WorldWideScience

Sample records for test samples consisted

  1. VLE measurements using a static cell vapor phase manual sampling method accompanied with an empirical data consistency test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitag, Joerg; Kosuge, Hitoshi; Schmelzer, Juergen P.; Kato, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We use a new, simple static cell vapor phase manual sampling method (SCVMS) for VLE (x, y, T) measurement. • The method is applied to non-azeotropic, asymmetric and two-liquid phase forming azeotropic binaries. • The method is approved by a data consistency test, i.e., a plot of the polarity exclusion factor vs. pressure. • The consistency test reveals that with the new SCVMS method accurate VLE near ambient temperature can be measured. • Moreover, the consistency test approves that the effect of air in the SCVMS system is negligible. - Abstract: A new static cell vapor phase manual sampling (SCVMS) method is used for the simple measurement of constant temperature x, y (vapor + liquid) equilibria (VLE). The method was applied to the VLE measurements of the (methanol + water) binary at T/K = (283.2, 298.2, 308.2 and 322.9), asymmetric (acetone + 1-butanol) binary at T/K = (283.2, 295.2, 308.2 and 324.2) and two-liquid phase forming azeotropic (water + 1-butanol) binary at T/K = (283.2 and 298.2). The accuracy of the experimental data was approved by a data consistency test, that is, an empirical plot of the polarity exclusion factor, β, vs. the system pressure, P. The SCVMS data are accurate, because the VLE data converge to the same lnβ vs. lnP straight line determined from conventional distillation-still method and a headspace gas chromatography method

  2. CONSISTENCY UNDER SAMPLING OF EXPONENTIAL RANDOM GRAPH MODELS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla; Rinaldo, Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The growing availability of network data and of scientific interest in distributed systems has led to the rapid development of statistical models of network structure. Typically, however, these are models for the entire network, while the data consists only of a sampled sub-network. Parameters for the whole network, which is what is of interest, are estimated by applying the model to the sub-network. This assumes that the model is consistent under sampling , or, in terms of the theory of stochastic processes, that it defines a projective family. Focusing on the popular class of exponential random graph models (ERGMs), we show that this apparently trivial condition is in fact violated by many popular and scientifically appealing models, and that satisfying it drastically limits ERGM's expressive power. These results are actually special cases of more general results about exponential families of dependent random variables, which we also prove. Using such results, we offer easily checked conditions for the consistency of maximum likelihood estimation in ERGMs, and discuss some possible constructive responses.

  3. Development of an ASTM standard glass durability test, the Product Consistency Test (PCT), for high level radioactive waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    The nation's first, and the world's largest, facility to immobilize high-level nuclear waste in durable borosilicate glass has started operation at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. The product specifications on the glass wasteform produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) required extensive characterization of the glass product before actual production began and for continued characterization during production. To aid in this characterization, a glass durability (leach) test was needed that was easily reproducible, could be performed remotely on highly radioactive samples, and could yield results rapidly. Several standard leach tests were examined with a variety of test configurations. Using existing tests as a starting point, the DWPF Product Consistency Test (PCT was developed in which crushed glass samples are exposed to 90 ± 2 degree C deionized water for seven days. Based on extensive testing, including a seven-laboratory round robin and confirmatory testing with radioactive samples, the PCT is very reproducible, yields reliable results rapidly, and can be performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples

  4. Remaining useful life prediction based on variation coefficient consistency test of a Wiener process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan LI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-cost equipment is often reused after maintenance, and whether the information before the maintenance can be used for the Remaining Useful Life (RUL prediction after the maintenance is directly determined by the consistency of the degradation pattern before and after the maintenance. Aiming at this problem, an RUL prediction method based on the consistency test of a Wiener process is proposed. Firstly, the parameters of the Wiener process estimated by Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE are proved to be biased, and a modified unbiased estimation method is proposed and verified by derivation and simulations. Then, the h statistic is constructed according to the reciprocal of the variation coefficient of the Wiener process, and the sampling distribution is derived. Meanwhile, a universal method for the consistency test is proposed based on the sampling distribution theorem, which is verified by simulation data and classical crack degradation data. Finally, based on the consistency test of the degradation model, a weighted fusion RUL prediction method is presented for the fuel pump of an airplane, and the validity of the presented method is verified by accurate computation results of real data, which provides a theoretical and practical guidance for engineers to predict the RUL of equipment after maintenance.

  5. Operability test report for core sample truck number one flammable gas modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report primarily consists of the original test procedure used for the Operability Testing of the flammable gas modifications to Core Sample Truck No. One. Included are exceptions, resolutions, comments, and test results. This report consists of the original, completed, test procedure used for the Operability Testing of the flammable gas modifications to the Push Mode Core Sample Truck No. 1. Prior to the Acceptance/Operability test the truck No. 1 operations procedure (TO-080-503) was revised to be more consistent with the other core sample truck procedures and to include operational steps/instructions for the SR weather cover pressurization system. A draft copy of the operations procedure was used to perform the Operability Test Procedure (OTP). A Document Acceptance Review Form is included with this report (last page) indicating the draft status of the operations procedure during the OTP. During the OTP 11 test exceptions were encountered. Of these exceptions four were determined to affect Acceptance Criteria as listed in the OTP, Section 4.7 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

  6. Leaching characteristics of the metal waste form from the electrometallurgical treatment process: Product consistency testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S. G.; Keiser, D. D.; Frank, S. M.; DiSanto, T.; Noy, M.

    1999-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is developing an electrometallurgical treatment for spent fuel from the experimental breeder reactor II. A product of this treatment process is a metal waste form that incorporates the stainless steel cladding hulls, zirconium from the fuel and the fission products that are noble to the process, i.e., Tc, Ru, Nb, Pd, Rh, Ag. The nominal composition of this waste form is stainless steel/15 wt% zirconium/1--4 wt% noble metal fission products/1--2 wt % U. Leaching results are presented from several tests and sample types: (1) 2 week monolithic immersion tests on actual metal waste forms produced from irradiated cladding hulls, (2) long term (>2 years) pulsed flow tests on samples containing technetium and uranium and (3) crushed sample immersion tests on cold simulated metal waste form samples. The test results will be compared and their relevance for waste form product consistency testing discussed

  7. A two-sample Bayesian t-test for microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimmic Matthew W

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining whether a gene is differentially expressed in two different samples remains an important statistical problem. Prior work in this area has featured the use of t-tests with pooled estimates of the sample variance based on similarly expressed genes. These methods do not display consistent behavior across the entire range of pooling and can be biased when the prior hyperparameters are specified heuristically. Results A two-sample Bayesian t-test is proposed for use in determining whether a gene is differentially expressed in two different samples. The test method is an extension of earlier work that made use of point estimates for the variance. The method proposed here explicitly calculates in analytic form the marginal distribution for the difference in the mean expression of two samples, obviating the need for point estimates of the variance without recourse to posterior simulation. The prior distribution involves a single hyperparameter that can be calculated in a statistically rigorous manner, making clear the connection between the prior degrees of freedom and prior variance. Conclusion The test is easy to understand and implement and application to both real and simulated data shows that the method has equal or greater power compared to the previous method and demonstrates consistent Type I error rates. The test is generally applicable outside the microarray field to any situation where prior information about the variance is available and is not limited to cases where estimates of the variance are based on many similar observations.

  8. Nuclear waste glass product consistency test (PCT), Version 5.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Ramsey, W.G.; Waters, B.J.

    1992-06-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), poured into stainless steel canisters, and eventually disposed of in a geologic repository. In order to comply with the Waste Acceptance Preliminary Specifications (WAPS), the durability of the glass needs to be measured during production to assure its long term stability and radionuclide release properties. A durability test, designated the Produce Consistency Test (PCT), was developed for DWPF glass in order to meet the WAPS requirements. The response of the PCT procedure was based on extensive testing with glasses of widely different compositions. The PCT was determined to be very reproducible, to yield reliable results rapidly, and to be easily performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples. Version 5.0 of the PCT procedure is attached

  9. Test of Gross Motor Development : Expert Validity, confirmatory validity and internal consistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cristina Valentini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 is an instrument used to evaluate children’s level of motordevelopment. The objective of this study was to translate and verify the clarity and pertinence of the TGMD-2 items by expertsand the confirmatory factorial validity and the internal consistence by means of test-retest of the Portuguese TGMD-2. Across-cultural translation was used to construct the Portuguese version. The participants of this study were 7 professionalsand 587 children, from 27 schools (kindergarten and elementary from 3 to 10 years old (51.1% boys and 48.9% girls.Each child was videotaped performing the test twice. The videotaped tests were then scored. The results indicated thatthe Portuguese version of the TGMD-2 contains clear and pertinent motor items; demonstrated satisfactory indices ofconfirmatory factorial validity (χ2/gl = 3.38; Goodness-of-fit Index = 0.95; Adjusted Goodness-of-fit index = 0.92 and Tuckerand Lewis’s Index of Fit = 0.83 and test-retest internal consistency (locomotion r = 0.82; control of object: r = 0.88. ThePortuguese TGMD-2 demonstrated validity and reliability for the sample investigated.

  10. Test of Gross Motor Development: expert validity, confirmatory validity and internal consistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Cristina Valentini

    2008-01-01

    The Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2 is an instrument used to evaluate children’s level of motor development. The objective of this study was to translate and verify the clarity and pertinence of the TGMD-2 items by experts and the confirmatory factorial validity and the internal consistence by means of test-retest of the Portuguese TGMD-2. A cross-cultural translation was used to construct the Portuguese version. The participants of this study were 7 professionals and 587 children, from 27 schools (kindergarten and elementary from 3 to 10 years old (51.1% boys and 48.9% girls. Each child was videotaped performing the test twice. The videotaped tests were then scored. The results indicated that the Portuguese version of the TGMD-2 contains clear and pertinent motor items; demonstrated satisfactory indices of confirmatory factorial validity (÷2/gl = 3.38; Goodness-of-fit Index = 0.95; Adjusted Goodness-of-fit index = 0.92 and Tucker and Lewis’s Index of Fit = 0.83 and test-retest internal consistency (locomotion r = 0.82; control of object: r = 0.88. The Portuguese TGMD-2 demonstrated validity and reliability for the sample investigated.

  11. Test plan for core sampling drill bit temperature monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    At WHC, one of the functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System division is sampling waste tanks to characterize their contents. The push-mode core sampling truck is currently used to take samples of liquid and sludge. Sampling of tanks containing hard salt cake is to be performed with the rotary-mode core sampling system, consisting of the core sample truck, mobile exhauster unit, and ancillary subsystems. When drilling through the salt cake material, friction and heat can be generated in the drill bit. Based upon tank safety reviews, it has been determined that the drill bit temperature must not exceed 180 C, due to the potential reactivity of tank contents at this temperature. Consequently, a drill bit temperature limit of 150 C was established for operation of the core sample truck to have an adequate margin of safety. Unpredictable factors, such as localized heating, cause this buffer to be so great. The most desirable safeguard against exceeding this threshold is bit temperature monitoring . This document describes the recommended plan for testing the prototype of a drill bit temperature monitor developed for core sampling by Sandia National Labs. The device will be tested at their facilities. This test plan documents the tests that Westinghouse Hanford Company considers necessary for effective testing of the system

  12. Operability test procedure for PFP wastewater sampling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Document provides instructions for performing the Operability Test of the 225-WC Wastewater Sampling Station which monitors the discharge to the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility from the Plutonium Finishing Plant. This Operability Test Procedure (OTP) has been prepared to verify correct configuration and performance of the PFP Wastewater sampling system installed in Building 225-WC located outside the perimeter fence southeast of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The objective of this test is to ensure the equipment in the sampling facility operates in a safe and reliable manner. The sampler consists of two Manning Model S-5000 units which are rate controlled by the Milltronics Ultrasonic flowmeter at manhole No.C4 and from a pH measuring system with the sensor in the stream adjacent to the sample point. The intent of the dual sampling system is to utilize one unit to sample continuously at a rate proportional to the wastewater flow rate so that the aggregate tests are related to the overall flow and thereby eliminate isolated analyses. The second unit will only operate during a high or low pH excursion of the stream (hence the need for a pH control). The major items in this OTP include testing of the Manning Sampler System and associated equipment including the pH measuring and control system, the conductivity monitor, and the flow meter

  13. Product consistency leach tests of Savannah River Site radioactive waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Bates, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The Product Consistency Test (PCT) is a glass leach test that was developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to routinely confirm the durability of nuclear waste glasses that will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The PCT is a 7 day, crushed glass leach test in deionized water at 90 degree C. Final leachates are filtered and acidified prior to analysis. To demonstrate the reproducibility of the PCT when performed remotely, SRS and Argonne National Laboratory have performed the PCT on samples of two radioactive glasses. The tests were also performed to compare the releases of the radionuclides with the major nonradioactive glass components and to determine if radiation from the glass was affecting the results of the PCT. The test was performed in triplicate at each laboratory. For the major soluble elements, B, Li, Na, and Si, in the glass, each investigator obtained relative precisions in the range 2--5% in the triplicate tests. This range indicates good precision for the PCT when performed remotely with master slave manipulators in a shielded cell environment

  14. Modeling and Testing Legacy Data Consistency Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of data sources are available on the Internet, many of which offer semantically overlapping data, but based on different schemas, or models. While it is often of interest to integrate such data sources, the lack of consistency among them makes this integration difficult....... This paper addresses the need for new techniques that enable the modeling and consistency checking for legacy data sources. Specifically, the paper contributes to the development of a framework that enables consistency testing of data coming from different types of data sources. The vehicle is UML and its...... accompanying XMI. The paper presents techniques for modeling consistency requirements using OCL and other UML modeling elements: it studies how models that describe the required consistencies among instances of legacy models can be designed in standard UML tools that support XMI. The paper also considers...

  15. Reliability and consistency of a validated sun exposure questionnaire in a population-based Danish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Køster, B; Søndergaard, J; Nielsen, J B; Olsen, A; Bentzen, J

    2018-06-01

    An important feature of questionnaire validation is reliability. To be able to measure a given concept by questionnaire validly, the reliability needs to be high. The objectives of this study were to examine reliability of attitude and knowledge and behavioral consistency of sunburn in a developed questionnaire for monitoring and evaluating population sun-related behavior. Sun related behavior, attitude and knowledge was measured weekly by a questionnaire in the summer of 2013 among 664 Danes. Reliability was tested in a test-retest design. Consistency of behavioral information was tested similarly in a questionnaire adapted to measure behavior throughout the summer. The response rates for questionnaire 1, 2 and 3 were high and the drop out was not dependent on demographic characteristic. There was at least 73% agreement between sunburns in the measurement week and the entire summer, and a possible sunburn underestimation in questionnaires summarizing the entire summer. The participants underestimated their outdoor exposure in the evaluation covering the entire summer as compared to the measurement week. The reliability of scales measuring attitude and knowledge was high for majority of scales, while consistency in protection behavior was low. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report reliability for a completely validated questionnaire on sun-related behavior in a national random population based sample. Further, we show that attitude and knowledge questions confirmed their validity with good reliability, while consistency of protection behavior in general and in a week's measurement was low.

  16. Validation of consistency of Mendelian sampling variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrisevä, A-M; Fikse, W F; Mäntysaari, E A; Jakobsen, J; Aamand, G P; Dürr, J; Lidauer, M H

    2018-03-01

    Experiences from international sire evaluation indicate that the multiple-trait across-country evaluation method is sensitive to changes in genetic variance over time. Top bulls from birth year classes with inflated genetic variance will benefit, hampering reliable ranking of bulls. However, none of the methods available today enable countries to validate their national evaluation models for heterogeneity of genetic variance. We describe a new validation method to fill this gap comprising the following steps: estimating within-year genetic variances using Mendelian sampling and its prediction error variance, fitting a weighted linear regression between the estimates and the years under study, identifying possible outliers, and defining a 95% empirical confidence interval for a possible trend in the estimates. We tested the specificity and sensitivity of the proposed validation method with simulated data using a real data structure. Moderate (M) and small (S) size populations were simulated under 3 scenarios: a control with homogeneous variance and 2 scenarios with yearly increases in phenotypic variance of 2 and 10%, respectively. Results showed that the new method was able to estimate genetic variance accurately enough to detect bias in genetic variance. Under the control scenario, the trend in genetic variance was practically zero in setting M. Testing cows with an average birth year class size of more than 43,000 in setting M showed that tolerance values are needed for both the trend and the outlier tests to detect only cases with a practical effect in larger data sets. Regardless of the magnitude (yearly increases in phenotypic variance of 2 or 10%) of the generated trend, it deviated statistically significantly from zero in all data replicates for both cows and bulls in setting M. In setting S with a mean of 27 bulls in a year class, the sampling error and thus the probability of a false-positive result clearly increased. Still, overall estimated genetic

  17. Reliability and consistency of a validated sun exposure questionnaire in a population-based Danish sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Køster

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available An important feature of questionnaire validation is reliability. To be able to measure a given concept by questionnaire validly, the reliability needs to be high.The objectives of this study were to examine reliability of attitude and knowledge and behavioral consistency of sunburn in a developed questionnaire for monitoring and evaluating population sun-related behavior.Sun related behavior, attitude and knowledge was measured weekly by a questionnaire in the summer of 2013 among 664 Danes. Reliability was tested in a test-retest design. Consistency of behavioral information was tested similarly in a questionnaire adapted to measure behavior throughout the summer.The response rates for questionnaire 1, 2 and 3 were high and the drop out was not dependent on demographic characteristic. There was at least 73% agreement between sunburns in the measurement week and the entire summer, and a possible sunburn underestimation in questionnaires summarizing the entire summer. The participants underestimated their outdoor exposure in the evaluation covering the entire summer as compared to the measurement week. The reliability of scales measuring attitude and knowledge was high for majority of scales, while consistency in protection behavior was low.To our knowledge, this is the first study to report reliability for a completely validated questionnaire on sun-related behavior in a national random population based sample. Further, we show that attitude and knowledge questions confirmed their validity with good reliability, while consistency of protection behavior in general and in a week's measurement was low. Keywords: Questionnaire, Validation, Reliability, Skin cancer, Prevention, Ultraviolet radiation

  18. Are most samples of animals systematically biased? Consistent individual trait differences bias samples despite random sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biro, Peter A

    2013-02-01

    Sampling animals from the wild for study is something nearly every biologist has done, but despite our best efforts to obtain random samples of animals, 'hidden' trait biases may still exist. For example, consistent behavioral traits can affect trappability/catchability, independent of obvious factors such as size and gender, and these traits are often correlated with other repeatable physiological and/or life history traits. If so, systematic sampling bias may exist for any of these traits. The extent to which this is a problem, of course, depends on the magnitude of bias, which is presently unknown because the underlying trait distributions in populations are usually unknown, or unknowable. Indeed, our present knowledge about sampling bias comes from samples (not complete population censuses), which can possess bias to begin with. I had the unique opportunity to create naturalized populations of fish by seeding each of four small fishless lakes with equal densities of slow-, intermediate-, and fast-growing fish. Using sampling methods that are not size-selective, I observed that fast-growing fish were up to two-times more likely to be sampled than slower-growing fish. This indicates substantial and systematic bias with respect to an important life history trait (growth rate). If correlations between behavioral, physiological and life-history traits are as widespread as the literature suggests, then many animal samples may be systematically biased with respect to these traits (e.g., when collecting animals for laboratory use), and affect our inferences about population structure and abundance. I conclude with a discussion on ways to minimize sampling bias for particular physiological/behavioral/life-history types within animal populations.

  19. Product consistency leach tests of Savannah River Site radioactive waste glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Bates, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    The product consistency test (PCT) is a glass leach test developed at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to confirm the durability of radioactive nuclear waste glasses that will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The PCT is a seven day, crushed glass leach test in deionized water at 90C. Final leachates are filtered and acidified prior to analysis. To demonstrate the reproducibility of the PCT when performed remotely, SRS and Argonne National Laboratory have performed the PCT on samples of two radioactive glasses. The tests were also performed to compare the releases of the radionuclides with the major nonradioactive glass components and to determine if radiation from the glass was affecting the results of the PCT. The test was performed in triplicate at each laboratory. For the major soluble elements, B, Li, Na, and Si, in the glass, each investigator obtained relative precisions in the range 2-5% in the triplicate tests. This range indicates good precision for the PCT when performed remotely with master slave manipulators in a shielded cell environment. When the results of the two laboratories were compared to each other, the agreement was within 20%. Normalized concentrations for the nonradioactive and radioactive elements in the PCT leachates measured at both facilities indicated that the radionuclides were released from the glass slower than the major soluble elements in the glass. For both laboratories, the normalized releases for both glasses were in the general order Li ∼ B ∼ Na > Si > Cs - 137 > Sb - 125 < Sr - 90. The normalized releases for the major soluble elements and the final pH values in the tests with radioactive glass are consistent with those for nonradioactive glasses with similar compositions. This indicates that there was no significant effect of radiation on the results of the PCT

  20. Standard test methods for determining chemical durability of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed waste glasses and multiphase glass ceramics: The product consistency test (PCT)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 These product consistency test methods A and B evaluate the chemical durability of homogeneous glasses, phase separated glasses, devitrified glasses, glass ceramics, and/or multiphase glass ceramic waste forms hereafter collectively referred to as “glass waste forms” by measuring the concentrations of the chemical species released to a test solution. 1.1.1 Test Method A is a seven-day chemical durability test performed at 90 ± 2°C in a leachant of ASTM-Type I water. The test method is static and conducted in stainless steel vessels. Test Method A can specifically be used to evaluate whether the chemical durability and elemental release characteristics of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed glass waste forms have been consistently controlled during production. This test method is applicable to radioactive and simulated glass waste forms as defined above. 1.1.2 Test Method B is a durability test that allows testing at various test durations, test temperatures, mesh size, mass of sample, leachant volume, a...

  1. A Bayesian Decision-Theoretic Approach to Logically-Consistent Hypothesis Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Miranda da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses an important issue regarding the performance of simultaneous test procedures: the construction of multiple tests that at the same time are optimal from a statistical perspective and that also yield logically-consistent results that are easy to communicate to practitioners of statistical methods. For instance, if hypothesis A implies hypothesis B, is it possible to create optimal testing procedures that reject A whenever they reject B? Unfortunately, several standard testing procedures fail in having such logical consistency. Although this has been deeply investigated under a frequentist perspective, the literature lacks analyses under a Bayesian paradigm. In this work, we contribute to the discussion by investigating three rational relationships under a Bayesian decision-theoretic standpoint: coherence, invertibility and union consonance. We characterize and illustrate through simple examples optimal Bayes tests that fulfill each of these requisites separately. We also explore how far one can go by putting these requirements together. We show that although fairly intuitive tests satisfy both coherence and invertibility, no Bayesian testing scheme meets the desiderata as a whole, strengthening the understanding that logical consistency cannot be combined with statistical optimality in general. Finally, we associate Bayesian hypothesis testing with Bayes point estimation procedures. We prove the performance of logically-consistent hypothesis testing by means of a Bayes point estimator to be optimal only under very restrictive conditions.

  2. Cosmological consistency tests of gravity theory and cosmic acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak-Boushaki, Mustapha B.

    2017-01-01

    Testing general relativity at cosmological scales and probing the cause of cosmic acceleration are among the important objectives targeted by incoming and future astronomical surveys and experiments. I present our recent results on consistency tests that can provide insights about the underlying gravity theory and cosmic acceleration using cosmological data sets. We use statistical measures, the rate of cosmic expansion, the growth rate of large scale structure, and the physical consistency of these probes with one another.

  3. Evaluating the Consistency of the FNA Test in Pathologically Proven Nodules of Thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Khazaei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA is a selective diagnostic technique for the evaluation of non-toxic thyroid nodules. Thyroid FNA results are either undiagnosed or suspicious and indeterminate in 20-30% of cases. Therefore, this study seeks to determine the consistency of the FNA test in pathologically proven nodules of thyroidectomy. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study carried out on a total of 73 candidates for thyroidectomy who had been admitted to Imam Ali Hospital. A census sampling method has been used in this study. The FNA samples and pathology samples were evaluated and the consistency of the FNA test in pathologically proven nodules were compared. The SPSS software was used for data analysis. The mean age of the patients was 40.1 ± 12.9 years. 23.3% of the participants were male and 76.7% of them were female. The malignancy rate in the pathology was 65.8% (48 cases and 53.4% (39 cases in the FNA. Of the 48 positive cases, the FNA pathology diagnosed 35 cases (72.9% as positive and 13 cases (27.1% as negative. Of the 25 negative cases, the FNA pathology diagnosed 21 cases (84% as negative and 4 cases (16% as positive. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of FNA in malignancy diagnosis were 72.92, 84, 89.74, and 61.76%, respectively. The results show that FNA does not have a high sensitivity in the diagnosis of malignancy, but has good specificity and the use of other diagnostic methods before the operation of thyroid nodules seems necessary.

  4. Prediction and Cross-Situational Consistency of Daily Behavior across Cultures: Testing Trait and Cultural Psychology Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A. Timothy; Katigbak, Marcia S.; Reyes, Jose Alberto S.; Salanga, Maria Guadalupe C.; Miramontes, Lilia A.; Adams, Nerissa B.

    2008-01-01

    Trait and cultural psychology perspectives on the cross-situational consistency of behavior, and the predictive validity of traits, were tested in a daily process study in the United States (N = 68), an individualistic culture, and the Philippines (N = 80), a collectivistic culture. Participants completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992) and a measure of self-monitoring, then reported their daily behaviors and associated situational contexts for approximately 30 days. Consistent with trait perspectives, the Big Five traits predicted daily behaviors in both cultures, and relative (interindividual) consistency was observed across many, although not all, situational contexts. The frequency of various Big Five behaviors varied across relevant situational contexts in both cultures and, consistent with cultural psychology perspectives, there was a tendency for Filipinos to exhibit greater situational variability than Americans. Self-monitoring showed some ability to account for individual differences in situational variability in the American sample, but not the Filipino sample. PMID:22146866

  5. On the High-dimensional Power of Linear-time Kernel Two-Sample Testing under Mean-difference Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ramdas, Aaditya; Reddi, Sashank J.; Poczos, Barnabas; Singh, Aarti; Wasserman, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Nonparametric two sample testing deals with the question of consistently deciding if two distributions are different, given samples from both, without making any parametric assumptions about the form of the distributions. The current literature is split into two kinds of tests - those which are consistent without any assumptions about how the distributions may differ (\\textit{general} alternatives), and those which are designed to specifically test easier alternatives, like a difference in me...

  6. Potential application of the consistency approach for vaccine potency testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciniega, J; Sirota, L A

    2012-01-01

    The Consistency Approach offers the possibility of reducing the number of animals used for a potency test. However, it is critical to assess the effect that such reduction may have on assay performance. Consistency of production, sometimes referred to as consistency of manufacture or manufacturing, is an old concept implicit in regulation, which aims to ensure the uninterrupted release of safe and effective products. Consistency of manufacture can be described in terms of process capability, or the ability of a process to produce output within specification limits. For example, the standard method for potency testing of inactivated rabies vaccines is a multiple-dilution vaccination challenge test in mice that gives a quantitative, although highly variable estimate. On the other hand, a single-dilution test that does not give a quantitative estimate, but rather shows if the vaccine meets the specification has been proposed. This simplified test can lead to a considerable reduction in the number of animals used. However, traditional indices of process capability assume that the output population (potency values) is normally distributed, which clearly is not the case for the simplified approach. Appropriate computation of capability indices for the latter case will require special statistical considerations.

  7. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error of the self-report version of the social skills rating system in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Vaz

    Full Text Available The social skills rating system (SSRS is used to assess social skills and competence in children and adolescents. While its characteristics based on United States samples (US are published, corresponding Australian figures are unavailable. Using a 4-week retest design, we examined the internal consistency, retest reliability and measurement error (ME of the SSRS secondary student form (SSF in a sample of Year 7 students (N = 187, from five randomly selected public schools in Perth, western Australia. Internal consistency (IC of the total scale and most subscale scores (except empathy on the frequency rating scale was adequate to permit independent use. On the importance rating scale, most IC estimates for girls fell below the benchmark. Test-retest estimates of the total scale and subscales were insufficient to permit reliable use. ME of the total scale score (frequency rating for boys was equivalent to the US estimate, while that for girls was lower than the US error. ME of the total scale score (importance rating was larger than the error using the frequency rating scale. The study finding supports the idea of using multiple informants (e.g. teacher and parent reports, not just student as recommended in the manual. Future research needs to substantiate the clinical meaningfulness of the MEs calculated in this study by corroborating them against the respective Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID.

  8. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability and measurement error of the self-report version of the social skills rating system in a sample of Australian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Sharmila; Parsons, Richard; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Andreou, Pantelis; Falkmer, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    The social skills rating system (SSRS) is used to assess social skills and competence in children and adolescents. While its characteristics based on United States samples (US) are published, corresponding Australian figures are unavailable. Using a 4-week retest design, we examined the internal consistency, retest reliability and measurement error (ME) of the SSRS secondary student form (SSF) in a sample of Year 7 students (N = 187), from five randomly selected public schools in Perth, western Australia. Internal consistency (IC) of the total scale and most subscale scores (except empathy) on the frequency rating scale was adequate to permit independent use. On the importance rating scale, most IC estimates for girls fell below the benchmark. Test-retest estimates of the total scale and subscales were insufficient to permit reliable use. ME of the total scale score (frequency rating) for boys was equivalent to the US estimate, while that for girls was lower than the US error. ME of the total scale score (importance rating) was larger than the error using the frequency rating scale. The study finding supports the idea of using multiple informants (e.g. teacher and parent reports), not just student as recommended in the manual. Future research needs to substantiate the clinical meaningfulness of the MEs calculated in this study by corroborating them against the respective Minimum Clinically Important Difference (MCID).

  9. Random Sampling of Correlated Parameters – a Consistent Solution for Unfavourable Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žerovnik, G., E-mail: gasper.zerovnik@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Trkov, A. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); International Atomic Energy Agency, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Kodeli, I.A. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Capote, R. [International Atomic Energy Agency, PO Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, 1710 Avenida del Mundo, Coronado, CA 92118-3073 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Two methods for random sampling according to a multivariate lognormal distribution – the correlated sampling method and the method of transformation of correlation coefficients – are briefly presented. The methods are mathematically exact and enable consistent sampling of correlated inherently positive parameters with given information on the first two distribution moments. Furthermore, a weighted sampling method to accelerate the convergence of parameters with extremely large relative uncertainties is described. However, the method is efficient only for a limited number of correlated parameters.

  10. Range-efficient consistent sampling and locality-sensitive hashing for polygons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Joachim; Pagh, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    Locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) is a fundamental technique for similarity search and similarity estimation in high-dimensional spaces. The basic idea is that similar objects should produce hash collisions with probability significantly larger than objects with low similarity. We consider LSH for...... or union of a set of preprocessed polygons. Curiously, our consistent sampling method uses transformation to a geometric problem....

  11. Nuclear waste glass product consistency test (PCT): Version 7.0. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Bibler, N.E.; Beam, D.C.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-06-01

    Liquid high-level nuclear waste will be immobilized at the Savannah River Site (SRS) by vitrification in borosilicate glass. The glass will be produced in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), poured into stainless steel canisters, and eventually disposed of in a geologic repository. In order to comply with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS), the durability of the glass needs to be measured during production to assure its long term stability and radionuclide release properties. A durability test, designated the Product Consistency Test (PCT), was developed for DWPF glass in order to meet the WAPS requirements. The response of the PCT procedure was based on extensive testing with glasses of widely different compositions. The PCT was determined to be very reproducible, to yield reliable results rapidly, and to be easily performed in shielded cell facilities with radioactive samples. Version 7.0 of the PCT procedure is attached. This draft version has been submitted to ASTM for full committee (C26, Nuclear Fuel Cycle) ballot after being balloted successfully through subcommittee C26.13 on Repository Waste Package Materials Testing

  12. Sampling analytical tests and destructive tests for quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.; Pasquini, S.; Jouan, A.; Angelis, de; Hreen Taywood, H.; Odoj, R.

    1990-01-01

    In the context of the third programme of the European Communities on the monitoring of radioactive waste, various methods have been developed for the performance of sampling and measuring tests on encapsulated waste of low and medium level activity, on the one hand, and of high level activity, on the other hand. The purpose was to provide better quality assurance for products to be stored on an interim or long-term basis. Various testing sampling means are proposed such as: - sampling of raw waste before conditioning and determination of the representative aliquot, - sampling of encapsulated waste on process output, - sampling of core specimens subjected to measurement before and after cutting. Equipment suitable for these sampling procedures have been developed and, in the case of core samples, a comparison of techniques has been made. The results are described for the various analytical tests carried out on the samples such as: - mechanical tests, - radiation resistance, - fire resistance, - lixiviation, - determination of free water, - biodegradation, - water resistance, - chemical and radiochemical analysis. Every time it was possible, these tests were compared with non-destructive tests on full-scale packages and some correlations are given. This word has made if possible to improve and clarify sample optimization, with fine sampling techniques and methodologies and draw up characterization procedures. It also provided an occasion for a first collaboration between the laboratories responsible for these studies and which will be furthered in the scope of the 1990-1994 programme

  13. A technique for extracting blood samples from mice in fire toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, T. J.; Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of adequate blood samples from moribund and dead mice has been a problem because of the small quantity of blood in each animal and the short time available between the animals' death and coagulation of the blood. These difficulties are particularly critical in fire toxicity tests because removal of the test animals while observing proper safety precautions for personnel is time-consuming. Techniques for extracting blood samples from mice were evaluated, and a technique was developed to obtain up to 0.8 ml of blood from a single mouse after death. The technique involves rapid exposure and cutting of the posterior vena cava and accumulation of blood in the peritoneal space. Blood samples of 0.5 ml or more from individual mice have been consistently obtained as much as 16 minutes after apparent death. Results of carboxyhemoglobin analyses of blood appeared reproducible and consistent with carbon monoxide concentrations in the exposure chamber.

  14. The eye-complaint questionnaire in a visual display unit work environment: Internal consistency and test-retest reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenstra, Ivan A.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2009-01-01

    The internal consistency and test-retest reliability of a 10-item eye-complaint questionnaire (ECQ) were examined within a sample of office workers. Repeated within-subjects measures were performed within a single day and over intervals of 1 and 7 d. Questionnaires were completed by 96 workers (70%

  15. Personal Hypothesis Testing: The Role of Consistency and Self-Schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmer, Douglas C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studied how individuals test hypotheses about themselves. Examined extent to which Snyder's bias toward confirmation persists when negative or nonconsistent personal hypothesis is tested. Found negativity or positivity did not affect hypothesis testing directly, though hypothesis consistency did. Found cognitive schematic variable (vulnerability…

  16. Consistency argued students of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyanti; Cari; Suparmi; Winarti; Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Handika, Jeffry; Widyastuti, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving for physics concepts through consistency arguments can improve thinking skills of students and it is an important thing in science. The study aims to assess the consistency of the material Fluid student argmentation. The population of this study are College students PGRI Madiun, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta and Lampung University. Samples using cluster random sampling, 145 samples obtained by the number of students. The study used a descriptive survey method. Data obtained through multiple-choice test and interview reasoned. Problem fluid modified from [9] and [1]. The results of the study gained an average consistency argmentation for the right consistency, consistency is wrong, and inconsistent respectively 4.85%; 29.93%; and 65.23%. Data from the study have an impact on the lack of understanding of the fluid material which is ideally in full consistency argued affect the expansion of understanding of the concept. The results of the study as a reference in making improvements in future studies is to obtain a positive change in the consistency of argumentations.

  17. Migraine patients consistently show abnormal vestibular bedside tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Eliana Teixeira; Maranhão-Filho, Péricles; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Vincent, Maurice Borges

    2016-01-01

    Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs. To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR) responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls. Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals - thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls. Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity). Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.

  18. Daily self-sampling for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanner, Karin; Wikström, Ingrid; Gustavsson, Inger; Wilander, Erik; Lindberg, Julia Hedlund; Gyllensten, Ulf; Olovsson, Matts

    2015-12-01

    Self-sampling for HPV as part of primary screening is a well-tolerated method for women not attending organized Pap smear screening and could increase coverage of cervical cancer screening. To investigate if the prevalence of HR-HPV varies from day to day in infected women and if one single sample is reliable for detecting an ongoing infection. This is a prospective cohort study on 12 premenopausal and 13 postmenopausal women performing daily self-sampling for HR-HPV testing. They were all HR-HPV-positive 1-3 months ago. Postmenopausal women were sampled for 28 days and premenopausal women sampled during bleeding-free days in one menstrual cycle. A possible difference in viral load between the estrogen-dominated proliferative phase and the progesterone-dominated secretory phase was analyzed. Consistent results throughout the sampling period were observed for 19 women, with either a daily presence of HPV (14 women) or no HPV at all during the sampling period (5 women). Of 607 samples from 25 women, 596 were consistently positive or negative for HPV during the sampling period and 11 were inconsistent (2%). There was no difference in HPV copy number between the estrogen dominated proliferative or progesterone dominated secretory menstrual cycle phases. The major finding was a high degree of consistency concerning HR-HPV positivity and negativity of HR-HPV in vaginal fluid during a sustained period of daily self-sampling. It does not appear to matter whether the sample is collected in the proliferative or secretory phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Consistency test of the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, M.; Raczka, R.

    1997-01-01

    If the 'Higgs mass' is not the physical mass of a real particle but rather an effective ultraviolet cutoff then a process energy dependence of this cutoff must be admitted. Precision data from at least two energy scale experimental points are necessary to test this hypothesis. The first set of precision data is provided by the Z-boson peak experiments. We argue that the second set can be given by 10-20 GeV e + e - colliders. We pay attention to the special role of tau polarization experiments that can be sensitive to the 'Higgs mass' for a sample of ∼ 10 8 produced tau pairs. We argue that such a study may be regarded as a negative selfconsistency test of the Standard Model and of most of its extensions

  20. Migraine patients consistently show abnormal vestibular bedside tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Teixeira Maranhão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs.Objective To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls.Method Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals – thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls.Results Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity.Conclusion Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.

  1. Test sample handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test sample handling apparatus using automatic scintillation counting for gamma detection, for use in such fields as radioimmunoassay, is described. The apparatus automatically and continuously counts large numbers of samples rapidly and efficiently by the simultaneous counting of two samples. By means of sequential ordering of non-sequential counting data, it is possible to obtain precisely ordered data while utilizing sample carrier holders having a minimum length. (U.K.)

  2. Short-Cut Estimators of Criterion-Referenced Test Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Dean

    1990-01-01

    Presents simplified methods for deriving estimates of the consistency of criterion-referenced, English-as-a-Second-Language tests, including (1) the threshold loss agreement approach using agreement or kappa coefficients, (2) the squared-error loss agreement approach using the phi(lambda) dependability approach, and (3) the domain score…

  3. Culture, cross-role consistency, and adjustment: testing trait and cultural psychology perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, A Timothy; Anderson-Harumi, Cheryl A; del Prado, Alicia M; Curtis, Guy J; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko; Valdez Medina, José L; Mastor, Khairul A; White, Fiona A; Miramontes, Lilia A; Katigbak, Marcia S

    2008-09-01

    Trait and cultural psychology perspectives on cross-role consistency and its relation to adjustment were examined in 2 individualistic cultures, the United States (N=231) and Australia (N=195), and 4 collectivistic cultures, Mexico (N=199), the Philippines (N=195), Malaysia (N=217), and Japan (N=180). Cross-role consistency in trait ratings was evident in all cultures, supporting trait perspectives. Cultural comparisons of mean consistency provided support for cultural psychology perspectives as applied to East Asian cultures (i.e., Japan) but not collectivistic cultures more generally. Some but not all of the hypothesized predictors of consistency were supported across cultures. Cross-role consistency predicted aspects of adjustment in all cultures, but prediction was most reliable in the U.S. sample and weakest in the Japanese sample. Alternative constructs proposed by cultural psychologists--personality coherence, social appraisal, and relationship harmony--predicted adjustment in all cultures but were not, as hypothesized, better predictors of adjustment in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures.

  4. Short-term consistency testing vs. long-term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.; Bakel, A.J.; Wolf, S.F.; Strachan, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    The authors conducted Product Consistency Tests (PCTs) with a surrogate low-activity waste (LAW) glass to (1) evaluate the possible use of various test conditions in a specification test for LAW waste forms, (2) measure the reproducibility of the test at low temperatures, and (3) determine if the rates calculated from 7-day PCTs bound the rates measured in PCT conducted for longer durations, which represent more advanced corrosion. The effects of temperature and pH on the dissolution rate in PCTs are much less than the effects observed in dilute solutions due to the buildup of dissolved glass components in the PCTs. The precision of replicate 7-day tests at 20 and 40 degrees C was limited by the analytical uncertainty. The dissolution rates at all temperatures decreased with the test duration initially. However, the dissolution rates in tests at 70 and 90 degrees C increased when certain alteration phases formed after about 100 and 500 days, respectively; the rates in some tests exceeded that measured in a 7-day PCT. While the 7-day PCT does not provide a bounding rate for this glass at 70 or 90 degrees C, tests for longer durations are needed to determine if a 7-day test provides a bounding rate at lower temperatures

  5. Gleeble Testing of Tungsten Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    temperature on an Instron load frame with a 222.41 kN (50 kip) load cell . The samples were compressed at the same strain rate as on the Gleeble...ID % RE Initial Density (cm 3 ) Density after Compression (cm 3 ) % Change in Density Test Temperature NT1 0 18.08 18.27 1.06 1000 NT3 0...4.1 Nano-Tungsten The results for the compression of the nano-tungsten samples are shown in tables 2 and 3 and figure 5. During testing, sample NT1

  6. Reliability of attitude and knowledge items and behavioral consistency in the validated sun exposure questionnaire in a Danish population based sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køster, Brian; Søndergaard, Jens; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2018-01-01

    in protection behavior was low. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report reliability for a completely validated questionnaire on sun-related behavior in a national random population based sample. Further, we show that attitude and knowledge questions confirmed their validity with good reliability......An important feature of questionnaire validation is reliability. To be able to measure a given concept by questionnaire validly, the reliability needs to be high. The objectives of this study were to examine reliability of attitude and knowledge and behavioral consistency of sunburn in a developed...... questionnaire for monitoring and evaluating population sun-related behavior. Sun related behavior, attitude and knowledge was measured weekly by a questionnaire in the summer of 2013 among 664 Danes. Reliability was tested in a test-retest design. Consistency of behavioral information was tested similarly...

  7. Acceptance test procedure for core sample trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure is to provide instruction and documentation for acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks, HO-68K-4600 and HO-68K-4647. The rotary mode core sample trucks were based upon the design of the second core sample truck (HO-68K-4345) which was constructed to implement rotary mode sampling of the waste tanks at Hanford. Acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks will verify that the design requirements have been met. All testing will be non-radioactive and stand-in materials shall be used to simulate waste tank conditions. Compressed air will be substituted for nitrogen during the majority of testing, with nitrogen being used only for flow characterization

  8. Tests on standard concrete samples

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Compression and tensile tests on standard concrete samples. The use of centrifugal force in tensile testing has been developed by the SB Division and the instruments were built in the Central workshops.

  9. Estimation of AUC or Partial AUC under Test-Result-Dependent Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Ma, Junling; George, Stephen; Zhou, Haibo

    2012-01-01

    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) and partial area under the ROC curve (pAUC) are summary measures used to assess the accuracy of a biomarker in discriminating true disease status. The standard sampling approach used in biomarker validation studies is often inefficient and costly, especially when ascertaining the true disease status is costly and invasive. To improve efficiency and reduce the cost of biomarker validation studies, we consider a test-result-dependent sampling (TDS) scheme, in which subject selection for determining the disease state is dependent on the result of a biomarker assay. We first estimate the test-result distribution using data arising from the TDS design. With the estimated empirical test-result distribution, we propose consistent nonparametric estimators for AUC and pAUC and establish the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators. Simulation studies show that the proposed estimators have good finite sample properties and that the TDS design yields more efficient AUC and pAUC estimates than a simple random sampling (SRS) design. A data example based on an ongoing cancer clinical trial is provided to illustrate the TDS design and the proposed estimators. This work can find broad applications in design and analysis of biomarker validation studies.

