (hazard ratio 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.63) but not the antigen test group (1.11, 0.88 to 1.40). In the delayed antibiotics group, 75/164 (46%) used antibiotics. Use of antibiotics in the clinical score group (60/161) was 29% lower (adjusted risk ratio 0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 0.95; P=0.02) and in the

  7. Towards reporting standards for neuropsychological study results: A proposal to minimize communication errors with standardized qualitative descriptors for normalized test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Mike R; Rum, Ruba S

    2017-11-01

    Rapid, clear and efficient communication of neuropsychological results is essential to benefit patient care. Errors in communication are a lead cause of medical errors; nevertheless, there remains a lack of consistency in how neuropsychological scores are communicated. A major limitation in the communication of neuropsychological results is the inconsistent use of qualitative descriptors for standardized test scores and the use of vague terminology. PubMed search from 1 Jan 2007 to 1 Aug 2016 to identify guidelines or consensus statements for the description and reporting of qualitative terms to communicate neuropsychological test scores was conducted. The review found the use of confusing and overlapping terms to describe various ranges of percentile standardized test scores. In response, we propose a simplified set of qualitative descriptors for normalized test scores (Q-Simple) as a means to reduce errors in communicating test results. The Q-Simple qualitative terms are: 'very superior', 'superior', 'high average', 'average', 'low average', 'borderline' and 'abnormal/impaired'. A case example illustrates the proposed Q-Simple qualitative classification system to communicate neuropsychological results for neurosurgical planning. The Q-Simple qualitative descriptor system is aimed as a means to improve and standardize communication of standardized neuropsychological test scores. Research are needed to further evaluate neuropsychological communication errors. Conveying the clinical implications of neuropsychological results in a manner that minimizes risk for communication errors is a quintessential component of evidence-based practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Hematoma Shape, Hematoma Size, Glasgow Coma Scale Score and ICH Score: Which Predicts the 30-Day Mortality Better for Intracerebral Hematoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chih-Wei; Liu, Yi-Jui; Lee, Yi-Hsiung; Hueng, Dueng-Yuan; Fan, Hueng-Chuen; Yang, Fu-Chi; Hsueh, Chun-Jen; Kao, Hung-Wen; Juan, Chun-Jung; Hsu, Hsian-He

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the performance of hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score, and intracerebral hematoma (ICH) score in predicting the 30-day mortality for ICH patients. To examine the influence of the estimation error of hematoma size on the prediction of 30-day mortality. Materials and Methods This retrospective study, approved by a local institutional review board with written informed consent waived, recruited 106 patients diagnosed as ICH by non-enhanced computed tomography study. The hemorrhagic shape, hematoma size measured by computer-assisted volumetric analysis (CAVA) and estimated by ABC/2 formula, ICH score and GCS score was examined. The predicting performance of 30-day mortality of the aforementioned variables was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, paired t test, nonparametric test, linear regression analysis, and binary logistic regression. The receiver operating characteristics curves were plotted and areas under curve (AUC) were calculated for 30-day mortality. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results The overall 30-day mortality rate was 15.1% of ICH patients. The hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH score, and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality for ICH patients, with an AUC of 0.692 (P = 0.0018), 0.715 (P = 0.0008) (by ABC/2) to 0.738 (P = 0.0002) (by CAVA), 0.877 (Phematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH scores and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality in an increasing order of AUC. The effect of overestimation of hematoma size by ABC/2 formula in predicting the 30-day mortality could be remedied by using ICH score. PMID:25029592

  9. Evaluation of the Discrepancy between the European Pharmacopoeia Test and an Adopted United States Pharmacopoeia Test Regarding the Weight Uniformity of Scored Tablet Halves: Is Harmonization Required?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Ghoush, Abeer Abu; Al-Ramahi, Rowa'; Are'r, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there exists any discrepancy between the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) and adopted United States Pharmacopeia (USP) tests concerning the weight uniformity measurements of tablet halves after splitting. The USP method does not contain provisions to evaluate split tablets, so here we adopt their whole tablet weight uniformity method. Twenty-nine different commercial scored tablets (local and imported) were divided. The split units were individually weighed and the relative standard deviation (RSD) for each product was calculated and then evaluated according to both the adopted USP and the Ph. Eur. tests of weight uniformity. Twenty out of the 29 products tested failed the USP test, while 14 of them failed the Ph. Eur. test. Nine products passed both the USP and Ph. Eur. tests. Six products passed the Ph. Eur. test but failed the USP test, with all of these products having an RSD greater than 6%. The correlation coefficient between the weight and content of split halves for three randomly selected products-corotenol 100 mg, corotenol 50 mg, and lorazepam 2.5 mg-was found to be 0.986, 0.998, and 0.72, respectively. A clear difference can be seen between outcomes obtained by the two compendial tablet splitting methods with regard to weight uniformity. Results from the USP test showed that tighter measures are needed to pass the test. Our results argue that the Ph. Eur. should revise the existing weight uniformity test on scored tablets to include the RSD parameter in it. The USP should include this adopted test as a specific test for scored tablet halves, not just whole tablets. Manufacturers in some cases will need to improve the quality of the produced scored tablets in order to pass the USP test, especially those with low therapeutic indices. Finally, harmonization between the pharmacopoeias regarding the weight uniformity testing of split tablets is warranted. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there

  10. Refining Ovarian Cancer Test accuracy Scores (ROCkeTS): protocol for a prospective longitudinal test accuracy study to validate new risk scores in women with symptoms of suspected ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Sudha; Rick, Caroline; Dowling, Francis; Au, Pui; Snell, Kym; Rai, Nirmala; Champaneria, Rita; Stobart, Hilary; Neal, Richard; Davenport, Clare; Mallett, Susan; Sutton, Andrew; Kehoe, Sean; Timmerman, Dirk; Bourne, Tom; Van Calster, Ben; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Deeks, Jon

    2016-08-09

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is associated with non-specific symptoms such as bloating, making accurate diagnosis challenging: only 1 in 3 women with OC presents through primary care referral. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines recommends sequential testing with CA125 and routine ultrasound in primary care. However, these diagnostic tests have limited sensitivity or specificity. Improving accurate triage in women with vague symptoms is likely to improve mortality by streamlining referral and care pathways. The Refining Ovarian Cancer Test Accuracy Scores (ROCkeTS; HTA 13/13/01) project will derive and validate new tests/risk prediction models that estimate the probability of having OC in women with symptoms. This protocol refers to the prospective study only (phase III). ROCkeTS comprises four parallel phases. The full ROCkeTS protocol can be found at http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/ROCKETS. Phase III is a prospective test accuracy study. The study will recruit 2450 patients from 15 UK sites. Recruited patients complete symptom and anxiety questionnaires, donate a serum sample and undergo ultrasound scored as per International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) criteria. Recruitment is at rapid access clinics, emergency departments and elective clinics. Models to be evaluated include those based on ultrasound derived by the IOTA group and novel models derived from analysis of existing data sets. Estimates of sensitivity, specificity, c-statistic (area under receiver operating curve), positive predictive value and negative predictive value of diagnostic tests are evaluated and a calibration plot for models will be presented. ROCkeTS has received ethical approval from the NHS West Midlands REC (14/WM/1241) and is registered on the controlled trials website (ISRCTN17160843) and the National Institute of Health Research Cancer and Reproductive Health portfolios. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  11. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change scores for sit-to-stand-to-sit tests, the six-minute walk test, the one-leg heel-rise test, and handgrip strength in people undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Ortí, Eva; Martínez-Olmos, Francisco José

    2011-08-01

    Determining the relative and absolute reliability of outcomes of physical performance tests for people undergoing hemodialysis is necessary to discriminate between the true effects of exercise interventions and the inherent variability of this cohort. The aims of this study were to assess the relative reliability of sit-to-stand-to-sit tests (the STS-10, which measures the time [in seconds] required to complete 10 full stands from a sitting position, and the STS-60, which measures the number of repetitions achieved in 60 seconds), the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the one-leg heel-rise test, and the handgrip strength test and to calculate minimal detectable change (MDC) scores in people undergoing hemodialysis. This study was a prospective, nonexperimental investigation. Thirty-nine people undergoing hemodialysis at 2 clinics in Spain were contacted. Study participants performed the STS-10 (n=37), the STS-60 (n=37), and the 6MWT (n=36). At one of the settings, the participants also performed the one-leg heel-rise test (n=21) and the handgrip strength test (n=12) on both the right and the left sides. Participants attended 2 testing sessions 1 to 2 weeks apart. High intraclass correlation coefficients (≥.88) were found for all tests, suggesting good relative reliability. The MDC scores at 90% confidence intervals were as follows: 8.4 seconds for the STS-10, 4 repetitions for the STS-60, 66.3 m for the 6MWT, 3.4 kg for handgrip strength (force-generating capacity), 3.7 repetitions for the one-leg heel-rise test with the right leg, and 5.2 repetitions for the one-leg heel-rise test with the left leg. Limitations A limited sample of patients was used in this study. The STS-16, STS-60, 6MWT, one-leg heel rise test, and handgrip strength test are reliable outcome measures. The MDC scores at 90% confidence intervals for these tests will help to determine whether a change is due to error or to an intervention.

  12. Rugby versus Soccer in South Africa: Content Familiarity Contributes to Cross-Cultural Differences in Cognitive Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malda, Maike; van de Vijver, Fons J. R.; Temane, Q. Michael

    2010-01-01

    In this study, cross-cultural differences in cognitive test scores are hypothesized to depend on a test's cultural complexity (Cultural Complexity Hypothesis: CCH), here conceptualized as its content familiarity, rather than on its cognitive complexity (Spearman's Hypothesis: SH). The content familiarity of tests assessing short-term memory,…

  13. Celiac disease is associated with reduced bone mineral density and increased FRAX scores in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamycheva, E; Goto, T; Camargo, C A

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the association between celiac disease (CD) and bone mass density (BMD) and risk of osteoporotic fractures in the general US population. In children and men ≥18 years, CD was associated with reduced BMD, and in men ≥40 years, CD was associated with increased risk of osteoporotic fractures. Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune condition, characterized by inflammation of the small intestine. CD has an increasing prevalence, and if unrecognized or untreated, CD can lead to complications from malabsorption and micronutrient deficiencies. We aimed to study whether CD is an independent predictor of reduced bone mineral density (BMD) and FRAX scores in the general US population. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2010 and 2013-2014. CD was defined by positive tissue transglutaminase IgA antibody test. Multivariable models of BMD and FRAX scores were adjusted for BMI, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D and calcium supplements, milk intake, serum calcium, and smoking status, when available. In children, aged 8-17 years, CD was associated with decreased Z-scores, by 0.85 for hip and 0.46 for spine (both P hip and with 0.11 g/cm 2 decrease in BMD in spine (P = 0.08 and P hip fracture and by 2.43 % (P = 0.05) for major osteoporotic fracture. CD did not predict FRAX scores in women aged ≥40 years. CD is independently associated with reduced BMD in children and adults aged ≥18 years and is an independent risk factor of osteoporotic fractures in men aged ≥40 years.

  14. Normalization of the Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy score ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-09

    May 9, 2016 ... influenced by age, education levels, and gender.[5] Till date, the PHES ... and death. MHE also increases the risk of development ... large circles beginning from each row on the left and working to the right. The test score is the ...

  15. Differences in distribution of T-scores and Z-scores among bone densitometry tests in postmenopausal women (a comparative study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendlova, J.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the character of T-score and Z-score value distribution in individually selected methods of bone densitometry and to compare them using statistical analysis. We examined 56 postmenopausal women with an age between 43 and 68 years with osteopenia or osteoporosis according to the WHO classification. The following measurements were made in each patient: T-score and Z-score for: 1) Stiffness index (S) of the left heel bone, USM (index). 2) Bone mineral density of the left heel bone (BMDh), DEXA (g of Ca hydroxyapatite per cm 2 ). 3) Bone mineral density of trabecular bone of the L1 vertebra (BMDL1). QCT (mg of Ca hydroxyapatite per cm 3 ). The densitometers used in the study were: ultrasonometer to measure heel bone, Achilles plus LUNAR, USA: DEXA to measure heel bone, PIXl, LUNAR, USA: QCT to measure the L1 vertebra, CT, SOMATOM Plus, Siemens, Germany. Statistical analysis: differences between measured values of T-scores (Z-scores) were evaluated by parametric or non-parametric methods of determining the 95 % confidence intervals (C.I.). Differences between Z-score and T-score values for compared measurements were statistically significant; however, these differences were lower for Z-scores. Largest differences in 95 % C.I., characterizing individual measurements of T-score values (in comparison with Z-scores), were found for those densitometers whose age range of the reference groups of young adults differed the most, and conversely, the smallest differences in T-score values were found when the differences between the age ranges of reference groups were smallest. The higher variation in T-score values in comparison to Z-scores is also caused by a non-standard selection of the reference groups of young adults for the QCT, PIXI and Achilles Plus densitometers used in the study. Age characteristics of the reference group for T-scores should be standardized for all types of densitometers. (author)

  16. A Study on Variables that Affect Class Scores of Primary Education Students in Placement Test

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to determine the variables that predict class scores which are obtained by adding 70 % of the Placement Test (PT) scores of the primary education sixth and seventh grade students who took it for the first time in the 2007-2008 academic year within the framework of the system of passing to secondary education reorganized by the MNE, 25 % of their end-of-the-year passing grades. The study is of general survey model. The study group consists of students who took the PT in the 200...

  17. An analysis of aviation test scores to characterize Student Naval Aviator disqualification

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Erich J.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited The U.S. Navy uses the Aviation Selection Test Battery (ASTh) to identify those Student Naval Aviator (SNA) applicants most likely to succeed in flight training. Using classification and regression trees, this thesis concludes that individual answers to an ASTh subtest, the Biographical Inventory, are not good predictors of SNA primary flight grades. It also concludes that those SNA who score less than a 6 on the Pilot Biographical Inv...

  18. Attributes of diagnostic tests to increase uptake of dual testing for syphilis and HIV in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Claire C; Lee, Sung-Jae; Severe, Linda; William Pape, Jean; Javanbakht, Marjan; Scott Comulada, Warren; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2017-03-01

    Introduction Syphilis and HIV screening is highly recommended for pregnant women and those at risk for infection. We used conjoint analysis to identify factors associated with testing preferences for HIV and syphilis infection. Methods We recruited 298 men and women 18 years and over seeking testing or care at GHESKIO (Haitian Study Group for Kaposi's Sarcoma and Opportunistic Infections) clinics. We created eight hypothetical dual HIV-syphilis test profiles varying across six dichotomous attributes. Participants were asked to rate each profile using Likert preference scales. An impact score was generated for each attribute by taking the difference between the preference scores for the preferred and non-preferred level of each attribute. Two-sided one-sample t-test was used to generate p values. Results Of 298 study participants, 61 (20.5%) were male. Of 237 females, 49 (20.7%) were pregnant. Cost (free vs. US$4; p syphilis testing preferences for this study sample in Port-au-Prince prioritized cost, single fingerprick, laboratory-based testing and timeliness.

  19. Recurrent Stroke: The Value of the CHA2DS2VASc Score and the Essen Stroke Risk Score in a Nationwide Stroke Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Søren Due; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Lip, Gregory Y H; Bach, Flemming W; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard

    2015-09-01

    The CHA2DS2VASc score and the Essen Stroke Risk Score are respectively used for risk stratification in patients with atrial fibrillation and in patients with cerebrovascular incidents. We aimed to test the ability of the 2 scores to predict stroke recurrence, death, and cardiovascular events (stroke, transient ischemic attack, myocardial infarction, or arterial thromboembolism) in a nationwide Danish cohort study, among patients with incident ischemic stroke and no atrial fibrillation. We conducted a registry-based study in patients with incident ischemic stroke and no atrial fibrillation. Patients were stratified according to the CHA2DS2VASc score and the Essen Stroke Risk Score and were followed up until stroke recurrence or death. We estimated stratified incidence rates and hazard ratios and calculated the cumulative risks. 42 182 patients with incident ischemic stroke with median age 70.1 years were included. The overall 1-year incidence rates of recurrent stroke, death, and cardiovascular events were 3.6%, 10.5%, and 6.7%, respectively. The incidence rates, the hazard ratios, and the cumulative risk of all outcomes increased with increasing risk scores. C-statistics for both risk scores were around 0.55 for 1-year stroke recurrence and cardiovascular events and correspondingly for death around 0.67 for both scores. In this cohort of non-atrial fibrillation patients with incident ischemic stroke, increasing CHA2DS2VASc score and Essen Stroke Risk Score was associated with increasing risk of recurrent stroke, death, and cardiovascular events. Their discriminatory performance was modest and further refinements are required for clinical application. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale score and ICH score: which predicts the 30-day mortality better for intracerebral hematoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Wang

    Full Text Available To investigate the performance of hematoma shape, hematoma size, Glasgow coma scale (GCS score, and intracerebral hematoma (ICH score in predicting the 30-day mortality for ICH patients. To examine the influence of the estimation error of hematoma size on the prediction of 30-day mortality.This retrospective study, approved by a local institutional review board with written informed consent waived, recruited 106 patients diagnosed as ICH by non-enhanced computed tomography study. The hemorrhagic shape, hematoma size measured by computer-assisted volumetric analysis (CAVA and estimated by ABC/2 formula, ICH score and GCS score was examined. The predicting performance of 30-day mortality of the aforementioned variables was evaluated. Statistical analysis was performed using Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, paired t test, nonparametric test, linear regression analysis, and binary logistic regression. The receiver operating characteristics curves were plotted and areas under curve (AUC were calculated for 30-day mortality. A P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.The overall 30-day mortality rate was 15.1% of ICH patients. The hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH score, and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality for ICH patients, with an AUC of 0.692 (P = 0.0018, 0.715 (P = 0.0008 (by ABC/2 to 0.738 (P = 0.0002 (by CAVA, 0.877 (P<0.0001 (by ABC/2 to 0.882 (P<0.0001 (by CAVA, and 0.912 (P<0.0001, respectively.Our study shows that hematoma shape, hematoma size, ICH scores and GCS score all significantly predict the 30-day mortality in an increasing order of AUC. The effect of overestimation of hematoma size by ABC/2 formula in predicting the 30-day mortality could be remedied by using ICH score.

  1. Psychometric Evaluation of the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test, the Modified Harris Hip Score, and the Hip Outcome Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man; Hon, Shirley D; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D; Aoki, Stephen K; Anderson, Mike B; Kapron, Ashley L; Peters, Christopher L; Pelt, Christopher E

    2014-12-01

    The applicability and validity of many patient-reported outcome measures in the high-functioning population are not well understood. To compare the psychometric properties of the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score activities of daily living subscale (HOS-ADL) and sports (HOS-sports), and the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test (LE CAT). The hypotheses was that all instruments would perform well but that the LE CAT would show superiority psychometrically because a combination of CAT and a large item bank allows for a high degree of measurement precision. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Data were collected from 472 advanced-age, active participants from the Huntsman World Senior Games in 2012. Validity evidences were examined through item fit, dimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, differential item functioning, person raw score to measure correlation, and instrument coverage (ie, ceiling and floor effects), and reliability evidences were examined through Cronbach alpha and person separation index. All instruments demonstrated good item fit, unidimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, and person raw score to measure correlations. The HOS-ADL had high ceiling effects of 36.02%, and the mHHS had ceiling effects of 27.54%. The LE CAT had ceiling effects of 8.47%, and the HOS-sports had no ceiling effects. None of the instruments had any floor effects. The mHHS had a very low Cronbach alpha of 0.41 and an extremely low person separation index of 0.08. Reliabilities for the LE CAT were excellent and for the HOS-ADL and HOS-sports were good. The LE CAT showed better psychometric properties overall than the HOS-ADL, HOS-sports, and mHHS for the senior population. The mHHS demonstrated pronounced ceiling effects and poor reliabilities that should be of concern. The high ceiling effects for the HOS-ADL were also of concern. The LE CAT was superior in all psychometric aspects examined in this study. Future

  2. Validating Score Interpretations and Uses: Messick Lecture, Language Testing Research Colloquium, Cambridge, April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The argument-based approach to validation involves two steps; specification of the proposed interpretations and uses of the test scores as an interpretive argument, and the evaluation of the plausibility of the proposed interpretive argument. More ambitious interpretations and uses tend to involve an extended network of inferences and assumptions…

  3. GalaxyDock BP2 score: a hybrid scoring function for accurate protein-ligand docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Minkyung; Shin, Woong-Hee; Chung, Hwan Won; Seok, Chaok

    2017-07-01

    Protein-ligand docking is a useful tool for providing atomic-level understanding of protein functions in nature and design principles for artificial ligands or proteins with desired properties. The ability to identify the true binding pose of a ligand to a target protein among numerous possible candidate poses is an essential requirement for successful protein-ligand docking. Many previously developed docking scoring functions were trained to reproduce experimental binding affinities and were also used for scoring binding poses. However, in this study, we developed a new docking scoring function, called GalaxyDock BP2 Score, by directly training the scoring power of binding poses. This function is a hybrid of physics-based, empirical, and knowledge-based score terms that are balanced to strengthen the advantages of each component. The performance of the new scoring function exhibits significant improvement over existing scoring functions in decoy pose discrimination tests. In addition, when the score is used with the GalaxyDock2 protein-ligand docking program, it outperformed other state-of-the-art docking programs in docking tests on the Astex diverse set, the Cross2009 benchmark set, and the Astex non-native set. GalaxyDock BP2 Score and GalaxyDock2 with this score are freely available at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/softwares/galaxydock.html.

  4. Poisson Approximation-Based Score Test for Detecting Association of Rare Variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Hongyan; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Yaning

    2016-07-01

    Genome-wide association study (GWAS) has achieved great success in identifying genetic variants, but the nature of GWAS has determined its inherent limitations. Under the common disease rare variants (CDRV) hypothesis, the traditional association analysis methods commonly used in GWAS for common variants do not have enough power for detecting rare variants with a limited sample size. As a solution to this problem, pooling rare variants by their functions provides an efficient way for identifying susceptible genes. Rare variant typically have low frequencies of minor alleles, and the distribution of the total number of minor alleles of the rare variants can be approximated by a Poisson distribution. Based on this fact, we propose a new test method, the Poisson Approximation-based Score Test (PAST), for association analysis of rare variants. Two testing methods, namely, ePAST and mPAST, are proposed based on different strategies of pooling rare variants. Simulation results and application to the CRESCENDO cohort data show that our methods are more powerful than the existing methods. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  5. Utilizing the Six Realms of Meaning in Improving Campus Standardized Test Scores through Team Teaching and Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Rosnisha D.; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2009-01-01

    This article will seek to utilize Dr. William Allan Kritsonis' book "Ways of Knowing Through the Realms of Meaning" (2007) as a framework to improve a campus's standardized test scores, more specifically, their TAKS (Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills) scores. Many campuses have an improvement plan, also known as a Campus…

  6. Integrating GIS in the Middle School Curriculum: Impacts on Diverse Students' Standardized Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Donna; Alibrandi, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    This case study conducted with 1,425 middle school students in Palm Beach County, Florida, included a treatment group receiving GIS instruction (256) and a control group without GIS instruction (1,169). Quantitative analyses on standardized test scores indicated that inclusion of GIS in middle school curriculum had a significant effect on student…

  7. Virginia tech freshman class becoming more competitive; Rise in grades and test scores noted

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Tech News

    2004-01-01

    Admission to Virginia Tech continues to become more competitive as applicants report higher grade point averages and test scores than previous years. The incoming class of 4,975 students has an average grade point average (GPA) of 3.68 and SAT 1203, up from 3.60 GPA and 1197 SAT in 2003.

  8. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire: score validity among medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Thompson, Warren G; Thomas, Kris G

    2011-12-01

    The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) purports to measure motivation using the expectancy-value model. Although it is widely used in other fields, this instrument has received little study in health professions education. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of MSLQ scores. We conducted a validity study evaluating the relationships of MSLQ scores to other variables and their internal structure (reliability and factor analysis). Participants included 210 internal medicine and family medicine residents participating in a web-based course on ambulatory medicine at an academic medical centre. Measurements included pre-course MSLQ scores, pre- and post-module motivation surveys, post-module knowledge test and post-module Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS) scores. Internal consistency was universally high for all MSLQ items together (Cronbach's α = 0.93) and for each domain (α ≥ 0.67). Total MSLQ scores showed statistically significant positive associations with post-test knowledge scores. For example, a 1-point rise in total MSLQ score was associated with a 4.4% increase in post-test scores (β = 4.4; p motivation and satisfaction. Scores on MSLQ domains demonstrated associations that generally aligned with our hypotheses. Self-efficacy and control of learning belief scores demonstrated the strongest domain-specific relationships with knowledge scores (β = 2.9 for both). Confirmatory factor analysis showed a borderline model fit. Follow-up exploratory factor analysis revealed the scores of five factors (self-efficacy, intrinsic interest, test anxiety, extrinsic goals, attribution) demonstrated psychometric and predictive properties similar to those of the original scales. Scores on the MSLQ are reliable and predict meaningful outcomes. However, the factor structure suggests a simplified model might better fit the empiric data. Future research might consider how assessing and responding to motivation could enhance

  9. The Health Professions Admission Test (HPAT) score and leaving certificate results can independently predict academic performance in medical school: do we need both tests?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Halpenny, D

    2010-11-01

    A recent study raised concerns regarding the ability of the health professions admission test (HPAT) Ireland to improve the selection process in Irish medical schools. We aimed to establish whether performance in a mock HPAT correlated with academic success in medicine. A modified HPAT examination and a questionnaire were administered to a group of doctors and medical students. There was a significant correlation between HPAT score and college results (r2: 0.314, P = 0.018, Spearman Rank) and between leaving cert score and college results (r2: 0.306, P = 0.049, Spearman Rank). There was no correlation between leaving cert points score and HPAT score. There was no difference in HPAT score across a number of other variables including gender, age and medical speciality. Our results suggest that both the HPAT Ireland and the leaving certificate examination could act as independent predictors of academic achievement in medicine.

  10. Science Teacher Efficacy and Outcome Expectancy as Predictors of Students' End-of-Instruction (EOI) Biology I Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angle, Julie; Moseley, Christine

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare teacher efficacy beliefs of secondary Biology I teachers whose students' mean scores on the statewide End-of-Instruction (EOI) Biology I test met or exceeded the state academic proficiency level (Proficient Group) to teacher efficacy beliefs of secondary Biology I teachers whose students' mean scores on the…

  11. COMPARISON BETWEEN WOOD DRYING DEFECT SCORES: SPECIMEN TESTING X ANALYSIS OF KILN-DRIED BOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is important to develop drying technologies for Eucalyptus grandis lumber, which is one of the most planted species of this genus in Brazil and plays an important role as raw material for the wood industry. The general aim of this work was to assess the conventional kiln drying of juvenile wood of three clones of Eucalyptus grandis. The specific aims were to compare the behavior between: i drying defects indicated by tests with wood specimens and conventional kiln-dried boards; and ii physical properties and the drying quality. Five 11-year-old trees of each clone were felled, and only flatsawn boards of the first log were used. Basic density and total shrinkage were determined, and the drying test with wood specimens at 100 °C was carried out. Kiln drying of boards was performed, and initial and final moisture content, moisture gradient in thickness, drying stresses and drying defects were assessed. The defect scoring method was used to verify the behavior between the defects detected by specimen testing and the defects detected in kiln-dried boards. As main results, the drying schedule was too severe for the wood, resulting in a high level of boards with defects. The behavior between the defects in the drying test with specimens and the defects of kiln-dried boards was different, there was no correspondence, according to the defect scoring method.

  12. Correlation of Head Impacts to Change in Balance Error Scoring System Scores in Division I Men's Lacrosse Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Theresa L; Diakogeorgiou, Eleni; Marrie, Kaitlyn

    Investigation into the effect of cumulative subconcussive head impacts has yielded various results in the literature, with many supporting a link to neurological deficits. Little research has been conducted on men's lacrosse and associated balance deficits from head impacts. (1) Athletes will commit more errors on the postseason Balance Error Scoring System (BESS) test. (2) There will be a positive correlation to change in BESS scores and head impact exposure data. Prospective longitudinal study. Level 3. Thirty-four Division I men's lacrosse players (age, 19.59 ± 1.42 years) wore helmets instrumented with a sensor to collect head impact exposure data over the course of a competitive season. Players completed a BESS test at the start and end of the competitive season. The number of errors from pre- to postseason increased during the double-leg stance on foam ( P impacts sustained over the course of 1 lacrosse season, as measured by average linear acceleration, head injury criteria, and Gadd Severity Index scores. If there is microtrauma to the vestibular system due to repetitive subconcussive impacts, only an assessment that highly stresses the vestibular system may be able to detect these changes. Cumulative subconcussive impacts may result in neurocognitive dysfunction, including balance deficits, which are associated with an increased risk for injury. The development of a strategy to reduce total number of head impacts may curb the associated sequelae. Incorporation of a modified BESS test, firm surface only, may not be recommended as it may not detect changes due to repetitive impacts over the course of a competitive season.

  13. Outlier removal, sum scores, and the inflation of the Type I error rate in independent samples t tests: the power of alternatives and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Marjan; Wicherts, Jelte M

    2014-09-01

    In psychology, outliers are often excluded before running an independent samples t test, and data are often nonnormal because of the use of sum scores based on tests and questionnaires. This article concerns the handling of outliers in the context of independent samples t tests applied to nonnormal sum scores. After reviewing common practice, we present results of simulations of artificial and actual psychological data, which show that the removal of outliers based on commonly used Z value thresholds severely increases the Type I error rate. We found Type I error rates of above 20% after removing outliers with a threshold value of Z = 2 in a short and difficult test. Inflations of Type I error rates are particularly severe when researchers are given the freedom to alter threshold values of Z after having seen the effects thereof on outcomes. We recommend the use of nonparametric Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon tests or robust Yuen-Welch tests without removing outliers. These alternatives to independent samples t tests are found to have nominal Type I error rates with a minimal loss of power when no outliers are present in the data and to have nominal Type I error rates and good power when outliers are present. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Using imputed genotype data in the joint score tests for genetic association and gene-environment interactions in case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minsun; Wheeler, William; Caporaso, Neil E; Landi, Maria Teresa; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2018-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are now routinely imputed for untyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) based on various powerful statistical algorithms for imputation trained on reference datasets. The use of predicted allele counts for imputed SNPs as the dosage variable is known to produce valid score test for genetic association. In this paper, we investigate how to best handle imputed SNPs in various modern complex tests for genetic associations incorporating gene-environment interactions. We focus on case-control association studies where inference for an underlying logistic regression model can be performed using alternative methods that rely on varying degree on an assumption of gene-environment independence in the underlying population. As increasingly large-scale GWAS are being performed through consortia effort where it is preferable to share only summary-level information across studies, we also describe simple mechanisms for implementing score tests based on standard meta-analysis of "one-step" maximum-likelihood estimates across studies. Applications of the methods in simulation studies and a dataset from GWAS of lung cancer illustrate ability of the proposed methods to maintain type-I error rates for the underlying testing procedures. For analysis of imputed SNPs, similar to typed SNPs, the retrospective methods can lead to considerable efficiency gain for modeling of gene-environment interactions under the assumption of gene-environment independence. Methods are made available for public use through CGEN R software package. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  15. The Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores: A Summary of Studies Conducted from 1997 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talento-Miller, Eileen; Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2008-01-01

    The validity of Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) scores is examined by summarizing 273 studies conducted between 1997 and 2004. Each of the studies was conducted through the Validity Study Service of the test sponsor and contained identical variables and statistical methods. Validity coefficients from each of the studies were corrected…

  16. Your move: The effect of chess on mathematics test scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosholm, Michael; Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Gumede, Kamilla

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the effect of substituting a weekly mathematics lesson in primary school grades 1-3 with a lesson in mathematics based on chess instruction. We use data from the City of Aarhus in Denmark, combining test score data with a comprehensive data set obtained from administrative registers. We use two different methodological approaches to identify and estimate treatment effects and we tend to find positive effects, indicating that knowledge acquired through chess play can be transferred to the domain of mathematics. We also find larger impacts for unhappy children and children who are bored in school, perhaps because chess instruction facilitates learning by providing an alternative approach to mathematics for these children. The results are encouraging and suggest that chess may be an important and effective tool for improving mathematical capacity in young students.

  17. Monitoring the Performance of Human and Automated Scores for Spoken Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen; Zechner, Klaus; Sun, Yu

    2018-01-01

    As automated scoring systems for spoken responses are increasingly used in language assessments, testing organizations need to analyze their performance, as compared to human raters, across several dimensions, for example, on individual items or based on subgroups of test takers. In addition, there is a need in testing organizations to establish…

  18. Speech-discrimination scores modeled as a binomial variable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, A R; Raffin, M J

    1978-09-01

    Many studies have reported variability data for tests of speech discrimination, and the disparate results of these studies have not been given a simple explanation. Arguments over the relative merits of 25- vs 50-word tests have ignored the basic mathematical properties inherent in the use of percentage scores. The present study models performance on clinical tests of speech discrimination as a binomial variable. A binomial model was developed, and some of its characteristics were tested against data from 4120 scores obtained on the CID Auditory Test W-22. A table for determining significant deviations between scores was generated and compared to observed differences in half-list scores for the W-22 tests. Good agreement was found between predicted and observed values. Implications of the binomial characteristics of speech-discrimination scores are discussed.

  19. The Sinonasal Outcome Test 22 score in persons without chronic rhinosinusitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Bibi; Thilsing, T; Baelum, J

    2016-01-01

    -67 with a mean score of 10.5 (CI: 9.1 - 11.9) and the median score was 7. Persons with allergic rhinitis and blue collar workers had a significant higher score. CONCLUSION: The median value of 7 is taken as the normal SNOT 22 score in persons without CRS and can be used as a reference in clinical settings...... and research. Allergic rhinitis and occupation affects SNOT 22 in persons without CRS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  20. The Effect of English Language on Multiple Choice Question Scores of Thai Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phisalprapa, Pochamana; Muangkaew, Wayuda; Assanasen, Jintana; Kunavisarut, Tada; Thongngarm, Torpong; Ruchutrakool, Theera; Kobwanthanakun, Surapon; Dejsomritrutai, Wanchai

    2016-04-01

    Universities in Thailand are preparing for Thailand's integration into the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by increasing the number of tests in English language. English language is not the native language of Thailand Differences in English language proficiency may affect scores among test-takers, even when subject knowledge among test-takers is comparable and may falsely represent the knowledge level of the test-taker. To study the impact of English language multiple choice test questions on test scores of medical students. The final examination of fourth-year medical students completing internal medicine rotation contains 120 multiple choice questions (MCQ). The languages used on the test are Thai and English at a ratio of 3:1. Individual scores of tests taken in both languages were collected and the effect of English language on MCQ was analyzed Individual MCQ scores were then compared with individual student English language proficiency and student grade point average (GPA). Two hundred ninety five fourth-year medical students were enrolled. The mean percentage of MCQ scores in Thai and English were significantly different (65.0 ± 8.4 and 56.5 ± 12.4, respectively, p English was fair (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.41, p English than in Thai language. Students were classified into six grade categories (A, B+, B, C+, C, and D+), which cumulatively measured total internal medicine rotation performance score plus final examination score. MCQ scores from Thai language examination were more closely correlated with total course grades than were the scores from English language examination (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.73 (p English proficiency score was very high, at 3.71 ± 0.35 from a total of 4.00. Mean student GPA was 3.40 ± 0.33 from a possible 4.00. English language MCQ examination scores were more highly associated with GPA than with English language proficiency. The use of English language multiple choice question test may decrease scores

  1. Classroom Organizational Structure in Fifth Grade Math Classrooms and the Effect on Standardized Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Dallas Marie

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the classroom organizational structure and MCT2 test scores of fifth-grade math students. The researcher gained insight regarding which structure teachers believe is most beneficial to them and students, and whether or not their belief of classroom organizational…

  2. A risk score for predicting coronary artery disease in women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Monica Y; Bonthala, Nirupama; Holper, Elizabeth M; Banks, Kamakki; Murphy, Sabina A; McGuire, Darren K; de Lemos, James A; Khera, Amit

    2013-03-15

    Women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings commonly have no epicardial coronary artery disease (CAD) at catheterization. The aim of the present study was to develop a risk score to predict obstructive CAD in such patients. Data were analyzed from 337 consecutive women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings who underwent cardiac catheterization at our center from 2003 to 2007. Forward selection multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the independent predictors of CAD, defined by ≥50% diameter stenosis in ≥1 epicardial coronary artery. The independent predictors included age ≥55 years (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.3 to 4.0), body mass index stress imaging (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 5.5), and exercise capacity statistic of 0.745 (95% confidence interval 0.70 to 0.79), and an optimized cutpoint of a score of ≤2 included 62% of the subjects and had a negative predictive value of 80%. In conclusion, a simple clinical risk score of 7 characteristics can help differentiate those more or less likely to have CAD among women with angina pectoris and abnormal stress test findings. This tool, if validated, could help to guide testing strategies in women with angina pectoris. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Your move: The effect of chess on mathematics test scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Mikkelsen, Mai Bjørnskov; Gumede, Kamilla Trille

    2017-01-01

    We analyse the effect of substituting a weekly mathematics lesson in primary school grades 1–3 with a lesson in mathematics based on chess instruction. We use data from the City of Aarhus in Denmark, combining test score data with a comprehensive data set obtained from administrative registers. We...... use two different methodological approaches to identify and estimate treatment effects and we tend to find positive effects, indicating that knowledge acquired through chess play can be transferred to the domain of mathematics. We also find larger impacts for unhappy children and children who...... are bored in school, perhaps because chess instruction facilitates learning by providing an alternative approach to mathematics for these children. The results are encouraging and suggest that chess may be an important and effective tool for improving mathematical capacity in young students....

  4. Your move: The effect of chess on mathematics test scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rosholm

    Full Text Available We analyse the effect of substituting a weekly mathematics lesson in primary school grades 1-3 with a lesson in mathematics based on chess instruction. We use data from the City of Aarhus in Denmark, combining test score data with a comprehensive data set obtained from administrative registers. We use two different methodological approaches to identify and estimate treatment effects and we tend to find positive effects, indicating that knowledge acquired through chess play can be transferred to the domain of mathematics. We also find larger impacts for unhappy children and children who are bored in school, perhaps because chess instruction facilitates learning by providing an alternative approach to mathematics for these children. The results are encouraging and suggest that chess may be an important and effective tool for improving mathematical capacity in young students.

  5. Alpha Test of a Videogame to Increase Children's Vegetable Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Alicia; O'Connor, Teresia; Hughes, Sheryl; Baranowski, Janice; Nicklas, Theresa A; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom

    2012-06-01

    This is a report of an alpha test with a computer of one episode of a casual videogame smartphone application, called Kiddio Food Fight™ (Archimage Inc., Houston, TX), targeted at training parents to increase their 3-5-year-old child's vegetable consumption. This was a qualitative study using semistructured interviews. Sixteen parents from three ethnic groups living with their 3-5-year-old child were recruited. Parents provided screening information and informed consent and played the videogame. Afterward, semistructured intensive interviews were conducted about their experience. Parents generally liked the game. Their suggestions included a reduced list of values, rewording of reasons statements, an improved storyline, and feedback during and at the end of the game. The scoring system was ignored or confusing. Problems with the tool bar and game navigation caused problems in performance. A tutorial was requested. Kiddio Food Fight could have positive acceptance among parents with minor modifications. A videogame play could help parents learn effective vegetable parenting practices.

  6. Visual-Constructional Ability in Individuals with Severe Obesity: Rey Complex Figure Test Accuracy and the Q-Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna L. Sargénius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate visual-construction and organizational strategy among individuals with severe obesity, as measured by the Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT, and to examine the validity of the Q-score as a measure for the quality of performance on the RCFT. Ninety-six non-demented morbidly obese (MO patients and 100 healthy controls (HC completed the RCFT. Their performance was calculated by applying the standard scoring criteria. The quality of the copying process was evaluated per the directions of the Q-score scoring system. Results revealed that the MO did not perform significantly lower than the HC on Copy accuracy (mean difference −0.302, CI −1.374 to 0.769, p = 0.579. In contrast, the groups did statistically differ from each other, with MO performing poorer than the HC on the Q-score (mean −1.784, CI −3.237 to −0.331, p = 0.016 and the Unit points (mean −1.409, CI −2.291 to −0.528, p = 0.002, but not on the Order points score (mean −0.351, CI −0.994 to 0.293, p = 0.284. Differences on the Unit score and the Q-score were slightly reduced when adjusting for gender, age, and education. This study presents evidence supporting the presence of inefficiency in visuospatial constructional ability among MO patients. We believe we have found an indication that the Q-score captures a wider range of cognitive processes that are not described by traditional scoring methods. Rather than considering accuracy and placement of the different elements only, the Q-score focuses more on how the subject has approached the task.