  10. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    This report describes the experimental and sampling design developed to assess sampling approaches and methods for detecting contamination in a building and clearing the building for use after decontamination. An Idaho National Laboratory (INL) building will be contaminated with BG (Bacillus globigii, renamed Bacillus atrophaeus), a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (BA). The contamination, sampling, decontamination, and re-sampling will occur per the experimental and sampling design. This INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test is being planned by the Validated Sampling Plan Working Group (VSPWG). The primary objectives are: 1) Evaluate judgmental and probabilistic sampling for characterization as well as probabilistic and combined (judgment and probabilistic) sampling approaches for clearance, 2) Conduct these evaluations for gradient contamination (from low or moderate down to absent or undetectable) for different initial concentrations of the contaminant, 3) Explore judgment composite sampling approaches to reduce sample numbers, 4) Collect baseline data to serve as an indication of the actual levels of contamination in the tests. A combined judgmental and random (CJR) approach uses Bayesian methodology to combine judgmental and probabilistic samples to make clearance statements of the form "X% confidence that at least Y% of an area does not contain detectable contamination” (X%/Y% clearance statements). The INL-2 experimental design has five test events, which 1) vary the floor of the INL building on which the contaminant will be released, 2) provide for varying the amount of contaminant released to obtain desired concentration gradients, and 3) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. Desirable contaminant gradients would have moderate to low concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations down to zero in other rooms. Such gradients would provide a range of contamination levels to challenge the sampling

  11. A diagnostic test for apraxia in stroke patients: internal consistency and diagnostic value.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heugten, C.M. van; Dekker, J.; Deelman, B.G.; Stehmann-Saris, F.C.; Kinebanian, A.

    1999-01-01

    The internal consistency and the diagnostic value of a test for apraxia in patients having had a stroke are presented. Results indicate that the items of the test form a strong and consistent scale: Cronbach's alpha as well as the results of a Mokken scale analysis present good reliability and good

  12. Sample Size Determination for One- and Two-Sample Trimmed Mean Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Wei-Ming; Olejnik, Stephen; Guo, Jiin-Huarng

    2008-01-01

    Formulas to determine the necessary sample sizes for parametric tests of group comparisons are available from several sources and appropriate when population distributions are normal. However, in the context of nonnormal population distributions, researchers recommend Yuen's trimmed mean test, but formulas to determine sample sizes have not been…

  13. Vibrational multiconfiguration self-consistent field theory: implementation and test calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heislbetz, Sandra; Rauhut, Guntram

    2010-03-28

    A state-specific vibrational multiconfiguration self-consistent field (VMCSCF) approach based on a multimode expansion of the potential energy surface is presented for the accurate calculation of anharmonic vibrational spectra. As a special case of this general approach vibrational complete active space self-consistent field calculations will be discussed. The latter method shows better convergence than the general VMCSCF approach and must be considered the preferred choice within the multiconfigurational framework. Benchmark calculations are provided for a small set of test molecules.

  14. A Consistent System for Coding Laboratory Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, John C.

    1996-07-01

    A formal laboratory coding system is presented to keep track of laboratory samples. Preliminary useful information regarding the sample (origin and history) is gained without consulting a research notebook. Since this system uses and retains the same research notebook page number for each new experiment (reaction), finding and distinguishing products (samples) of the same or different reactions becomes an easy task. Using this system multiple products generated from a single reaction can be identified and classified in a uniform fashion. Samples can be stored and filed according to stage and degree of purification, e.g. crude reaction mixtures, recrystallized samples, chromatographed or distilled products.

  15. Estimating Sample Size for Usability Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Cazañas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One strategy used to assure that an interface meets user requirements is to conduct usability testing. When conducting such testing one of the unknowns is sample size. Since extensive testing is costly, minimizing the number of participants can contribute greatly to successful resource management of a project. Even though a significant number of models have been proposed to estimate sample size in usability testing, there is still not consensus on the optimal size. Several studies claim that 3 to 5 users suffice to uncover 80% of problems in a software interface. However, many other studies challenge this assertion. This study analyzed data collected from the user testing of a web application to verify the rule of thumb, commonly known as the “magic number 5”. The outcomes of the analysis showed that the 5-user rule significantly underestimates the required sample size to achieve reasonable levels of problem detection.

  16. Air-deployable oil spill sampling devices review phase 2 testing. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, L.; Dumouchel, A.; Fingas, M.; Brown, C.E.

    2007-01-01

    SAIC Canada tested air deployable oil sampling devices for the Emergencies Science and Technology Division of Environment Canada in order to determine the applicability and status of these devices. The 3 devices tested were: Canada's SABER (sampling autonomous buoy for evidence recovery), the United States' POPEIE (probe for oil pollution evidence in the environment); and, Sweden's SAR Floatation 2000. They were tested for buoyancy properties, drift behaviour and sampler sorbent pickup ratios. The SAR and SABER both had lesser draft and greater freeboard, while the POPEIE had much greater draft than freeboard. All 3 devices could be used for oil sample collection in that their drift characteristics would allow for the SABER and SAR devices to be placed upwind of the slick while the POPEIE device could be placed downwind of an oil spill. The sorbent testing revealed that Sefar sorbent and Spectra sorbent used in the 3 devices had negative pickup ratios for diesel but performance improved as oil viscosity increased. Both sorbents are inert and capable of collecting oil in sufficient volumes for consistent fingerprinting analysis. 10 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  17. Testing a groundwater sampling tool: Are the samples representative?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaback, D.S.; Bergren, C.L.; Carlson, C.A.; Carlson, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    A ground water sampling tool, the HydroPunch trademark, was tested at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina to determine if representative ground water samples could be obtained without installing monitoring wells. Chemical analyses of ground water samples collected with the HydroPunch trademark from various depths within a borehole were compared with chemical analyses of ground water from nearby monitoring wells. The site selected for the test was in the vicinity of a large coal storage pile and a coal pile runoff basin that was constructed to collect the runoff from the coal storage pile. Existing monitoring wells in the area indicate the presence of a ground water contaminant plume that: (1) contains elevated concentrations of trace metals; (2) has an extremely low pH; and (3) contains elevated concentrations of major cations and anions. Ground water samples collected with the HydroPunch trademark provide in excellent estimate of ground water quality at discrete depths. Groundwater chemical data collected from various depths using the HydroPunch trademark can be averaged to simulate what a screen zone in a monitoring well would sample. The averaged depth-discrete data compared favorably with the data obtained from the nearby monitoring wells

  18. 7 CFR 28.952 - Testing of samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing of samples. 28.952 Section 28.952 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... processing tests of the properties of cotton samples and report the results thereof to the persons from whom...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTUAL WASTE TEST WITH TANK 5F SAMPLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, D.

    2007-01-01

    The initial phase of bulk waste removal operations was recently completed in Tank 5F. Video inspection of the tank indicates several mounds of sludge still remain in the tank. Additionally, a mound of white solids was observed under Riser 5. In support of chemical cleaning and heel removal programs, samples of the sludge and the mound of white solids were obtained from the tank for characterization and testing. A core sample of the sludge and Super Snapper sample of the white solids were characterized. A supernate dip sample from Tank 7F was also characterized. A portion of the sludge was used in two tank cleaning tests using oxalic acid at 50 C and 75 C. The filtered oxalic acid from the tank cleaning tests was subsequently neutralized by addition to a simulated Tank 7F supernate. Solids and liquid samples from the tank cleaning test and neutralization test were characterized. A separate report documents the results of the gas generation from the tank cleaning test using oxalic acid and Tank 5F sludge. The characterization results for the Tank 5F sludge sample (FTF-05-06-55) appear quite good with respect to the tight precision of the sample replicates, good results for the glass standards, and minimal contamination found in the blanks and glass standards. The aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion data also show good agreement between the two dissolution methods. Iron dominates the sludge composition with other major contributors being uranium, manganese, nickel, sodium, aluminum, and silicon. The low sodium value for the sludge reflects the absence of supernate present in the sample due to the core sampler employed for obtaining the sample. The XRD and CSEM results for the Super Snapper salt sample (i.e., white solids) from Tank 5F (FTF-05-07-1) indicate the material contains hydrated sodium carbonate and bicarbonate salts along with some aluminum hydroxide. These compounds likely precipitated from the supernate in the tank. A solubility test showed the material

  20. Testing and sampling of deep brine aquifers in the Palo Duro Basin, West Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyling, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is investigating the Palo Duro Basin of West Texas along with locations in Nevada, Washington, Utah, Mississippi and Louisiana as potential sites for storage of high-level nuclear waste. Ten wells have been drilled to depths between 3000 and 8300 feet. Testing and sampling of deep test zones requires advance planning and analysis of what must be obtained from the well. Various alternatives are available depending on data needs. In this particular instance, both hydrologic and geochemical data were required. The methods chosen were field proven methods used in the oil field industry for many years. Short term testing has included conventional oil-field-type drill stem tests and drill stem equipment with surface pressure readout. Long term testing has consisted of a series of production and recovery tests. Fluid sampling was performed in two stages. The first was at the well head under an imposed pressure of several hundred psi. The second fluid samples were collected downhole at the production zone under pressures close to ambient pressure. The geochemical data and hydrologic data can be used as independent checks on each other in many cases. Test results from the well along with examination of recovered core provided maximum data for each well. 5 references, 8 figures

  1. Airflow Test of Acoustic Board Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Jensen, Lise Mellergaard

    In the laboratory of Indoor Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University an airflow test on 2x10 samples of acoustic board were carried out the 2nd of June 2012. The tests were carried out for Rambøll and STO AG. The test includes connected values of volume flow...

  2. 46 CFR 160.050-5 - Sampling, tests, and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... one from which any sample ring life buoy failed the buoyancy or strength test, the sample shall... ring life buoys with this subpart. The manufacturer shall provide means to secure any test that is not... procedures. Table 160.050-5(e)—Sampling for Buoyancy Tests Lot size Number of life buoys in sample 100 and...

  3. Strength and deformability of hollow concrete blocks: correlation of block and cylindrical sample test results

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, C. S.; Hanai, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with correlations among mechanical properties of hollow blocks and those of concrete used to make them. Concrete hollow blocks and test samples were moulded with plastic consistency concrete, to assure the same material in all cases, in three diferente levels of strength (nominally 10 N/mm², 20 N/mm² and 30 N/mm²). The mechanical properties and structural behaviour in axial compression and tension tests were determined by standard tests in blocks and cylinders. Stress and str...

  4. Consistently low prevalence of syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China: findings from two consecutive respondent driven sampling surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meizhen Liao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Routine surveillance using convenient sampling found low prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in China. Two consecutive surveys using respondent driven sampling were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to examine the prevalence of HIV and syphilis among female sex workers in Jinan, China. METHODS: A face-to-face interview was conducted to collect demographic, behavioral and service utilization information using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples were drawn for serological tests of HIV-1 antibody and syphilis antibody. Respondent Driven Sampling Analysis Tool was used to generate population level estimates. RESULTS: In 2008 and in 2009, 363 and 432 subjects were recruited and surveyed respectively. Prevalence of syphilis was 2.8% in 2008 and 2.2% in 2009, while no HIV case was found in both years. Results are comparable to those from routine sentinel surveillance system in the city. Only 60.8% subjects in 2008 and 48.3% in 2009 reported a consistent condom use with clients during the past month. Over 50% subjects had not been covered by any HIV-related services in the past year, with only 15.6% subjects in 2008 and 13.1% in 2009 ever tested for HIV. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the low prevalence of syphilis and HIV, risk behaviors are common. Targeted interventions to promote the safe sex and utilization of existing intervention services are still needed to keep the epidemic from growing.

  5. Do Different Tests of Episodic Memory Produce Consistent Results in Human Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheke, Lucy G.; Clayton, Nicola S.

    2013-01-01

    A number of different philosophical, theoretical, and empirical perspectives on episodic memory have led to the development of very different tests with which to assess it. Although these tests putatively assess the same psychological capacity, they have rarely been directly compared. Here, a sample of undergraduates was tested on three different…

  6. An approach based on HPLC-fingerprint and chemometrics to quality consistency evaluation of Matricaria chamomilla L. commercial samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Viapiana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chamomile has been used as an herbal medication since ancient times and is still popular because it contains various bioactive phytochemicals that could provide therapeutic effects. In this study, a simple and reliable HPLC method was developed to evaluate the quality consistency of nineteen chamomile samples through establishing a chromatographic fingerprint, quantification of phenolic compounds and determination of antioxidant activity. For fingerprint analysis, 12 peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities of commercial samples of chamomile obtained from different manufacturers. A similarity analysis was performed to assess the similarity/dissimilarity of chamomile samples where values varied from 0.868 to 0.990 what indicating that samples from different manufacturers were consistent. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of five phenolic acids (gallic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic and four flavonoids (rutin, myricetin, quercetin and keampferol was performed to interpret the quality consistency. In quantitative analysis, the nine individual phenolic compounds showed good regression (r > 0.9975. Inter- and intra-day precisions for all analysed compounds expressed as relative standard deviation (CV ranged from 0.05% to 3.12%. Since flavonoids and other polyphenols are commonly recognised as natural antioxidants, the antioxidant activity of chamomile samples was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP assay. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between antioxidant activity and phenolic composition, and multivariate analysis (PCA and HCA were applied to distinguish chamomile samples. Results shown in the study indicate high similarity of chamomile samples among them, widely spread in the market and commonly used by people as infusions or teas, as well as that there were no statistically significant

  7. An Approach Based on HPLC-Fingerprint and Chemometrics to Quality Consistency Evaluation of Matricaria chamomilla L. Commercial Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viapiana, Agnieszka; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Konieczynski, Pawel; Wesolowski, Marek; Kaliszan, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Chamomile has been used as an herbal medication since ancient times and is still popular because it contains various bioactive phytochemicals that could provide therapeutic effects. In this study, a simple and reliable HPLC method was developed to evaluate the quality consistency of nineteen chamomile samples through establishing a chromatographic fingerprint, quantification of phenolic compounds and determination of antioxidant activity. For fingerprint analysis, 12 peaks were selected as the common peaks to evaluate the similarities of commercial samples of chamomile obtained from different manufacturers. A similarity analysis was performed to assess the similarity/dissimilarity of chamomile samples where values varied from 0.868 to 0.990 what indicating that samples from different manufacturers were consistent. Additionally, simultaneous quantification of five phenolic acids (gallic, caffeic, syringic, p-coumaric, ferulic) and four flavonoids (rutin, myricetin, quercetin and keampferol) was performed to interpret the quality consistency. In quantitative analysis, the nine individual phenolic compounds showed good regression (r > 0.9975). Inter- and intra-day precisions for all analyzed compounds expressed as relative standard deviation (CV) ranged from 0.05% to 3.12%. Since flavonoids and other polyphenols are commonly recognized as natural antioxidants, the antioxidant activity of chamomile samples was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. Correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between antioxidant activity and phenolic composition, and multivariate analysis (PCA and HCA) were applied to distinguish chamomile samples. Results shown in the study indicate high similarity of chamomile samples among them, widely spread in the market and commonly used by people as infusions or teas, as well as that there were no statistically significant differences among

  8. Mixing and sampling tests for Radiochemical Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinger, M.N.; Marfin, H.R.; Hunt, B.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes results and test procedures used to evaluate uncertainly and basis effects introduced by the sampler systems of a radiochemical plant, and similar parameters associated with mixing. This report will concentrate on experiences at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant. Mixing and sampling tests can be conducted to establish the statistical parameters for those activities related to overall measurement uncertainties. Density measurements by state-of-the art, commercially availability equipment is the key to conducting those tests. Experience in the U.S. suggests the statistical contribution of mixing and sampling can be controlled to less than 0.01 % and with new equipment and new tests in operating facilities might be controlled to better accuracy [ru

  9. Method used to test the imaging consistency of binocular camera's left-right optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meiying; Wang, Hu; Liu, Jie; Xue, Yaoke; Yang, Shaodong; Zhao, Hui

    2016-09-01

    To binocular camera, the consistency of optical parameters of the left and the right optical system is an important factor that will influence the overall imaging consistency. In conventional testing procedure of optical system, there lacks specifications suitable for evaluating imaging consistency. In this paper, considering the special requirements of binocular optical imaging system, a method used to measure the imaging consistency of binocular camera is presented. Based on this method, a measurement system which is composed of an integrating sphere, a rotary table and a CMOS camera has been established. First, let the left and the right optical system capture images in normal exposure time under the same condition. Second, a contour image is obtained based on the multiple threshold segmentation result and the boundary is determined using the slope of contour lines near the pseudo-contour line. Third, the constraint of gray level based on the corresponding coordinates of left-right images is established and the imaging consistency could be evaluated through standard deviation σ of the imaging grayscale difference D (x, y) between the left and right optical system. The experiments demonstrate that the method is suitable for carrying out the imaging consistency testing for binocular camera. When the standard deviation 3σ distribution of imaging gray difference D (x, y) between the left and right optical system of the binocular camera does not exceed 5%, it is believed that the design requirements have been achieved. This method could be used effectively and paves the way for the imaging consistency testing of the binocular camera.

  10. 40 CFR 205.171-3 - Test motorcycle sample selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test motorcycle sample selection. 205... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.171-3 Test motorcycle sample selection. A test motorcycle to be used for selective enforcement audit testing...

  11. Critical tests for determination of microbiological quality and biological activity in commercial vermicompost samples of different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantina-Ievina, Lelde; Andersone, Una; Berkolde-Pīre, Dace; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Ievinsh, Gederts

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present paper was to show that differences in biological activity among commercially produced vermicompost samples can be found by using a relatively simple test system consisting of microorganism tests on six microbiological media and soilless seedling growth tests with four vegetable crop species. Significant differences in biological properties among analyzed samples were evident both at the level of microbial load as well as plant growth-affecting activity. These differences were mostly manufacturer- and feedstock-associated, but also resulted from storage conditions of vermicompost samples. A mature vermicompost sample that was produced from sewage sludge still contained considerable number of Escherichia coli. Samples from all producers contained several potentially pathogenic fungal species such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudallescheria boidii, Pseudallescheria fimeti, Pseudallescheria minutispora, Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium prolificans, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Stachybotrys chartarum, Geotrichum spp., Aphanoascus terreus, and Doratomyces columnaris. In addition, samples from all producers contained plant growth-promoting fungi from the genera Trichoderma and Mortierella. The described system can be useful both for functional studies aiming at understanding of factors affecting quality characteristics of vermicompost preparations and for routine testing of microbiological quality and biological activity of organic waste-derived composts and vermicomposts.

  12. Standard Practice for Ensuring Test Consistency in Neutron-Induced Displacement Damage of Electronic Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice sets forth requirements to ensure consistency in neutron-induced displacement damage testing of silicon and gallium arsenide electronic piece parts. This requires controls on facility, dosimetry, tester, and communications processes that affect the accuracy and reproducibility of these tests. It provides background information on the technical basis for the requirements and additional recommendations on neutron testing. In addition to neutrons, reactors are used to provide gamma-ray pulses of intensities and durations that are not achievable elsewhere. This practice also provides background information and recommendations on gamma-ray testing of electronics using nuclear reactors. 1.2 Methods are presented for ensuring and validating consistency in neutron displacement damage testing of electronic parts such as integrated circuits, transistors, and diodes. The issues identified and the controls set forth in this practice address the characterization and suitability of the radiation environm...

  13. Estimation of sample size and testing power (part 5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo

    2012-02-01

    Estimation of sample size and testing power is an important component of research design. This article introduced methods for sample size and testing power estimation of difference test for quantitative and qualitative data with the single-group design, the paired design or the crossover design. To be specific, this article introduced formulas for sample size and testing power estimation of difference test for quantitative and qualitative data with the above three designs, the realization based on the formulas and the POWER procedure of SAS software and elaborated it with examples, which will benefit researchers for implementing the repetition principle.

  14. Evaluation of rapid diagnostic test kits for feline leukemia virus infection using samples from naturally infected cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayou Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Feline leukemia virus (FeLV is a potentially life-threatening oncogenic retrovirus. The p27 viral core protein is produced by the virus in infected feline cells, is found in the cytoplasm in several blood cells and can be free in the serum and plasma. ELISA or particle-based immunoassay are commonly used to detect the presence of the p27 core protein in samples obtained from blood. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of several in-clinic tests: the SNAP Feline Triple Test (IDEXX Laboratories, the WITNESS FeLV-FIV Test (Zoetis and the VetScan Feline FeLV/FIV Rapid Test (Abaxis. Methods The sample population (100 positive, 105 negative samples consisted of serum and plasma samples submitted to IDEXX’s worldwide reference laboratory for feline retrovirus testing. Virus isolation and reverse transcriptase PCR results were not available and so samples were judged to be positive or negative based on the results of the ViraCHEK FeLV (Zoetis microtiter plate assay. Results The percentage of samples positive and negative for FeLV p27 antigen using the three in-clinic tests compared with the ViraCHEK method were as follows: IDEXX Feline Triple (positive 98.0%, negative 100%; Zoetis WITNESS (positive 79.0%, negative 97.1%; Abaxis VetScan (positive 73.0%, negative 97.1%. Conclusions and relevance The SNAP Feline Triple Test demonstrated a high level of agreement for FeLV-positive and FeLV-negative samples when assessed in this model. Results of FeLV assays can vary among tests.

  15. Evaluation of rapid diagnostic test kits for feline leukemia virus infection using samples from naturally infected cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiayou; O'Connor, Thomas; Beall, Melissa; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Lappin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a potentially life-threatening oncogenic retrovirus. The p27 viral core protein is produced by the virus in infected feline cells, is found in the cytoplasm in several blood cells and can be free in the serum and plasma. ELISA or particle-based immunoassay are commonly used to detect the presence of the p27 core protein in samples obtained from blood. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of several in-clinic tests: the SNAP Feline Triple Test (IDEXX Laboratories), the WITNESS FeLV-FIV Test (Zoetis) and the VetScan Feline FeLV/FIV Rapid Test (Abaxis). The sample population (100 positive, 105 negative samples) consisted of serum and plasma samples submitted to IDEXX's worldwide reference laboratory for feline retrovirus testing. Virus isolation and reverse transcriptase PCR results were not available and so samples were judged to be positive or negative based on the results of the ViraCHEK FeLV (Zoetis) microtiter plate assay. The percentage of samples positive and negative for FeLV p27 antigen using the three in-clinic tests compared with the ViraCHEK method were as follows: IDEXX Feline Triple (positive 98.0%, negative 100%); Zoetis WITNESS (positive 79.0%, negative 97.1%); Abaxis VetScan (positive 73.0%, negative 97.1%). The SNAP Feline Triple Test demonstrated a high level of agreement for FeLV-positive and FeLV-negative samples when assessed in this model. Results of FeLV assays can vary among tests.

  16. Recommended procedures for performance testing of radiobioassay laboratories: Volume 2, In vitro samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenrick, H.W.; MacLellan, J.A.

    1988-11-01

    Draft American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard N13.30 (Performance Criteria for Radiobioassay) was developed for the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to help ensure that bioassay laboratories provide accurate and consistent results. The draft standard specifies the criteria for defining the procedures necessary to establish a bioassay performance-testing laboratory and program. The bioassay testing laboratory will conduct tests to evaluate the performance of service laboratories. Pacific Northwest Laboratory helped develop testing procedures as part of an effort to evaluate the performance criteria by testing the existing measurement capabilities of various bioassay laboratories. This report recommends guidelines for the preparation, handling, storage, distribution, shipping, and documentation of in vitro test samples (artificial urine and fecal matter) for indirect bioassay. The data base and recommended records system for documenting radiobioassay performance at the service laboratories are also presented. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Testing of Small Graphite Samples for Nuclear Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Chapman

    2010-11-01

    Accurately determining the mechanical properties of small irradiated samples is crucial to predicting the behavior of the overal irradiated graphite components within a Very High Temperature Reactor. The sample size allowed in a material test reactor, however, is limited, and this poses some difficulties with respect to mechanical testing. In the case of graphite with a larger grain size, a small sample may exhibit characteristics not representative of the bulk material, leading to inaccuracies in the data. A study to determine a potential size effect on the tensile strength was pursued under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant program. It focuses first on optimizing the tensile testing procedure identified in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard C 781-08. Once the testing procedure was verified, a size effect was assessed by gradually reducing the diameter of the specimens. By monitoring the material response, a size effect was successfully identified.

  18. Preferences for HIV test characteristics among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) and transgender women: Implications for consistent HIV testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Hirshfield, Sabina; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Lucy, Debbie; Usher, DaShawn; McCrossin, Jermaine; Greene, Emily; Koblin, Beryl

    2018-01-01

    Background Promoting consistent HIV testing is critical among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) and transgender women who are overrepresented among new HIV cases in the United States. New HIV test options are available, including mobile unit testing, one-minute testing, at home or self-testing and couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC). In the context of these newer options, the objective of this study was to explore whether and how preferences for specific characteristics of the tests acted as barriers to and/or facilitators of testing in general and consistent testing specifically among young Black MSM and transgender women aged 16 to 29. Methods We conducted 30 qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with young, Black, gay, bisexual or MSM and transgender women in the New York City metropolitan area to identify preferences for specific HIV tests and aspects of HIV testing options. Participants were primarily recruited from online and mobile sites, followed by community-based, face-to-face recruitment strategies to specifically reach younger participants. Thematic coding was utilized to analyze the qualitative data based on a grounded theoretical approach. Results We identified how past experiences, perceived test characteristics (e.g., accuracy, cost, etc.) and beliefs about the “fit” between the individual, and the test relate to preferred testing methods and consistent testing. Three major themes emerged as important to preferences for HIV testing methods: the perceived accuracy of the test method, venue characteristics, and lack of knowledge or experience with the newer testing options, including self-testing and CHTC. Conclusions These findings suggest that increasing awareness of and access to newer HIV testing options (e.g., free or reduced price on home or self-tests or CHTC available at all testing venues) is critical if these new options are to facilitate increased levels of consistent testing among young, Black MSM and

  19. Preferences for HIV test characteristics among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) and transgender women: Implications for consistent HIV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Wilton, Leo; Hirshfield, Sabina; Chiasson, Mary Ann; Lucy, Debbie; Usher, DaShawn; McCrossin, Jermaine; Greene, Emily; Koblin, Beryl

    2018-01-01

    Promoting consistent HIV testing is critical among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM) and transgender women who are overrepresented among new HIV cases in the United States. New HIV test options are available, including mobile unit testing, one-minute testing, at home or self-testing and couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC). In the context of these newer options, the objective of this study was to explore whether and how preferences for specific characteristics of the tests acted as barriers to and/or facilitators of testing in general and consistent testing specifically among young Black MSM and transgender women aged 16 to 29. We conducted 30 qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with young, Black, gay, bisexual or MSM and transgender women in the New York City metropolitan area to identify preferences for specific HIV tests and aspects of HIV testing options. Participants were primarily recruited from online and mobile sites, followed by community-based, face-to-face recruitment strategies to specifically reach younger participants. Thematic coding was utilized to analyze the qualitative data based on a grounded theoretical approach. We identified how past experiences, perceived test characteristics (e.g., accuracy, cost, etc.) and beliefs about the "fit" between the individual, and the test relate to preferred testing methods and consistent testing. Three major themes emerged as important to preferences for HIV testing methods: the perceived accuracy of the test method, venue characteristics, and lack of knowledge or experience with the newer testing options, including self-testing and CHTC. These findings suggest that increasing awareness of and access to newer HIV testing options (e.g., free or reduced price on home or self-tests or CHTC available at all testing venues) is critical if these new options are to facilitate increased levels of consistent testing among young, Black MSM and transgender women. Addressing perceptions of

  20. Preferences for HIV test characteristics among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM and transgender women: Implications for consistent HIV testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Frye

    Full Text Available Promoting consistent HIV testing is critical among young, Black Men Who Have Sex With Men (MSM and transgender women who are overrepresented among new HIV cases in the United States. New HIV test options are available, including mobile unit testing, one-minute testing, at home or self-testing and couples HIV testing and counseling (CHTC. In the context of these newer options, the objective of this study was to explore whether and how preferences for specific characteristics of the tests acted as barriers to and/or facilitators of testing in general and consistent testing specifically among young Black MSM and transgender women aged 16 to 29.We conducted 30 qualitative, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with young, Black, gay, bisexual or MSM and transgender women in the New York City metropolitan area to identify preferences for specific HIV tests and aspects of HIV testing options. Participants were primarily recruited from online and mobile sites, followed by community-based, face-to-face recruitment strategies to specifically reach younger participants. Thematic coding was utilized to analyze the qualitative data based on a grounded theoretical approach.We identified how past experiences, perceived test characteristics (e.g., accuracy, cost, etc. and beliefs about the "fit" between the individual, and the test relate to preferred testing methods and consistent testing. Three major themes emerged as important to preferences for HIV testing methods: the perceived accuracy of the test method, venue characteristics, and lack of knowledge or experience with the newer testing options, including self-testing and CHTC.These findings suggest that increasing awareness of and access to newer HIV testing options (e.g., free or reduced price on home or self-tests or CHTC available at all testing venues is critical if these new options are to facilitate increased levels of consistent testing among young, Black MSM and transgender women. Addressing

  1. Acceptability and usability of self-collected sampling for HPV testing among African-American women living in the Mississippi Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarinci, Isabel C; Litton, Allison G; Garcés-Palacio, Isabel C; Partridge, Edward E; Castle, Philip E

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing has been shown to be an effective approach to cervical cancer screening, and self-collection sampling for HPV testing could be a potential alternative to Pap test, provided that women who tested positive by any method get timely follow-up and care. This feasibility study examined acceptability and usability of self-collected sampling for HPV testing among African-American (AA) women in the Mississippi Delta to inform the development of interventions to promote cervical cancer screening in this population. The study consisted of two phases. Phase I consisted of eight focus groups (n = 87) with AA women to explore knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about cervical cancer and HPV infection as well as acceptability of self-collected sampling for HPV testing. In phase II, we examined the usability of this technology through one discussion group (n = 9). The Health Belief Model guided data collection and analysis. Although participants perceived themselves as susceptible to cervical cancer and acknowledged its severity, there was a lack of knowledge of the link between HPV and cervical cancer, and they expressed a number of misconceptions. The most frequent barriers to screening included embarrassment, discomfort, and fear of the results. Women in both phases were receptive to self-collected sampling for HPV testing. All participants in the usability phase expressed that self-collection was easy and they did not experience any difficulties. Self-collection for HPV testing is an acceptable and feasible method among AA women in the Mississippi Delta to complement current cytology cervical cancer screening programs. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A One-Sample Test for Normality with Kernel Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kellner , Jérémie; Celisse , Alain

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new one-sample test for normality in a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS). Namely, we test the null-hypothesis of belonging to a given family of Gaussian distributions. Hence our procedure may be applied either to test data for normality or to test parameters (mean and covariance) if data are assumed Gaussian. Our test is based on the same principle as the MMD (Maximum Mean Discrepancy) which is usually used for two-sample tests such as homogeneity or independence testing. O...

  3. 40 CFR 205.160-2 - Test sample selection and preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test sample selection and preparation... sample selection and preparation. (a) Vehicles comprising the sample which are required to be tested... maintained in any manner unless such preparation, tests, modifications, adjustments or maintenance are part...

  4. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.L.; Davies, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140 Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5–7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra Lynx TM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident

  5. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J. L.; Davies, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5-7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra LynxTM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  6. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, J.L., E-mail: jonathan.burnett@awe.co.uk; Davies, A.V.

    2014-05-21

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a {sup 140}Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5–7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra Lynx{sup TM} multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  7. Strength and deformability of hollow concrete blocks: correlation of block and cylindrical sample test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Barbosa

    Full Text Available This paper deals with correlations among mechanical properties of hollow blocks and those of concrete used to make them. Concrete hollow blocks and test samples were moulded with plastic consistency concrete, to assure the same material in all cases, in three diferente levels of strength (nominally 10 N/mm², 20 N/mm² and 30 N/mm². The mechanical properties and structural behaviour in axial compression and tension tests were determined by standard tests in blocks and cylinders. Stress and strain analyses were made based on concrete’s modulus of elasticity obtained in the sample tests as well as on measured strain in the blocks’ face-shells and webs. A peculiar stress-strain analysis, based on the superposition of effects, provided an estimation of the block load capacity based on its deformations. In addition, a tentative method to preview the block deformability from the concrete mechanical properties is described and tested. This analysis is a part of a broader research that aims to support a detailed structural analysis of blocks, prisms and masonry constructions.

  8. 30 CFR 14.5 - Test samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR BELTS General Provisions § 14.5 Test samples. Upon request by MSHA, the applicant must submit 3 precut, unrolled, flat conveyor belt...

  9. Forward selection two sample binomial test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Fai; Wong, Weng-Kee; Lin, Miao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Fisher’s exact test (FET) is a conditional method that is frequently used to analyze data in a 2 × 2 table for small samples. This test is conservative and attempts have been made to modify the test to make it less conservative. For example, Crans and Shuster (2008) proposed adding more points in the rejection region to make the test more powerful. We provide another way to modify the test to make it less conservative by using two independent binomial distributions as the reference distribution for the test statistic. We compare our new test with several methods and show that our test has advantages over existing methods in terms of control of the type 1 and type 2 errors. We reanalyze results from an oncology trial using our proposed method and our software which is freely available to the reader. PMID:27335577

  10. A general framework for thermodynamically consistent parameterization and efficient sampling of enzymatic reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Saa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Kinetic models provide the means to understand and predict the dynamic behaviour of enzymes upon different perturbations. Despite their obvious advantages, classical parameterizations require large amounts of data to fit their parameters. Particularly, enzymes displaying complex reaction and regulatory (allosteric mechanisms require a great number of parameters and are therefore often represented by approximate formulae, thereby facilitating the fitting but ignoring many real kinetic behaviours. Here, we show that full exploration of the plausible kinetic space for any enzyme can be achieved using sampling strategies provided a thermodynamically feasible parameterization is used. To this end, we developed a General Reaction Assembly and Sampling Platform (GRASP capable of consistently parameterizing and sampling accurate kinetic models using minimal reference data. The former integrates the generalized MWC model and the elementary reaction formalism. By formulating the appropriate thermodynamic constraints, our framework enables parameterization of any oligomeric enzyme kinetics without sacrificing complexity or using simplifying assumptions. This thermodynamically safe parameterization relies on the definition of a reference state upon which feasible parameter sets can be efficiently sampled. Uniform sampling of the kinetics space enabled dissecting enzyme catalysis and revealing the impact of thermodynamics on reaction kinetics. Our analysis distinguished three reaction elasticity regions for common biochemical reactions: a steep linear region (0> ΔGr >-2 kJ/mol, a transition region (-2> ΔGr >-20 kJ/mol and a constant elasticity region (ΔGr <-20 kJ/mol. We also applied this framework to model more complex kinetic behaviours such as the monomeric cooperativity of the mammalian glucokinase and the ultrasensitive response of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase of Escherichia coli. In both cases, our approach described appropriately not only

  11. Testing the visual consistency of web sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, Thea; Loorbach, N.R.

    2005-01-01

    Consistency in the visual appearance of Web pages is often checked by experts, such as designers or reviewers. This article reports a card sort study conducted to determine whether users rather than experts could distinguish visual (in-)consistency in Web elements and pages. The users proved to

  12. Failure-censored accelerated life test sampling plans for Weibull distribution under expected test time constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, D.S.; Chun, Y.R.; Kim, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper considers the design of life-test sampling plans based on failure-censored accelerated life tests. The lifetime distribution of products is assumed to be Weibull with a scale parameter that is a log linear function of a (possibly transformed) stress. Two levels of stress higher than the use condition stress, high and low, are used. Sampling plans with equal expected test times at high and low test stresses which satisfy the producer's and consumer's risk requirements and minimize the asymptotic variance of the test statistic used to decide lot acceptability are obtained. The properties of the proposed life-test sampling plans are investigated

  13. Test of a sample container for shipment of small size plutonium samples with PAT-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, E.; Aigner, H.; Deron, S.

    1981-11-01

    A light-weight container for the air transport of plutonium, to be designated PAT-2, has been developed in the USA and is presently undergoing licensing. The very limited effective space for bearing plutonium required the design of small size sample canisters to meet the needs of international safeguards for the shipment of plutonium samples. The applicability of a small canister for the sampling of small size powder and solution samples has been tested in an intralaboratory experiment. The results of the experiment, based on the concept of pre-weighed samples, show that the tested canister can successfully be used for the sampling of small size PuO 2 -powder samples of homogeneous source material, as well as for dried aliquands of plutonium nitrate solutions. (author)

  14. [The comparative study of specificity of test-systems in diagnostic of HIV-infection on categories of samples of blood serum of pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipova, I N; Khodak, N M; Puzirev, V F; Burkov, A N; Ulanova, T I

    2015-03-01

    The detection of false positive serological reactions (FPSR) on HIV-infection under screening examination of pregnant women is an actual problem of practical health care. The original observations testify that under analysis of the same samples of blood serum of pregnant women using screening immune enzyme test-systems of various manufacturers the unmatched data concerning FPSR can be obtained. The purpose of this study was to implement comparative evaluation of specificity of immune enzyme test-systems of three different manufacturers: "DS-IFA-HIV-AGAT-SCREEN" ("Diagnostic Systems"), "Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag-Ab" "Bio Rad" France) and "The CombiBest HIV-1,2 AG/AT" ("Vector-Best" Novosibirsk). The sampling of 440 samples of blood serums of pregnant women from various medical institutions of Nizhnii Novgorod was analyzed. The results of the study demonstrated that FPSR were detected in all test-systems and at that spectrum of samples differed. The identical specificity of compared test-systems amounted to 98.64%. The alternative approach to FPSR to HIV issue under screening examinations of pregnant women was proposed. The proposed mode consisted of consistent application of two test-systems of fourth generation with different format of setup of reaction.

  15. Outgassing tests on iras solar panel samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premat, G.; Zwaal, A.; Pennings, N. H.

    1980-01-01

    Several outgassing tests were carried out on representative solar panel samples in order to determine the extent of contamination that could be expected from this source. The materials for the construction of the solar panels were selected as a result of contamination obtained in micro volatile condensable materials tests.

  16. Requirements for UML and OWL Integration Tool for User Data Consistency Modeling and Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Oleshchuk, V. A.

    2003-01-01

    The amount of data available on the Internet is continuously increasing, consequentially there is a growing need for tools that help to analyse the data. Testing of consistency among data received from different sources is made difficult by the number of different languages and schemas being used....... In this paper we analyze requirements for a tool that support integration of UML models and ontologies written in languages like the W3C Web Ontology Language (OWL). The tool can be used in the following way: after loading two legacy models into the tool, the tool user connects them by inserting modeling......, an important part of this technique is attaching of OCL expressions to special boolean class attributes that we call consistency attributes. The resulting integration model can be used for automatic consistency testing of two instances of the legacy models by automatically instantiate the whole integration...

  17. Testing Homogeneity in a Semiparametric Two-Sample Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukun Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a two-sample homogeneity testing problem, in which one sample comes from a population with density f(x and the other is from a mixture population with mixture density (1−λf(x+λg(x. This problem arises naturally from many statistical applications such as test for partial differential gene expression in microarray study or genetic studies for gene mutation. Under the semiparametric assumption g(x=f(xeα+βx, a penalized empirical likelihood ratio test could be constructed, but its implementation is hindered by the fact that there is neither feasible algorithm for computing the test statistic nor available research results on its theoretical properties. To circumvent these difficulties, we propose an EM test based on the penalized empirical likelihood. We prove that the EM test has a simple chi-square limiting distribution, and we also demonstrate its competitive testing performances by simulations. A real-data example is used to illustrate the proposed methodology.

  18. A Fault Sample Simulation Approach for Virtual Testability Demonstration Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; QIU Jing; LIU Guanjun; YANG Peng

    2012-01-01

    Virtual testability demonstration test has many advantages,such as low cost,high efficiency,low risk and few restrictions.It brings new requirements to the fault sample generation.A fault sample simulation approach for virtual testability demonstration test based on stochastic process theory is proposed.First,the similarities and differences of fault sample generation between physical testability demonstration test and virtual testability demonstration test are discussed.Second,it is pointed out that the fault occurrence process subject to perfect repair is renewal process.Third,the interarrival time distribution function of the next fault event is given.Steps and flowcharts of fault sample generation are introduced.The number of faults and their occurrence time are obtained by statistical simulation.Finally,experiments are carried out on a stable tracking platform.Because a variety of types of life distributions and maintenance modes are considered and some assumptions are removed,the sample size and structure of fault sample simulation results are more similar to the actual results and more reasonable.The proposed method can effectively guide the fault injection in virtual testability demonstration test.

  19. ELIMINATION OF THE CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF POUR STREAM SAMPLE AND THE GLASS FABRICATION AND TESTING OF THE DWPF SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J.; Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.

    2012-05-11

    A recommendation to eliminate all characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification sample was made by a Six-Sigma team chartered to eliminate non-value-added activities for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) sludge batch qualification program and is documented in the report SS-PIP-2006-00030. That recommendation was supported through a technical data review by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is documented in the memorandums SRNL-PSE-2007-00079 and SRNL-PSE-2007-00080. At the time of writing those memorandums, the DWPF was processing sludge-only waste but, has since transitioned to a coupled operation (sludge and salt). The SRNL was recently tasked to perform a similar data review relevant to coupled operations and re-evaluate the previous recommendations. This report evaluates the validity of eliminating the characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification samples based on sludge-only and coupled operations. The pour stream sample has confirmed the DWPF's ability to produce an acceptable waste form from Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) blending and product composition/durability predictions for the previous sixteen years but, ultimately the pour stream analysis has added minimal value to the DWPF's waste qualification strategy. Similarly, the information gained from the glass fabrication and PCT of the sludge batch qualification sample was determined to add minimal value to the waste qualification strategy since that sample is routinely not representative of the waste composition ultimately processed at the DWPF due to blending and salt processing considerations. Moreover, the qualification process has repeatedly confirmed minimal differences in glass behavior from actual radioactive waste to glasses fabricated from simulants or batch chemicals. In

  20. Elimination Of The Characterization Of DWPF Pour Stream Sample And The Glass Fabrication And Testing Of The DWPF Sludge Batch Qualification Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoroso, J.; Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.

    2012-01-01

    A recommendation to eliminate all characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification sample was made by a Six-Sigma team chartered to eliminate non-value-added activities for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) sludge batch qualification program and is documented in the report SS-PIP-2006-00030. That recommendation was supported through a technical data review by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is documented in the memorandums SRNL-PSE-2007-00079 and SRNL-PSE-2007-00080. At the time of writing those memorandums, the DWPF was processing sludge-only waste but, has since transitioned to a coupled operation (sludge and salt). The SRNL was recently tasked to perform a similar data review relevant to coupled operations and re-evaluate the previous recommendations. This report evaluates the validity of eliminating the characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification samples based on sludge-only and coupled operations. The pour stream sample has confirmed the DWPF's ability to produce an acceptable waste form from Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) blending and product composition/durability predictions for the previous sixteen years but, ultimately the pour stream analysis has added minimal value to the DWPF's waste qualification strategy. Similarly, the information gained from the glass fabrication and PCT of the sludge batch qualification sample was determined to add minimal value to the waste qualification strategy since that sample is routinely not representative of the waste composition ultimately processed at the DWPF due to blending and salt processing considerations. Moreover, the qualification process has repeatedly confirmed minimal differences in glass behavior from actual radioactive waste to glasses fabricated from simulants or batch chemicals. In contrast, the

  1. Data Quality Objectives For Selecting Waste Samples To Test The Fluid Bed Steam Reformer Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banning, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing. The type, quantity and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluid bed steam reformer (FBSR). A determination of the adequacy of the FBSR process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the FBSR process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used to test the FBSR process. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the testing criteria.

  2. Force Concept Inventory-based multiple-choice test for investigating students’ representational consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasi Nieminen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates students’ ability to interpret multiple representations consistently (i.e., representational consistency in the context of the force concept. For this purpose we developed the Representational Variant of the Force Concept Inventory (R-FCI, which makes use of nine items from the 1995 version of the Force Concept Inventory (FCI. These original FCI items were redesigned using various representations (such as motion map, vectorial and graphical, yielding 27 multiple-choice items concerning four central concepts underpinning the force concept: Newton’s first, second, and third laws, and gravitation. We provide some evidence for the validity and reliability of the R-FCI; this analysis is limited to the student population of one Finnish high school. The students took the R-FCI at the beginning and at the end of their first high school physics course. We found that students’ (n=168 representational consistency (whether scientifically correct or not varied considerably depending on the concept. On average, representational consistency and scientifically correct understanding increased during the instruction, although in the post-test only a few students performed consistently both in terms of representations and scientifically correct understanding. We also compared students’ (n=87 results of the R-FCI and the FCI, and found that they correlated quite well.

  3. Acceptance test report for core sample trucks 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Report is to provide documentation for the acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4, designated as HO-68K-4600 and HO-68K-4647, respectively. This report conforms to the guidelines established in WHC-IP-1026, ''Engineering Practice Guidelines,'' Appendix M, ''Acceptance Test Procedures and Reports.'' Rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4 were based upon the design of the second core sample truck (HO-68K-4345) which was constructed to implement rotary mode sampling of the waste tanks at Hanford. Successful completion of acceptance testing on June 30, 1995 verified that all design requirements were met. This report is divided into four sections, beginning with general information. Acceptance testing was performed on trucks 3 and 4 during the months of March through June, 1995. All testing was performed at the ''Rock Slinger'' test site in the 200 West area. The sequence of testing was determined by equipment availability, and the initial revision of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) was used for both trucks. Testing was directed by ICF-KH, with the support of WHC Characterization Equipment Engineering and Characterization Project Operations. Testing was completed per the ATP without discrepancies or deviations, except as noted

  4. Optimum sample size allocation to minimize cost or maximize power for the two-sample trimmed mean test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiin-Huarng; Luh, Wei-Ming

    2009-05-01

    When planning a study, sample size determination is one of the most important tasks facing the researcher. The size will depend on the purpose of the study, the cost limitations, and the nature of the data. By specifying the standard deviation ratio and/or the sample size ratio, the present study considers the problem of heterogeneous variances and non-normality for Yuen's two-group test and develops sample size formulas to minimize the total cost or maximize the power of the test. For a given power, the sample size allocation ratio can be manipulated so that the proposed formulas can minimize the total cost, the total sample size, or the sum of total sample size and total cost. On the other hand, for a given total cost, the optimum sample size allocation ratio can maximize the statistical power of the test. After the sample size is determined, the present simulation applies Yuen's test to the sample generated, and then the procedure is validated in terms of Type I errors and power. Simulation results show that the proposed formulas can control Type I errors and achieve the desired power under the various conditions specified. Finally, the implications for determining sample sizes in experimental studies and future research are discussed.

  5. The results of dosimetric type tests on the sample of LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescence dosimeters produced in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarizadeh, M.; Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Firoozi, B.; Kamali Shoroodani, A. R.; Mohammadi, Kh.

    2011-01-01

    In this investigation, the standard type tests performed on the LiF:Mg,Ti chip samples which have been produced in Iran. The dosimetry tests are consisting of sensitivity, homogeneity, linearity, reproducibility, minimum measurable dose, self and residual doses. The obtained results show that some of the tests such as sensitivity, minimum measurable dose, self and residual doses fulfill the criteria given by IEC 61066 and ASTM E668 standards; however, the remaining tests show some discrepancies in comparison with the standards. Also the sensitivity was measured to be 0.92 of that of commercially available TLD-100 (Harshaw) sample. So, the produced LiF:Mg,Ti dosimeter can be used in a routine personal/environmental and medical dosimetry with considering its precision.

  6. A non-parametric consistency test of the ΛCDM model with Planck CMB data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamousa, Amir; Shafieloo, Arman [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Hamann, Jan, E-mail: amir@aghamousa.com, E-mail: jan.hamann@unsw.edu.au, E-mail: shafieloo@kasi.re.kr [School of Physics, The University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2017-09-01

    Non-parametric reconstruction methods, such as Gaussian process (GP) regression, provide a model-independent way of estimating an underlying function and its uncertainty from noisy data. We demonstrate how GP-reconstruction can be used as a consistency test between a given data set and a specific model by looking for structures in the residuals of the data with respect to the model's best-fit. Applying this formalism to the Planck temperature and polarisation power spectrum measurements, we test their global consistency with the predictions of the base ΛCDM model. Our results do not show any serious inconsistencies, lending further support to the interpretation of the base ΛCDM model as cosmology's gold standard.

  7. Outcomes Definitions and Statistical Tests in Oncology Studies: A Systematic Review of the Reporting Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivoirard, Romain; Duplay, Vianney; Oriol, Mathieu; Tinquaut, Fabien; Chauvin, Franck; Magne, Nicolas; Bourmaud, Aurelie

    2016-01-01

    Quality of reporting for Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) in oncology was analyzed in several systematic reviews, but, in this setting, there is paucity of data for the outcomes definitions and consistency of reporting for statistical tests in RCTs and Observational Studies (OBS). The objective of this review was to describe those two reporting aspects, for OBS and RCTs in oncology. From a list of 19 medical journals, three were retained for analysis, after a random selection: British Medical Journal (BMJ), Annals of Oncology (AoO) and British Journal of Cancer (BJC). All original articles published between March 2009 and March 2014 were screened. Only studies whose main outcome was accompanied by a corresponding statistical test were included in the analysis. Studies based on censored data were excluded. Primary outcome was to assess quality of reporting for description of primary outcome measure in RCTs and of variables of interest in OBS. A logistic regression was performed to identify covariates of studies potentially associated with concordance of tests between Methods and Results parts. 826 studies were included in the review, and 698 were OBS. Variables were described in Methods section for all OBS studies and primary endpoint was clearly detailed in Methods section for 109 RCTs (85.2%). 295 OBS (42.2%) and 43 RCTs (33.6%) had perfect agreement for reported statistical test between Methods and Results parts. In multivariable analysis, variable "number of included patients in study" was associated with test consistency: aOR (adjusted Odds Ratio) for third group compared to first group was equal to: aOR Grp3 = 0.52 [0.31-0.89] (P value = 0.009). Variables in OBS and primary endpoint in RCTs are reported and described with a high frequency. However, statistical tests consistency between methods and Results sections of OBS is not always noted. Therefore, we encourage authors and peer reviewers to verify consistency of statistical tests in oncology studies.

  8. Tests on CANDU fuel elements sheath samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, S.; Uta, O.; Mincu, M.; Prisecaru, I.

    2016-01-01

    This work is a study of the behavior of CANDU fuel elements after irradiation. The tests are made on ring samples taken from fuel cladding in INR Pitesti. This paper presents the results of examinations performed in the Post Irradiation Examination Laboratory. By metallographic and ceramographic examination we determinate that the hydride precipitates are orientated parallel to the cladding surface. A content of hydrogen of about 120 ppm was estimated. After the preliminary tests, ring samples were cut from the fuel rod, and were subject of tensile test on an INSTRON 5569 model machine in order to evaluate the changes of their mechanical properties as consequence of irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on a microscope model TESCAN MIRA II LMU CS with Schottky FE emitter and variable pressure. The analysis shows that the central zone has deeper dimples, whereas on the outer zone, the dimples are tilted and smaller. (authors)

  9. Factors associated with not testing for HIV and consistent condom use among men in Soweto, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakhile Mhlongo

    Full Text Available Besides access to medical male circumcision, HIV testing, access to condoms and consistent condom use are additional strategies men can use to prevent HIV acquisition. We examine male behavior toward testing and condom use.To determine factors associated with never testing for HIV and consistent condom use among men who never test in Soweto.A cross-sectional survey in Soweto was conducted in 1539 men aged 18-32 years in 2007. Data were collected on socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics to determine factors associated with not testing and consistent condom use.Over two thirds (71% of men had not had an HIV test and the majority (55%, n = 602 were young (18-23. Of those not testing, condom use was poor (44%, n = 304. Men who were 18-23 years (aOR: 2.261, CI: 1.534-3.331, with primary (aOR: 2.096, CI: 1.058-4.153 or high school (aOR: 1.622, CI: 1.078-2.439 education, had sex in the last 6 months (aOR: 1.703, CI: 1.055-2.751, and had ≥1 sexual partner (aOR: 1.749, CI: 1.196-2.557 were more likely not to test. Of those reporting condom use (n = 1036, 67%, consistent condom use was 43% (n = 451. HIV testing did not correlate with condom use.Low rates of both condom use and HIV testing among men in a high HIV prevalence setting are worrisome and indicate an urgent need to develop innovative behavioral strategies to address this shortfall. Condom use is poor in this population whether tested or not tested for HIV, indicating no association between condom use and HIV testing.

  10. On Wasserstein Two-Sample Testing and Related Families of Nonparametric Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaditya Ramdas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonparametric two-sample or homogeneity testing is a decision theoretic problem that involves identifying differences between two random variables without making parametric assumptions about their underlying distributions. The literature is old and rich, with a wide variety of statistics having being designed and analyzed, both for the unidimensional and the multivariate setting. Inthisshortsurvey,wefocusonteststatisticsthatinvolvetheWassersteindistance. Usingan entropic smoothing of the Wasserstein distance, we connect these to very different tests including multivariate methods involving energy statistics and kernel based maximum mean discrepancy and univariate methods like the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, probability or quantile (PP/QQ plots and receiver operating characteristic or ordinal dominance (ROC/ODC curves. Some observations are implicit in the literature, while others seem to have not been noticed thus far. Given nonparametric two-sample testing’s classical and continued importance, we aim to provide useful connections for theorists and practitioners familiar with one subset of methods but not others.

  11. Consistency in color parameters of a commonly used shade guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkandi, Esam

    2010-01-01

    The use of shade guides to assess the color of natural teeth subjectively remains one of the most common means for dental shade assessment. Any variation in the color parameters of the different shade guides may lead to significant clinical implications. Particularly, since the communication between the clinic and the dental laboratory is based on using the shade guide designation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the consistency of the L∗a∗b∗ color parameters of a sample of a commonly used shade guide. The color parameters of a total of 100 VITAPAN Classical Vacuum shade guide (VITA Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany(were measured using a X-Rite ColorEye 7000A Spectrophotometer (Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA). Each shade guide consists of 16 tabs with different designations. Each shade tab was measured five times and the average values were calculated. The ΔE between the average L∗a∗b∗ value for each shade tab and the average of the 100 shade tabs of the same designation was calculated. Using the Student t-test analysis, no significant differences were found among the measured sample. There is a high consistency level in terms of color parameters of the measured VITAPAN Classical Vacuum shade guide sample tested.

  12. Frequency and determinants of consistent STI/HIV testing among men who have sex with men testing at STI outpatient clinics in the Netherlands: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, Maartje; Heijne, Janneke C M; Hogewoning, Arjan A; van Aar, Fleur

    2017-09-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at highest risk for STIs and HIV infections in the Netherlands. However, official guidelines on STI testing among MSM are lacking. They are advised to test for STIs at least every six months, but their testing behaviour is not well known. This study aimed to get insight into the proportion and determinants of consistent 6-monthly STI testing among MSM testing at STI outpatient clinics in the Netherlands. This study included longitudinal surveillance data of STI consultations among MSM from all 26 STI outpatient clinics in the Netherlands between 1 June 2014 and 31 December 2015. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of consistent 6-monthly testing compared with single testing and inconsistent testing. Determinants of time between consultations among men with multiple consultations were analysed using a Cox Prentice-Williams-Peterson gap-time model. A total of 34 605 STI consultations of 18 634 MSM were included. 8966 (48.1%) men had more than one consultation, and 3516 (18.9%) men tested consistently 6-monthly. Indicators of high sexual risk behaviour, including having a history of STI, being HIV positive and having more than 10 sex partners, were positively associated with both being a consistent tester and returning to the STI clinic sooner. Men who were notified by a partner or who reported STI symptoms were also more likely to return to the STI clinic sooner, but were less likely to be consistent testers, identifying a group of event-driven testers. The proportion of consistent 6-monthly testers among MSM visiting Dutch STI outpatient clinics was low. Testing behaviour was associated with sexual risk behaviour, but exact motives to test consistently remain unclear. Evidence-based testing guidelines are needed to achieve optimal reductions in STI transmission in the future. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence

  13. Test-Retest Reliability, Convergent Validity, and Internal Consistency of the Persian Version of Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale in Iranian Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Azar Sabet; Akram Azad; Ghorban Taghizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate convergent validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Persian translation of the Fullerton advanced balance (FAB) for use in Iranian community- dwelling older adults and improve the quality of their functional balance assessment. Methods & Materials: The original scale was translated with forward-backward protocol. In the next step, using convenience sampling and inclusion criteria, 88 functionally indep...

  14. Test Plan for Rotary Mode Core Sample Truck Grapple Hoist Level Wind System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    A Grapple Hoist Assembly is currently used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling Trucks (RMCSTs) to actuate the sampler and retrieve the pintle rod during sampling operations. The hoist assembly includes a driven drum approximately two inches wide and six inches in diameter that rotates to pay out or reel in the 5/32-in. cable The current Grapple Hoist Assembly, detailed on drawing H-2-690057, is prone to ''bird nesting'' the cable on the drum. ''Bird nesting'' is a condition in which the cable does not wind onto the drum in a uniformly layered manner, but winds in a random fashion where the cable essentially ''piles up'' inappropriately on the drum and, on some occasions, winds on the drum drive shaft. A system to help control this ''bird nesting'' problem has been designed as an addition to the existing components of the Grapple Hoist Assembly. The new design consists of a mechanism that is timed with, and driven by, the shaft that drives the drum. This mechanism traverses back and forth across the width of the drum to lay the cable on the drum in a uniformly layered manner. This test plan establishes the acceptance criteria, test procedure and test conditions It also describes the test apparatus necessary to verify the adequacy of the level wind system design. The test is defined as qualification testing (LMHC 1999b) and as such will be performed at conditions beyond the parameters that the Grapple Hoist Assembly is allowed to operate by the Safety Equipment List (SEL)(LMHC 1998)

  15. Test Plan for Rotary Mode Core Sample Truck Grapple Hoist Level Wind System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    A Grapple Hoist Assembly is currently used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling Trucks (RMCSTs) to actuate the sampler and retrieve the pintle rod during sampling operations. The hoist assembly includes a driven drum approximately two inches wide and six inches in diameter that rotates to pay out or reel in the 5/32-in. cable. The current Grapple Hoist Assembly, detailed on drawing H-2-690057, is prone to ''bird nesting'' the cable on the drum. ''Bird nesting'' is a condition in which the cable does not wind onto the drum in a uniformly layered manner, but winds in a random fashion where the cable essentially ''piles up'' inappropriately on the drum and, on some occasions, winds on the drum drive shaft. A system to help control this ''bird nesting'' problem has been designed as an addition to the existing components of the Grapple Hoist Assembly. The new design consists of a mechanism that is timed with, and driven by, the shaft that drives the drum. This mechanism traverses back and forth across the width of the drum to lay the cable on the drum in a uniformly layered manner. This test plan establishes the acceptance criteria, test procedure and test conditions. It also describes the test apparatus necessary to verify the adequacy of the level wind system design. The test is defined as qualification testing (LMHC 1999b) and as such will be performed at conditions beyond the parameters that the Grapple Hoist Assembly is allowed to operate by the Safety Equipment List

  16. REFINEMENT OF THE REVERSE EXTRUSION TEST TO DETERMINE THE TWO CONSISTENCY LIMITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil KAYABALI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Liquid limit (LL and plastic limit (PL are the two most commonly used index proper- ties of fine-grained soils. They have been used in not only classification of soils but also in correlation with certain engineering properties. Therefore, they have been subjected to numerous researches since they were first introduced by Atterberg in 1911. While their me- chanisms were well defined in many codes and they have been in use for decades, criticisms often arose pertinent to the uncertainties inherent to them. Incredible amount of effort has been exerted to invent more rational testing methods in place of both the Casagrande’s cup and bead rolling methods. Part of those efforts has been on devicing a single tool to measure the two relative index properties together. Recently, the reverse extrusion test was brought into the use of geotechnical engineers. It was shown that this tool has a potential of measu- ring LL, PL, and even the shrinkage limit (SL. The aim of this investigation is to reassess the ability of the reverse extrusion test to determine LL and PL with further refinement. In this regard 70 fine-grained soils covering a large range of plasticity were employed. Fall-cone method and rolling-device method were employed to determine LL and PL, res- pectively. The reverse extrusion tests were carried out at least five different water contents per soil sample. Extrusion pressures were plotted against water content and a curve fitting was applied to data pairs, from which the y-intercept (the coefficient a and the slope (the coefficieent b of the curve were determined. Those reverse extrusion coefficients were utilized to determine the representative extrusion pressures corresponding to LL and PL, as was done by the earlier researchers; however, the degree of success for the prediction of LL and PL using the representative extrusion pressures was not encouraging. Different from the previously proposed approaches, the reverse extrusion

  17. Integration and consistency testing of groundwater flow models with hydro-geochemistry in site investigations in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkaenen, P.; Loefman, J.; Korkealaakso, J.; Koskinen, L.; Ruotsalainen, P.; Hautojaervi, A.; Aeikaes, T.

    1999-01-01

    In the assessment of the suitability and safety of a geological repository for radioactive waste the understanding of the fluid flow at a site is essential. In order to build confidence in the assessment of the hydrogeological performance of a site in various conditions, integration of hydrological and hydrogeochemical methods and studies provides the primary method for investigating the evolution that has taken place in the past, and for predicting future conditions at the potential disposal site. A systematic geochemical sampling campaign was started since the beginning of 1990's in the Finnish site investigation programme. This enabled the initiating of integration and evaluation of site scale hydrogeochemical and groundwater flow models. Hydrogeochemical information has been used to screen relevant external processes and variables for definition of the initial and boundary conditions in hydrological simulations. The results obtained from interpretation and modelling hydrogeochemical evolution have been employed in testing the hydrogeochemical consistency of conceptual flow models. Integration and testing of flow models with hydrogeochemical information are considered to improve significantly the hydrogeological understanding of a site and increases confidence in conceptual hydrogeological models. (author)

  18. Estimation of sample size and testing power (Part 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo

    2011-12-01

    This article introduces the definition and sample size estimation of three special tests (namely, non-inferiority test, equivalence test and superiority test) for qualitative data with the design of one factor with two levels having a binary response variable. Non-inferiority test refers to the research design of which the objective is to verify that the efficacy of the experimental drug is not clinically inferior to that of the positive control drug. Equivalence test refers to the research design of which the objective is to verify that the experimental drug and the control drug have clinically equivalent efficacy. Superiority test refers to the research design of which the objective is to verify that the efficacy of the experimental drug is clinically superior to that of the control drug. By specific examples, this article introduces formulas of sample size estimation for the three special tests, and their SAS realization in detail.

  19. Group SkSP-R sampling plan for accelerated life tests

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muhammad Aslam

    2017-09-15

    Sep 15, 2017 ... SkSP-R sampling; life test; Weibull distribution; producer's risk; ... designed a sampling plan under a time-truncated life test .... adjusted using an acceleration factor. ... where P is the probability of lot acceptance for a single.

  20. Adaptive designs for the one-sample log-rank test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rene; Faldum, Andreas; Kwiecien, Robert

    2017-09-22

    Traditional designs in phase IIa cancer trials are single-arm designs with a binary outcome, for example, tumor response. In some settings, however, a time-to-event endpoint might appear more appropriate, particularly in the presence of loss to follow-up. Then the one-sample log-rank test might be the method of choice. It allows to compare the survival curve of the patients under treatment to a prespecified reference survival curve. The reference curve usually represents the expected survival under standard of the care. In this work, convergence of the one-sample log-rank statistic to Brownian motion is proven using Rebolledo's martingale central limit theorem while accounting for staggered entry times of the patients. On this basis, a confirmatory adaptive one-sample log-rank test is proposed where provision is made for data dependent sample size reassessment. The focus is to apply the inverse normal method. This is done in two different directions. The first strategy exploits the independent increments property of the one-sample log-rank statistic. The second strategy is based on the patient-wise separation principle. It is shown by simulation that the proposed adaptive test might help to rescue an underpowered trial and at the same time lowers the average sample number (ASN) under the null hypothesis as compared to a single-stage fixed sample design. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  1. Bovine milk sampling efficiency for pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) detection test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, H. K. da; Cassoli, L.D.; Pantoja, J.F.C.; Cerqueira, P.H.R.; Coitinho, T.B.; Machado, P.F.

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to verify whether the time of day at which a milk sample is collected and the possible carryover in the milking system may affect pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results in dairy cows. In experiment one, we evaluated the effect of time of day at which the milk sample is collected from 51 cows. In experiment two, which evaluated the possible occurrence of carryover in the milk meter milking system, milk samples from 94 cows belonging to two different farms were used. The samples were subjected to pregnancy test using ELISA methodology to measure PAG concentrations and to classify the samples as positive (pregnant), negative (nonpregnant), or suspicious (recheck). We found that the time of milking did not affect the PAG levels. As to the occurrence of carryover in the milk meter, the PAG levels of the samples collected from Farm-2 were heavily influenced by a carryover effect compared with the samples from Farm-1. Thus, milk samples submitted to a pregnancy test can be collected during the morning or the evening milking. When the sample is collected from the milk meters, periodic equipment maintenance should be noted, including whether the milk meter is totally drained between different animals’ milking and equipment cleaning between milking is performed correctly to minimize the occurrence of carryover, thereby avoiding the effect on PAG levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results. Therefore, a single milk sample can be used for both milk quality tests and pregnancy test.

  2. Bovine milk sampling efficiency for pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) detection test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, H. K. da; Cassoli, L.D.; Pantoja, J.F.C.; Cerqueira, P.H.R.; Coitinho, T.B.; Machado, P.F.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to verify whether the time of day at which a milk sample is collected and the possible carryover in the milking system may affect pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results in dairy cows. In experiment one, we evaluated the effect of time of day at which the milk sample is collected from 51 cows. In experiment two, which evaluated the possible occurrence of carryover in the milk meter milking system, milk samples from 94 cows belonging to two different farms were used. The samples were subjected to pregnancy test using ELISA methodology to measure PAG concentrations and to classify the samples as positive (pregnant), negative (nonpregnant), or suspicious (recheck). We found that the time of milking did not affect the PAG levels. As to the occurrence of carryover in the milk meter, the PAG levels of the samples collected from Farm-2 were heavily influenced by a carryover effect compared with the samples from Farm-1. Thus, milk samples submitted to a pregnancy test can be collected during the morning or the evening milking. When the sample is collected from the milk meters, periodic equipment maintenance should be noted, including whether the milk meter is totally drained between different animals’ milking and equipment cleaning between milking is performed correctly to minimize the occurrence of carryover, thereby avoiding the effect on PAG levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results. Therefore, a single milk sample can be used for both milk quality tests and pregnancy test.

  3. Quality standards for sample collection in coagulation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2012-09-01

    Preanalytical activities, especially those directly connected with blood sample collection and handling, are the most vulnerable steps throughout the testing process. The receipt of unsuitable samples is commonplace in laboratory practice and represents a serious problem, given the reliability of test results can be adversely compromised following analysis of these specimens. The basic criteria for an appropriate and safe venipuncture are nearly identical to those used for collecting blood for clinical chemistry and immunochemistry testing, and entail proper patient identification, use of the correct technique, as well as appropriate devices and needles. There are, however, some peculiar aspects, which are deemed to be particularly critical when collecting quality specimens for clot-based tests, and these require clearer recognition. These include prevention of prolonged venous stasis, collection of nonhemolyzed specimens, order of draw, and appropriate filling and mixing of the primary collection tubes. All of these important preanalytical issues are discussed in this article, and evidence-based suggestions as well as recommendations on how to obtain a high-quality sample for coagulation testing are also illustrated. We have also performed an investigation aimed to identify variation of test results due to underfilling of primary blood tubes, and have identified a clinically significant bias in test results when tubes are drawn at less than 89% of total fill for activated partial thromboplastin time, less than 78% for fibrinogen, and less than 67% for coagulation factor VIII, whereas prothrombin time and activated protein C resistance remain relatively reliable even in tubes drawn at 67% of the nominal volume. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  4. Mineralogic and petrologic investigation of post-test core samples from the Spent Fuel Test - Climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, F.J.; Beiriger, J.

    1985-02-01

    We have characterized a suite of samples taken subsequent to the end of the Spent Fuel Test - Climax by petrographic and microanalytical techniques and determined their mineral assemblage, modal properties, and mineral chemistry. The samples were obtained immediately adjacent to the canister borehole at a variety of depths and positions within the canister drift, as well as radially outward from each canister hole. This method of sampling allows variations in post-test mineralogic properties to be evaluated on the basis of (1) depth along a particular canister hole and (2) position within the canister drift, with respect to the heat and radiation sources, and with respect to the pre - test samples. In no case did we find any significant correlation between the mineralogical properties and variables listed above. In short, the Spent Fuel Test - Climax has produced no identifiable mineralogical response in the Climax quartz monzonite. 12 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  5. ISOLOK VALVE ACCEPTANCE TESTING FOR DWPF SME SAMPLING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.; Hera, K.; Coleman, C.; Jones, M.; Wiedenman, B.

    2011-12-05

    Evaluation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) cycle time identified several opportunities to improve the CPC processing time. Of the opportunities, a focus area related to optimizing the equipment and efficiency of the sample turnaround time for DWPF Analytical Laboratory was identified. The Mechanical Systems & Custom Equipment Development (MS&CED) Section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated the possibility of using an Isolok{reg_sign} sampling valve as an alternative to the Hydragard{reg_sign} valve for taking process samples. Previous viability testing was conducted with favorable results using the Isolok sampler and reported in SRNL-STI-2010-00749 (1). This task has the potential to improve operability, reduce maintenance time and decrease CPC cycle time. This report summarizes the results from acceptance testing which was requested in Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0036 (2) and which was conducted as outlined in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNL-RP-2011-00145 (3). The Isolok to be tested is the same model which was tested, qualified, and installed in the Sludge Receipt Adjustment Tank (SRAT) sample system. RW-0333P QA requirements apply to this task. This task was to qualify the Isolok sampler for use in the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) sampling process. The Hydragard, which is the current baseline sampling method, was used for comparison to the Isolok sampling data. The Isolok sampler is an air powered grab sampler used to 'pull' a sample volume from a process line. The operation of the sampler is shown in Figure 1. The image on the left shows the Isolok's spool extended into the process line and the image on the right shows the sampler retracted and then dispensing the liquid into the sampling container. To determine tank homogeneity, a Coliwasa sampler was used to grab samples at a high and low location within the mixing tank. Data from

  6. Centrifugation protocols: tests to determine optimal lithium heparin and citrate plasma sample quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeski, Goce; Solano, Connie; Petroff, Mark K; Hynd, Matthew

    2011-05-01

    Currently, no clear guidelines exist for the most appropriate tests to determine sample quality from centrifugation protocols for plasma sample types with both lithium heparin in gel barrier tubes for biochemistry testing and citrate tubes for coagulation testing. Blood was collected from 14 participants in four lithium heparin and one serum tube with gel barrier. The plasma tubes were centrifuged at four different centrifuge settings and analysed for potassium (K(+)), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), glucose and phosphorus (Pi) at zero time, poststorage at six hours at 21 °C and six days at 2-8°C. At the same time, three citrate tubes were collected and centrifuged at three different centrifuge settings and analysed immediately for prothrombin time/international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, derived fibrinogen and surface-activated clotting time (SACT). The biochemistry analytes indicate plasma is less stable than serum. Plasma sample quality is higher with longer centrifugation time, and much higher g force. Blood cells present in the plasma lyse with time or are damaged when transferred in the reaction vessels, causing an increase in the K(+), LD and Pi above outlined limits. The cells remain active and consume glucose even in cold storage. The SACT is the only coagulation parameter that was affected by platelets >10 × 10(9)/L in the citrate plasma. In addition to the platelet count, a limited but sensitive number of assays (K(+), LD, glucose and Pi for biochemistry, and SACT for coagulation) can be used to determine appropriate centrifuge settings to consistently obtain the highest quality lithium heparin and citrate plasma samples. The findings will aid laboratories to balance the need to provide the most accurate results in the best turnaround time.

  7. The Consistency of Isotopologues of Ambient Atmospheric Nitric Acid in Passively Collected Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, M. D.; Sickman, J. O.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Padgett, P.; Allen, E. B.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic sources of nitrogen oxides have previously been shown to have distinctive isotopic signatures of oxygen and nitrogen. Nylon filters are currently used in passive sampling arrays to measure ambient atmospheric nitric acid concentrations and estimate deposition rates. This experiment measured the ability of nylon filters to consistently collect isotopologues of atmospheric nitric acid in the same ratios as they are present in the atmosphere. Samplers were deployed in continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and at field sites across a nitrogen deposition gradient in Southern California. Filters were exposed over a four week period with individual filters being subjected to 1-4 week exposure times. Extracted nitric acid were measured for δ18O and δ15N ratios and compared for consistency based on length of exposure and amount of HNO3 collected. Filters within the CSTRs collected HNO3 at a consistent rate in both high and low concentration chambers. After two weeks of exposure, the mean δ18O values were within 0.5‰ of the δ18O of the source HNO3 solution. The mean of all weekly exposures were within 0.5‰ of the δ15N of the source solution, but after three weeks, the mean δ15N of adsorbed HNO3 was within 0.2‰. As the length of the exposure increased, the variability of measured delta values decreased for both elements. The field samplers collected HNO3 consistent with previously measured values along a deposition gradient. The mean δ18O at high deposition sites was 52.2‰ compared to 35.7‰ at the low deposition sites. Mean δ15N values were similar at all sites across the deposition gradient. Due to precipitation events occurring during the exposure period, the δ15N and δ18O of nitric acid were highly variable at all field sites. At single sites, changes in δ15N and δ18O were negatively correlated, consistent with two-sourcing mixing dynamics, but the slope of the regressions differed between high and low deposition sites. Anthropogenic

  8. Test Plan for Rotary Mode Core Sample Truck Grapple Hoist Level Wind System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-12-09

    A Grapple Hoist Assembly is currently used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling Trucks (RMCSTs) to actuate the sampler and retrieve the pintle rod during sampling operations. The hoist assembly includes a driven drum approximately two inches wide and six inches in diameter that rotates to pay out or reel in the 5/32-in. cable The current Grapple Hoist Assembly, detailed on drawing H-2-690057, is prone to ''bird nesting'' the cable on the drum. ''Bird nesting'' is a condition in which the cable does not wind onto the drum in a uniformly layered manner, but winds in a random fashion where the cable essentially ''piles up'' inappropriately on the drum and, on some occasions, winds on the drum drive shaft. A system to help control this ''bird nesting'' problem has been designed as an addition to the existing components of the Grapple Hoist Assembly. The new design consists of a mechanism that is timed with, and driven by, the shaft that drives the drum. This mechanism traverses back and forth across the width of the drum to lay the cable on the drum in a uniformly layered manner. This test plan establishes the acceptance criteria, test procedure and test conditions It also describes the test apparatus necessary to verify the adequacy of the level wind system design. The test is defined as qualification testing (LMHC 1999b) and as such will be performed at conditions beyond the parameters that the Grapple Hoist Assembly is allowed to operate by the Safety Equipment List (SEL)(LMHC 1998).

  9. Doubling immunochemistry laboratory testing efficiency with the cobas e 801 module while maintaining consistency in analytical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeisen, P; Zahn, I; Fiedler, G M; Leichtle, A B; Wang, S; Soria, G; Johnson, P; Henzell, J; Hegel, J K; Bendavid, C; Collet, N; McGovern, M; Klopprogge, K

    2018-06-04

    The new immunochemistry cobas e 801 module (Roche Diagnostics) was developed to meet increasing demands on routine laboratories to further improve testing efficiency, while maintaining high quality and reliable data. During a non-interventional multicenter evaluation study, the overall performance, functionality and reliability of the new module was investigated under routine-like conditions. It was tested as a dedicated immunochemistry system at four sites and as a consolidator combined with clinical chemistry at three sites. We report on testing efficiency and analytical performance of the new module. Evaluation of sample workloads with site-specific routine request patterns demonstrated increased speed and almost doubled throughput (maximal 300 tests per h), thus revealing that one cobas e 801 module can replace two cobas e 602 modules while saving up to 44% floor space. Result stability was demonstrated by QC analysis per assay throughout the study. Precision testing over 21 days yielded excellent results within and between labs, and, method comparison performed versus the cobas e 602 module routine results showed high consistency of results for all assays under study. In a practicability assessment related to performance and handling, 99% of graded features met (44%) or even exceeded (55%) laboratory expectations, with enhanced reagent management and loading during operation being highlighted. By nearly doubling immunochemistry testing efficiency on the same footprint as a cobas e 602 module, the new module has a great potential to further consolidate and enhance laboratory testing while maintaining high quality analytical performance with Roche platforms. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Abbreviated sampling and analysis plan for planning decontamination and decommissioning at Test Reactor Area (TRA) facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The objective is to sample and analyze for the presence of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents within certain areas of the Test Reactor Area (TRA), prior to D and D activities. The TRA is composed of three major reactor facilities and three smaller reactors built in support of programs studying the performance of reactor materials and components under high neutron flux conditions. The Materials Testing Reactor (MTR) and Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) facilities are currently pending D/D. Work consists of pre-D and D sampling of designated TRA (primarily ETR) process areas. This report addresses only a limited subset of the samples which will eventually be required to characterize MTR and ETR and plan their D and D. Sampling which is addressed in this document is intended to support planned D and D work which is funded at the present time. Biased samples, based on process knowledge and plant configuration, are to be performed. The multiple process areas which may be potentially sampled will be initially characterized by obtaining data for upstream source areas which, based on facility configuration, would affect downstream and as yet unsampled, process areas. Sampling and analysis will be conducted to determine the level of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents present in designated areas within buildings TRA-612, 642, 643, 644, 645, 647, 648, 663; and in the soils surrounding Facility TRA-611. These data will be used to plan the D and D and help determine disposition of material by D and D personnel. Both MTR and ETR facilities will eventually be decommissioned by total dismantlement so that the area can be restored to its original condition

  11. Test plan for evaluating the performance of the in-tank fluidic sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The PHMC will provide Low Activity Wastes (LAW) tank wastes for final treatment by a privatization contractor from double-shell feed tanks, 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104, Concerns about the inability of the baseline ''grab'' sampling to provide large volume samples within time constraints has led to the development of a conceptual sampling system that would be deployed in a feed tank riser, This sampling system will provide large volume, representative samples without the environmental, radiation exposure, and sample volume impacts of the current base-line ''grab'' sampling method. This test plan identifies ''proof-of-principle'' cold tests for the conceptual sampling system using simulant materials. The need for additional testing was identified as a result of completing tests described in the revision test plan document, Revision 1 outlines tests that will evaluate the performance and ability to provide samples that are representative of a tanks' content within a 95 percent confidence interval, to recovery from plugging, to sample supernatant wastes with over 25 wt% solids content, and to evaluate the impact of sampling at different heights within the feed tank. The test plan also identifies operating parameters that will optimize the performance of the sampling system

  12. Extraction, -scrub, -strip test results from the interim salt disposition program macrobatch 10 tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-26

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 10 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). The Salt Batch 10 characterization results were previously reported.ii,iii An Extraction, -Scrub, -Strip (ESS) test was performed to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)) and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Tank Farm Engineering to project a cesium decontamination factor (DF). This test used actual Tank 21H material, and a sample of the NGS Blend solvent currently being used at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU). The ESS test showed acceptable performance with an extraction D(Cs) value of 110. This value is consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. This is better than the predicted value of 39.8 from a recently created D(Cs) model.

  13. Factor Structure, Internal Consistency, and Screening Sensitivity of the GARS-2 in a Developmental Disabilities Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Volker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition (GARS-2 is a widely used screening instrument that assists in the identification and diagnosis of autism. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and screening sensitivity of the GARS-2 using ratings from special education teaching staff for a sample of 240 individuals with autism or other significant developmental disabilities. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a correlated three-factor solution similar to that found in 2005 by Lecavalier for the original GARS. Though the three factors appeared to be reasonably consistent with the intended constructs of the three GARS-2 subscales, the analysis indicated that more than a third of the GARS-2 items were assigned to the wrong subscale. Internal consistency estimates met or exceeded standards for screening and were generally higher than those in previous studies. Screening sensitivity was .65 and specificity was .81 for the Autism Index using a cut score of 85. Based on these findings, recommendations are made for instrument revision.

  14. Factor Structure, Internal Consistency, and Screening Sensitivity of the GARS-2 in a Developmental Disabilities Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Martin A. Volker; Elissa H. Dua; Christopher Lopata; Marcus L. Thomeer; Jennifer A. Toomey; Audrey M. Smerbeck; Jonathan D. Rodgers; Joshua R. Popkin; Andrew T. Nelson; Gloria K. Lee

    2016-01-01

    The Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-Second Edition (GARS-2) is a widely used screening instrument that assists in the identification and diagnosis of autism. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, internal consistency, and screening sensitivity of the GARS-2 using ratings from special education teaching staff for a sample of 240 individuals with autism or other significant developmental disabilities. Exploratory factor analysis yielded a correlated three-factor solution si...

  15. A New Heteroskedastic Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator using Deviance Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Aftab

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article we propose a new heteroskedastic consistent covariance matrix estimator, HC6, based on deviance measure. We have studied and compared the finite sample behavior of the new test and compared it with other this kind of estimators, HC1, HC3 and HC4m, which are used in case of leverage observations. Simulation study is conducted to study the effect of various levels of heteroskedasticity on the size and power of quasi-t test with HC estimators. Results show that the test statistic based on our new suggested estimator has better asymptotic approximation and less size distortion as compared to other estimators for small sample sizes when high level ofheteroskedasticity is present in data.

  16. On the Representativeness of Norming Samples for Aptitude Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sims, William

    2003-01-01

    ...). We regressed aptitude test scores on demographics and concluded that: ̂ Norming sample for aptitude tests must be representative of the target population with respect to age, race"ethnicity, gender, respondent's education, and mother's...

  17. The internal consistency of the standard gamble: tests after adjusting for prospect theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Adam

    2003-07-01

    This article reports a study that tests whether the internal consistency of the standard gamble can be improved upon by incorporating loss weighting and probability transformation parameters in the standard gamble valuation procedure. Five alternatives to the standard EU formulation are considered: (1) probability transformation within an EU framework; and, within a prospect theory framework, (2) loss weighting and full probability transformation, (3) no loss weighting and full probability transformation, (4) loss weighting and no probability transformation, and (5) loss weighting and partial probability transformation. Of the five alternatives, only the prospect theory formulation with loss weighting and no probability transformation offers an improvement in internal consistency over the standard EU valuation procedure.

  18. A novel PMT test system based on waveform sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, S.; Ma, L.; Ning, Z.; Qian, S.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, X.; Wang, Z.; Yu, B.; Gao, F.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Comparing with the traditional test system based on a QDC and TDC and scaler, a test system based on waveform sampling is constructed for signal sampling of the 8"R5912 and the 20"R12860 Hamamatsu PMT in different energy states from single to multiple photoelectrons. In order to achieve high throughput and to reduce the dead time in data processing, the data acquisition software based on LabVIEW is developed and runs with a parallel mechanism. The analysis algorithm is realized in LabVIEW and the spectra of charge, amplitude, signal width and rising time are analyzed offline. The results from Charge-to-Digital Converter, Time-to-Digital Converter and waveform sampling are discussed in detailed comparison.

  19. Overestimation of test performance by ROC analysis: Effect of small sample size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeley, G.W.; Borgstrom, M.C.; Patton, D.D.; Myers, K.J.; Barrett, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    New imaging systems are often observer-rated by ROC techniques. For practical reasons the number of different images, or sample size (SS), is kept small. Any systematic bias due to small SS would bias system evaluation. The authors set about to determine whether the area under the ROC curve (AUC) would be systematically biased by small SS. Monte Carlo techniques were used to simulate observer performance in distinguishing signal (SN) from noise (N) on a 6-point scale; P(SN) = P(N) = .5. Four sample sizes (15, 25, 50 and 100 each of SN and N), three ROC slopes (0.8, 1.0 and 1.25), and three intercepts (0.8, 1.0 and 1.25) were considered. In each of the 36 combinations of SS, slope and intercept, 2000 runs were simulated. Results showed a systematic bias: the observed AUC exceeded the expected AUC in every one of the 36 combinations for all sample sizes, with the smallest sample sizes having the largest bias. This suggests that evaluations of imaging systems using ROC curves based on small sample size systematically overestimate system performance. The effect is consistent but subtle (maximum 10% of AUC standard deviation), and is probably masked by the s.d. in most practical settings. Although there is a statistically significant effect (F = 33.34, P<0.0001) due to sample size, none was found for either the ROC curve slope or intercept. Overestimation of test performance by small SS seems to be an inherent characteristic of the ROC technique that has not previously been described

  20. How Well Does the Sum Score Summarize the Test? Summability as a Measure of Internal Consistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeman, J.J.; De, Jong N.H.

    2018-01-01

    Many researchers use Cronbach's alpha to demonstrate internal consistency, even though it has been shown numerous times that Cronbach's alpha is not suitable for this. Because the intention of questionnaire and test constructers is to summarize the test by its overall sum score, we advocate

  1. Family-Supportive Organization Perceptions, Multiple Dimensions of Work-Family Conflict, and Employee Satisfaction: A Test of Model across Five Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapierre, Laurent M.; Spector, Paul E.; Allen, Tammy D.; Poelmans, Steven; Cooper, Cary L.; O'Driscoll, Michael P.; Sanchez, Juan I.; Brough, Paula; Kinnunen, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    Using samples of managers drawn from five Western countries, we tested a theoretical model linking employees' perceptions of their work environment's family-supportiveness to six different dimensions of work-family conflict (WFC), and to their job satisfaction, family satisfaction, and life satisfaction. Our results are consistent with a causal…

  2. On the Consistency of Bootstrap Testing for a Parameter on the Boundary of the Parameter Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaliere, Giuseppe; Nielsen, Heino Bohn; Rahbek, Anders

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that with a parameter on the boundary of the parameter space, such as in the classic cases of testing for a zero location parameter or no autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (ARCH) effects, the classic nonparametric bootstrap – based on unrestricted parameter estimates...... – leads to inconsistent testing. In contrast, we show here that for the two aforementioned cases, a nonparametric bootstrap test based on parameter estimates obtained under the null – referred to as ‘restricted bootstrap’ – is indeed consistent. While the restricted bootstrap is simple to implement...... in practice, novel theoretical arguments are required in order to establish consistency. In particular, since the bootstrap is analysed both under the null hypothesis and under the alternative, non-standard asymptotic expansions are required to deal with parameters on the boundary. Detailed proofs...

  3. Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2014-03-01

    Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013

  4. Secondary electron emission and self-consistent charge transport in semi-insulating samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitting, H.-J. [Institute of Physics, University of Rostock, Universitaetsplatz 3, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Touzin, M. [Unite Materiaux et Transformations, UMR CNRS 8207, Universite de Lille 1, F-59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)

    2011-08-15

    Electron beam induced self-consistent charge transport and secondary electron emission (SEE) in insulators are described by means of an electron-hole flight-drift model (FDM) now extended by a certain intrinsic conductivity (c) and are implemented by an iterative computer simulation. Ballistic secondary electrons (SE) and holes, their attenuation to drifting charge carriers, and their recombination, trapping, and field- and temperature-dependent detrapping are included. As a main result the time dependent ''true'' secondary electron emission rate {delta}(t) released from the target material and based on ballistic electrons and the spatial distributions of currents j(x,t), charges {rho}(x,t), field F(x,t), and potential V(x,t) are obtained where V{sub 0} = V(0,t) presents the surface potential. The intrinsic electronic conductivity limits the charging process and leads to a conduction sample current to the support. In that case the steady-state total SE yield will be fixed below the unit: i.e., {sigma} {eta} + {delta} < 1.