  7. ECG dispersion mapping predicts clinical deterioration, measured by increase in the Simple Clinical Score.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kellett, J

    2012-01-01

    Objective: ECG dispersion mapping (ECG-DM) is a novel technique that reports abnormal ECG microalternations. We report the ability of ECG-DM to predict clinical deterioration of acutely ill medical patients, as measured by an increase in the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) the day after admission to hospital. Methods: 453 acutely ill medical patients (mean age 69.7 +\\/- 14.0 years) had the SCS recorded and ECGDM performed immediately after admission to hospital. Results: 46 patients had an SCS increase 20.8 +\\/- 7.6 hours after admission. Abnormal micro-alternations during left ventricular re-polarization had the highest association with SCS increase (p=0.0005). Logistic regression showed that only nursing home residence and abnormal micro-alternations during re-polarization of the left ventricle were independent predictors of SCS increase with an odds ratio of 2.84 and 3.01, respectively. Conclusion: ECG-DM changes during left ventricular re-polarization are independent predictors of clinical deterioration the day after hospital admission.

  8. Use of e-rater[R] in Scoring of the TOEFL iBT[R] Writing Test. Research Report. ETS RR-11-25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J.

    2011-01-01

    Alternative approaches are discussed for use of e-rater[R] to score the TOEFL iBT[R] Writing test. These approaches involve alternate criteria. In the 1st approach, the predicted variable is the expected rater score of the examinee's 2 essays. In the 2nd approach, the predicted variable is the expected rater score of 2 essay responses by the…

  9. Increasing your HCAHPS scores with Extreme Customer Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouarte, Joe

    2016-10-01

    Providing great customer service is extremely critical in the healthcare setting, especially when it comes to HCAHBPS (Hospital Consumer Assessment of Health care Providers and Systems) scores, the author says. While there are several service training programs within healthcare, they often require six to eight minutes of interaction with patients or guests. This works well for clinical staff, he says, but when it comes to non-clinical staff, including security officers, many times they only have fifteen or thirty seconds to create positive patient or guest experience. In this article he describes Extreme Customer Service © a program he has developed to fill that customer gap for non-clinical staff.

  10. Item response theory scoring and the detection of curvilinear relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Nathan T; Dalal, Dev K; Guan, Li; LoPilato, Alexander C; Withrow, Scott A

    2017-03-01

    Psychologists are increasingly positing theories of behavior that suggest psychological constructs are curvilinearly related to outcomes. However, results from empirical tests for such curvilinear relations have been mixed. We propose that correctly identifying the response process underlying responses to measures is important for the accuracy of these tests. Indeed, past research has indicated that item responses to many self-report measures follow an ideal point response process-wherein respondents agree only to items that reflect their own standing on the measured variable-as opposed to a dominance process, wherein stronger agreement, regardless of item content, is always indicative of higher standing on the construct. We test whether item response theory (IRT) scoring appropriate for the underlying response process to self-report measures results in more accurate tests for curvilinearity. In 2 simulation studies, we show that, regardless of the underlying response process used to generate the data, using the traditional sum-score generally results in high Type 1 error rates or low power for detecting curvilinearity, depending on the distribution of item locations. With few exceptions, appropriate power and Type 1 error rates are achieved when dominance-based and ideal point-based IRT scoring are correctly used to score dominance and ideal point response data, respectively. We conclude that (a) researchers should be theory-guided when hypothesizing and testing for curvilinear relations; (b) correctly identifying whether responses follow an ideal point versus dominance process, particularly when items are not extreme is critical; and (c) IRT model-based scoring is crucial for accurate tests of curvilinearity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. An international study to increase concordance in Ki67 scoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polley, Mei-Yin C; Leung, Samuel C Y; Gao, Dongxia

    2015-01-01

    these data are potentially encouraging, suggesting that it may be possible to standardize scoring of Ki67 among pathology laboratories, clinically important discrepancies persist. Before this biomarker could be recommended for clinical use, future research will need to extend this approach to biopsies...

  12. Treatment for Schistosoma japonicum, reduction of intestinal parasite load, and cognitive test score improvements in school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amara E Ezeamama

    Full Text Available To determine whether treatment of intestinal parasitic infections improves cognitive function in school-aged children, we examined changes in cognitive testscores over 18 months in relation to: (i treatment-related Schistosoma japonicum intensity decline, (ii spontaneous reduction of single soil-transmitted helminth (STH species, and (iii ≥2 STH infections among 253 S. japonicum-infected children.Helminth infections were assessed at baseline and quarterly by the Kato-Katz method. S. japonicum infection was treated at baseline using praziquantel. An intensity-based indicator of lower vs. no change/higher infection was defined separately for each helminth species and joint intensity declines of ≥2 STH species. In addition, S. japonicum infection-free duration was defined in four categories based on time of schistosome re-infection: >18 (i.e. cured, >12 to ≤18, 6 to ≤12 and ≤6 (persistently infected months. There was no baseline treatment for STHs but their intensity varied possibly due to spontaneous infection clearance/acquisition. Four cognitive tests were administered at baseline, 6, 12, and 18 months following S. japonicum treatment: learning and memory domains of Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML, verbal fluency (VF, and Philippine nonverbal intelligence test (PNIT. Linear regression models were used to relate changes in respective infections to test performance with adjustment for sociodemographic confounders and coincident helminth infections.Children cured (β = 5.8; P = 0.02 and those schistosome-free for >12 months (β = 1.5; P = 0.03 scored higher in WRAML memory and VF tests compared to persistently infected children independent of STH infections. A decline vs. no change/increase of any individual STH species (β:11.5-14.5; all P12 months post-treatment and those who experienced declines of ≥2 STH species scored higher in three of four cognitive tests. Our result suggests that sustained

  13. The NeBoP score - a clinical prediction test for evaluation of children with Lyme Neuroborreliosis in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogman, Barbro H; Sjöwall, Johanna; Lindgren, Per-Eric

    2015-12-17

    The diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in Europe is based on clinical symptoms and laboratory data, such as pleocytosis and anti-Borrelia antibodies in serum and CSF according to guidelines. However, the decision to start antibiotic treatment on admission cannot be based on Borrelia serology since results are not available at the time of lumbar puncture. Therefore, an early prediction test would be useful in clinical practice. The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate a clinical prediction test for children with LNB in a relevant European setting. Clinical and laboratory data were collected retrospectively from a cohort of children being evaluated for LNB in Southeast Sweden. A clinical neuroborreliosis prediction test, the NeBoP score, was designed to differentiate between a high and a low risk of having LNB. The NeBoP score was then prospectively validated in a cohort of children being evaluated for LNB in Central and Southeast Sweden (n = 190) and controls with other specific diagnoses (n = 49). The sensitivity of the NeBoP score was 90 % (CI 95 %; 82-99 %) and the specificity was 90 % (CI 95 %; 85-96 %). Thus, the diagnostic accuracy (i.e. how the test correctly discriminates patients from controls) was 90 % and the area under the curve in a ROC analysis was 0.95. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 0.83 (CI 95 %; 0.75-0.93) and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 0.95 (CI 95 %; 0.90-0.99). The overall diagnostic performance of the NeBoP score is high (90 %) and the test is suggested to be useful for decision-making about early antibiotic treatment in children being evaluated for LNB in European Lyme endemic areas.

  14. Test Score Gaps between Private and Government Sector Students at School Entry Age in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhijeet

    2014-01-01

    Various studies have noted that students enrolled in private schools in India perform better on average than students in government schools. In this paper, I show that large gaps in the test scores of children in private and public sector education are evident even at the point of initial enrollment in formal schooling and are associated with…

  15. The Effects of Video Game Experience on Computer-Based Air Traffic Controller Specialist, Air Traffic Scenario Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    application with a strong resemblance to a video game , concern has been raised that prior video game experience might have a moderating effect on scores. Much...such as spatial ability. The effects of computer or video game experience on work sample scores have not been systematically investigated. The purpose...of this study was to evaluate the incremental validity of prior video game experience over that of general aptitude as a predictor of work sample test

  16. NCACO-score: An effective main-chain dependent scoring function for structure modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xiaoxi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of effective scoring functions is a critical component to the success of protein structure modeling. Previously, many efforts have been dedicated to the development of scoring functions. Despite these efforts, development of an effective scoring function that can achieve both good accuracy and fast speed still presents a grand challenge. Results Based on a coarse-grained representation of a protein structure by using only four main-chain atoms: N, Cα, C and O, we develop a knowledge-based scoring function, called NCACO-score, that integrates different structural information to rapidly model protein structure from sequence. In testing on the Decoys'R'Us sets, we found that NCACO-score can effectively recognize native conformers from their decoys. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NCACO-score can effectively guide fragment assembly for protein structure prediction, which has achieved a good performance in building the structure models for hard targets from CASP8 in terms of both accuracy and speed. Conclusions Although NCACO-score is developed based on a coarse-grained model, it is able to discriminate native conformers from decoy conformers with high accuracy. NCACO is a very effective scoring function for structure modeling.

  17. Are WISC IQ scores in children with mathematical learning disabilities underestimated? The influence of a specialized intervention on test performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Katharina; Spinath, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    Intelligence measures play a pivotal role in the diagnosis of mathematical learning disabilities (MLD). Probably as a result of math-related material in IQ tests, children with MLD often display reduced IQ scores. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of math remediation extend to IQ scores. The present study investigated the impact of a special remediation program compared to a control group receiving private tutoring (PT) on the WISC IQ scores of children with MLD. We included N=45 MLD children (7-12 years) in a study with a pre- and post-test control group design. Children received remediation for two years on average. The analyses revealed significantly greater improvements in the experimental group on the Full-Scale IQ, and the Verbal Comprehension, Perceptual Reasoning, and Working Memory indices, but not Processing Speed, compared to the PT group. Children in the experimental group showed an average WISC IQ gain of more than ten points. Results indicate that the WISC IQ scores of MLD children might be underestimated and that an effective math intervention can improve WISC IQ test performance. Taking limitations into account, we discuss the use of IQ measures more generally for defining MLD in research and practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Impact of Scholastic Instrumental Music and Scholastic Chess Study on the Standardized Test Scores of Students in Grades Three, Four, and Five

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Edwin E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the impact of instrumental music study and group chess lessons on the standardized test scores of suburban elementary public school students (grades three through five) in Levittown, New York. The study divides the students into the following groups and compares the standardized test scores of each: a) instrumental music…

  19. Equating error in observed-score equating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, error in equating observed scores on two versions of a test is defined as the difference between the transformations that equate the quantiles of their distributions in the sample and population of test takers. But it is argued that if the goal of equating is to adjust the scores of

  20. Use of Automated Scoring in Spoken Language Assessments for Test Takers with Speech Impairments. Research Report. ETS RR-17-42

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukina, Anastassia; Buzick, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of the performance of automated speech scoring for speakers with documented or suspected speech impairments. Given that the use of automated scoring of open-ended spoken responses is relatively nascent and there is little research to date that includes test takers with disabilities, this small exploratory study focuses…

  1. Scoring in genetically modified organism proficiency tests based on log-transformed results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Ellison, Stephen L R; Owen, Linda; Mathieson, Kenneth; Powell, Joanne; Key, Pauline; Wood, Roger; Damant, Andrew P

    2006-01-01

    The study considers data from 2 UK-based proficiency schemes and includes data from a total of 29 rounds and 43 test materials over a period of 3 years. The results from the 2 schemes are similar and reinforce each other. The amplification process used in quantitative polymerase chain reaction determinations predicts a mixture of normal, binomial, and lognormal distributions dominated by the latter 2. As predicted, the study results consistently follow a positively skewed distribution. Log-transformation prior to calculating z-scores is effective in establishing near-symmetric distributions that are sufficiently close to normal to justify interpretation on the basis of the normal distribution.

  2. REPRODUCIBILITY OF THE MODIFIED STAR EXCURSION BALANCE TEST COMPOSITE AND SPECIFIC REACH DIRECTION SCORES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Remko; Reijneveld, Elja A E; van den Berg, Sandra M; Haerkens, Gijs M; Koenders, Niek H; de Leeuw, Arina J; van Oorsouw, Roel G; Paap, Davy; Scheffer, Else; Weterings, Stijn; Stukstette, Mirelle J

    2016-06-01

    The mSEBT is a screening tool used to evaluate dynamic balance. Most research investigating measurement properties focused on intrarater reliability and was done in small samples. To know whether the mSEBT is useful to discriminate dynamic balance between persons and to evaluate changes in dynamic balance, more research into intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change (synonymous with minimal detectable change) is needed. To estimate intra- and interrater reliability and smallest detectable change of the mSEBT in adults at risk for ankle sprain. Cross-sectional, test-retest design. Fifty-five healthy young adults participating in sports at risk for ankle sprain participated (mean ± SD age, 24.0 ± 2.9 years). Each participant performed three test sessions within one hour and was rated by two physical therapists (session 1, rater 1; session 2, rater 2; session 3, rater 1). Participants and raters were blinded for previous measurements. Normalized composite and reach direction scores for the right and left leg were collected. Analysis of variance was used to calculate intraclass correlation coefficient values for intra- and interrater reliability. Smallest detectable change values were calculated based on the standard error of measurement. Intra- and interrater reliability for both legs was good to excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient ranging from 0.87 to 0.94). The intrarater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 7.2% and for the left 6.2%. The interrater smallest detectable change for the composite score of the right leg was 6.9% and for the left 5.0%. The mSEBT is a reliable measurement instrument to discriminate dynamic balance between persons. Most smallest detectable change values of the mSEBT appear to be large. More research is needed to investigate if the mSEBT is usable for evaluative purposes. Level 2.

  3. Effects of increasing the PSA cutoff to perform additional biomarker tests before prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordström, Tobias; Adolfsson, Jan; Grönberg, Henrik; Eklund, Martin

    2017-10-03

    Multi-step testing might enhance performance of the prostate cancer diagnostic pipeline. Using PSA >1 ng/ml for first-line risk stratification and the Stockholm 3 Model (S3M) blood-test >10% risk of Gleason Score > 7 prostate cancer to inform biopsy decisions has been suggested. We aimed to determine the effects of changing the PSA cutoff to perform reflex testing with S3M and the subsequent S3M cutoff to recommend prostate biopsy while maintaining the sensitivity to detect Gleason Score ≥ 7 prostate cancer. We used data from the prospective, population-based, paired, diagnostic Stockholm 3 (STHLM3) study with participants invited by date of birth from the Swedish Population Register during 2012-2014. All participants underwent testing with PSA and S3M (a combination of plasma protein biomarkers [PSA, free PSA, intact PSA, hK2, MSMB, MIC1], genetic polymorphisms, and clinical variables [age, family, history, previous prostate biopsy, prostate exam]). Of 47,688 men in the STHLM3 main study, we used data from 3133 men with S3M >10% and prostate biopsy data. Logistic regression models were used to calculate prostate cancer detection rates and proportion saved biopsies. 44.2%, 62.5% and 67.9% of the participants had PSA PSA cut-off for additional work-up from 1 ng/ml to 1.5 ng/ml would thus save 18.3% of the performed tests, 4.9% of the biopsies and 1.3% (10/765) of Gleason Grade ≥ 7 cancers would be un-detected. By lowering the S3M cutoff to recommend biopsy, sensitivity to high-grade prostate cancer can be restored, to the cost of increasing the number of performed biopsies modestly. The sensitivity to detect prostate cancer can be maintained when using different PSA cutoffs to perform additional testing. Biomarker cut-offs have implications on number of tests and prostate biopsies performed. A PSA cutoff of 1.5 ng/ml to perform additional testing such as the S3M test might be considered. ISRCTN84445406 .

  4. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Steinert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292 , and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations ( r=0.57 and r=0.46 , respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  5. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent P. Coletta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292, and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations (r=0.57 and r=0.46, respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  6. Polytrauma Defined by the New Berlin Definition: A Validation Test Based on Propensity-Score Matching Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Wu, Shao-Chun; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Chen, Yi-Chun; Chien, Peng-Chen; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2017-09-11

    Background: Polytrauma patients are expected to have a higher risk of mortality than that obtained by the summation of expected mortality owing to their individual injuries. This study was designed to investigate the outcome of patients with polytrauma, which was defined using the new Berlin definition, as cases with an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥ 3 for two or more different body regions and one or more additional variables from five physiologic parameters (hypotension [systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mmHg], unconsciousness [Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 8], acidosis [base excess ≤ -6.0], coagulopathy [partial thromboplastin time ≥ 40 s or international normalized ratio ≥ 1.4], and age [≥70 years]). Methods: We retrieved detailed data on 369 polytrauma patients and 1260 non-polytrauma patients with an overall Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥ 18 who were hospitalized between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2015 for the treatment of all traumatic injuries, from the Trauma Registry System at a level I trauma center. Patients with burn injury or incomplete registered data were excluded. Categorical data were compared with two-sided Fisher exact or Pearson chi-square tests. The unpaired Student t -test and the Mann-Whitney U -test was used to analyze normally distributed continuous data and non-normally distributed data, respectively. Propensity-score matched cohort in a 1:1 ratio was allocated using the NCSS software with logistic regression to evaluate the effect of polytrauma on patient outcomes. Results: The polytrauma patients had a significantly higher ISS than non-polytrauma patients (median (interquartile range Q1-Q3), 29 (22-36) vs. 24 (20-25), respectively; p Polytrauma patients had a 1.9-fold higher odds of mortality than non-polytrauma patients (95% CI 1.38-2.49; p polytrauma patients, polytrauma patients had a substantially longer hospital length of stay (LOS). In addition, a higher proportion of polytrauma patients were admitted to the intensive

  7. Polygenic risk score is associated with increased disease risk in 52 Finnish breast cancer families

    OpenAIRE

    Muranen, Taru A.; Mavaddat, Nasim; Khan, Sofia; Fagerholm, Rainer; Pelttari, Liisa; Lee, Andrew; Aittom?ki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Easton, Douglas F.; Nevanlinna, Heli

    2016-01-01

    The risk of developing breast cancer is increased in women with family history of breast cancer and particularly in families with multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancer. Nevertheless, many women with a positive family history never develop the disease. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) based on the risk effects of multiple common genetic variants have been proposed for individual risk assessment on a population level. We investigate the applicability of the PRS for risk prediction within breas...

  8. The Effects of Teaching Descriptive Geometry in General Engineering 103 on Spatial Relations Tests Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings, William M.

    It was hypothesized that instruction in descriptive geometry produces an increase in SRT scores. The resultant data do not firmly support this hypothesis. It is suggested that this study be replicated with the use of randomly selected control groups. (MS)

  9. The Zhongshan Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lin; Guo, Jianming; Wang, Hang; Wang, Guomin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In the zero ischemia era of nephron-sparing surgery (NSS), a new anatomic classification system (ACS) is needed to adjust to these new surgical techniques. We devised a novel and simple ACS, and compared it with the RENAL and PADUA scores to predict the risk of NSS outcomes. We retrospectively evaluated 789 patients who underwent NSS with available imaging between January 2007 and July 2014. Demographic and clinical data were assessed. The Zhongshan (ZS) score consisted of three parameters. RENAL, PADUA, and ZS scores are divided into three groups, that is, high, moderate, and low scores. For operative time (OT), significant differences were seen between any two groups of ZS score and PADUA score (all P RENAL showed no significant difference between moderate and high complexity in OT, WIT, estimated blood loss, and increase in SCr. Compared with patients with a low score of ZS, those with a high or moderate score had 8.1-fold or 3.3-fold higher risk of surgical complications, respectively (all P RENAL score, patients with a high or moderate score had 5.7-fold or 1.9-fold higher risk of surgical complications, respectively (all P RENAL and PADUA scores. ZS score could be used to reflect the surgical complexity and predict the risk of surgical complications in patients undergoing NSS. PMID:25654399

  10. Predisposing factors of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy: comparison between CT emphysema score and pulmonary function test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Park, Kyung Joo; Park, Dong Won; Jung, Kyung Il; Suh, Jung Ho [Ajou Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-11-01

    To compare the CT emphysema score with various factors of pulmonary function test by simple spirometry and to use the result as a predictor of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy. The CT scans of 106 patients who had undergone percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions within the previous 18 months were retrospectively reviewed. In 75 of these 106 cases, the results of the pulmonary function test were also reviewed. On plain chest radiography, pneumothorax was noted in 20 cases (19%). Emphysema was blindly evaluated. We divided each lung into four segments and determined the severity and involved volume of emphysema, as seen on CT. Severity was classified as one of four grades, as follow : absence of emphysema=0 ; low attenuation area of less than 5mm=1 ; low attenuation area of more than 5mm, and vascular pruning with normal lung intervening=2 ; and diffuse low attenuation without intervening normal lung, and larger confluent low attenuation with vascular pruning and distortion of branching pattern occupying all or almost all the involved parenchyma=3. The involved area was also classified as one of four grades : less than 25%=1 ; 25 - 49%=2 ; 51 - 74%=3 ; and more than 75%=4. The CT emphysema score was defined as the average of the grade of severity multiplied by the grade of involved area. Pulmonary function tests, consisting of simple spirometry and a pulmonologist's interpretation, were evaluated. We also evaluated depth and size of lesion as known predisposing factors in postbioptic pneumothorax. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Wilcoxon ranks sum W test and the student t test. A comparison between the two groups of occurrence(with or without pneumothorax) showed the emphysema scores to be 1.69{+-}2.0 and 1.11{+-}2.9, respectively ; there was thus no significant difference between the two groups (z= - 0.048, p>0.10). Nor were differences revealed by the

  11. Predisposing factors of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy: comparison between CT emphysema score and pulmonary function test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Park, Kyung Joo; Park, Dong Won; Jung, Kyung Il; Suh, Jung Ho

    1997-01-01

    To compare the CT emphysema score with various factors of pulmonary function test by simple spirometry and to use the result as a predictor of pneumothorax in percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy. The CT scans of 106 patients who had undergone percutaneous transthoracic fine needle aspiration biopsy of lung lesions within the previous 18 months were retrospectively reviewed. In 75 of these 106 cases, the results of the pulmonary function test were also reviewed. On plain chest radiography, pneumothorax was noted in 20 cases (19%). Emphysema was blindly evaluated. We divided each lung into four segments and determined the severity and involved volume of emphysema, as seen on CT. Severity was classified as one of four grades, as follow : absence of emphysema=0 ; low attenuation area of less than 5mm=1 ; low attenuation area of more than 5mm, and vascular pruning with normal lung intervening=2 ; and diffuse low attenuation without intervening normal lung, and larger confluent low attenuation with vascular pruning and distortion of branching pattern occupying all or almost all the involved parenchyma=3. The involved area was also classified as one of four grades : less than 25%=1 ; 25 - 49%=2 ; 51 - 74%=3 ; and more than 75%=4. The CT emphysema score was defined as the average of the grade of severity multiplied by the grade of involved area. Pulmonary function tests, consisting of simple spirometry and a pulmonologist's interpretation, were evaluated. We also evaluated depth and size of lesion as known predisposing factors in postbioptic pneumothorax. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test, Wilcoxon ranks sum W test and the student t test. A comparison between the two groups of occurrence(with or without pneumothorax) showed the emphysema scores to be 1.69±2.0 and 1.11±2.9, respectively ; there was thus no significant difference between the two groups (z= - 0.048, p>0.10). Nor were differences revealed by the pulmonary

  12. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Koretz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA from high school GPA and both college admissions and high school tests in mathematics and English. In both systems, the choice of tests had only trivial effects on the aggregate prediction of FGPA. Adding either test to an equation that included the other had only trivial effects on prediction. Although the findings suggest that the choice of test might advantage or disadvantage different students, it had no substantial effect on the over- and underprediction of FGPA for students classified by race-ethnicity or poverty.

  13. The Score Reliability of Draw-a-Person Intellectual Ability Test (DAP: IQ) for Rural Malawi Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasu, Denis S.; Williams, Thomas O., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In this brief article, the reliability of scores for the Draw-A-Person Intellectual Ability Test for Children, Adolescents, and Adults (DAP: IQ; Reynolds & Hickman, 2004) was examined through several analyses with a sample of 147 children from rural Malawi, Africa using a Chichewa translation of instructions. Cronbach alpha coefficients for…

  14. Timed up & go test score in patients with hip fracture is related to the type of walking aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten T; Bandholm, Thomas; Holm, Bente

    2009-01-01

    Kristensen MT, Bandholm T, Holm B, Ekdahl C, Kehlet H. Timed Up & Go test score in patients with hip fracture is related to the type of walking aid. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between Timed Up & Go (TUG) test scores and type of walking aid used during the test, and to determine...... the feasibility of using the rollator as a standardized walking aid during the TUG in patients with hip fracture who were allowed full weight-bearing (FWB). DESIGN: Prospective methodological study. SETTING: An acute orthopedic hip fracture unit at a university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=126; 90 women......, 36 men) with hip fracture with a mean age +/- SD of 74.8+/-12.7 years performed the TUG the day before discharge from the orthopedic ward. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The TUG was performed with the walking aid the patient was to be discharged with: a walker (n=88) or elbow...

  15. Extension of the lod score: the mod score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerget-Darpoux, F

    2001-01-01

    In 1955 Morton proposed the lod score method both for testing linkage between loci and for estimating the recombination fraction between them. If a disease is controlled by a gene at one of these loci, the lod score computation requires the prior specification of an underlying model that assigns the probabilities of genotypes from the observed phenotypes. To address the case of linkage studies for diseases with unknown mode of inheritance, we suggested (Clerget-Darpoux et al., 1986) extending the lod score function to a so-called mod score function. In this function, the variables are both the recombination fraction and the disease model parameters. Maximizing the mod score function over all these parameters amounts to maximizing the probability of marker data conditional on the disease status. Under the absence of linkage, the mod score conforms to a chi-square distribution, with extra degrees of freedom in comparison to the lod score function (MacLean et al., 1993). The mod score is asymptotically maximum for the true disease model (Clerget-Darpoux and Bonaïti-Pellié, 1992; Hodge and Elston, 1994). Consequently, the power to detect linkage through mod score will be highest when the space of models where the maximization is performed includes the true model. On the other hand, one must avoid overparametrization of the model space. For example, when the approach is applied to affected sibpairs, only two constrained disease model parameters should be used (Knapp et al., 1994) for the mod score maximization. It is also important to emphasize the existence of a strong correlation between the disease gene location and the disease model. Consequently, there is poor resolution of the location of the susceptibility locus when the disease model at this locus is unknown. Of course, this is true regardless of the statistics used. The mod score may also be applied in a candidate gene strategy to model the potential effect of this gene in the disease. Since, however, it

  16. Evaluation of Two Methods for Modeling Measurement Errors When Testing Interaction Effects with Observed Composite Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Yu-Yu; Kwok, Oi-Man; Lai, Mark H. C.

    2018-01-01

    Path models with observed composites based on multiple items (e.g., mean or sum score of the items) are commonly used to test interaction effects. Under this practice, researchers generally assume that the observed composites are measured without errors. In this study, we reviewed and evaluated two alternative methods within the structural…

  17. A comparison of likelihood ratio tests and Rao's score test for three separable covariance matrix structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipiak, Katarzyna; Klein, Daniel; Roy, Anuradha

    2017-01-01

    The problem of testing the separability of a covariance matrix against an unstructured variance-covariance matrix is studied in the context of multivariate repeated measures data using Rao's score test (RST). The RST statistic is developed with the first component of the separable structure as a first-order autoregressive (AR(1)) correlation matrix or an unstructured (UN) covariance matrix under the assumption of multivariate normality. It is shown that the distribution of the RST statistic under the null hypothesis of any separability does not depend on the true values of the mean or the unstructured components of the separable structure. A significant advantage of the RST is that it can be performed for small samples, even smaller than the dimension of the data, where the likelihood ratio test (LRT) cannot be used, and it outperforms the standard LRT in a number of contexts. Monte Carlo simulations are then used to study the comparative behavior of the null distribution of the RST statistic, as well as that of the LRT statistic, in terms of sample size considerations, and for the estimation of the empirical percentiles. Our findings are compared with existing results where the first component of the separable structure is a compound symmetry (CS) correlation matrix. It is also shown by simulations that the empirical null distribution of the RST statistic converges faster than the empirical null distribution of the LRT statistic to the limiting χ 2 distribution. The tests are implemented on a real dataset from medical studies. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. The Implementation of Role-Playing Model in Principles of Finance Accounting Learning to Improve Students’ Enjoyment and Students’ Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Saptono

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is a classroom action research. The goal of conducting this research is to improve students’ enjoyment level and their test scores by implementing role-playing method. The research is conducted in Accounting Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma University at odd semester on academic year 2010/2011. The participants were divided into two classes. The first class was the class that got the treatment, while the second class was the control class. The result of the study showed that there was an improvement of students’ enjoyment level and test scores in the class which implemented role-playing method.

  19. Heart valve surgery: EuroSCORE vs. EuroSCORE II vs. Society of Thoracic Surgeons score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Sharoz Rabbani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background This is a validation study comparing the European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE II with the previous additive (AES and logistic EuroSCORE (LES and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons’ (STS risk prediction algorithm, for patients undergoing valve replacement with or without bypass in Pakistan. Patients and Methods Clinical data of 576 patients undergoing valve replacement surgery between 2006 and 2013 were retrospectively collected and individual expected risks of death were calculated by all four risk prediction algorithms. Performance of these risk algorithms was evaluated in terms of discrimination and calibration. Results There were 28 deaths (4.8% among 576 patients, which was lower than the predicted mortality of 5.16%, 6.96% and 4.94% by AES, LES and EuroSCORE II but was higher than 2.13% predicted by STS scoring system. For single and double valve replacement procedures, EuroSCORE II was the best predictor of mortality with highest Hosmer and Lemmeshow test (H-L p value (0.346 to 0.689 and area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (0.637 to 0.898. For valve plus concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG patients actual mortality was 1.88%. STS calculator came out to be the best predictor of mortality for this subgroup with H-L p value (0.480 to 0.884 and ROC (0.657 to 0.775. Conclusions For Pakistani population EuroSCORE II is an accurate predictor for individual operative risk in patients undergoing isolated valve surgery, whereas STS performs better in the valve plus CABG group.

  20. Genetic variation of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor gene is associated with alcohol use disorders identification test scores and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchankova, Petra; Nilsson, Staffan; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Engel, Jörgen A; Jerlhag, Elisabet

    2016-03-01

    The multifaceted gut-brain peptide ghrelin and its receptor (GHSR-1a) are implicated in mechanisms regulating not only the energy balance but also the reward circuitry. In our pre-clinical models, we have shown that ghrelin increases whereas GHSR-1a antagonists decrease alcohol consumption and the motivation to consume alcohol in rodents. Moreover, ghrelin signaling is required for the rewarding properties of addictive drugs including alcohol and nicotine in rodents. Given the hereditary component underlying addictive behaviors and disorders, we sought to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the pre-proghrelin gene (GHRL) and GHSR-1a gene (GHSR) are associated with alcohol use, measured by the alcohol use disorders identification test (AUDIT) and smoking. Two SNPs located in GHRL, rs4684677 (Gln90Leu) and rs696217 (Leu72Met), and one in GHSR, rs2948694, were genotyped in a subset (n = 4161) of a Finnish population-based cohort, the Genetics of Sexuality and Aggression project. The effect of these SNPs on AUDIT scores and smoking was investigated using linear and logistic regressions, respectively. We found that the minor allele of the rs2948694 SNP was nominally associated with higher AUDIT scores (P = 0.0204, recessive model) and smoking (P = 0.0002, dominant model). Furthermore, post hoc analyses showed that this risk allele was also associated with increased likelihood of having high level of alcohol problems as determined by AUDIT scores ≥ 16 (P = 0.0043, recessive model). These convergent findings lend further support for the hypothesized involvement of ghrelin signaling in addictive disorders. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Dose Uniformity of Scored and Unscored Tablets: Application of the FDA Tablet Scoring Guidance for Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavarella, Anthony B; Khan, Mansoor A; Gupta, Abhay; Faustino, Patrick J

    This U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) laboratory study examines the impact of tablet splitting, the effect of tablet splitters, and the presence of a tablet score on the dose uniformity of two model drugs. Whole tablets were purchased from five manufacturers for amlodipine and six for gabapentin. Two splitters were used for each drug product, and the gabapentin tablets were also split by hand. Whole and split amlodipine tablets were tested for content uniformity following the general chapter of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Uniformity of Dosage Units , which is a requirement of the new FDA Guidance for Industry on tablet scoring. The USP weight variation method was used for gabapentin split tablets based on the recommendation of the guidance. All whole tablets met the USP acceptance criteria for the Uniformity of Dosage Units. Variation in whole tablet content ranged from 0.5 to 2.1 standard deviation (SD) of the percent label claim. Splitting the unscored amlodipine tablets resulted in a significant increase in dose variability of 6.5-25.4 SD when compared to whole tablets. Split tablets from all amlodipine drug products did not meet the USP acceptance criteria for content uniformity. Variation in the weight for gabapentin split tablets was greater than the whole tablets, ranging from 1.3 to 9.3 SD. All fully scored gabapentin products met the USP acceptance criteria for weight variation. Size, shape, and the presence or absence of a tablet score can affect the content uniformity and weight variation of amlodipine and gabapentin tablets. Tablet splitting produced higher variability. Differences in dose variability and fragmentation were observed between tablet splitters and hand splitting. These results are consistent with the FDA's concerns that tablet splitting can have an effect on the amount of drug present in a split tablet and available for absorption. Tablet splitting has become a very common practice in the United States and throughout the

  2. Intraindividual Variability across Neuropsychological Tests: Dispersion and Disengaged Lifestyle Increase Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew W. R. Halliday

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Increased intraindividual variability (IIV in function has been linked to various age-related outcomes including cognitive decline and dementia. Most studies have operationalized IIV as fluctuations across trials (e.g., response latencies for a single task, with comparatively few studies examining variability across multiple tasks for a given individual. In the present study, we derive a multivariable operationalization of dispersion across a broad profile of neuropsychological measures and use this index along with degree of engaged lifestyle to predict risk of cognitive impairment. Participants and Methods: Participants (n = 60 were community-dwelling older adults aged 65+ years (M = 74.1, SD = 6.5 participating in a cross-sectional investigation of risk factors for amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI and probable Alzheimer’s Disease (AD. Participants were classified into three subgroups based on test performance and clinical judgement. Healthy controls (n = 30 scored better than −1 SD relative to existing norms on all classification measures, in the absence of memory complaints or functional impairments. The a-MCI group (n = 23 had self- or informant-reported memory complaints and scored 1 SD or more below the mean for at least one memory task while scoring better than 1 SD below the mean for all other cognitive domains, in the absence of functional impairments. The AD group (n = 7 scored at least 2 SD below the mean for two cognitive domains (including memory with impairments in functioning. Measures spanned a range of cognitive domains (episodic memory, executive function, language, with the derived dispersion estimates reflecting variability across an individual’s neuropsychological profile relative to the group average. Further, an Activities Lifestyle Questionnaire, indexing social, cognitive, and physical behaviors, was administered to assess the protective benefits of engaged lifestyle. Results: Multinomial

  3. Comparison of physical therapy anatomy performance and anxiety scores in timed and untimed practical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sarah M; Evans, Cathy; Agur, Anne M R

    2015-01-01

    Students in health care professional programs face many stressful tests that determine successful completion of their program. Test anxiety during these high stakes examinations can affect working memory and lead to poor outcomes. Methods of decreasing test anxiety include lengthening the time available to complete examinations or evaluating students using untimed examinations. There is currently no consensus in the literature regarding whether untimed examinations provide a benefit to test performance in clinical anatomy. This study aimed to determine the impact of timed versus untimed practical tests on Master of Physical Therapy student anatomy performance and test anxiety. Test anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Differences in performance, anxiety scores, and time taken were compared using paired sample Student's t-tests. Eighty-one of the 84 students completed the study and provided feedback. Students performed significantly higher on the untimed test (P = 0.005), with a significant reduction in test anxiety (P anxiety. If the intended goal of evaluating health care professional students is to determine fundamental competencies, these factors should be considered when designing future curricula. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Predicting Freshman Grade Point Average From College Admissions Test Scores and State High School Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Koretz, Daniel; Yu, C; Mbekeani, Preeya Pandya; Langi, M.; Dhaliwal, Tasminda Kaur; Braslow, David Arthur

    2016-01-01

    The current focus on assessing “college and career readiness” raises an empirical question: How do high school tests compare with college admissions tests in predicting performance in college? We explored this using data from the City University of New York and public colleges in Kentucky. These two systems differ in the choice of college admissions test, the stakes for students on the high school test, and demographics. We predicted freshman grade point average (FGPA) from high school GPA an...

  5. Evaluation of the validity of osteoporosis and fracture risk assessment tools (IOF One Minute Test, SCORE, and FRAX) in postmenopausal Palestinian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharroubi, Akram; Saba, Elias; Ghannam, Ibrahim; Darwish, Hisham

    2017-12-01

    The need for simple self-assessment tools is necessary to predict women at high risk for developing osteoporosis. In this study, tools like the IOF One Minute Test, Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), and Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE) were found to be valid for Palestinian women. The threshold for predicting women at risk for each tool was estimated. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the validity of the updated IOF (International Osteoporosis Foundation) One Minute Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Test, FRAX, SCORE as well as age alone to detect the risk of developing osteoporosis in postmenopausal Palestinian women. Three hundred eighty-two women 45 years and older were recruited including 131 women with osteoporosis and 251 controls following bone mineral density (BMD) measurement, 287 completed questionnaires of the different risk assessment tools. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were evaluated for each tool using bone BMD as the gold standard for osteoporosis. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was the highest for FRAX calculated with BMD for predicting hip fractures (0.897) followed by FRAX for major fractures (0.826) with cut-off values ˃1.5 and ˃7.8%, respectively. The IOF One Minute Test AUC (0.629) was the lowest compared to other tested tools but with sufficient accuracy for predicting the risk of developing osteoporosis with a cut-off value ˃4 total yes questions out of 18. SCORE test and age alone were also as good predictors of risk for developing osteoporosis. According to the ROC curve for age, women ≥64 years had a higher risk of developing osteoporosis. Higher percentage of women with low BMD (T-score ≤-1.5) or osteoporosis (T-score ≤-2.5) was found among women who were not exposed to the sun, who had menopause before the age of 45 years, or had lower body mass index (BMI) compared to controls. Women who often fall had lower BMI and approximately 27% of the recruited postmenopausal

  6. Intelligence Test Scores and Birth Order among Young Norwegian Men (Conscripts) Analyzed within and between Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkedal, Tor; Kristensen, Petter; Skjeret, Geir A.; Brevik, John I.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper reports the results of a within and between family analysis of the relation between birth order and intelligence. The material comprises more than a quarter of a million test scores for intellectual performance of Norwegian male conscripts recorded during 1984-2004. Conscripts, mostly 18-19 years of age, were born to women for…

  7. Reliability and validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale scores: a group intelligence test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Yota; Mizukami, Hitomi; Ando, Masahiko; Yukihiro, Ryoji; Iwasaki, Yoko; Ozaki, Norio

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years) residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQIntelligence Scale IQ (BIQ) was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96). In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≤65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9-48.9), and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≥76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03-0.4). Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult.

  8. Investigating the Value of Section Scores for the "TOEFL iBT"® Test. "TOEFL iBT"® Research Report. TOEFL iBT-21. ETS Research Report RR-13-35

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaki, Yasuyo; Sinharay, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the value of reporting the reading, listening, speaking, and writing section scores for the "TOEFL iBT"® test, focusing on 4 related aspects of the psychometric quality of the TOEFL iBT section scores: reliability of the section scores, dimensionality of the test, presence of distinct score profiles, and the…

  9. Predicting Pre-Service Classroom Teachers' Civil Servant Recruitment Examination's Educational Sciences Test Scores Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Metin

    2015-01-01

    This study predicts the number of correct answers given by pre-service classroom teachers in Civil Servant Recruitment Examination's (CSRE) educational sciences test based on their high school grade point averages, university entrance scores, and grades (mid-term and final exams) from their undergraduate educational courses. This study was…

  10. Poor performances of EuroSCORE and CARE score for prediction of perioperative mortality in octogenarians undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhor, Vibol; Merceron, Sybille; Ricome, Sylvie; Baron, Gabriel; Daoud, Omar; Dilly, Marie-Pierre; Aubier, Benjamin; Provenchere, Sophie; Philip, Ivan

    2010-08-01

    Although results of cardiac surgery are improving, octogenarians have a higher procedure-related mortality and more complications with increased length of stay in ICU. Consequently, careful evaluation of perioperative risk seems necessary. The aims of our study were to assess and compare the performances of EuroSCORE and CARE score in the prediction of perioperative mortality among octogenarians undergoing aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis and to compare these predictive performances with those obtained in younger patients. This retrospective study included all consecutive patients undergoing cardiac surgery in our institution between November 2005 and December 2007. For each patient, risk assessment for mortality was performed using logistic EuroSCORE, additive EuroSCORE and CARE score. The main outcome measure was early postoperative mortality. Predictive performances of these scores were assessed by calibration and discrimination using goodness-of-fit test and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, respectively. During this 2-year period, we studied 2117 patients, among whom 134/211 octogenarians and 335/1906 nonoctogenarians underwent an aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis. When considering patients with aortic stenosis, discrimination was poor in octogenarians and the difference from nonoctogenarians was significant for each score (0.58, 0.59 and 0.56 vs. 0.82, 0.81 and 0.77 for additive EuroSCORE, logistic EuroSCORE and CARE score in octogenarians and nonoctogenarians, respectively, P performances of these scores are poor in octogenarians undergoing cardiac surgery, especially aortic valve replacement. Risk assessment and therapeutic decisions in octogenarians should not be made with these scoring systems alone.