  5. Full-scale locomotive dynamic crash testing and correlations : locomotive consist colliding with steel coil truck at grade crossing (test 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This report presents the test results and finite element correlations of a full-scale dynamic collision between a locomotive and a highway truck loaded with two heavy steel coils. The locomotive consist was moving at 58 miles per hour before it struc...

  6. Tracer gas diffusion sampling test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts are under way to employ active and passive vapor extraction to remove carbon tetrachloride from the soil in the 200 West Area an the Hanford Site as part of the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action. In the active approach, a vacuum is applied to a well, which causes soil gas surrounding the well to be drawn up to the surface. The contaminated air is cleaned by passage through a granular activated carbon bed. There are questions concerning the radius of influence associated with application of the vacuum system and related uncertainties about the soil-gas diffusion rates with and without the vacuum system present. To address these questions, a series of tracer gas diffusion sampling tests is proposed in which an inert, nontoxic tracer gas, sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ), will be injected into a well, and the rates of SF 6 diffusion through the surrounding soil horizon will be measured by sampling in nearby wells. Tracer gas tests will be conducted at sites very near the active vacuum extraction system and also at sites beyond the radius of influence of the active vacuum system. In the passive vapor extraction approach, barometric pressure fluctuations cause soil gas to be drawn to the surface through the well. At the passive sites, the effects of barometric ''pumping'' due to changes in atmospheric pressure will be investigated. Application of tracer gas testing to both the active and passive vapor extraction methods is described in the wellfield enhancement work plan (Rohay and Cameron 1993)

  7. Evaluation of the entropy consistent euler flux on 1D and 2D test problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, Nur Khairunnisa Hanisah; Ismail, Farzad

    2012-06-01

    Perhaps most CFD simulations may yield good predictions of pressure and velocity when compared to experimental data. Unfortunately, these results will most likely not adhere to the second law of thermodynamics hence comprising the authenticity of predicted data. Currently, the test of a good CFD code is to check how much entropy is generated in a smooth flow and hope that the numerical entropy produced is of the correct sign when a shock is encountered. Herein, a shock capturing code written in C++ based on a recent entropy consistent Euler flux is developed to simulate 1D and 2D flows. Unlike other finite volume schemes in commercial CFD code, this entropy consistent flux (EC) function precisely satisfies the discrete second law of thermodynamics. This EC flux has an entropy-conserved part, preserving entropy for smooth flows and a numerical diffusion part that will accurately produce the proper amount of entropy, consistent with the second law. Several numerical simulations of the entropy consistent flux have been tested on two dimensional test cases. The first case is a Mach 3 flow over a forward facing step. The second case is a flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil while the third case is a hypersonic flow passing over a 2D cylinder. Local flow quantities such as velocity and pressure are analyzed and then compared with mainly the Roe flux. The results herein show that the EC flux does not capture the unphysical rarefaction shock unlike the Roe-flux and does not easily succumb to the carbuncle phenomenon. In addition, the EC flux maintains good performance in cases where the Roe flux is known to be superior.

  8. Consistency of color representation in smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dain, Stephen J; Kwan, Benjamin; Wong, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    One of the barriers to the construction of consistent computer-based color vision tests has been the variety of monitors and computers. Consistency of color on a variety of screens has necessitated calibration of each setup individually. Color vision examination with a carefully controlled display has, as a consequence, been a laboratory rather than a clinical activity. Inevitably, smart phones have become a vehicle for color vision tests. They have the advantage that the processor and screen are associated and there are fewer models of smart phones than permutations of computers and monitors. Colorimetric consistency of display within a model may be a given. It may extend across models from the same manufacturer but is unlikely to extend between manufacturers especially where technologies vary. In this study, we measured the same set of colors in a JPEG file displayed on 11 samples of each of four models of smart phone (iPhone 4s, iPhone5, Samsung Galaxy S3, and Samsung Galaxy S4) using a Photo Research PR-730. The iPhones are white LED backlit LCD and the Samsung are OLEDs. The color gamut varies between models and comparison with sRGB space shows 61%, 85%, 117%, and 110%, respectively. The iPhones differ markedly from the Samsungs and from one another. This indicates that model-specific color lookup tables will be needed. Within each model, the primaries were quite consistent (despite the age of phone varying within each sample). The worst case in each model was the blue primary; the 95th percentile limits in the v' coordinate were ±0.008 for the iPhone 4 and ±0.004 for the other three models. The u'v' variation in white points was ±0.004 for the iPhone4 and ±0.002 for the others, although the spread of white points between models was u'v'±0.007. The differences are essentially the same for primaries at low luminance. The variation of colors intermediate between the primaries (e.g., red-purple, orange) mirror the variation in the primaries. The variation in

  9. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen Enerly

    Full Text Available Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance. To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP, 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited to be part of the intervention group. Women in this group received one of two self-sampling devices, Evalyn Brush or Delphi Screener. To attend screening, women in the intervention group had the option of using the self-sampling device (self-sampling subgroup or visiting their physician for a cervical smear. Self-sampled specimens were split and analyzed for the presence of high-risk (hr HPV by the CLART® HPV2 test and the digene® Hybrid Capture (HC2 test. The control group consisted of 2593 women who received a 2nd reminder letter according to the current guidelines of the NCCSP. The attendance rates were 33.4% in the intervention group and 23.2% in the control group, with similar attendance rates for both self-sampling devices. Women in the self-sampling subgroup responded favorably to both self-sampling devices and cited not remembering receiving a call for screening as the most dominant reason for previous non-attendance. Thirty-two of 34 (94.1% hrHPV-positive women in the self-sampling subgroup attended follow-up. In conclusion, self-sampling increased attendance rates and was feasible and well received. This study lends further support to the proposal that self-sampling may be a valuable alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway.

  10. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina; Pedersen, Helle; Lönnberg, Stefan; Nygård, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance. To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited to be part of the intervention group. Women in this group received one of two self-sampling devices, Evalyn Brush or Delphi Screener. To attend screening, women in the intervention group had the option of using the self-sampling device (self-sampling subgroup) or visiting their physician for a cervical smear. Self-sampled specimens were split and analyzed for the presence of high-risk (hr) HPV by the CLART® HPV2 test and the digene® Hybrid Capture (HC)2 test. The control group consisted of 2593 women who received a 2nd reminder letter according to the current guidelines of the NCCSP. The attendance rates were 33.4% in the intervention group and 23.2% in the control group, with similar attendance rates for both self-sampling devices. Women in the self-sampling subgroup responded favorably to both self-sampling devices and cited not remembering receiving a call for screening as the most dominant reason for previous non-attendance. Thirty-two of 34 (94.1%) hrHPV-positive women in the self-sampling subgroup attended follow-up. In conclusion, self-sampling increased attendance rates and was feasible and well received. This study lends further support to the proposal that self-sampling may be a valuable alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway.

  11. Women’s experience with home-based self-sampling for human papillomavirus testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, Farhana; Mullins, Robyn; English, Dallas R.; Simpson, Julie A.; Drennan, Kelly T.; Heley, Stella; Wrede, C. David; Brotherton, Julia M. L.; Saville, Marion; Gertig, Dorota M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing cervical screening coverage by reaching inadequately screened groups is essential for improving the effectiveness of cervical screening programs. Offering HPV self-sampling to women who are never or under-screened can improve screening participation, however participation varies widely between settings. Information on women’s experience with self-sampling and preferences for future self-sampling screening is essential for programs to optimize participation. The survey was conducted as part of a larger trial (“iPap”) investigating the effect of HPV self-sampling on participation of never and under-screened women in Victoria, Australia. Questionnaires were mailed to a) most women who participated in the self-sampling to document their experience with and preference for self-sampling in future, and b) a sample of the women who did not participate asking reasons for non-participation and suggestions for enabling participation. Reasons for not having a previous Pap test were also explored. About half the women who collected a self sample for the iPap trial returned the subsequent questionnaire (746/1521). Common reasons for not having cervical screening were that having Pap test performed by a doctor was embarrassing (18 %), not having the time (14 %), or that a Pap test was painful and uncomfortable (11 %). Most (94 %) found the home-based self-sampling less embarrassing, less uncomfortable (90 %) and more convenient (98 %) compared with their last Pap test experience (if they had one); however, many were unsure about the test accuracy (57 %). Women who self-sampled thought the instructions were clear (98 %), it was easy to use the swab (95 %), and were generally confident that they did the test correctly (81 %). Most preferred to take the self-sample at home in the future (88 %) because it was simple and did not require a doctor’s appointment. Few women (126/1946, 7 %) who did not return a self-sample in the iPap trial returned the questionnaire

  12. Test plan for the Sample Transfer Canister system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Sample Transfer Canister will be used by the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP) for the transport of small quantity liquid samples that meet the definition of a limited quantity radioactive material, and may also be corrosive and/or flammable. These samples will be packaged and shipped in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulation 49 CFR 173.4, ''Exceptions for small quantities.'' The Sample Transfer Canister is of a ''French Can'' design, intended to be mated with a glove box for loading/unloading. Transport will typically take place north of the Wye Barricade between WRAP and the 222-S Laboratory. The Sample Transfer Canister will be shipped in an insulated ice chest, but the ice chest will not be a part of the small quantity package during prototype testing

  13. The first DC performance test and analysis of CC conductor short sample at ASIPP conductor test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yi; Wu Yu; Liu Huajun; Long Feng; Qian Li; Ren Zhibin; Li Shaolei; Liu Bo; Chen Jinglin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study the first DC performance experiments of ITER correction coil conductor short sample have been carried out in ASIPP test facility. ► A CC conductor short sample was fabricated and tested to confirm the capability of this test facility for qualification tests of CC conductors. ► There is no obvious impact of cycling on DC performance measurement. ► Those measured results of current sharing temperature are in agreement with the expected results from strand scaling - Abstract: The first DC performance experiments of ITER correction coil (CC) conductor short sample have been carried out in the conductor test facility of Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS (ASIPP) in January this year. Those experiments aim to investigate the DC performance of ITER CC conductor. The tested conductor short sample is bended as a half circle with the diameter of 270 mm to meet the background magnetic field shape. The half circle part of sample is longer than the final twist pitch. The current sharing temperature (T cs ) in the 3.86 T external magnetic field (B ex ), ≤12 kA could be measured including the critical current (I c ) run. There is no obvious impact of 1000 cycles on DC performance. Those measured T cs results are in agreement with the expected results from strand scaling.

  14. Nonparametric test of consistency between cosmological models and multiband CMB measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghamousa, Amir [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Shafieloo, Arman, E-mail: amir@apctp.org, E-mail: shafieloo@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-01

    We present a novel approach to test the consistency of the cosmological models with multiband CMB data using a nonparametric approach. In our analysis we calibrate the REACT (Risk Estimation and Adaptation after Coordinate Transformation) confidence levels associated with distances in function space (confidence distances) based on the Monte Carlo simulations in order to test the consistency of an assumed cosmological model with observation. To show the applicability of our algorithm, we confront Planck 2013 temperature data with concordance model of cosmology considering two different Planck spectra combination. In order to have an accurate quantitative statistical measure to compare between the data and the theoretical expectations, we calibrate REACT confidence distances and perform a bias control using many realizations of the data. Our results in this work using Planck 2013 temperature data put the best fit ΛCDM model at 95% (∼ 2σ) confidence distance from the center of the nonparametric confidence set while repeating the analysis excluding the Planck 217 × 217 GHz spectrum data, the best fit ΛCDM model shifts to 70% (∼ 1σ) confidence distance. The most prominent features in the data deviating from the best fit ΛCDM model seems to be at low multipoles  18 < ℓ < 26 at greater than 2σ, ℓ ∼ 750 at ∼1 to 2σ and ℓ ∼ 1800 at greater than 2σ level. Excluding the 217×217 GHz spectrum the feature at ℓ ∼ 1800 becomes substantially less significance at ∼1 to 2σ confidence level. Results of our analysis based on the new approach we propose in this work are in agreement with other analysis done using alternative methods.

  15. Laboratory Tests of Bitumen Samples Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshin, E. R.; Usmanov, S. A.; Khasanov, D. I.; Khamidullina, G. S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the elastic and acoustic properties of bitumen core samples. The travel velocities of the ultrasonic P- and S-waves were determined under in-situ simulation conditions. The resulting data were then used to calculate dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. The authors studied the correlation between the elasticity and the permeability and porosity. In addition, the tests looked into how the acoustic properties had changed with temperature rise.

  16. A sample design for globally consistent biomass estimation using lidar data from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean P. Healey; Paul L. Patterson; Sassan S. Saatchi; Michael A. Lefsky; Andrew J. Lister; Elizabeth A. Freeman

    2012-01-01

    Lidar height data collected by the Geosciences Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) from 2002 to 2008 has the potential to form the basis of a globally consistent sample-based inventory of forest biomass. GLAS lidar return data were collected globally in spatially discrete full waveform "shots," which have been shown to be strongly correlated with aboveground forest...

  17. 40 CFR 761.312 - Compositing of samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... to composite surface wipe test samples and to use the composite measurement to represent the PCB concentration of the entire surface. Composite samples consist of more than one sample gauze extracted and... arithmetic mean of the composited samples. (a) Compositing samples from surfaces to be used or reused. For...

  18. Transfer of test samples and wastes between post-irradiation test facilities (FMF, AGF, MMF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Yasukazu; Suzuki, Kazuhisa; Ebihara, Hikoe; Matsushima, Yasuyoshi; Kashiwabara, Hidechiyo

    1975-02-01

    Wide review is given on the problems associated with the transfer of test samples and wastes between post-irradiation test facilities, FMF (Fuel Monitoring Facility), AGF (Alpha Gamma Facility), and MMF (Material Monitoring Facility) at the Oarai Engineering Center, PNC. The test facilities are connected with the JOYO plant, an experimental fast reactor being constructed at Oarai. As introductory remarks, some special features of transferring irradiated materials are described. In the second part, problems on the management of nuclear materials and radio isotopes are described item by item. In the third part, the specific materials that are envisaged to be transported between JOYO and the test facilities are listed together with their geometrical shapes, dimensions, etc. In the fourth part, various routes and methods of transportation are explained with many block charts and figures. Brief explanation with lists and drawings is also given to transportation casks and vessels. Finally, some future problems are discussed, such as the prevention of diffusive contamination, ease of decontamination, and the identification of test samples. (Aoki, K.)

  19. In-Pipe Wireless Communication for Underground Sampling and Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Nhan D.T.; Le, Duc V.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an effective and low- cost wireless communication system for extremely long and narrow pipes that can replay the extant wire system in underground sensor network applications such as soil sampling and testing with the Cone Penetration Test (CPT), the most widely used

  20. Test plan for K Basin Sludge Canister and Floor Sampling Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meling, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the test plan and procedure forms for conducting the functional and operational acceptance testing of the K Basin Sludge Canister and Floor Sampling Device(s). These samplers samples sludge off the floor of the 100K Basins and out of 100K fuel storage canisters

  1. The Bootstrap, the Jackknife, and the Randomization Test: A Sampling Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J L

    1999-10-01

    A simple sampling taxonomy is defined that shows the differences between and relationships among the bootstrap, the jackknife, and the randomization test. Each method has as its goal the creation of an empirical sampling distribution that can be used to test statistical hypotheses, estimate standard errors, and/or create confidence intervals. Distinctions between the methods can be made based on the sampling approach (with replacement versus without replacement) and the sample size (replacing the whole original sample versus replacing a subset of the original sample). The taxonomy is useful for teaching the goals and purposes of resampling schemes. An extension of the taxonomy implies other possible resampling approaches that have not previously been considered. Univariate and multivariate examples are presented.

  2. Gas liquid sampling for closed canisters in KW Basin - test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkoff, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    Test procedures for the gas/liquid sampler. Characterization of the Spent Nuclear Fuel, SNF, sealed in canisters at KW-Basin is needed to determine the state of storing SNF wet. Samples of the liquid and the gas in the closed canisters will be taken to gain characterization information. Sampling equipment has been designed to retrieve gas and liquid from the closed canisters in KW basin. This plan is written to outline the test requirements for this developmental sampling equipment

  3. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology...

  4. Experimental Investigation Of Microbially Induced Corrosion Of Test Samples And Effect Of Self-assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure Of Test Samples To Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, And Biochemical Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Laurinavichius, K S

    1998-01-01

    Experimental Investigation Of Microbially Induced Corrosion Of Test Samples And Effect Of Self-assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure Of Test Samples To Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, And Biochemical Studies

  5. Acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in women living in rural and urban areas of ... Conclusion: Acceptability of self-sampling for HPV testing was similarly excellent in both groups despite their difference in terms ... cancer is the leading cause of death caused by cancer in.

  6. Cognitive consistency and math-gender stereotypes in Singaporean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvencek, Dario; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Kapur, Manu

    2014-01-01

    In social psychology, cognitive consistency is a powerful principle for organizing psychological concepts. There have been few tests of cognitive consistency in children and no research about cognitive consistency in children from Asian cultures, who pose an interesting developmental case. A sample of 172 Singaporean elementary school children completed implicit and explicit measures of math-gender stereotype (male=math), gender identity (me=male), and math self-concept (me=math). Results showed strong evidence for cognitive consistency; the strength of children's math-gender stereotypes, together with their gender identity, significantly predicted their math self-concepts. Cognitive consistency may be culturally universal and a key mechanism for developmental change in social cognition. We also discovered that Singaporean children's math-gender stereotypes increased as a function of age and that boys identified with math more strongly than did girls despite Singaporean girls' excelling in math. The results reveal both cultural universals and cultural variation in developing social cognition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fatigue testing on samples from Zircaloy-4 tubes type SEU-43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaru, V.; Ionescu, V.; Nitu, A.; Ionescu, D.; Voicu, F.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the testing of samples worked from Zicaloy-4 tubes (as-received.. metallurgical state), utilized in the composition of the CANDU SEU-43 fuel bundle. These tests are intended to simulate their behaviour in a power cycling process inside the reactor. The testing process is of low cycle fatigue type, done outside of the reactor, on ''C-ring'' samples, cut along the transversal direction. These samples are tested at 1%, 2% and 3% amplitude deformation, at room temperature. The calibration curves for both types of tube (small and big diameter) are determined by using the finite element analyses with the ANSYS computer code. The cycling test results are in the form of a fatigue life curve (N-e) for zircaloy-4 used in the SEU-43 fuel bundle. The curve is determined by the experimental dependency between the number of cycles to fracture and the deformation amplitude. The low cycle fatigue mechanical tests done at room temperature together with electronic microscopy analyses have reflected the characteristic behaviour of the zircaloy-4 metal in the given environment conditions. (authors)

  8. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS reg-sign) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U 3 O 8 . Profiles developed for U 3 O 8 samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills

  9. Compressive and Flexural Tests on Adobe Samples Reinforced with Wire Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhio, G. A.; Al-Tawil, Y. M. Y.; Syed Mohsin, S. M.; Gul, Y.; Ramli, N. I.

    2018-03-01

    Adobe is an economical, naturally available, and environment friendly construction material that offers excellent thermal and sound insulations as well as indoor air quality. It is important to understand and enhance the mechanical properties of this material, where a high degree of variation is reported in the literature owing to lack of research and standardization in this field. The present paper focuses first on the understanding of mechanical behaviour of adobe subjected to compressive stresses as well as flexure and then on enhancing the same with the help of steel wire mesh as reinforcement. A total of 22 samples were tested out of which, 12 cube samples were tested for compressive strength, whereas 10 beams samples were tested for modulus of rupture. Half of the samples in each category were control samples i.e. without wire mesh reinforcement, whereas the remaining half were reinforced with a single layer of wire mesh per sample. It has been found that the compressive strength of adobe increases by about 43% after adding a single layer of wire mesh reinforcement. The flexural response of adobe has also shown improvement with the addition of wire mesh reinforcement.

  10. Inert medium (helium) irradiation testing of pressure tube samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancuta, M.; Radu, V.; Stefan, V.; Preda, M.

    2001-01-01

    Irradiation tests currently performed in C-5 capsule aim at obtaining data and information concerning behavior to irradiation of pressure tubes of CANDU type fuel channel, to evidence the factors limiting operation life span. A calculation code for analysis and prediction of pressure tube behavior should be based upon periodical inspection results, post irradiation examination of the removed from reactor pressure tubes as well as on the experimental results obtained with materials subjected to irradiation conditions identical with the operational ones. Mechanical behavior analysis should focus both complex thermal-mechanical type stresses and mechanical properties alteration under irradiation. The experimental results should be applied: - to evaluate the irradiation effects upon mechanical properties of Zr-2.5% Nb exposed to fluences up to 10 21 n·cm -2 ; - to gather data concerning the real stress / real deformation characteristic from which characteristic quantities can be deduced as, for instance, elasticity modulus, plasticity modulus, exponent of stress term in the Tsu-Berteles relation, to be used within the CANTUP simulation code describing pressure tube behavior, currently developed at INR Pitesti; - to develop prediction methods of pressure tube behavior and merging with in-service inspection procedure in order to forecast the life span and the proper timing for replacement before major failures occur. The samples irradiated in C-5 capsule were extracted from the ends of Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tubes resulting from Cernavoda NPP Unit 1. The samples for tensile tests were extracted on longitudinal and transversal directions of the pressure tube. The tests were carried out under following conditions: - test environment temperature, 260 - 280 deg.C; - testing medium, helium at 1 - 6 b pressure; - neutron flux (E n > 1 MeV), 1 - 2 · 10 13 ncm -2 s -1 ; - neutron fluence (E n > 1 MeV), 4 · 10 20 ncm -2 . The following characteristics were obtained from tensile

  11. Estimation of sample size and testing power (Part 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo

    2012-01-01

    Sample size estimation is necessary for any experimental or survey research. An appropriate estimation of sample size based on known information and statistical knowledge is of great significance. This article introduces methods of sample size estimation of difference test for data with the design of one factor with two levels, including sample size estimation formulas and realization based on the formulas and the POWER procedure of SAS software for quantitative data and qualitative data with the design of one factor with two levels. In addition, this article presents examples for analysis, which will play a leading role for researchers to implement the repetition principle during the research design phase.

  12. Microbiological analyses of samples from the H-Area injection well test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Franck, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Microbial populations in well water from monitoring wells at the test site were one to three orders of magnitude higher than well water from the Cretaceous aquifer (used as dilution water for the tests) or from a control well adjacent to the test site facility. Coupons samples placed in monitoring and control wells demonstrated progressive adhesion by microbes to materials used in well construction. Samples of material scraped from test well components during abandonment of the test site project revealed the presence of a variety of attached microbes including iron bacteria. Although the injection wells at the actual remediation facility for the F- and H-Area seepage basins remediation project are expected to be subjected to somewhat different conditions (e.g. considerably lower iron concentrations) than was the case at the test site, the potential for microbiologically mediated clogging and fouling within the process should be considered. A sampling program that includes microbiological testing is highly recommended

  13. An Approach Based on HPLC-Fingerprint and Chemometrics to Quality Consistency Evaluation of Matricaria chamomilla L. Commercial Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Viapiana, Agnieszka; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Konieczynski, Pawel; Wesolowski, Marek; Kaliszan, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Chamomile has been used as an herbal medication since ancient times and is still popular because it contains various bioactive phytochemicals that could provide therapeutic effects. In this study, a simple and reliable HPLC method was developed to evaluate the quality consistency of nineteen chamomile samples through establishing a chromatographic fingerprint, quantification of phenolic compounds and determination of antioxidant activity. For fingerprint analysis, 12 peaks were selected as th...

  14. Page sample size in web accessibility testing: how many pages is enough?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velleman, Eric Martin; van der Geest, Thea

    2013-01-01

    Various countries and organizations use a different sampling approach and sample size of web pages in accessibility conformance tests. We are conducting a systematic analysis to determine how many pages is enough for testing whether a website is compliant with standard accessibility guidelines. This

  15. Different goodness of fit tests for Rayleigh distribution in ranked set sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Al-Omari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different goodness of fit tests for the Rayleigh distribution are considered based on simple random sampling (SRS and ranked set sampling (RSS techniques. The performance of the suggested estimators is evaluated in terms of the power of the tests by using Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the suggested RSS tests perform better than their counterparts  in SRS.

  16. A Third Moment Adjusted Test Statistic for Small Sample Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Johnny; Bentler, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Goodness of fit testing in factor analysis is based on the assumption that the test statistic is asymptotically chi-square; but this property may not hold in small samples even when the factors and errors are normally distributed in the population. Robust methods such as Browne's asymptotically distribution-free method and Satorra Bentler's mean scaling statistic were developed under the presumption of non-normality in the factors and errors. This paper finds new application to the case where factors and errors are normally distributed in the population but the skewness of the obtained test statistic is still high due to sampling error in the observed indicators. An extension of Satorra Bentler's statistic is proposed that not only scales the mean but also adjusts the degrees of freedom based on the skewness of the obtained test statistic in order to improve its robustness under small samples. A simple simulation study shows that this third moment adjusted statistic asymptotically performs on par with previously proposed methods, and at a very small sample size offers superior Type I error rates under a properly specified model. Data from Mardia, Kent and Bibby's study of students tested for their ability in five content areas that were either open or closed book were used to illustrate the real-world performance of this statistic.

  17. Research on test of product based on spatial sampling criteria and variable step sampling mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruihong; Han, Yueping

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an effective approach for online testing the assembly structures inside products using multiple views technique and X-ray digital radiography system based on spatial sampling criteria and variable step sampling mechanism. Although there are some objects inside one product to be tested, there must be a maximal rotary step for an object within which the least structural size to be tested is predictable. In offline learning process, Rotating the object by the step and imaging it and so on until a complete cycle is completed, an image sequence is obtained that includes the full structural information for recognition. The maximal rotary step is restricted by the least structural size and the inherent resolution of the imaging system. During online inspection process, the program firstly finds the optimum solutions to all different target parts in the standard sequence, i.e., finds their exact angles in one cycle. Aiming at the issue of most sizes of other targets in product are larger than that of the least structure, the paper adopts variable step-size sampling mechanism to rotate the product specific angles with different steps according to different objects inside the product and match. Experimental results show that the variable step-size method can greatly save time compared with the traditional fixed-step inspection method while the recognition accuracy is guaranteed.

  18. A closer look at the effect of preliminary goodness-of-fit testing for normality for the one-sample t-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, Justine; Kieser, Meinhard

    2011-11-01

    Student's one-sample t-test is a commonly used method when inference about the population mean is made. As advocated in textbooks and articles, the assumption of normality is often checked by a preliminary goodness-of-fit (GOF) test. In a paper recently published by Schucany and Ng it was shown that, for the uniform distribution, screening of samples by a pretest for normality leads to a more conservative conditional Type I error rate than application of the one-sample t-test without preliminary GOF test. In contrast, for the exponential distribution, the conditional level is even more elevated than the Type I error rate of the t-test without pretest. We examine the reasons behind these characteristics. In a simulation study, samples drawn from the exponential, lognormal, uniform, Student's t-distribution with 2 degrees of freedom (t(2) ) and the standard normal distribution that had passed normality screening, as well as the ingredients of the test statistics calculated from these samples, are investigated. For non-normal distributions, we found that preliminary testing for normality may change the distribution of means and standard deviations of the selected samples as well as the correlation between them (if the underlying distribution is non-symmetric), thus leading to altered distributions of the resulting test statistics. It is shown that for skewed distributions the excess in Type I error rate may be even more pronounced when testing one-sided hypotheses. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  19. On the matched pairs sign test using bivariate ranked set sampling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BVRSS) is introduced and investigated. We show that this test is asymptotically more efficient than its counterpart sign test based on a bivariate simple random sample (BVSRS). The asymptotic null distribution and the efficiency of the test are derived.

  20. Analog automatic test pattern generation for quasi-static structural test.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zjajo, A.; Pineda de Gyvez, J.

    2009-01-01

    A new approach for structural, fault-oriented analog test generation methodology to test for the presence of manufacturing-related defects is proposed. The output of the test generator consists of optimized test stimuli, fault coverage and sampling instants that are sufficient to detect the failure

  1. 40 CFR 205.171-2 - Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Systems § 205.171-2 Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation. (a)(1) Exhaust systems... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation. 205.171-2 Section 205.171-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  2. Operability test report for rotary mode core sampling system number 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the successful completion of operability testing for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) system number-sign 3. The Report includes the test procedure (WHC-SD-WM-OTP-174), exception resolutions, data sheets, and a test report summary

  3. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-09-01

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested [1,2] and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [5]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi 2/Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  4. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-01-01

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [5]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi 2 /Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  5. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... samples for diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic... for diagnostic testing. (b) The authorized laboratory must identify each egg as to the breeding flock...

  6. Influence of Water Content on the Flow Consistency of Dredged Marine Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosman M. Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In present time, dredged marine soils (DMS are generally considered as geo-waste in Malaysia. It is also known to contain high value of water and low shear strength. Lightly solidified soils such as soilcement slurry and flowable fill are known as controlled low strength materials (CLSM. On site, the CLSM was tested for its consistency by using an open-ended cylinder pipe. The vertical and lateral displacement from the test would determine the quality and workability of the CLSM. In this study, manufactured kaolin powder was mixed with different percentages of water. Cement was also added to compare the natural soil with solidified soil samples. There are two methods of flowability test used, namely the conventional lift method and innovative drop method. The lateral displacement or soil spread diameter values were recorded and averaged. Tests showed that the soil spread diameter corresponded almost linear with the increasing amount of water. The binder-added samples show no significant difference with non-binder sample. Also, the mixing water content and percentage of fines had influenced the soil spread diameter.

  7. SIMPLE ESTIMATOR AND CONSISTENT STRONGLY OF STABLE DISTRIBUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cira E. Guevara Otiniano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stable distributions are extensively used to analyze earnings of financial assets, such as exchange rates and stock prices assets. In this paper we propose a simple and strongly consistent estimator for the scale parameter of a symmetric stable L´evy distribution. The advantage of this estimator is that your computational time is minimum thus it can be used to initialize intensive computational procedure such as maximum likelihood. With random samples of sized n we tested the efficacy of these estimators by Monte Carlo method. We also included applications for three data sets.

  8. Sample test cases using the environmental computer code NECTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponting, A.C.

    1984-06-01

    This note demonstrates a few of the many different ways in which the environmental computer code NECTAR may be used. Four sample test cases are presented and described to show how NECTAR input data are structured. Edited output is also presented to illustrate the format of the results. Two test cases demonstrate how NECTAR may be used to study radio-isotopes not explicitly included in the code. (U.K.)

  9. PFP Wastewater Sampling Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    This test report documents the results obtained while conducting operational testing of the sampling equipment in the 225-WC building, the PFP Wastewater Sampling Facility. The Wastewater Sampling Facility houses equipment to sample and monitor the PFP's liquid effluents before discharging the stream to the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). The majority of the streams are not radioactive and discharges from the PFP Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC). The streams that might be contaminated are processed through the Low Level Waste Treatment Facility (LLWTF) before discharging to TEDF. The sampling equipment consists of two flow-proportional composite samplers, an ultrasonic flowmeter, pH and conductivity monitors, chart recorder, and associated relays and current isolators to interconnect the equipment to allow proper operation. Data signals from the monitors are received in the 234-5Z Shift Office which contains a chart recorder and alarm annunciator panel. The data signals are also duplicated and sent to the TEDF control room through the Local Control Unit (LCU). Performing the OTP has verified the operability of the PFP wastewater sampling system. This Operability Test Report documents the acceptance of the sampling system for use

  10. Salmonella testing of pooled pre-enrichment broth cultures for screening multiple food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, W R; Olsen, R A; Hunter, J E

    1972-04-01

    A method has been described for testing multiple food samples for Salmonella without loss in sensitivity. The method pools multiple pre-enrichment broth cultures into single enrichment broths. The subsequent stages of the Salmonella analysis are not altered. The method was found applicable to several dry food materials including nonfat dry milk, dried egg albumin, cocoa, cottonseed flour, wheat flour, and shredded coconut. As many as 25 pre-enrichment broth cultures were pooled without apparent loss in the sensitivity of Salmonella detection as compared to individual sample analysis. The procedure offers a simple, yet effective, way to increase sample capacity in the Salmonella testing of foods, particularly where a large proportion of samples ordinarily is negative. It also permits small portions of pre-enrichment broth cultures to be retained for subsequent individual analysis if positive tests are found. Salmonella testing of pooled pre-enrichment broths provides increased consumer protection for a given amount of analytical effort as compared to individual sample analysis.

  11. Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of mixer pumps in tank 241-AZ-101. The primary purpose of the mixer pump test (MPT) is to demonstrate that the two 300 horsepower mixer pumps installed in tank 241-AZ-101 can mobilize the settled sludge so that it can be retrieved for treatment and vitrification. Sampling will be performed in accordance with Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999) and Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis (Mulkey 1999). The sampling will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications

  12. Evaluation of uniformity and noise consistency test in computerized tomography; Avaliacao do teste de constancia de uniformidade e ruido em tomografia computadorizada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrafiel, Fabricio N.; Lykawka, Rochelle; Bacelar, Alexandre; Anes, Mauricio [Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre (HCPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Alva-Sanchez, Mirko S.; Pianoschi, Thatiane [Universidade Federal de Ciencias da Saude de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    The quality control in computed tomography (CT) includes constancy tests concerning CT number measured in a water tank and its response as uniformity, noise and accuracy. Differences to It's performance limits and frequency established by the national legislation and the manufacturers are well known. The objective of this study was to evaluate these tests proceeding the periodicity of national legislation. The tests were conducted over a three equipment of different manufacturers. Each equipment has acquisition parameters and specific phantoms. The equipment presented adequate performance and consistency when compared their results to the limits determined by manufacturers and national legislation. Thus, it is important to evaluate these differences and tailor the testing protocols to meet the established quality requirements. (author)

  13. Acceptance sampling for attributes via hypothesis testing and the hypergeometric distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samohyl, Robert Wayne

    2017-10-01

    This paper questions some aspects of attribute acceptance sampling in light of the original concepts of hypothesis testing from Neyman and Pearson (NP). Attribute acceptance sampling in industry, as developed by Dodge and Romig (DR), generally follows the international standards of ISO 2859, and similarly the Brazilian standards NBR 5425 to NBR 5427 and the United States Standards ANSI/ASQC Z1.4. The paper evaluates and extends the area of acceptance sampling in two directions. First, by suggesting the use of the hypergeometric distribution to calculate the parameters of sampling plans avoiding the unnecessary use of approximations such as the binomial or Poisson distributions. We show that, under usual conditions, discrepancies can be large. The conclusion is that the hypergeometric distribution, ubiquitously available in commonly used software, is more appropriate than other distributions for acceptance sampling. Second, and more importantly, we elaborate the theory of acceptance sampling in terms of hypothesis testing rigorously following the original concepts of NP. By offering a common theoretical structure, hypothesis testing from NP can produce a better understanding of applications even beyond the usual areas of industry and commerce such as public health and political polling. With the new procedures, both sample size and sample error can be reduced. What is unclear in traditional acceptance sampling is the necessity of linking the acceptable quality limit (AQL) exclusively to the producer and the lot quality percent defective (LTPD) exclusively to the consumer. In reality, the consumer should also be preoccupied with a value of AQL, as should the producer with LTPD. Furthermore, we can also question why type I error is always uniquely associated with the producer as producer risk, and likewise, the same question arises with consumer risk which is necessarily associated with type II error. The resolution of these questions is new to the literature. The

  14. Robustness to non-normality of various tests for the one-sample location problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle K. McDougall

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of the normal distribution assumption on the power and size of the sign test, Wilcoxon's signed rank test and the t-test when used in one-sample location problems. Power functions for these tests under various skewness and kurtosis conditions are produced for several sample sizes from simulated data using the g-and-k distribution of MacGillivray and Cannon [5].

  15. Harmonisation of microbial sampling and testing methods for distillate fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, G.C.; Hill, E.C. [ECHA Microbiology Ltd., Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    Increased incidence of microbial infection in distillate fuels has led to a demand for organisations such as the Institute of Petroleum to propose standards for microbiological quality, based on numbers of viable microbial colony forming units. Variations in quality requirements, and in the spoilage significance of contaminating microbes plus a tendency for temporal and spatial changes in the distribution of microbes, makes such standards difficult to implement. The problem is compounded by a diversity in the procedures employed for sampling and testing for microbial contamination and in the interpretation of the data obtained. The following paper reviews these problems and describes the efforts of The Institute of Petroleum Microbiology Fuels Group to address these issues and in particular to bring about harmonisation of sampling and testing methods. The benefits and drawbacks of available test methods, both laboratory based and on-site, are discussed.

  16. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainik, Uku; Dubé, Laurette; Lu, Ji; Fellows, Lesley K

    2015-01-01

    A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied. A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner). The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation. Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption. Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment.

  17. Personality and Situation Predictors of Consistent Eating Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uku Vainik

    Full Text Available A consistent eating style might be beneficial to avoid overeating in a food-rich environment. Eating consistency entails maintaining a similar dietary pattern across different eating situations. This construct is relatively under-studied, but the available evidence suggests that eating consistency supports successful weight maintenance and decreases risk for metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Yet, personality and situation predictors of consistency have not been studied.A community-based sample of 164 women completed various personality tests, and 139 of them also reported their eating behaviour 6 times/day over 10 observational days. We focused on observations with meals (breakfast, lunch, or dinner. The participants indicated if their momentary eating patterns were consistent with their own baseline eating patterns in terms of healthiness or size of the meal. Further, participants described various characteristics of each eating situation.Eating consistency was positively predicted by trait self-control. Eating consistency was undermined by eating in the evening, eating with others, eating away from home, having consumed alcohol and having undertaken physical exercise. Interactions emerged between personality traits and situations, including punishment sensitivity, restraint, physical activity and alcohol consumption.Trait self-control and several eating situation variables were related to eating consistency. These findings provide a starting point for targeting interventions to improve consistency, suggesting that a focus on self-control skills, together with addressing contextual factors such as social situations and time of day, may be most promising. This work is a first step to provide people with the tools they need to maintain a consistently healthy lifestyle in a food-rich environment.

  18. Comparison of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test and the Roche cobas 4800 HPV test using urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Myong Cheol; Lee, Do-Hoon; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Hwang, Na Rae; Lee, Bomyee; Shin, Hye Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Yoo, Chong Woo; Lee, Dong Ock; Seo, Sang-Soo; Park, Sang-Yoon; Joo, Jungnam

    2017-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing based on cervical samples is important for use in cervical cancer screening. However, cervical sampling is invasive. Therefore, non-invasive methods for detecting HPV, such as urine samples, are needed. For HPV detection in urine samples, two real-time PCR (RQ-PCR) tests, Roche cobas 4800 test (Roche_HPV; Roche Molecular Diagnostics) and Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test (Abbott_HPV; Abbott Laboratories) were compared to standard cervical samples. The performance of Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV for HPV detection was evaluated at the National Cancer Center using 100 paired cervical and urine samples. The tests were also compared using urine samples stored at various temperatures and for a range of durations. The overall agreement between the Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV tests using urine samples for any hrHPV type was substantial (86.0% with a kappa value of 0.7173), and that for HPV 16/18 was nearly perfect (99.0% with a kappa value of 0.9668). The relative sensitivities (based on cervical samples) for HPV 16/18 detection using Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV with urine samples were 79.2% (95% CI; 57.9-92.9%) and 81.8% (95% CI; 59.7-94.8%), respectively. When the cut-off C T value for Abbott_HPV was extended to 40 for urine samples, the relative sensitivity of Abbott_HPV increased to 91.7% from 81.8% for HPV16/18 detection and to 87.0% from 68.5% for other hrHPV detection. The specificity was not affected by the change in the C T threshold. Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV showed high concordance. However, HPV DNA detection using urine samples was inferior to HPV DNA detection using cervical samples. Interestingly, when the cut-off C T value was set to 40, Abbott_HPV using urine samples showed high sensitivity and specificity, comparable to those obtained using cervical samples. Fully automated DNA extraction and detection systems, such as Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV, could reduce the variability in HPV detection and accelerate the standardization of HPV

  19. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the results of SEM and TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a BPRML (WSi2/Si with fundamental layer thickness of 3 nm) with a Dual Beam FIB (focused ion beam)/SEM technique. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize x-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with x-ray microscopes is in progress.

  20. Sludge characterization: the role of physical consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinosa, Ludovico; Wichmann, Knut

    2003-07-01

    The physical consistency is an important parameter in sewage sludge characterization as it strongly affects almost all treatment, utilization and disposal operations. In addition, in many european Directives a reference to the physical consistency is reported as a characteristic to be evaluated for fulfilling the regulations requirements. Further, in many analytical methods for sludge different procedures are indicated depending on whether a sample is liquid or not, is solid or not. Three physical behaviours (liquid, paste-like and solid) can be observed with sludges, so the development of analytical procedures to define the boundary limit between liquid and paste-like behaviours (flowability) and that between solid and paste-like ones (solidity) is of growing interest. Several devices can be used for evaluating the flowability and solidity properties, but often they are costly and difficult to be operated in the field. Tests have been carried out to evaluate the possibility to adopt a simple extrusion procedure for flowability measurements, and a Vicat needle for solidity ones. (author)

  1. Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-20

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

  2. Impact of Alzheimer's Disease on Caregiver Questionnaire: internal consistency, convergent validity, and test-retest reliability of a new measure for assessing caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jason C; Ito, Diane; Chen, Yaozhu J; Cheng, Rebecca; Bolognese, Jennifer; Li-McLeod, Josephine

    2014-09-04

    There is a lack of validated instruments to measure the level of burden of Alzheimer's disease (AD) on caregivers. The Impact of Alzheimer's Disease on Caregiver Questionnaire (IADCQ) is a 12-item instrument with a seven-day recall period that measures AD caregiver's burden across emotional, physical, social, financial, sleep, and time aspects. Primary objectives of this study were to evaluate psychometric properties of IADCQ administered on the Web and to determine most appropriate scoring algorithm. A national sample of 200 unpaid AD caregivers participated in this study by completing the Web-based version of IADCQ and Short Form-12 Health Survey Version 2 (SF-12v2™). The SF-12v2 was used to measure convergent validity of IADCQ scores and to provide an understanding of the overall health-related quality of life of sampled AD caregivers. The IADCQ survey was also completed four weeks later by a randomly selected subgroup of 50 participants to assess test-retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was implemented to test the dimensionality of the IADCQ items. Classical item-level and scale-level psychometric analyses were conducted to estimate psychometric characteristics of the instrument. Test-retest reliability was performed to evaluate the instrument's stability and consistency over time. Virtually none (2%) of the respondents had either floor or ceiling effects, indicating the IADCQ covers an ideal range of burden. A single-factor model obtained appropriate goodness of fit and provided evidence that a simple sum score of the 12 items of IADCQ can be used to measure AD caregiver's burden. Scales-level reliability was supported with a coefficient alpha of 0.93 and an intra-class correlation coefficient (for test-retest reliability) of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.50-0.80). Low-moderate negative correlations were observed between the IADCQ and scales of the SF-12v2. The study findings suggest the IADCQ has appropriate psychometric characteristics as a

  3. An historically consistent and broadly applicable MRV system based on LiDAR sampling and Landsat time-series

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Cohen; H. Andersen; S. Healey; G. Moisen; T. Schroeder; C. Woodall; G. Domke; Z. Yang; S. Stehman; R. Kennedy; C. Woodcock; Z. Zhu; J. Vogelmann; D. Steinwand; C. Huang

    2014-01-01

    The authors are developing a REDD+ MRV system that tests different biomass estimation frameworks and components. Design-based inference from a costly fi eld plot network was compared to sampling with LiDAR strips and a smaller set of plots in combination with Landsat for disturbance monitoring. Biomass estimation uncertainties associated with these different data sets...

  4. Thermodynamic consistency test procedure using orthogonal collocation and the Peng-Robinson equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, L.L.; Van Brunt, V.

    1982-08-01

    The Christiansen and Fredenslund programs for calculating vapor-liquid equilibria have been modified by replacing the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state with the newly developed Peng-Robinson equation of state. This modification was shown to be a decided improvement for high pressure systems, especially in the critical and upper retrograde regions. Thermodynamic consistency tests were developed and used to evaluate and compare calculated values from both the modified and unmodified programs with reported experimental data for several vapor-liquid systems

  5. Product consistency testing of three reference glasses in stainless steel and perfluoroalkoxy resin vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, K.M.; Smith, G.L.; Marschman, S.C.

    1995-03-01

    Because of their chemical durability, silicate glasses have been proposed and researched since the mid-1950s as a medium for incorporating high-level radioactive waste (HLW) generated from processing of nuclear materials. A number of different waste forms were evaluated and ranked in the early 1980s; durability (leach resistance) was the highest weighted factor. Borosilicate glass was rated the best waste form available for incorporation of HLW. Four different types of vessels and three different glasses were used to study the possible effect of vessel composition on durability test results from the Production Consistency Test (PCT). The vessels were 45-m 304 stainless steel vessels, 150-m 304 L stainless steel vessels, and 60-m perfluoroalkoxy (PFA) fluoropolymer resin vessels. The three glasses were the Environmental Assessment glass manufactured by Corning Incorporated and supplied by Westinghouse Savannah River company, and West Valley Nuclear Services reference glasses 5 and 6, manufactured and supplied by Catholic University of America. Within experimental error, no differences were found in durability test results using the 3 different glasses in the 304L stainless steel or PFA fluoropolymer resin vessels over the seven-day test period

  6. Post-Decontamination Vapor Sampling and Analytical Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-12

    is decontaminated that could pose an exposure hazard to unprotected personnel. The chemical contaminants may include chemical warfare agents (CWAs... decontamination process. Chemical contaminants can include chemical warfare agents (CWAs) or their simulants, nontraditional agents (NTAs), toxic industrial...a range of test articles from coupons, panels, and small fielded equipment items. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Vapor hazard; vapor sampling; chemical warfare

  7. On Consistency Test Method of Expert Opinion in Ecological Security Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zaiwu; Wang, Lihong

    2017-09-04

    To reflect the initiative design and initiative of human security management and safety warning, ecological safety assessment is of great value. In the comprehensive evaluation of regional ecological security with the participation of experts, the expert's individual judgment level, ability and the consistency of the expert's overall opinion will have a very important influence on the evaluation result. This paper studies the consistency measure and consensus measure based on the multiplicative and additive consistency property of fuzzy preference relation (FPR). We firstly propose the optimization methods to obtain the optimal multiplicative consistent and additively consistent FPRs of individual and group judgments, respectively. Then, we put forward a consistency measure by computing the distance between the original individual judgment and the optimal individual estimation, along with a consensus measure by computing the distance between the original collective judgment and the optimal collective estimation. In the end, we make a case study on ecological security for five cities. Result shows that the optimal FPRs are helpful in measuring the consistency degree of individual judgment and the consensus degree of collective judgment.

  8. Design of sample analysis device for iodine adsorption efficiency test in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jinnan

    2015-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, iodine adsorption efficiency test is used to check the iodine adsorption efficiency of the iodine adsorber. The iodine adsorption efficiency can be calculated through the analysis of the test sample, and thus to determine if the performance of the adsorber meets the requirement on the equipment operation and emission. Considering the process of test and actual demand, in this paper, a special device for the analysis of this kind of test sample is designed. The application shows that the device is with convenient operation and high reliability and accurate calculation, and improves the experiment efficiency and reduces the experiment risk. (author)

  9. Chemical Composition Analysis and Product Consistency Tests of the ORP Phase 5 Nepheline Study Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Caldwell, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Riley, W. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2018-02-01

    In this report, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for a series of simulated high-level waste glass compositions fabricated by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). These data will be used in the development of improved models for the prediction of nepheline crystallization in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  10. Respondent-Driven SamplingTesting Assumptions: Sampling with Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barash Vladimir D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Classical Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS estimators are based on a Markov Process model in which sampling occurs with replacement. Given that respondents generally cannot be interviewed more than once, this assumption is counterfactual. We join recent work by Gile and Handcock in exploring the implications of the sampling-with-replacement assumption for bias of RDS estimators. We differ from previous studies in examining a wider range of sampling fractions and in using not only simulations but also formal proofs. One key finding is that RDS estimates are surprisingly stable even in the presence of substantial sampling fractions. Our analyses show that the sampling-with-replacement assumption is a minor contributor to bias for sampling fractions under 40%, and bias is negligible for the 20% or smaller sampling fractions typical of field applications of RDS.

  11. tscvh R Package: Computational of the two samples test on microarray-sequencing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajriyah, Rohmatul; Rosadi, Dedi

    2017-12-01

    We present a new R package, a tscvh (two samples cross-variance homogeneity), as we called it. This package is a software of the cross-variance statistical test which has been proposed and introduced by Fajriyah ([3] and [4]), based on the cross-variance concept. The test can be used as an alternative test for the significance difference between two means when sample size is small, the situation which is usually appeared in the bioinformatics research. Based on its statistical distribution, the p-value can be also provided. The package is built under a homogeneity of variance between samples.

  12. Feasibility, internal consistency and covariates of TICS-m (telephone interview for cognitive status-modified) in a population-based sample: findings from the KORA-Age study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Me; Emeny, Rt; Bickel, H; Linkohr, B; Ladwig, Kh

    2013-09-01

    Test the feasibility of the modified telephone interview for cognitive status (TICS-m) as a screening tool to detect cognitive impairment in a population-based sample of older subjects. Data were collected from 3,578 participants, age 65-94 years, of the KORA-Age study. We used analysis of covariance to test for significant sex, age and educational differences in raw TICS-m scores. Internal consistency was analysed by assessing Cronbach's alpha. Correction for education years was undertaken, and participants were divided in three subgroups following validated cut-offs. Finally, a logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of sex on cognition subgroups. Internal consistency of the TICS-m was 0.78. Study participants needed approximately 5.4 min to complete the interview. Lower raw TICS-m scores were associated with male sex, older age and lower education (all p education years, 2,851 (79%) had a non-impaired cognitive status (score >31). Male sex was independently associated with having a score equal to or below 27 and 31 (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.5 and OR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.2-1.7, respectively). The TICS-m is a feasible questionnaire for community-dwelling older adults with normal cognitive function or moderate cognitive impairment. Lower cognitive performance was associated with being a man, being older, and having fewer years of formal education. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Efficiency of Direct Microscopy of Stool Samples Using an Antigen-Specific Adhesin Test for Entamoeba Histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu İrvem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: E. histolytica is among the common causes of acute gastroenteritis. The pathogenic species E. histolytica and the nonpathogenic species E. dispar cannot be morphologically differentiated, although correct identification of these protozoans is important for treatment and public health. In many laboratories, the screening of leukocytes, erythrocytes, amoebic cysts, trophozoites and parasite eggs is performed using Native-Lugol’s iodine for pre-diagnosis. Aims: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of E. histolytica in stool samples collected from 788 patients residing in the Anatolian region of İstanbul who presented with gastrointestinal complaints. We used the information obtained to evaluate the effectiveness of microscopic examinations when used in combination with the E. histolytica adhesin antigen test. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study Methods: Preparations of stool samples stained with Native-Lugol’s iodine were evaluated using the E. histolytica adhesin test and examined using standard light microscopy at ×40 magnification. Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Results: Of 788 samples, 38 (4.8% were positive for E. histolytica adhesin antigens. When evaluated together with the presences of erythrocytes, leukocytes, cysts, and trophozoites, respectively, using logistic regression analysis, leukocyte positivity was significantly higher. The odds ratio of leukocyte positivity increased adhesin test-positivity by 2,530-fold (95% CI=1.01–6.330. Adhesin test-positivity was significant (p=0.047. Conclusion: In line with these findings, the consistency between the presence of cysts and erythrocytes and adhesin test-positivity was found to be highly significant, but that of higher levels of leukocytes was found to be discordant. It was concluded that leukocytes and trophozoites were

  14. Characterization of a low-level radioactive waste grout: Sampling and test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.F.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1992-12-01

    WHC manages and operates the grout treatment facility at Hanford as part of a DOE program to clean up wastes stored at federal nuclear production sites. PNL provides support to the grout disposal program through pilot-scale tests, performance assessments, and formulation verification activities. in 1988 and 1989, over one million gallons of a low-level radioactive liquid waste was processed through the facility to produce a grout waste that was then deposited in an underground vault. The liquid waste was phosphate/sulfate waste (PSW) generated in decontamination of the N Reactor. PNL sampled and tested the grout produced during the second half of the PSW campaign to support quality verification activities prior to grout vault closure. Samples of grout were obtained by inserting nested-tube samplers into the grout slurry in the vault. After the grout had cured, the inner tube of the sampler was removed and the grout samples extracted. Tests for compressive strength, sonic velocity, and leach testing were used to assess grout quality; results were compared to those from pilot-scale test grouts made with a simulated PSW. The grout produced during the second half of the PSW campaign exceeded compressive strength and leachability formulation criteria. The nested tube samplers were effective in collecting samples of grout although their use introduced greater variability into the compressive strength data

  15. Drilling induced damage of core samples. Evidences from laboratory testing and numerical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanaro, Flavio

    2008-01-01

    Extensive sample testing in uniaxial and Brazilian test conditions were carried out for the Shobasama and MIU Research Laboratory Site (Gifu Pref., Japan). The compressive and tensile strength of the samples was observed to be negatively correlated to the in-situ stress components. Such correlation was interpreted as stress-release induced sample damage. Similar stress conditions were then numerically simulated by means of the BEM-DDM code FRACOD 2D in plane strain conditions. This method allows for explicitly consider the influence of newly initiated or propagating fractures on the stress field and deformation of the core during drilling process. The models show that already at moderate stress levels some fracturing of the core during drilling might occur leading to reduced laboratory strength of the samples. Sample damage maps were produced independently from the laboratory test results and from the numerical models and show good agreement with each other. (author)

  16. Expanding the Reach of Participatory Risk Management: Testing an Online Decision-Aiding Framework for Informing Internally Consistent Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessette, Douglas L; Campbell-Arvai, Victoria; Arvai, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    This article presents research aimed at developing and testing an online, multistakeholder decision-aiding framework for informing multiattribute risk management choices associated with energy development and climate change. The framework was designed to provide necessary background information and facilitate internally consistent choices, or choices that are in line with users' prioritized objectives. In order to test different components of the decision-aiding framework, a six-part, 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted, yielding eight treatment scenarios. The three factors included: (1) whether or not users could construct their own alternatives; (2) the level of detail regarding the composition of alternatives users would evaluate; and (3) the way in which a final choice between users' own constructed (or highest-ranked) portfolio and an internally consistent portfolio was presented. Participants' self-reports revealed the framework was easy to use and providing an opportunity to develop one's own risk-management alternatives (Factor 1) led to the highest knowledge gains. Empirical measures showed the internal consistency of users' decisions across all treatments to be lower than expected and confirmed that providing information about alternatives' composition (Factor 2) resulted in the least internally consistent choices. At the same time, those users who did not develop their own alternatives and were not shown detailed information about the composition of alternatives believed their choices to be the most internally consistent. These results raise concerns about how the amount of information provided and the ability to construct alternatives may inversely affect users' real and perceived internal consistency. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Testing of Alignment Parameters for Ancient Samples: Evaluating and Optimizing Mapping Parameters for Ancient Samples Using the TAPAS Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike H. Taron

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput sequence data retrieved from ancient or other degraded samples has led to unprecedented insights into the evolutionary history of many species, but the analysis of such sequences also poses specific computational challenges. The most commonly used approach involves mapping sequence reads to a reference genome. However, this process becomes increasingly challenging with an elevated genetic distance between target and reference or with the presence of contaminant sequences with high sequence similarity to the target species. The evaluation and testing of mapping efficiency and stringency are thus paramount for the reliable identification and analysis of ancient sequences. In this paper, we present ‘TAPAS’, (Testing of Alignment Parameters for Ancient Samples, a computational tool that enables the systematic testing of mapping tools for ancient data by simulating sequence data reflecting the properties of an ancient dataset and performing test runs using the mapping software and parameter settings of interest. We showcase TAPAS by using it to assess and improve mapping strategy for a degraded sample from a banded linsang (Prionodon linsang, for which no closely related reference is currently available. This enables a 1.8-fold increase of the number of mapped reads without sacrificing mapping specificity. The increase of mapped reads effectively reduces the need for additional sequencing, thus making more economical use of time, resources, and sample material.

  18. The impact of screening-test negative samples not enumerated by MPN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; de Knegt, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    that includes false negative results from the screening, and a third that considers the entire data set. The relative sensitivity of the screening test was also calculated assuming as gold standard samples with confirmed Salmonella. Salmonella was confirmed by a reference laboratory in 29 samples either...

  19. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratkin, Jamie L; Sinn, David L; Patall, Erika A; Gosling, Samuel D

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests') versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  20. Personality consistency in dogs: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie L Fratkin

    Full Text Available Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that 'puppy tests' measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family. Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43. Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., 'puppy tests' versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed.

  1. First Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Tsuji, Kouichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigación (SIdI), Laboratorio de TXRF, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Margui, Eva [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Girona (Spain); Streli, Christina [TU Wien, Atominstitut,Radiation Physics, Vienna (Austria); Pepponi, Giancarlo [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Trento (Italy); Stosnach, Hagen [Bruker Nano GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Yamada, Takashi [Rigaku Corporation, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan); Vandenabeele, Peter [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Maina, David M.; Gatari, Michael [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya); Shepherd, Keith D.; Towett, Erick K. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi (Kenya); Bennun, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción (Chile); Custo, Graciela; Vasquez, Cristina [Gerencia Química, Laboratorio B025, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, San Martín (Argentina); Depero, Laura E., E-mail: laura.depero@unibs.it [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples, involving 18 laboratories in 10 countries are presented and discussed. The test was performed within the framework of the VAMAS project, interlaboratory comparison of TXRF spectroscopy for environmental analysis, whose aim is to develop guidelines and a standard methodology for biological and environmental analysis by means of the TXRF analytical technique. - Highlights: • The discussion of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples (18 laboratories of 10 countries) is reported. • Drinking, waste, and desalinated water samples were tested. • Data dispersion sources were identified: sample concentration, preparation, fitting procedure, and quantification. • The protocol for TXRF analysis of drinking water is proposed.

  2. Testing of a Microfluidic Sampling System for High Temperature Electrochemical MC&A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nichols, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-11-27

    This report describes the preliminary validation of a high-temperature microfluidic chip system for sampling of electrochemical process salt. Electroanalytical and spectroscopic techniques are attractive candidates for improvement through high-throughput sample analysis via miniaturization. Further, microfluidic chip systems are amenable to micro-scale chemical processing such as rapid, automated sample purification to improve sensor performance. The microfluidic chip was tested to determine the feasibility of the system for high temperature applications and conditions under which microfluidic systems can be used to generate salt droplets at process temperature to support development of material balance and control systems in a used fuel treatment facility. In FY13, the project focused on testing a quartz microchip device with molten salts at near process temperatures. The equipment was installed in glove box and tested up to 400°C using commercial thermal transfer fluids as the carrier phase. Preliminary tests were carried out with a low-melting halide salt to initially characterize the properties of this novel liquid-liquid system and to investigate the operating regimes for inducing droplet flow within candidate carrier fluids. Initial results show that the concept is viable for high temperature sampling but further development is required to optimize the system to operate with process relevant molten salts.

  3. Performance of laboratories analysing welding fume on filter samples: results from the WASP proficiency testing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Peter; Butler, Owen

    2008-06-01

    This paper emphasizes the need for occupational hygiene professionals to require evidence of the quality of welding fume data from analytical laboratories. The measurement of metals in welding fume using atomic spectrometric techniques is a complex analysis often requiring specialist digestion procedures. The results from a trial programme testing the proficiency of laboratories in the Workplace Analysis Scheme for Proficiency (WASP) to measure potentially harmful metals in several different types of welding fume showed that most laboratories underestimated the mass of analyte on the filters. The average recovery was 70-80% of the target value and >20% of reported recoveries for some of the more difficult welding fume matrices were welding fume trial filter samples. Consistent rather than erratic error predominated, suggesting that the main analytical factor contributing to the differences between the target values and results was the effectiveness of the sample preparation procedures used by participating laboratories. It is concluded that, with practice and regular participation in WASP, performance can improve over time.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION AND SETTLING TESTS WITH TANK 51H SLURRY SAMPLES HTF-076-081

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAY, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) is the next sludge batch being prepared for feed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SB4 includes sludge from Tanks 5F, 6F, and 11H and heels from Tanks 7F and 51H. In preparation of SB4, sludge was transferred from Tank 11H to Tank 51H. The sludge currently in Tank 51H has been found to settle at slower rates than previous sludge batches. The slow sludge settling in Tank 51H impacts the ability to wash SB4 to the desired final weight percent insoluble solids and sodium endpoint. This could impact the ability to have SB4 ready on time to support DWPF and result in increased recycle back to the Tank Farm, reduced waste loading at DWPF, and lengthened cycle time in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to characterize and investigate the slower settling rate with six slurry dip samples of Tank 51H sludge. The filtered supernate and the total dried solids of the sludge were analyzed and summaries of the results published in the references listed below. The sludge composition was found to be consistent with H-Area high aluminum sludge. Difficulties were encountered with dissolving all of the material in the dried sludge solids. An analysis of the undissolved material from the digestions found the main constituent was Boehmite (AlO(OH)). This report provides all of the compositional data and an analysis of the data with recommended values to use for the composition of the Tank 51H composite sample. Tables 3-2 through 3-4 provide the composition of the Tank 51H composite sample. Settling tests conducted with the Tank 51H sludge showed a much slower settling rate than with the sludge in Sludge Batch 3 (SB3). A mixture of Tank 51H and sludge from SB3 was prepared to mimic the projected final composition of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The mixture showed minimal improvement in the settling rate versus Tank 51H sludge alone. An attempt to

  5. EPS-LASSO: Test for High-Dimensional Regression Under Extreme Phenotype Sampling of Continuous Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Fang, Jian; Shen, Hui; Wang, Yu-Ping; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2018-01-25

    Extreme phenotype sampling (EPS) is a broadly-used design to identify candidate genetic factors contributing to the variation of quantitative traits. By enriching the signals in extreme phenotypic samples, EPS can boost the association power compared to random sampling. Most existing statistical methods for EPS examine the genetic factors individually, despite many quantitative traits have multiple genetic factors underlying their variation. It is desirable to model the joint effects of genetic factors, which may increase the power and identify novel quantitative trait loci under EPS. The joint analysis of genetic data in high-dimensional situations requires specialized techniques, e.g., the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). Although there are extensive research and application related to LASSO, the statistical inference and testing for the sparse model under EPS remain unknown. We propose a novel sparse model (EPS-LASSO) with hypothesis test for high-dimensional regression under EPS based on a decorrelated score function. The comprehensive simulation shows EPS-LASSO outperforms existing methods with stable type I error and FDR control. EPS-LASSO can provide a consistent power for both low- and high-dimensional situations compared with the other methods dealing with high-dimensional situations. The power of EPS-LASSO is close to other low-dimensional methods when the causal effect sizes are small and is superior when the effects are large. Applying EPS-LASSO to a transcriptome-wide gene expression study for obesity reveals 10 significant body mass index associated genes. Our results indicate that EPS-LASSO is an effective method for EPS data analysis, which can account for correlated predictors. The source code is available at https://github.com/xu1912/EPSLASSO. hdeng2@tulane.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2018). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  6. Analysis of small sample size studies using nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Alvarado, Luis A

    2017-06-30

    Experimental studies in biomedical research frequently pose analytical problems related to small sample size. In such studies, there are conflicting findings regarding the choice of parametric and nonparametric analysis, especially with non-normal data. In such instances, some methodologists questioned the validity of parametric tests and suggested nonparametric tests. In contrast, other methodologists found nonparametric tests to be too conservative and less powerful and thus preferred using parametric tests. Some researchers have recommended using a bootstrap test; however, this method also has small sample size limitation. We used a pooled method in nonparametric bootstrap test that may overcome the problem related with small samples in hypothesis testing. The present study compared nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method corresponding to parametric, nonparametric, and permutation tests through extensive simulations under various conditions and using real data examples. The nonparametric pooled bootstrap t-test provided equal or greater power for comparing two means as compared with unpaired t-test, Welch t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and permutation test while maintaining type I error probability for any conditions except for Cauchy and extreme variable lognormal distributions. In such cases, we suggest using an exact Wilcoxon rank sum test. Nonparametric bootstrap paired t-test also provided better performance than other alternatives. Nonparametric bootstrap test provided benefit over exact Kruskal-Wallis test. We suggest using nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method for comparing paired or unpaired means and for validating the one way analysis of variance test results for non-normal data in small sample size studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings.

  8. Small Sample Robust Testing for Normality against Pareto Tails

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stehlík, M.; Fabián, Zdeněk; Střelec, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 7 (2012), s. 1167-1194 ISSN 0361-0918 Grant - others:Aktion(CZ-AT) 51p7, 54p21, 50p14, 54p13 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : consistency * Hill estimator * t-Hill estimator * location functional * Pareto tail * power comparison * returns * robust tests for normality Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.295, year: 2012

  9. Sixteen-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index: Confirmatory factor analytic evidence, internal consistency, and construct validity in a young adult sample from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujanovic, Anka A.; Arrindell, Willem A.; Bernstein, Amit; Norton, Peter J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    The present investigation examined the factor structure, internal consistency, and construct validity of the 16-item Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI; Reiss Peterson, Gursky, & McNally 1986) in a young adult sample (n = 420)from the Netherlands. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to comparatively

  10. Use of the SSF equations in the Kojima-Moon-Ochi thermodynamic consistency test of isothermal vapour-liquid equilibrium data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SLOBODAN P. SERBANOVIC

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kojima-Moon-Ochi (KMO thermodynamic consistency test of vapour–liquid equilibrium (VLE measurements for 32 isothermal data sets of binary systems of various complexity was applied using two fitting equations: the Redlich-Kister equation and the Sum of Symmetrical Functions. It was shown that the enhanced reliability of the fitting of the experimental data can change the conclusions drawn on their thermodynamic consistency in those cases of VLE data sets that are estimated to be near the border of consistency.

  11. 7 CFR 201.43 - Size of sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... units. Coated seed for germination test only shall consist of at least 1,000 seed units. [10 FR 9950... of samples of agricultural seed, vegetable seed and screenings to be submitted for analysis, test, or..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT...

  12. A Note on Confidence Interval for the Power of the One Sample Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In introductory statistics texts, the power of the test of a one-sample mean when the variance is known is widely discussed. However, when the variance is unknown, the power of the Student's -test is seldom mentioned. In this note, a general methodology for obtaining inference concerning a scalar parameter of interest of any exponential family model is proposed. The method is then applied to the one-sample mean problem with unknown variance to obtain a (1−100% confidence interval for the power of the Student's -test that detects the difference (−0. The calculations require only the density and the cumulative distribution functions of the standard normal distribution. In addition, the methodology presented can also be applied to determine the required sample size when the effect size and the power of a size test of mean are given.

  13. Failure analysis of burst tested fuel tube samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaprabu, C.; Ramana Rao, S.V.; Srivatsava, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    The Total Circumferential Elongation (TCE) is an important parameter for evaluation of ductility of the Zircaloy-4 fuel tubes for the PHWR reactors. The TCE values of the fuel tubes were obtained using the burst testing technique. In some lots there is a variation in the values of the TCE. To investigate the reasons for such a large variation in the TCE, samples were selected at appropriate intervals and sectioned at the fractured portion. The surface morphology of the fractured surfaces was examined under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). The morphologies show segregation of elements at specific locations. Energy dispersive spectra was obtained from those segregated particles. According to the magnitude of TCE value the samples were classified into low, intermediate and high ductility. Low ductility samples were found to contain large amount of segregations along the thickness direction of the tube. This forms a brittle region and a path for the easy crack growth along thickness direction. In the case of intermediate samples the segregation occurred in fewer locations compared to low ductile samples and also confined to the circumferential direction of the outside surface of the tube. Due to this, probability of crack formation at the surface of the tube could be high. But crack growth would be slower in the ductile matrix along the thickness direction resulting in the enhancement of TCE value compared to the low ductile sample. In the high ductile samples, the segregations were very scarce and found to be isolated and embedded in the ductile matrix. The mode of failure in these types of samples was found to be purely ductile. Cracks were found to originate solely from the micro voids in the material. As the probability of crack formation and its propagation is low, very high TCE values were observed in these samples. Microstructural observations of fractured surfaces and EDAX analysis was able to identify the

  14. Frictional sliding tests on combined coal-rock samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A test system was developed to understand the sliding mechanism of coal-rock structure. The test system was composed by a double-shear testing model and an acousto-optic monitoring system in association with a digital camera and an acoustic emission (AE instrument. The tests can simulate the movement of activated faults and the sliding in coal-rock structure. In this regard, instable sliding conditions of coal-rock samples, sliding types under different conditions, displacement evolution law, and AE characteristics during sliding process were investigated. Several sliding types were monitored in the tests, including unstable continuous sliding, unstable discontinuous sliding, and stable sliding. The sliding types have close relation with the axial loads and loading rates. Larger axial load and smaller loading rate mean that unstable sliding is less likely to occur. The peak shear stress was positively correlated with the axial load when sliding occurred, whereas the displacement induced by unstable sliding was uncorrelated with the axial load. A large number of AE events occurred before sliding, and the AE rate decreased after stable sliding. The results show that the tests can well simulate the process of structural instability in a coal bump, and are helpful in the understanding of fault activation and the physical processes during squeezing process of roof and floor.

  15. Archaeological and taxonomic significance of ancient wood samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ancient wood samples from an archaeological excavation, Test Pit II, in Ahanve, near Badagry were analysed to ascertain their identity. Anatomical study of the wood samples revealed oval-circular xylem pores, diffuse apotracheal axial parenchyma, procumbent and homogeneous ray and non-septate fibres, all consistent ...

  16. Busted Butte Phase 2: Analysis of Post-Test Mineback and Overcore Rock Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turin, H.J.; McGraw, M.A.; Jones, C.L.; Scism, C.D.; Soll, W.E.

    2002-01-01

    A complex tracer mixture was injected continuously for over two years into a 10 x 10 x 7 m block of tuff as part of the unsaturated-zone (UZ) tracer test at Busted Butte. The test was designed to address uncertainties associated with flow and transport models within the Topopah Springs and Calico Hills tuffs. The tracer mixture included nonreactive (Br, I, and FBAs) and reactive tracers (Li, Ce, Sm, Ni, Coy and Mn) and synthetic colloids. Once injection was completed, samples from the block were collected in two ways. Overcores were taken from around and below injection holes. Then, the entire block was excavated via mineback--during which progressive vertical planes of the block were exposed. Samples from the overcores and mineback were analyzed to determine the distribution of tracers on different spatial scales than available from collection borehole data. Rock analyses confirmed collection pad results that the nonreactive tracers, Br and FBAs, moved several meters. Furthermore, Br and FBAs are observed above and lateral to the injector planes suggesting that capillarity was an important process for tracer movement. Lithium, the most mobile of the metals, was transported on a scale of meters. This is consistent with laboratory sorption measurements and observed breakthrough on the collection pads. Co and Ni show transport distances of tens of cm, while Sm and Ce moved far less, possibly due to precipitation and sorption effects. Colloid transport was assessed using 1 ft3 blocks extracted from the BB Phase 2 block. In the Calico Hills material, after 15 L of water was injected over 3.5 months, less than 1% of the colloids injected were recovered. Flow patterns in the block indicate that water injected at the center imbibed outward from the injection point. In a block taken from a boundary of the Calico Hills ashfall layer, breakthrough was observed only due to fractures formed during drying of the block. The colloid transport module for FEHM was tested against

  17. Testing results of Monte Carlo sampling processes in MCSAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnera, I.; Cruz, C.; Abreu, Y.; Leyva, A.; Correa, C.; Demydenko, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Monte Carlo Simulation of Atom Displacements (MCSAD) is a code implemented by the authors to simulate the complete process of atom displacement (AD) formation. This code makes use of the Monte Carlo (MC) method to sample all the processes involved in the gamma and electronic radiation transport through matter. The kernel of the calculations applied to this code relies on a model based on an algorithm developed by the authors, which firstly splits out multiple electron elastic scattering events from those single ones at higher scattering angles and then, from the last one, sampling those leading to AD at high transferred atomic recoil energies. Some tests have been developed to check the sampling algorithms with the help of the corresponding theoretical distribution functions. Satisfactory results have been obtained, which indicate the strength of the methods and subroutines used in the code. (Author)

  18. June 2012 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on June 26-27, 2012, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface and the addendum to the 'Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan' completed in 2008. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated).

  19. May 2011 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on May 10-11, 2011, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface and the addendum to the 'Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan' completed in 2008. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated)

  20. Geotechnical analysis of soil samples from test trench at Western New York Nuclear Service Center, West Valley, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fickies, R.H.; Fakundiny, R.H.; Mosley, E.T.

    1979-04-01

    In July 1977, a deep research trench was excavated and soil samples collected at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, NY. The glacial till horizons sampled are considered to be representative of the till serving as a burial medium at the nearby low-level radioactive waste burial ground. A series of laboratory tests were conducted consisting of unit weight, moisture content, Atterberg limits, unconfined compression, dispersion, swell, permeability, and consolidation. These laboratory analyses and field observations indicate that the till exposed in the research trench is a generally dense mixture of silt and clay of low to medium plasticity, with minor amounts of fine to coarse sand and fine gravel. The till has a generally low coefficient of permeability in the range of 10 -7 cm/s horizontal and 10 -8 cm/s vertical. A network of vertical fractures exists in the upper 15 feet of weathered till which may allow some downward percolation of surface runoff. The test data indicates that the maximum depth to which these fractures could possibly penetrate is 50 feet

  1. A cryogenic tensile testing apparatus for micro-samples cooled by miniature pulse tube cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L B; Liu, S X; Gu, K X; Zhou, Y; Wang, J J

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a cryogenic tensile testing apparatus for micro-samples cooled by a miniature pulse tube cryocooler. At present, tensile tests are widely applied to measure the mechanical properties of materials; most of the cryogenic tensile testing apparatus are designed for samples with standard sizes, while for non-standard size samples, especially for microsamples, the tensile testing cannot be conducted. The general approach to cool down the specimens for tensile testing is by using of liquid nitrogen or liquid helium, which is not convenient: it is difficult to keep the temperature of the specimens at an arbitrary set point precisely, besides, in some occasions, liquid nitrogen, especially liquid helium, is not easily available. To overcome these limitations, a cryogenic tensile testing apparatus cooled by a high frequency pulse tube cryocooler has been designed, built and tested. The operating temperatures of the developed tensile testing apparatus cover from 20 K to room temperature with a controlling precision of ±10 mK. The apparatus configurations, the methods of operation and some cooling performance will be described in this paper. (paper)

  2. DWPF Sample Vial Insert Study-Statistical Analysis of DWPF Mock-Up Test Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    This report is prepared as part of Technical/QA Task Plan WSRC-RP-97-351 which was issued in response to Technical Task Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-970132 submitted by DWPF. Presented in this report is a statistical analysis of DWPF Mock-up test data for evaluation of two new analytical methods which use insert samples from the existing HydragardTM sampler. The first is a new hydrofluoric acid based method called the Cold Chemical Method (Cold Chem) and the second is a modified fusion method.Both new methods use the existing HydragardTM sampler to collect a smaller insert sample from the process sampling system. The insert testing methodology applies to the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) and the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) samples. Samples in small 3 ml containers (Inserts) are analyzed by either the cold chemical method or a modified fusion method. The current analytical method uses a HydragardTM sample station to obtain nearly full 15 ml peanut vials. The samples are prepared by a multi-step process for Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis by drying, vitrification, grinding and finally dissolution by either mixed acid or fusion. In contrast, the insert sample is placed directly in the dissolution vessel, thus eliminating the drying, vitrification and grinding operations for the Cold chem method. Although the modified fusion still requires drying and calcine conversion, the process is rapid due to the decreased sample size and that no vitrification step is required.A slurry feed simulant material was acquired from the TNX pilot facility from the test run designated as PX-7.The Mock-up test data were gathered on the basis of a statistical design presented in SRT-SCS-97004 (Rev. 0). Simulant PX-7 samples were taken in the DWPF Analytical Cell Mock-up Facility using 3 ml inserts and 15 ml peanut vials. A number of the insert samples were analyzed by Cold Chem and compared with full peanut vial samples analyzed by the current methods. The remaining inserts were analyzed by

  3. Extraction, Scrub, and Strip Test Results for the Salt Waste Processing Facility Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Solvent Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-10-06

    An Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) test was performed on a sample of Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent and salt simulant to determine cesium distribution ratios (D(Cs)), and cesium concentration in the strip effluent (SE) and decontaminated salt solution (DSS) streams; this data will be used by Parsons to help determine if the solvent is qualified for use at the SWPF. The ESS test showed acceptable performance of the solvent for extraction, scrub, and strip operations. The extraction D(Cs) measured 12.5, exceeding the required value of 8. This value is consistent with results from previous ESS tests using similar solvent formulations. Similarly, scrub and strip cesium distribution ratios fell within acceptable ranges. This revision was created to correct an error. The previous revision used an incorrect set of temperature correction coefficients which resulted in slight deviations from the correct D(Cs) results.

  4. The Internal Consistency and Validity of the Vaccination Attitudes Examination Scale: A Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Louise; Smith, Michael; Miller, Christopher B; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2018-06-19

    Vaccinations are important preventative health behaviors. The recently developed Vaccination Attitudes Examination (VAX) Scale aims to measure the reasons behind refusal/hesitancy regarding vaccinations. The aim of this replication study is to conduct an independent test of the newly developed VAX Scale in the UK. We tested (a) internal consistency (Cronbach's α); (b) convergent validity by assessing its relationships with beliefs about medication, medical mistrust, and perceived sensitivity to medicines; and (c) construct validity by testing how well the VAX Scale discriminated between vaccinators and nonvaccinators. A sample of 243 UK adults completed the VAX Scale, the Beliefs About Medicines Questionnaire, the Perceived Sensitivity to Medicines Scale, and the Medical Mistrust Index, in addition to demographics of age, gender, education levels, and social deprivation. Participants were asked (a) whether they received an influenza vaccination in the past year and (b) if they had a young child, whether they had vaccinated the young child against influenza in the past year. The VAX (a) demonstrated high internal consistency (α = .92); (b) was positively correlated with medical mistrust and beliefs about medicines, and less strongly correlated with perceived sensitivity to medicines; and (c) successfully differentiated parental influenza vaccinators from nonvaccinators. The VAX demonstrated good internal consistency, convergent validity, and construct validity in an independent UK sample. It appears to be a useful measure to help us understand the health beliefs that promote or deter vaccination behavior.

  5. 40 CFR 205.57-2 - Test vehicle sample selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pursuant to a test request in accordance with this subpart will be selected in the manner specified in the... then using a table of random numbers to select the number of vehicles as specified in paragraph (c) of... with the desig-nated AQL are contained in Appendix I, -Table II. (c) The appropriate batch sample size...

  6. An initial validation of the Virtual Reality Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test in a college sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; Courtney, Christopher G

    2014-01-30

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) has utility for the detection of cognitive processing deficits. While the PASAT has demonstrated high levels of internal consistency and test-retest reliability, administration of the PASAT has been known to create undue anxiety and frustration in participants. As a result, degradation of performance may be found on the PASAT. The difficult nature of the PASAT may subsequently decrease the probability of their return for follow up testing. This study is a preliminary attempt at assessing the potential of a PASAT embedded in a virtual reality environment. The Virtual Reality PASAT (VR-PASAT) was compared with a paper-and-pencil version of the PASAT as well as other standardized neuropsychological measures. The two modalities of the PASAT were conducted with a sample of 50 healthy university students, between the ages of 19 and 34 years. Equivalent distributions were found for age, gender, education, and computer familiarity. Moderate relationships were found between VR-PASAT and other putative attentional processing measures. The VR-PASAT was unrelated to indices of learning, memory, or visuospatial processing. Comparison of the VR-PASAT with the traditional paper-and-pencil PASAT indicated that both versions require the examinee to sustain attention at an increasingly demanding, externally determined rate. Results offer preliminary support for the construct validity (in a college sample) of the VR-PASAT as an attentional processing measure and suggest that this task may provide some unique information not tapped by traditional attentional processing tasks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrofracturing test system and method of determining material characteristics of electrofractured material samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Glover, Steven F.; Pfeifle, Tom; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Broome, Scott Thomas; Gardner, William Payton

    2017-08-01

    A device for electrofracturing a material sample and analyzing the material sample is disclosed. The device simulates an in situ electrofracturing environment so as to obtain electrofractured material characteristics representative of field applications while allowing permeability testing of the fractured sample under in situ conditions.

  8. Performance Evaluation of Commercial Dengue Diagnostic Tests for Early Detection of Dengue in Clinical Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Nur Akmalina Mat Jusoh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The shattering rise in dengue virus infections globally has created a need for an accurate and validated rapid diagnostic test for this virus. Rapid diagnostic test (RDT and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR diagnostic detection are useful tools for diagnosis of early dengue infection. We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic performance of nonstructural 1 (NS1 RDT and real-time RT-PCR diagnostic kits in 86 patient serum samples. Thirty-six samples were positive for dengue NS1 antigen while the remaining 50 were negative when tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Commercially available RDTs for NS1 detection, RTK ProDetect™, and SD Bioline showed high sensitivity of 94% and 89%, respectively, compared with ELISA. GenoAmp® Trioplex Real-Time RT-PCR and RealStar® Dengue RT-PCR tests presented a comparable kappa agreement with 0.722. The result obtained from GenoAmp® Real-Time RT-PCR Dengue test showed that 14 samples harbored dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1, 8 samples harbored DENV-2, 2 samples harbored DENV-3, and 1 sample harbored DENV-4. 1 sample had a double infection with DENV-1 and DENV-2. The NS1 RDTs and real-time RT-PCR tests were found to be a useful diagnostic for early and rapid diagnosis of acute dengue and an excellent surveillance tool in our battle against dengue.

  9. Tests of gas sampling electromagnetic shower calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Carithers, W.; Day, C.; Johnson, K.J.; Wenzel, W.A.; Videau, H.

    1983-01-01

    An electromagnetic shower gas-sampling calorimeter has been tested in both Geiger and proportional discharge modes for incident electron energies in the range 0.125-16 GeV. The 0.2 radiation length-thick layers were lead-fiberglass laminates with cathode strips normal to the sense wires. The 5x10 mm 2 Geiger cells were formed with uniformly spaced nylon fibers perpendicular to the wires. Proportional mode measurements were carried out in the pressure range 1-10 atm. A Monte Carlo simulation is in good agreement with measured shower characteristics and has been used to predict the behavior for oblique of incidence and for various Geiger cell dimensions. (orig.)

  10. Effect of microbiological testing on subsequent mid-infrared milk component analysis of the same milk sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojciechowski, Karen L; Melilli, Caterina; Barbano, David M

    2014-09-01

    Our objectives were to determine if mixing and sampling of a raw milk sample at 4°C for determination of total bacteria count (TBC) and if incubation at 14°C for 18h and sampling for a preliminary incubation (PI) count influenced the accuracy of subsequent fat, protein, or lactose measurement by mid-infrared (IR) analysis of milk from the same sample container due to either nonrepresentative sampling or the presence of microbial metabolites produced by microbial growth in the milk from the incubation. Milks of 4 fat levels (2.2, 3, 4, and 5%) reflected the range of fat levels encountered in producer milks. If the portion of milk removed from a cold sample was not representative, then the effect on a milk component test would likely be larger as fat content increases. Within the milks at each fat level, 3 treatments were used: (1) 20 vials of the same milk sampled for testing TBC using a BactoScan FC and then used for a milk component test; (2) 20 vials for testing TBC plus PI count followed by component test; and (3) 20 vials to run for IR component test without a prior micro sampling and testing. This was repeated in 3 different weeks using a different batch of milk each week. No large effect on the accuracy of component milk testing [IR fat B (carbon hydrogen stretch) and fat A (carbonyl stretch)] due to the cold milk sample handling and mixing procedures used for TBC was detected, confirming the fact that the physical removal of milk from the vial by the BactoScan FC (Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark) was a representative portion of the milk. However, the representativeness of any other sampling procedure (manual or automated) of a cold milk sample before running milk component testing on the same container of milk should be demonstrated and verified periodically as a matter of routine laboratory quality assurance. Running TBC with a BactoScan FC first and then IR milk analysis after had a minimal effect on milk component tests by IR when milk bacteria counts

  11. Advances in paper-based sample pretreatment for point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui Hua; Yang, Hui; Choi, Jane Ru; Gong, Yan; Feng, Shang Sheng; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Huang, Qing Sheng; Shi, Jun Ling; Mei, Qi Bing; Xu, Feng

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, paper-based point-of-care testing (POCT) has been widely used in medical diagnostics, food safety and environmental monitoring. However, a high-cost, time-consuming and equipment-dependent sample pretreatment technique is generally required for raw sample processing, which are impractical for low-resource and disease-endemic areas. Therefore, there is an escalating demand for a cost-effective, simple and portable pretreatment technique, to be coupled with the commonly used paper-based assay (e.g. lateral flow assay) in POCT. In this review, we focus on the importance of using paper as a platform for sample pretreatment. We firstly discuss the beneficial use of paper for sample pretreatment, including sample collection and storage, separation, extraction, and concentration. We highlight the working principle and fabrication of each sample pretreatment device, the existing challenges and the future perspectives for developing paper-based sample pretreatment technique.

  12. Acceptance Sampling Plans Based on Truncated Life Tests for Sushila Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Ibrahim Al-Omari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An acceptance sampling plan problem based on truncated life tests when the lifetime following a Sushila distribution is considered in this paper. For various acceptance numbers, confidence levels and values of the ratio between fixed experiment time and particular mean lifetime, the minimum sample sizes required to ascertain a specified mean life were found. The operating characteristic function values of the suggested sampling plans and the producer’s risk are presented. Some tables are provided and the results are illustrated by an example of a real data set.

  13. Irradiation test of mirror samples for the LHCb SciFi tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Joram, Christian; Gavardi, Laura; Ravotti, Federico; Schneider, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The optical mirrors at the inner ends of the SciFi fibre modules in the upgraded LHCb detector will be exposed to an ionising dose reaching 35 kGy for an integrated luminosity of 50 /fb. This note describes a campaign at the cyclotron at KIT where 7 different samples were irradiated with 23 MeV protons. The samples consisted of plastic scintillator tiles, on which two different mirror foils – aluminised mylar and 3M ESR - were attached with two different glues – Epotek H301-2FL and Dow Corning RTV 3145. The transmission and/or reflectivity of the samples were measured before and after irradiation. The measurements reveal the combination of 3M ESR foil and Epotek H301-2FL to give the highest reflectivity, before and also after irradiation. In all cases, the irradiation leads only to a small, i.e. less than 10%, degradation of the transmission or reflectivity. From a radiation hardness point of view, all investigated mirror samples qualify for use in the SciFi detector.