  11. [Propensity score matching in SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuqiang; DU, Chunlin; Sun, Menghui; Ning, Bing; Luo, Ying; An, Shengli

    2015-11-01

    To realize propensity score matching in PS Matching module of SPSS and interpret the analysis results. The R software and plug-in that could link with the corresponding versions of SPSS and propensity score matching package were installed. A PS matching module was added in the SPSS interface, and its use was demonstrated with test data. Score estimation and nearest neighbor matching was achieved with the PS matching module, and the results of qualitative and quantitative statistical description and evaluation were presented in the form of a graph matching. Propensity score matching can be accomplished conveniently using SPSS software.

  12. [Prognostic scores for pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Alain

    2016-03-23

    Nine prognostic scores for pulmonary embolism (PE), based on retrospective and prospective studies, published between 2000 and 2014, have been analyzed and compared. Most of them aim at identifying PE cases with a low risk to validate their ambulatory care. Important differences in the considered outcomes: global mortality, PE-specific mortality, other complications, sizes of low risk groups, exist between these scores. The most popular score appears to be the PESI and its simplified version. Few good quality studies have tested the applicability of these scores to PE outpatient care, although this approach tends to already generalize in the medical practice.

  13. Conceptual Scoring and Classification Accuracy of Vocabulary Testing in Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Jissel B.; Peña, Elizabeth D.; Bedore, Lisa M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of single-language and conceptual scoring on the vocabulary performance of bilingual children with and without specific language impairment. We assessed classification accuracy across 3 scoring methods. Method: Participants included Spanish-English bilingual children (N = 247) aged 5;1 (years;months) to…

  14. Differences in physical-fitness test scores between actively and passively recruited older adults : Consequences for norm-based classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heuvelen, M.J.G.; Stevens, M.; Kempen, G.I.J.M.

    This study investigated differences in physical-fitness test scores between actively and passively recruited older adults and the consequences thereof for norm-based classification of individuals. Walking endurance, grip strength, hip flexibility, balance, manual dexterity, and reaction time were

  15. Increased aPKC Expression Correlates with Prostatic Adenocarcinoma Gleason Score and Tumor Stage in the Japanese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony S. Perry

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Levels of the protein kinase aPKC have been previously correlated with prostate cancer prognosis in a British cohort. However, prostate cancer incidence and progression rates, as well as genetic changes in this disease, show strong ethnic variance, particularly in Asian populations. Objective. The aim of this study was to validate association of aPKC expression with prostatic adenocarcinoma stages in a Japanese cohort. Methods. Tissue microarrays consisting of 142 malignant prostate cancer cases and 21 benign prostate tissues were subject to immunohistological staining for aPKC. aPKC staining intensity was scored by three independent pathologists and categorized as absent (0, dim (1+, intermediate (2+, and bright (3+. aPKC staining intensities were correlated with Gleason score and tumor stage. Results. Increased aPKC staining was observed in malignant prostate cancer, in comparison to benign tissue. Additionally, aPKC staining levels correlated with Gleason score and tumor stage. Our results extend the association of aPKC with prostate cancer to a Japanese population and establish the suitability of aPKC as a universal prostate cancer biomarker that performs consistently across ethnicities.

  16. The achievement impact of the inclusion model on the standardized test scores of general education students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett-Rainey, Syrena

    The purpose of this study was to compare the achievement of general education students within regular education classes to the achievement of general education students in inclusion/co-teach classes to determine whether there was a significant difference in the achievement between the two groups. The school district's inclusion/co-teach model included ongoing professional development support for teachers and administrators. General education teachers, special education teachers, and teacher assistants collaborated to develop instructional strategies to provide additional remediation to help students to acquire the skills needed to master course content. This quantitative study reviewed the end-of course test (EoCT) scores of Grade 10 physical science and math students within an urban school district. It is not known whether general education students in an inclusive/co-teach science or math course will demonstrate a higher achievement on the EoCT in math or science than students not in an inclusive/co-teach classroom setting. In addition, this study sought to determine if students classified as low socioeconomic status benefited from participating in co-teaching classrooms as evidenced by standardized tests. Inferential statistics were used to determine whether there was a significant difference between the achievements of the treatment group (inclusion/co-teach) and the control group (non-inclusion/co-teach). The findings can be used to provide school districts with optional instructional strategies to implement in the diverse classroom setting in the modern classroom to increase academic performance on state standardized tests.

  17. Increased discordance between HeartScore and coronary artery calcification score after introduction of the new ESC prevention guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, Axel C P; Mahabadi, Amir-Abbas; Gerke, Oke

    2015-01-01

    -contrast Cardiac-CT scan was performed to detect coronary artery calcification (CAC). RESULTS: Agreement of HeartScore risk groups with CAC groups was poor, but higher when applying the algorithm for the low-risk compared to the high-risk country model (agreement rate: 77% versus 63%, and weighted Kappa: 0...

  18. Relationship Between Broiler Body Weights, Eimeria maxima Gross Lesion Scores, and Microscores in Three Anticoccidial Sensitivity Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Miguel A; Da Costa, Manuel; Kimminau, Emily; Fuller, Lorraine; Clark, Steven; Pesti, Gene; Beckstead, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Anticoccidial sensitivity tests (ASTs) serve to determine the efficacy of anticoccidial drugs against Eimeria field isolates in a controlled laboratory setting. The most commonly measured parameters are body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, gross intestinal lesion scores, and mortality. Due to the difficulty in reliably scoring gross lesion scores of Eimeria maxima , microscopic analysis of intestinal scrapings (microscores) can be used in the field to indicate the presence of this particular Eimeria. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between E. maxima microscores and broiler body weights and gross E. maxima lesion scores in three ASTs. Day-old broiler chicks were raised for 12 days on a standard corn-soy diet. On Day 12, chicks were placed in Petersime batteries and treatment diets were provided. There were six birds per pen, four pens per treatment, and 12 treatments, for a total of 288 chicks per AST. The treatments were as follows: 1) nonmedicated, noninfected; 2) nonmedicated, infected; 3) lasalocid, infected; 4) salinomycin, infected; 5) diclazuril, infected; 6) monensin, infected; 7) decoquinate, infected; 8) narasin + nicarbazin, infected; 9) narasin, infected; 10) nicarbazin, infected; 11) robenidine, infected; and 12) zoalene, infected. On Day 14, chicks were challenged with an Eimeria field isolate by oral gavage. On Day 20, broilers were weighed, and gross lesion scores and microscores were classified from 0 to 4 depending on the severity of the gross lesion scores and E. maxima microscores. Data from three trials using different field isolates were statistically analyzed using a logarithmic regression model. There was no relationship (P = 0.1224) between microscores and body weight gain. There was a positive relationship between microscores and gross lesion scores (P = 0.004). However, there was also an interaction between isolate and treatment (P Eimeria or the amount of E. maxima in the inoculum.

  19. Reliability and validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale scores: a group intelligence test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yota Uno

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study evaluated the reliability and concurrent validity of the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale, which is an intelligence test that can be administered on groups within a short period of time. METHODS: The new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition were administered to 81 subjects (mean age ± SD 15.2 ± 0.7 years residing in a juvenile detention home; reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and concurrent validity was assessed using the one-way analysis of variance intraclass correlation coefficient. Moreover, receiver operating characteristic analysis for screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function (an FIQ<70 was performed. In addition, stratum-specific likelihood ratios for detection of intellectual disability were calculated. RESULTS: The Cronbach's alpha for the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale IQ (BIQ was 0.86, and the intraclass correlation coefficient with FIQ was 0.83. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85-0.96. In addition, the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≤65 stratum was 13.8 (95% CI: 3.9-48.9, and the stratum-specific likelihood ratio for the BIQ≥76 stratum was 0.1 (95% CI: 0.03-0.4. Thus, intellectual disability could be ruled out or determined. CONCLUSION: The present results demonstrated that the new Tanaka B Intelligence Scale score had high reliability and concurrent validity with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition score. Moreover, the post-test probability for the BIQ could be calculated when screening for individuals who have a deficit in intellectual function. The new Tanaka B Intelligence Test is convenient and can be administered within a variety of settings. This enables evaluation of intellectual development even in settings where performing intelligence tests have previously been difficult.

  20. The Effect of Black Peers on Black Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armor, David J.; Duck, Stephanie

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have used increasingly complex methodologies to estimate the effect of peer characteristics--race, poverty, and ability--on student achievement. A paper by Hanushek, Kain, and Rivkin using Texas state testing data has received particularly wide attention because it found a large negative effect of school percent black on black math…

  1. Associations between MMPI-2-RF validity scale scores and extra-test measures of personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbey, Johnathan D; Lee, Tayla T C; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Arbisi, Paul A; Gartland, Diane

    2013-08-01

    The current study explored associations between two potentially invalidating self-report styles detected by the Validity scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF), over-reporting and under-reporting, and scores on the MMPI-2-RF substantive, as well as eight collateral self-report measures administered either at the same time or within 1 to 10 days of MMPI-2-RF administration. Analyses were conducted with data provided by college students, male prisoners, and male psychiatric outpatients from a Veterans Administration facility. Results indicated that if either an over- or under-reporting response style was suggested by the MMPI-2-RF Validity scales, scores on the majority of the MMPI-2-RF substantive scales, as well as a number of collateral measures, were significantly affected in all three groups in the expected directions. Test takers who were identified as potentially engaging in an over- or under-reporting response style by the MMPI-2-RF Validity scales appeared to approach extra-test measures similarly regardless of when these measures were administered in relation to the MMPI-2-RF. Limitations and suggestions for future study are discussed.

  2. The use of test scores from large-scale assessment surveys: psychometric and statistical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Braun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economists are making increasing use of measures of student achievement obtained through large-scale survey assessments such as NAEP, TIMSS, and PISA. The construction of these measures, employing plausible value (PV methodology, is quite different from that of the more familiar test scores associated with assessments such as the SAT or ACT. These differences have important implications both for utilization and interpretation. Although much has been written about PVs, it appears that there are still misconceptions about whether and how to employ them in secondary analyses. Methods We address a range of technical issues, including those raised in a recent article that was written to inform economists using these databases. First, an extensive review of the relevant literature was conducted, with particular attention to key publications that describe the derivation and psychometric characteristics of such achievement measures. Second, a simulation study was carried out to compare the statistical properties of estimates based on the use of PVs with those based on other, commonly used methods. Results It is shown, through both theoretical analysis and simulation, that under fairly general conditions appropriate use of PV yields approximately unbiased estimates of model parameters in regression analyses of large scale survey data. The superiority of the PV methodology is particularly evident when measures of student achievement are employed as explanatory variables. Conclusions The PV methodology used to report student test performance in large scale surveys remains the state-of-the-art for secondary analyses of these databases.

  3. Differential Predictive Validity of High School GPA and College Entrance Test Scores for University Students in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hattami, Abdulghani Ali Dawod

    2012-01-01

    High school grade point average and college entrance test scores are two admission criteria that are currently used by most colleges in Yemen to select their prospective students. Given their widespread use, it is important to investigate their predictive validity to ensure the accuracy of the admission decisions in these institutions. This study…

  4. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test scores corresponding to modified Medical Research Council grades among COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang-Hoon; Lee, Jinwoo; Park, Young Sik; Lee, Sang-Min; Yim, Jae-Joon; Kim, Young Whan; Han, Sung Koo; Yoo, Chul-Gyu

    2015-09-01

    In assigning patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to subgroups according to the updated guidelines of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease, discrepancies have been noted between the COPD assessment test (CAT) criteria and modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) criteria. We investigated the determinants of symptom and risk groups and sought to identify a better CAT criterion. This retrospective study included COPD patients seen between June 20, 2012, and December 5, 2012. The CAT score that can accurately predict an mMRC grade ≥ 2 versus COPD patients, the percentages of patients classified into subgroups A, B, C, and D were 24.5%, 47.2%, 4.2%, and 24.1% based on CAT criteria and 49.3%, 22.4%, 8.9%, and 19.4% based on mMRC criteria, respectively. More than 90% of the patients who met the mMRC criteria for the 'more symptoms group' also met the CAT criteria. AUROC and CART analyses suggested that a CAT score ≥ 15 predicted an mMRC grade ≥ 2 more accurately than the current CAT score criterion. During follow-up, patients with CAT scores of 10 to 14 did not have a different risk of exacerbation versus those with CAT scores COPD patients.

  5. Revision Vodcast Influence on Assessment Scores and Study Processes in Secondary Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marencik, Joseph J.

    A quasi-experimental switching replications design with matched participants was employed to determine the influence of revision vodcasts, or video podcasts, on students' assessment scores and study processes in secondary physics. This study satisfied a need for quantitative results in the area of vodcast influence on students' learning processes. Thirty-eight physics students in an urban Ohio public high school participated in the study. The students in one Physics class were paired with students in another Physics class through the matching characteristics of current student cumulative test score mean and baseline study process as measured by the Study Process Questionnaire (SPQ). Students in both classes were given identical pedagogic treatment and access to traditional revision tools except for the supplemental revision vodcasts given to the experimental group. After students in the experimental group viewed the revision vodcast for a particular topic, the assessment scores of the students in the experimental group were compared to the assessment scores of the control group through the direct-difference, D, test to determine any difference between the assessment score means of each group. The SPQ was given at the beginning of the experiment and after each physics assessment. The direct-difference method was again used to determine any difference between the SPQ deep approach scores of each group. The SPQ was also used to determine any correlative effects between study process and revision vodcast use on students' assessment scores through descriptive statistics and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Analysis indicated that revision vodcast use significantly increased students' assessment scores (p.05). There were no significant correlative effects of revision vodcast use and study processes on students' assessment scores (p>.05). This study offers educators the empirical support to devote the necessary effort, time, and resources into developing successful

  6. A Comparative Study between the Conventional MCQ Scores and MCQ with the CBA Scores at the Standardized Clinical Knowledge Exam for Clinical Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Ghadermarzi

    2015-06-01

    significantly different (p value=0.34. The students’ satisfaction score was high and acceptable to the CBA system and expressed a positive perspective on this system for their examinations.Conclusions: The CBA method can increase the competencies of the MCQ exams. It was found to have a greater fairness assessment, was an effective examination, an authentic testing method, with precise estimation and higher constructs validity than the conventional MCQ exam. The CBA simulate the reflection for deeper learning among the students. Keywords: STUDENT ASSESSMENT, PARTIAL KNOWLEDGE, MCQ, CONFIDENCE-BASED ASSESSMENT, EXAM SCORING SYSTEM

  7. Increased body condition score through increased lean muscle, but not fat deposition, is associated with reduced reproductive response to oestrus induction in beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, A; Gonzalez-Padilla, E; Garcés-Yepez, P; Rosete-Fernández, J V; Calderón-Robles, R C; Whittier, W D; Keisler, D H; Gutierrez, C G

    2016-10-01

    Energy reserve, estimated as body condition score (BCS), is the major determinant of the re-initiation of ovarian activity in postpartum cows. Leptin, IGF-I and insulin are positively related to BCS and are putative mediators between BCS and reproductive function. However, when BCS and body composition dissociates, concentrations of these metabolic hormones are altered. We hypothesized that increasing lean muscle tissue, but not fat tissue, would diminish the reproductive response to oestrus induction treatments. Thirty lactating beef cows with BCS of 3.10±1.21 and 75.94±12 days postpartum were divided in two groups. Control cows (n=15) were supplemented with 10.20 kg of concentrate daily for 60 days. Treated cows (n=15) were supplemented equally, and received a β-adrenergic receptor agonist (β-AA; 0.15 mg/kg BW) to achieve accretion of lean tissue mass and not fat tissue mass. Twelve days after ending concentrate supplementation/β-AA treatment, cows received a progestin implant to induce oestrus. Cows displaying oestrus were inseminated during the following 60 days, and maintained with a fertile bull for a further 21 days. Cows in both groups gained weight during the supplementation period (Daily weight gain: Control=0.75 kg v. β-AA=0.89 kg). Cows treated with β-AA had a larger increase in BCS (i.e. change in BCS: control=1 point (score 4.13) v. β-AA=2 points (score 5.06; P0.05) did not differ between groups. However, the number of cows displaying oestrus (control 13/15 v. β-AA 8/15; P<0.05) and the percentage cycling (control 6/8 v. β-AA 3/10; P=0.07) after progestin treatment and the pregnancy percentage at the end of the breeding period (control 13/15 v. β-AA 8/15; P<0.05) were lower in β-AA than control cows. In summary, the increase BCS through muscle tissue accretion, but not through fat tissue accretion, resulted in a lower response to oestrus induction, lower percentage of cycling animals and lower pregnancy percentage after progestin treatment

  8. Low bone mineral density in COPD patients with osteoporosis is related to low daily physical activity and high COPD assessment test scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu WT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wen-Te Liu,1,2,* Han-Pin Kuo,3,* Tien-Hua Liao,4 Ling-Ling Chiang,1 Li-Fei Chen,3 Min-Fang Hsu,5 Hsiao-Chi Chuang,1 Kang-Yun Lee,2,6 Chien-Da Huang,3 Shu-Chuan Ho11School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 2Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, 3Department of Thoracic Medicine, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, 4Department of Respiratory Therapy, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taipei, 5Department of Healthcare Administration, Asia University, Wufeng, Taichung, 6Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: COPD patients have an increased prevalence of osteoporosis (OP compared with healthy people. Physical inactivity in COPD patients is a crucial risk factor for OP; the COPD assessment test (CAT is the newest assessment tool for the health status and daily activities of COPD patients. This study investigated the relationship among daily physical activity (DPA, CAT scores, and bone mineral density (BMD in COPD patients with or without OP. This study included 30 participants. Ambulatory DPA was measured using actigraphy and oxygen saturation by using a pulse oximeter. BMD was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. OP was defined as a T-score (standard deviations from a young, sex-specific reference mean BMD less than or equal to -2.5 SD for the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck. We quantified oxygen desaturation during DPA by using a desaturation index and recorded all DPA, except during sleep. COPD patients with OP had lower DPA and higher CAT scores than those of patients without OP. DPA was significantly positively correlated with (lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck BMD (r=0.399, 0.602, 0.438, respectively

  9. Soetomo score: score model in early identification of acute haemorrhagic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Hasan Machfoed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: On financial or facility constraints of brain imaging, score model is used to predict the occurrence of acute haemorrhagic stroke. Accordingly, this study attempts to develop a new score model, called Soetomo score. Material and methods: The researchers performed a cross-sectional study of 176 acute stroke patients with onset of ≤24 hours who visited emergency unit of Dr. Soetomo Hospital from July 14th to December 14th, 2014. The diagnosis of haemorrhagic stroke was confirmed by head computed tomography scan. There were seven predictors of haemorrhagic stroke which were analysed by using bivariate and multivariate analyses. Furthermore, a multiple discriminant analysis resulted in an equation of Soetomo score model. The receiver operating characteristic procedure resulted in the values of area under curve and intersection point identifying haemorrhagic stroke. Afterward, the diagnostic test value was determined. Results: The equation of Soetomo score model was (3 × loss of consciousness + (3.5 × headache + (4 × vomiting − 4.5. Area under curve value of this score was 88.5% (95% confidence interval = 83.3–93.7%. In the Soetomo score model value of ≥−0.75, the score reached the sensitivity of 82.9%, specificity of 83%, positive predictive value of 78.8%, negative predictive value of 86.5%, positive likelihood ratio of 4.88, negative likelihood ratio of 0.21, false negative of 17.1%, false positive of 17%, and accuracy of 83%. Conclusions: The Soetomo score model value of ≥−0.75 can identify acute haemorrhagic stroke properly on the financial or facility constrains of brain imaging.

  10. Less increase of CT-based calcium scores of the coronary arteries. Effect three years after breast-conserving radiotherapy using breath-hold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, M.E.; Kempen-Harteveld, M.L. van; Petoukhova, A.L. [Centre West, Radiotherapy, The Hague (Netherlands); Heijenbrok, M.W. [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Radiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Scholten, A.N. [Netherlands Cancer Institute - Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wolterbeek, R. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Medical Statistics and Bioinformatics, Leiden (Netherlands); Schreur, J.H.M. [Medical Center Haaglanden, Department of Cardiology, The Hague (Netherlands); Struikmans, H. [Centre West, Radiotherapy, The Hague (Netherlands); Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Clinical Oncology, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-10-15

    The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to compare coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores determined before the start of whole breast irradiation with those determined 3 years afterwards. Changes in CAC scores were analysed in 99 breast cancer patients. Three groups were compared: patients receiving left- and right-sided radiotherapy, and those receiving left-sided radiotherapy with breath-hold. We analysed overall CAC scores and left anterior descending (LAD) and right coronary artery (RCA) CAC scores. Between the three groups, changes of the value of the LAD minus the RCA CAC scores of each individual patient were also compared. Three years after breath-hold-based whole breast irradiation, a less pronounced increase of CAC scores was noted. Furthermore, LAD minus RCA scores in patients treated for left-sided breast cancer without breath-hold were higher when compared to LAD minus RCA scores of patients with right-sided breast cancers and those with left-sided breast cancer treated with breath-hold. Breath-hold in breast-conserving radiotherapy leads to a less pronounced increase of CT-based CAC scores. Therefore, breath-hold probably prevents the development of radiation-induced coronary artery disease. However, the sample size of this study is limited and the follow-up period relatively short. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel dieser prospektiven Langzeitstudie war der Vergleich der Coronary-Artery-Calcium-(CAC-)Werte vor Beginn der Brustbestrahlung mit den Werten nach 3 Jahren. Aenderungen der CAC-Werte wurden bei 99 Brustkrebspatienten analysiert. Drei Gruppen wurden untersucht: Patienten nach links- und rechtsseitiger Strahlentherapie sowie mit Bestrahlung unter Atemanhalt. Wir analysierten die Gesamt-CAC-Werte sowie die CAC-Werte der vorderen linken absteigenden (''left anterior descending'', LAD) und der rechten Koronararterie (''right coronary artery'', RCA). Zwischen den drei Gruppen wurden auch die Veraenderungen

  11. External Validation of the Simple Clinical Score and the HOTEL Score, Two Scores for Predicting Short-Term Mortality after Admission to an Acute Medical Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stræde, Mia; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    with the objective of validating the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) and the HOTEL score, two existing risk stratification systems that predict mortality for medical patients based solely on clinical information, but not only vital signs. METHODS: Pre-planned prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Danish 460.......932 to 0.988) for 24-hours mortality and 0.826 (95% CI, 0.774-0.879) for 30-day mortality, and goodness-of-fit test, χ2 = 2.68 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.998 and χ2 = 4.00, P = 0.947, respectively. We included 1470 patients when calculating the HOTEL score. Discriminatory power (AUROC) was 0.931 (95......% CI, 0.901-0.962) for 24-hours mortality and goodness-of-fit test, χ2 = 5.56 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.234. CONCLUSION: We find that both the SCS and HOTEL scores showed an excellent to outstanding ability in identifying patients at high risk of dying with good or acceptable precision....

  12. A Case for Adjusting Subjectively Rated Scores in the Advanced Placement Tests. Program Statistics Research. Technical Report No. 94-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    A case is presented for adjusting the scores for free response items in the Advanced Placement (AP) tests. Using information about the rating process from the reliability studies, administrations of the AP test for three subject areas, psychology, computer science, and English language and composition, are analyzed. In the reliability studies, 299…

  13. Increased risk for abnormal depression scores in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokras, Anuja; Clifton, Shari; Futterweit, Walter; Wild, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and depression both have a high prevalence in reproductive-aged women. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abnormal depression scores in women who meet currently recognized definitions of PCOS compared with women in a well-defined control group. The search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE Classic plus EMBASE, PsycINFO, Current Contents-Clinical Medicine and Current Contents-Life Sciences and Web of Science. Cochrane software Review Manager 5.0.24 was used to construct forest plots comparing risk of abnormal depression scores in those in the PCOS and control groups. Studies with well-defined criteria of women with PCOS and control groups of women without PCOS, with demographic information including age and body mass index (BMI), were included. Of 752 screened articles, 17 met the selection criteria for systematic review and 10 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Data were abstracted independently by three reviewers. All studies were cross-sectional and most used the Rotterdam criteria for the diagnosis of PCOS (n=10). The odds ratio (OR) for abnormal depression scores was 4.03 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.96-5.5, Pwomen with PCOS (n=522) compared with those in the control groups (n=475). A subanalysis showed that the odds for abnormal depression scores was independent of BMI (OR 4.09, 95% CI 2.62-6.41). Several validated tools were used to screen for depression; the common tool used was the Beck Depression Inventory. The results of our study suggest the need to screen all women with PCOS for depression using validated screening tools. Women with PCOS are at an increased risk for abnormal depression scores independent of BMI.

  14. Pre-season adductor squeeze test and HAGOS function sport and recreation subscale scores predict groin injury in Gaelic football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunt, Eamonn; Fitzpatrick, Helen; Blake, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    To determine if pre-season adductor squeeze test and HAGOS function, sport and recreation subscale scores can identify Gaelic football players at risk of developing groin injury. Prospective study. Senior inter-county Gaelic football team. Fifty-five male elite Gaelic football players (age = 24.0 ± 2.8 years, body mass = 84.48 ± 7.67 kg, height = 1.85 ± 0.06 m, BMI = 24.70 ± 1.77 kg/m 2 ) from a single senior inter-county Gaelic football team. Occurrence of groin injury during the season. Ten time-loss groin injuries were registered representing 13% of all injuries. The odds ratio for sustaining a groin injury if pre-season adductor squeeze test score was below 225 mmHg, was 7.78. The odds ratio for sustaining a groin injury if pre-season HAGOS function, sport and recreation subscale score was football players at risk of developing groin injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Walk Score® and Transit Score® and Walking in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jana A.; Moore, Kari A.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Walk Score® and Transit Score® are open-source measures of the neighborhood built environment to support walking (“walkability”) and access to transportation. Purpose To investigate associations of Street Smart Walk Score and Transit Score with self-reported transport and leisure walking using data from a large multi-city and diverse population-based sample of adults. Methods Data from a sample of 4552 residents of Baltimore MD; Chicago IL; Forsyth County NC; Los Angeles CA; New York NY; and St. Paul MN from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (2010–2012) were linked to Walk Score and Transit Score (collected in 2012). Logistic and linear regression models estimated ORs of not walking and mean differences in minutes walked, respectively, associated with continuous and categoric Walk Score and Transit Score. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results After adjustment for site, key sociodemographic, and health variables, a higher Walk Score was associated with lower odds of not walking for transport and more minutes/week of transport walking. Compared to those in a “walker’s paradise,” lower categories of Walk Score were associated with a linear increase in odds of not transport walking and a decline in minutes of leisure walking. An increase in Transit Score was associated with lower odds of not transport walking or leisure walking, and additional minutes/week of leisure walking. Conclusions Walk Score and Transit Score appear to be useful as measures of walkability in analyses of neighborhood effects. PMID:23867022

  16. Do medical students’ scores using different assessment instruments predict their scores in clinical reasoning using a computer-based simulation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fida M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Fida,1 Salah Eldin Kassab2 1Department of Molecular Medicine, College of Medicine and Medical Sciences, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Bahrain; 2Department of Medical Education, Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt Purpose: The development of clinical problem-solving skills evolves over time and requires structured training and background knowledge. Computer-based case simulations (CCS have been used for teaching and assessment of clinical reasoning skills. However, previous studies examining the psychometric properties of CCS as an assessment tool have been controversial. Furthermore, studies reporting the integration of CCS into problem-based medical curricula have been limited. Methods: This study examined the psychometric properties of using CCS software (DxR Clinician for assessment of medical students (n=130 studying in a problem-based, integrated multisystem module (Unit IX during the academic year 2011–2012. Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was calculated using Cronbach's alpha statistics. The relationships between students' scores in CCS components (clinical reasoning, diagnostic performance, and patient management and their scores in other examination tools at the end of the unit including multiple-choice questions, short-answer questions, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE, and real patient encounters were analyzed using stepwise hierarchical linear regression. Results: Internal consistency reliability of CCS scores was high (α=0.862. Inter-item correlations between students' scores in different CCS components and their scores in CCS and other test items were statistically significant. Regression analysis indicated that OSCE scores predicted 32.7% and 35.1% of the variance in clinical reasoning and patient management scores, respectively (P<0.01. Multiple-choice question scores, however, predicted only 15.4% of the variance in diagnostic performance scores (P<0.01, while

  17. The Veterans Affairs Cardiac Risk Score: Recalibrating the Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease Score for Applied Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Jeremy B; Wiitala, Wyndy L; Zawistowski, Matthew; Hofer, Timothy P; Bentley, Douglas; Hayward, Rodney A

    2017-09-01

    Accurately estimating cardiovascular risk is fundamental to good decision-making in cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, but risk scores developed in one population often perform poorly in dissimilar populations. We sought to examine whether a large integrated health system can use their electronic health data to better predict individual patients' risk of developing CVD. We created a cohort using all patients ages 45-80 who used Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) ambulatory care services in 2006 with no history of CVD, heart failure, or loop diuretics. Our outcome variable was new-onset CVD in 2007-2011. We then developed a series of recalibrated scores, including a fully refit "VA Risk Score-CVD (VARS-CVD)." We tested the different scores using standard measures of prediction quality. For the 1,512,092 patients in the study, the Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk score had similar discrimination as the VARS-CVD (c-statistic of 0.66 in men and 0.73 in women), but the Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease model had poor calibration, predicting 63% more events than observed. Calibration was excellent in the fully recalibrated VARS-CVD tool, but simpler techniques tested proved less reliable. We found that local electronic health record data can be used to estimate CVD better than an established risk score based on research populations. Recalibration improved estimates dramatically, and the type of recalibration was important. Such tools can also easily be integrated into health system's electronic health record and can be more readily updated.

  18. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  19. Development and validation of a composite scoring system for robot-assisted surgical training--the Robotic Skills Assessment Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowriappa, Ashirwad J; Shi, Yi; Raza, Syed Johar; Ahmed, Kamran; Stegemann, Andrew; Wilding, Gregory; Kaouk, Jihad; Peabody, James O; Menon, Mani; Hassett, James M; Kesavadas, Thenkurussi; Guru, Khurshid A

    2013-12-01

    A standardized scoring system does not exist in virtual reality-based assessment metrics to describe safe and crucial surgical skills in robot-assisted surgery. This study aims to develop an assessment score along with its construct validation. All subjects performed key tasks on previously validated Fundamental Skills of Robotic Surgery curriculum, which were recorded, and metrics were stored. After an expert consensus for the purpose of content validation (Delphi), critical safety determining procedural steps were identified from the Fundamental Skills of Robotic Surgery curriculum and a hierarchical task decomposition of multiple parameters using a variety of metrics was used to develop Robotic Skills Assessment Score (RSA-Score). Robotic Skills Assessment mainly focuses on safety in operative field, critical error, economy, bimanual dexterity, and time. Following, the RSA-Score was further evaluated for construct validation and feasibility. Spearman correlation tests performed between tasks using the RSA-Scores indicate no cross correlation. Wilcoxon rank sum tests were performed between the two groups. The proposed RSA-Score was evaluated on non-robotic surgeons (n = 15) and on expert-robotic surgeons (n = 12). The expert group demonstrated significantly better performance on all four tasks in comparison to the novice group. Validation of the RSA-Score in this study was carried out on the Robotic Surgical Simulator. The RSA-Score is a valid scoring system that could be incorporated in any virtual reality-based surgical simulator to achieve standardized assessment of fundamental surgical tents during robot-assisted surgery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Might the Rorschach be a projective test after all? Social projection of an undesired trait alters Rorschach Oral Dependency scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein, Robert F

    2007-06-01

    The degree to which projection plays a role in Rorschach (Rorschach, 1921/1942) responding remains controversial, in part because extant data have yielded inconclusive results. In this investigation, I examined the impact of social projection on Rorschach Oral Dependency (ROD) scores using methods adapted from social cognition research. In Study 1, I prescreened 85 college students (40 women and 45 men) with the ROD scale and a widely used self-report measure of dependency, the Interpersonal Dependency Inventory (IDI; Hirschfeld et al., 1977). Results show that informing participants who scored low on the IDI that they were in fact highly dependent led to significant increases in ROD scores; I did not obtain parallel ROD increases for participants who scored high on the IDI or for participants who received low-dependent feedback. In Study 2, I examined a separate sample of 80 prescreened college students (40 women and 40 men) and showed that providing low self-report participants an opportunity to attribute dependency to a fictional target person prior to Rorschach responding attenuated the impact of high-dependent feedback on ROD scores. These results suggest that projection played a role in at least one domain of Rorschach responding. I discuss theoretical, clinical, and empirical implications of these results.

  1. Questionnaire design: carry-over effects of overall acceptance question placement and pre-evaluation instructions on overall acceptance scores in central location tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastian, Mauresa; Eggett, Dennis L; Jefferies, Laura K

    2015-02-01

    Question placement and usage of pre-evaluation instructions (PEI) in questionnaires for food sensory analysis may bias consumers' scores via carry-over effects. Data from consumer sensory panels previously conducted at a central location, spanning 11 years and covering a broad range of food product categories, were compiled. Overall acceptance (OA) question placement was studied with categories designated as first (the first evaluation question following demographic questions), after nongustation questions (immediately following questions that do not require panelists to taste the product), and later (following all other hedonic and just-about-right [JAR] questions, but occasionally before ranking, open-ended comments, and/or intent to purchase questions). Each panel was categorized as having or not having PEI in the questionnaire; PEI are instructions that appear immediately before the first evaluation question and show panelists all attributes they will evaluate before receiving test samples. Postpanel surveys were administered regarding the self-reported effect of PEI on panelists' evaluation experience. OA scores were analyzed and compared (1) between OA question placement categories and (2) between panels with and without PEI. For most product categories, OA scores tended to be lower when asked later in the questionnaire, suggesting evidence of a carry-over effect. Usage of PEI increased OA scores by 0.10 of a 9-point hedonic scale point, which is not practically significant. Postpanel survey data showed that presence of PEI typically improved the panelists' experience. Using PEI does not appear to introduce a meaningful carry-over effect. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Survival analysis of colorectal cancer patients with tumor recurrence using global score test methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zain, Zakiyah, E-mail: zac@uum.edu.my; Ahmad, Yuhaniz, E-mail: yuhaniz@uum.edu.my [School of Quantitative Sciences, Universiti Utara Malaysia, UUM Sintok 06010, Kedah (Malaysia); Azwan, Zairul, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com; Raduan, Farhana, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com; Sagap, Ismail, E-mail: zairulazwan@gmail.com, E-mail: farhanaraduan@gmail.com, E-mail: drisagap@yahoo.com [Surgery Department, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Jalan Yaacob Latif, 56000 Bandar Tun Razak, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Aziz, Nazrina, E-mail: nazrina@uum.edu.my

    2014-12-04

    Colorectal cancer is the third and the second most common cancer worldwide in men and women respectively, and the second in Malaysia for both genders. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are among the options available for treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. In clinical trials, the main purpose is often to compare efficacy between experimental and control treatments. Treatment comparisons often involve several responses or endpoints, and this situation complicates the analysis. In the case of colorectal cancer, sets of responses concerned with survival times include: times from tumor removal until the first, the second and the third tumor recurrences, and time to death. For a patient, the time to recurrence is correlated to the overall survival. In this study, global score test methodology is used in combining the univariate score statistics for comparing treatments with respect to each survival endpoint into a single statistic. The data of tumor recurrence and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients are taken from a Malaysian hospital. The results are found to be similar to those computed using the established Wei, Lin and Weissfeld method. Key factors such as ethnic, gender, age and stage at diagnose are also reported.

  3. Scoring Strategies for the TOEFL iBT A Complete Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Stirling, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    TOEFL students all ask: How can I get a high TOEFL iBT score? Answer: Learn argument scoring strategies. Why? Because the TOEFL iBT recycles opinion-based and fact-based arguments for testing purposes from start to finish. In other words, the TOEFL iBT is all arguments. That's right, all arguments. If you want a high score, you need essential argument scoring strategies. That is what Scoring Strategies for the TOEFL iBT gives you, and more!. TEST-PROVEN STRATEGIES. Learn essential TOEFL iBT scoring strategies developed in American university classrooms and proven successful on the TOEFL iBT. R

  4. How to calculate an MMSE score from a MODA score (and vice versa) in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzaniga, R; Francescani, A; Saetti, C; Spinnler, H

    2003-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide a statistically sound way of reciprocally converting scores of the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the Milan overall dementia assessment (MODA). A consecutive series of 182 patients with "probable" Alzheimer's disease patients was examined with both tests. MODA and MMSE scores proved to be highly correlated. A formula for converting MODA and MMSE scores was generated.

  5. Confidence Intervals for Weighted Composite Scores under the Compound Binomial Error Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Yong; Lee, Won-Chan

    2018-01-01

    Reporting confidence intervals with test scores helps test users make important decisions about examinees by providing information about the precision of test scores. Although a variety of estimation procedures based on the binomial error model are available for computing intervals for test scores, these procedures assume that items are randomly…

  6. Automated Scoring for the "TOEFL Junior"® Comprehensive Writing and Speaking Test. Research Report. ETS RR-15-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanini, Keelan; Heilman, Michael; Wang, Xinhao; Blanchard, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the initial automated scoring results that were obtained using the constructed responses from the Writing and Speaking sections of the pilot forms of the "TOEFL Junior"® Comprehensive test administered in late 2011. For all of the items except one (the edit item in the Writing section), existing automated scoring…

  7. External validation of the simple clinical score and the HOTEL score, two scores for predicting short-term mortality after admission to an acute medical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stræde, Mia; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    Clinical scores can be of aid to predict early mortality after admission to a medical admission unit. A developed scoring system needs to be externally validated to minimise the risk of the discriminatory power and calibration to be falsely elevated. We performed the present study with the objective of validating the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) and the HOTEL score, two existing risk stratification systems that predict mortality for medical patients based solely on clinical information, but not only vital signs. Pre-planned prospective observational cohort study. Danish 460-bed regional teaching hospital. We included 3046 consecutive patients from 2 October 2008 until 19 February 2009. 26 (0.9%) died within one calendar day and 196 (6.4%) died within 30 days. We calculated SCS for 1080 patients. We found an AUROC of 0.960 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.932 to 0.988) for 24-hours mortality and 0.826 (95% CI, 0.774-0.879) for 30-day mortality, and goodness-of-fit test, χ(2) = 2.68 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.998 and χ(2) = 4.00, P = 0.947, respectively. We included 1470 patients when calculating the HOTEL score. Discriminatory power (AUROC) was 0.931 (95% CI, 0.901-0.962) for 24-hours mortality and goodness-of-fit test, χ(2) = 5.56 (10 degrees of freedom), P = 0.234. We find that both the SCS and HOTEL scores showed an excellent to outstanding ability in identifying patients at high risk of dying with good or acceptable precision.

  8. An alternative to the balance error scoring system: using a low-cost balance board to improve the validity/reliability of sports-related concussion balance testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jasper O; Levy, Susan S; Seay, Seth W; Goble, Daniel J

    2014-05-01

    Recent guidelines advocate sports medicine professionals to use balance tests to assess sensorimotor status in the management of concussions. The present study sought to determine whether a low-cost balance board could provide a valid, reliable, and objective means of performing this balance testing. Criterion validity testing relative to a gold standard and 7 day test-retest reliability. University biomechanics laboratory. Thirty healthy young adults. Balance ability was assessed on 2 days separated by 1 week using (1) a gold standard measure (ie, scientific grade force plate), (2) a low-cost Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB), and (3) the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Validity of the WBB center of pressure path length and BESS scores were determined relative to the force plate data. Test-retest reliability was established based on intraclass correlation coefficients. Composite scores for the WBB had excellent validity (r = 0.99) and test-retest reliability (R = 0.88). Both the validity (r = 0.10-0.52) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.61-0.78) were lower for the BESS. These findings demonstrate that a low-cost balance board can provide improved balance testing accuracy/reliability compared with the BESS. This approach provides a potentially more valid/reliable, yet affordable, means of assessing sports-related concussion compared with current methods.

  9. Linkage between company scores and stock returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saban Celik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies on company scores conducted at firm-level, generally concluded that there exists a positive relation between company scores and stock returns. Motivated by these studies, this study examines the relationship between company scores (Corporate Governance Score, Economic Score, Environmental Score, and Social Score and stock returns, both at portfolio-level analysis and firm-level cross-sectional regressions. In portfolio-level analysis, stocks are sorted based on each company scores and quintile portfolio are formed with different levels of company scores. Then, existence and significance of raw returns and risk-adjusted returns difference between portfolios with the extreme company scores (portfolio 10 and portfolio 1 is tested. In addition, firm-level cross-sectional regression is performed to examine the significance of company scores effects with control variables. While portfolio-level analysis results indicate that there is no significant relation between company scores and stock returns; firm-level analysis indicates that economic, environmental, and social scores have effect on stock returns, however, significance and direction of these effects change, depending on the included control variables in the cross-sectional regression.

  10. Lead exposure and the 2010 achievement test scores of children in New York counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strayhorn Jillian C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead is toxic to cognitive and behavioral functioning in children even at levels well below those producing physical symptoms. Continuing efforts in the U.S. since about the 1970s to reduce lead exposure in children have dramatically reduced the incidence of elevated blood lead levels (with elevated levels defined by the current U.S. Centers for Disease Control threshold of 10 μg/dl. The current study examines how much lead toxicity continues to impair the academic achievement of children of New York State, using 2010 test data. Methods This study relies on three sets of data published for the 57 New York counties outside New York City: school achievement data from the New York State Department of Education, data on incidence of elevated blood lead levels from the New York State Department of Health, and data on income from the U.S. Census Bureau. We studied third grade and eighth grade test scores in English Language Arts and mathematics. Using the county as the unit of analysis, we computed bivariate correlations and regression coefficients, with percent of children achieving at the lowest reported level as the dependent variable and the percent of preschoolers in the county with elevated blood lead levels as the independent variable. Then we repeated those analyses using partial correlations to control for possible confounding effects of family income, and using multiple regressions with income included. Results The bivariate correlations between incidence of elevated lead and number of children in the lowest achievement group ranged between 0.38 and 0.47. The partial correlations ranged from 0.29 to 0.40. The regression coefficients, both bivariate and partial (both estimating the increase in percent of children in the lowest achievement group for every percent increase in the children with elevated blood lead levels, ranged from 0.52 to 1.31. All regression coefficients, when rounded to the nearest integer, were

  11. ISSUE PAPER: What Do Test Scores in Texas Tell Us?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klein, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    ...) about possible unintended consequences of these programs. We conducted several analyses to examine the issue of whether TAAS scores can be trusted to provide an accurate index of student skills and abilities...

  12. High Baseline Postconcussion Symptom Scores and Concussion Outcomes in Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Aimee; Sufrinko, Alicia; Elbin, R J; Covassin, Tracey; Collins, Micky; Kontos, Anthony

    2016-02-01

    Some healthy athletes report high levels of baseline concussion symptoms, which may be attributable to several factors (eg, illness, personality, somaticizing). However, the role of baseline symptoms in outcomes after sport-related concussion (SRC) has not been empirically examined. To determine if athletes with high symptom scores at baseline performed worse than athletes without baseline symptoms on neurocognitive testing after SRC. Cohort study. High school and collegiate athletic programs. A total of 670 high school and collegiate athletes participated in the study. Participants were divided into groups with either no baseline symptoms (Postconcussion Symptom Scale [PCSS] score = 0, n = 247) or a high level of baseline symptoms (PCSS score > 18 [top 10% of sample], n = 68). Participants were evaluated at baseline and 2 to 7 days after SRC with the Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test and PCSS. Outcome measures were Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Test composite scores (verbal memory, visual memory, visual motor processing speed, and reaction time) and total symptom score on the PCSS. The groups were compared using repeated-measures analyses of variance with Bonferroni correction to assess interactions between group and time for symptoms and neurocognitive impairment. The no-symptoms group represented 38% of the original sample, whereas the high-symptoms group represented 11% of the sample. The high-symptoms group experienced a larger decline from preinjury to postinjury than the no-symptoms group in verbal (P = .03) and visual memory (P = .05). However, total concussion-symptom scores increased from preinjury to postinjury for the no-symptoms group (P = .001) but remained stable for the high-symptoms group. Reported baseline symptoms may help identify athletes at risk for worse outcomes after SRC. Clinicians should examine baseline symptom levels to better identify patients for earlier referral and treatment for their

  13. The VITRO Score (Von Willebrand Factor Antigen/Thrombocyte Ratio as a New Marker for Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension in Comparison to Other Non-Invasive Parameters of Fibrosis Including ELF Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hametner

    Full Text Available Clinically significant portal hypertension (CSPH, defined as hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG ≥10 mmHg, causes major complications. HVPG is not always available, so a non-invasive tool to diagnose CSPH would be useful. VWF-Ag can be used to diagnose. Using the VITRO score (the VWF-Ag/platelet ratio instead of VWF-Ag itself improves the diagnostic accuracy of detecting cirrhosis/ fibrosis in HCV patients.This study tested the diagnostic accuracy of VITRO score detecting CSPH compared to HVPG measurement.All patients underwent HVPG testing and were categorised as CSPH or no CSPH. The following patient data were determined: CPS, D'Amico stage, VITRO score, APRI and transient elastography (TE.The analysis included 236 patients; 170 (72% were male, and the median age was 57.9 (35.2-76.3; 95% CI. Disease aetiology included ALD (39.4%, HCV (23.4%, NASH (12.3%, other (8.1% and unknown (11.9%. The CPS showed 140 patients (59.3% with CPS A; 56 (23.7% with CPS B; and 18 (7.6% with CPS C. 136 patients (57.6% had compensated and 100 (42.4% had decompensated cirrhosis; 83.9% had HVPG ≥10 mmHg. The VWF-Ag and the VITRO score increased significantly with worsening HVPG categories (P<0.0001. ROC analysis was performed for the detection of CSPH and showed AUC values of 0.92 for TE, 0.86 for VITRO score, 0.79 for VWF-Ag, 0.68 for ELF and 0.62 for APRI.The VITRO score is an easy way to diagnose CSPH independently of CPS in routine clinical work and may improve the management of patients with cirrhosis.

  14. Association of metabolic syndrome and change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leehey, Maureen; Luo, Sheng; Sharma, Saloni; Wills, Anne-Marie A; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn L; Wong, Pei Shieen; Simon, David K; Schneider, Jay; Zhang, Yunxi; Pérez, Adriana; Dhall, Rohit; Christine, Chadwick W; Singer, Carlos; Cambi, Franca; Boyd, James T

    2017-10-24

    To explore the association between metabolic syndrome and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores and, secondarily, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). This is a secondary analysis of data from 1,022 of 1,741 participants of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Clinical Trials in Parkinson Disease Long-Term Study 1, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of creatine. Participants were categorized as having or not having metabolic syndrome on the basis of modified criteria from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Those who had the same metabolic syndrome status at consecutive annual visits were included. The change in UPDRS and SDMT scores from randomization to 3 years was compared in participants with and without metabolic syndrome. Participants with metabolic syndrome (n = 396) compared to those without (n = 626) were older (mean [SD] 63.9 [8.1] vs 59.9 [9.4] years; p metabolic syndrome experienced an additional 0.6- (0.2) unit annual increase in total UPDRS ( p = 0.02) and 0.5- (0.2) unit increase in motor UPDRS ( p = 0.01) scores compared with participants without metabolic syndrome. There was no difference in the change in SDMT scores. Persons with Parkinson disease meeting modified criteria for metabolic syndrome experienced a greater increase in total UPDRS scores over time, mainly as a result of increases in motor scores, compared to those who did not. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding. NCT00449865. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. More Issues in Observed-Score Equating

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Wim J.

    2013-01-01

    This article is a response to the commentaries on the position paper on observed-score equating by van der Linden (this issue). The response focuses on the more general issues in these commentaries, such as the nature of the observed scores that are equated, the importance of test-theory assumptions in equating, the necessity to use multiple…

  16. An Integrated Model of Academic Self-Concept Development: Academic Self-Concept, Grades, Test Scores, and Tracking over 6 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Herbert W.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Murayama, Kou; Arens, A. Katrin; Parker, Philip D.; Guo, Jiesi; Dicke, Theresa

    2018-01-01

    Our newly proposed integrated academic self-concept model integrates 3 major theories of academic self-concept formation and developmental perspectives into a unified conceptual and methodological framework. Relations among math self-concept (MSC), school grades, test scores, and school-level contextual effects over 6 years, from the end of…

  17. ¿Exito en California? A Validity Critique of Language Program Evaluations and Analysis of English Learner Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn S. Thompson

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Several states have recently faced ballot initiatives that propose to functionally eliminate bilingual education in favor of English-only approaches. Proponents of these initiatives have argued an overall rise in standardized achievement scores of California's limited English proficient (LEP students is largely due to the implementation of English immersion programs mandated by Proposition 227 in 1998, hence, they claim Exito en California (Success in California. However, many such arguments presented in the media were based on flawed summaries of these data. We first discuss the background, media coverage, and previous research associated with California's Proposition 227. We then present a series of validity concerns regarding use of Stanford-9 achievement data to address policy for educating LEP students; these concerns include the language of the test, alternative explanations, sample selection, and data analysis decisions. Finally, we present a comprehensive summary of scaled-score achievement means and trajectories for California's LEP and non-LEP students for 1998-2000. Our analyses indicate that although scores have risen overall, the achievement gap between LEP and EP students does not appear to be narrowing.

  18. The Bayesian Score Statistic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibergen, F.R.; Kleijn, R.; Paap, R.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a novel Bayesian test under a (noninformative) Jeffreys'priorspecification. We check whether the fixed scalar value of the so-calledBayesian Score Statistic (BSS) under the null hypothesis is aplausiblerealization from its known and standardized distribution under thealternative. Unlike

  19. A Novel Scoring System Approach to Assess Patients with Lyme Disease (Nutech Functional Score)

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Shroff; Petra Hopf-Seidel

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: A bacterial infection by Borrelia burgdorferi referred to as Lyme disease (LD) or borreliosis is transmitted mostly by a bite of the tick Ixodes scapularis in the USA and Ixodes ricinus in Europe. Various tests are used for the diagnosis of LD, but their results are often unreliable. We compiled a list of clinically visible and patient-reported symptoms that are associated with LD. Based on this list, we developed a novel scoring system. Methodology: Nutech functional Score (NF...

  20. Supplementing five-point body condition score with body fat percentage increases the sensitivity for assessing overweight status of small to medium sized dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arai T

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gebin Li,1 Peter Lee,1 Nobuko Mori,1 Ichiro Yamamoto,1 Koh Kawasumi,1 Hisao Tanabe,2 Toshiro Arai11Department of Veterinary Science, School of Veterinary Medicine, Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University, 2Komazawa Animal Hospital, Tokyo, JapanBackground and methods: Currently, five-point body condition scoring (BCS is widely used by veterinarians and clinicians to assess adiposity in dogs in Japan. However, BCS score assignment is subjective in nature, and most clinicians do not score with half points, instead preferring to round off values, thereby rendering less accurate assessments. Therefore, we sought to determine whether assessing body fat percentage using simple morphometric measurements and supplementing this with five-point BCS can have increased sensitivity for detecting increasing adiposity in overweight small-medium sized dog breeds via plasma metabolite validation.Results: Overall, lean body fat percentage was determined to be 15%–22% for male (non-neutered/neutered dogs and 15%–25% for female (nonspayed/spayed. Dogs categorized as overweight by BCS had significantly higher levels of nonesterified fatty acids (P = 0.005, whereas animals categorized as overweight by BCS + body fat percentage were observed to have significantly higher levels of nonesterified fatty acids (P = 0.006, total cholesterol (P = 0.029, and triglycerides (P = 0.001 than lean animals. The increased sensitivity due to body fat percentage for gauging alterations in plasma metabolite levels may be due to increased correlation strength. Body fat percentage correlated positively with plasma insulin (r = 0.627, P = 0.002, nonesterified fatty acids (r = 0.674, P < 0.001, total cholesterol (r = 0.825, P < 0.0001, triglycerides (r = 0.5823, P < 0.005, blood urea nitrogen (r = 0.429, P < 0.05, creatinine (r = 0.490, P = 0.021, and total protein (r = 0.737, P< 0.0001 levels, which all tend to increase as a result of increasing adiposity

  1. A Summary Score for the Framingham Heart Study Neuropsychological Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, Brian; Fardo, David W; Schmitt, Frederick A

    2015-10-01

    To calculate three summary scores of the Framingham Heart Study neuropsychological battery and determine which score best differentiates between subjects classified as having normal cognition, test-based impaired learning and memory, test-based multidomain impairment, and dementia. The final sample included 2,503 participants. Three summary scores were assessed: (a) composite score that provided equal weight to each subtest, (b) composite score that provided equal weight to each cognitive domain assessed by the neuropsychological battery, and (c) abbreviated score comprised of subtests for learning and memory. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine which summary score best differentiated between the four cognitive states. The summary score that provided equal weight to each subtest best differentiated between the four cognitive states. A summary score that provides equal weight to each subtest is an efficient way to utilize all of the cognitive data collected by a neuropsychological battery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Predictive value of grade point average (GPA), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), internal examinations (Block) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores on Medical Council of Canada qualifying examination part I (MCCQE-1) scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Banibrata; Ripstein, Ira; Perry, Kyle; Cohen, Barry

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether the pre-medical Grade Point Average (GPA), Medical College Admission Test (MCAT), Internal examinations (Block) and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores are correlated with and predict the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I (MCCQE-1) scores. Data from 392 admitted students in the graduating classes of 2010-2013 at University of Manitoba (UofM), College of Medicine was considered. Pearson's correlation to assess the strength of the relationship, multiple linear regression to estimate MCCQE-1 score and stepwise linear regression to investigate the amount of variance were employed. Complete data from 367 (94%) students were studied. The MCCQE-1 had a moderate-to-large positive correlation with NBME scores and Block scores but a low correlation with GPA and MCAT scores. The multiple linear regression model gives a good estimate of the MCCQE-1 (R2 =0.604). Stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that 59.2% of the variation in the MCCQE-1 was accounted for by the NBME, but only 1.9% by the Block exams, and negligible variation came from the GPA and the MCAT. Amongst all the examinations used at UofM, the NBME is most closely correlated with MCCQE-1.

  3. Validating the appropriateness of TACOM measure: Comparing TACOM scores with subjective workload scores quantified by NASA-TLX technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.; Jung, W.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the appropriateness of the task complexity (TACOM) measure that can quantify the complexity of emergency tasks was investigated by comparing subjective workload scores with the associated TACOM scores. To this end, based on the NASA-TLX (task load index) technique, 18 operators were asked to subjectively estimate perceived workload for 23 emergency tasks that were specified in the emergency operating procedures of the reference nuclear power plants. As the result of comparisons, it was observed that subjective workload scores increase in proportion to the increase of TACOM scores. Therefore, it is expect that the TACOM measure can be used as a serviceable method to quantify the complexity of emergency tasks. (authors)

  4. Validating the appropriateness of TACOM measure: Comparing TACOM scores with subjective workload scores quantified by NASA-TLX technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J.; Jung, W. [Integrated Safety Assessment Div., Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., P.O.Box 105, Duckjin-Dong, Yusong-Ku, Taejon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    In this study, the appropriateness of the task complexity (TACOM) measure that can quantify the complexity of emergency tasks was investigated by comparing subjective workload scores with the associated TACOM scores. To this end, based on the NASA-TLX (task load index) technique, 18 operators were asked to subjectively estimate perceived workload for 23 emergency tasks that were specified in the emergency operating procedures of the reference nuclear power plants. As the result of comparisons, it was observed that subjective workload scores increase in proportion to the increase of TACOM scores. Therefore, it is expect that the TACOM measure can be used as a serviceable method to quantify the complexity of emergency tasks. (authors)

  5. A Novel Scoring System Approach to Assess Patients with Lyme Disease (Nutech Functional Score).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Geeta; Hopf-Seidel, Petra

    2018-01-01

    A bacterial infection by Borrelia burgdorferi referred to as Lyme disease (LD) or borreliosis is transmitted mostly by a bite of the tick Ixodes scapularis in the USA and Ixodes ricinus in Europe. Various tests are used for the diagnosis of LD, but their results are often unreliable. We compiled a list of clinically visible and patient-reported symptoms that are associated with LD. Based on this list, we developed a novel scoring system. Nutech functional Score (NFS), which is a 43 point positional (every symptom is subgraded and each alternative gets some points according to its position) and directional (moves in direction bad to good) scoring system that assesses the patient's condition. The grades of the scoring system have been converted into numeric values for conducting probability based studies. Each symptom is graded from 1 to 5 that runs in direction BAD → GOOD. NFS is a unique tool that can be used universally to assess the condition of patients with LD.

  6. Association of fall history with the Timed Up and Go test score and the dual task cost: A cross-sectional study among independent community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Tsuyoshi; Oshima, Kensuke; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Yonezawa, Yuri; Matsuo, Asuka; Misu, Shogo

    2018-05-21

    To investigate the associations between fall history and the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test (single-TUG test), TUG test while counting aloud backwards from 100 (dual-TUG test) and the dual-task cost (DTC) among independent community-dwelling older adults. This cross-sectional study included 537 older adults who lived independently in the community. Data on fall history in the previous year were obtained by self-administrated questionnaire. The single- and dual-TUG tests were carried out, and the DTC value was computed from these results. Associations between fall history and these TUG-related values were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression models. The participants were divided into fall risk groups using the cut-off values of those significantly associated with falling, and the odds ratios (OR) were computed. Slower single-TUG test scores and lower DTC values were significantly associated with fall history after adjusting for potential confounders (single-TUG test score: OR 1.133, 95% CI 1.029-1.249; DTC value: OR 0.984, 95% CI 0.968-0.998). Older adults with slower single-TUG test scores and lower DTC values reported a fall history more often than those in other categories (OR compared with the lower-risk single-TUG and lower-risk DTC groups: 3.474, 95% CI 1.881-6.570). Slower single-TUG test scores and lower DTC values are associated with fall history among independent community-dwelling older adults. To some extent, dual task performance might provide added value for fall assessment, compared with administering the TUG test alone. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Raising test scores vs. teaching higher order thinking (HOT): senior science teachers' views on how several concurrent policies affect classroom practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Anat; Alboher Agmon, Vered

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates how senior science teachers viewed the effects of a Raising Test Scores policy and its implementation on instruction of higher order thinking (HOT), and on teaching thinking to students with low academic achievements.

  8. A Comparison between Linear IRT Observed-Score Equating and Levine Observed-Score Equating under the Generalized Kernel Equating Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiwen

    2012-01-01

    In this article, linear item response theory (IRT) observed-score equating is compared under a generalized kernel equating framework with Levine observed-score equating for nonequivalent groups with anchor test design. Interestingly, these two equating methods are closely related despite being based on different methodologies. Specifically, when…

  9. [The diagnostic scores for deep venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, A

    2015-08-26

    Seven diagnostic scores for the deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of lower limbs are analyzed and compared. Two features make this exer- cise difficult: the problem of distal DVT and of their proximal extension and the status of patients, whether out- or in-patients. The most popular score is the Wells score (1997), modi- fied in 2003. It includes one subjective ele- ment based on clinical judgment. The Primary Care score 12005), less known, has similar pro- perties, but uses only objective data. The pre- sent trend is to associate clinical scores with the dosage of D-Dimers to rule out with a good sensitivity the probability of TVP. For the upper limb DVT, the Constans score (2008) is available, which can also be coupled with D-Dimers testing (Kleinjan).

  10. Automated essay scoring and the future of educational assessment in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J; Latifi, Syed; Lai, Hollis; Boulais, André-Philippe; De Champlain, André

    2014-10-01

    Constructed-response tasks, which range from short-answer tests to essay questions, are included in assessments of medical knowledge because they allow educators to measure students' ability to think, reason, solve complex problems, communicate and collaborate through their use of writing. However, constructed-response tasks are also costly to administer and challenging to score because they rely on human raters. One alternative to the manual scoring process is to integrate computer technology with writing assessment. The process of scoring written responses using computer programs is known as 'automated essay scoring' (AES). An AES system uses a computer program that builds a scoring model by extracting linguistic features from a constructed-response prompt that has been pre-scored by human raters and then, using machine learning algorithms, maps the linguistic features to the human scores so that the computer can be used to classify (i.e. score or grade) the responses of a new group of students. The accuracy of the score classification can be evaluated using different measures of agreement. Automated essay scoring provides a method for scoring constructed-response tests that complements the current use of selected-response testing in medical education. The method can serve medical educators by providing the summative scores required for high-stakes testing. It can also serve medical students by providing them with detailed feedback as part of a formative assessment process. Automated essay scoring systems yield scores that consistently agree with those of human raters at a level as high, if not higher, as the level of agreement among human raters themselves. The system offers medical educators many benefits for scoring constructed-response tasks, such as improving the consistency of scoring, reducing the time required for scoring and reporting, minimising the costs of scoring, and providing students with immediate feedback on constructed-response tasks. © 2014

  11. The Effects of Teacher and Teacher-librarian High-end Collaboration on Inquiry-based Project Reports and School Monthly Test Scores of Fifth-grade Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Hon Chen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold. The first purpose was to establish the high level collaboration of integrated instruction model between social studies teacher and teacher-librarian. The second purpose was to investigate the effects of high-end collaboration on the individual and groups’ inquiry-based project reports, as well as monthly test scores of fifth-grade students. A quasi-experimental method was adopted, two classes of elementary school fifth graders in Tainan Municipal city, Taiwan were used as samples. Students were randomly assigned to experimental conditions by class. Twenty eight students of the experimental group were taught by the collaboration of social studies teacher and teacher-librarian; while 27 students of the controlled group were taught separately by teacher in didactic teaching method. Inquiry-Based Project Record, Inquiry-Based Project Rubrics, and school monthly test scores were used as instruments for collecting data. A t-test and correlation were used to analyze the data. The results indicate that: (1 High-end collaboration model between social studies teacher and teacher-librarian was established and implemented well in the classroom. (2There was a significant difference between the experimental group and the controlled group in individual and groups’ inquiry-based project reports. Students that were taught by the collaborative teachers got both higher inquiry-based project reports’ scores than those that were taught separately by the teachers. Experimental group’s students got higher school monthly test scores than controlled groups. Suggestions for teachers’ high-end collaboration and future researcher are provided in this paper.

  12. Risk score for first-screening of prevalent undiagnosed chronic kidney disease in Peru: the CRONICAS-CKD risk score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Chirinos-Pacheco, Julio A; Muñoz-Retamozo, Paola V; Smeeth, Liam; Checkley, William; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2017-11-29

    Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) represents a great burden for the patient and the health system, particularly if diagnosed at late stages. Consequently, tools to identify patients at high risk of having CKD are needed, particularly in limited-resources settings where laboratory facilities are scarce. This study aimed to develop a risk score for prevalent undiagnosed CKD using data from four settings in Peru: a complete risk score including all associated risk factors and another excluding laboratory-based variables. Cross-sectional study. We used two population-based studies: one for developing and internal validation (CRONICAS), and another (PREVENCION) for external validation. Risk factors included clinical- and laboratory-based variables, among others: sex, age, hypertension and obesity; and lipid profile, anemia and glucose metabolism. The outcome was undiagnosed CKD: eGFR anemia were strongly associated with undiagnosed CKD. In the external validation, at a cut-off point of 2, the complete and laboratory-free risk scores performed similarly well with a ROC area of 76.2% and 76.0%, respectively (P = 0.784). The best assessment parameter of these risk scores was their negative predictive value: 99.1% and 99.0% for the complete and laboratory-free, respectively. The developed risk scores showed a moderate performance as a screening test. People with a score of ≥ 2 points should undergo further testing to rule out CKD. Using the laboratory-free risk score is a practical approach in developing countries where laboratories are not readily available and undiagnosed CKD has significant morbidity and mortality.

  13. Simple shoulder test and Oxford Shoulder Score: Persian translation and cross-cultural validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Soofia; Nakhostin Ansari, Noureddin; Rustaie, Nilufar; Akbari, Mohammad; Ebadi, Safoora; Senobari, Maryam; Hasson, Scott

    2015-12-01

    To translate, culturally adapt, and validate the simple shoulder test (SST) and Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS) into Persian language using a cross-sectional and prospective cohort design. A standard forward and backward translation was followed to culturally adapt the SST and the OSS into Persian language. Psychometric properties of floor and ceiling effects, construct convergent validity, discriminant validity, internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, standard error of the measurement (SEM), smallest detectable change (SDC), and factor structure were determined. One hundred patients with shoulder disorders and 50 healthy subjects participated in the study. The PSST and the POSS showed no missing responses. No floor or ceiling effects were observed. Both the PSST and POSS detected differences between patients and healthy subjects supporting their discriminant validity. Construct convergent validity was confirmed by a very good correlation between the PSST and POSS (r = 0.68). There was high internal consistency for both the PSST (α = 0.73) and the POSS (α = 0.91 and 0.92). Test-retest reliability with 1-week interval was excellent (ICCagreement = 0.94 for PSST and 0.90 for POSS). Factor analyses demonstrated a three-factor solution for the PSST (49.7 % of variance) and a two-factor solution for the POSS (61.6 % of variance). The SEM/SDC was satisfactory for PSST (5.5/15.3) and POSS (6.8/18.8). The PSST and POSS are valid and reliable outcome measures for assessing functional limitations in Persian-speaking patients with shoulder disorders.

  14. Forging the Basis for Developing Protein-Ligand Interaction Scoring Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhihai; Su, Minyi; Han, Li; Liu, Jie; Yang, Qifan; Li, Yan; Wang, Renxiao

    2017-02-21

    In structure-based drug design, scoring functions are widely used for fast evaluation of protein-ligand interactions. They are often applied in combination with molecular docking and de novo design methods. Since the early 1990s, a whole spectrum of protein-ligand interaction scoring functions have been developed. Regardless of their technical difference, scoring functions all need data sets combining protein-ligand complex structures and binding affinity data for parametrization and validation. However, data sets of this kind used to be rather limited in terms of size and quality. On the other hand, standard metrics for evaluating scoring function used to be ambiguous. Scoring functions are often tested in molecular docking or even virtual screening trials, which do not directly reflect the genuine quality of scoring functions. Collectively, these underlying obstacles have impeded the invention of more advanced scoring functions. In this Account, we describe our long-lasting efforts to overcome these obstacles, which involve two related projects. On the first project, we have created the PDBbind database. It is the first database that systematically annotates the protein-ligand complexes in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) with experimental binding data. This database has been updated annually since its first public release in 2004. The latest release (version 2016) provides binding data for 16 179 biomolecular complexes in PDB. Data sets provided by PDBbind have been applied to many computational and statistical studies on protein-ligand interaction and various subjects. In particular, it has become a major data resource for scoring function development. On the second project, we have established the Comparative Assessment of Scoring Functions (CASF) benchmark for scoring function evaluation. Our key idea is to decouple the "scoring" process from the "sampling" process, so scoring functions can be tested in a relatively pure context to reflect their quality. In our

  15. The Role of Imagery Training on Tohono O'odham Children's Creativity Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Annabelle; Lalemi, Bisi

    1991-01-01

    Among 40 second and sixth graders in a Bureau of Indian Affairs reservation school, those who participated in 6 15-minute sessions of imagery training had significantly higher posttest scores on the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, compared to controls. Such training may increase children's problem-solving ability. Contains 24 references. (SV)

  16. Automated Scoring of Constructed-Response Science Items: Prospects and Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ou Lydia; Brew, Chris; Blackmore, John; Gerard, Libby; Madhok, Jacquie; Linn, Marcia C.

    2014-01-01

    Content-based automated scoring has been applied in a variety of science domains. However, many prior applications involved simplified scoring rubrics without considering rubrics representing multiple levels of understanding. This study tested a concept-based scoring tool for content-based scoring, c-rater™, for four science items with rubrics…

  17. Psychometric properties of a Swedish translation of the VISA-P outcome score for patellar tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frohm, Anna; Saartok, Tönu; Edman, Gunnar; Renström, Per

    2004-12-18

    Self-administrated patient outcome scores are increasingly recommended for evaluation of primary outcome in clinical studies. The VISA-P score, developed at the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment in Melbourne, Australia, is a questionnaire developed for patients with patellar tendinopathy and the patients assess severity of symptoms, function and ability to participate in sport. The aim of this study was to translate the questionnaire into Swedish and to study the reliability and validity of the translated questionnaire and resultant scores. The questionnaire was translated into Swedish according to internationally recommended guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. The reliability and validity were tested in three different populations. The populations used were healthy students (n = 17), members of the Swedish male national basketball team (n = 17), considered as a population at risk, and a group of non-surgically treated patients (n = 17) with clinically diagnosed patellar tendinopathy. The questionnaire was completed by 51 subjects altogether. The translated VISA-P questionnaire showed very good test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.97).The mean (+/- SD) of the VISA-P score, at both the first and second test occasions was highest in the healthy student group 83 (+/- 13) and 81 (+/- 15), respectively. The score of the basketball players was 79 (+/- 24) and 80 (+/- 23), while the patient group scored significantly (p < 0.05) lower, 48 (+/- 20) and 52 (+/- 19). The translated version of the VISA-P questionnaire was linguistically and culturally equivalent to the original version. The translated score showed good reliability.

  18. Psychometric properties of a Swedish translation of the VISA-P outcome score for patellar tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edman Gunnar

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-administrated patient outcome scores are increasingly recommended for evaluation of primary outcome in clinical studies. The VISA-P score, developed at the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment in Melbourne, Australia, is a questionnaire developed for patients with patellar tendinopathy and the patients assess severity of symptoms, function and ability to participate in sport. The aim of this study was to translate the questionnaire into Swedish and to study the reliability and validity of the translated questionnaire and resultant scores. Methods The questionnaire was translated into Swedish according to internationally recommended guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. The reliability and validity were tested in three different populations. The populations used were healthy students (n = 17, members of the Swedish male national basketball team (n = 17, considered as a population at risk, and a group of non-surgically treated patients (n = 17 with clinically diagnosed patellar tendinopathy. The questionnaire was completed by 51 subjects altogether. Results The translated VISA-P questionnaire showed very good test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.97. The mean (± SD of the VISA-P score, at both the first and second test occasions was highest in the healthy student group 83 (± 13 and 81 (± 15, respectively. The score of the basketball players was 79 (± 24 and 80 (± 23, while the patient group scored significantly (p Conclusions The translated version of the VISA-P questionnaire was linguistically and culturally equivalent to the original version. The translated score showed good reliability.

  19. A study of low scores in Canadian children and adolescents on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale For Children, Fourth Edition (WISC-IV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian L

    2011-01-01

    Knowing the prevalence of low neurocognitive scores for the WISC-IV Canadian normative sample (WISC-IV(CDN)) is an important supplement for clinical interpretation of test performance. On the WISC-IV(CDN), it is uncommon for children and adolescents to have 4 or more subtest scores or 2 or more Index scores ≤ 9th percentile when all scores on the battery are considered simultaneously. As the level of the child's intelligence increases or the number of years of parental education increases, the prevalence of low scores decreases. These results are consistent with existing studies of the base rates of low scores in children and adolescents on pediatric cognitive batteries, including the WISC-IV American normative sample. Tables provided are ready for clinical use.

  20. Marital status and optimism score among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, Lindsay; Sorkin, John; Gallicchio, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    There are an increasing number of breast cancer survivors, but their psychosocial and supportive care needs are not well-understood. Recent work has found marital status, social support, and optimism to be associated with quality of life, but little research has been conducted to understand how these factors relate to one another. Survey data from 722 breast cancer survivors were analyzed to estimate the association between marital status and optimism score, as measured using the Life Orientation Test-Revised. Linear regression was used to estimate the relationship of marital status and optimism, controlling for potential confounding variables and assessing effect modification. The results showed that the association between marital status and optimism was modified by time since breast cancer diagnosis. Specifically, in those most recently diagnosed (within 5 years), married breast cancer survivors had a 1.50 higher mean optimism score than unmarried survivors (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.37, 2.62; p = 0.009). The difference in optimism score by marital status was not present more than 5 years from breast cancer diagnosis. Findings suggest that among breast cancer survivors within 5 years since diagnosis, those who are married have higher optimism scores than their unmarried counterparts; this association was not observed among longer-term breast cancer survivors. Future research should examine whether the difference in optimism score among this subgroup of breast cancer survivors is clinically relevant.

  1. Recursive and non-linear logistic regression: moving on from the original EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poullis, Michael

    2014-11-01

    EuroSCORE II, despite improving on the original EuroSCORE system, has not solved all the calibration and predictability issues. Recursive, non-linear and mixed recursive and non-linear regression analysis were assessed with regard to sensitivity, specificity and predictability of the original EuroSCORE and EuroSCORE II systems. The original logistic EuroSCORE, EuroSCORE II and recursive, non-linear and mixed recursive and non-linear regression analyses of these risk models were assessed via receiver operator characteristic curves (ROC) and Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic analysis with regard to the accuracy of predicting in-hospital mortality. Analysis was performed for isolated coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs) (n = 2913), aortic valve replacement (AVR) (n = 814), mitral valve surgery (n = 340), combined AVR and CABG (n = 517), aortic (n = 350), miscellaneous cases (n = 642), and combinations of the above cases (n = 5576). The original EuroSCORE had an ROC below 0.7 for isolated AVR and combined AVR and CABG. None of the methods described increased the ROC above 0.7. The EuroSCORE II risk model had an ROC below 0.7 for isolated AVR only. Recursive regression, non-linear regression, and mixed recursive and non-linear regression all increased the ROC above 0.7 for isolated AVR. The original EuroSCORE had a Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic that was above 0.05 for all patients and the subgroups analysed. All of the techniques markedly increased the Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic. The EuroSCORE II risk model had a Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic that was significant for all patients (P linear regression failed to improve on the original Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic. The mixed recursive and non-linear regression using the EuroSCORE II risk model was the only model that produced an ROC of 0.7 or above for all patients and procedures and had a Hosmer-Lemeshow statistic that was highly non-significant. The original EuroSCORE and the EuroSCORE II risk models do not have adequate ROC and Hosmer

  2. Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand Position Statement: Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Gary; Chow, Clara; van Pelt, Niels; Younger, John; Jelinek, Michael; Chan, Jonathan; Hamilton-Craig, Christian

    2017-12-01

    Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring (CAC) is a non-invasive quantitation of coronary artery calcification using computed tomography (CT). It is a marker of atherosclerotic plaque burden and an independent predictor of future myocardial infarction and mortality. Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring provides incremental risk information beyond traditional risk calculators (eg. Framingham Risk Score). Its use for risk stratification is confined to primary prevention of cardiovascular events, and can be considered as "individualised coronary risk scoring" for those not considered to be of high or low risk. Medical practitioners should carefully counsel patients prior to CAC. Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring should only be undertaken if an alteration in therapy including embarking on pharmacotherapy is being considered based on the test result. Patient Groups to Consider Coronary Calcium Scoring: Patient Groups in Whom Coronary Calcium Scoring Should Not be Considered: Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring is not recommended for patients who are: Interpretation of CAC CAC=0 A zero score confers a very low risk of death, 75th centile. Moderately high risk, 15-20% CAC >400 High risk, >20% Management Recommendations Based on CAC Optimal diet and lifestyle measures are encouraged in all risk groups and form the basis of primary prevention strategies. Patients with moderately-high or high risk based on CAC score are recommended to receive preventative medical therapy such as aspirin and statins. The evidence for pharmacotherapy is less robust in patients at intermediate levels of CAC 100-400, with modest benefit for aspirin use; though statins may be reasonable if they are above 75th centile. Aspirin and statins are generally not recommended in patients with CAC calcium score, routine re-scanning is not currently recommended. However, an annual increase in CAC of >15% or annual increase of CAC >100 units are predictive of future myocardial infarction and mortality. Cost Effectiveness of CAC

  3. Comparative evaluation of chest radiography, low-field MRI, the Shwachman-Kulczycki score and pulmonary function tests in patients with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjorin, Angela; Vogl, Thomas J.; Schmidt, Helga; Posselt, Hans-Georg; Smaczny, Christina; Ackermann, Hanns; Deimling, Michael; Abolmaali, Nasreddin

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the parenchymal lung damage in patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF) can be equivalently quantified by the Chrispin-Norman (CN) scores determined with low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and conventional chest radiography (CXR). Both scores were correlated with pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the Shwachman-Kulczycki method (SKM). To evaluate the comparability of MRI and CXR for different states of the disease, all scores were applied to patients divided into three age groups. Seventy-three CF patients (mean SKM score: 62 ± 8) with a median age (range) of 14 years (7-32) were included. The mean CN scores determined with both imaging methods were comparable (CXR: 12.1 ± 4.7; MRI: 12.0 ± 4.5) and showed high correlation (P < 0.05, R = 0.97). Only weak correlations were found between imaging, PFT, and SKM. Both imaging modalities revealed significantly more severe disease expression with age, while PFT and SKM failed to detect early signs of disease. We conclude that imaging of the lung in CF patients is capable of detecting subtle and early parenchymal destruction before lung function or clinical scoring is affected. Furthermore, low-field MRI revealed high consistency with chest radiography and may be used for a thorough follow-up while avoiding radiation exposure. (orig.)

  4. Validation of the German Diabetes Risk Score within a population-based representative cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, S; Kuss, O; Tiller, D; Greiser, K H; Schulze, M B; Dierkes, J; Werdan, K; Haerting, J; Kluttig, A

    2013-09-01

    To validate the German Diabetes Risk Score within the population-based cohort of the Cardiovascular Disease - Living and Ageing in Halle (CARLA) study. The sample included 582 women and 719 men, aged 45-83 years, who did not have diabetes at baseline. The individual risk of every participant was calculated using the German Diabetes Risk Score, which was modified for 4 years of follow-up. Predicted probabilities and observed outcomes were compared using Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit tests and receiver-operator characteristic analyses. Changes in prediction power were investigated by expanding the German Diabetes Risk Score to include metabolic variables and by subgroup analyses. We found 58 cases of incident diabetes. The median 4-year probability of developing diabetes based on the German Diabetes Risk Score was 6.5%. The observed and predicted probabilities of developing diabetes were similar, although estimation was imprecise owing to the small number of cases, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test returned a poor correlation (chi-squared = 55.3; P = 5.8*10⁻¹²). The area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.70 (95% CI 0.64-0.77), and after excluding participants ≥66 years old, the AUC increased to 0.77 (95% CI 0.70-0.84). Consideration of glycaemic diagnostic variables, in addition to self-reported diabetes, reduced the AUC to 0.65 (95% CI 0.58-0.71). A new model that included the German Diabetes Risk Score and blood glucose concentration (AUC 0.81; 95% CI 0.76-0.86) or HbA(1c) concentration (AUC 0.84; 95% CI 0.80-0.91) was found to peform better. Application of the German Diabetes Risk Score in the CARLA cohort did not reproduce the findings in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Potsdam study, which may be explained by cohort differences and model overfit in the latter; however, a high score does provide an indication of increased risk of diabetes. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes

  5. Validity Assessment of Low-risk SCORE Function and SCORE Function Calibrated to the Spanish Population in the FRESCO Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena-Díez, José Miguel; Subirana, Isaac; Ramos, Rafael; Gómez de la Cámara, Agustín; Elosua, Roberto; Vila, Joan; Marín-Ibáñez, Alejandro; Guembe, María Jesús; Rigo, Fernando; Tormo-Díaz, María José; Moreno-Iribas, Conchi; Cabré, Joan Josep; Segura, Antonio; Lapetra, José; Quesada, Miquel; Medrano, María José; González-Diego, Paulino; Frontera, Guillem; Gavrila, Diana; Ardanaz, Eva; Basora, Josep; García, José María; García-Lareo, Manel; Gutiérrez-Fuentes, José Antonio; Mayoral, Eduardo; Sala, Joan; Dégano, Irene R; Francès, Albert; Castell, Conxa; Grau, María; Marrugat, Jaume

    2018-04-01

    To assess the validity of the original low-risk SCORE function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and SCORE calibrated to the Spanish population. Pooled analysis with individual data from 12 Spanish population-based cohort studies. We included 30 919 individuals aged 40 to 64 years with no history of cardiovascular disease at baseline, who were followed up for 10 years for the causes of death included in the SCORE project. The validity of the risk functions was analyzed with the area under the ROC curve (discrimination) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (calibration), respectively. Follow-up comprised 286 105 persons/y. Ten-year cardiovascular mortality was 0.6%. The ratio between estimated/observed cases ranged from 9.1, 6.5, and 9.1 in men and 3.3, 1.3, and 1.9 in women with original low-risk SCORE risk function without and with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and calibrated SCORE, respectively; differences were statistically significant with the Hosmer-Lemeshow test between predicted and observed mortality with SCORE (P cardiovascular mortality observed in the Spanish population. Despite the acceptable discrimination capacity, prediction of the number of fatal cardiovascular events (calibration) was significantly inaccurate. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Regression-Based Norms for a Bi-factor Model for Scoring the Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnani, Ashita S; John, Samantha E; Gavett, Brandon E

    2015-05-01

    The current study developed regression-based normative adjustments for a bi-factor model of the The Brief Test of Adult Cognition by Telephone (BTACT). Archival data from the Midlife Development in the United States-II Cognitive Project were used to develop eight separate linear regression models that predicted bi-factor BTACT scores, accounting for age, education, gender, and occupation-alone and in various combinations. All regression models provided statistically significant fit to the data. A three-predictor regression model fit best and accounted for 32.8% of the variance in the global bi-factor BTACT score. The fit of the regression models was not improved by gender. Eight different regression models are presented to allow the user flexibility in applying demographic corrections to the bi-factor BTACT scores. Occupation corrections, while not widely used, may provide useful demographic adjustments for adult populations or for those individuals who have attained an occupational status not commensurate with expected educational attainment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The Relationships between Social Class, Listening Test Anxiety and Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Omid Talebi Rezaabadi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the social anxiety, social class and listening-test anxiety of students learning English as a foreign language. The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between listening-test anxiety and listening-test performance. The data were collected using an adapted Foreign Language Listening Anxiety Scale and a newly developed Foreign Language Social Anxiety Scale. The potential correlation between social anxiety and listening-test perfor...