  14. Sample Results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H Qualification Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub- Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  15. Sample results from the Interim Salt Disposition Program Macrobatch 8 Tank 21H qualification samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, II, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-13

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) analyzed samples from Tank 21H in support of qualification of Macrobatch (Salt Batch) 8 for the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP). An Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and several Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests were also performed. This document reports characterization data on the samples of Tank 21H as well as simulated performance of ARP and the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). No issues with the projected Salt Batch 8 strategy are identified. A demonstration of the monosodium titanate (MST) (0.2 g/L) removal of strontium and actinides provided acceptable average decontamination factors for plutonium of 2.62 (4 hour) and 2.90 (8 hour); and average strontium decontamination factors of 21.7 (4 hour) and 21.3 (8 hour). These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ARP tests. The two ESS tests also showed acceptable performance with extraction distribution ratios (D(Cs)) values of 52.5 and 50.4 for the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) blend (from MCU) and NGS (lab prepared), respectively. These values are consistent with results from previous salt batch ESS tests. Even though the performance is acceptable, SRNL recommends that a model for predicting extraction behavior for cesium removal for the blended solvent and NGS be developed in order to improve our predictive capabilities for the ESS tests.

  16. Internal consistency, reliability, and temporal stability of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire short-form: Test-retest data over two weeks

    OpenAIRE

    MCGUCKIN, CONOR

    2006-01-01

    PUBLISHED The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire short-form is a recently developed eight-item measure of happiness. This study evaluated the internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability of the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire short-form among 55 Northern Irish undergraduate university students who completed the measure on two occasions separated by two weeks. Internal consistency of the measure on both occasions was satisfactory at both Time 1 (alpha = .62) and Time 2 (alpha = ....

  17. Assessing distances and consistency of kinematics in Gaia/TGAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönrich, Ralph; Aumer, Michael

    2017-12-01

    We apply the statistical methods by Schönrich, Binney & Asplund to assess the quality of distances and kinematics in the Radial Velocity Experiment (RAVE)-Tycho-Gaia Astrometric Solution (TGAS) and Large Sky Area Multiobject Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST)-TGAS samples of Solar neighbourhood stars. These methods yield a nominal distance accuracy of 1-2 per cent. Other than common tests on parallax accuracy, they directly test distance estimations including the effects of distance priors. We show how to construct these priors including the survey selection functions (SSFs) directly from the data. We demonstrate that neglecting the SSFs causes severe distance biases. Due to the decline of the SSFs in distance, the simple 1/parallax estimate only mildly underestimates distances. We test the accuracy of measured line-of-sight velocities (vlos) by binning the samples in the nominal vlos uncertainties. We find: (i) the LAMOST vlos have a ∼-5 km s-1 offset; (ii) the average LAMOST measurement error for vlos is ∼7 km s-1, significantly smaller than, and nearly uncorrelated with the nominal LAMOST estimates. The RAVE sample shows either a moderate distance underestimate, or an unaccounted source of vlos dispersion (e∥) from measurement errors and binary stars. For a subsample of suspected binary stars in RAVE, our methods indicate significant distance underestimates. Separating a sample in metallicity or kinematics to select thick-disc/halo stars, discriminates between distance bias and e∥. For LAMOST, this separation yields consistency with pure vlos measurement errors. We find an anomaly near longitude l ∼ (300 ± 60)° and distance s ∼ (0.32 ± 0.03) kpc on both sides of the galactic plane, which could be explained by either a localized distance error or a breathing mode.

  18. DWPF Sample Vial Insert Study-Statistical Analysis of DWPF Mock-Up Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.P. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-09-18

    This report is prepared as part of Technical/QA Task Plan WSRC-RP-97-351 which was issued in response to Technical Task Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-970132 submitted by DWPF. Presented in this report is a statistical analysis of DWPF Mock-up test data for evaluation of two new analytical methods which use insert samples from the existing HydragardTM sampler. The first is a new hydrofluoric acid based method called the Cold Chemical Method (Cold Chem) and the second is a modified fusion method.Either new DWPF analytical method could result in a two to three fold improvement in sample analysis time.Both new methods use the existing HydragardTM sampler to collect a smaller insert sample from the process sampling system. The insert testing methodology applies to the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) and the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) samples.The insert sample is named after the initial trials which placed the container inside the sample (peanut) vials. Samples in small 3 ml containers (Inserts) are analyzed by either the cold chemical method or a modified fusion method. The current analytical method uses a HydragardTM sample station to obtain nearly full 15 ml peanut vials. The samples are prepared by a multi-step process for Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis by drying, vitrification, grinding and finally dissolution by either mixed acid or fusion. In contrast, the insert sample is placed directly in the dissolution vessel, thus eliminating the drying, vitrification and grinding operations for the Cold chem method. Although the modified fusion still requires drying and calcine conversion, the process is rapid due to the decreased sample size and that no vitrification step is required.A slurry feed simulant material was acquired from the TNX pilot facility from the test run designated as PX-7.The Mock-up test data were gathered on the basis of a statistical design presented in SRT-SCS-97004 (Rev. 0). Simulant PX-7 samples were taken in the DWPF Analytical Cell Mock

  19. Standard practices for sampling uranium-Ore concentrate

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 These practices are intended to provide the nuclear industry with procedures for obtaining representative bulk samples from uranium-ore concentrates (UOC) (see Specification C967). 1.2 These practices also provide for obtaining a series of representative secondary samples from the original bulk sample for the determination of moisture and other test purposes, and for the preparation of pulverized analytical samples (see Test Methods C1022). 1.3 These practices consist of a number of alternative procedures for sampling and sample preparation which have been shown to be satisfactory through long experience in the nuclear industry. These procedures are described in the following order. Stage Procedure Section Primary Sampling One-stage falling stream 4 Two-stage falling stream 5 Auger 6 Secondary Sampling Straight-path (reciprocating) 7 Rotating (Vezin) 8, 9 Sample Preparation 10 Concurrent-drying 11-13 Natural moisture 14-16 Calcination 17, 18 Sample Packaging 19 Wax s...

  20. Principles of Work Sample Testing. 1. A Non-Empirical Taxonomy of Test Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    UNIVERSITY % ’ Bowling Green , Ohio 43403 e April 1979 Contract DAHC 19-77-C-0007 Cj Prepared for U.S. ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTEfor the BEHAVIORAL and...inferring changes in enotionality, and GSR is said to be a measure of emotion . Much of psychological measurement is derived measurement, but it is...ARI TECHNICAL REPORT TR-79-A8 Principles of Work Sample Testingi I. A Non-Empirical Taxonomy of Test Uses b y Robert M. Guion BOWLING GREEN STATE

  1. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  2. Results from tests of TFL Hydragard sampling loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    When the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is operational, processed radioactive sludge will be transferred in batches to the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), where glass frit will be added and the contents concentrated by boiling. Batches of the slurry mixture are transferred from the SME to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT). Hydragard reg-sign sampling systems are used on the SME and the MFT for collecting slurry samples in vials for chemical analysis. An accurate replica of the Hydragard sampling system was built and tested in the thermal Fluids Laboratory (TFL) to determine the hydragard accuracy. It was determined that the original Hydragard valve frequently drew a non-representative sample stream through the sample vial that ranged from frit enriched to frit depleted. The Hydragard valve was modified by moving the plunger and its seat backwards so that the outer surface of the plunger was flush with the inside diameter of the transfer line when the valve was open. The slurry flowing through the vial accurately represented the composition of the slurry in the reservoir for two types of slurries, different dilution factors, a range of transfer flows and a range of vial flows. It was then found that the 15 ml of slurry left in the vial when the Hydragard valve was closed, which is what will be analyzed at DWPF, had a lower ratio of frit to sludge as characterized by the lithium to iron ratio than the slurry flowing through it. The reason for these differences is not understood at this time but it is recommended that additional experimentation be performed with the TFL Hydragard loop to determine the cause

  3. Performances on five verbal fluency tests in a healthy, elderly Danish sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Jørgensen, Kasper; Vogel, Asmus

    2013-01-01

    Verbal fluency tests are widely used as measures of language and executive functions. This study presents data for five tests; semantic fluency (animals, supermarket items and alternating between cities and professions), lexical fluency (s-words), and action fluency (verbs) based on a sample of 100...

  4. Consistency of ocular coherence tomography fast macular thickness mapping in diabetic diffuse macular edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraiva, Fabio Petersen; Costa, Patricia Grativol; Inomata, Daniela Lumi; Melo, Carlos Sergio Nascimento; Helal Junior, John; Nakashima, Yoshitaka

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate optical coherence tomography consistency on foveal thickness, foveal volume, and macular volume measurements in patients with and without diffuse diabetic macular edema. Introduction: Optical coherence tomography represents an objective technique that provides cross-sectional tomographs of retinal structure in vivo. However, it is expected that poor fixation ability, as seen in diabetic macular edema, could alter its results. Several authors have discussed the reproducibility of optical coherence tomography, but only a few have addressed the topic with respect to diabetic maculopathy. Methods: The study recruited diabetic patients without clinically evident retinopathy (control group) and with diffuse macular edema (case group). Only one eye of each patient was evaluated. Five consecutive fast macular scans were taken using Ocular Coherence Tomography 3; the 6 mm macular map was chosen. The consistency in measurements of foveal thickness, foveal volume, and total macular volume for both groups was evaluated using the Pearson's coefficient of variation. The T-test for independent samples was used in order to compare measurements of both groups. Results: Each group consisted of 20 patients. All measurements had a coefficient of variation less than 10%. The most consistent parameter for both groups was the total macular volume. Discussion: Consistency in measurement is a mainstay of any test. A test is unreliable if its measurements can not be correctly repeated. We found a good index of consistency, even considering patients with an unstable gaze. Conclusions: Optical coherence tomography is a consistent method for diabetic subjects with diffuse macular edema. (author)

  5. Consistency of ocular coherence tomography fast macular thickness mapping in diabetic diffuse macular edema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saraiva, Fabio Petersen; Costa, Patricia Grativol; Inomata, Daniela Lumi; Melo, Carlos Sergio Nascimento; Helal Junior, John; Nakashima, Yoshitaka [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Dept. de Oftalmologia]. E-mail: fabiopetersen@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Objectives: To investigate optical coherence tomography consistency on foveal thickness, foveal volume, and macular volume measurements in patients with and without diffuse diabetic macular edema. Introduction: Optical coherence tomography represents an objective technique that provides cross-sectional tomographs of retinal structure in vivo. However, it is expected that poor fixation ability, as seen in diabetic macular edema, could alter its results. Several authors have discussed the reproducibility of optical coherence tomography, but only a few have addressed the topic with respect to diabetic maculopathy. Methods: The study recruited diabetic patients without clinically evident retinopathy (control group) and with diffuse macular edema (case group). Only one eye of each patient was evaluated. Five consecutive fast macular scans were taken using Ocular Coherence Tomography 3; the 6 mm macular map was chosen. The consistency in measurements of foveal thickness, foveal volume, and total macular volume for both groups was evaluated using the Pearson's coefficient of variation. The T-test for independent samples was used in order to compare measurements of both groups. Results: Each group consisted of 20 patients. All measurements had a coefficient of variation less than 10%. The most consistent parameter for both groups was the total macular volume. Discussion: Consistency in measurement is a mainstay of any test. A test is unreliable if its measurements can not be correctly repeated. We found a good index of consistency, even considering patients with an unstable gaze. Conclusions: Optical coherence tomography is a consistent method for diabetic subjects with diffuse macular edema. (author)

  6. Report of testing and sampling of municipal supply well PM-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Richard J.; Longmire, Patrick; Rogers, David B.; Mullen, Ken

    1999-01-01

    During drilling of regional aquifer characterization borehole R-25, located in the western part of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at Technical Area (TA) 16, groundwater samples were collected from perched zones of saturation and the regional aquifer that contained elevated levels of high explosive (HE) compounds. One of the nearest Los Alamos County municipal supply wells potentially located down gradient from borehole R-25 is PM-4, located on Mesita del Buey at the west end of TA-54. During the winter of 1998 and 1999 the pump in PM-4 had been removed from the well for scheduled maintenance by the Los Alamos County Public Utilities Department (PUD). Because the pump was removed from PM-4, the opportunity existed to enter the well to (1) perform tests to determine where within the regional aquifer groundwater entered the well and (2) collect groundwater samples from the producing zones for analyses to determine if HE contaminants were present in discrete zones within the regional aquifer. The report of the activities that were performed during March 1999 for the testing and sampling of municipal supply well PM-4 is provided. The report provides a description of the field activities associated with the two phases of the project, including (1) the results of the static and dynamic spinner log surveys, and (2) a description of the sampling activities and the field-measured groundwater quality parameters that were obtained during sampling activities. This report also provides the analytical results of the groundwater samples and a brief discussion of the results of the project

  7. Sample damage investigation by laboratory testing and DDM modelling by FRACOD2D of Brazilian tests on Toki granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanaro, Flavio; Sato, Toshinori; Funato, Akio

    2008-01-01

    Numerical scooping calculations by means of FRACOD 2D had shown that Brazilian test models present a bend in the relation between the sample deformation perpendicularly to the loading direction and the load itself. The input 'direct' tensile strength of the rock could be re-obtained based on the numerical load at the bend. In this study, a similar technique is applied to specially designed Brazilian tests on Toki granite (Gifu, Japan) which also exhibits such bend for a tensile stress in the centre of the samples of about 2.6 MPa. However, the samples show a wide range of Brazilian tensile strengths that appear to be negatively correlated to the level of in-situ stress at the depth where the samples were taken. The correlation was interpreted as an effect of sample damage due to drilling in a stressed rock mass. Numerical models were designed with various preexist ent crack patterns to simulate the sample damage. The numerical results show Brazilian peak strength results ranging between 6.7 and 13.0 MPa, which are very realistic considering that the laboratory Brazilian tensile strength was observed to vary between 4.1 and 11.3 MPa. These values are all larger than the stress at the bend which is then interpreted as the tensile strength of the weakest grains in the granite. It is also shown that the occurrence of newly initiated cracks at the bend completely changes the stress distribution and failure mechanism of the samples: this explains why the Brazilian tensile strength should be higher than the 'direct' tensile strength of the rock from uniaxial tests. (author)

  8. Comparative evaluation of blood and serum samples in rapid immunochromatographic tests for visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Khanal, Basudha; Tiwary, Puja; Mudavath, Shyam Lal; Tiwary, Narendra K; Singh, Rupa; Koirala, Kanika; Boelaert, Marleen; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam

    2013-12-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based on the detection of specific antibodies in serum are commonly used for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Several commercial kits are available, and some of them allow the use of whole-blood samples instead of serum. An RDT is much more user-friendly for blood samples than for serum samples. In this study, we examined the sensitivities and specificities of six different commercially available immunochromatographic tests for their accuracy in detecting Leishmania infection in whole blood and serum of parasitologically confirmed VL cases. This study was performed in areas of India and Nepal where VL is endemic. A total of 177 confirmed VL cases, 208 healthy controls from areas of endemicity (EHCs), 26 malaria patients (MP), and 37 tuberculosis (TB) patients were enrolled. The reproducibilities of the blood and serum results and between-reader and between-laboratory results were tested. In India, the sensitivities of all the RDTs ranged between 94.7 and 100.0%, with no significant differences between whole blood and serum. The specificities ranged between 92.4 and 100.0%, except for the specificity of the Onsite Leishmania Ab RevB kit, which was lower (33.6 to 42.0%). No differences in specificities were observed for blood and serum. In Nepal, the sensitivities of all the test kits, for whole-blood as well as serum samples, ranged between 96.3 and 100.0%, and the specificities ranged between 90.1 and 96.1%, again with the exception of that of the Onsite Leishmania Ab RevB test, which was markedly lower (48.7 to 49.3%). The diagnostic accuracies of all the tests, except for one brand, were excellent for the whole-blood and serum samples. We conclude that whole blood is an adequate alternative for serum in RDTs for VL, with sensitivities and specificities comparable to those obtained in serum samples, provided that the test kit is of overall good quality.

  9. A GMM-Based Test for Normal Disturbances of the Heckman Sample Selection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pfaffermayr

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Heckman sample selection model relies on the assumption of normal and homoskedastic disturbances. However, before considering more general, alternative semiparametric models that do not need the normality assumption, it seems useful to test this assumption. Following Meijer and Wansbeek (2007, the present contribution derives a GMM-based pseudo-score LM test on whether the third and fourth moments of the disturbances of the outcome equation of the Heckman model conform to those implied by the truncated normal distribution. The test is easy to calculate and in Monte Carlo simulations it shows good performance for sample sizes of 1000 or larger.

  10. Quantitative determination of minerals in Nevada Test Site samples by x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1983-07-01

    The external standard intensity ratio technique has been developed into a routine procedure for quantitatively determining mineralogic compositions of Nevada Test Site (NTS) samples by x-ray diffraction. This technique used ratios of x-ray intensity peaks from the same run which eliminates many possible errors. Constants have been determined for each of thirteen minerals commonly found in NTS samples - quartz, montmorillonite, illite, clinoptilolite, cristobalite, feldspars, calcite, dolomite, hornblende, kaolinite, muscovite, biotite, and amorphous glass. Ratios of the highest intensity peak of each mineral to be quantified in the sample and the highest intensity peak of quartz are used to calculate sample composition. The technique has been tested on samples with three to eleven components representative of geologic environments at NTS, and is accurate to 7.0 wt % of the total sample. The minimum amount of each of these minerals detectable by x-ray diffraction has also been determined. QUANTS is a computer code that calculates mineral contents and produces a report sheet. Constants for minerals in NTS samples other than those listed above can easily be determined, and added to QUANTS at any time

  11. Consistent thermodynamic properties of lipids systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cunico, Larissa; Ceriani, Roberta; Sarup, Bent

    different pressures, with azeotrope behavior observed. Available thermodynamic consistency tests for TPx data were applied before performing parameter regressions for Wilson, NRTL, UNIQUAC and original UNIFAC models. The relevance of enlarging experimental databank of lipids systems data in order to improve......Physical and thermodynamic properties of pure components and their mixtures are the basic requirement for process design, simulation, and optimization. In the case of lipids, our previous works[1-3] have indicated a lack of experimental data for pure components and also for their mixtures...... the performance of predictive thermodynamic models was confirmed in this work by analyzing the calculated values of original UNIFAC model. For solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) data, new consistency tests have been developed [2]. Some of the developed tests were based in the quality tests proposed for VLE data...

  12. Operability test procedure for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System Exhausters 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WSaldo, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a procedure for performing operability testing of the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System Exhausters 3 ampersand 4. Upon completion of testing activities an operability testing report will be issued

  13. Summary of Test Results for Daya Bay Rock Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Dobson, Patrick; Nakagawa, Seiji

    2004-01-01

    A series of analytical tests was conducted on a suite of granitic rock samples from the Daya Bay region of southeast China. The objective of these analyses was to determine key rock properties that would affect the suitability of this location for the siting of a neutrino oscillation experiment. This report contains the results of chemical analyses, rock property measurements, and a calculation of the mean atomic weight

  14. Clinical evaluation of human papillomavirus detection by careHPV™ test on physician-samples and self-samples using the indicating FTA Elute® card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Ming; Hu, Shang-Ying; Chen, Feng; Chen, Wen; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Ma, Xin-Ming; Qiao, You-Lin

    2014-01-01

    To make the clinical evaluation of a solid-state human papillomavirus (HPV) sampling medium in combination with an economical HPV testing method (careHPV™) for cervical cancer screening. 396 women aged 25-65 years were enrolled for cervical cancer screening, and four samples were collected. Two samples were collected by woman themselves, among which one was stored in DCM preservative solution (called "liquid sample") and the other was applied on the Whatman Indicating FTA Elute® card (FTA card). Another two samples were collected by physician and stored in DCM preservative solution and FTA card, respectively. All the samples were detected by careHPV™ test. All the women were administered a colposcopy examination, and biopsies were taken for pathological confirmation if necessary. FTA card demonstrated a comparable sensitivity of detecting high grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) with the liquid sample carrier for self and physician-sampling, but showed a higher specificity than that of liquid sample carrier for self-sampling (FTA vs Liquid: 79.0% vs 71.6%, p=0.02). Generally, the FTA card had a comparable accuracy with that of Liquid-based medium by different sampling operators, with an area under the curve of 0.807 for physician and FTA, 0.781 for physician and Liquid, 0.728 for self and FTA, and 0.733 for self and Liquid (p>0.05). FTA card is a promising sample carrier for cervical cancer screening. With appropriate education programmes and further optimization of the experimental workflow, FTA card based self-collection in combination with centralized careHPV™ testing can help expand the coverage of cervical cancer screening in low-resource areas.

  15. Sample Processor for Life on Icy Worlds (SPLIce): Design and Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Tori N.; Lee, Anthony K.; Boone, Travis D.; Tan, Ming X.; Chin, Matthew M.; McCutcheon, Griffin C.; Horne, Mera F.; Padgen, Michael R.; Blaich, Justin T.; Forgione, Joshua B.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We report the design, development, and testing of the Sample Processor for Life on Icy Worlds (SPLIce) system, a microfluidic sample processor to enable autonomous detection of signatures of life and measurements of habitability parameters in Ocean Worlds. This monolithic fluid processing-and-handling system (Figure 1; mass 0.5 kg) retrieves a 50-L-volume sample and prepares it to supply a suite of detection instruments, each with unique preparation needs. SPLIce has potential applications in orbiter missions that sample ocean plumes, such as found in Saturns icy moon Enceladus, or landed missions on the surface of icy satellites, such as Jupiters moon Europa. Answering the question Are we alone in the universe? is captivating and exceptionally challenging. Even general criteria that define life very broadly include a significant role for water [1,2]. Searches for extinct or extant life therefore prioritize locations of abundant water whether in ancient (Mars), or present (Europa and Enceladus) times. Only two previous planetary missions had onboard fluid processing: the Viking Biology Experiments [3] and Phoenixs Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) [4]. SPLIce differs crucially from those systems, including its capability to process and distribute L-volume samples and the integration autonomous control of a wide range of fluidic functions, including: 1) retrieval of fluid samples from an evacuated sample chamber; 2) onboard multi-year storage of dehydrated reagents; 3) integrated pressure, pH, and conductivity measurement; 4) filtration and retention of insoluble particles for microscopy; 5) dilution or vacuum-driven concentration of samples to accommodate instrument working ranges; 6) removal of gas bubbles from sample aliquots; 7) unidirectional flow (check valves); 8) active flow-path selection (solenoid-actuated valves); 9) metered pumping in 100 nL volume increments. The SPLIce manifold, made of three thermally fused layers of precision-machined cyclo

  16. A Note on Confidence Interval for the Power of the One Sample Test

    OpenAIRE

    A. Wong

    2010-01-01

    In introductory statistics texts, the power of the test of a one-sample mean when the variance is known is widely discussed. However, when the variance is unknown, the power of the Student's -test is seldom mentioned. In this note, a general methodology for obtaining inference concerning a scalar parameter of interest of any exponential family model is proposed. The method is then applied to the one-sample mean problem with unknown variance to obtain a ( 1 − ) 100% confidence interval for...

  17. Testing an Impedance Non-destructive Method to Evaluate Steel-Fiber Concrete Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarkova, Tereza; Fiala, Pavel; Steinbauer, Miloslav; Roubal, Zdenek

    2018-02-01

    Steel-fiber reinforced concrete is a composite material characterized by outstanding tensile properties and resistance to the development of cracks. The concrete, however, exhibits such characteristics only on the condition that the steel fibers in the final, hardened composite have been distributed evenly. The current methods to evaluate the distribution and concentration of a fiber composite are either destructive or exhibit a limited capability of evaluating the concentration and orientation of the fibers. In this context, the paper discusses tests related to the evaluation of the density and orientation of fibers in a composite material. Compared to the approaches used to date, the proposed technique is based on the evaluation of the electrical impedance Z in the band close to the resonance of the sensor-sample configuration. Using analytically expressed equations, we can evaluate the monitored part of the composite and its density at various depths of the tested sample. The method employs test blocks of composites, utilizing the resonance of the measuring device and the measured sample set; the desired state occurs within the interval of between f=3 kHz and 400 kHz.

  18. Test-retest reliability of the eating disorder examination-questionnaire (EDE-Q) in a college sample

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Jennifer S; Vaewsorn, Adin; Rosselli-Navarra, Francine; Wilson, G Terence; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2013-01-01

    Background The Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), a widely used self-report instrument, is often used for measuring change in eating disorder symptoms over the course of treatment. However, limited data exist about test-retest reliability, particularly for men. The current study evaluated EDE-Q 7-day test-retest reliability in male (n = 47) and female (n = 44) undergraduate students together and separately by gender. Results Internal consistency was consistently higher for wom...

  19. On sample size of the kruskal-wallis test with application to a mouse peritoneal cavity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunpeng; Zhang, Donghui; Zhang, Cun-Hui

    2011-03-01

    As the nonparametric generalization of the one-way analysis of variance model, the Kruskal-Wallis test applies when the goal is to test the difference between multiple samples and the underlying population distributions are nonnormal or unknown. Although the Kruskal-Wallis test has been widely used for data analysis, power and sample size methods for this test have been investigated to a much lesser extent. This article proposes new power and sample size calculation methods for the Kruskal-Wallis test based on the pilot study in either a completely nonparametric model or a semiparametric location model. No assumption is made on the shape of the underlying population distributions. Simulation results show that, in terms of sample size calculation for the Kruskal-Wallis test, the proposed methods are more reliable and preferable to some more traditional methods. A mouse peritoneal cavity study is used to demonstrate the application of the methods. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  20. Virtual rough samples to test 3D nanometer-scale scanning electron microscopy stereo photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarrubia, J S; Tondare, V N; Vladár, A E

    2016-01-01

    The combination of scanning electron microscopy for high spatial resolution, images from multiple angles to provide 3D information, and commercially available stereo photogrammetry software for 3D reconstruction offers promise for nanometer-scale dimensional metrology in 3D. A method is described to test 3D photogrammetry software by the use of virtual samples-mathematical samples from which simulated images are made for use as inputs to the software under test. The virtual sample is constructed by wrapping a rough skin with any desired power spectral density around a smooth near-trapezoidal line with rounded top corners. Reconstruction is performed with images simulated from different angular viewpoints. The software's reconstructed 3D model is then compared to the known geometry of the virtual sample. Three commercial photogrammetry software packages were tested. Two of them produced results for line height and width that were within close to 1 nm of the correct values. All of the packages exhibited some difficulty in reconstructing details of the surface roughness.

  1. Measuring Student Achievement in Travel and Tourism. Sample Test Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Business Education.

    The sample test items included in this document are intended as a resource for teachers of Marketing and Distributive Education programs with emphasis on hospitality and recreation marketing, and tourism and travel services marketing. The related curriculum material has been published in the Travel and Tourism syllabus, an advanced-level module in…

  2. General approach to the testing of binary solubility systems for thermodynamic consistency. Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, L.L.; Van Brunt, V.

    1982-08-01

    A comparison of implicit Runge-Kutta and orthogonal collocation methods is made for the numerical solution to the ordinary differential equation which describes the high-pressure vapor-liquid equilibria of a binary system. The systems of interest are limited to binary solubility systems where one of the components is supercritical and exists as a noncondensable gas in the pure state. Of the two methods - implicit Runge-Kuta and orthogonal collocation - this paper attempts to present some preliminary but not necessarily conclusive results that the implicit Runge-Kutta method is superior for the solution to the ordinary differential equation utilized in the thermodynamic consistency testing of binary solubility systems. Due to the extreme nonlinearity of thermodynamic properties in the region near the critical locus, an extended cubic spline fitting technique is devised for correlating the P-x data. The least-squares criterion is employed in smoothing the experimental data. Even though the derivation is presented specifically for the correlation of P-x data, the technique could easily be applied to any thermodynamic data by changing the endpoint requirements. The volumetric behavior of the systems must be given or predicted in order to perform thermodynamic consistency tests. A general procedure is developed for predicting the volumetric behavior required and some indication as to the expected limit of accuracy is given

  3. A simple nomogram for sample size for estimating sensitivity and specificity of medical tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Rajeev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity and specificity measure inherent validity of a diagnostic test against a gold standard. Researchers develop new diagnostic methods to reduce the cost, risk, invasiveness, and time. Adequate sample size is a must to precisely estimate the validity of a diagnostic test. In practice, researchers generally decide about the sample size arbitrarily either at their convenience, or from the previous literature. We have devised a simple nomogram that yields statistically valid sample size for anticipated sensitivity or anticipated specificity. MS Excel version 2007 was used to derive the values required to plot the nomogram using varying absolute precision, known prevalence of disease, and 95% confidence level using the formula already available in the literature. The nomogram plot was obtained by suitably arranging the lines and distances to conform to this formula. This nomogram could be easily used to determine the sample size for estimating the sensitivity or specificity of a diagnostic test with required precision and 95% confidence level. Sample size at 90% and 99% confidence level, respectively, can also be obtained by just multiplying 0.70 and 1.75 with the number obtained for the 95% confidence level. A nomogram instantly provides the required number of subjects by just moving the ruler and can be repeatedly used without redoing the calculations. This can also be applied for reverse calculations. This nomogram is not applicable for testing of the hypothesis set-up and is applicable only when both diagnostic test and gold standard results have a dichotomous category.

  4. Culture, Cross-Role Consistency, and Adjustment: Testing Trait and Cultural Psychology Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Church, A. Timothy; Anderson-Harumi, Cheryl A.; del Prado, Alicia M.; Curtis, Guy J.; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko; Valdez Medina, José L.; Mastor, Khairul A.; White, Fiona A.; Miramontes, Lilia A.; Katigbak, Marcia S.

    2008-01-01

    Trait and cultural psychology perspectives on cross-role consistency and its relation to adjustment were examined in two individualistic cultures, the United States (N = 231) and Australia (N = 195), and four collectivistic cultures, Mexico (N = 199), Philippines (N = 195), Malaysia (N = 217), and Japan (N = 180). Cross-role consistency in trait ratings was evident in all cultures, supporting trait perspectives. Cultural comparisons of mean consistency provided support for cultural psychology...

  5. Randomized comparison of vaginal self-sampling by standard vs. dry swabs for Human papillomavirus testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eperon, Isabelle; Vassilakos, Pierre; Navarria, Isabelle; Menoud, Pierre-Alain; Gauthier, Aude; Pache, Jean-Claude; Boulvain, Michel; Untiet, Sarah; Petignat, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate if human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (Self-HPV) using a dry vaginal swab is a valid alternative for HPV testing. Women attending colposcopy clinic were recruited to collect two consecutive Self-HPV samples: a Self-HPV using a dry swab (S-DRY) and a Self-HPV using a standard wet transport medium (S-WET). These samples were analyzed for HPV using real time PCR (Roche Cobas). Participants were randomized to determine the order of the tests. Questionnaires assessing preferences and acceptability for both tests were conducted. Subsequently, women were invited for colposcopic examination; a physician collected a cervical sample (physician-sampling) with a broom-type device and placed it into a liquid-based cytology medium. Specimens were then processed for the production of cytology slides and a Hybrid Capture HPV DNA test (Qiagen) was performed from the residual liquid. Biopsies were performed if indicated. Unweighted kappa statistics (κ) and McNemar tests were used to measure the agreement among the sampling methods. A total of 120 women were randomized. Overall HPV prevalence was 68.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 59.3–77.2) by S-WET, 54.4% (95% CI 44.8–63.9) by S-DRY and 53.8% (95% CI 43.8–63.7) by HC. Among paired samples (S-WET and S-DRY), the overall agreement was good (85.7%; 95% CI 77.8–91.6) and the κ was substantial (0.70; 95% CI 0.57-0.70). The proportion of positive type-specific HPV agreement was also good (77.3%; 95% CI 68.2-84.9). No differences in sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade one (CIN1) or worse between the two Self-HPV tests were observed. Women reported the two Self-HPV tests as highly acceptable. Self-HPV using dry swab transfer does not appear to compromise specimen integrity. Further study in a large screening population is needed. ClinicalTrials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01316120

  6. Estimation of sample size and testing power (part 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo

    2012-03-01

    The design of one factor with k levels (k ≥ 3) refers to the research that only involves one experimental factor with k levels (k ≥ 3), and there is no arrangement for other important non-experimental factors. This paper introduces the estimation of sample size and testing power for quantitative data and qualitative data having a binary response variable with the design of one factor with k levels (k ≥ 3).

  7. Shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s tests for high-dimensional small sample size data

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Kai

    2015-09-16

    DNA sequencing techniques bring novel tools and also statistical challenges to genetic research. In addition to detecting differentially expressed genes, testing the significance of gene sets or pathway analysis has been recognized as an equally important problem. Owing to the “large pp small nn” paradigm, the traditional Hotelling’s T2T2 test suffers from the singularity problem and therefore is not valid in this setting. In this paper, we propose a shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test for both one-sample and two-sample cases. We also suggest several different ways to derive the approximate null distribution under different scenarios of pp and nn for our proposed shrinkage-based test. Simulation studies show that the proposed method performs comparably to existing competitors when nn is moderate or large, but it is better when nn is small. In addition, we analyze four gene expression data sets and they demonstrate the advantage of our proposed shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test.

  8. Shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s tests for high-dimensional small sample size data

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Kai; Pang, Herbert; Tong, Tiejun; Genton, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    DNA sequencing techniques bring novel tools and also statistical challenges to genetic research. In addition to detecting differentially expressed genes, testing the significance of gene sets or pathway analysis has been recognized as an equally important problem. Owing to the “large pp small nn” paradigm, the traditional Hotelling’s T2T2 test suffers from the singularity problem and therefore is not valid in this setting. In this paper, we propose a shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test for both one-sample and two-sample cases. We also suggest several different ways to derive the approximate null distribution under different scenarios of pp and nn for our proposed shrinkage-based test. Simulation studies show that the proposed method performs comparably to existing competitors when nn is moderate or large, but it is better when nn is small. In addition, we analyze four gene expression data sets and they demonstrate the advantage of our proposed shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test.

  9. [Utilization of self-sampling kits for HPV testing in cervical cancer screening - pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondryášová, H; Koudeláková, V; Drábek, J; Vaněk, P; Slavkovský, R; Hajdúch, M

    2015-12-01

    To get initial experience with alternative sampling (self-sampling) for HPV testing as the means of cervical cancer screening program. Original work. Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University in Olomouc. Based on expression of interest, 215 self-sampling kits were posted to women. Evalyn(®) Brush Vaginal swabs obtained by self-sampling were analyzed for the presence of HPV infection by Cobas 4800 HPV (Roche) followed by genotyping using PapilloCheck(®) HPV-Screening (Greiner Bio-One). Sixty women randomly chosen from our sample were sent a questionnaire focused on their experience with self-sampling. One hundred seventy-four of 215 (81%) distributed self-sampling devices have been delivered to analysis. All cervicovaginal swabs were sampled correctly and it was possible to analyze them by Cobas 4800 HPV test. Similarly, 98% (171/174) samples were analyzable by PapilloCheck(®) HPV-Screening.One hundred twenty-five (72%) of 174 tested samples were HPV negative. Low risk HPV infection was detected only in 7 samples (4%), and high risk HPV (hrHPV) infection was present in 42 samples (24%). The most frequently detected hrHPV genotypes were HPV16 (11/42; 26%) and HPV53 (6/42; 14%). HrHPV co-infection was detected in 10 cases, in 5 of them lrHPV infection was find also.Of the 60 questionnaires, 48 (80%) were returned. From this group, 47 (98%) women rated their experience with self-sampling device as good to excellent. User manual of self-sampling device was considered good to excellent by all women (100%). All women also rated the convenience of self-sampling device using as good to excellent. As expected, most of the women (n = 42 [88%]) preferred self-sampling to physician sampling. Cervicovaginal self-sampling leads to valid results of HPV screening using two molecular genetics methods and was accepted by Czech women very well. The self-sampling as an opportunity to participate in cervical cancer

  10. The two-sample problem with induced dependent censorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y

    1999-12-01

    Induced dependent censorship is a general phenomenon in health service evaluation studies in which a measure such as quality-adjusted survival time or lifetime medical cost is of interest. We investigate the two-sample problem and propose two classes of nonparametric tests. Based on consistent estimation of the survival function for each sample, the two classes of test statistics examine the cumulative weighted difference in hazard functions and in survival functions. We derive a unified asymptotic null distribution theory and inference procedure. The tests are applied to trial V of the International Breast Cancer Study Group and show that long duration chemotherapy significantly improves time without symptoms of disease and toxicity of treatment as compared with the short duration treatment. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed tests, with a wide range of weight choices, perform well under moderate sample sizes.

  11. Effect of seawater on consistency, infiltration rate and swelling characteristics of montmorillonite clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohie Eldin Elmashad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation performed to quantify the effect of mixing clayey soils with saltwater on consistency and swelling characteristics of clays. Massive natural clay deposits and compacted clay backfills either exist or are used in certain important and sensitive applications such as dams, liners, barriers and buffers in waste disposal facilities. In many cases, the clay deposits in these applications are subjected to saltwater. However, in standard laboratory classification tests, distilled or potable water are usually used in mixing test samples. This may lead to faulty interpretation of the actual in-situ consistency and volume change behaviors. In this research, an attempt is made to quantify the changes in consistency and swelling of clay soils from various locations around the Nile valley and possessing a wide range of consistency, when mixed with natural seawater with different salt concentrations. The results showed that the increase of the salt concentration of the mixing water may result in major decrease in the liquid limit and swelling characteristics of high plasticity montmorillonite clays. The reduction in the swelling of the clay soils is also proportional to the rate of saltwater infiltration. In an attempt to correlate the swelling of clays to the rate of water infiltration, a new simplified laboratory apparatus is proposed where swelling and infiltration are measured in one simple test “the swelling infiltrometer”.

  12. Testing the sampling efficiency of a nuclear power station stack monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, L.H. [Instrumentinvest, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The test method comprises the injection of known amounts of monodisperse particles in the stack air stream, at a suitable point upstream of the sampling installation. To find a suitable injection polls, the gas flow was mapped by means of a tracer gas, released in various points in the stack base. The resulting concentration distributions at the stack sampler level were observed by means of an array of gas detectors. An injection point that produced symmetrical distribution over the stack area, and low concentrations at the stack walls was selected for the particle tests. Monodisperse particles of 6, 10, and 19 {mu}m aerodynamic diameter, tagged with dysprosium, were dispersed in the selected injection point. Particle concentration at the sampler level was measured. The losses to the stack walls were found to be less than 10 %. The particle concentrations at the four sampler inlets were calculated from the observed gas distribution. The amount calculated to be aspirated into the sampler piping was compared with the quantity collected by the sampling train ordinary filter, to obtain the sampling line transmission efficiency. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  13. 36 CFR 9.42 - Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys. Any technical data gathered... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys. 9.42 Section 9.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...

  14. Performance on cognitive tests, instrumental activities of daily living and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Christina Martins Borges; Alves, Heloisa Veiga Dias; Mograbi, Daniel Correa; Pereira, Flávia Furtado; Fernandez, Jesus Landeira; Charchat-Fichman, Helenice

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe the performance on basic cognitive tasks, instrumental activities of daily living, and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) who participated in multiple physical, social, and cognitive activities at government-run community centers. Methods A total of 264 educated older adults (> 60 years of age of both genders) were evaluated by the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB), Lawton's and Pfeffer's activities of daily living indexes, and the Geriatric Depressive Scale (GDS). Results The mean age of the sample was 75.7 years. The participants had a mean of 9.3 years of formal education. With the exception of the Clock Drawing Test (CDT), mean scores on the cognitive tests were consistent with the values in the literature. Only 6.4% of the sample had some kind of dependence for activities of daily living. The results of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) indicated mild symptoms of depression in 16.8% of the sample Conclusion This study provided important demographic, cognitive, and functional characteristics of a specific community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:29213494

  15. Performance on cognitive tests, instrumental activities of daily living and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Martins Borges Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the performance on basic cognitive tasks, instrumental activities of daily living, and depressive symptoms of a community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil who participated in multiple physical, social, and cognitive activities at government-run community centers. Methods: A total of 264 educated older adults (> 60 years of age of both genders were evaluated by the Brief Cognitive Screening Battery (BCSB, Lawton's and Pfeffer's activities of daily living indexes, and the Geriatric Depressive Scale (GDS . Results: The mean age of the sample was 75.7 years. The participants had a mean of 9.3 years of formal education. With the exception of the Clock Drawing Test (CDT, mean scores on the cognitive tests were consistent with the values in the literature. Only 6.4% of the sample had some kind of dependence for activities of daily living. The results of the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15 indicated mild symptoms of depression in 16.8% of the sample. Conclusion: This study provided important demographic, cognitive, and functional characteristics of a specific community-based sample of elderly adults in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  16. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (§ 864.3260...

  17. Development of a short sample test facility for evaluating superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.R.; Kulkarni, D.G.; Sahni, V.C.; Ravikumar, G.; Patel, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe a short sample test facility we have set up at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). This facility has been used to measure critical currents of NbTi/Cu composite superconducting wires by recording V versus I data at 4.2 K. It offers sample current as large as 1500 A and a transverse magnetic field up to 7.4 T. A power law, V ∼I n( H) is fitted to the resistive transition region to estimate the exponent n, which is a measure of the uniformity of superconducting filaments in composite wires. It is observed that inadequate thermal stabilization of sample wire results in thermal runaway, which limits the V-I data to∼ 2μ V . This in turn affects the reliability of estimated filament uniformity. To mitigate this problem, we have used a sample holder made of OFHC-Cu which enhances thermal stabilization of the sample. With this sample holder, the results of measurements carried out on wires developed by the Atomic Fuel Division, BARC show a high filament uniformity (n ∼ 58). (author)

  18. Swab2know: An HIV-Testing Strategy Using Oral Fluid Samples and Online Communication of Test Results for Men Who Have Sex With Men in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platteau, Tom; Fransen, Katrien; Apers, Ludwig; Kenyon, Chris; Albers, Laura; Vermoesen, Tine; Loos, Jasna; Florence, Eric

    2015-09-01

    As HIV remains a public health concern, increased testing among those at risk for HIV acquisition is important. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the most important group for targeted HIV testing in Europe. Several new strategies have been developed and implemented to increase HIV-testing uptake in this group, among them the Swab2know project. In this project, we aim to assess the acceptability and feasibility of outreach and online HIV testing using oral fluid samples as well as Web-based delivery of test results. Sample collection happened between December 2012 and April 2014 via outreach and online sampling among MSM. Test results were communicated through a secured website. HIV tests were executed in the laboratory. Each reactive sample needed to be confirmed using state-of-the-art confirmation procedures on a blood sample. Close follow-up of participants who did not pick up their results, and those with reactive results, was included in the protocol. Participants were asked to provide feedback on the methodology using a short survey. During 17 months, 1071 tests were conducted on samples collected from 898 men. Over half of the samples (553/1071, 51.63%) were collected during 23 outreach sessions. During an 8-month period, 430 samples out of 1071 (40.15%) were collected from online sampling. Additionally, 88 samples out of 1071 (8.22%) were collected by two partner organizations during face-to-face consultations with MSM and male sex workers. Results of 983 out of 1071 tests (91.78%) had been collected from the website. The pickup rate was higher among participants who ordered their kit online (421/430, 97.9%) compared to those participating during outreach activities (559/641, 87.2%; Ponline participants were more likely to have never been tested before (17.3% vs 10.0%; P=.001) and reported more sexual partners in the 6 months prior to participation in the project (mean 7.18 vs 3.23; Ponline counseling tool), and in studying the cost effectiveness of the

  19. Sample and injection manifolds used to in-place test of nuclear air-cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Dangui; Li Xinzhi; Hou Jianrong; Qiao Taifei; Wu Tao; Zhang Jirong; Han Lihong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: According to the regulations of nuclear safety rules and related standards, in-place test of the nuclear air-cleaning systems should be carried out before and during operation of the nuclear facilities, which ensure them to be in good condition. In some special conditions, the use of sample and injection manifolds is required to make the test tracer and ventilating duct air fully mixed, so as to get the on-spot typical sample. Methods: This paper introduces the technology and application of the sample and injection manifolds in nuclear air-cleaning system. Results: Multi point injection and multi point sampling technology as an effective experimental method, has been used in a of domestic and international nuclear facilities. Conclusion: The technology solved the problem of uniformly of on-spot injection and sampling,which plays an important role in objectively evaluating the function of nuclear air-cleaning system. (authors)

  20. Evaluation of HIV counselling and testing, self-disclosure, social support and sexual behaviour change among a rural sample of HIV reactive patients in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Sethosa

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate HIV counselling and testing, self-disclosure, social support and sexual behavior change among HIV reactive patients among a rural sample of HIV reactive patients in South Africa. The sample consisted at the post-test counselling exit interview of 55 participants (41 women and 14 men who tested HIV-positive conveniently selected from a rural hospital and at five months follow-up at their homes 47. Results indicated that most patients had an HIV test because of medical reasons. At follow-up only 36% had disclosed their HIV status and half of the participants had had sex without condoms in the past three weeks. Major reason for not disclosing of their HIV status were being afraid of negative reactions, fear of discrimination, fear of violence, concerns about confidentiality and not yet ready. Social support was found to be significantly related to disclosure of HIV status, while counselling context and content and counselling satisfaction were not related with HIV disclosure.