  8. Scoring CT/HRCT findings among asbestos-exposed workers: effects of patient's age, body mass index and common laboratory test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vehmas, T.; Huuskonen, M.S. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland); Kivisaari, L. [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland); Jaakkola, M.S. [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Department of Radiology, Helsinki (Finland); University of Birmingham, Institute of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-02-01

    We studied the effects of age, body mass index (BMI) and some common laboratory test results on several pulmonary CT/HRCT signs. Five hundred twenty-eight construction workers (age 38-80, mean 63 years) were imaged with spiral and high resolution CT. Images were scored by three radiologists for solitary pulmonary nodules, signs indicative of fibrosis and emphysema, ground glass opacities, bronchial wall thickness and bronchiectasis. Multivariate statistical analyses were adjusted for smoking and asbestos exposure. Increasing age, blood haemoglobin value and erythrocyte sedimentation rate correlated positively with several HRCT signs. Increasing BMI was associated with a decrease in several signs, especially parenchymal bands, honeycombing, all kinds of emphysema and bronchiectasis. The latter finding might be due to the suboptimal image quality in obese individuals, which may cause suspicious findings to be overlooked. Background data, including patient's age and body constitution, should be considered when CT/HRCT images are interpreted. (orig.)

  9. A Novel Scoring System Approach to Assess Patients with Lyme Disease (Nutech Functional Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geeta Shroff

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A bacterial infection by Borrelia burgdorferi referred to as Lyme disease (LD or borreliosis is transmitted mostly by a bite of the tick Ixodes scapularis in the USA and Ixodes ricinus in Europe. Various tests are used for the diagnosis of LD, but their results are often unreliable. We compiled a list of clinically visible and patient-reported symptoms that are associated with LD. Based on this list, we developed a novel scoring system. Methodology: Nutech functional Score (NFS, which is a 43 point positional (every symptom is subgraded and each alternative gets some points according to its position and directional (moves in direction bad to good scoring system that assesses the patient's condition. Results: The grades of the scoring system have been converted into numeric values for conducting probability based studies. Each symptom is graded from 1 to 5 that runs in direction BAD → GOOD. Conclusion: NFS is a unique tool that can be used universally to assess the condition of patients with LD.

  10. Direct power comparisons between simple LOD scores and NPL scores for linkage analysis in complex diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, P C; Greenberg, D A; Hodge, S E

    1999-09-01

    Several methods have been proposed for linkage analysis of complex traits with unknown mode of inheritance. These methods include the LOD score maximized over disease models (MMLS) and the "nonparametric" linkage (NPL) statistic. In previous work, we evaluated the increase of type I error when maximizing over two or more genetic models, and we compared the power of MMLS to detect linkage, in a number of complex modes of inheritance, with analysis assuming the true model. In the present study, we compare MMLS and NPL directly. We simulated 100 data sets with 20 families each, using 26 generating models: (1) 4 intermediate models (penetrance of heterozygote between that of the two homozygotes); (2) 6 two-locus additive models; and (3) 16 two-locus heterogeneity models (admixture alpha = 1.0,.7,.5, and.3; alpha = 1.0 replicates simple Mendelian models). For LOD scores, we assumed dominant and recessive inheritance with 50% penetrance. We took the higher of the two maximum LOD scores and subtracted 0.3 to correct for multiple tests (MMLS-C). We compared expected maximum LOD scores and power, using MMLS-C and NPL as well as the true model. Since NPL uses only the affected family members, we also performed an affecteds-only analysis using MMLS-C. The MMLS-C was both uniformly more powerful than NPL for most cases we examined, except when linkage information was low, and close to the results for the true model under locus heterogeneity. We still found better power for the MMLS-C compared with NPL in affecteds-only analysis. The results show that use of two simple modes of inheritance at a fixed penetrance can have more power than NPL when the trait mode of inheritance is complex and when there is heterogeneity in the data set.

  11. The associations between a polygenic score, reproductive and menstrual risk factors and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren Andersen, Shaneda; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Gangnon, Ronald E; Hampton, John M; Figueroa, Jonine D; Skinner, Halcyon G; Engelman, Corinne D; Klein, Barbara E; Titus, Linda J; Newcomb, Polly A

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated whether 13 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in genome-wide association studies interact with one another and with reproductive and menstrual risk factors in association with breast cancer risk. DNA samples and information on parity, breastfeeding, age at menarche, age at first birth, and age at menopause were collected through structured interviews from 1,484 breast cancer cases and 1,307 controls who participated in a population-based case-control study conducted in three US states. A polygenic score was created as the sum of risk allele copies multiplied by the corresponding log odds estimate. Logistic regression was used to test the associations between SNPs, the score, reproductive and menstrual factors, and breast cancer risk. Nonlinearity of the score was assessed by the inclusion of a quadratic term for polygenic score. Interactions between the aforementioned variables were tested by including a cross-product term in models. We confirmed associations between rs13387042 (2q35), rs4973768 (SLC4A7), rs10941679 (5p12), rs2981582 (FGFR2), rs3817198 (LSP1), rs3803662 (TOX3), and rs6504950 (STXBP4) with breast cancer. Women in the score's highest quintile had 2.2-fold increased risk when compared to women in the lowest quintile (95 % confidence interval: 1.67-2.88). The quadratic polygenic score term was not significant in the model (p = 0.85), suggesting that the established breast cancer loci are not associated with increased risk more than the sum of risk alleles. Modifications of menstrual and reproductive risk factors associations with breast cancer risk by polygenic score were not observed. Our results suggest that the interactions between breast cancer susceptibility loci and reproductive factors are not strong contributors to breast cancer risk.

  12. Comparison of the Classifier Oriented Gait Score and the Gait Profile Score based on imitated gait impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Josef; Kröll, Josef; Schwameder, Hermann

    2017-06-01

    Common summary measures of gait quality such as the Gait Profile Score (GPS) are based on the principle of measuring a distance from the mean pattern of a healthy reference group in a gait pattern vector space. The recently introduced Classifier Oriented Gait Score (COGS) is a pathology specific score that measures this distance in a unique direction, which is indicated by a linear classifier. This approach has potentially improved the discriminatory power to detect subtle changes in gait patterns but does not incorporate a profile of interpretable sub-scores like the GPS. The main aims of this study were to extend the COGS by decomposing it into interpretable sub-scores as realized in the GPS and to compare the discriminative power of the GPS and COGS. Two types of gait impairments were imitated to enable a high level of control of the gait patterns. Imitated impairments were realized by restricting knee extension and inducing leg length discrepancy. The results showed increased discriminatory power of the COGS for differentiating diverse levels of impairment. Comparison of the GPS and COGS sub-scores and their ability to indicate changes in specific variables supports the validity of both scores. The COGS is an overall measure of gait quality with increased power to detect subtle changes in gait patterns and might be well suited for tracing the effect of a therapeutic treatment over time. The newly introduced sub-scores improved the interpretability of the COGS, which is helpful for practical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantification of Emphysema with a Three-Dimensional Chest CT Scan: Correlation with the Visual Emphysema Scoring on Chest CT, Pulmonary Function Tests and Dyspnea Severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Jeong; Hwang, Jung Hwa [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    We wanted to prospectively evaluate the correlation between the quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry with the visual emphysema score, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the dyspnea score in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Non-enhanced chest CT with 3D reconstruction was performed in 28 men with COPD (age 54-88 years). With histogram analysis, the total lung volume, mean lung density and proportion of low attenuation lung volume below predetermined thresholds were measured. The CT parameters were compared with the visual emphysema score, the PFT and the dyspnea score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was well correlated with the DLco and FEV{sub 1}/FVC. A Low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU and -930 HU was correlated with visual the emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the dyspnea score, although the correlations between the other CT parameters and the dyspnea score were not significant. Objective quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry was correlated with the visual emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the DLco, the FEV{sub 1}/FVC and the dyspnea score.

  14. Quantification of Emphysema with a Three-Dimensional Chest CT Scan: Correlation with the Visual Emphysema Scoring on Chest CT, Pulmonary Function Tests and Dyspnea Severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Jeong; Hwang, Jung Hwa

    2011-01-01

    We wanted to prospectively evaluate the correlation between the quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry with the visual emphysema score, pulmonary function tests (PFT) and the dyspnea score in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Non-enhanced chest CT with 3D reconstruction was performed in 28 men with COPD (age 54-88 years). With histogram analysis, the total lung volume, mean lung density and proportion of low attenuation lung volume below predetermined thresholds were measured. The CT parameters were compared with the visual emphysema score, the PFT and the dyspnea score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was well correlated with the DLco and FEV 1 /FVC. A Low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU and -930 HU was correlated with visual the emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the dyspnea score, although the correlations between the other CT parameters and the dyspnea score were not significant. Objective quantification of emphysema using 3D CT densitometry was correlated with the visual emphysema score. A low attenuation lung volume below -950 HU was correlated with the DLco, the FEV 1 /FVC and the dyspnea score.

  15. Automated Scoring of Short-Answer Open-Ended GRE® Subject Test Items. ETS GRE® Board Research Report No. 04-02. ETS RR-08-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attali, Yigal; Powers, Don; Freedman, Marshall; Harrison, Marissa; Obetz, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the development, administration, and scoring of open-ended variants of GRE® Subject Test items in biology and psychology. These questions were administered in a Web-based experiment to registered examinees of the respective Subject Tests. The questions required a short answer of 1-3 sentences, and responses were automatically…

  16. The Relationships between Social Class, Listening Test Anxiety and Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaabadi, Omid Talebi

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the social anxiety, social class and listening-test anxiety of students learning English as a foreign language. The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between listening-test anxiety and listening-test performance. The data were collected using an adapted Foreign Language Listening…

  17. Gaze Stabilization Test Asymmetry Score as an Indicator of Previous Concussion in a Cohort of Collegiate Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honaker, Julie A; Criter, Robin E; Patterson, Jessie N; Jones, Sherri M

    2015-07-01

    Vestibular dysfunction may lead to decreased visual acuity with head movements, which may impede athletic performance and result in injury. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that athletes with history of concussion would have differences in gaze stabilization test (GST) as compared with those without a history of concussion. Cross-sectional, descriptive. University Athletic Medicine Facility. Fifteen collegiate football players with a history of concussion, 25 collegiate football players without a history of concussion. Participants completed the dizziness handicap inventory (DHI), static visual acuity, perception time test, active yaw plane GST, stability evaluation test (SET), and a bedside oculomotor examination. Independent samples t test was used to compare GST, SET, and DHI scores per group, with Bonferroni-adjusted alpha at P history of concussion. The results support further research on the use of GST for sport-related concussion evaluation and monitoring. Inclusion of objective vestibular tests in the concussion protocol may reveal the presence of peripheral vestibular or visual-vestibular deficits. Therefore, the GST may add an important perspective on the effects of concussion.

  18. Posterior probability of linkage and maximal lod score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génin, E; Martinez, M; Clerget-Darpoux, F

    1995-01-01

    To detect linkage between a trait and a marker, Morton (1955) proposed to calculate the lod score z(theta 1) at a given value theta 1 of the recombination fraction. If z(theta 1) reaches +3 then linkage is concluded. However, in practice, lod scores are calculated for different values of the recombination fraction between 0 and 0.5 and the test is based on the maximum value of the lod score Zmax. The impact of this deviation of the test on the probability that in fact linkage does not exist, when linkage was concluded, is documented here. This posterior probability of no linkage can be derived by using Bayes' theorem. It is less than 5% when the lod score at a predetermined theta 1 is used for the test. But, for a Zmax of +3, we showed that it can reach 16.4%. Thus, considering a composite alternative hypothesis instead of a single one decreases the reliability of the test. The reliability decreases rapidly when Zmax is less than +3. Given a Zmax of +2.5, there is a 33% chance that linkage does not exist. Moreover, the posterior probability depends not only on the value of Zmax but also jointly on the family structures and on the genetic model. For a given Zmax, the chance that linkage exists may then vary.

  19. Hippocampal dose volume histogram predicts Hopkins Verbal Learning Test scores after brain irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Okoukoni, PhD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Radiation-induced cognitive decline is relatively common after treatment for primary and metastatic brain tumors; however, identifying dosimetric parameters that are predictive of radiation-induced cognitive decline is difficult due to the heterogeneity of patient characteristics. The memory function is especially susceptible to radiation effects after treatment. The objective of this study is to correlate volumetric radiation doses received by critical neuroanatomic structures to post–radiation therapy (RT memory impairment. Methods and materials: Between 2008 and 2011, 53 patients with primary brain malignancies were treated with conventionally fractionated RT in prospectively accrued clinical trials performed at our institution. Dose-volume histogram analysis was performed for the hippocampus, parahippocampus, amygdala, and fusiform gyrus. Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised scores were obtained at least 6 months after RT. Impairment was defined as an immediate recall score ≤15. For each anatomic region, serial regression was performed to correlate volume receiving a given dose (VD(Gy with memory impairment. Results: Hippocampal V53.4Gy to V60.9Gy significantly predicted post-RT memory impairment (P < .05. Within this range, the hippocampal V55Gy was the most significant predictor (P = .004. Hippocampal V55Gy of 0%, 25%, and 50% was associated with tumor-induced impairment rates of 14.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.2%-28.7%, 45.9% (95% CI, 24.7%-68.6%, and 80.6% (95% CI, 39.2%-96.4%, respectively. Conclusions: The hippocampal V55Gy is a significant predictor for impairment, and a limiting dose below 55 Gy may minimize radiation-induced cognitive impairment.

  20. Pacifier and swaddling effective in impeding premature infant's pain score and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendi, Defi; Rustina, Yeni; Gayatri, Dewi

    2018-02-01

    To assess the effectiveness of pacifier and swaddling on premature infant's pain score, hearthrate, and oxygen saturation during an invasive procedure. This randomized control trial involv 30 premature infants who were randomly assigned into control (n=15) and intervention (n=15) groups using parallel design. Infants in the intervention group received pacifier and swaddling when they were undergoing invasive procedures. The outcome indicators of the two-day intervention were pain score, hearth rate, and oxygen saturation. The Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) was used in this study to measure infants' pain. The paired t-test results showed that the pain score and heart rate were significantly increased following the procedure in the control group (p=0.003; p=0.013 0.005). There was no significant different in oxygen saturation in the control group (p=0.270) and in the intervention (p=0.370) group before and after the procedure. Providing pacifier and swaddling can impede the increase of premature infants' pain score and hearth rate during an invasive procedures, therefore it can be implemented as an alternative to pain management in premature infants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Test-retest reliability at the item level and total score level of the Norwegian version of the Spinal Cord Injury Falls Concern Scale (SCI-FCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roaldsen, Kirsti Skavberg; Måøy, Åsa Blad; Jørgensen, Vivien; Stanghelle, Johan Kvalvik

    2016-05-01

    Translation of the Spinal Cord Injury Falls Concern Scale (SCI-FCS), and investigation of test-retest reliability on item-level and total-score-level. Translation, adaptation and test-retest study. A specialized rehabilitation setting in Norway. Fifty-four wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury. The median age of the cohort was 49 years, and the median number of years after injury was 13. Interventions/measurements: The SCI-FCS was translated and back-translated according to guidelines. Individuals answered the SCI-FCS twice over the course of one week. We investigated item-level test-retest reliability using Svensson's rank-based statistical method for disagreement analysis of paired ordinal data. For relative reliability, we analyzed the total-score-level test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC2.1), the standard error of measurement (SEM), and the smallest detectable change (SDC) for absolute reliability/measurement-error assessment and Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency. All items showed satisfactory percentage agreement (≥69%) between test and retest. There were small but non-negligible systematic disagreements among three items; we recovered an 11-13% higher chance for a lower second score. There was no disagreement due to random variance. The test-retest agreement (ICC2.1) was excellent (0.83). The SEM was 2.6 (12%), and the SDC was 7.1 (32%). The Cronbach's alpha was high (0.88). The Norwegian SCI-FCS is highly reliable for wheelchair users with chronic spinal cord injuries.

  2. The predictive value of an adjusted COPD assessment test score on the risk of respiratory-related hospitalizations in severe COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Christopher A; Bassett, Katherine L; Buckman, Julie; Effing, Tanja W; Frith, Peter A; van der Palen, Job; Sloots, Joanne M

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated whether a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) assessment test (CAT) with adjusted weights for the CAT items could better predict future respiratory-related hospitalizations than the original CAT. Two focus groups (respiratory nurses and physicians) generated two adjusted CAT algorithms. Two multivariate logistic regression models for infrequent (≤1/year) versus frequent (>1/year) future respiratory-related hospitalizations were defined: one with the adjusted CAT score that correlated best with future hospitalizations and one with the original CAT score. Patient characteristics related to future hospitalizations ( p ≤ 0.2) were also entered. Eighty-two COPD patients were included. The CAT algorithm derived from the nurse focus group was a borderline significant predictor of hospitalization risk (odds ratio (OR): 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00-1.14; p = 0.050) in a model that also included hospitalization frequency in the previous year (OR: 3.98; 95% CI: 1.30-12.16; p = 0.016) and anticholinergic risk score (OR: 3.08; 95% CI: 0.87-10.89; p = 0.081). Presence of ischemic heart disease and/or heart failure appeared 'protective' (OR: 0.17; 95% CI: 0.05-0.62; p = 0.007). The original CAT score was not significantly associated with hospitalization risk. In conclusion, as a predictor of respiratory-related hospitalizations, an adjusted CAT score was marginally significant (although the original CAT score was not). 'Previous respiratory-related hospitalizations' was the strongest factor in this equation.

  3. Classifying snakebite in South Africa: Validating a scoring system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors predictive of ATI and the optimal cut-off score for predicting an ATI were identified. These factors were then used to develop a standard scoring system. The score was then tested prospectively for accuracy in a new validation cohort consisting of 100 patients admitted for snakebite to our unit from 1 December 2014 to ...

  4. The Impact of Protein Structure and Sequence Similarity on the Accuracy of Machine-Learning Scoring Functions for Binding Affinity Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjian; Peng, Jiangjun; Leung, Yee; Leung, Kwong-Sak; Wong, Man-Hon; Lu, Gang; Ballester, Pedro J

    2018-03-14

    It has recently been claimed that the outstanding performance of machine-learning scoring functions (SFs) is exclusively due to the presence of training complexes with highly similar proteins to those in the test set. Here, we revisit this question using 24 similarity-based training sets, a widely used test set, and four SFs. Three of these SFs employ machine learning instead of the classical linear regression approach of the fourth SF (X-Score which has the best test set performance out of 16 classical SFs). We have found that random forest (RF)-based RF-Score-v3 outperforms X-Score even when 68% of the most similar proteins are removed from the training set. In addition, unlike X-Score, RF-Score-v3 is able to keep learning with an increasing training set size, becoming substantially more predictive than X-Score when the full 1105 complexes are used for training. These results show that machine-learning SFs owe a substantial part of their performance to training on complexes with dissimilar proteins to those in the test set, against what has been previously concluded using the same data. Given that a growing amount of structural and interaction data will be available from academic and industrial sources, this performance gap between machine-learning SFs and classical SFs is expected to enlarge in the future.

  5. Specificity and false positive rates of the Test of Memory Malingering, Rey 15-item Test, and Rey Word Recognition Test among forensic inpatients with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Christopher M; Glassmire, David M; Zanolini, Shanna Jordan; Wolf, Amanda

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the specificity and false positive (FP) rates of the Rey 15-Item Test (FIT), Word Recognition Test (WRT), and Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) in a sample of 21 forensic inpatients with mild intellectual disability (ID). The FIT demonstrated an FP rate of 23.8% with the standard quantitative cutoff score. Certain qualitative error types on the FIT showed promise and had low FP rates. The WRT obtained an FP rate of 0.0% with previously reported cutoff scores. Finally, the TOMM demonstrated low FP rates of 4.8% and 0.0% on Trial 2 and the Retention Trial, respectively, when applying the standard cutoff score. FP rates are reported for a range of cutoff scores and compared with published research on individuals diagnosed with ID. Results indicated that although the quantitative variables on the FIT had unacceptably high FP rates, the TOMM and WRT had low FP rates, increasing the confidence clinicians can place in scores reflecting poor effort on these measures during ID evaluations. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Similar predictions of etravirine sensitivity regardless of genotypic testing method used: comparison of available scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vingerhoets, Johan; Nijs, Steven; Tambuyzer, Lotke; Hoogstoel, Annemie; Anderson, David; Picchio, Gaston

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare various genotypic scoring systems commonly used to predict virological outcome to etravirine, and examine their concordance with etravirine phenotypic susceptibility. Six etravirine genotypic scoring systems were assessed: Tibotec 2010 (based on 20 mutations; TBT 20), Monogram, Stanford HIVdb, ANRS, Rega (based on 37, 30, 27 and 49 mutations, respectively) and virco(®)TYPE HIV-1 (predicted fold change based on genotype). Samples from treatment-experienced patients who participated in the DUET trials and with both genotypic and phenotypic data (n=403) were assessed using each scoring system. Results were retrospectively correlated with virological response in DUET. κ coefficients were calculated to estimate the degree of correlation between the different scoring systems. Correlation between the five scoring systems and the TBT 20 system was approximately 90%. Virological response by etravirine susceptibility was comparable regardless of which scoring system was utilized, with 70-74% of DUET patients determined as susceptible to etravirine by the different scoring systems achieving plasma viral load <50 HIV-1 RNA copies/ml. In samples classed as phenotypically susceptible to etravirine (fold change in 50% effective concentration ≤3), correlations with genotypic score were consistently high across scoring systems (≥70%). In general, the etravirine genotypic scoring systems produced similar results, and genotype-phenotype concordance was high. As such, phenotypic interpretations, and in their absence all genotypic scoring systems investigated, may be used to reliably predict the activity of etravirine.

  7. Genetic risk scores link body fat distribution with specific cardiometabolic profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendstrup, Mathilde; Sandholt, Camilla H; Andersson Galijatovic, Ehm Astrid

    2016-01-01

    , including fasting serum triglyceride (β = 0.98% mmol/L, P = 3.33 × 10(-) (8) ) and Matsuda index (β = -0.74%, P = 1.29 × 10(-) (4) ). No similar associations for Clusters 2 and 3 were found. The three clusters showed different patterns of association with waist circumference, hip circumference, and height......OBJECTIVE: Forty-nine known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associating with body mass index (BMI)-adjusted waist-hip-ratio (WHR) (WHRadjBMI) were recently suggested to cluster into three groups with different associations to cardiometabolic traits. Genetic risk scores of the clusters...... risk scores and anthropometry and blood samples at fasting and during an oral glucose tolerance test were tested. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and BMI. RESULTS: Cluster 1 associated with an increased risk of diabetes (HR = 1.05, P = 2.74 × 10(-) (4) ) and with a poor metabolic profile...

  8. Genome scan for linkage to asthma using a linkage disequilibrium-lod score test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Slager, S L; Huang, J

    2001-01-01

    We report a genome-wide linkage study of asthma on the German and Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Asthma (CSGA) data. Using a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium test and the nonparametric linkage score, we identified 13 markers from the German data, 1 marker from the African American (CSGA) data, and 7 markers from the Caucasian (CSGA) data in which the p-values ranged between 0.0001 and 0.0100. From our analysis and taking into account previous published linkage studies of asthma, we suggest that three regions in chromosome 5 (around D5S418, D5S644, and D5S422), one region in chromosome 6 (around three neighboring markers D6S1281, D6S291, and D6S1019), one region in chromosome 11 (around D11S2362), and two regions in chromosome 12 (around D12S351 and D12S324) especially merit further investigation.

  9. Applying cognitive acuity theory to the development and scoring of situational judgment tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeds, J Peter

    2017-11-09

    The theory of cognitive acuity (TCA) treats the response options within items as signals to be detected and uses psychophysical methods to estimate the respondents' sensitivity to these signals. Such a framework offers new methods to construct and score situational judgment tests (SJT). Leeds (2012) defined cognitive acuity as the capacity to discern correctness and distinguish between correctness differences among simultaneously presented situation-specific response options. In this study, SJT response options were paired in order to offer the respondent a two-option choice. The contrast in correctness valence between the two options determined the magnitude of signal emission, with larger signals portending a higher probability of detection. A logarithmic relation was found between correctness valence contrast (signal stimulus) and its detectability (sensation response). Respondent sensitivity to such signals was measured and found to be related to the criterion variables. The linkage between psychophysics and elemental psychometrics may offer new directions for measurement theory.

  10. THE EFFICIENCY OF TENNIS DOUBLES SCORING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Pollard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a family of scoring systems for tennis doubles for testing the hypothesis that pair A is better than pair B versus the alternative hypothesis that pair B is better than A, is established. This family or benchmark of scoring systems can be used as a benchmark against which the efficiency of any doubles scoring system can be assessed. Thus, the formula for the efficiency of any doubles scoring system is derived. As in tennis singles, one scoring system based on the play-the-loser structure is shown to be more efficient than the benchmark systems. An expression for the relative efficiency of two doubles scoring systems is derived. Thus, the relative efficiency of the various scoring systems presently used in doubles can be assessed. The methods of this paper can be extended to a match between two teams of 2, 4, 8, …doubles pairs, so that it is possible to establish a measure for the relative efficiency of the various systems used for tennis contests between teams of players.

  11. An ultrasound score for knee osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riecke, B F; Christensen, R.; Torp-Pedersen, S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop standardized musculoskeletal ultrasound (MUS) procedures and scoring for detecting knee osteoarthritis (OA) and test the MUS score's ability to discern various degrees of knee OA, in comparison with plain radiography and the 'Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score' (KOOS......) domains as comparators. METHOD: A cross-sectional study of MUS examinations in 45 patients with knee OA. Validity, reliability, and reproducibility were evaluated. RESULTS: MUS examination for knee OA consists of five separate domains assessing (1) predominantly morphological changes in the medial...... coefficients ranging from 0.75 to 0.97 for the five domains. Construct validity was confirmed with statistically significant correlation coefficients (0.47-0.81, P knee OA. In comparison with standing radiographs...

  12. Test-Retest Reliability and Predictive Validity of the Implicit Association Test in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, James R.; Olson, Kristina R.

    2018-01-01

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is increasingly used in developmental research despite minimal evidence of whether children's IAT scores are reliable across time or predictive of behavior. When test-retest reliability and predictive validity have been assessed, the results have been mixed, and because these studies have differed on many…

  13. Variability in working memory performance explained by epistasis vs polygenic scores in the ZNF804A pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicodemus, Kristin K; Hargreaves, April; Morris, Derek

    2014-01-01

    disorder, major depressive disorder, and other psychosis). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Participants completed a neuropsychological assessment battery designed to target the cognitive deficits of schizophrenia including general cognitive function, episodic memory, working memory, attentional control......, and social cognition. RESULTS: Higher polygenic scores were associated with poorer performance among patients on IQ, memory, and social cognition, explaining 1% to 3% of variation on these scores (range, P = .01 to .03). Using a narrow psychosis training set and independent test sets of narrow phenotype...... psychosis (schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder), broad psychosis, and control participants (n = 89), the addition of 2 interaction terms containing 2 SNPs each increased the R2 for spatial working memory strategy in the independent psychosis test sets from 1.2% using the polygenic score only to 4...

  14. equate: An R Package for Observed-Score Linking and Equating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Albano

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The R package equate contains functions for observed-score linking and equating under single-group, equivalent-groups, and nonequivalent-groups with anchor test(s designs. This paper introduces these designs and provides an overview of observed-score equating with details about each of the supported methods. Examples demonstrate the basic functionality of the equate package.

  15. QUASAR--scoring and ranking of sequence-structure alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birzele, Fabian; Gewehr, Jan E; Zimmer, Ralf

    2005-12-15

    Sequence-structure alignments are a common means for protein structure prediction in the fields of fold recognition and homology modeling, and there is a broad variety of programs that provide such alignments based on sequence similarity, secondary structure or contact potentials. Nevertheless, finding the best sequence-structure alignment in a pool of alignments remains a difficult problem. QUASAR (quality of sequence-structure alignments ranking) provides a unifying framework for scoring sequence-structure alignments that aids finding well-performing combinations of well-known and custom-made scoring schemes. Those scoring functions can be benchmarked against widely accepted quality scores like MaxSub, TMScore, Touch and APDB, thus enabling users to test their own alignment scores against 'standard-of-truth' structure-based scores. Furthermore, individual score combinations can be optimized with respect to benchmark sets based on known structural relationships using QUASAR's in-built optimization routines.

  16. Estimating the Reliability of Aggregated and Within-Person Centered Scores in Ecological Momentary Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Hsien; Weng, Li-Jen

    2012-01-01

    A procedure for estimating the reliability of test scores in the context of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was proposed to take into account the characteristics of EMA measures. Two commonly used test scores in EMA were considered: the aggregated score (AGGS) and the within-person centered score (WPCS). Conceptually, AGGS and WPCS represent…

  17. Smoking habit and psychometric scores: a community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waal-Manning, H J; de Hamel, F A

    1978-09-13

    During the Milton health survey subjects completed a psychometric inventory consisting of the 48 questions of the Middlesex Hospital questionnaire (MHQ) and 26 from the hostility and direction of hostility questionnaire (HDHQ) designed to examine nine psychological dimensions. The 1209 subjects were classified into smoking categories and the scores for each psychometric trait were calculated. Women scored higher than men and heavy smokers scored higher than "never smokers". The psychometric traits and the scores of the four smoking categories after correcting for age and Quetelet's index showed statistically significant differences by analysis of variance in respect of somatic anxiety and depression for both men and women; and free-floating anxiety, phobic anxiety, hysteria, acting out hostility, self criticism and guilt in women. For somatic anxiety the increase in score almost exactly paralleled the increasing quantity of tobacco consumed.

  18. A comparison of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) score and Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) in predictive modelling in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprowicz, Magdalena; Burzynska, Malgorzata; Melcer, Tomasz; Kübler, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    To compare the performance of multivariate predictive models incorporating either the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) score or Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) in order to test whether substituting GCS with the FOUR score in predictive models for outcome in patients after TBI is beneficial. A total of 162 TBI patients were prospectively enrolled in the study. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was conducted to compare the prediction of (1) in-ICU mortality and (2) unfavourable outcome at 3 months post-injury using as predictors either the FOUR score or GCS along with other factors that may affect patient outcome. The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) were used to compare the discriminant ability and predictive power of the models. The internal validation was performed with bootstrap technique and expressed as accuracy rate (AcR). The FOUR score, age, the CT Rotterdam score, systolic ABP and being placed on ventilator within day one (model 1: AUC: 0.906 ± 0.024; AcR: 80.3 ± 4.8%) performed equally well in predicting in-ICU mortality as the combination of GCS with the same set of predictors plus pupil reactivity (model 2: AUC: 0.913 ± 0.022; AcR: 81.1 ± 4.8%). The CT Rotterdam score, age and either the FOUR score (model 3) or GCS (model 4) equally well predicted unfavourable outcome at 3 months post-injury (AUC: 0.852 ± 0.037 vs. 0.866 ± 0.034; AcR: 72.3 ± 6.6% vs. 71.9%±6.6%, respectively). Adding the FOUR score or GCS at discharge from ICU to predictive models for unfavourable outcome increased significantly their performances (AUC: 0.895 ± 0.029, p = 0.05; AcR: 76.1 ± 6.5%; p model 3; and AUC: 0.918 ± 0.025, p model 4), but there was no benefit from substituting GCS with the FOUR score. Results showed that FOUR score and GCS perform equally well in multivariate predictive modelling in TBI.

  19. Transforming Biology Assessment with Machine Learning: Automated Scoring of Written Evolutionary Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu; Mayfield, Elijah

    2012-02-01

    This study explored the use of machine learning to automatically evaluate the accuracy of students' written explanations of evolutionary change. Performance of the Summarization Integrated Development Environment (SIDE) program was compared to human expert scoring using a corpus of 2,260 evolutionary explanations written by 565 undergraduate students in response to two different evolution instruments (the EGALT-F and EGALT-P) that contained prompts that differed in various surface features (such as species and traits). We tested human-SIDE scoring correspondence under a series of different training and testing conditions, using Kappa inter-rater agreement values of greater than 0.80 as a performance benchmark. In addition, we examined the effects of response length on scoring success; that is, whether SIDE scoring models functioned with comparable success on short and long responses. We found that SIDE performance was most effective when scoring models were built and tested at the individual item level and that performance degraded when suites of items or entire instruments were used to build and test scoring models. Overall, SIDE was found to be a powerful and cost-effective tool for assessing student knowledge and performance in a complex science domain.

  20. Validity and reliability of Nintendo Wii Fit balance scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikstrom, Erik A

    2012-01-01

    Interactive gaming systems have the potential to help rehabilitate patients with musculoskeletal conditions. The Nintendo Wii Balance Board, which is part of the Wii Fit game, could be an effective tool to monitor progress during rehabilitation because the board and game can provide objective measures of balance. However, the validity and reliability of Wii Fit balance scores remain unknown. To determine the concurrent validity of balance scores produced by the Wii Fit game and the intrasession and intersession reliability of Wii Fit balance scores. Descriptive laboratory study. Sports medicine research laboratory. Forty-five recreationally active participants (age = 27.0 ± 9.8 years, height = 170.9 ± 9.2 cm, mass = 72.4 ± 11.8 kg) with a heterogeneous history of lower extremity injury. Participants completed a single-limb-stance task on a force plate and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) during the first test session. Twelve Wii Fit balance activities were completed during 2 test sessions separated by 1 week. Postural sway in the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions and the AP, ML, and resultant center-of-pressure (COP) excursions were calculated from the single-limb stance. The normalized reach distance was recorded for the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions of the SEBT. Wii Fit balance scores that the game software generated also were recorded. All 96 of the calculated correlation coefficients among Wii Fit activity outcomes and established balance outcomes were interpreted as poor (r Wii Fit balance activity scores ranged from good (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.80) to poor (ICC = 0.39), with 8 activities having poor intrasession reliability. Similarly, 11 of the 12 Wii Fit balance activity scores demonstrated poor intersession reliability, with scores ranging from fair (ICC = 0.74) to poor (ICC = 0.29). Wii Fit balance activity scores had poor concurrent validity relative to COP outcomes and SEBT

  1. The score statistic of the LD-lod analysis: detecting linkage adaptive to linkage disequilibrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J; Jiang, Y

    2001-01-01

    We study the properties of a modified lod score method for testing linkage that incorporates linkage disequilibrium (LD-lod). By examination of its score statistic, we show that the LD-lod score method adaptively combines two sources of information: (a) the IBD sharing score which is informative for linkage regardless of the existence of LD and (b) the contrast between allele-specific IBD sharing scores which is informative for linkage only in the presence of LD. We also consider the connection between the LD-lod score method and the transmission-disequilibrium test (TDT) for triad data and the mean test for affected sib pair (ASP) data. We show that, for triad data, the recessive LD-lod test is asymptotically equivalent to the TDT; and for ASP data, it is an adaptive combination of the TDT and the ASP mean test. We demonstrate that the LD-lod score method has relatively good statistical efficiency in comparison with the ASP mean test and the TDT for a broad range of LD and the genetic models considered in this report. Therefore, the LD-lod score method is an interesting approach for detecting linkage when the extent of LD is unknown, such as in a genome-wide screen with a dense set of genetic markers. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. The Incentive Effect of Scores: Randomized Evidence from Credit Committees

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Paravisini; Antoinette Schoar

    2013-01-01

    We design a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the adoption of credit scoring with a bank that uses soft information in small businesses lending. We find that credit scores improve the productivity of credit committees, reduce managerial involvement in the loan approval process, and increase the profitability of lending. Credit committee members' effort and output also increase when they anticipate the score becoming available, indicating that scores improve incentives to use existing in...

  3. Elevated background TV exposure over time increases behavioural scores of 18-month-old toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Sirachairat, Chalermpol; Vijakkhana, Nakul; Wilaisakditipakorn, Tanaporn; Pruksananonda, Chandhita

    2015-10-01

    To investigate whether trends of TV exposure from age six to 18 months and adult TV programmes were associated with behavioural concerns of 18-month-old Thai toddlers. There were 194 healthy infants recruited at age six months and followed up until 18 months of age in this present cohort. TV exposure variables were assessed by interviewing in depth at both six- and 18-month-old visits. A mother of each participant rated the child's behaviours using the Child Behaviour Checklist. Infants who were increasingly exposed to TV from age six to 18 months with adult programmes since six months of age had higher pervasive developmental problems and oppositional defiant behaviours scores. Exposure to adult TV programmes at age six months was also associated with emotionally reactive problems, aggression and externalising behaviours in the final regression models. To promote appropriate toddlers' behaviours at age 18 months, elevated background TV exposure over time should be discouraged. Furthermore, paediatricians should emphasise such effects of TV exposure on child behaviours with parents at health supervision visits. As such, parents will be aware of the detrimental effect of increased background TV exposure over time on their children's behaviours. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Personality and Examination Score Correlates of Abnormal Psychology Course Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauker, Jerome D.

    The relationship between the ratings students assigned to an evening undergraduate abnormal psychology class and their scores on objective personality tests and course examinations was investigated. Students (N=70) completed the MMPI and made global ratings of the course; these scores were correlated separately by sex with the T scores of 13 MMPI…

  5. A Moment of Mindfulness: Computer-Mediated Mindfulness Practice Increases State Mindfulness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynsey Mahmood

    Full Text Available Three studies investigated the use of a 5-minute, computer-mediated mindfulness practice in increasing levels of state mindfulness. In Study 1, 54 high school students completed the computer-mediated mindfulness practice in a lab setting and Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS scores were measured before and after the practice. In Study 2 (N = 90 and Study 3 (N = 61, the mindfulness practice was tested with an entirely online sample to test the delivery of the 5-minute mindfulness practice via the internet. In Study 2 and 3, we found a significant increase in TMS scores in the mindful condition, but not in the control condition. These findings highlight the impact of a brief, mindfulness practice for single-session, computer-mediated use to increase mindfulness as a state.

  6. Relationships between narrative language samples and norm-referenced test scores in language assessments of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danahy Ebert, Kerry; Scott, Cheryl M

    2014-10-01

    Both narrative language samples and norm-referenced language tests can be important components of language assessment for school-age children. The present study explored the relationship between these 2 tools within a group of children referred for language assessment. The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical records from 73 school-age children. Participants had completed an oral narrative language sample and at least one norm-referenced language test. Correlations between microstructural language sample measures and norm-referenced test scores were compared for younger (6- to 8-year-old) and older (9- to 12-year-old) children. Contingency tables were constructed to compare the 2 types of tools, at 2 different cutpoints, in terms of which children were identified as having a language disorder. Correlations between narrative language sample measures and norm-referenced tests were stronger for the younger group than the older group. Within the younger group, the level of language assessed by each measure contributed to associations among measures. Contingency analyses revealed moderate overlap in the children identified by each tool, with agreement affected by the cutpoint used. Narrative language samples may complement norm-referenced tests well, but age combined with narrative task can be expected to influence the nature of the relationship.

  7. Modeling Floor Effects in Standardized Vocabulary Test Scores in a Sample of Low SES Hispanic Preschool Children under the Multilevel Structural Equation Modeling Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leina Zhu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and practitioners often use standardized vocabulary tests such as the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-4 (PPVT-4; Dunn and Dunn, 2007 and its companion, the Expressive Vocabulary Test-2 (EVT-2; Williams, 2007, to assess English vocabulary skills as an indicator of children's school readiness. Despite their psychometric excellence in the norm sample, issues arise when standardized vocabulary tests are used to asses children from culturally, linguistically and ethnically diverse backgrounds (e.g., Spanish-speaking English language learners or delayed in some manner. One of the biggest challenges is establishing the appropriateness of these measures with non-English or non-standard English speaking children as often they score one to two standard deviations below expected levels (e.g., Lonigan et al., 2013. This study re-examines the issues in analyzing the PPVT-4 and EVT-2 scores in a sample of 4-to-5-year-old low SES Hispanic preschool children who were part of a larger randomized clinical trial on the effects of a supplemental English shared-reading vocabulary curriculum (Pollard-Durodola et al., 2016. It was found that data exhibited strong floor effects and the presence of floor effects made it difficult to differentiate the invention group and the control group on their vocabulary growth in the intervention. A simulation study is then presented under the multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM framework and results revealed that in regular multilevel data analysis, ignoring floor effects in the outcome variables led to biased results in parameter estimates, standard error estimates, and significance tests. Our findings suggest caution in analyzing and interpreting scores of ethnically and culturally diverse children on standardized vocabulary tests (e.g., floor effects. It is recommended appropriate analytical methods that take into account floor effects in outcome variables should be considered.

  8. The ART score is not effective to select patients for transarterial chemoembolization retreatment in an Italian series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, Eleonora; Terenzi, Laura; Venerandi, Laura; Croci, Luca; Renzulli, Matteo; Mosconi, Cristina; Allegretti, Giulia; Granito, Alessandro; Golfieri, Rita; Bolondi, Luigi; Piscaglia, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The ART score (a point score for the assessment of retreatment with transarterial chemoembolization, TACE) has been recently developed in Austria to differentiate patients who may benefit from multiple sessions of TACE for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment. The primary aim of the study was to test the validity of the ART score in an Italian study cohort. The secondary aims were to evaluate overall survival (OS) and clinical determinants of improved survival in patients treated with multiple TACE sessions. The ART score and the clinical outcome of 51 consecutive patients with HCC submitted to multiple TACE sessions from April 2002 to December 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Median OS was 26.0 months (95% confidence interval 18.4-33.6) with 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates of 75, 33 and 11%, respectively). Thirty-three patients had an ART score of 0-1.5 and in 18 it was ≥2.5, but in our patient series, the ART score was not found to be a predictor of survival (p = 0.173). At univariate analysis, tumor extent (uni- vs. bilobar: 34.0 vs. 9.0 months; p < 0.001), Child-Pugh score before the second TACE (A vs. B7 vs. B8-9: 26.0 vs. 16.0 vs. 5.0 months; p = 0.005) and Child-Pugh score increase between the first and second TACE (absent vs. + 1 point vs. + ≥2 points: 27.0 vs. 4.0 vs. 5.0 months; p < 0.001) were statistically related with survival. At multivariate analysis, only Child-Pugh score increase remained a significant predictor of worse survival (p = 0.001, hazard rate = 11.6). The ART score was not found to work as an objective tool to guide TACE retreatment in our Italian patient series, only the Child-Pugh score increase was an independent predictor of a shorter survival.

  9. Pain Scores Are Not Predictive of Pain Medication Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Galloway

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare Visual Analogue Scale (VAS scores with overall postoperative pain medication requirements including cumulative dose and patterns of medication utilization and to determine whether VAS scores predict pain medication utilization. Methods. VAS scores and pain medication data were collected from participants in a randomized trial of the utility of phenazopyridine for improved pain control following gynecologic surgery. Results. The mean age of the 219 participants was 54 (range19 to 94. We did not detect any association between VAS and pain medication utilization for patient-controlled anesthesia (PCA or RN administered (intravenous or oral medications. We also did not detect any association between the number of VAS scores recorded and mean pain scores. Conclusion. Postoperative VAS scores do not predict pain medication use in catheterized women inpatients following gynecologic surgery. Increased pain severity, as reflected by higher VAS scores, is not associated with an increase in pain assessment. Our findings suggest that VAS scores are of limited utility for optimal pain control. Alternative or complimentary methods may improve pain management.

  10. Normative data for the Maryland CNC Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Lisa Lucks; Mustain, William D; Magro, Jessica

    2014-09-01

    The Maryland consonant-vowel nucleus-consonant (CNC) Test is routinely used in Veterans Administration medical centers, yet there is a paucity of published normative data for this test. The purpose of this study was to provide information on the means and distribution of word-recognition scores on the Maryland CNC Test as a function of degree of hearing loss for a veteran population. A retrospective, descriptive design was conducted. The sample consisted of records from veterans who had Compensation and Pension (C&P) examinations at a Veterans Administration medical center (N = 1,760 ears). Audiometric records of veterans who had C&P examinations during a 10 yr period were reviewed, and the pure-tone averages (PTA4) at four frequencies (1000, 2000, 3000, and 4000 Hz) were documented. The maximum word-recognition score (PBmax) was determined from the performance-intensity functions obtained using the Maryland CNC Test. Correlations were made between PBmax and PTA4. A wide range of word-recognition scores were obtained at all levels of PTA4 for this population. In addition, a strong negative correlation between the PBmax and the PTA4 was observed, indicating that as PTA4 increased, PBmax decreased. Word-recognition scores decreased significantly as hearing loss increased beyond a mild hearing loss. Although threshold was influenced by age, no statistically significant relationship was found between word-recognition score and the age of the participants. RESULTS from this study provide normative data in table and figure format to assist audiologists in interpreting patient results on the Maryland CNC test for a veteran population. These results provide a quantitative method for audiologists to use to interpret word-recognition scores based on pure-tone hearing loss. American Academy of Audiology.

  11. Calving body condition score combined with milk test data and rectal tempreture improved the prognostic value of non-invasive markers for infectious diseases in Holestein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouryar, M.; Mirzaei-Alamouti, H.; Banadaky, M. Dehghan

    2018-01-01

    Early lactating dairy cows, are predisposed for calving-related diseases. Early prediction of “at risk” animals increases the likelihood of a successful recovery. In this regard, test-days milk data and body condition score (BCS) at calving have been evaluated as potential indicators of cows at......), BCS at calving and at the first two milk test-days and RT measured daily from day 1 (parturition) to 14 postpartum. Cows were furthermore monitored for subclinical mastitis (SCM), metritis and endometritis in the postpartum period, and diseases diagnosed using standardized definitions. The predicting...... value of variables were evaluated by Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. None of the determined variables provided accuracy individually in prediction of post-partum diseases. Only the mean value of rectal temperature at week 2 (RT2) showed an area under the curve (AUC) higher than 0...

  12. Managing missing scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Peter; Lauridsen, Henrik Hein

    2011-01-01

    Study Design: Analysis of Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ) and Oswestry Disability Index (Oswestry) responses.Objectives: To determine the prevalence of unanswered questions on the RMDQ23 (23-item RMDQ version) and Oswestry questionnaires. To determine if managing RMDQ23 missing data...... fully completed RMDQ23 and matching Oswestry questionnaire sets. Raw sum scores were calculated, and questions systematically dropped. At each stage, sum scores were converted to a score on a 0-100 scale and the error calculated. Wilcoxon Tests were used to compare the magnitude of the error scores...

  13. A Study of the Use of the "e-rater"® Scoring Engine for the Analytical Writing Measure of the "GRE"® revised General Test. Research Report. ETS RR-14-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, F. Jay; Attali, Yigal; Williamson, David M.; Ridolfi-McCulla, Laura; Ramineni, Chaitanya; Duchnowski, Matthew; Harris, April

    2014-01-01

    In this research, we investigated the feasibility of implementing the "e-rater"® scoring engine as a check score in place of all-human scoring for the "Graduate Record Examinations"® ("GRE"®) revised General Test (rGRE) Analytical Writing measure. This report provides the scientific basis for the use of e-rater as a…

  14. The Reliability and Validity of Weighted Composite Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael; Case, Susan

    The scores on two distinct tests (e.g., essay and objective) are often combined into a composite score, which is used to make decisions. The validity of the observed composite can sometimes be evaluated relative to a separate criterion. In cases where no criterion is available, the observed composite has generally been evaluated in terms of its…

  15. Dichotomous scoring of Trails B in patients referred for a dementia evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Andrew L; Livingston, Ronald B; Smernoff, Eric N; Waits, Bethany L; Harris, James B; Davis, Kent M

    2010-04-01

    The Trail Making Test is a popular neuropsychological test and its interpretation has traditionally used time-based scores. This study examined an alternative approach to scoring that is simply based on the examinees' ability to complete the test. If an examinee is able to complete Trails B successfully, they are coded as "completers"; if not, they are coded as "noncompleters." To assess this approach to scoring Trails B, the performance of 97 diagnostically heterogeneous individuals referred for a dementia evaluation was examined. In this sample, 55 individuals successfully completed Trails B and 42 individuals were unable to complete it. Point-biserial correlations indicated a moderate-to-strong association (r(pb)=.73) between the Trails B completion variable and the Total Scale score of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neurological Status (RBANS), which was larger than the correlation between the Trails B time-based score and the RBANS Total Scale score (r(pb)=.60). As a screen for dementia status, Trails B completion showed a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 100% in this sample. These results suggest that dichotomous scoring of Trails B might provide a brief and clinically useful measure of dementia status.

  16. The Effect of Computer-Based Self-Access Learning on Weekly Vocabulary Test Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Dreyer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to clarify the effectiveness of using an online vocabulary study tool, Quizlet, in an urban high school language arts class. Previous similar studies have mostly dealt with English Language Learners in college settings (Chui, 2013, and were therefore not directed at the issue self-efficacy that is at the heart of the problem of urban high school students in America entering remedial writing programs (Rose, 1989. The study involves 95 students over the course of 14 weeks. Students were tested weekly and were asked to use the Quizlet program in their own free time. The result of this optional involvement was that many students did not participate in the treatment and therefore acted as an elective control group. The resultant data collected shows a strong correlation between the use of an online vocabulary review program and short-term vocabulary retention. The study also showed that students who paced themselves and spread out their study sessions outperformed those students who used the program only for last minute “cram sessions.” The implications of the study are that students who take advantage of tools outside of the classroom are able to out perform their peers. The results are also in line with the call to include technology in the Basic Writing classroom not simply as a tool, but as a “form of discourse” (Jonaitis, 2012. Weekly vocabulary tests, combined with the daily online activity as reported by Quizlet, show that: 1 utilizing the review software improved the scores of most students, 2 those students who used Quizlet to review more than a single time (i.e., several days before the test outperformed those who only used the product once, and 3 students who professed proficiency with the “notebook” system of vocabulary learning appeared not to need the treatment.

  17. Decreasing scoring errors on Wechsler Scale Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linger, Michele L; Ray, Glen E; Zachar, Peter; Underhill, Andrea T; LoBello, Steven G

    2007-10-01

    Studies of graduate students learning to administer the Wechsler scales have generally shown that training is not associated with the development of scoring proficiency. Many studies report on the reduction of aggregated administration and scoring errors, a strategy that does not highlight the reduction of errors on subtests identified as most prone to error. This study evaluated the development of scoring proficiency specifically on the Wechsler (WISC-IV and WAIS-III) Vocabulary, Comprehension, and Similarities subtests during training by comparing a set of 'early test administrations' to 'later test administrations.' Twelve graduate students enrolled in an intelligence-testing course participated in the study. Scoring errors (e.g., incorrect point assignment) were evaluated on the students' actual practice administration test protocols. Errors on all three subtests declined significantly when scoring errors on 'early' sets of Wechsler scales were compared to those made on 'later' sets. However, correcting these subtest scoring errors did not cause significant changes in subtest scaled scores. Implications for clinical instruction and future research are discussed.

  18. Evaluation of the effect of duration of diabetes mellitus on peripheral neuropathy using the United Kingdom screening test scoring system, bio-thesiometry and aesthesiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguejiofor, O C; Odenigbo, C U; Oguejiofor, C B N

    2010-09-01

    Risk factors predisposing to foot ulceration in diabetic subjects are multiple. Long duration of diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor, likewise peripheral neuropathy (PN), which globally, is recognized as the commonest risk factor for foot disease in diabetic subjects. To evaluate the effect of duration of diabetes mellitus on peripheral neuropathy using the United Kingdom Screening Test (UKST) Scoring System, Bio-thesiometry and Aesthesiometry, in Nigerian diabetic subjects without current or previous foot ulceration. One hundred and twenty (120) diabetes mellitus (DM) subjects with and without symptoms of peripheral neuropathy receiving care at the medical outpatient department (MOPD) and the diabetic clinic of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Nigeria, were recruited consecutively as they presented. Data collected included subjects age (years), gender, age at first diagnosis of DM, duration of DM (years) and baseline fasting venous plasma glucose. The United Kingdom Screening Test (UKST) symptom score was used to separate the participants into two groups those with symptoms of PN and those without and the subjects further assessed by three methods the UKST Signs score, Bio-thesiometry and Aesthesiometry to determine the presence . of PN. Among the 120 diabetic participants, 83(69.2%) had neuropathic symptoms (the symptomatic participants) while 37 (30.8%) were asymptomatic (the asymptomatic participants). The different methods of diagnosing PN increasingly detected PN with increasing duration of diabetes. For the symptomatic group, the UKST method detected PN least in those with duration of DM 15 years while for the asymptomatic group, it detected PN in 25.0% of those with duration of DM 15 years. For the symptomatic group, Aesthesiometry detected PN in 65.2% of those with duration of DM 15 years. For the asymptomatic group, it detected PN in 29.2% of those with duration of DM 15 years. Likewise, for the symptomatic group, Bio

  19. Addressing criticisms of existing predictive bias research: cognitive ability test scores still overpredict African Americans' job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Christopher M; Zhao, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Predictive bias studies have generally suggested that cognitive ability test scores overpredict job performance of African Americans, meaning these tests are not predictively biased against African Americans. However, at least 2 issues call into question existing over-/underprediction evidence: (a) a bias identified by Aguinis, Culpepper, and Pierce (2010) in the intercept test typically used to assess over-/underprediction and (b) a focus on the level of observed validity instead of operational validity. The present study developed and utilized a method of assessing over-/underprediction that draws on the math of subgroup regression intercept differences, does not rely on the biased intercept test, allows for analysis at the level of operational validity, and can use meta-analytic estimates as input values. Therefore, existing meta-analytic estimates of key parameters, corrected for relevant statistical artifacts, were used to determine whether African American job performance remains overpredicted at the level of operational validity. African American job performance was typically overpredicted by cognitive ability tests across levels of job complexity and across conditions wherein African American and White regression slopes did and did not differ. Because the present study does not rely on the biased intercept test and because appropriate statistical artifact corrections were carried out, the present study's results are not affected by the 2 issues mentioned above. The present study represents strong evidence that cognitive ability tests generally overpredict job performance of African Americans. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  20. Team-based learning on a third-year pediatric clerkship improves NBME subject exam blood disorder scores

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    Kris Saudek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: At our institution, speculation amongst medical students and faculty exists as to whether team-based learning (TBL can improve scores on high-stakes examinations over traditional didactic lectures. Faculty with experience using TBL developed and piloted a required TBL blood disorders (BD module for third-year medical students on their pediatric clerkship. The purpose of this study is to analyze the BD scores from the NBME subject exams before and after the introduction of the module. Methods: We analyzed institutional and national item difficulties for BD items from the NBME pediatrics content area item analysis reports from 2011 to 2014 before (pre and after (post the pilot (October 2012. Total scores of 590 NBME subject examination students from examinee performance profiles were analyzed pre/post. t-Tests and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to analyze item difficulties for institutional versus national scores and pre/post comparisons of item difficulties and total scores. Results: BD scores for our institution were 0.65 (±0.19 compared to 0.62 (±0.15 nationally (P=0.346; Cohen's d=0.15. The average of post-consecutive BD scores for our students was 0.70(±0.21 compared to examinees nationally [0.64 (±0.15] with a significant mean difference (P=0.031; Cohen's d=0.43. The difference in our institutions pre [0.65 (±0.19] and post [0.70 (±0.21] BD scores trended higher (P=0.391; Cohen's d=0.27. Institutional BD scores were higher than national BD scores for both pre and post, with an effect size that tripled from pre to post scores. Institutional BD scores increased after the use of the TBL module, while overall exam scores remained steadily above national norms. Conclusions: Institutional BD scores were higher than national BD scores for both pre and post, with an effect size that tripled from pre to post scores. Institutional BD scores increased after the use of the TBL module, while overall exam scores remained steadily above

  1. What does my patient's coronary artery calcium score mean? Combining information from the coronary artery calcium score with information from conventional risk factors to estimate coronary heart disease risk

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    Pletcher Mark J

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The coronary artery calcium (CAC score is an independent predictor of coronary heart disease. We sought to combine information from the CAC score with information from conventional cardiac risk factors to produce post-test risk estimates, and to determine whether the score may add clinically useful information. Methods We measured the independent cross-sectional associations between conventional cardiac risk factors and the CAC score among asymptomatic persons referred for non-contrast electron beam computed tomography. Using the resulting multivariable models and published CAC score-specific relative risk estimates, we estimated post-test coronary heart disease risk in a number of different scenarios. Results Among 9341 asymptomatic study participants (age 35–88 years, 40% female, we found that conventional coronary heart disease risk factors including age, male sex, self-reported hypertension, diabetes and high cholesterol were independent predictors of the CAC score, and we used the resulting multivariable models for predicting post-test risk in a variety of scenarios. Our models predicted, for example, that a 60-year-old non-smoking non-diabetic women with hypertension and high cholesterol would have a 47% chance of having a CAC score of zero, reducing her 10-year risk estimate from 15% (per Framingham to 6–9%; if her score were over 100, however (a 17% chance, her risk estimate would be markedly higher (25–51% in 10 years. In low risk scenarios, the CAC score is very likely to be zero or low, and unlikely to change management. Conclusion Combining information from the CAC score with information from conventional risk factors can change assessment of coronary heart disease risk to an extent that may be clinically important, especially when the pre-test 10-year risk estimate is intermediate. The attached spreadsheet makes these calculations easy.

  2. A possible utilization of the mice forced swim test for modeling manic-like increase in vigor and goal-directed behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaisher-Grinberg, Shlomit; Einat, Haim

    2009-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models for bipolar disorder (BPD) is a major factor hindering the research of its pathophysiology and the development of new drug treatments. In line with the notion that BPD might represent a heterogeneous group of disorders, it was suggested that models for specific domains of BPD should be developed. The present study tested the possible utilization of the forced swim test (FST) as a model for the heightened vigor and goal-directed behavior domain of mania, using mice with low baseline immobility. Black Swiss mice were previously identified to have low immobility in the FST but similar spontaneous activity levels compared with several other mice strains. Thus, spontaneous activity and behavior in the FST were evaluated following treatment with the mood stabilizer valproate and the antidepressant imipramine. The results indicated that valproate increased immobility in the FST without affecting spontaneous activity whereas imipramine had no effect in the FST but increased spontaneous activity. These findings suggest that in mice with low baseline immobility scores, the FST might be a useful model for the elevated vigor and goal-directed behavior domain of mania. As such, this test might be well integrated into a battery of models for different domains of BPD.

  3. Longitudinal analysis of standardized test scores of students in the Science Writing Heuristic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanlen, Niphon

    The purpose of this study was to examine the longitudinal impacts of the Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) approach on student science achievement measured by the Iowa Test of Basic Skills (ITBS). A number of studies have reported positive impact of an inquiry-based instruction on student achievement, critical thinking skills, reasoning skills, attitude toward science, etc. So far, studies have focused on exploring how an intervention affects student achievement using teacher/researcher-generated measurement. Only a few studies have attempted to explore the long-term impacts of an intervention on student science achievement measured by standardized tests. The students' science and reading ITBS data was collected from 2000 to 2011 from a school district which had adopted the SWH approach as the main approach in science classrooms since 2002. The data consisted of 12,350 data points from 3,039 students. The multilevel model for change with discontinuity in elevation and slope technique was used to analyze changes in student science achievement growth trajectories prior and after adopting the SWH approach. The results showed that the SWH approach positively impacted students by initially raising science achievement scores. The initial impact was maintained and gradually increased when students were continuously exposed to the SWH approach. Disadvantaged students who were at risk of having low science achievement had bigger benefits from experience with the SWH approach. As a result, existing problematic achievement gaps were narrowed down. Moreover, students who started experience with the SWH approach as early as elementary school seemed to have better science achievement growth compared to students who started experiencing with the SWH approach only in high school. The results found in this study not only confirmed the positive impacts of the SWH approach on student achievement, but also demonstrated additive impacts found when students had longitudinal experiences

  4. Volumetric CT-images improve testing of radiological image interpretation skills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravesloot, Cécile J., E-mail: C.J.Ravesloot@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Schaaf, Marieke F. van der, E-mail: M.F.vanderSchaaf@uu.nl [Department of Pedagogical and Educational Sciences at Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 1, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands); Schaik, Jan P.J. van, E-mail: J.P.J.vanSchaik@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Cate, Olle Th.J. ten, E-mail: T.J.tenCate@umcutrecht.nl [Center for Research and Development of Education at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Gijp, Anouk van der, E-mail: A.vanderGijp-2@umcutrecht.nl [Radiology Department at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht, Room E01.132 (Netherlands); Mol, Christian P., E-mail: C.Mol@umcutrecht.nl [Image Sciences Institute at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands); Vincken, Koen L., E-mail: K.Vincken@umcutrecht.nl [Image Sciences Institute at University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3508 GA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-05-15

    Rationale and objectives: Current radiology practice increasingly involves interpretation of volumetric data sets. In contrast, most radiology tests still contain only 2D images. We introduced a new testing tool that allows for stack viewing of volumetric images in our undergraduate radiology program. We hypothesized that tests with volumetric CT-images enhance test quality, in comparison with traditional completely 2D image-based tests, because they might better reflect required skills for clinical practice. Materials and methods: Two groups of medical students (n = 139; n = 143), trained with 2D and volumetric CT-images, took a digital radiology test in two versions (A and B), each containing both 2D and volumetric CT-image questions. In a questionnaire, they were asked to comment on the representativeness for clinical practice, difficulty and user-friendliness of the test questions and testing program. Students’ test scores and reliabilities, measured with Cronbach's alpha, of 2D and volumetric CT-image tests were compared. Results: Estimated reliabilities (Cronbach's alphas) were higher for volumetric CT-image scores (version A: .51 and version B: .54), than for 2D CT-image scores (version A: .24 and version B: .37). Participants found volumetric CT-image tests more representative of clinical practice, and considered them to be less difficult than volumetric CT-image questions. However, in one version (A), volumetric CT-image scores (M 80.9, SD 14.8) were significantly lower than 2D CT-image scores (M 88.4, SD 10.4) (p < .001). The volumetric CT-image testing program was considered user-friendly. Conclusion: This study shows that volumetric image questions can be successfully integrated in students’ radiology testing. Results suggests that the inclusion of volumetric CT-images might improve the quality of radiology tests by positively impacting perceived representativeness for clinical practice and increasing reliability of the test.

  5. Pre-test probability risk scores and their use in contemporary management of patients with chest pain: One year stress echo cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarco, Daniela Cassar; Papachristidis, Alexandros; Roper, Damian; Tsironis, Ioannis; Byrne, Jonathan; Monaghan, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare how patients with chest pain would be investigated, based on the two guidelines available for UK cardiologists, on the management of patients with stable chest pain. The UK National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE) guideline which was published in 2010 and the European society of cardiology (ESC) guideline published in 2013. Both guidelines utilise pre-test probability risk scores, to guide the choice of investigation. Design We undertook a large retrospective study to investigate the outcomes of stress echocardiography. Setting A large tertiary centre in the UK in a contemporary clinical practice. Participants Two thirds of the patients in the cohort were referred from our rapid access chest pain clinics. Results We found that the NICE risk score overestimates risk by 20% compared to the ESC Risk score. We also found that based on the NICE guidelines, 44% of the patients presenting with chest pain, in this cohort, would have been investigated invasively, with diagnostic coronary angiography. Using the ESC guidelines, only 0.3% of the patients would be investigated invasively. Conclusion The large discrepancy between the two guidelines can be easily reduced if NICE adopted the ESC risk score. PMID:26673458

  6. Original article Stability of WISC-R scores in students with borderline intellectual functioning

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    Anna Maria Jankowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Previous studies on the measurement of intelligence in students with learning difficulties indicate low stability of results observed over time. Therefore, careful analysis of changes in intelligence quotient, as well as in results within Verbal and Performance scale subtests, is necessary. PARTICIPANTS AND PROCEDURE The aim of the research was to analyze changes in WISC-R scores over time in students with borderline intellectual functioning. Test-retest stability of WISC-R was evaluated for Full, Verbal (VIQ, and Performance (PIQ scales. The study involved 30 students, who were tested three times, when their mean age was 8, 10.8, and 13.6 years old. RESULTS The results showed that Full Scale IQ was fairly stable over time and remained below the average level, between –1.01 and –2.00 standard deviations. Significant changes were observed in the Verbal and Performance scale; VIQ decreased and PIQ increased over time. An initially insignificant statistical difference between the scales grew as time progressed. Furthermore, considerable subtest score fluctuation was observed; over time scores in the Vocabulary subtest significantly decreased whereas in Block Design and Picture Arrangement they increased. CONCLUSIONS The authors argue that delayed acquisition of verbal skills may result from chronic school failure and deficiency of educational support experienced by this group of students. Meanwhile, non-verbal skills, that are less dependent on educational influences and academic knowledge, improve with students’ development through their engagement in everyday life activities.

  7. The RIPASA score for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis: A comparison with the modified Alvarado score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Barrientos, C Z; Aquino-González, A; Heredia-Montaño, M; Navarro-Tovar, F; Pineda-Espinosa, M A; Espinosa de Santillana, I A

    2018-02-06

    Acute appendicitis is the first cause of surgical emergencies. It is still a difficult diagnosis to make, especially in young persons, the elderly, and in reproductive-age women, in whom a series of inflammatory conditions can have signs and symptoms similar to those of acute appendicitis. Different scoring systems have been created to increase diagnostic accuracy, and they are inexpensive, noninvasive, and easy to use and reproduce. The modified Alvarado score is probably the most widely used and accepted in emergency services worldwide. On the other hand, the RIPASA score was formulated in 2010 and has greater sensitivity and specificity. There are very few studies conducted in Mexico that compare the different scoring systems for appendicitis. The aim of our article was to compare the modified Alvarado score and the RIPASA score in the diagnosis of patients with abdominal pain and suspected acute appendicitis. An observational, analytic, and prolective study was conducted within the time frame of July 2002 and February 2014 at the Hospital Universitario de Puebla. The questionnaires used for the evaluation process were applied to the patients suspected of having appendicitis. The RIPASA score with 8.5 as the optimal cutoff value: ROC curve (area .595), sensitivity (93.3%), specificity (8.3%), PPV (91.8%), NPV (10.1%). Modified Alvarado score with 6 as the optimal cutoff value: ROC curve (area .719), sensitivity (75%), specificity (41.6%), PPV (93.7%), NPV (12.5%). The RIPASA score showed no advantages over the modified Alvarado score when applied to patients presenting with suspected acute appendicitis. Copyright © 2018 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. Multiple Score Comparison: a network meta-analysis approach to comparison and external validation of prognostic scores

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    Sarah R. Haile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction models and prognostic scores have been increasingly popular in both clinical practice and clinical research settings, for example to aid in risk-based decision making or control for confounding. In many medical fields, a large number of prognostic scores are available, but practitioners may find it difficult to choose between them due to lack of external validation as well as lack of comparisons between them. Methods Borrowing methodology from network meta-analysis, we describe an approach to Multiple Score Comparison meta-analysis (MSC which permits concurrent external validation and comparisons of prognostic scores using individual patient data (IPD arising from a large-scale international collaboration. We describe the challenges in adapting network meta-analysis to the MSC setting, for instance the need to explicitly include correlations between the scores on a cohort level, and how to deal with many multi-score studies. We propose first using IPD to make cohort-level aggregate discrimination or calibration scores, comparing all to a common comparator. Then, standard network meta-analysis techniques can be applied, taking care to consider correlation structures in cohorts with multiple scores. Transitivity, consistency and heterogeneity are also examined. Results We provide a clinical application, comparing prognostic scores for 3-year mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using data from a large-scale collaborative initiative. We focus on the discriminative properties of the prognostic scores. Our results show clear differences in performance, with ADO and eBODE showing higher discrimination with respect to mortality than other considered scores. The assumptions of transitivity and local and global consistency were not violated. Heterogeneity was small. Conclusions We applied a network meta-analytic methodology to externally validate and concurrently compare the prognostic properties

  9. Associations between teaching effectiveness scores and characteristics of presentations in hospital medicine continuing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratelle, John T; Wittich, Christopher M; Yu, Roger C; Newman, James S; Jenkins, Sarah M; Beckman, Thomas J

    2015-09-01

    There is little research regarding characteristics of effective continuing medical education (CME) presentations in hospital medicine (HM). Therefore, we sought to identify associations between validated CME teaching effectiveness scores and characteristics of CME presentations in the field of HM. This was a cross-sectional study of participants and didactic presentations from a national HM CME course in 2014. Participants provided CME teaching effectiveness (CMETE) ratings using an instrument with known validity evidence. Overall CMETE scores (5-point scale: 1 = strongly disagree; 5 = strongly agree) were averaged for each presentation, and associations between scores and presentation characteristics were determined using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The threshold for statistical significance was set at P teaching effectiveness scores and characteristics of effective CME presentations in HM. Our findings, which support previous research in other fields, indicate that CME presentations may be improved by increasing interactivity through the use of audience response systems and allowing longer presentations. © 2015 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  10. Just as smart but not as successful: obese students obtain lower school grades but equivalent test scores to nonobese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, C; Roberts, R D

    2013-01-01

    The obesity epidemic in industrialized nations has important implications for education, as research demonstrates lower academic achievement among obese students. The current paper compares the test scores and school grades of obese, overweight and normal-weight students in secondary and further education, controlling for demographic variables, personality, ability and well-being confounds. This study included 383 eighth-grade students (49% female; study 1) and 1036 students from 24 community colleges and universities (64% female, study 2), both drawn from five regions across the United States. In study 1, body mass index (BMI) was calculated using self-reports and parent reports of weight and height. In study 2, BMI was calculated from self-reported weight and height only. Both samples completed age-appropriate assessments of mathematics, vocabulary and the personality trait conscientiousness. Eighth-grade students additionally completed a measure of life satisfaction, with both self-reports and parent reports of their grades from the previous semester also obtained. Higher education students additionally completed measures of positive and negative affect, and self-reported their grades and college entrance scores. Obese students receive significantly lower grades in middle school (d=0.83), community college (d=0.34) and university (d=0.36), but show no statistically significant differences in intelligence or achievement test scores. Even after controlling for demographic variables, intelligence, personality and well-being, obese students obtain significantly lower grades than normal-weight students in the eighth grade (d=0.39), community college (d=0.42) and university (d=0.31). Lower grades may reflect peer and teacher prejudice against overweight and obese students rather than lack of ability among these students.

  11. Validity and Reliability of Nintendo Wii Fit Balance Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wikstrom, Erik A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Interactive gaming systems have the potential to help rehabilitate patients with musculoskeletal conditions. The Nintendo Wii Balance Board, which is part of the Wii Fit game, could be an effective tool to monitor progress during rehabilitation because the board and game can provide objective measures of balance. However, the validity and reliability of Wii Fit balance scores remain unknown. Objective: To determine the concurrent validity of balance scores produced by the Wii Fit game and the intrasession and intersession reliability of Wii Fit balance scores. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Forty-five recreationally active participants (age  =  27.0 ± 9.8 years, height  =  170.9 ± 9.2 cm, mass  =  72.4 ± 11.8 kg) with a heterogeneous history of lower extremity injury. Intervention(s): Participants completed a single-limb–stance task on a force plate and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) during the first test session. Twelve Wii Fit balance activities were completed during 2 test sessions separated by 1 week. Main Outcome Measure(s): Postural sway in the anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions and the AP, ML, and resultant center-of-pressure (COP) excursions were calculated from the single-limb stance. The normalized reach distance was recorded for the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions of the SEBT. Wii Fit balance scores that the game software generated also were recorded. Results: All 96 of the calculated correlation coefficients among Wii Fit activity outcomes and established balance outcomes were interpreted as poor (r Wii Fit balance activity scores ranged from good (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]  =  0.80) to poor (ICC  =  0.39), with 8 activities having poor intrasession reliability. Similarly, 11 of the 12 Wii Fit balance activity scores demonstrated poor intersession reliability, with

  12. Combination of scoring schemes for protein docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schomburg Dietmar

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Docking algorithms are developed to predict in which orientation two proteins are likely to bind under natural conditions. The currently used methods usually consist of a sampling step followed by a scoring step. We developed a weighted geometric correlation based on optimised atom specific weighting factors and combined them with our previously published amino acid specific scoring and with a comprehensive SVM-based scoring function. Results The scoring with the atom specific weighting factors yields better results than the amino acid specific scoring. In combination with SVM-based scoring functions the percentage of complexes for which a near native structure can be predicted within the top 100 ranks increased from 14% with the geometric scoring to 54% with the combination of all scoring functions. Especially for the enzyme-inhibitor complexes the results of the ranking are excellent. For half of these complexes a near-native structure can be predicted within the first 10 proposed structures and for more than 86% of all enzyme-inhibitor complexes within the first 50 predicted structures. Conclusion We were able to develop a combination of different scoring schemes which considers a series of previously described and some new scoring criteria yielding a remarkable improvement of prediction quality.

  13. The Evolution of the Black-White Test Score Gap in Grades K-3: The Fragility of Results. NBER Working Paper No. 17960

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Timothy N.; Lang, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Although both economists and psychometricians typically treat them as interval scales, test scores are reported using ordinal scales. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study and the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey, we examine the effect of order-preserving scale transformations on the evolution of the black-white reading test…

  14. PAI-1 4G/5G and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms increased the accuracy of two prediction scores for the risk of acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Tudor Radu; Vesa, Ştefan Cristian; Trifa, Adrian Pavel; Crişan, Sorin; Buzoianu, Anca Dana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the accuracy of two scores in predicting the risk of acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis. The study included 170 patients [85 (50%) women and 85 (50%) men] who were diagnosed with acute lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) with duplex ultrasonography. Median age was 62 (52.75; 72) years. The control group consisted of 166 subjects [96 (57.8%) women and 70 (42.2%) men], without DVT, matched for age (± one year) to those in the group with DVT. The patients and controls were selected from those admitted to the internal medicine, cardiology and geriatrics wards within the Municipal Hospital of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, between October 2009 and June 2011. Clinical, demographic and lab data were recorded for each patient. For each patient we calculated the prior risk of DVT using two prediction scores: Caprini and Padua. According to the Padua score only 93 (54.7%) patients with DVT had been at high risk of developing DVT, while 48 (28.9%) of controls were at high risk of developing DVT. When Padua score included PAI-1 4G/5G and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms, the sensitivity increased at 71.7%. Using the Caprini score, we determined that 147 (86.4%) patients with DVT had been at high risk of developing DVT, while 103 (62%) controls were at high risk of developing DVT. A Caprini score higher than 5 was the strongest predictor of acute lower extremity DVT risk. The Caprini prediction score was more sensitive than the Padua score in assessing the high risk of DVT in medical patients. PAI-1 4G/5G and MTHFR C677T polymorphisms increased the sensitivity of Padua score.

  15. Assessment of lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis using hyperpolarized 3-Helium MRI: comparison with Shwachman score, Chrispin-Norman score and spirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beek, Edwin J.R. van; Hill, Catherine; Woodhouse, Neil; Fichele, Stanislao; Fleming, Sally; Wild, Jim M.; Howe, Bridget; Bott, Sandra; Taylor, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    This study assesses the feasibility of hyperpolarized 3-Helium MRI in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and correlates the findings with standard clinical parameters based on chest radiograph (CXR) and pulmonary function tests (PFT). An uncontrolled, observational study in eighteen children with cystic fibrosis aged 5 - 17 years (median 12.1 years), with different severity of disease was carried out. All subjects underwent routine clinical assessment including PFT and standard auxology; CXR was obtained and Shwachman and Chrispin-Norman scores calculated. Hyperpolarized 3-He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out using a spin-exchange polarizer and a whole body 1.5 T scanner. Ventilation distribution images were obtained during a 21-second breath-hold and scored according to previously defined criteria. Spearman's non-parametric correlations test was performed to assess for statistical significance at the p<0.05 level. The children tolerated the procedure well. No desaturation events were observed during 3-He MRI. A significant, albeit moderate, correlation was found between MRI score and FEV1% predicted (r=-0.41; p=0.047) and FVC% predicted (r=-0.42; p=0.04), while there were trends of correlations between Shwachman score and MRI score (r=-0.38; p=0.06) and Shwachman score and FEV1% predicted (r=0.39; p=0.055). The feasibility of hyperpolarized 3-He MRI in children with CF was demonstrated. MRI appears to be able to demonstrate functional lung changes, although correlations with routine clinical tests are only moderate to poor. This non-ionising radiation technique could be useful for monitoring lung disease and assessing therapy in this patient population. (orig.)

  16. Assessment of lung disease in children with cystic fibrosis using hyperpolarized 3-Helium MRI: comparison with Shwachman score, Chrispin-Norman score and spirometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beek, Edwin J.R. van [University of Sheffield, Unit of Academic Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa City (United States); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa City, IA (United States); Hill, Catherine; Woodhouse, Neil; Fichele, Stanislao; Fleming, Sally; Wild, Jim M. [University of Sheffield, Unit of Academic Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Howe, Bridget; Bott, Sandra; Taylor, Christopher J. [University of Sheffield, Academic Unit of Child Health, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    This study assesses the feasibility of hyperpolarized 3-Helium MRI in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and correlates the findings with standard clinical parameters based on chest radiograph (CXR) and pulmonary function tests (PFT). An uncontrolled, observational study in eighteen children with cystic fibrosis aged 5 - 17 years (median 12.1 years), with different severity of disease was carried out. All subjects underwent routine clinical assessment including PFT and standard auxology; CXR was obtained and Shwachman and Chrispin-Norman scores calculated. Hyperpolarized 3-He magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was carried out using a spin-exchange polarizer and a whole body 1.5 T scanner. Ventilation distribution images were obtained during a 21-second breath-hold and scored according to previously defined criteria. Spearman's non-parametric correlations test was performed to assess for statistical significance at the p<0.05 level. The children tolerated the procedure well. No desaturation events were observed during 3-He MRI. A significant, albeit moderate, correlation was found between MRI score and FEV1% predicted (r=-0.41; p=0.047) and FVC% predicted (r=-0.42; p=0.04), while there were trends of correlations between Shwachman score and MRI score (r=-0.38; p=0.06) and Shwachman score and FEV1% predicted (r=0.39; p=0.055). The feasibility of hyperpolarized 3-He MRI in children with CF was demonstrated. MRI appears to be able to demonstrate functional lung changes, although correlations with routine clinical tests are only moderate to poor. This non-ionising radiation technique could be useful for monitoring lung disease and assessing therapy in this patient population. (orig.)

  17. The Effect of Programmed Physical Exercise to Attention and Working Memory Score in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Fachri Muhammad

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention and working memory are two cognitive domain crucial for activities of daily living. Physical exercise increases the level of BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF which contributes in attention and working memory processes.This study was conducted to analyze improvement of attention and working memory after programmed physical exercise of Pendidikan Dasar XXI Atlas Medical Pioneer (Pendas XXI AMP. Methods: An analytic observational study was conducted on 47 students from Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran during September-November 2012. Attention was assessed using digit span backward test, stroop test, visual search task, and trail making test. Working memory was assessed using digit span forward test and digit symbol test. Assessment was done on the 11th and 19th week of Pendas XXI AMP. Data distribution was tested first using a test of normality, and then analyzed using T-Dependent Test and Wilcoxon Test Results: Significant improvement was noted for attention in males based on working time for stroop test (26.50±5.66 to 22.03±3.78 seconds, working memory in males based on digit symbol test score (43.96±6.14 to 53.36±5.26 points, attention in females based on reaction time of visual search task for target absent (0.92±0.07 to 0.87±0.07 seconds, and working memory in females based on digit span forward score (5.42±1.30 to 6.63±1.07 points and digit symbol test score (42.47±5.95 to 53.84±5.33 points. Conclusions: Exercise in Pendas XXI AMP improves attention and working memory for college students in Faculty of Medicine Universitas Padjadjaran.

  18. Performance of machine-learning scoring functions in structure-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcikowski, Maciej; Ballester, Pedro J; Siedlecki, Pawel

    2017-04-25

    Classical scoring functions have reached a plateau in their performance in virtual screening and binding affinity prediction. Recently, machine-learning scoring functions trained on protein-ligand complexes have shown great promise in small tailored studies. They have also raised controversy, specifically concerning model overfitting and applicability to novel targets. Here we provide a new ready-to-use scoring function (RF-Score-VS) trained on 15 426 active and 893 897 inactive molecules docked to a set of 102 targets. We use the full DUD-E data sets along with three docking tools, five classical and three machine-learning scoring functions for model building and performance assessment. Our results show RF-Score-VS can substantially improve virtual screening performance: RF-Score-VS top 1% provides 55.6% hit rate, whereas that of Vina only 16.2% (for smaller percent the difference is even more encouraging: RF-Score-VS top 0.1% achieves 88.6% hit rate for 27.5% using Vina). In addition, RF-Score-VS provides much better prediction of measured binding affinity than Vina (Pearson correlation of 0.56 and -0.18, respectively). Lastly, we test RF-Score-VS on an independent test set from the DEKOIS benchmark and observed comparable results. We provide full data sets to facilitate further research in this area (http://github.com/oddt/rfscorevs) as well as ready-to-use RF-Score-VS (http://github.com/oddt/rfscorevs_binary).