  1. Irradiation test of HAFM and tag gas samples at the standard neutron field of 'YAYOI'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Tetsuo

    1997-03-01

    To check the accuracy of helium accumulation neutron fluence monitors (HAFM) as new technique for fast reactor neutron dosimetry and the applicability of tag gas activation analysis to fast reactor failed fuel detection, their samples were irradiated at the standard neutron field of the fast neutron source reactor 'YAYOI' (Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo). Since October in 1996, the HAFM samples such as 93% enriched boron (B) powders of 1 mg and natural B powders of 10 mg contained in vanadium (V) capsule were intermittently irradiated at the reactor core center (Glory hole: Gy) and/or under the leakage neutron field from the reactor core (Fast column: FC). In addition, new V capsules filled with enriched B of 40 mg and Be of 100 mg, respectively, were put into an experimental hole through the blanket surrounding the core. These neutron fields were monitored by the activation foils consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Au, 235 U, 237 Np etc., mainly to confirm the results obtained from 1995's preliminary works. In particular, neutron flux distributions in the vicinity of irradiated samples were measured in more detail. At the end of March in 1997, the irradiated neutron fluence have reached the goal necessary to produce the detectable number of He atoms more than ∼10 13 in each HAFM sample. Six kinds of tag gas samples, which are the mixed gases of isotopically adjusted Xe and Kr contained in SUS capsules, were separately irradiated three times at Gy under the neutron fluence of ∼10 16 n/cm 2 in average. After irradiation, γ-ray spectra were measured for each sample. Depending on the composition of tag gas mixtures, the different patterns of γ-ray peak spectra from 79 Kr, 125 Xe, etc. produced through tag gas activation were able to be clearly identified. These experimental data will be very useful for the benchmark test of tag gas activation calculation applied to the fast reactor failed fuel detection. (author)

  2. Basic distribution free identification tests for small size samples of environmental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, A.G.; Musmeci, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-01-01

    Testing two or more data sets for the hypothesis that they are sampled form the same population is often required in environmental data analysis. Typically the available samples have a small number of data and often then assumption of normal distributions is not realistic. On the other hand the diffusion of the days powerful Personal Computers opens new possible opportunities based on a massive use of the CPU resources. The paper reviews the problem introducing the feasibility of two non parametric approaches based on intrinsic equi probability properties of the data samples. The first one is based on a full re sampling while the second is based on a bootstrap approach. A easy to use program is presented. A case study is given based on the Chernobyl children contamination data. [Italiano] Nell`analisi di dati ambientali ricorre spesso il caso di dover sottoporre a test l`ipotesi di provenienza di due, o piu`, insiemi di dati dalla stessa popolazione. Tipicamente i dati disponibili sono pochi e spesso l`ipotesi di provenienza da distribuzioni normali non e` sostenibile. D`altra aprte la diffusione odierna di Personal Computer fornisce nuove possibili soluzioni basate sull`uso intensivo delle risorse della CPU. Il rapporto analizza il problema e presenta la possibilita` di utilizzo di due test non parametrici basati sulle proprieta` intrinseche di equiprobabilita` dei campioni. Il primo e` basato su una tecnica di ricampionamento esaustivo mentre il secondo su un approccio di tipo bootstrap. E` presentato un programma di semplice utilizzo e un caso di studio basato su dati di contaminazione di bambini a Chernobyl.

  3. Robust non-parametric one-sample tests for the analysis of recurrent events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebora, Paola; Galimberti, Stefania; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia

    2010-12-30

    One-sample non-parametric tests are proposed here for inference on recurring events. The focus is on the marginal mean function of events and the basis for inference is the standardized distance between the observed and the expected number of events under a specified reference rate. Different weights are considered in order to account for various types of alternative hypotheses on the mean function of the recurrent events process. A robust version and a stratified version of the test are also proposed. The performance of these tests was investigated through simulation studies under various underlying event generation processes, such as homogeneous and nonhomogeneous Poisson processes, autoregressive and renewal processes, with and without frailty effects. The robust versions of the test have been shown to be suitable in a wide variety of event generating processes. The motivating context is a study on gene therapy in a very rare immunodeficiency in children, where a major end-point is the recurrence of severe infections. Robust non-parametric one-sample tests for recurrent events can be useful to assess efficacy and especially safety in non-randomized studies or in epidemiological studies for comparison with a standard population. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Mechanical characteristics of historic mortars from tests on small-sample non-standard on small-sample non-standard specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2008), s. 20-29 ISSN 1407-7353 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/06/1609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : small-sample non-standard testing * lime * historic mortar Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  5. The memory failures of everyday questionnaire (MFE): internal consistency and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montejo Carrasco, Pedro; Montenegro, Peña Mercedes; Sueiro, Manuel J

    2012-07-01

    The Memory Failures of Everyday Questionnaire (MFE) is one of the most widely-used instruments to assess memory failures in daily life. The original scale has nine response options, making it difficult to apply; we created a three-point scale (0-1-2) with response choices that make it easier to administer. We examined the two versions' equivalence in a sample of 193 participants between 19 and 64 years of age. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the version we propose were also computed in a sample of 113 people. Several indicators attest to the two forms' equivalence: the correlation between the items' means (r = .94; p MFE 1-9. The MFE 0-2 provides a brief, simple evaluation, so we recommend it for use in clinical practice as well as research.

  6. Collecting Samples for Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Creatinine Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D ... that used for CSF in that they require aspiration of a sample of the fluid through a ...

  7. Optical transmission testing based on asynchronous sampling techniques: images analysis containing chromatic dispersion using convolutional neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrozek, T.; Perlicki, K.; Tajmajer, T.; Wasilewski, P.

    2017-08-01

    The article presents an image analysis method, obtained from an asynchronous delay tap sampling (ADTS) technique, which is used for simultaneous monitoring of various impairments occurring in the physical layer of the optical network. The ADTS method enables the visualization of the optical signal in the form of characteristics (so called phase portraits) that change their shape under the influence of impairments such as chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion and ASE noise. Using this method, a simulation model was built with OptSim 4.0. After the simulation study, data were obtained in the form of images that were further analyzed using the convolutional neural network algorithm. The main goal of the study was to train a convolutional neural network to recognize the selected impairment (distortion); then to test its accuracy and estimate the impairment for the selected set of test images. The input data consisted of processed binary images in the form of two-dimensional matrices, with the position of the pixel. This article focuses only on the analysis of images containing chromatic dispersion.

  8. 43 CFR 11.64 - Injury determination phase-testing and sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the American Society for Testing and Materials, and the American Public Health Association. (iii) Methods selected for air sampling and analysis shall be methods... stresses simulated; (B) How the model approximates the geohydrological framework of the assessment area; (C...

  9. Analysis of fingerprint samples, testing various conditions, for forensic DNA identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Lana; Wurmbach, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Fingerprints can be of tremendous value for forensic biology, since they can be collected from a wide variety of evident types, such as handles of weapons, tools collected in criminal cases, and objects with no apparent staining. DNA obtained from fingerprints varies greatly in quality and quantity, which ultimately affects the quality of the resulting STR profiles. Additional difficulties can arise when fingerprint samples show mixed STR profiles due to the handling of multiple persons. After applying a tested protocol for sample collection (swabbing with 5% Triton X-100), DNA extraction (using an enzyme that works at elevated temperatures), and PCR amplification (AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® using 31cycles) extensive analysis was performed to better understand the challenges inherent to fingerprint samples, with the ultimate goal of developing valuable profiles (≥50% complete). The impact of time on deposited fingerprints was investigated, revealing that while the quality of profiles deteriorated, full STR profiles could still be obtained from samples after 40days of storage at room temperature. By comparing the STR profiles from fingerprints of the dominant versus the non-dominant hand, we found a slightly better quality from the non-dominant hand, which was not always significant. Substrates seem to have greater effects on fingerprints. Tests on glass, plastic, paper and metal (US Quarter dollar, made of Cu and Ni), common substrates in offices and homes, showed best results for glass, followed by plastic and paper, while almost no profiles were obtained from a Quarter dollar. Important for forensic casework, we also assessed three-person mixtures of touched fingerprint samples. Unlike routinely used approaches for sampling evidence, the surface of an object (bottle) was sectioned into six equal parts and separate samples were taken from each section. The samples were processed separately for DNA extraction and STR amplification. The results included a few single

  10. Location tests for biomarker studies: a comparison using simulations for the two-sample case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinhardt, M O; Ziegler, A

    2013-01-01

    Gene, protein, or metabolite expression levels are often non-normally distributed, heavy tailed and contain outliers. Standard statistical approaches may fail as location tests in this situation. In three Monte-Carlo simulation studies, we aimed at comparing the type I error levels and empirical power of standard location tests and three adaptive tests [O'Gorman, Can J Stat 1997; 25: 269 -279; Keselman et al., Brit J Math Stat Psychol 2007; 60: 267- 293; Szymczak et al., Stat Med 2013; 32: 524 - 537] for a wide range of distributions. We simulated two-sample scenarios using the g-and-k-distribution family to systematically vary tail length and skewness with identical and varying variability between groups. All tests kept the type I error level when groups did not vary in their variability. The standard non-parametric U-test performed well in all simulated scenarios. It was outperformed by the two non-parametric adaptive methods in case of heavy tails or large skewness. Most tests did not keep the type I error level for skewed data in the case of heterogeneous variances. The standard U-test was a powerful and robust location test for most of the simulated scenarios except for very heavy tailed or heavy skewed data, and it is thus to be recommended except for these cases. The non-parametric adaptive tests were powerful for both normal and non-normal distributions under sample variance homogeneity. But when sample variances differed, they did not keep the type I error level. The parametric adaptive test lacks power for skewed and heavy tailed distributions.

  11. Regeneration Study Test Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data (2 excel files) consist of the analytical test results on water sample collected from the two adsorption media tanks of the arsenic removal system during the...

  12. Proposed optical test of Bell's inequalities not resting upon the fair sampling assumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Emilio

    2004-01-01

    Arguments are given against the fair sampling assumption, used to claim an empirical disproof of local realism. New tests are proposed, able to discriminate between quantum mechanics and a restricted, but appealing, family of local hidden-variables models. Such tests require detectors with efficiencies just above 20%

  13. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form

  14. A novel approach for small sample size family-based association studies: sequential tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilk, Ozlem; Rajabli, Farid; Dungul, Dilay Ciglidag; Ozdag, Hilal; Ilk, Hakki Gokhan

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) to overcome the problem of limited samples in studies related to complex genetic diseases. The results of this novel approach are compared with the ones obtained from the traditional transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) on simulated data. Although TDT classifies single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to only two groups (SNPs associated with the disease and the others), SPRT has the flexibility of assigning SNPs to a third group, that is, those for which we do not have enough evidence and should keep sampling. It is shown that SPRT results in smaller ratios of false positives and negatives, as well as better accuracy and sensitivity values for classifying SNPs when compared with TDT. By using SPRT, data with small sample size become usable for an accurate association analysis.

  15. Finish-Kazakhstan cooperation on an aerosols sampling - testing of a new methods for nuclear monitoring improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvajnen, M.; Akhmetov, M.A.; Ptitskaya, L.D.; Osintsev, A.Yu.; Zhantikin, T.M.; Eligbaeva, G.

    2001-01-01

    The aerosols sampling is the powerful method of air radioactivity monitoring both the natural and artificial origin. Up to the today the IAEA does not engage of aerosols sampling study. To study of possibility of this method examination for radiation monitoring - the state authorities of Finland and the Republic of Kazakhstan - Department of Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Stuck) and Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee - jointly carried out the field tests in Kazakhstan. The test was began in the Kurchatov in April 2000 - at the desire of IAEA working team on Iraq - close to former Semipalatinsk test site and was ended in Astana in August of 2001. The main aim of the field test was study of possibility and appropriateness of concept and technology of aerosols sampling developed for the complete condition of environment. In the paper the role of participating sides in the field test and main results and conclusions are discussed as well. The gained experience will allow developing the method aerosols sampling for IAEA international safeguard measures strengthening application

  16. The application of variable sampling method in the audit testing of insurance companies' premium income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovković Biljana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the procedure of audit sampling using the variable sampling methods for conducting the tests of income from insurance premiums in insurance company 'Takovo'. Since the incomes from the insurance premiums from vehicle insurance and third-party vehicle insurance have the dominant share of the insurance company's income, the application of this method will be shown in the audit examination of these incomes - incomes from VI and TPVI premiums. For investigating the applicability of these methods in testing the income of other insurance companies, we shall implement the method of variable sampling in the audit testing of the premium income from the three leading insurance companies in Serbia, 'Dunav', 'DDOR' and 'Delta Generali' Insurance.

  17. Structural Consistency, Consistency, and Sequential Rationality.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreps, David M; Ramey, Garey

    1987-01-01

    Sequential equilibria comprise consistent beliefs and a sequentially ra tional strategy profile. Consistent beliefs are limits of Bayes ratio nal beliefs for sequences of strategies that approach the equilibrium strategy. Beliefs are structurally consistent if they are rationaliz ed by some single conjecture concerning opponents' strategies. Consis tent beliefs are not necessarily structurally consistent, notwithstan ding a claim by Kreps and Robert Wilson (1982). Moreover, the spirit of stru...

  18. Personality Consistency in Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratkin, Jamie L.; Sinn, David L.; Patall, Erika A.; Gosling, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that ‘puppy tests’ measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., ‘puppy tests’) versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23372787

  19. Using the Perceptron Algorithm to Find Consistent Hypotheses

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony, M.; Shawe-Taylor, J.

    1993-01-01

    The perceptron learning algorithm yields quite naturally an algorithm for finding a linearly separable boolean function consistent with a sample of such a function. Using the idea of a specifying sample, we give a simple proof that this algorithm is not efficient, in general.

  20. Force Concept Inventory-Based Multiple-Choice Test for Investigating Students' Representational Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Pasi; Savinainen, Antti; Viiri, Jouni

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates students' ability to interpret multiple representations consistently (i.e., representational consistency) in the context of the force concept. For this purpose we developed the Representational Variant of the Force Concept Inventory (R-FCI), which makes use of nine items from the 1995 version of the Force Concept Inventory…

  1. Acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in women living in rural and urban areas of Madagascar. Materials and methods: Participants were recruited in a health care center (urban group) and smaller affiliated dispensaries (rural group). They were invited to perform ...

  2. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  3. Power and Sample Size Calculations for Logistic Regression Tests for Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhushan

    2014-01-01

    Logistic regression is a popular method for detecting uniform and nonuniform differential item functioning (DIF) effects. Theoretical formulas for the power and sample size calculations are derived for likelihood ratio tests and Wald tests based on the asymptotic distribution of the maximum likelihood estimators for the logistic regression model.…

  4. Sample Size Calculation for Estimating or Testing a Nonzero Squared Multiple Correlation Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, K.; Xia, Yanping

    2008-01-01

    The problems of hypothesis testing and interval estimation of the squared multiple correlation coefficient of a multivariate normal distribution are considered. It is shown that available one-sided tests are uniformly most powerful, and the one-sided confidence intervals are uniformly most accurate. An exact method of calculating sample size to…

  5. Sample preparation of tank 241-C-106 grab samples and testing For compatibility with tank 241-AY-102 supernate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    This test plan describes a sample separation method which will be used to obtain physical measurements and separated 241-C-106 solids and supernate fractions. In addition compatibility of tank 241-C-106 sludge with tank 241-AY-102 supernate will be determined

  6. Self-consistency and sum-rule tests in the Kramers-Kronig analysis of optical data: Applications to aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiles, E.; Sasaki, T.; Inokuti, M.; Smith, D.Y.

    1980-01-01

    An iterative, self-consistent procedure for the Kramers-Kronig analysis of data from reflectance, ellipsometric, transmission, and electron-energy-loss measurements is presented. This procedure has been developed for practical dispersion analysis since experimentally no single optical function can be readily measured over the entire range of frequencies as required by the Kramers-Kronig relations. The present technique is applied to metallic aluminum as an example. The results are then examined for internal consistency and for systematic errors by various optical sum rules. The present procedure affords a systematic means of preparing a self-consistent set of optical functions provided some optical or energy-loss data are available in all important spectral regions. The analysis of aluminum discloses that currently available data exhibit an excess oscillator strength, apparently in the vicinity of the L edge. A possible explanation is a systematic experimental error in the absorption-coefficient measurements resulting from surface layers: possibly oxides: present in thin-film transmission samples. A revised set of optical functions has been prepared by an ad hoc reduction of the reported absorption coefficient above the L edge by 14%. These revised data lead to a total oscillator strength consistent with the known electron density and are in agreement with dc-conductivity and stopping-power measurements as well as with absorption coefficients inferred from the cross sections of neighboring elements in the periodic table. The optical functions resulting from this study show evidence for both the redistribution of oscillator strength between energy levels and the effects on real transitions of the shielding of conduction electrons by virtual processes in the core states

  7. Amplification Biases and Consistent Recovery of Loci in a Double-Digest RAD-seq Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaCosta, Jeffrey M.; Sorenson, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    A growing variety of “genotype-by-sequencing” (GBS) methods use restriction enzymes and high throughput DNA sequencing to generate data for a subset of genomic loci, allowing the simultaneous discovery and genotyping of thousands of polymorphisms in a set of multiplexed samples. We evaluated a “double-digest” restriction-site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) protocol by 1) comparing results for a zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) sample with in silico predictions from the zebra finch reference genome; 2) assessing data quality for a population sample of indigobirds (Vidua spp.); and 3) testing for consistent recovery of loci across multiple samples and sequencing runs. Comparison with in silico predictions revealed that 1) over 90% of predicted, single-copy loci in our targeted size range (178–328 bp) were recovered; 2) short restriction fragments (38–178 bp) were carried through the size selection step and sequenced at appreciable depth, generating unexpected but nonetheless useful data; 3) amplification bias favored shorter, GC-rich fragments, contributing to among locus variation in sequencing depth that was strongly correlated across samples; 4) our use of restriction enzymes with a GC-rich recognition sequence resulted in an up to four-fold overrepresentation of GC-rich portions of the genome; and 5) star activity (i.e., non-specific cutting) resulted in thousands of “extra” loci sequenced at low depth. Results for three species of indigobirds show that a common set of thousands of loci can be consistently recovered across both individual samples and sequencing runs. In a run with 46 samples, we genotyped 5,996 loci in all individuals and 9,833 loci in 42 or more individuals, resulting in <1% missing data for the larger data set. We compare our approach to similar methods and discuss the range of factors (fragment library preparation, natural genetic variation, bioinformatics) influencing the recovery of a consistent set of loci among

  8. Mineralogic and petrologic investigation of pre-test core samples from the spent fuel test-climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, F.J.; Qualheim, B.J.

    1983-12-01

    Pre-test samples obtained from just inside the perimeter of the canister emplacement holes of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax have been characterized by petrographic and microanalytical techniques. The primary quartz monzonite has undergone various degrees of hydrothermal alteration as a result of natural processes. Alteration is most apparent on primary plagioclase and biotite. The most common secondary phases on plagioclase are muscovite and calcite, while the most common secondary phases on biotite are epidote and chlorite. The major alteration zones encountered are localized along filled fractures, i.e. veins. The thickness and mineralogy of the alteration zones can be correlated with the vein mineralogy, becoming wider and more complex mineralogically when the veins contain calcite. 7 references, 10 figures, 4 tables

  9. Personality consistency analysis in cloned quarantine dog candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent research, personality consistency has become an important characteristic. Diverse traits and human-animal interactions, in particular, are studied in the field of personality consistency in dogs. Here, we investigated the consistency of dominant behaviours in cloned and control groups followed by the modified Puppy Aptitude Test, which consists of ten subtests to ascertain the influence of genetic identity. In this test, puppies are exposed to stranger, restraint, prey-like object, noise, startling object, etc. Six cloned and four control puppies participated and the consistency of responses at ages 7–10 and 16 weeks in the two groups was compared. The two groups showed different consistencies in the subtests. While the average scores of the cloned group were consistent (P = 0.7991, those of the control group were not (P = 0.0089. Scores of Pack Drive and Fight or Flight Drive were consistent in the cloned group, however, those of the control group were not. Scores of Prey Drive were not consistent in either the cloned or the control group. Therefore, it is suggested that consistency of dominant behaviour is affected by genetic identity and some behaviours can be influenced more than others. Our results suggest that cloned dogs could show more consistent traits than non-cloned. This study implies that personality consistency could be one of the ways to analyse traits of puppies.

  10. Testing the entrepreneurial intention model on a two-country sample

    OpenAIRE

    Liñán, Francisco; Chen, Yi-Wen

    2006-01-01

    This paper tests the Entrepreneurial Intention Model -which is adapted from the Theory of Planned Behavior- on a sample of 533 individuals from two quite different countries: one of them European (Spain) and the other South Asian (Taiwan). A newly developed Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (EIQ) has being used which tries to overcome some of the limitations of previous instruments. Structural equations techniques were used in the empirical analysis. Results are generally...

  11. A note on Poisson goodness-of-fit tests for ionizing radiation induced chromosomal aberration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Manuel; González, J E; Di Giorgio, Marina; Barquinero, J F

    2018-05-18

    To present Poisson exact goodness-of-fit tests as alternatives and complements to the asymptotic u-test, which is the most widely used in cytogenetic biodosimetry, to decide whether a sample of chromosomal aberrations in blood cells comes from an homogeneous or inhomogeneous exposure. Three Poisson exact goodness-of-fit test from the literature are introduced and implemented in the R environment. A Shiny R Studio application, named GOF Poisson, has been updated for the purpose of giving support to this work. The three exact tests and the u-test are applied in chromosomal aberration data from clinical and accidental radiation exposure patients. It is observed how the u-test is not an appropriate approximation in small samples with small yield of chromosomal aberrations. Tools are provided to compute the three exact tests, which is not as trivial as the implementation of the u-test. Poisson exact goodness-of-fit tests should be considered jointly to the u-test for detecting inhomogeneous exposures in the cytogenetic biodosimetry practice.

  12. Hair MDMA samples are consistent with reported ecstasy use: findings from a study investigating effects of ecstasy on mood and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, A B; Owen, L; Gates, J; Rodgers, J; Buchanan, T; Ling, J; Heffernan, T; Swan, P; Stough, C; Parrott, A C

    2011-01-01

    Our group has conducted several Internet investigations into the biobehavioural effects of self-reported recreational use of MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine or Ecstasy) and other psychosocial drugs. Here we report a new study examining the relationship between self-reported Ecstasy use and traces of MDMA found in hair samples. In a laboratory setting, 49 undergraduate volunteers performed an Internet-based assessment which included mood scales and the University of East London Drug Use Questionnaire, which asks for history and current drug use. They also provided a hair sample for determination of exposure to MDMA over the previous month. Self-report of Ecstasy use and presence in hair samples were consistent (p happiness and higher self-reported stress. Self-reported Ecstasy use, but not presence in hair, was also associated with decreased tension. Different psychoactive drugs can influence long-term mood and cognition in complex and dynamically interactive ways. Here we have shown a good correspondence between self-report and objective assessment of exposure to MDMA. These data suggest that the Internet has potentially high utility as a useful medium to complement traditional laboratory studies into the sequelae of recreational drug use. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Graphical models for inference under outcome-dependent sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didelez, V; Kreiner, S; Keiding, N

    2010-01-01

    a node for the sampling indicator, assumptions about sampling processes can be made explicit. We demonstrate how to read off such graphs whether consistent estimation of the association between exposure and outcome is possible. Moreover, we give sufficient graphical conditions for testing and estimating......We consider situations where data have been collected such that the sampling depends on the outcome of interest and possibly further covariates, as for instance in case-control studies. Graphical models represent assumptions about the conditional independencies among the variables. By including...

  14. Basic distribution free identification tests for small size samples of environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, A.G.; Musmeci, F.

    1998-01-01

    Testing two or more data sets for the hypothesis that they are sampled form the same population is often required in environmental data analysis. Typically the available samples have a small number of data and often then assumption of normal distributions is not realistic. On the other hand the diffusion of the days powerful Personal Computers opens new possible opportunities based on a massive use of the CPU resources. The paper reviews the problem introducing the feasibility of two non parametric approaches based on intrinsic equi probability properties of the data samples. The first one is based on a full re sampling while the second is based on a bootstrap approach. A easy to use program is presented. A case study is given based on the Chernobyl children contamination data [it

  15. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart K of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... yields a 97.5 percent confidence level for a one-tailed t-test. Step 7. Compare the mean of the first sample (X 1) with the lower control limit (LCL1) to determine one of the following: (i) If the mean of... from Step 5. Compare the combined sample mean (X 2) to the lower control limit (LCL2) to find one of...

  16. Digitally Available Interval-Specific Rock-Sample Data Compiled from Historical Records, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye County, Nevada.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Wood

    2007-10-24

    Between 1951 and 1992, 828 underground tests were conducted on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to and following these nuclear tests, holes were drilled and mined to collect rock samples. These samples are organized and stored by depth of borehole or drift at the U.S. Geological Survey Core Library and Data Center at Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. From these rock samples, rock properties were analyzed and interpreted and compiled into project files and in published reports that are maintained at the Core Library and at the U.S. Geological Survey office in Henderson, Nevada. These rock-sample data include lithologic descriptions, physical and mechanical properties, and fracture characteristics. Hydraulic properties also were compiled from holes completed in the water table. Rock samples are irreplaceable because pre-test, in-place conditions cannot be recreated and samples cannot be recollected from the many holes destroyed by testing. Documenting these data in a published report will ensure availability for future investigators.

  17. 76 FR 69585 - Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification Regarding Representative Samples for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... 1107 Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification Regarding Representative Samples for... [CPSC Docket No. CPSC-2011-0082] Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification Regarding... to Product Certification.'' The proposed rule was intended to implement what was then known as...

  18. Performance of an adult Brazilian sample on the Trail Making Test and Stroop Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Repiso Campanholo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The Trail Making Test (TMT and Stroop Test (ST are attention tests widely used in clinical practice and research. The aim of this study was to provide normative data for the adult Brazilian population and to study the influence of gender, age and education on the TMT parts A and B, and ST cards A, B and C. Methods: We recruited 1447 healthy subjects aged ≥18 years with an educational level of 0-25 years who were native speakers of Portuguese (Brazilian. The subjects were evaluated by the Matrix Reasoning and Vocabulary subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III, along with the TMTA, TMTB and ST A, B and C. Results: Among the participants, mean intellectual efficiency was 103.20 (SD: 12.0, age 41.0 (SD: 16.4 years and education 11.9 (SD: 5.6 years. There were significant differences between genders on the TMTA (p=0.002, TMTB (p=0.017 and STC (p=0.024. Age showed a positive correlation with all attention tests, whereas education showed a negative correlation. Gender was not found to be significant on the multiple linear regression model, but age and education maintained their interference. Conclusion: Gender did not have the major impact on attentional tasks observed for age and education, both of which should be considered in the stratification of normative samples.

  19. Consistent force fields for saccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld

    1999-01-01

    Consistent force fields for carbohydrates were hitherto developed by extensive optimization ofpotential energy function parameters on experimental data and on ab initio results. A wide range of experimental data is used: internal structures obtained from gas phase electron diffraction and from x......-anomeric effects are accounted for without addition of specific terms. The work is done in the framework of the Consistent Force Field which originatedin Israel and was further developed in Denmark. The actual methods and strategies employed havebeen described previously. Extensive testing of the force field...

  20. Reporting altered test results in hemolyzed samples: is the cure worse than the disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Plebani, Mario

    2017-07-26

    The management of laboratory data in unsuitable (hemolyzed) samples remains an almost unresolved dilemma. Whether or not laboratory test results obtained by measuring unsuitable specimens should be made available to the clinicians has been the matter of fierce debates over the past decades. Recently, an intriguing alternative to suppressing test results and recollecting the specimen has been put forward, entailing the definition and implementation of specific algorithms that would finally allow reporting a preanalytically altered laboratory value within a specific comment about its uncertainty of measurement. This approach carries some advantages, namely the timely communication of potentially life-threatening laboratory values, but also some drawbacks. These especially include the challenging definition of validated performance specifications for hemolyzed samples, the need to producing reliable data with the lowest possible uncertainty, the short turnaround time for repeating most laboratory tests, the risk that the comments may be overlooked in short-stay and frequently overcrowded units (e.g. the emergency department), as well as the many clinical advantages of a direct communication with the physician in charge of the patient. Despite the debate remains open, we continue supporting the suggestion that suppressing data in unsuitable (hemolyzed) samples and promptly notifying the clinicians about the need to recollect the samples remains the most (clinically and analytically) safe practice.

  1. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... to Subpart U of Part 431—Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors Step 1. The first...

  2. Testing the entrepreneurial intention model on a two-country sample

    OpenAIRE

    Liñán, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    This paper tests the Entrepreneurial Intention Model -which is adapted from the Theory of Planned Behavior- on a sample of 533 individuals from two quite different countries: one of them European (Spain) and the other South Asian (Taiwan). A newly developed Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (EIQ) has being used which tries to overcome some of the limitations of previous instruments. Structural equations techniques were used in the empirical analysis. Results are generally satisfactory, ...

  3. Cone penetrometer tests and HydroPunch sampling: A screening technique for plume definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolley, M.; Kappmeyer, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Cone penetrometer tests and HydroPunch sampling were used to define the extent of volatile organic compounds in ground water. The investigation indicated that the combination of the these techniques is effective for obtaining ground water samples for preliminary plume definition. HydroPunch samples can be collected in unconsolidated sediments and the analytical results obtained from these samples are comparable to those obtained from adjacent monitoring wells. This sampling method is a rapid and cost-effective screening technique for characterizing the extent of contaminant plumes in soft sediment environments. Use of this screening technique allowed monitoring wells to be located at the plume boundary, thereby reducing the number of wells installed and the overall cost of the plume definition program

  4. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing: Increased Cervical Cancer Screening Participation and Incorporation in International Screening Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sarah; Palmer, Christina; Bik, Elisabeth M.; Cardenas, Juan P.; Nuñez, Harold; Kraal, Laurens; Bird, Sara W.; Bowers, Jennie; Smith, Alison; Walton, Nathaniel A.; Goddard, Audrey D.; Almonacid, Daniel E.; Zneimer, Susan; Richman, Jessica; Apte, Zachary S.

    2018-01-01

    In most industrialized countries, screening programs for cervical cancer have shifted from cytology (Pap smear or ThinPrep) alone on clinician-obtained samples to the addition of screening for human papillomavirus (HPV), its main causative agent. For HPV testing, self-sampling instead of clinician-sampling has proven to be equally accurate, in particular for assays that use nucleic acid amplification techniques. In addition, HPV testing of self-collected samples in combination with a follow-up Pap smear in case of a positive result is more effective in detecting precancerous lesions than a Pap smear alone. Self-sampling for HPV testing has already been adopted by some countries, while others have started trials to evaluate its incorporation into national cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling may result in more individuals willing to participate in cervical cancer screening, because it removes many of the barriers that prevent women, especially those in low socioeconomic and minority populations, from participating in regular screening programs. Several studies have shown that the majority of women who have been underscreened but who tested HPV-positive in a self-obtained sample will visit a clinic for follow-up diagnosis and management. In addition, a self-collected sample can also be used for vaginal microbiome analysis, which can provide additional information about HPV infection persistence as well as vaginal health in general. PMID:29686981

  5. Consistency of the MLE under mixture models

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiahua

    2016-01-01

    The large-sample properties of likelihood-based statistical inference under mixture models have received much attention from statisticians. Although the consistency of the nonparametric MLE is regarded as a standard conclusion, many researchers ignore the precise conditions required on the mixture model. An incorrect claim of consistency can lead to false conclusions even if the mixture model under investigation seems well behaved. Under a finite normal mixture model, for instance, the consis...

  6. Feasibility tests of a high resolution sampling radial drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huth, J.

    1985-01-01

    The design concept and results of feasibility tests for a vertex detector intended for use in the TPC-PEP4/9 experiment are presented. The detector is based on a slow radial drift in dimethyl ether. High resolution localization of the avalanches at the sense wire is accomplished with nearby pickup wires and the utilization of waveform sampling electronics. The avalanche angular coordinate measurements, combined with knowledge of the electric field distribution and drift velocity permit reconstruction of the trajectory using essentially all track information. Measurements with a test chamber constructed to study characteristics of avalanche localization indicate that the recoverable track information in one centimeter of dimethyl ether at 1.5 atm is equivalent to 30 measurements of 40 μm accuracy. (orig.)

  7. Pigeons exhibit higher accuracy for chosen memory tests than for forced memory tests in duration matching-to-sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Allison; Santi, Angelo

    2011-03-01

    Following training to match 2- and 8-sec durations of feederlight to red and green comparisons with a 0-sec baseline delay, pigeons were allowed to choose to take a memory test or to escape the memory test. The effects of sample omission, increases in retention interval, and variation in trial spacing on selection of the escape option and accuracy were studied. During initial testing, escaping the test did not increase as the task became more difficult, and there was no difference in accuracy between chosen and forced memory tests. However, with extended training, accuracy for chosen tests was significantly greater than for forced tests. In addition, two pigeons exhibited higher accuracy on chosen tests than on forced tests at the short retention interval and greater escape rates at the long retention interval. These results have not been obtained in previous studies with pigeons when the choice to take the test or to escape the test is given before test stimuli are presented. It appears that task-specific methodological factors may determine whether a particular species will exhibit the two behavioral effects that were initially proposed as potentially indicative of metacognition.

  8. GLASS FABRICATION AND PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TESTING OF LANTHANIDE BOROSILICATE FRIT X COMPOSITION FOR PLUTONIUM DISPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J

    2006-11-15

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is the preferred option for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. A reference glass composition (Lanthanide Borosilicate (LaBS) Frit B) was developed during the Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) to immobilize plutonium in the late 1990's. A limited amount of performance testing was performed on this baseline composition before efforts to further pursue Pu disposition via a glass waste form ceased. Recent FY05 studies have further investigated the LaBS Frit B formulation as well as development of a newer LaBS formulation denoted as LaBS Frit X. The objectives of this present task were to fabricate plutonium loaded LaBS Frit X glass and perform corrosion testing to provide near-term data that will increase confidence that LaBS glass product is suitable for disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Specifically, testing was conducted in an effort to provide data to Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) personnel for use in performance assessment calculations. Plutonium containing LaBS glass with the Frit X composition with a 9.5 wt% PuO{sub 2} loading was prepared for testing. Glass was prepared to support Product Consistency Testing (PCT) at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The glass was thoroughly characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) prior to performance testing. A series of PCTs were conducted at SRNL using quenched Pu Frit X glass with varying exposed surface areas. Effects of isothermal and can-in-canister heat treatments on the Pu Frit X glass were also investigated. Another series of PCTs were performed on these different heat-treated Pu Frit X glasses. Leachates from all these PCTs

  9. Small Sample Properties of the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with Discontinuous and Dependent Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Chlass; Jens J. Krueger

    2007-01-01

    This Monte-Carlo study investigates sensitivity of the Wilcoxon signed rank test to certain assumption violations in small samples. Emphasis is put on within-sample-dependence, between-sample dependence, and the presence of ties. Our results show that both assumption violations induce severe size distortions and entail power losses. Surprisingly, these consequences do vary substantially with other properties the data may display. Results provided are particularly relevant for experimental set...

  10. Consistent Estimation of Continuous-Time Signals from Nonlinear Transformations of Noisy Samples,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-10

    t, then hn is given by (5) (with W = n) and represents the Szasz operator. Theorem 3.0, while guaranteeing mean-square consistency of the estimate Sw...t), provides no bounds on the rate of convergence. We shall derive such bounds for linear systems hW corresponding to the class of generalized Szasz ...operators [6] (see below) and to the Bernstein operator. While the Szasz operator (5) can be generated as in Proposition 3.0, the class of generalized

  11. Evaluation of ELISA screening test for detecting aflatoxin in biogenic dust samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, J.T.

    1996-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic chemical that is sometimes produced when agricultural commodities are infested by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. Parasiticus. Aflatoxin has been found to be present in air samples taken around persons handling materials likely to be contaminated. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of using an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit that was developed to screen for aflatoxin in bulk agricultural commodities, to an air sample. Samples were taken from two environments likely to be contaminated with aflatoxin, a dairy farm feed mixing operation and a peanut bagging operation. The dust collected from these environments was considered to be biogenic, in that it originated primarily from biological materials.

  12. Methodic aspects of autoclave tests of compact samples on cyclic crack resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhmurskij, V.I.; Gnyp, I.P.; Popov, A.A.; Tarasyuk, G.P.; Dutsyak, I.Z.; Timonin, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory autoclave LAKIM-25 was created for investigation of cyclic and static crack resistance of vessel materials of power plants under the conditions close to operation ones. It enables to investigate the cyclic crack resistance of standard samples of up to 25 mm thickness in water at 623 K and 18 MPa. The friction force changes during tests from 6.1 up to 6.4 kN, therefore it is necessary to correct regularly the force of sample loading, recording the s-n diagram on a drum of UMEh-10TM plant. The periodic record of loading diagram coincides with respect to time with the necessity of controlling the change of sample pliability during crack propagation

  13. Consistently Showing Your Best Side? Intra-individual Consistency in #Selfie Pose Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K.

    2017-01-01

    Painted and photographic portraits of others show an asymmetric bias: people favor their left cheek. Both experimental and database studies confirm that the left cheek bias extends to selfies. To date all such selfie studies have been cross-sectional; whether individual selfie-takers tend to consistently favor the same pose orientation, or switch between multiple poses, remains to be determined. The present study thus examined intra-individual consistency in selfie pose orientations. Two hundred selfie-taking participants (100 male and 100 female) were identified by searching #selfie on Instagram. The most recent 10 single-subject selfies for the each of the participants were selected and coded for type of selfie (normal; mirror) and pose orientation (left, midline, right), resulting in a sample of 2000 selfies. Results indicated that selfie-takers do tend to consistently adopt a preferred pose orientation (α = 0.72), with more participants showing an overall left cheek bias (41%) than would be expected by chance (overall right cheek bias = 31.5%; overall midline bias = 19.5%; no overall bias = 8%). Logistic regression modellng, controlling for the repeated measure of participant identity, indicated that sex did not affect pose orientation. However, selfie type proved a significant predictor when comparing left and right cheek poses, with a stronger left cheek bias for mirror than normal selfies. Overall, these novel findings indicate that selfie-takers show intra-individual consistency in pose orientation, and in addition, replicate the previously reported left cheek bias for selfies and other types of portrait, confirming that the left cheek bias also presents within individuals’ selfie corpora. PMID:28270790

  14. Digitally Available Interval-Specific Rock-Sample Data Compiled from Historical Records, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Wood

    2009-10-08

    Between 1951 and 1992, underground nuclear weapons testing was conducted at 828 sites on the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Prior to and following these nuclear tests, holes were drilled and mined to collect rock samples. These samples are organized and stored by depth of borehole or drift at the U.S. Geological Survey Core Library and Data Center at Mercury, Nevada, on the Nevada Test Site. From these rock samples, rock properties were analyzed and interpreted and compiled into project files and in published reports that are maintained at the Core Library and at the U.S. Geological Survey office in Henderson, Nevada. These rock-sample data include lithologic descriptions, physical and mechanical properties, and fracture characteristics. Hydraulic properties also were compiled from holes completed in the water table. Rock samples are irreplaceable because pre-test, in-place conditions cannot be recreated and samples cannot be recollected from the many holes destroyed by testing. Documenting these data in a published report will ensure availability for future investigators.

  15. 40 CFR 80.582 - What are the sampling and testing methods for the fuel marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the sampling and testing... commercially available diesel fuel which meets the applicable industry consensus and federal regulatory...) Qualification of test methods approved by voluntary consensus-based standards bodies. Any standard test method...

  16. The Effects of Test Length and Sample Size on Item Parameters in Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Alper; Anil, Duygu

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of sample size and test length on item-parameter estimation in test development utilizing three unidimensional dichotomous models of item response theory (IRT). For this purpose, a real language test comprised of 50 items was administered to 6,288 students. Data from this test was used to obtain data sets of…

  17. Product consistency test and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure results of the ceramic waste form from the electrometallurgical treatment process for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S. G.; Adamic, M. L.: DiSanto, T.; Warren, A. R.; Cummings, D. G.; Foulkrod, L.; Goff, K. M.

    1999-01-01

    The ceramic waste form produced from the electrometallurgical treatment of sodium bonded spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II was tested using two immersion tests with separate and distinct purposes. The product consistency test is used to assess the consistency of the waste forms produced and thus is an indicator of a well-controlled process. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure is used to determine whether a substance is to be considered hazardous by the Environmental Protection Agency. The proposed high level waste repository will not be licensed to receive hazardous waste, thus any waste forms destined to be placed there cannot be of a hazardous nature as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Results are presented from the first four fully radioactive ceramic waste forms produced and from seven ceramic waste forms produced from cold surrogate materials. The fully radioactive waste forms are approximately 2 kg in weight and were produced with salt used to treat 100 driver subassemblies of spent fuel

  18. Relationships between narrative language samples and norm-referenced test scores in language assessments of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danahy Ebert, Kerry; Scott, Cheryl M

    2014-10-01

    Both narrative language samples and norm-referenced language tests can be important components of language assessment for school-age children. The present study explored the relationship between these 2 tools within a group of children referred for language assessment. The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical records from 73 school-age children. Participants had completed an oral narrative language sample and at least one norm-referenced language test. Correlations between microstructural language sample measures and norm-referenced test scores were compared for younger (6- to 8-year-old) and older (9- to 12-year-old) children. Contingency tables were constructed to compare the 2 types of tools, at 2 different cutpoints, in terms of which children were identified as having a language disorder. Correlations between narrative language sample measures and norm-referenced tests were stronger for the younger group than the older group. Within the younger group, the level of language assessed by each measure contributed to associations among measures. Contingency analyses revealed moderate overlap in the children identified by each tool, with agreement affected by the cutpoint used. Narrative language samples may complement norm-referenced tests well, but age combined with narrative task can be expected to influence the nature of the relationship.

  19. 16 CFR 1630.4 - Test procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Test chamber. The test chamber shall consist of an open top hollow cube made of noncombustible material...) Gloves. Nonhygroscopic gloves (such as rubber polyethylene) for handling the sample after drying, and... in the draft-protected environment (hood with draft off) with its bottom in place. Wearing gloves...