  19. In Vitro Testing of Scaffolds for Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Meniscus Tissue Engineering—Introducing a New Biocompatibility Scoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix P. Achatz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A combination of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs and scaffolds seems to be a promising approach for meniscus repair. To facilitate the search for an appropriate scaffold material a reliable and objective in vitro testing system is essential. This paper introduces a new scoring for this purpose and analyzes a hyaluronic acid (HA gelatin composite scaffold and a polyurethane scaffold in combination with MSCs for tissue engineering of meniscus. The pore quality and interconnectivity of pores of a HA gelatin composite scaffold and a polyurethane scaffold were analyzed by surface photography and Berliner-Blau-BSA-solution vacuum filling. Further the two scaffold materials were vacuum-filled with human MSCs and analyzed by histology and immunohistochemistry after 21 days in chondrogenic media to determine cell distribution and cell survival as well as proteoglycan production, collagen type I and II content. The polyurethane scaffold showed better results than the hyaluronic acid gelatin composite scaffold, with signs of central necrosis in the HA gelatin composite scaffolds. The polyurethane scaffold showed good porosity, excellent pore interconnectivity, good cell distribution and cell survival, as well as an extensive content of proteoglycans and collagen type II. The polyurethane scaffold seems to be a promising biomaterial for a mesenchymal stem cell-based tissue engineering approach for meniscal repair. The new score could be applied as a new standard for in vitro scaffold testing.

  20. Formal testing and utilization of streaming media to improve flight crew safety knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellazzini, Marc A; Rankin, Peter M; Quisling, Jason; Gangnon, Ronald; Kohrs, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Increased concerns over the safety of air medical transport have prompted development of novel ways to increase safety. The objective of our study was to determine if an Internet streaming media safety video increased crew safety knowledge. 23 out of 40 crew members took an online safety pre-test, watched a safety video specific to our program and completed immediate and long-term post-testing 6 months later. Mean pre-test, post-test and 6 month follow up test scores were 84.9%, 92.3% and 88.4% respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in all scores (p Streaming media proved to be an accessible and effective supplement to safety training in our study.

  1. Using Logistic Regression for Validating or Invalidating Initial Statewide Cut-Off Scores on Basic Skills Placement Tests at the Community College Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secolsky, Charles; Krishnan, Sathasivam; Judd, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    The community colleges in the state of New Jersey went through a process of establishing statewide cut-off scores for English and mathematics placement tests. The colleges wanted to communicate to secondary schools a consistent preparation that would be necessary for enrolling in Freshman Composition and College Algebra at the community college…

  2. Does the Computer-Assisted Remedial Mathematics Program at Kearny High School Lead to Improved Scores on the N.J. Early Warning Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalago-Schirm, Cynthia

    Eighth-grade students in New Jersey take the Early Warning Test (EWT), which involves reading, writing, and mathematics. Students with EWT scores below the state level of competency take a remedial mathematics course that provides students with computer-assisted instruction (2 days per week) as well as regular classroom instruction (3 days per…

  3. Raising Test Scores vs. Teaching Higher Order Thinking (HOT): Senior Science Teachers' Views on How Several Concurrent Policies Affect Classroom Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Anat; Alboher Agmon, Vered

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates how senior science teachers viewed the effects of a Raising Test Scores policy and its implementation on instruction of higher order thinking (HOT), and on teaching thinking to students with low academic achievements. Background: The study was conducted in the context of three concurrent policies advocating: (a)…

  4. The SAFARI Score to Assess the Risk of Convulsive Seizure During Admission for Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaja, Blessing N R; Schweizer, Tom A; Claassen, Jan; Le Roux, Peter; Mayer, Stephan A; Macdonald, R Loch

    2018-06-01

    Seizure is a significant complication in patients under acute admission for aneurysmal SAH and could result in poor outcomes. Treatment strategies to optimize management will benefit from methods to better identify at-risk patients. To develop and validate a risk score for convulsive seizure during acute admission for SAH. A risk score was developed in 1500 patients from a single tertiary hospital and externally validated in 852 patients. Candidate predictors were identified by systematic review of the literature and were included in a backward stepwise logistic regression model with in-hospital seizure as a dependent variable. The risk score was assessed for discrimination using the area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC) and for calibration using a goodness-of-fit test. The SAFARI score, based on 4 items (age ≥ 60 yr, seizure occurrence before hospitalization, ruptured aneurysm in the anterior circulation, and hydrocephalus requiring cerebrospinal fluid diversion), had AUC = 0.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.82 in the development cohort. The validation cohort had AUC = 0.65, 95% CI 0.56-0.73. A calibrated increase in the risk of seizure was noted with increasing SAFARI score points. The SAFARI score is a simple tool that adequately stratified SAH patients according to their risk for seizure using a few readily derived predictor items. It may contribute to a more individualized management of seizure following SAH.

  5. Scoring clinical signs can help diagnose canine visceral leishmaniasis in a highly endemic area in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kleverton Ribeiro da; Mendonça, Vitor Rosa Ramos de; Silva, Kellen Matuzzy; Nascimento, Leopoldo Fabrício Marçal do; Mendes-Sousa, Antonio Ferreira; Pinho, Flaviane Alves de; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina Maria Prado; Cruz, Maria do Socorro Pires E

    2017-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) diagnosis is still a challenge in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources. This study proposes a score with the potential to distinguish positive CVL cases from negative ones. We studied 265 dogs that tested positive for CVL on ELISA and parasitological tests. A score ranging between 0 and 19 was recorded on the basis of clinical signs. Dogs with CVL had an overall higher positivity of the majority of clinical signs than did dogs without CVL or with ehrlichiosis. Clinical signs such as enlarged lymph nodes (83.93%), muzzle/ear lesions (55.36%), nutritional status (51.79%), bristle condition (57.14%), pale mucosal colour (48.21%), onychogryphosis (58.93%), skin lesion (39.28%), bleeding (12.50%), muzzle depigmentation (41.07%), alopecia (39.29%), blepharitis (21.43%), and keratoconjunctivitis (42.86%) were more frequent in dogs with CVL than in dogs with ehrlichiosis or without CVL. Moreover, the clinical score increased according to the positivity of all diagnostic tests (ELISA, p muzzle depigmentation (OR: 4.651; 95% CI: 2.218-9.750; p dogs with CVL in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources.

  6. The value of muscular and skeletal scores in the live animal and carcass classification scores as indicators of carcass composition in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drennan, M J; McGee, M; Keane, M G

    2008-05-01

    The objective was to determine the relationship of muscular and skeletal scores taken on the live animal and carcass conformation and fat scores with carcass composition and value. Bulls (n = 48) and heifers (n = 37) of 0.75 to 1.0 late-maturing breed genotypes slaughtered at 16 and 20 months of age, respectively, were used. At 8 months of age (weaning) and immediately pre-slaughter, visual muscular scores were recorded for each animal and additionally skeletal scores were recorded pre-slaughter. Carcass weight, kidney and channel fat weight, carcass conformation and fat scores, fat depth over the longissimus dorsi muscle at the 12th (bulls) or 10th (heifers) rib and carcass length were recorded post-slaughter. Each carcass was subsequently dissected into meat, fat and bone using a commercial dissection procedure. Muscular scores taken pre-slaughter showed positive correlations with killing-out rate (r ≈ 0.65), carcass meat proportion (r ≈ 0.60), value (r ≈ 0.55) and conformation score (r ≈ 0.70), and negative correlations with carcass bone (r ≈ -0.60) and fat (r ≈ -0.4) proportions. Corresponding correlations with muscular scores at weaning were lower. Correlations of skeletal scores taken pre-slaughter, carcass length and carcass weight with killing-out rate and the various carcass traits were mainly not significant. Carcass fat depth and kidney and channel fat weight were negatively correlated with carcass meat proportion and value, and positively correlated with fat proportion. Correlations of carcass conformation score were positive (r = 0.50 to 0.68) with killing-out rate, carcass meat proportion and carcass value and negative with bone (r ≈ -0.56) and fat (r ≈ -0.40) proportions. Corresponding correlations with carcass fat score were mainly negative except for carcass fat proportion (r ≈ 0.79). A one-unit (scale 1 to 15) increase in carcass conformation score increased carcass meat proportion by 8.9 and 8.1 g/kg, decreased fat proportion by

  7. Best waveform score for diagnosing keratoconus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Luz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To test whether corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF can discriminate between keratoconus and normal eyes and to evaluate whether the averages of two consecutive measurements perform differently from the one with the best waveform score (WS for diagnosing keratoconus. METHODS: ORA measurements for one eye per individual were selected randomly from 53 normal patients and from 27 patients with keratoconus. Two groups were considered the average (CH-Avg, CRF-Avg and best waveform score (CH-WS, CRF-WS groups. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to evaluate whether the variables had similar distributions in the Normal and Keratoconus groups. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves were calculated for each parameter to assess the efficacy for diagnosing keratoconus and the same obtained for each variable were compared pairwise using the Hanley-McNeil test. RESULTS: The CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS and CRF-WS differed significantly between the normal and keratoconus groups (p<0.001. The areas under the ROC curve (AUROC for CH-Avg, CRF-Avg, CH-WS, and CRF-WS were 0.824, 0.873, 0.891, and 0.931, respectively. CH-WS and CRF-WS had significantly better AUROCs than CH-Avg and CRF-Avg, respectively (p=0.001 and 0.002. CONCLUSION: The analysis of the biomechanical properties of the cornea through the ORA method has proved to be an important aid in the diagnosis of keratoconus, regardless of the method used. The best waveform score (WS measurements were superior to the average of consecutive ORA measurements for diagnosing keratoconus.

  8. Reliable scar scoring system to assess photographs of burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecott, Gabriel A; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M; Branski, Ludwik K; Hegde, Sachin; Kraft, Robert; Williams, Felicia N; Maldonado, Susana A; Rivero, Haidy G; Rodriguez-Escobar, Noe; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-12-01

    Several scar-scoring scales exist to clinically monitor burn scar development and maturation. Although scoring scars through direct clinical examination is ideal, scars must sometimes be scored from photographs. No scar scale currently exists for the latter purpose. We modified a previously described scar scale (Yeong et al., J Burn Care Rehabil 1997) and tested the reliability of this new scale in assessing burn scars from photographs. The new scale consisted of three parameters as follows: scar height, surface appearance, and color mismatch. Each parameter was assigned a score of 1 (best) to 4 (worst), generating a total score of 3-12. Five physicians with burns training scored 120 representative photographs using the original and modified scales. Reliability was analyzed using coefficient of agreement, Cronbach alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient, variance, and coefficient of variance. Analysis of variance was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Color mismatch and scar height scores were validated by analyzing actual height and color differences. The intraclass correlation coefficient, the coefficient of agreement, and Cronbach alpha were higher for the modified scale than those of the original scale. The original scale produced more variance than that in the modified scale. Subanalysis demonstrated that, for all categories, the modified scale had greater correlation and reliability than the original scale. The correlation between color mismatch scores and actual color differences was 0.84 and between scar height scores and actual height was 0.81. The modified scar scale is a simple, reliable, and useful scale for evaluating photographs of burn patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Suitability of linear scoring in meat sheep: the practical case of Merinizzata Italiana breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Giontella

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear scoring is widely applied in domestic animal species, mainly in cattle and horses. There are only few cases of linear scoring in sheep, probably because the small body size and the narrow range of the classes make difficult to correctly evaluate the measures. In this paper the results of a linear scoring test carried out on Merinizzata Italiana sheep breed in order to verify the feasibility of this method in sheep, are reported. Twenty untrained people, with three different levels of scoring experience in meat sheep morphology, evaluated 52 pluriparous ewes for body length, chest circumference, chest width, rump height, rump width, and withers height; to check for misclassification, their scores were compared with a reference score, previously obtained measuring the same animals by the suitable tools (measuring tape and a Lydtin stick. The percentage of correct scoring ranged from 44.4% for body length to 61.8% for withers height, and was not affected by the experience of the judge. In all characters, the distance of the class from the trait mean had a significant effect in increasing the intensity of misclassifications; the judge’s experience showed a positive effect in reducing the intensity of the misclassification for body length, that was the hardest trait to score. These results encourage to further verifying in practice the linear scoring in the Merinizzata Italiana sheep and in other meat breeds.

  10. Is TB Testing Associated With Increased Blood Interferon-Gamma Levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aideen E. Kennedy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Ireland reports a relatively low prevalence of Johne’s disease (JD compared to international counterparts. Postulated reasons for this include a lower average herd size and a grass-based production system. Ireland also engages in high levels of bovine tuberculosis (bTB testing. As interferon-gamma (IFN-γ is believed to play a key role in protecting against JD, it is our hypothesis that administration of purified protein derivative (PPD, as part of the bTB test, is associated with a systemic increase in IFN-γ production, which may potentially limit clinical progression of the disease. We studied 265 cows (202 Friesian and 63 “Non-Friesian,” e.g., JerseyX, Norwegian Red to assess IFN-γ levels and Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP antibody response before and after the bTB test. As part of the compulsory annual bTB test, avian and bovine PPD were administered at two separate cervical sites. To assess IFN-γ production, blood samples were taken before and 72 h after PPD administration. MAP antibody response was assessed before and 10 days post-PPD administration. A significant increase in MAP antibody response was identified post-bTB compared to pre-bTB response (p < 0.001. Additionally, IFN-γ production significantly increased at the post-bTB time point (p < 0.001 compared to the pre-bTB test readings. This may indicate a beneficial effect of bTB testing in controlling JD.

  11. Does C-reactive Protein Add Prognostic Value to GRACE Score in Acute Coronary Syndromes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, Luis Cláudio Lemos; Vasconcelos, Isis; Garcia, Guilherme; Kalil, Felipe; Ferreira, Felipe; Silva, André; Oliveira, Ruan; Carvalhal, Manuela; Freitas, Caio; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia Maria

    2014-01-01

    The incremental prognostic value of plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in relation to GRACE score has not been established in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with non-ST segment elevation. To test the hypothesis that CRP measurements at admission increases the prognostic value of GRACE score in patients with ACS. A total of 290 subjects, consecutively admitted for ACS, with plasma material obtained upon admission CRP measurement using a high-sensitivity method (nephelometry) were studied. Cardiovascular outcomes during hospitalization were defined by the combination of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal refractory angina. The incidence of cardiovascular events during hospitalization was 15% (18 deaths, 11 myocardial infarctions, 13 angina episodes) with CRP showing C-statistics of 0.60 (95% CI = 0.51-0.70, p = 0.034) in predicting these outcomes. After adjustment for the GRACE score, elevated CRP (defined as the best cutoff point) tended to be associated with hospital events (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 0.92 to 3.88, p = 0.08). However, the addition of the variable elevated CRP in the GRACE model did not result in significant increase in C-statistics, which ranged from 0.705 to 0.718 (p = 0.46). Similarly, there was no significant reclassification of risk with the addition of CRP in the predictor model (net reclassification = 5.7 %, p = 0.15). Although CRP is associated with hospital outcomes, this inflammatory marker does not increase the prognostic value of the GRACE score

  12. Does C-reactive Protein Add Prognostic Value to GRACE Score in Acute Coronary Syndromes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, Luis Cláudio Lemos, E-mail: lccorreia@terra.com.br; Vasconcelos, Isis; Garcia, Guilherme; Kalil, Felipe; Ferreira, Felipe; Silva, André; Oliveira, Ruan; Carvalhal, Manuela; Freitas, Caio; Noya-Rabelo, Márcia Maria [Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Hospital São Rafael, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    The incremental prognostic value of plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in relation to GRACE score has not been established in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with non-ST segment elevation. To test the hypothesis that CRP measurements at admission increases the prognostic value of GRACE score in patients with ACS. A total of 290 subjects, consecutively admitted for ACS, with plasma material obtained upon admission CRP measurement using a high-sensitivity method (nephelometry) were studied. Cardiovascular outcomes during hospitalization were defined by the combination of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction or nonfatal refractory angina. The incidence of cardiovascular events during hospitalization was 15% (18 deaths, 11 myocardial infarctions, 13 angina episodes) with CRP showing C-statistics of 0.60 (95% CI = 0.51-0.70, p = 0.034) in predicting these outcomes. After adjustment for the GRACE score, elevated CRP (defined as the best cutoff point) tended to be associated with hospital events (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 0.92 to 3.88, p = 0.08). However, the addition of the variable elevated CRP in the GRACE model did not result in significant increase in C-statistics, which ranged from 0.705 to 0.718 (p = 0.46). Similarly, there was no significant reclassification of risk with the addition of CRP in the predictor model (net reclassification = 5.7 %, p = 0.15). Although CRP is associated with hospital outcomes, this inflammatory marker does not increase the prognostic value of the GRACE score.

  13. Do medical French students know how to properly score a mini mental state examination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandorena, Intza; Chauvelier, Sophie; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Piccoli, Matthieu; Coulon, Joséphine; Hugonot-Diener, Laurence; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Hanon, Olivier; Duron, Emmanuelle

    2017-06-01

    The mini mental state examination (MMSE) is a validated tool to assess global cognitive function. Training is required before scoring. Inaccurate scoring can lead to inappropriate medical decisions. In France, MMSE is usually scored by medical students. To assess if medical French students know how to properly score a mini mental state examination. Two « physician-patient » role playings performed by 2 specialized physicians, were performed in front of University Paris V medical students. Role playing A: Scoring of a MMSE according to a script containing five tricks; Role playing B: Find the 5 errors committed in a pre-filled MMSE form, according to the second script. One hundred and five students (64.4% of women, 49.5% in fifth medical school year) anonymously participated. Eighty percent of students had already scored a MMSE and 40% had been previously trained to MMSE scoring. Forty five percent of students previously scored an MMSE, without previously being trained. In test A, 16% of students did not commit any errors, 45.7% one error and 38.1% two errors. In test B, the proportion of students who provided 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 good answers was 3.3%, 29.7%, 29.7%, 25.3%, 7.7% and 4.4% respectively. No association between medical school year, previous training to MMSE scoring and performances at both tests were found. French students do not properly score MMSE. MMSE scoring is not enough or accurately taught (by specialists). The university will provide on line the tests and a short filmed teaching course performed by neuropsychological specialists.

  14. Testing measurement invariance of the schizotypal personality questionnaire-brief scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ortuño-Sierra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizotypy is a complex construct intimately related to psychosis. Empirical evidence indicates that participants with high scores on schizotypal self-report are at a heightened risk for the later development of psychotic disorders. Schizotypal experiences represent the behavioural expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Previous factorial studies have shown that schizotypy is a multidimensional construct similar to that found in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B, the three-dimensional model has been widely replicated. However, there has been no in-depth investigation of whether the dimensional structure underlying the SPQ-B scores is invariant across countries. METHODS: The main goal of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the SPQ-B scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents. The final sample was made up of 261 Spanish participants (51.7% men; M = 16.04 years and 241 Swiss participants (52.3% men; M = 15.94 years. RESULTS: The results indicated that Raine et al.'s three-factor model presented adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Moreover, the results supported the measurement invariance (configural and partial strong invariance of the SPQ-B scores across the two samples. Spanish participants scored higher on Interpersonal dimension than Swiss when latent means were compared. DISCUSSION: The study of measurement equivalence across countries provides preliminary evidence for the Raine et al.'s three-factor model and of the cross-cultural validity of the SPQ-B scores in adolescent population. Future studies should continue to examine the measurement invariance of the schizotypy and psychosis-risk syndromes across cultures.

  15. Percentiles of the null distribution of 2 maximum lod score tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulgen, Ayse; Yoo, Yun Joo; Gordon, Derek; Finch, Stephen J; Mendell, Nancy R

    2004-01-01

    We here consider the null distribution of the maximum lod score (LOD-M) obtained upon maximizing over transmission model parameters (penetrance values, dominance, and allele frequency) as well as the recombination fraction. Also considered is the lod score maximized over a fixed choice of genetic model parameters and recombination-fraction values set prior to the analysis (MMLS) as proposed by Hodge et al. The objective is to fit parametric distributions to MMLS and LOD-M. Our results are based on 3,600 simulations of samples of n = 100 nuclear families ascertained for having one affected member and at least one other sibling available for linkage analysis. Each null distribution is approximately a mixture p(2)(0) + (1 - p)(2)(v). The values of MMLS appear to fit the mixture 0.20(2)(0) + 0.80chi(2)(1.6). The mixture distribution 0.13(2)(0) + 0.87chi(2)(2.8). appears to describe the null distribution of LOD-M. From these results we derive a simple method for obtaining critical values of LOD-M and MMLS. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Changes in conjunctival cytology and tear function tests with radioiodine treatment for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koca, Gökhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Acar, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    Radioiodine (RAI) is used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer. Radioiodine therapy is associated with dry eyes and some side effects are seen especially due to beta rays. In this study, the functional and cytological status of lacrimal glands after RAI therapy was evaluated. Twenty-five patients with a mean age of 55.16 years with planned low-dose RAI therapy were evaluated. Just before and 6 months after the treatment, the lacrimal glands were evaluated with tear break-up time (BUT), Schirmer's test, impression cytology and ''Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI)'' questionnaire. The mean value of Schirmer's test was 16.20±3.61 pre-treatment and 11.28±4.39 post-treatment for the right eye, and 15.76±3.27 and 10.60±4.42 for the left eye, respectively. The mean value of Schirmer's test decreased significantly post-treatment in both eyes (p=0.0001). The BUT score also decreased significantly post-treatment (p=0.001). The mean value of OSDI score was 27.5±8.02 pre-treatment and 46.36±10.27 post-treatment. The mean value of OSDI score increased post-treatment (p=0.0001). The impression scores also increased post-treatment in both eyes (p=0.0001). Even low-dose (≤30 mci) RAI treatment affects lacrimal gland functions. Low-dose RAI causes a decrease in the value of Schirmer's test and the BUT test, and an increase in the value of OSDI score and impression scores. (author)

  17. A Standardized DNA Variant Scoring System for Pathogenicity Assessments in Mendelian Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbassi, Izabela; Maston, Glenn A; Love, Angela; DiVincenzo, Christina; Braastad, Corey D; Elzinga, Christopher D; Bright, Alison R; Previte, Domenic; Zhang, Ke; Rowland, Charles M; McCarthy, Michele; Lapierre, Jennifer L; Dubois, Felicita; Medeiros, Katelyn A; Batish, Sat Dev; Jones, Jeffrey; Liaquat, Khalida; Hoffman, Carol A; Jaremko, Malgorzata; Wang, Zhenyuan; Sun, Weimin; Buller-Burckle, Arlene; Strom, Charles M; Keiles, Steven B; Higgins, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    We developed a rules-based scoring system to classify DNA variants into five categories including pathogenic, likely pathogenic, variant of uncertain significance (VUS), likely benign, and benign. Over 16,500 pathogenicity assessments on 11,894 variants from 338 genes were analyzed for pathogenicity based on prediction tools, population frequency, co-occurrence, segregation, and functional studies collected from internal and external sources. Scores were calculated by trained scientists using a quantitative framework that assigned differential weighting to these five types of data. We performed descriptive and comparative statistics on the dataset and tested interobserver concordance among the trained scientists. Private variants defined as variants found within single families (n = 5,182), were either VUS (80.5%; n = 4,169) or likely pathogenic (19.5%; n = 1,013). The remaining variants (n = 6,712) were VUS (38.4%; n = 2,577) or likely benign/benign (34.7%; n = 2,327) or likely pathogenic/pathogenic (26.9%, n = 1,808). Exact agreement between the trained scientists on the final variant score was 98.5% [95% confidence interval (CI) (98.0, 98.9)] with an interobserver consistency of 97% [95% CI (91.5, 99.4)]. Variant scores were stable and showed increasing odds of being in agreement with new data when re-evaluated periodically. This carefully curated, standardized variant pathogenicity scoring system provides reliable pathogenicity scores for DNA variants encountered in a clinical laboratory setting. © 2015 The Authors. **Human Mutation published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Credit scores, cardiovascular disease risk, and human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Salomon; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sanders, Seth; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-12-02

    Credit scores are the most widely used instruments to assess whether or not a person is a financial risk. Credit scoring has been so successful that it has expanded beyond lending and into our everyday lives, even to inform how insurers evaluate our health. The pervasive application of credit scoring has outpaced knowledge about why credit scores are such useful indicators of individual behavior. Here we test if the same factors that lead to poor credit scores also lead to poor health. Following the Dunedin (New Zealand) Longitudinal Study cohort of 1,037 study members, we examined the association between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and the underlying factors that account for this association. We find that credit scores are negatively correlated with cardiovascular disease risk. Variation in household income was not sufficient to account for this association. Rather, individual differences in human capital factors—educational attainment, cognitive ability, and self-control—predicted both credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk and accounted for ∼45% of the correlation between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk. Tracing human capital factors back to their childhood antecedents revealed that the characteristic attitudes, behaviors, and competencies children develop in their first decade of life account for a significant portion (∼22%) of the link between credit scores and cardiovascular disease risk at midlife. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy debates about data privacy, financial literacy, and early childhood interventions.

  19. Cognitive Fatigue Influences Students’ Performance on Standardized Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sievertsen, Hans Henrik; Gino, Francesca; Piovesan, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We identify one potential source of bias that influences children’s performance on standardized tests and that is predictable based on psychological theory: the time at which students take the test. Using test data for all children attending Danish public schools between school years 2009....../10 and 2012/13, we find that, for every hour later in the day, test scores decrease by 0.9% of an SD. In addition, a 20- to 30-minute break improves average test scores. Time of day affects students’ test performance because, over the course of a regular day, students’ mental resources get taxed. Thus......, as the day wears on, students become increasingly fatigued and consequently more likely to underperform on a standardized test....

  20. Re-Scoring the Game’s Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self-report questionnai......This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self......-temporal alignment in the resulting emotional congruency of nondiegetic music. Whereas imaginary aspects of immersive presence are systemically affected by the presentation of dynamic music, sensory spatial aspects show higher sensitivity towards the arousal potential of the music score. It is argued...

  1. Interobserver Reliability of the Total Body Score System for Quantifying Human Decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbs, Gretchen R; Connor, Melissa; Bytheway, Joan A

    2016-03-01

    Several authors have tested the accuracy of the Total Body Score (TBS) method for quantifying decomposition, but none have examined the reliability of the method as a scoring system by testing interobserver error rates. Sixteen participants used the TBS system to score 59 observation packets including photographs and written descriptions of 13 human cadavers in different stages of decomposition (postmortem interval: 2-186 days). Data analysis used a two-way random model intraclass correlation in SPSS (v. 17.0). The TBS method showed "almost perfect" agreement between observers, with average absolute correlation coefficients of 0.990 and average consistency correlation coefficients of 0.991. While the TBS method may have sources of error, scoring reliability is not one of them. Individual component scores were examined, and the influences of education and experience levels were investigated. Overall, the trunk component scores were the least concordant. Suggestions are made to improve the reliability of the TBS method. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Enhance the performance of current scoring functions with the aid of 3D protein-ligand interaction fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Su, Minyi; Liu, Zhihai; Li, Jie; Li, Yan; Wang, Renxiao

    2017-07-18

    In structure-based drug design, binding affinity prediction remains as a challenging goal for current scoring functions. Development of target-biased scoring functions provides a new possibility for tackling this problem, but this approach is also associated with certain technical difficulties. We previously reported the Knowledge-Guided Scoring (KGS) method as an alternative approach (BMC Bioinformatics, 2010, 11, 193-208). The key idea is to compute the binding affinity of a given protein-ligand complex based on the known binding data of an appropriate reference complex, so the error in binding affinity prediction can be reduced effectively. In this study, we have developed an upgraded version, i.e. KGS2, by employing 3D protein-ligand interaction fingerprints in reference selection. KGS2 was evaluated in combination with four scoring functions (X-Score, ChemPLP, ASP, and GoldScore) on five drug targets (HIV-1 protease, carbonic anhydrase 2, beta-secretase 1, beta-trypsin, and checkpoint kinase 1). In the in situ scoring test, considerable improvements were observed in most cases after application of KGS2. Besides, the performance of KGS2 was always better than KGS in all cases. In the more challenging molecular docking test, application of KGS2 also led to improved structure-activity relationship in some cases. KGS2 can be applied as a convenient "add-on" to current scoring functions without the need to re-engineer them, and its application is not limited to certain target proteins as customized scoring functions. As an interpolation method, its accuracy in principle can be improved further with the increasing knowledge of protein-ligand complex structures and binding affinity data. We expect that KGS2 will become a practical tool for enhancing the performance of current scoring functions in binding affinity prediction. The KGS2 software is available upon contacting the authors.

  3. Scoring and Classifying Examinees Using Measurement Decision Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence M. Rudner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and evaluates the use of measurement decision theory (MDT to classify examinees based on their item response patterns. The model has a simple framework that starts with the conditional probabilities of examinees in each category or mastery state responding correctly to each item. The presented evaluation investigates: (1 the classification accuracy of tests scored using decision theory; (2 the effectiveness of different sequential testing procedures; and (3 the number of items needed to make a classification. A large percentage of examinees can be classified accurately with very few items using decision theory. A Java Applet for self instruction and software for generating, calibrating and scoring MDT data are provided.

  4. Dutch validation of the low anterior resection syndrome score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupkens, B J P; Breukink, S O; Olde Reuver Of Briel, C; Tanis, P J; de Noo, M E; van Duijvendijk, P; van Westreenen, H L; Dekker, J W T; Chen, T Y T; Juul, T

    2018-04-21

    The aim of this study was to validate the Dutch translation of the low anterior resection syndrome (LARS) score in a population of Dutch rectal cancer patients. Patients who underwent surgery for rectal cancer received the LARS score questionnaire, a single quality of life (QoL) category question and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30 questionnaire. A subgroup of patients received the LARS score twice to assess the test-retest reliability. A total of 165 patients were included in the analysis, identified in six Dutch centres. The response rate was 62.0%. The percentage of patients who reported 'major LARS' was 59.4%. There was a high proportion of patients with a perfect or moderate fit between the QoL category question and the LARS score, showing a good convergent validity. The LARS score was able to discriminate between patients with or without neoadjuvant radiotherapy (P = 0.003), between total and partial mesorectal excision (P = 0.008) and between age groups (P = 0.039). There was a statistically significant association between a higher LARS score and an impaired function on the global QoL subscale and the physical, role, emotional and social functioning subscales of the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. The test-retest reliability of the LARS score was good, with an interclass correlation coefficient of 0.79. The good psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the LARS score are comparable overall to the earlier validations in other countries. Therefore, the Dutch translation can be considered to be a valid tool for assessing LARS in Dutch rectal cancer patients. Colorectal Disease © 2018 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. The power to detect linkage in complex disease by means of simple LOD-score analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, D A; Abreu, P; Hodge, S E

    1998-09-01

    Maximum-likelihood analysis (via LOD score) provides the most powerful method for finding linkage when the mode of inheritance (MOI) is known. However, because one must assume an MOI, the application of LOD-score analysis to complex disease has been questioned. Although it is known that one can legitimately maximize the maximum LOD score with respect to genetic parameters, this approach raises three concerns: (1) multiple testing, (2) effect on power to detect linkage, and (3) adequacy of the approximate MOI for the true MOI. We evaluated the power of LOD scores to detect linkage when the true MOI was complex but a LOD score analysis assumed simple models. We simulated data from 14 different genetic models, including dominant and recessive at high (80%) and low (20%) penetrances, intermediate models, and several additive two-locus models. We calculated LOD scores by assuming two simple models, dominant and recessive, each with 50% penetrance, then took the higher of the two LOD scores as the raw test statistic and corrected for multiple tests. We call this test statistic "MMLS-C." We found that the ELODs for MMLS-C are >=80% of the ELOD under the true model when the ELOD for the true model is >=3. Similarly, the power to reach a given LOD score was usually >=80% that of the true model, when the power under the true model was >=60%. These results underscore that a critical factor in LOD-score analysis is the MOI at the linked locus, not that of the disease or trait per se. Thus, a limited set of simple genetic models in LOD-score analysis can work well in testing for linkage.

  6. The relationship of live animal muscular and skeletal scores, ultrasound measurements and carcass classification scores with carcass composition and value in steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, S B; Drennan, M J; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2009-11-01

    This study examined the relationship of muscular and skeletal scores and ultrasound measurements in the live animal, and carcass conformation and fat scores with carcass composition and value using 336 steers, slaughtered at 2 years of age. Live animal scores and measurements were recorded at 8 to 12 months of age and pre-slaughter. Following slaughter, each carcass was classified for conformation and fatness and the right side dissected into meat, fat and bone. Carcass conformation scores and fat scores were both measured on a continuous 15-point scale and ranged from 2.0 to 12.0 and from 2.8 to 13.3, respectively. Pre-slaughter muscular scores showed positive correlations (P carcass meat proportion, proportion of high-value cuts in the carcass, conformation score and carcass value, significant negative correlations with carcass fat (r = -0.13) and bone (r = -0.81) proportions, and generally low non-significant relationships with the proportion of high-value cuts in meat and carcass fat score. Pre-slaughter ultrasound muscle depth and carcass conformation score showed similar correlations with carcass traits to those using the pre-slaughter muscular scoring procedure. Pre-slaughter ultrasound fat depth showed positive correlations (P carcass fat proportion (r = 0.59) and fat score (r = 0.63), and significant negative correlations (-0.23 to -0.50) with carcass meat and bone proportions, high-value cuts in the carcass and in meat, and carcass value. Pre-slaughter skeletal scores generally showed poor correlations ranging from -0.38 to 0.52 with the various carcass traits. Corresponding correlations (-0.26 to 0.44) involving records collected at 8 to 12 months of age were lower than those using pre-slaughter records. A one-unit increase in carcass conformation score increased carcass meat proportion and value by 11.2 g/kg and 5.6 cents/kg, respectively. Corresponding values for fat score were -8.2 g/kg and -5.1 cents/kg. In conclusion, both pre-slaughter live animal

  7. Effects of handcuffs on neuropsychological testing: Implications for criminal forensic evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Christine M; Fazio, Rachel L; Dyshniku, Fiona; Denney, Robert L

    2018-01-01

    Neuropsychological evaluations are increasingly performed in forensic contexts, including in criminal settings where security sometimes cannot be compromised to facilitate evaluation according to standardized procedures. Interpretation of nonstandardized assessment results poses significant challenges for the neuropsychologist. Research is limited in regard to the validation of neuropsychological test accommodation and modification practices that deviate from standard test administration; there is no published research regarding the effects of hand restraints upon neuropsychological evaluation results. This study provides preliminary results regarding the impact of restraints on motor functioning and common neuropsychological tests with a motor component. When restrained, performance on nearly all tests utilized was significantly impacted, including Trail Making Test A/B, a coding test, and several tests of motor functioning. Significant performance decline was observed in both raw scores and normative scores. Regression models are also provided in order to help forensic neuropsychologists adjust for the effect of hand restraints on raw scores of these tests, as the hand restraints also resulted in significant differences in normative scores; in the most striking case there was nearly a full standard deviation of discrepancy.

  8. Performance of Surgical Risk Scores to Predict Mortality after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Sinnott Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Predicting mortality in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI remains a challenge. Objectives: To evaluate the performance of 5 risk scores for cardiac surgery in predicting the 30-day mortality among patients of the Brazilian Registry of TAVI. Methods: The Brazilian Multicenter Registry prospectively enrolled 418 patients undergoing TAVI in 18 centers between 2008 and 2013. The 30-day mortality risk was calculated using the following surgical scores: the logistic EuroSCORE I (ESI, EuroSCORE II (ESII, Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS score, Ambler score (AS and Guaragna score (GS. The performance of the risk scores was evaluated in terms of their calibration (Hosmer–Lemeshow test and discrimination [area under the receiver–operating characteristic curve (AUC]. Results: The mean age was 81.5 ± 7.7 years. The CoreValve (Medtronic was used in 86.1% of the cohort, and the transfemoral approach was used in 96.2%. The observed 30-day mortality was 9.1%. The 30-day mortality predicted by the scores was as follows: ESI, 20.2 ± 13.8%; ESII, 6.5 ± 13.8%; STS score, 14.7 ± 4.4%; AS, 7.0 ± 3.8%; GS, 17.3 ± 10.8%. Using AUC, none of the tested scores could accurately predict the 30-day mortality. AUC for the scores was as follows: 0.58 [95% confidence interval (CI: 0.49 to 0.68, p = 0.09] for ESI; 0.54 (95% CI: 0.44 to 0.64, p = 0.42 for ESII; 0.57 (95% CI: 0.47 to 0.67, p = 0.16 for AS; 0.48 (95% IC: 0.38 to 0.57, p = 0.68 for STS score; and 0.52 (95% CI: 0.42 to 0.62, p = 0.64 for GS. The Hosmer–Lemeshow test indicated acceptable calibration for all scores (p > 0.05. Conclusions: In this real world Brazilian registry, the surgical risk scores were inaccurate in predicting mortality after TAVI. Risk models specifically developed for TAVI are required.

  9. Test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals explain gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-11-01

    This study uses analysis of co-variance in order to determine which cognitive/learning (working memory, knowledge integration, epistemic belief of learning) or social/personality factors (test anxiety, performance-avoidance goals) might account for gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT scores. The results revealed that none of the cognitive/learning factors accounted for gender differences in SAT performance. However, the social/personality factors of test anxiety and performance-avoidance goals each separately accounted for all of the significant gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance. Furthermore, when the influences of both of these factors were statistically removed simultaneously, all non-significant gender differences reduced further to become trivial by Cohen's (1988) standards. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that gender differences in SAT-V, SAT-M, and overall SAT performance are a consequence of social/learning factors.

  10. Stability of Scores on Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuty, Melanie E.

    2013-01-01

    Test-retest data on Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised for a group of predominantly White ("N" = 995) women (mean age = 23.5 years, SD = 8.07) and men (mean age = 21.5 years, SD = 5.80) showed stability in mean-level scores over a period of 1 year for the sample as a whole. However, low raw score and rank order stability coefficients…

  11. "Score the Core" Web-based pathologist training tool improves the accuracy of breast cancer IHC4 scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberg, Jesse A; Retallack, Hanna; Balassanian, Ronald; Dowsett, Mitchell; Zabaglo, Lila; Ram, Arishneel A; Apple, Sophia K; Bishop, John W; Borowsky, Alexander D; Carpenter, Philip M; Chen, Yunn-Yi; Datnow, Brian; Elson, Sarah; Hasteh, Farnaz; Lin, Fritz; Moatamed, Neda A; Zhang, Yanhong; Cardiff, Robert D

    2015-11-01

    Hormone receptor status is an integral component of decision-making in breast cancer management. IHC4 score is an algorithm that combines hormone receptor, HER2, and Ki-67 status to provide a semiquantitative prognostic score for breast cancer. High accuracy and low interobserver variance are important to ensure the score is accurately calculated; however, few previous efforts have been made to measure or decrease interobserver variance. We developed a Web-based training tool, called "Score the Core" (STC) using tissue microarrays to train pathologists to visually score estrogen receptor (using the 300-point H score), progesterone receptor (percent positive), and Ki-67 (percent positive). STC used a reference score calculated from a reproducible manual counting method. Pathologists in the Athena Breast Health Network and pathology residents at associated institutions completed the exercise. By using STC, pathologists improved their estrogen receptor H score and progesterone receptor and Ki-67 proportion assessment and demonstrated a good correlation between pathologist and reference scores. In addition, we collected information about pathologist performance that allowed us to compare individual pathologists and measures of agreement. Pathologists' assessment of the proportion of positive cells was closer to the reference than their assessment of the relative intensity of positive cells. Careful training and assessment should be used to ensure the accuracy of breast biomarkers. This is particularly important as breast cancer diagnostics become increasingly quantitative and reproducible. Our training tool is a novel approach for pathologist training that can serve as an important component of ongoing quality assessment and can improve the accuracy of breast cancer prognostic biomarkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Grammar tests increase the ability to lateralize language function in the Wada test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połczyńska, Monika; Curtiss, Susan; Walshaw, Particia; Siddarth, Prabha; Benjamin, Chris; Moseley, Brian D; Vigil, Celia; Jones, Michael; Eliashiv, Dawn; Bookheimer, Susan

    2014-12-01

    Grammar is a core component of the language system, yet it is rarely assessed during the Wada (intracarotid amobarbital) test. It is hypothesized that adding grammar tests to the recovery phase of the Wada test will increase our ability to lateralize language function. Sixteen individuals (nine females, fifteen right-handed, mean age 38.4 years, SD=10.7) with medically refractory temporal lobe epilepsy participated in the study. On EEG ten patients had seizures originating in the left hemisphere (LH), five in the right hemisphere (RH), and one was insufficiently lateralized. We included only patients who were LH-dominant on the standard test in the encoding phase of the Wada test. In the recovery phase of Wada testing the participants underwent evaluation with a standard language and a new test of grammar, the CYCLE-N. Ten patients underwent bilateral injections, six unilateral (one RH, five LH). As expected, injection in the LH decreased language performance to a greater extent than injection to the RH on both tests. However, the CYCLE-N produced more profound language deficits in the injected LH compared to the RH (p=0.01), whereas the standard tests did not cause such pronounced differences (p=0.2). The results suggest that the standard tests did not significantly differentiate the effects of the injections and the CYCLE-N, for the most part, did. Our results are of particular relevance to patients who are too obtunded to speak in the encoding phase. In sum, the CYCLE-N may be helpful in assessing hemispheric dominance for language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Association Between Oxidative Stress and Depressive Symptom Scores in Elderly Population: A Repeated Panel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwoo Han

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Previous epidemiological studies about oxidative stress and depression are limited by hospital-based case-control design, single-time measurements of oxidative stress biomarkers, and the small number of study participants. Therefore, in this study, we analyzed the association between biomarker of oxidative stress and depressive symptom scores using repeatedly measured panel data from a community-dwelling elderly population. Methods From 2008 to 2010, a total of 478 elderly participants residing in Seoul, Korea, were evaluated three times. Participants underwent the Korean version of the Short Form Generic Depression Scale (SGDS-K test for screening depression, and urinary malondialdehyde (MDA levels were measured as an oxidative stress biomarker. We used a generalized estimating equation with a compound symmetry covariance structure to estimate the effects of oxidative stress on depressive symptom scores. Results A two-fold increase in urinary MDA concentration was significantly associated with a 33.88% (95% confidence interval [CI], 21.59% to 47.42% increase in total SGDS-K scores. In subgroup analyses by gender, a two-fold increase in urinary MDA concentration was significantly associated with increased SGDS-K scores in both men and women (men: 30.88%; 95% CI, 10.24% to 55.37%; women: 34.77%; 95% CI, 20.09% to 51.25%. In bivariate analysis after an SGDS-K score ≥8 was defined as depression, the third and the fourth urinary MDA quartiles showed a significantly increased odds ratio(OR of depression compared to the lowest urinary MDA quartile (third quartile OR, 6.51; 95% CI, 1.77 to 24.00; fourth quartile OR, 7.11; 95% CI, 1.99 to 25.42. Conclusions Our study suggests a significant association between oxidative stress and depressive symptoms in the elderly population.

  14. Clinical use of the ABO-Scoring Index: reliability and subtraction frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, William S; Carlson, Sean K; Baumrind, Sheldon; Poulton, Donald R

    2003-10-01

    This study tested the reliability and subtraction frequency of the study model-scoring system of the American Board of Orthodontists (ABO). We used a sample of 36 posttreatment study models that were selected randomly from six different orthodontic offices. Intrajudge and interjudge reliability was calculated using nonparametric statistics (Spearman rank coefficient, Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests). We found differences ranging from 3 to 6 subtraction points (total score) for intrajudge scoring between two sessions. For overall total ABO score, the average correlation was .77. Intrajudge correlation was greatest for occlusal relationships and least for interproximal contacts. Interjudge correlation for ABO score averaged r = .85. Correlation was greatest for buccolingual inclination and least for overjet. The data show that some judges, on average, were much more lenient than others and that this resulted in a range of total scores between 19.7 and 27.5. Most of the deductions were found in the buccal segments and most were related to the second molars. We present these findings in the context of clinicians preparing for the ABO phase III examination and for orthodontists in their ongoing evaluation of clinical results.

  15. Measuring the Success of a Pipeline Program to Increase Nursing Workforce Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Janet R; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Benavides-Vaello, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand changes in knowledge and opinions of underserved American Indian and Hispanic high school students after attending a 2-week summer pipeline program using and testing a pre/postsurvey. The research aims were to (a) psychometrically analyze the survey to determine if scale items could be summed to create a total scale score or subscale scores; (b) assess change in scores pre/postprogram; and (c) examine the survey to make suggestions for modifications and further testing to develop a valid tool to measure changes in student perceptions about going to college and nursing as a result of pipeline programs. Psychometric analysis indicated poor model fit for a 1-factor model for the total scale and majority of subscales. Nonparametric tests indicated statistically significant increases in 13 items and decreases in 2 items. Therefore, while total scores or subscale scores cannot be used to assess changes in perceptions from pre- to postprogram, the survey can be used to examine changes over time in each item. Student did not have an accurate view of nursing and college and underestimated support needed to attend college. However students realized that nursing was a profession with autonomy, respect, and honor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cognitive disparities, lead plumbing, and water chemistry: prior exposure to water-borne lead and intelligence test scores among World War Two U.S. Army enlistees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrie, Joseph P; Rolf, Karen; Troesken, Werner

    2012-01-01

    Higher prior exposure to water-borne lead among male World War Two U.S. Army enlistees was associated with lower intelligence test scores. Exposure was proxied by urban residence and the water pH levels of the cities where enlistees lived in 1930. Army General Classification Test scores were six points lower (nearly 1/3 standard deviation) where pH was 6 (so the water lead concentration for a given amount of lead piping was higher) than where pH was 7 (so the concentration was lower). This difference rose with time exposed. At this time, the dangers of exposure to lead in water were not widely known and lead was ubiquitous in water systems, so these results are not likely the effect of individuals selecting into locations with different levels of exposure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Reliability Generalization: Exploring Variation of Reliability Coefficients of MMPI Clinical Scales Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Kogan, Lori R.; Tani, Crystal R.; Woodall, Renee A.

    2001-01-01

    Used reliability generalization to explore the variance of scores on 10 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) clinical scales drawing on 1,972 articles in the literature on the MMPI. Results highlight the premise that scores, not tests, are reliable or unreliable, and they show that study characteristics do influence scores on the…

  18. Combined reading of contrast enhanced and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging by using a simple sum score

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzer, Anja [Medical University of Vienna (AKH), Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Dietzel, Matthias [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Neuroradiology, Erlangen (Germany); Kaiser, Clemens G. [Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Mannheim (Germany); Baltzer, Pascal A. [Medical University of Vienna (AKH), General Hospital Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria)

    2016-03-15

    To improve specificity of breast MRI by integrating Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) values with contrast enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) using a simple sum score. Retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of patients referred to breast MRI at 1.5 T for further workup of breast lesions. Reading results of CE-MRI were dichotomized into score 1 (suspicious) or 0 (benign). Lesion's ADC-values (in *10-3 mm2/s) were assigned two different scores: ADC{sub 2}: likely malignant (score +1, ADC ≤ 1), indeterminate (score 0, ADC >1- ≤ 1.4) and likely benign (score -1, ADC > 1.4) and ADC{sub 1}: indeterminate (score 0, ADC ≤ 1.4) and likely benign (score -1, ADC > 1.4). Final added CE-MRI and ADC scores >0 were considered suspicious. Reference standard was histology and imaging follow-up of >24 months. Diagnostic parameters were compared using McNemar tests. A total of 150 lesions (73 malignant) were investigated. Reading of CE-MRI showed a sensitivity of 100 % (73/73) and a specificity of 81.8 % (63/77). Additional integration of ADC scores increased specificity (ADC2/ADC1, P = 0.008/0.001) without causing false negative results. Using a simple sum score, ADC-values can be integrated with CE-MRI of the breast, improving specificity. The best approach is using one threshold to exclude cancer. (orig.)

  19. Using genetics to explore whether the cholesterol-lowering drug ezetimibe may cause an increased risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobberø Lauridsen, Bo; Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Background: Results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have raised concern that the cholesterol-lowering drug ezetimibe might increase the risk of cancer. We tested the hypothesis that genetic variation in NPC1L1, mimicking treatment with ezetimibe, was associated with an increased risk...... of cancer. Methods: We included 67 257 individuals from the general population. Of these, 8333 developed cancer and 2057 died of cancer from 1968 to 2011. To mimic the effect of ezetimibe, we calculated weighted allele scores based on the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol-lowering(= NPC1L1......-inhibitory) effect of each variant. We tested the associations of the NPC1L1 allele scores with LDL cholesterol and with risk of any cancer, death from any cancer and 27 site-specific cancers. As a positive control, we tested the association of the NPC1L1 allele scores with risk of ischaemic vascular disease...

  20. The Qualitative Scoring MMSE Pentagon Test (QSPT: A New Method for Differentiating Dementia with Lewy Body from Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Caffarra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis across different variants of degenerative diseases is sometimes controversial. This study aimed to validate a qualitative scoring method for the pentagons copy test (QSPT of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE based on the assessment of different parameters of the pentagons drawing, such as number of angles, distance/intersection, closure/opening, rotation, closing-in, and to verify its efficacy to differentiate dementia with Lewy Body (DLB from Alzheimer's disease (AD. We established the reliability of the qualitative scoring method through the inter-raters and intra-subjects analysis. QSPT was then applied to forty-six AD and forty-six DLB patients, using two phases statistical approach, standard and artificial neural network respectively. DLB patients had significant lower total score in the copy of pentagons and number of angles, distance/intersection, closure/opening, rotation compared to AD. However the logistic regression did not allow to establish any suitable modeling, whereas using Auto-Contractive Map (Auto-CM the DLB was more strongly associated with low scores in some qualitative parameters of pentagon copying, i.e. number of angles and opening/closure and, for the remaining subitems of the MMSE, in naming, repetition and written comprehension, and for demographic variables of gender (male and education (6–13 years. Twist system modeling showed that the QSPT had a good sensitivity (70.29% and specificity (78.67% (ROC-AUC 0.74. The proposed qualitative method of assessment of pentagons copying used in combination with non-linear analysis, showed to be consistent and effective in the differential diagnosis between Lewy Body and Alzheimer’s dementia.

  1. Pulmonary Exacerbation Score in Cystlc Fibrosis Patients: Reliability and Validity Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by recurrent pulmonary exacerbations (PEs), but consensus on diagnostic criteria for PE is lacking. The use of a consistent definition of PE as an outcome measure in CF clinical trials would allow meaningful comparison across centers. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of a simplified version of the Seattle Pulmonary Exacerbation Score (SPEX). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational ...

  2. Errors in ADAS-cog administration and scoring may undermine clinical trials results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, K; De Santi, S; Schneider, L S

    2011-06-01

    The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale - cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) is the most widely used cognitive outcome measure in AD trials. Although errors in administration and scoring have been suggested as factors masking accurate estimates and potential effects of treatments, there have been few formal examinations of errors with the ADAS-cog. We provided ADAS-cog administration training using standard methods to raters who were designated as experienced, potential raters by sponsors or contract research organizations for two clinical trials. Training included 1 hour sessions on test administration, scoring, question periods, and required that raters individually view and score a model ADAS-cog administration. Raters scores were compared to the criterion scores established for the model administration. A total of 108 errors were made by 80.6% of the 72 raters; 37.5% made 1 error, 25.0% made 2 errors and 18.0% made 3 or more. Errors were made in all ADAS-cog subsections. The most common were in word finding difficulty (67% of the raters), word recognition (22%), and orientation (22%). For the raters who made 1, 2, or ≥ 3 errors the ADAS-cog score was 17.5 (95% CI, 17.3 - 17.8), 17.8 (17.0 - 18.5), and 18.8 (17.6 - 20.0), respectively, and compared to the criterion score, 18.3. ADAS-cog means differed significantly and the variances were more than twice as large between those who made errors on word finding and those who did not, 17.6 (SD=1.4) vs. 18.8 (SD=0.9), respectively (χ(2) = 37.2, P ADAS-cog scores and clinical trials outcomes. These errors may undermine detection of medication effects by contributing both to a biased point estimate and increased variance of the outcome.

  3. Bootstrap Score Tests for Fractional Integration in Heteroskedastic ARFIMA Models, with an Application to Price Dynamics in Commodity Spot and Futures Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard; Taylor, A.M. Robert

    Empirical evidence from time series methods which assume the usual I(0)/I(1) paradigm suggests that the efficient market hypothesis, stating that spot and futures prices of a commodity should cointegrate with a unit slope on futures prices, does not hold. However, these statistical methods...... fractionally integrated model we are able to find a body of evidence in support of the efficient market hypothesis for a number of commodities. Our new tests are wild bootstrap implementations of score-based tests for the order of integration of a fractionally integrated time series. These tests are designed...... principle do. A Monte Carlo simulation study demonstrates that very significant improvements infinite sample behaviour can be obtained by the bootstrap vis-à-vis the corresponding asymptotic tests in both heteroskedastic and homoskedastic environments....

  4. My max score AP statistics maximize your score in less time

    CERN Document Server

    Ross, Phd, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    The only study guide to offer expert, customized study plans for every student's needs You've had a year to study...but also a year to forget. As the AP test approaches, other guides reexamine the entire year of material. But only one guide identifies your strengths and weaknesses, then points you directly to the review you need most My Max Score, a new concept developed by AP teachers and exam graders, offers separate review materials for long-term prep and last-minute cram sessions-no matter when you start studying, This is just what you need-plus str

  5. Comparison of formula and number-right scoring in undergraduate medical training: a Rasch model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecilio-Fernandes, Dario; Medema, Harro; Collares, Carlos Fernando; Schuwirth, Lambert; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Tio, René A

    2017-11-09

    Progress testing is an assessment tool used to periodically assess all students at the end-of-curriculum level. Because students cannot know everything, it is important that they recognize their lack of knowledge. For that reason, the formula-scoring method has usually been used. However, where partial knowledge needs to be taken into account, the number-right scoring method is used. Research comparing both methods has yielded conflicting results. As far as we know, in all these studies, Classical Test Theory or Generalizability Theory was used to analyze the data. In contrast to these studies, we will explore the use of the Rasch model to compare both methods. A 2 × 2 crossover design was used in a study where 298 students from four medical schools participated. A sample of 200 previously used questions from the progress tests was selected. The data were analyzed using the Rasch model, which provides fit parameters, reliability coefficients, and response option analysis. The fit parameters were in the optimal interval ranging from 0.50 to 1.50, and the means were around 1.00. The person and item reliability coefficients were higher in the number-right condition than in the formula-scoring condition. The response option analysis showed that the majority of dysfunctional items emerged in the formula-scoring condition. The findings of this study support the use of number-right scoring over formula scoring. Rasch model analyses showed that tests with number-right scoring have better psychometric properties than formula scoring. However, choosing the appropriate scoring method should depend not only on psychometric properties but also on self-directed test-taking strategies and metacognitive skills.

  6. Motivational effects of coronary artery calcium scores on statin adherence and weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Nove K; Cespedes, Lucas; Youssef, George; Li, Dong; Budoff, Matthew J

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect on adherence to statin therapy and assess the effect of beneficial changes in behavior that resulted in weight loss in patients who underwent coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring with cardiac computed tomography. Despite convincing data demonstrating the benefits of HmGCoA inhibitors for both primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease, they remain underused. Also, despite convincing data demonstrating the benefits of weight loss for both primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease, it remains difficult to motivate behavioral changes resulting in weight loss. In this study, we assess whether higher CAC scores are associated with increased compliance with statin medication and whether higher CAC scores are associated with beneficial lifestyle behaviors resulting in weight loss. We retrospectively analyzed patients that had undergone baseline CAC testing and returned for a follow-up scan. All patients had weight documented and were administered a questionnaire regarding compliance to medications. The primary endpoint was measurable weight loss between visit one and visit two and the self-reported compliance to statin use. The study population with data regarding statin compliance consisted of 2608 individuals (72% men, mean age 58±8 years) who were followed for a mean of 4.1±3.2 years after an initial CAC scan. Overall, statin compliance was lowest (27.4%) among those with CAC=0, and gradually increased with higher CAC scores (1-99, 39.2%; 100-399, 53.6%; ≥400, 58.8%; Ptool, a higher rate of adherences with statin therapy was observed in patients with higher CAC scores.

  7. HIV testing is associated with increased knowledge and reductions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV testing is associated with increased knowledge and reductions in sexual risk behaviours among men in Cape Town, South Africa. Lori AJ Scott-Sheldon, Michael P Carey, Kate B Carey, Demetria Cain, Leickness C Simbayi, Vuyelwa Mehlomakhulu, Seth C Kalichman ...

  8. An Evaluation of the IntelliMetric[SM] Essay Scoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Lawrence M.; Garcia, Veronica; Welch, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This report provides a two-part evaluation of the IntelliMetric[SM] automated essay scoring system based on its performance scoring essays from the Analytic Writing Assessment of the Graduate Management Admission Test[TM] (GMAT[TM]). The IntelliMetric system performance is first compared to that of individual human raters, a Bayesian system…

  9. Examining the reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowalski, Joseph H; Liu, Ying; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and examine ways to improve the reliability of change scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Cognitive Subtest (ADAS-Cog). The sample, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, included individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 153) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 352). All participants were administered the ADAS-Cog at baseline and 1 year, and change scores were calculated as the difference in scores over the 1-year period. Three types of change score reliabilities were estimated using multivariate generalizability. Two methods to increase change score reliability were evaluated: reweighting the subtests of the scale and adding more subtests. Reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores over 1 year was low for both the AD sample (ranging from .53 to .64) and the MCI sample (.39 to .61). Reweighting the change scores from the AD sample improved reliability (.68 to .76), but lengthening provided no useful improvement for either sample. The MCI change scores had low reliability, even with reweighting and adding additional subtests. The ADAS-Cog scores had low reliability for measuring change. Researchers using the ADAS-Cog should estimate and report reliability for their use of the change scores. The ADAS-Cog change scores are not recommended for assessment of meaningful clinical change.

  10. Improvement of Risk Prediction After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement by Combining Frailty With Conventional Risk Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenenberger, Andreas W; Moser, André; Bertschi, Dominic; Wenaweser, Peter; Windecker, Stephan; Carrel, Thierry; Stuck, Andreas E; Stortecky, Stefan

    2018-02-26

    This study sought to evaluate whether frailty improves mortality prediction in combination with the conventional scores. European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (EuroSCORE) or Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) score have not been evaluated in combined models with frailty for mortality prediction after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). This prospective cohort comprised 330 consecutive TAVR patients ≥70 years of age. Conventional scores and a frailty index (based on assessment of cognition, mobility, nutrition, and activities of daily living) were evaluated to predict 1-year all-cause mortality using Cox proportional hazards regression (providing hazard ratios [HRs] with confidence intervals [CIs]) and measures of test performance (providing likelihood ratio [LR] chi-square test statistic and C-statistic [CS]). All risk scores were predictive of the outcome (EuroSCORE, HR: 1.90 [95% CI: 1.45 to 2.48], LR chi-square test statistic 19.29, C-statistic 0.67; STS score, HR: 1.51 [95% CI: 1.21 to 1.88], LR chi-square test statistic 11.05, C-statistic 0.64; frailty index, HR: 3.29 [95% CI: 1.98 to 5.47], LR chi-square test statistic 22.28, C-statistic 0.66). A combination of the frailty index with either EuroSCORE (LR chi-square test statistic 38.27, C-statistic 0.72) or STS score (LR chi-square test statistic 28.71, C-statistic 0.68) improved mortality prediction. The frailty index accounted for 58.2% and 77.6% of the predictive information in the combined model with EuroSCORE and STS score, respectively. Net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement confirmed that the added frailty index improved risk prediction. This is the first study showing that the assessment of frailty significantly enhances prediction of 1-year mortality after TAVR in combined risk models with conventional risk scores and relevantly contributes to this improvement. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation

  11. The Pooling-score (P-score): inter- and intra-rater reliability in endoscopic assessment of the severity of dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farneti, D; Fattori, B; Nacci, A; Mancini, V; Simonelli, M; Ruoppolo, G; Genovese, E

    2014-04-01

    This study evaluated the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Pooling score (P-score) in clinical endoscopic evaluation of severity of swallowing disorder, considering excess residue in the pharynx and larynx. The score (minimum 4 - maximum 11) is obtained by the sum of the scores given to the site of the bolus, the amount and ability to control residue/bolus pooling, the latter assessed on the basis of cough, raclage, number of dry voluntary or reflex swallowing acts ( 5). Four judges evaluated 30 short films of pharyngeal transit of 10 solid (1/4 of a cracker), 11 creamy (1 tablespoon of jam) and 9 liquid (1 tablespoon of 5 cc of water coloured with methlyene blue, 1 ml in 100 ml) boluses in 23 subjects (10 M/13 F, age from 31 to 76 yrs, mean age 58.56±11.76 years) with different pathologies. The films were randomly distributed on two CDs, which differed in terms of the sequence of the films, and were given to judges (after an explanatory session) at time 0, 24 hours later (time 1) and after 7 days (time 2). The inter- and intra-rater reliability of the P-score was calculated using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC; 3,k). The possibility that consistency of boluses could affect the scoring of the films was considered. The ICC for site, amount, management and the P-score total was found to be, respectively, 0.999, 0.997, 1.00 and 0.999. Clinical evaluation of a criterion of severity of a swallowing disorder remains a crucial point in the management of patients with pathologies that predispose to complications. The P-score, derived from static and dynamic parameters, yielded a very high correlation among the scores attributed by the four judges during observations carried out at different times. Bolus consistencies did not affect the outcome of the test: the analysis of variance, performed to verify if the scores attributed by the four judges to the parameters selected, might be influenced by the different consistencies of the boluses, was not

  12. Routine blood tests to predict liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yung-Yu; Tung, Shui-Yi; Lee, Kamfai; Wu, Cheng-Shyong; Wei, Kuo-Liang; Shen, Chien-Heng; Chang, Te-Sheng; Lin, Yi-Hsiung

    2012-02-28

    To verify the usefulness of FibroQ for predicting fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C, compared with other noninvasive tests. This retrospective cohort study included 237 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy before treatment. FibroQ, aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR), AST to platelet ratio index, cirrhosis discriminant score, age-platelet index (API), Pohl score, FIB-4 index, and Lok's model were calculated and compared. FibroQ, FIB-4, AAR, API and Lok's model results increased significantly as fibrosis advanced (analysis of variance test: P fibrosis score in chronic hepatitis C compared with other noninvasive tests. FibroQ is a simple and useful test for predicting significant fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  13. Developing an international scoring system for a consensus-based social cognition measure: MSCEIT-managing emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellemann, G S; Green, M F; Kern, R S; Sitarenios, G; Nuechterlein, K H

    2017-10-01

    Measures of social cognition are increasingly being applied to psychopathology, including studies of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Tests of social cognition present unique challenges for international adaptations. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, Managing Emotions Branch (MSCEIT-ME) is a commonly-used social cognition test that involves the evaluation of social scenarios presented in vignettes. This paper presents evaluations of translations of this test in six different languages based on representative samples from the relevant countries. The goal was to identify items from the MSCEIT-ME that show different response patterns across countries using indices of discrepancy and content validity criteria. An international version of the MSCEIT-ME scoring was developed that excludes items that showed undesirable properties across countries. We then confirmed that this new version had better performance (i.e. less discrepancy across regions) in international samples than the version based on the original norms. Additionally, it provides scores that are comparable to ratings based on local norms. This paper shows that it is possible to adapt complex social cognitive tasks so they can provide valid data across different cultural contexts.

  14. Improving personality facet scores with multidimensional computer adaptive testing: an illustration with the Neo Pi-R

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Makransky, Guido; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    2013-01-01

    Narrowly defined personality facet scores are commonly reported and used for making decisions in clinical and organizational settings. Although these facets are typically related, scoring is usually carried out for a single facet at a time. This method can be ineffective and time consuming when

  15. Effects of Absence and Cognitive Skills Index on Various Achievement Indicators. A Study of ISTEP Scores, Discrepancies, and School-Based Math and English Tests of 1997-1998 Seventh Grade Students at Sarah Scott Middle School, Terre Haute, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Holly S.

    This study examines the correlation between absence, cognitive skills index (CSI), and various achievement indicators such as the Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress (ISTEP) test scores, discrepancies, and school-based English and mathematics tests for 64 seventh-grade students from one middle school. Scores for each of the subtests…

  16. Using Minimum Acceptable GRE Scores for Graduate Admissions Suppresses Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Casey

    2014-01-01

    I will present data showing that significant performance disparities on the GRE general test exist based on the test taker's race and gender [1]. Because of the belief that high GRE scores qualify one for graduate studies, the diversity issues faced by STEM fields may originate, at least in part, in misuse of the GRE scores by graduate admissions committees. I will quantitatively demonstrate this by showing that the combination of a hard cut-off and the different score distributions leads to the systematic underrepresentation of certain groups. I will present data from USF’s PhD program that shows a lack of correlation between GRE scores and research ability; similar null results are emerging from numerous other programs. I will then discuss how assessing non-cognitive competencies in the selection process may lead to a more enlightened search for the next generation of scientists. [1] C. W. Miller, "Admissions Criteria and Diversity in Graduate School", APS News Vol 22, Issue 2, The Back Page (2013) http://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/201302/backpage.cfm

  17. The rat whole embryo culture assay using the Dysmorphology Score system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cindy; Panzica-Kelly, Julie; Augustine-Rauch, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The rat whole embryo culture (WEC) system has been used extensively for characterizing teratogenic properties of test chemicals. In this chapter, we describe the methodology for culturing rat embryos as well as a new morphological score system, the Dysmorphology Score (DMS) system for assessing morphology of mid gestation (gestational day 11) rat embryos. In contrast to the developmental stage focused scoring associated with the Brown and Fabro score system, this new score system assesses the respective degree of severity of dysmorphology, which delineates normal from abnormal morphology of specific embryonic structures and organ systems. This score system generates an approach that allows rapid identification and quantification of adverse developmental findings, making it conducive for characterization of compounds for teratogenic properties and screening activities.

  18. Association between the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians Score and Mortality in Patients with Isolated Moderate and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Wu, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-12-03

    Background: The purpose of this study was to use a propensity score-matched analysis to investigate the association between the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool for Asians (OSTA) scores and clinical outcomes of patients with isolated moderate and severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: The study population comprised 7855 patients aged ≥40 years who were hospitalized for treatment of isolated moderate and severe TBI (an Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) ≥3 points only in the head and not in other regions of the body) between 1 January 2009 and 31 December 2014. Patients were categorized as high-risk (OSTA score -1; n = 5359). Two-sided Pearson's chi-squared, or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare categorical data. Unpaired Student's t -test and Mann-Whitney U test were performed to analyze normally and non-normally distributed continuous data, respectively. Propensity score-matching in a 1:1 ratio was performed using NCSS software, with adjustment for covariates. Results: Compared to low-risk patients, high- and medium-risk patients were significantly older and injured more severely. The high- and medium-risk patients had significantly higher mortality rates, longer hospital length of stay, and a higher proportion of admission to the intensive care unit than low-risk patients. Analysis of propensity score-matched patients with adjusted covariates, including gender, co-morbidity, blood alcohol concentration level, Glasgow Coma Scale score, and Injury Severity Score revealed that high- and medium-risk patients still had a 2.4-fold (odds ratio (OR), 2.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.39-4.15; p = 0.001) and 1.8-fold (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.19-2.86; p = 0.005) higher mortality, respectively, than low-risk patients. However, further addition of age as a covariate for the propensity score-matching demonstrated that there was no significant difference between high-risk and low-risk patients or between medium-risk and low-risk patients, implying that older age

  19. Inadvertent Splenectomy During Resection for Colorectal Cancer Does Not Increase Long-term Mortality in a Propensity Score Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lolle, Ida; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Schefte, David F

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest that long-term mortality is increased in patients who undergo splenectomy during surgery for colorectal cancer. The reason for this association remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between inadvertent...... splenectomy attributed to iatrogenic lesion to the spleen during colorectal cancer resections and long-term mortality in a national cohort of unselected patients. DESIGN: This was a retrospective, nationwide cohort study. SETTINGS: Data were collected from the database of the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group...... for patients surviving 30 days after surgery. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality and risk factors for inadvertent splenectomy. Multivariable and propensity-score matched Cox regression analyses were used to adjust for potential confounding. RESULTS: In total, 23,727 patients were included, of which 277...

  20. All-cause mortality in asymptomatic persons with extensive Agatston scores above 1000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jaideep; Blaha, Michael J; McEvoy, John W; Qadir, Sadia; Tota-Maharaj, Rajesh; Shaw, Leslee J; Rumberger, John A; Callister, Tracy Q; Berman, Daniel S; Min, James K; Raggi, Paolo; Agatston, Arthur A; Blumenthal, Roger S; Budoff, Matthew J; Nasir, Khurram

    2014-01-01

    Risk assessment in the extensive calcified plaque phenotype has been limited by small sample size. We studied all-cause mortality rates among asymptomatic patients with markedly elevated Agatston scores > 1000. We studied a clinical cohort of 44,052 asymptomatic patients referred for coronary calcium scans. Mean follow-up was 5.6 years (range, 1-13 years). All-cause mortality rates were calculated after stratifying by Agatston score (0, 1-1000, 1001-1500, 1500-2000, and >2000). A multivariable Cox regression model adjusting for self-reported traditional risk factors was created to assess the relative mortality hazard of Agatston scores 1001 to 1500, 1501 to 2000, and >2000. With the use of post-estimation modeling, we assessed for the presence of an upper threshold of risk with high Agatston scores. A total of 1593 patients (4% of total population) had Agatston score > 1000. There was a continuous graded decrease in estimated 10-year survival across increasing Agatston score, continuing when Agatston score > 1000 (Agatston score 1001-1500, 78%; Agatston score 1501-2000, 74%; Agatston score > 2000, 51%). After multivariable adjustment, Agatston scores 1001 to 1500, 1501 to 2000, and >2000 were associated with an 8.05-, 7.45-, and 13.26-fold greater mortality risk, respectively, than for Agatston score of 0. Compared with Agatston score 1001 to 1500, Agatston score 1501 to 2000 had a similar all-cause mortality risk, whereas Agatston score > 2000 had an increased relative risk (Agatston score 1501-2000: hazard ratio [HR], 1.01 [95% CI, 0.67-1.51]; Agatston score > 2000: HR, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.30-2.46]). Graphical assessment of the predicted survival model suggests no upper threshold for risk associated with calcified plaque in coronary arteries. Increasing calcified plaque in coronary arteries continues to predict a graded decrease in survival among patients with extensive Agatston score > 1000 with no apparent upper threshold. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Target-specific support vector machine scoring in structure-based virtual screening: computational validation, in vitro testing in kinases, and effects on lung cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liwei; Khanna, May; Jo, Inha; Wang, Fang; Ashpole, Nicole M; Hudmon, Andy; Meroueh, Samy O

    2011-04-25

    We assess the performance of our previously reported structure-based support vector machine target-specific scoring function across 41 targets, 40 among them from the Directory of Useful Decoys (DUD). The area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic plots (ROC-AUC) revealed that scoring with SVM-SP resulted in consistently better enrichment over all target families, outperforming Glide and other scoring functions, most notably among kinases. In addition, SVM-SP performance showed little variation among protein classes, exhibited excellent performance in a test case using a homology model, and in some cases showed high enrichment even with few structures used to train a model. We put SVM-SP to the test by virtual screening 1125 compounds against two kinases, EGFR and CaMKII. Among the top 25 EGFR compounds, three compounds (1-3) inhibited kinase activity in vitro with IC₅₀ of 58, 2, and 10 μM. In cell cultures, compounds 1-3 inhibited nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (H1299) cancer cell proliferation with similar IC₅₀ values for compound 3. For CaMKII, one compound inhibited kinase activity in a dose-dependent manner among 20 tested with an IC₅₀ of 48 μM. These results are encouraging given that our in-house library consists of compounds that emerged from virtual screening of other targets with pockets that are different from typical ATP binding sites found in kinases. In light of the importance of kinases in chemical biology, these findings could have implications in future efforts to identify chemical probes of kinases within the human kinome.

  2. Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory Scores of Boys with Severe Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Frank H.; Johnson, Ardes

    1972-01-01

    Scores on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory of 44 behaviorally disturbed boys ranging in age from 8 to 12 years were compared with the test's norms, with later retest scores, with teacher assigned self esteem ranks, and with peer group status as measured by sociometric procedures. (DB)

  3. Analyzing Test-Taking Behavior: Decision Theory Meets Psychometric Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budescu, David V; Bo, Yuanchao

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the implications of penalizing incorrect answers to multiple-choice tests, from the perspective of both test-takers and test-makers. To do so, we use a model that combines a well-known item response theory model with prospect theory (Kahneman and Tversky, Prospect theory: An analysis of decision under risk, Econometrica 47:263-91, 1979). Our results reveal that when test-takers are fully informed of the scoring rule, the use of any penalty has detrimental effects for both test-takers (they are always penalized in excess, particularly those who are risk averse and loss averse) and test-makers (the bias of the estimated scores, as well as the variance and skewness of their distribution, increase as a function of the severity of the penalty).

  4. Improving Scores on the IELTS Speaking Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issitt, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This article presents three strategies for teaching students who are taking the IELTS speaking test. The first strategy is aimed at improving confidence and uses a variety of self-help materials from the field of popular psychology. The second encourages students to think critically and invokes a range of academic perspectives. The third strategy…

  5. Predicting PTSD using the New York Risk Score with genotype data: potential clinical and research opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boscarino JA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Joseph A Boscarino,1,2 H Lester Kirchner,3,4 Stuart N Hoffman,5 Porat M Erlich1,4 1Center for Health Research, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, 2Department of Psychiatry, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, 3Division of Medicine, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, 4Department of Medicine, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, 5Department of Neurology, Geisinger Clinic, Danville, PA, USA Background: We previously developed a post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD screening instrument, ie, the New York PTSD Risk Score (NYPRS, that was effective in predicting PTSD. In the present study, we assessed a version of this risk score that also included genetic information. Methods: Utilizing diagnostic testing methods, we hierarchically examined different prediction variables identified in previous NYPRS research, including genetic risk-allele information, to assess lifetime and current PTSD status among a population of trauma-exposed adults. Results: We found that, in predicting lifetime PTSD, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC for the Primary Care PTSD Screen alone was 0.865. When we added psychosocial predictors from the original NYPRS to the model, including depression, sleep disturbance, and a measure of health care access, the AUC increased to 0.902, which was a significant improvement (P = 0.0021. When genetic information was added in the form of a count of PTSD risk alleles located within FKBP, COMT, CHRNA5, and CRHR1 genetic loci (coded 0–6, the AUC increased to 0.920, which was also a significant improvement (P = 0.0178. The results for current PTSD were similar. In the final model for current PTSD with the psychosocial risk factors included, genotype resulted in a prediction weight of 17 for each risk allele present, indicating that a person with six risk alleles or more would receive a PTSD risk score of 17 × 6 = 102, the highest risk score for any of the predictors studied. Conclusion: Genetic

  6. Continuous equilibrium scores: factoring in the time before a fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J; Reschke, Millard F; Owen Black, F

    2012-07-01

    The equilibrium (EQ) score commonly used in computerized dynamic posturography is normalized between 0 and 100, with falls assigned a score of 0. The resulting mixed discrete-continuous distribution limits certain statistical analyses and treats all trials with falls equally. We propose a simple modification of the formula in which peak-to-peak sway data from trials with falls is scaled according the percent of the trial completed to derive a continuous equilibrium (cEQ) score. The cEQ scores for trials without falls remain unchanged from the original methodology. The cEQ factors in the time before a fall and results in a continuous variable retaining the central tendencies of the original EQ distribution. A random set of 5315 Sensory Organization Test trials were pooled that included 81 falls. A comparison of the original and cEQ distributions and their rank ordering demonstrated that trials with falls continue to constitute the lower range of scores with the cEQ methodology. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.997) demonstrates that the cEQ retained near-perfect discrimination between trials with and without falls. We conclude that the cEQ score provides the ability to discriminate between ballistic falls from falls that occur later in the trial. This approach of incorporating time and sway magnitude can be easily extended to enhance other balance tests that include fall data or incomplete trials. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictive power of the grace score in population with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza-Román, Anna; de Miguel-Balsa, Eva; Latour-Pérez, Jaime; Carrillo-López, Andrés

    2017-12-01

    Current clinical practice guidelines recommend risk stratification in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) upon admission to hospital. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is widely recognized as an independent predictor of mortality in these patients, although it is not included in the GRACE risk score. The objective of this study is to validate the GRACE risk score in a contemporary population and particularly in the subgroup of patients with diabetes, and to test the effects of including the DM variable in the model. Retrospective cohort study in patients included in the ARIAM-SEMICYUC registry, with a diagnosis of ACS and with available in-hospital mortality data. We tested the predictive power of the GRACE score, calculating the area under the ROC curve. We assessed the calibration of the score and the predictive ability based on type of ACS and the presence of DM. Finally, we evaluated the effect of including the DM variable in the model by calculating the net reclassification improvement. The GRACE score shows good predictive power for hospital mortality in the study population, with a moderate degree of calibration and no significant differences based on ACS type or the presence of DM. Including DM as a variable did not add any predictive value to the GRACE model. The GRACE score has an appropriate predictive power, with good calibration and clinical applicability in the subgroup of diabetic patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Scoring clinical signs can help diagnose canine visceral leishmaniasis in a highly endemic area in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleverton Ribeiro da Silva

    Full Text Available Canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL diagnosis is still a challenge in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources. This study proposes a score with the potential to distinguish positive CVL cases from negative ones. We studied 265 dogs that tested positive for CVL on ELISA and parasitological tests. A score ranging between 0 and 19 was recorded on the basis of clinical signs. Dogs with CVL had an overall higher positivity of the majority of clinical signs than did dogs without CVL or with ehrlichiosis. Clinical signs such as enlarged lymph nodes (83.93%, muzzle/ear lesions (55.36%, nutritional status (51.79%, bristle condition (57.14%, pale mucosal colour (48.21%, onychogryphosis (58.93%, skin lesion (39.28%, bleeding (12.50%, muzzle depigmentation (41.07%, alopecia (39.29%, blepharitis (21.43%, and keratoconjunctivitis (42.86% were more frequent in dogs with CVL than in dogs with ehrlichiosis or without CVL. Moreover, the clinical score increased according to the positivity of all diagnostic tests (ELISA, p < 0.001; parasite culture, p = 0.0021; and smear, p = 0.0003. Onychogryphosis (long nails [odds ratio (OR: 3.529; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.832-6.796; p < 0.001], muzzle depigmentation (OR: 4.651; 95% CI: 2.218-9.750; p < 0.001, and keratoconjunctivitis (OR: 5.400; 95% CI: 2.549-11.441; p < 0.001 were highly associated with CVL. Interestingly, a score cut-off value ≥ 6 had an area under the curve of 0.717 (p < 0.0001, sensitivity of 60.71%, and specificity of 73.64% for CVL diagnosis. The clinical sign-based score for CVL diagnosis suggested herein can help veterinarians reliably identify dogs with CVL in endemic areas with limited diagnostic resources.

  9. Advantages of micronuclei analysis through images autocapturing and screen scoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González, J.E.; Martínez-López, W.

    2015-01-01

    The cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) test is a quantitative assay for genetic toxicity assessment. One of the advantages of the MN assay is its amenability for automation. Different type of cells has been used to evaluate genetic damage through MN assay, such as, human lymphocytes and rodent cell lines (i.e. CHO, V79, CHL and L5178Y). The MN quantification is a time consuming process and several efforts has been conducted for its automation. Some of them include an operator checking step, like PathFinder CellScan System, or are fully automated such as MNScore from MetaSytems. Usually, fully automated systems detect two or three times less MN than visual scoring. In some cases, the impact of false positive detection is reduced with a visual detection step. In the present work we have tested a combination of image autocapturing of CHOK1 cells previously treated with bleomycin (0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 μg/ml) or UVC (0, 4, 8 and 16 J/m”2 ) with a screen scoring. Capturing images using the AutoCapture option from Metafer 4 from MetaSystems (GmbH, Germany) plus screen scoring render similar results in terms of MN cells frequency than microscopic live scoring. The resultant bias from the Bland–Altman analysis was -1.1% with confidence intervals between -2.2% and -0.1%, indicating an acceptable agreement between both MN scoring method. However, the mean time devoted to live microscope scoring per sample was 159 minutes compared to 39 minutes for microscope images autocapturing and screen scoring. Therefore, it become advantageous to combine autocapturing of microscope images plus screen scoring when many samples have to be analyzed for radiological biodosimetry purposes. (authors)

  10. WebScore: An Effective Page Scoring Approach for Uncertain Web Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaojie Qiao

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To effectively score pages with uncertainty in web social networks, we first proposed a new concept called transition probability matrix and formally defined the uncertainty in web social networks. Second, we proposed a hybrid page scoring algorithm, called WebScore, based on the PageRank algorithm and three centrality measures including degree, betweenness, and closeness. Particularly,WebScore takes into a full consideration of the uncertainty of web social networks by computing the transition probability from one page to another. The basic idea ofWebScore is to: (1 integrate uncertainty into PageRank in order to accurately rank pages, and (2 apply the centrality measures to calculate the importance of pages in web social networks. In order to verify the performance of WebScore, we developed a web social network analysis system which can partition web pages into distinct groups and score them in an effective fashion. Finally, we conducted extensive experiments on real data and the results show that WebScore is effective at scoring uncertain pages with less time deficiency than PageRank and centrality measures based page scoring algorithms.

  11. 'Mechanical restraint-confounders, risk, alliance score': testing the clinical validity of a new risk assessment instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichmann Nielsen, Lea; Bech, Per; Hounsgaard, Lise; Alkier Gildberg, Frederik

    2017-08-01

    Unstructured risk assessment, as well as confounders (underlying reasons for the patient's risk behaviour and alliance), risk behaviour, and parameters of alliance, have been identified as factors that prolong the duration of mechanical restraint among forensic mental health inpatients. To clinically validate a new, structured short-term risk assessment instrument called the Mechanical Restraint-Confounders, Risk, Alliance Score (MR-CRAS), with the intended purpose of supporting the clinicians' observation and assessment of the patient's readiness to be released from mechanical restraint. The content and layout of MR-CRAS and its user manual were evaluated using face validation by forensic mental health c