  20. Sensitivity and specificity of normality tests and consequences on reference interval accuracy at small sample size: a computer-simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boedec, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    According to international guidelines, parametric methods must be chosen for RI construction when the sample size is small and the distribution is Gaussian. However, normality tests may not be accurate at small sample size. The purpose of the study was to evaluate normality test performance to properly identify samples extracted from a Gaussian population at small sample sizes, and assess the consequences on RI accuracy of applying parametric methods to samples that falsely identified the parent population as Gaussian. Samples of n = 60 and n = 30 values were randomly selected 100 times from simulated Gaussian, lognormal, and asymmetric populations of 10,000 values. The sensitivity and specificity of 4 normality tests were compared. Reference intervals were calculated using 6 different statistical methods from samples that falsely identified the parent population as Gaussian, and their accuracy was compared. Shapiro-Wilk and D'Agostino-Pearson tests were the best performing normality tests. However, their specificity was poor at sample size n = 30 (specificity for P Box-Cox transformation) on all samples regardless of their distribution or adjusting, the significance level of normality tests depending on sample size would limit the risk of constructing inaccurate RI. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  1. The Consistency of Performance Management System Based on Attributes of the Performance Indicator: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Zavadsky

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The performance management system (PMS is a metasystem over all business processes at the strategic and operational level. Effectiveness of the various management systems depends on many factors. One of them is the consistent definition of each system elements. The main purpose of this study is to explore if the performance management systems of the sample companies is consistent and how companies can create such a system. The consistency in this case is based on the homogenous definition of attributes relating to the performance indicator as a basic element of PMS.Methodology: At the beginning, we used an affinity diagram that helped us to clarify and to group various attributes of performance indicators. The main research results we achieved are through empirical study. The empirical study was carried out in a sample of Slovak companies. The criterion for selection was the existence of the certified management systems according to the ISO 9001. Representativeness of the sample companies was confirmed by application of Pearson´s chi-squared test (χ2 - test due to above standards. Findings: Coming from the review of various literature, we defined four groups of attributes relating to the performance indicator: formal attributes, attributes of target value, informational attributes and attributes of evaluation. The whole set contains 21 attributes. The consistency of PMS is based not on maximum or minimum number of attributes, but on the same type of attributes for each performance indicator used in PMS at both the operational and strategic level. The main findings are: companies use various financial and non-financial indicators at strategic or operational level; companies determine various attributes of performance indicator, but most of the performance indicators are otherwise determined; we identified the common attributes for the whole sample of companies. Practical implications: The research results have got an implication for

  2. Analysis of the Raven CPM Subtest Scores for a Sample of Gifted Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluever, Raymond C.; Green, Kathy E.

    The inter-subject/intra-subject subtest patterns (profiles) of the same sample of gifted children were examined based on factors found in a previous study of the Raven Coloured Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) that investigated structural properties with specific application to a sample of gifted children. The sample consisted of 166 children (78…

  3. Evaluation of a low-cost liquid-based Pap test in rural El Salvador: a split-sample study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin; Cremer, Miriam; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Felix, Juan C

    2014-04-01

    We sought to test the diagnostic efficacy of a low-cost, liquid-based cervical cytology that could be implemented in low-resource settings. A prospective, split-sample Pap study was performed in 595 women attending a cervical cancer screening clinic in rural El Salvador. Collected cervical samples were used to make a conventional Pap (cell sample directly to glass slide), whereas residual material was used to make the liquid-based sample using the ClearPrep method. Selected samples were tested from the residual sample of the liquid-based collection for the presence of high-risk Human papillomaviruses. Of 595 patients, 570 were interpreted with the same diagnosis between the 2 methods (95.8% agreement). There were comparable numbers of unsatisfactory cases; however, ClearPrep significantly increased detection of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and decreased the diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. ClearPrep identified an equivalent number of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cases as the conventional Pap. High-risk human papillomavirus was identified in all cases of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cancer as well as in 78% of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions out of the residual fluid of the ClearPrep vials. The low-cost ClearPrep Pap test demonstrated equivalent detection of squamous intraepithelial lesions when compared with the conventional Pap smear and demonstrated the potential for ancillary molecular testing. The test seems a viable option for implementation in low-resource settings.

  4. Performance of the Angio Detect™ in-clinic test kit for detection of Angiostrongylus vasorum infection in dog samples from Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jiayou; Schnyder, Manuela; Willesen, Jakob L.

    2017-01-01

    of the Angio Detect test kit by comparing Angio Detect testing results using serum or plasma samples with the results of Baermann-Wetzel testing using matched fecal samples. Samples from 214 dogs [with clinically suspected (N = 195) or diagnosed angiostrongylosis (N = 19)] were used for this evaluation......; sensitivity of the Angio Detect test was 97.1% (95%CI: 85.1%–99.9%). The Angio Detect test was negative for 177 of 179 samples that were negative by the Baermann-Wetzel test; specificity was 98.9% (95%CI: 96.0%–99.9%). In cross-reactivity testing, all 89 samples from dogs confirmed to be infected with other...... common nematodes (Dirofilaria immitis, D. repens, Crenosoma vulpis, hookworms, ascarids, or whipworms) were all negative for A. vasorum by the Angio Detect antigen test. Angio Detect provides a rapid and reliable method for diagnosis of A. vasorum in clinically suspected dogs at risk for infection...

  5. High explosive spot test analyses of samples from Operable Unit (OU) 1111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRae, D.; Haywood, W.; Powell, J.; Harris, B.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation has been completed of environmental contaminants at selected sites within the Group DX-10 (formally Group M-7) area. Soil samples taken from specific locations at this detonator facility were analyzed for harmful metals and screened for explosives. A sanitary outflow, a burn pit, a pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) production outflow field, an active firing chamber, an inactive firing chamber, and a leach field were sampled. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to obtain semi-quantitative concentrations of metals in the soil. Two field spot-test kits for explosives were used to assess the presence of energetic materials in the soil and in items found at the areas tested. PETN is the major explosive in detonators manufactured and destroyed at Los Alamos. No measurable amounts of PETN or other explosives were detected in the soil, but items taken from the burn area and a high-energy explosive (HE)/chemical sump were contaminated. The concentrations of lead, mercury, and uranium are given.

  6. The effect of sample storage on the performance and reproducibility of the galactomannan EIA test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpton, George; White, P Lewis; Barnes, Rosemary A

    2014-08-01

    Galactomannan enzyme immune assay (GM EIA) is a nonculture test for detecting invasive aspergillosis (IA) forming a key part of diagnosis and management. Recent reports have questioned the reproducibility of indices after sample storage. To investigate this, 198 serum samples (72 from cases and 126 from controls) and 61 plasma samples (24 from cases and 37 from controls), initially tested between 2010 and 2013, were retested to determine any change in index. Data were also collected on circulatory protein levels for false-positive serum samples. Serum indices significantly declined on retesting (median: initial, 0.50, retest, 0.23; P < 0.0001). This was shown to be diagnosis dependent as the decline was apparent on retesting of control samples (median: initial 0.50, retest 0.12; P < 0.0001), but was not evident with case samples (median: initial, 0.80, retest, 0.80; P = 0.724). Plasma samples showed little change on reanalysis after long-term storage at 4°C. Retesting after freezing showed a decrease in index values for controls (median: initial 0.40, retest 0.26; P = 0.0505), but no significant change in cases. Circulatory proteins showed a correlation between serum albumin concentration and difference in index value on retesting. Overall, this study suggests that a lack of reproducibility in GM EIA positivity is only significant when disease is absent. Retesting after freezing helps to differentiate false-positive GM EIA results and, with consecutive positivity, could help to improve accuracy in predicting disease status. The freezing of samples prior to testing could potentially reduce false-positivity rates and the need to retest. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Assessment of test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Wisconsin Gait Scale in hemiparetic post-stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guzik Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A proper assessment of gait pattern is a significant aspect in planning the process of teaching gait in hemiparetic post-stroke patients. The Wisconsin Gait Scale (WGS is an observational tool for assessing post-stroke patients’ gait. The aim of the study was to assess test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the WGS and examine correlations between gait assessment made with the WGS and gait speed, Brunnström scale, Ashworth’s scale and the Barthel Index.

  8. HBV infection in relation to consistent condom use: a population-based study in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Carcamo, Cesar P; Scott, John D; Hughes, James P; Garcia, Patricia J; Holmes, King K

    2011-01-01

    Data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) prevalence are limited in developing countries. There is also limited information of consistent condom use efficacy for reducing HBV transmission at the population level. The study goal was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with HBV infection in Peru, and the relationship between anti-HBc positivity and consistent condom use. Data from two different surveys performed in 28 mid-sized Peruvian cities were analyzed. Participants aged 18-29 years were selected using a multistage cluster sampling. Information was collected through a validated two-part questionnaire. The first part (face-to-face) concerned demographic data, while the second part (self-administered using handheld computers) concerned sexual behavior. Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) was tested in 7,000 blood samples. Prevalences and associations were adjusted for sample strata, primary sampling units and population weights. Anti-HBc prevalence was 5.0% (95%CI 4.1%-5.9%), with the highest prevalence among jungle cities: 16.3% (95%CI 13.8%-19.1%). In the multivariable analysis, Anti-HBc positivity was directly associated with geographic region (highlands OR = 2.05; 95%CI 1.28-3.27, and jungle OR = 4.86; 95%CI 3.05-7.74; compared to coastal region); and inversely associated with age at sexual debut (OR = 0.90; 95%CI 0.85-0.97). Consistent condom use, evaluated in about 40% of participants, was associated with reduced prevalence (OR = 0.34; 95%CI 0.15-0.79) after adjusting for gender, geographic region, education level, lifetime number of sex partners, age at sexual debut and year of survey. Residence in highlands or jungle cities is associated with higher anti-HBc prevalences, whereas increasing age at sexual debut were associated with lower prevalences. Consistent condom use was associated with decreased risk of anti-HBc. Findings from this study emphasize the need of primary prevention programs (vaccination) especially in the jungle

  9. HBV infection in relation to consistent condom use: a population-based study in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz

    Full Text Available Data on hepatitis B virus (HBV prevalence are limited in developing countries. There is also limited information of consistent condom use efficacy for reducing HBV transmission at the population level. The study goal was to evaluate the prevalence and factors associated with HBV infection in Peru, and the relationship between anti-HBc positivity and consistent condom use.Data from two different surveys performed in 28 mid-sized Peruvian cities were analyzed. Participants aged 18-29 years were selected using a multistage cluster sampling. Information was collected through a validated two-part questionnaire. The first part (face-to-face concerned demographic data, while the second part (self-administered using handheld computers concerned sexual behavior. Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc was tested in 7,000 blood samples. Prevalences and associations were adjusted for sample strata, primary sampling units and population weights. Anti-HBc prevalence was 5.0% (95%CI 4.1%-5.9%, with the highest prevalence among jungle cities: 16.3% (95%CI 13.8%-19.1%. In the multivariable analysis, Anti-HBc positivity was directly associated with geographic region (highlands OR = 2.05; 95%CI 1.28-3.27, and jungle OR = 4.86; 95%CI 3.05-7.74; compared to coastal region; and inversely associated with age at sexual debut (OR = 0.90; 95%CI 0.85-0.97. Consistent condom use, evaluated in about 40% of participants, was associated with reduced prevalence (OR = 0.34; 95%CI 0.15-0.79 after adjusting for gender, geographic region, education level, lifetime number of sex partners, age at sexual debut and year of survey.Residence in highlands or jungle cities is associated with higher anti-HBc prevalences, whereas increasing age at sexual debut were associated with lower prevalences. Consistent condom use was associated with decreased risk of anti-HBc. Findings from this study emphasize the need of primary prevention programs (vaccination especially in the

  10. Integrated sample-to-detection chip for nucleic acid test assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, R; Pabbaraju, K; Wong, S; Tellier, R; Kaler, K V I S

    2016-06-01

    Nucleic acid based diagnostic techniques are routinely used for the detection of infectious agents. Most of these assays rely on nucleic acid extraction platforms for the extraction and purification of nucleic acids and a separate real-time PCR platform for quantitative nucleic acid amplification tests (NATs). Several microfluidic lab on chip (LOC) technologies have been developed, where mechanical and chemical methods are used for the extraction and purification of nucleic acids. Microfluidic technologies have also been effectively utilized for chip based real-time PCR assays. However, there are few examples of microfluidic systems which have successfully integrated these two key processes. In this study, we have implemented an electro-actuation based LOC micro-device that leverages multi-frequency actuation of samples and reagents droplets for chip based nucleic acid extraction and real-time, reverse transcription (RT) PCR (qRT-PCR) amplification from clinical samples. Our prototype micro-device combines chemical lysis with electric field assisted isolation of nucleic acid in a four channel parallel processing scheme. Furthermore, a four channel parallel qRT-PCR amplification and detection assay is integrated to deliver the sample-to-detection NAT chip. The NAT chip combines dielectrophoresis and electrostatic/electrowetting actuation methods with resistive micro-heaters and temperature sensors to perform chip based integrated NATs. The two chip modules have been validated using different panels of clinical samples and their performance compared with standard platforms. This study has established that our integrated NAT chip system has a sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the standard platforms while providing up to 10 fold reduction in sample/reagent volumes.

  11. Glass consistency and glass performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    Glass produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will have to consistently be more durable than a benchmark glass (evaluated using a short-term leach test), with high confidence. The DWPF has developed a Glass Product Control Program to comply with this specification. However, it is not clear what relevance product consistency has on long-term glass performance. In this report, the authors show that DWPF glass, produced in compliance with this specification, can be expected to effectively limit the release of soluble radionuclides to natural environments. However, the release of insoluble radionuclides to the environment will be limited by their solubility, and not glass durability

  12. A Rigorous Test of the Fit of the Circumplex Model to Big Five Personality Data: Theoretical and Methodological Issues and Two Large Sample Empirical Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGeest, David Scott; Schmidt, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to apply the rigorous test developed by Browne (1992) to determine whether the circumplex model fits Big Five personality data. This test has yet to be applied to personality data. Another objective was to determine whether blended items explained correlations among the Big Five traits. We used two working adult samples, the Eugene-Springfield Community Sample and the Professional Worker Career Experience Survey. Fit to the circumplex was tested via Browne's (1992) procedure. Circumplexes were graphed to identify items with loadings on multiple traits (blended items), and to determine whether removing these items changed five-factor model (FFM) trait intercorrelations. In both samples, the circumplex structure fit the FFM traits well. Each sample had items with dual-factor loadings (8 items in the first sample, 21 in the second). Removing blended items had little effect on construct-level intercorrelations among FFM traits. We conclude that rigorous tests show that the fit of personality data to the circumplex model is good. This finding means the circumplex model is competitive with the factor model in understanding the organization of personality traits. The circumplex structure also provides a theoretically and empirically sound rationale for evaluating intercorrelations among FFM traits. Even after eliminating blended items, FFM personality traits remained correlated.

  13. Cross-validation of the Dot Counting Test in a large sample of credible and non-credible patients referred for neuropsychological testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaul, Courtney; Boone, Kyle B; Ermshar, Annette; Cottingham, Maria; Victor, Tara L; Ziegler, Elizabeth; Zeller, Michelle A; Wright, Matthew

    2018-01-18

    To cross-validate the Dot Counting Test in a large neuropsychological sample. Dot Counting Test scores were compared in credible (n = 142) and non-credible (n = 335) neuropsychology referrals. Non-credible patients scored significantly higher than credible patients on all Dot Counting Test scores. While the original E-score cut-off of ≥17 achieved excellent specificity (96.5%), it was associated with mediocre sensitivity (52.8%). However, the cut-off could be substantially lowered to ≥13.80, while still maintaining adequate specificity (≥90%), and raising sensitivity to 70.0%. Examination of non-credible subgroups revealed that Dot Counting Test sensitivity in feigned mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) was 55.8%, whereas sensitivity was 90.6% in patients with non-credible cognitive dysfunction in the context of claimed psychosis, and 81.0% in patients with non-credible cognitive performance in depression or severe TBI. Thus, the Dot Counting Test may have a particular role in detection of non-credible cognitive symptoms in claimed psychiatric disorders. Alternative to use of the E-score, failure on ≥1 cut-offs applied to individual Dot Counting Test scores (≥6.0″ for mean grouped dot counting time, ≥10.0″ for mean ungrouped dot counting time, and ≥4 errors), occurred in 11.3% of the credible sample, while nearly two-thirds (63.6%) of the non-credible sample failed one of more of these cut-offs. An E-score cut-off of 13.80, or failure on ≥1 individual score cut-offs, resulted in few false positive identifications in credible patients, and achieved high sensitivity (64.0-70.0%), and therefore appear appropriate for use in identifying neurocognitive performance invalidity.

  14. Leach testing of SYNROC and glass samples at 85 and 200/degree/C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.; Ringwood, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Leach tests were conducted on 0.5 g disc samples of SYNROC and two glass types using distilled water at 85 and 200/degree/C. No leaching was detected for SYNROC at either temperature. Thus, the upper limit on leach rate for SYNROC is <0.005 g/m/sup 2/d. Waste glass PNL 76-68 had leach rates of 1.4 g/m/sup 2/ d at 85/degree/C and 8.9 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C, while 73-1 glass frit had a leach rate of 41 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C. The leach tests were repeated in the presence of rock powders. Again, no leaching was measurable for SYNROC. PNL 76-68 glass had leach rates between 4 and 23 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C and 73-1 frit leached at rates between 29 and 176 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C. Tests were also conducted on crushed glass samples (PNL 76-68, 100-200 /mu/m size fraction). Bulk leach rates were calculated based on measurement of Ca, Cs, and U in the leach solutions. The results of the leach tests show that SYNROC is several orders of magnitude more resistant to leaching than glass

  15. Consistency of hand preference: predictions to intelligence and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, D W; Gottfried, A; Bathurst, K

    1991-05-01

    Gottfried and Bathurst (1983) reported that hand preference consistency measured over time during infancy and early childhood predicts intellectual precocity for females, but not for males. In the present study longitudinal assessments of children previously classified by Gottfried and Bathurst as consistent or nonconsistent in cross-time hand preference were conducted during middle childhood (ages 5 to 9). Findings show that (a) early measurement of hand preference consistency for females predicts school-age intellectual precocity, (b) the locus of the difference between consistent vs. nonconsistent females is in verbal intelligence, and (c) the precocity of the consistent females was also revealed on tests of school achievement, particularly tests of reading and mathematics.

  16. Designing testing service at baristand industri Medan’s liquid waste laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumawaty, Dewi; Napitupulu, Humala L.; Sembiring, Meilita T.

    2018-03-01

    Baristand Industri Medan is a technical implementation unit under the Industrial and Research and Development Agency, the Ministry of Industry. One of the services often used in Baristand Industri Medan is liquid waste testing service. The company set the standard of service is nine working days for testing services. At 2015, 89.66% on testing services liquid waste does not meet the specified standard of services company because of many samples accumulated. The purpose of this research is designing online services to schedule the coming the liquid waste sample. The method used is designing an information system that consists of model design, output design, input design, database design and technology design. The results of designing information system of testing liquid waste online consist of three pages are pages to the customer, the recipient samples and laboratory. From the simulation results with scheduled samples, then the standard services a minimum of nine working days can be reached.

  17. Waste retrieval sluicing system vapor sampling and analysis plan for evaluation of organic emissions, process test phase III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SASAKI, L.M.

    1999-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained to address vapor issues related to the sluicing of tank 241-C-106. Sampling will be performed in accordance with Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Emissions Collection Phase III (Jones 1999) and Process Test Plan Phase III, Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Emissions Collection (Powers 1999). Analytical requirements include those specified in Request for Ecology Concurrence on Draft Strategy/Path Forward to Address Concerns Regarding Organic Emissions from C-106 Sluicing Activities (Peterson 1998). The Waste Retrieval Sluicing System was installed to retrieve and transfer high-heat sludge from tank 241-C-106 to tank 241-AY-102, which is designed for high-heat waste storage. During initial sluicing of tank 241-C-106 in November 1998, operations were halted due to detection of unexpected high volatile organic compounds in emissions that exceeded regulatory permit limits. Several workers also reported smelling sharp odors and throat irritation. Vapor grab samples from the 296-C-006 ventilation system were taken as soon as possible after detection; the analyses indicated that volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds were present. In December 1998, a process test (phase I) was conducted in which the pumps in tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102 were operated and vapor samples obtained to determine constituents that may be present during active sluicing of tank 241-C-106. The process test was suspended when a jumper leak was detected. On March 7, 1999, phase I1 of the process test was performed; the sluicing system was operated for approximately 7 hours and was ended using the controlled shutdown method when the allowable amount of solids were transferred to 241-AY-102. The phase II test was successful, however, further testing is required to obtain vapor samples at higher emission levels

  18. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, A. L. II [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-03-03

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  19. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material

  20. Sampling and physical and actinide characterization of colloids from the Grimsel test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longworth, G.; Ivanovich, M.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of groundwater from a granite fracture at the Grimsel test site in Switzerland have been collected as part of a second intercomparison of groundwater colloid sampling and characterization techniques carried out by members of the Coco Club (colloids and complexes) sponsored by the CEC. This report describes the Harwell contribution to this exercise. The bulk of naturally occurring actinides were found to reside in solution with 10 particles/I (detection limit ∼50 nm) for samples determined by three laboratories. The colloids were shown to be negatively charged using microelectrophoresis and to be relatively stable. There was evidence of a reduction in the pH of the water after storage due to air contamination. This work has served to identify the problems associated with colloid sampling and characterization techniques

  1. Measurement of flat samples with rough surfaces by Magnetic Adaptive Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomáš, Ivan; Kadlecová, Jana; Vértesy, G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2012), s. 1441-1444 ISSN 0018-9464. [Conference on Soft Magnetic Materials (SMM20) /20./. Kos Island, 18.09.2011-22.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1323 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic contact * magnetic adaptive testing * magnetically open samples * magnetic NDE Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.422, year: 2012

  2. The National Benchmark Test of quantitative literacy: Does it ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Windows User

    determine whether Grade 12 learners have mastered subject knowledge at the ... the NSC Mathematical Literacy examination and the Quantitative Literacy test of the ..... Method. Sample. The sample for this study consisted of 6,363 Grade. 12 ...

  3. Testing the efficiency of rover science protocols for robotic sample selection: A GeoHeuristic Operational Strategies Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Bartley, J. K.; Chidsey, T. C.; Cohen, B. A.; Gilleaudeau, G. J.; Hynek, B. M.; Kah, L. C.; Minitti, M. E.; Williams, R. M. E.; Black, S.; Gemperline, J.; Schaufler, R.; Thomas, R. J.

    2018-05-01

    The GHOST field tests are designed to isolate and test science-driven rover operations protocols, to determine best practices. During a recent field test at a potential Mars 2020 landing site analog, we tested two Mars Science Laboratory data-acquisition and decision-making methods to assess resulting science return and sample quality: a linear method, where sites of interest are studied in the order encountered, and a "walkabout-first" method, where sites of interest are examined remotely before down-selecting to a subset of sites that are interrogated with more resource-intensive instruments. The walkabout method cost less time and fewer resources, while increasing confidence in interpretations. Contextual data critical to evaluating site geology was acquired earlier than for the linear method, and given a higher priority, which resulted in development of more mature hypotheses earlier in the analysis process. Combined, this saved time and energy in the collection of data with more limited spatial coverage. Based on these results, we suggest that the walkabout method be used where doing so would provide early context and time for the science team to develop hypotheses-critical tests; and that in gathering context, coverage may be more important than higher resolution.

  4. Evaluation Of ARG-1 Samples Prepared By Cesium Carbonate Dissolution During The Isolok SME Acceptability Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.; Hera, K.; Coleman, C.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) cycle time identified several opportunities to improve the CPC processing time. The Mechanical Systems and Custom Equipment Development (MS and CED) Section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently completed the evaluation of one of these opportunities - the possibility of using an Isolok sampling valve as an alternative to the Hydragard valve for taking DWPF process samples at the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). The use of an Isolok for SME sampling has the potential to improve operability, reduce maintenance time, and decrease CPC cycle time. The SME acceptability testing for the Isolok was requested in Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0036 and was conducted as outlined in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNLRP-2011-00145. RW-0333P QA requirements applied to the task, and the results from the investigation were documented in SRNL-STI-2011-00693. Measurement of the chemical composition of study samples was a critical component of the SME acceptability testing of the Isolok. A sampling and analytical plan supported the investigation with the analytical plan directing that the study samples be prepared by a cesium carbonate (Cs 2 CO 3 ) fusion dissolution method and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The use of the cesium carbonate preparation method for the Isolok testing provided an opportunity for an additional assessment of this dissolution method, which is being investigated as a potential replacement for the two methods (i.e., sodium peroxide fusion and mixed acid dissolution) that have been used at the DWPF for the analysis of SME samples. Earlier testing of the Cs 2 CO 3 method yielded promising results which led to a TTR from Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) to SRNL for additional support and an associated TTQAP to direct the SRNL efforts. A technical report resulting from this

  5. Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar Test for Sonic-Frequency Acoustic Velocity and Attenuation Measurements of Small, Isotropic Geologic Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, S.

    2011-04-01

    Mechanical properties (seismic velocities and attenuation) of geological materials are often frequency dependent, which necessitates measurements of the properties at frequencies relevant to a problem at hand. Conventional acoustic resonant bar tests allow measuring seismic properties of rocks and sediments at sonic frequencies (several kilohertz) that are close to the frequencies employed for geophysical exploration of oil and gas resources. However, the tests require a long, slender sample, which is often difficult to obtain from the deep subsurface or from weak and fractured geological formations. In this paper, an alternative measurement technique to conventional resonant bar tests is presented. This technique uses only a small, jacketed rock or sediment core sample mediating a pair of long, metal extension bars with attached seismic source and receiver - the same geometry as the split Hopkinson pressure bar test for large-strain, dynamic impact experiments. Because of the length and mass added to the sample, the resonance frequency of the entire system can be lowered significantly, compared to the sample alone. The experiment can be conducted under elevated confining pressures up to tens of MPa and temperatures above 100 C, and concurrently with x-ray CT imaging. The described Split Hopkinson Resonant Bar (SHRB) test is applied in two steps. First, extension and torsion-mode resonance frequencies and attenuation of the entire system are measured. Next, numerical inversions for the complex Young's and shear moduli of the sample are performed. One particularly important step is the correction of the inverted Young's moduli for the effect of sample-rod interfaces. Examples of the application are given for homogeneous, isotropic polymer samples and a natural rock sample.

  6. Drone Transport of Chemistry and Hematology Samples Over Long Distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Hernandez, James; Snozek, Christine L H; Wyatt, Ryan G; Douglas, Matthew; Amini, Richard; Street, Jeff

    2017-11-02

    We addressed the stability of biological samples in prolonged drone flights by obtaining paired chemistry and hematology samples from 21 adult volunteers in a single phlebotomy event-84 samples total. Half of the samples were held stationary, while the other samples were flown for 3 hours (258 km) in a custom active cooling box mounted on the drone. After the flight, 19 chemistry and hematology tests were performed. Seventeen analytes had small or no bias, but glucose and potassium in flown samples showed an 8% and 6.2% bias, respectively. The flown samples (mean, 24.8°C) were a mean of 2.5°C cooler than the stationary samples (mean, 27.3°C) during transportation to the flight field as well as during the flight. The changes in glucose and potassium are consistent with the magnitude and duration of the temperature difference between the flown and stationary samples. Long drone flights of biological samples are feasible but require stringent environmental controls to ensure consistent results. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. [HPV primary test in the cervical cancer screening: reproducibility assessment and investigation on cytological outcome of Hybrid Capture 2 borderline samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroni, Elena; Sani, Cristina; Bisanzi, Simonetta; Ocello, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    to evaluate the reproducibility of the High-Risk Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2-HR, Qiagen) test within the frame of cervical cancer screening with HPV, for samples with values very close to the cut-off (borderline), that is 0.80≤RLU/CO≤0.99 (RLU/CO: relative light units/cut-off) and to assess any possible presence of high grade lesions. all borderline samples collected from January 2014 to August 2015 were repeated with HR-HC2 test within two weeks from the first test. For HPV-positive samples, cytology and colposcopy results (if present) were analysed. national and international directions recommend the use of HPV testing as a primary test for cervical cancer screening for women aged 30/34-64 years. In Tuscany Region (Central Italy) the primary screening with HPV test was introduced in 2013 and the HPV test currently used, HR-HC2, has a positive cut-off≥1 RLU/CO. proportion of HPV-positive tests at repetition, then stratified by type of material (ThinPrep, STM) and for the following subclasses of RLU/CO: 0.80-0.89 and 0.90-0.99. 253 samples were borderline at first test with HR-HC2 (about 0.4% of all samples tested). About 83% (209/253) of the samples was confirmed to be negative at the HPV test repetition: 88% for RLU/CO=0.80-0.89 and 76% for RLU/CO=0.90-0.99 (p-value=0.014). Median RLU/CO value of 44 HPV-positive samples at repetition is 1.4, with a maximum RLU/CO value of 16.7. In addition, 90% of HPV-positive samples at repetition has a RLU/CO values below or equal to 3.6. Even the used sampling system affects reproducibility: 26.4% (33/125) of the samples resulted positive at the repetition were in ThinPrep vs. 8.6% (11/128) of those in STM (p-valuecut-off (0.90-0.99), confirming the intrinsic limit to all analytical methods near to the cut-off. Moreover, even if the difference in reproducibility between the two systems of sampling is statistically significant, in samples that resulted positive at repetition high-grade lesions were not found at the time of HPV

  8. Novel device to sample the esophageal microbiome--the esophageal string test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie A Fillon

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies implicate the microbiome in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. Previous work has shown that adults with esophagitis related to gastroesophageal reflux disease have altered esophageal microbiota compared to those who do not have esophagitis. In these studies, sampling of the esophageal microbiome was accomplished by isolating DNA from esophageal biopsies obtained at the time of upper endoscopy. The aim of the current study was to identify the esophageal microbiome in pediatric individuals with normal esophageal mucosa using a minimally invasive, capsule-based string technology, the Enterotest™. We used the proximal segment of the Enterotest string to sample the esophagus, and term this the "Esophageal String Test" (EST. We hypothesized that the less invasive EST would capture mucosal adherent bacteria present in the esophagus in a similar fashion as mucosal biopsy. EST samples and mucosal biopsies were collected from children with no esophageal inflammation (n = 15 and their microbiome composition determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbiota from esophageal biopsies and ESTs produced nearly identical profiles of bacterial genera and were different from the bacterial contents of samples collected from the nasal and oral cavity. We conclude that the minimally invasive EST can serve as a useful device for study of the esophageal microbiome.

  9. Phytotoxkit® and Ostracodtoxkit® tests for assessing the toxicity of sediment samples with high concentration of heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Lorenzo, Maria Luz; Martinez-Sanchez, Maria Jose; Molina, Jose; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2010-05-01

    To estimate the risk of contaminants, chemical methods need to be complemented with biological methods. Ecotoxicological testing may be a useful approach for assessing the toxicity as a complement to chemical analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and applicability of two bioassays representing multiple trophic levels, for the preliminary ecotoxicological screening of sediments from sites contaminated by mining activities: a chronic toxicity test with the ostracod Heterocypris incongruens and a phytotoxicity test using Lepidium sativum, Sorghum saccharatum and Sinapis alba seeds. For this study, 30 soils samples were collected from the Sierra Minera (Murcia, SE Spain) for general analytical determinations and the total metal content (Pb, Zn, Cd and As) was determined. The Phytotoxkit® test measures the decrease in (or the absence of) seed germination and of the growth of the young roots after 3 days of exposure of seeds of selected higher plants to a contaminated matrix compared with the controls germinated in a reference soil. The plants selected for the Phytotoxkit® microbiotest were: the monocotyl Sorghum saccharatum (Sorgho) and the dicotyls Lepidium sativum (Garden cress) and Sinapis alba (mustard) (Phytotoxkit®, 2004). The percent inhibition of seed germination (SG) and root growth inhibition (RI) for each plant were calculated. Ostracodtoxkit® test consists of placing freshly hatched ostracod neonates in multiwell cups in 2 ml synthetic freshwater, with 300 µl sediment and 3x107 algal cells (Selenastrum capricornutum). After 6 days, incubation at 25 °C in darkness, the mortality of test organisms was determined (Ostracodtoxkit® FTM, 2001) and growth inhibition was calculated. Soil samples showed a mean pH value of 6.0 in water and 5.7 in KCl. The EC varied from 1.0 dS m-1 to 56.2 dS m-1, with a mean value of 17.7 dS m-1. The mean value for Pb was 0.84 mg kg-1, 10593 mg kg-1 for Zn, 23.18 mg kg-1 for Cd and 0.16 mg kg-1 for As

  10. Tradução, adaptação e avaliação da consistência interna do Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test para uso com crianças do sexo feminino Translation, adaptation and internal consistency evaluation of the Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test for female children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizângela Moreira Careta Galindo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo traduzir, adaptar e validar o Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test, para uso com crianças de uma cidade do interior do estado de São Paulo. Foram sujeitos do estudo 261 escolares do sexo feminino, na faixa etária de 9 a 12 anos. Por meio da análise fatorial, com rotação varimax avaliou-se a consistência interna do instrumento. Esta análise, realizada com o auxílio do programa Statistical Package for Social Sciences, versão 10.0, revelou dois fatores. Para o instrumento total a consistência interna foi adequada (coeficiente a de Cronbach: 0,89 e para os dois fatores (1 e 2 os valores de a também foram considerados satisfatórios (alfa=0,90 e alfa=0,80, respectivamente, mostrando, assim, que o Eating Behaviours and Body Image Test é útil para uma avaliação precoce, rastreando atitudes indicadoras de possíveis distúrbios no comportamento alimentar. Foram mantidas as características psicométricas do instrumento original.This study aimed to translate, adapt and validate the Eating Bahaviours and Body Image Test, to be used with children in a city in upstate São Paulo. Study subjects were 261 female students aging from 9 to 12 years. The internal consistency of the instrument was evaluated by means of factorial analysis with varimax rotation. This analysis was accomplished through Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0, revealing two factors. The internal consistency was adequate for the total instrument (Cronbach's alpha=0.89 and a values were also considered satisfactory for the two factors (1 and 2 (alpha=0.90 and alpha=0.80, respectively, which demonstrated that the Eating Bahaviours and Body Image Test is useful for an initial evaluation, tracing symptoms that indicate possible eating behavior disorders. The psychometric characteristics of the original instrument were maintained.

  11. The effects of transport by car on coagulation tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Merve; Erdogan, Serpil; Akturk, Onur; Erel, Ozcan

    2017-10-26

    This research investigated the effects of the transport of blood samples between centers/laboratories by car on coagulation tests. Five tubes of blood samples were taken from 20 healthy volunteers. The samples consisted of a baseline (control) group, centrifuged and noncentrifuged transported samples; centrifuged and noncentrifuged untransported samples. The groups of centrifuged and noncentrifuged samples were transported by car for 2 h. The centrifuged and noncentrifuged untransported samples were incubated in the laboratory until the transported samples arrived. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) tests were conducted for all samples. Significant differences between the baseline group and the centrifuged and noncentrifuged transported samples and the noncentrifuged untransported samples were found for APTT levels (pcar.

  12. Image recognition and consistency of response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haygood, Tamara M.; Ryan, John; Liu, Qing Mary A.; Bassett, Roland; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the connection between conscious recognition of an image previously encountered in an experimental setting and consistency of response to the experimental question. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four radiologists viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and gave their opinion as to the position of a central venous catheter. One-to-three days later they again viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and again gave their opinion as to the position of the central venous catheter. Half of the radiographs in the second set were repeated images from the first set and half were new. The radiologists were asked of each image whether it had been included in the first set. For this study, we are evaluating only the 20 repeated images. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test and Fisher's exact test to determine the relationship between conscious recognition of a previously interpreted image and consistency in interpretation of the image. Results. There was no significant correlation between recognition of the image and consistency in response regarding the position of the central venous catheter. In fact, there was a trend in the opposite direction, with radiologists being slightly more likely to give a consistent response with respect to images they did not recognize than with respect to those they did recognize. Conclusion: Radiologists' recognition of previously-encountered images in an observer-performance study does not noticeably color their interpretation on the second encounter.

  13. Test of Fibre Bragg Gratings samples under High Fast Neutrons Fluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheymol, G.; Remy, L.; Gusarov, A.; Kinet, D.; Mégret, P.; Laffont, G.; Blanchet, T.; Morana, A.; Marin, E.; Girard, S.

    2018-01-01

    Optical fibre sensors (OFS) are worthy of interest for measurements in nuclear reactor thanks to their unique features, particularly compact size and remote multi-point sensing for some of them. But besides non negligible constraints associated with the high temperature environment of the experiments of interest, it is well known that the performances of OFS can be severely affected by high level of radiations. The Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) in the fibre is probably most known effect, which can be to some extent circumvented by using rad hard fibres to limit the dynamic loss. However, when the fast neutron fluence reaches 1018 to 1019 n/cm2, the density and index variations associated to structural changes may deteriorate drastically the performances of OFS even if they are based on rad hard fibres, by causing direct errors in the measurements of temperature and/or strain changes. The aim of the present study is to access the effect of nuclear radiations on the Fabry Perot (FP) and of Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors through the comparison of measurements made on these OFS - or part of them - before and after irradiation [1]. In the context of development of OFS for high irradiation environment and especially for Material Testing Reactors (MTRs), Sake 2 experiment consists in an irradiation campaign at high level of gamma and neutron fluxes conducted on samples of fibre optics - bare or functionalised with FBG. The irradiation was performed at two levels of fast neutron fluence: 1 and 3.1019 n/cm2 (E>1MeV), at 250°± 25°C, in the SCK•CEN BR2 reactor (Mol Belgium). An irradiation capsule was designed to allow irradiation at the specified temperature without active control. The neutron fluence was measured with activation dosimeters and the results were compared with MCPN computations. Investigation of bare samples gives information on the density changes, while for the FBGs both density and refractive index perturbation are involved. Some results for

  14. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Chlamydia/Gonorrhea Testing among Heterosexual College Students: Who Is Getting Tested and Why Do Some Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Erin W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study explored college students' reported history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and chlamydia/gonorrhea and characteristics of students reporting testing. Additionally, it assessed their motivation regarding future testing and reasons for lack of motivation. Participants: The sample consisted of 292 sexually experienced…

  15. The Mann-Whitney U: A Test for Assessing Whether Two Independent Samples Come from the Same Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim Nachar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available It is often difficult, particularly when conducting research in psychology, to have access to large normally distributed samples. Fortunately, there are statistical tests to compare two independent groups that do not require large normally distributed samples. The Mann-Whitney U is one of these tests. In the following work, a summary of this test is presented. The explanation of the logic underlying this test and its application are presented. Moreover, the forces and weaknesses of the Mann-Whitney U are mentioned. One major limit of the Mann-Whitney U is that the type I error or alpha (? is amplified in a situation of heteroscedasticity.

  16. Is cosmology consistent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaomin; Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2002-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements (including BOOMERaNG, DASI, Maxima and CBI), both alone and jointly with other cosmological data sets involving, e.g., galaxy clustering and the Lyman Alpha Forest. We first address the question of whether the CMB data are internally consistent once calibration and beam uncertainties are taken into account, performing a series of statistical tests. With a few minor caveats, our answer is yes, and we compress all data into a single set of 24 bandpowers with associated covariance matrix and window functions. We then compute joint constraints on the 11 parameters of the 'standard' adiabatic inflationary cosmological model. Our best fit model passes a series of physical consistency checks and agrees with essentially all currently available cosmological data. In addition to sharp constraints on the cosmic matter budget in good agreement with those of the BOOMERaNG, DASI and Maxima teams, we obtain a heaviest neutrino mass range 0.04-4.2 eV and the sharpest constraints to date on gravity waves which (together with preference for a slight red-tilt) favor 'small-field' inflation models

  17. Robustness to non-normality of common tests for the many-sample location problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmeri Khan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of deviating from the normal distribution assumption when considering the power of two many-sample location test procedures: ANOVA (parametric and Kruskal-Wallis (non-parametric. Power functions for these tests under various conditions are produced using simulation, where the simulated data are produced using MacGillivray and Cannon's [10] recently suggested g-and-k distribution. This distribution can provide data with selected amounts of skewness and kurtosis by varying two nearly independent parameters.

  18. Signal processing of data from short sample tests for the projection of conductor performance in ITER magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai

    2008-01-01

    Qualification of the ITER conductor is absolutely necessary. Testing large scale conductors is expensive and time-consuming. To test 3-4 m long straight samples in a bore of a split solenoid is a relatively economical way in comparison with the fabrication of a coil to be tested in a bore of a background field solenoid. However, testing short samples may give ambiguous results due to different constraints in current redistribution in the cable or other end effects which are not present in the large magnet. This paper discusses the processes taking place in the ITER conductor, conditions when conductor performance could be distorted and possible signal processing to deduce the behaviour of ITER conductors in ITER magnets from the test data

  19. Testing the normality assumption in the sample selection model with an application to travel demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, B.; Koning, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we introduce a test for the normality assumption in the sample selection model. The test is based on a flexible parametric specification of the density function of the error terms in the model. This specification follows a Hermite series with bivariate normality as a special case.

  20. Testing the normality assumption in the sample selection model with an application to travel demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klauw, B.; Koning, R.H.

    In this article we introduce a test for the normality assumption in the sample selection model. The test is based on a flexible parametric specification of the density function of the error terms in the model. This specification follows a Hermite series with bivariate normality as a special case.

  1. Initial phase of adaptation of Memory Alteration Test (M@T) in a Portuguese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Mónica; Pereira, Anabela; Costa, Rui; Rami, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    The Memory Alteration Test is a screening test able to discriminate the amnestic mild cognitive impairment (A-MCI) and mild Alzheimer disease from subjective memory complain group (SMC-G). The aim of this study was to analyze the European Portuguese experimental version of the Memory Alteration Test (M@T-PT). Were described the successive stages of the translation and adaptation procedure used to develop the M@T-PT. The psychometric properties were explored using principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation, internal consistence, convergent validity and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves. Chi-squared, ANOVAs and Pearson's correlation were also analyzed. A total of 330 people with an age greater or equal to 54 years old participated. According to their cognitive state they were classified as normal controls (n=28), SMC-G (n=81) or A-MCI (n=221). The PCA for the M@T-PT indicated that the total variance explained by three components was 48.07%. A high internal consistent was obtained (α=0.93). Convergent validity was verified using M@T-PT and Mini-Mental State Examination (r=0.83, psound instrument for use in older people in Portugal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrogen recombiner catalyst test supporting data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    This is a data package supporting the Hydrogen Recombiner Catalyst Performance and Carbon Monoxide Sorption Capacity Test Report, WHC-SD-WM-TRP-211, Rev 0. This report contains 10 appendices which consist of the following: Mass spectrometer analysis reports: HRC samples 93-001 through 93-157; Gas spectrometry analysis reports: HRC samples 93-141 through 93-658; Mass spectrometer procedure PNL-MA-299 ALO-284; Alternate analytical method for ammonia and water vapor; Sample log sheets; Job Safety analysis; Certificate of mixture analysis for feed gases; Flow controller calibration check; Westinghouse Standards Laboratory report on Bois flow calibrator; and Sorption capacity test data, tables, and graphs

  3. The Andersen aerobic fitness test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadland, Eivind; Terum, Torkil; Mamen, Asgeir

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High aerobic fitness is consistently associated with a favorable metabolic risk profile in children. Direct measurement of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) is often not feasible, thus indirect tests such as the Andersen test are required in many settings. The present study seeks...... of agreement) were 26.7±125.2 m for test 2 vs. test 1 (pfit in the present sample; thus, we suggest a new equation: VO2peak = 23....... Researchers should be aware of the amount of noise in indirect tests that estimate aerobic fitness....

  4. Willingness to Provide a Hair Sample for Drug Testing among Electronic Dance Music Party Attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Salomone, Alberto; Cleland, Charles M; Sherman, Scott

    2018-04-25

    Non-disclosure of drug use on surveys is common and many drug users unknowingly ingest adulterant or replacement drugs, which leads to underreporting of use of these drugs. Biological testing can complement survey research, and hair-testing is an appealing method as many drugs are detectable for months post-use. We examined willingness to donate a hair sample to be tested among those surveyed in a population at high risk for consuming adulterated drugs-electronic dance music (EDM) party attendees. We surveyed 933 adults entering EDM parties in New York City in 2017. Hair donation response rates and reasons for refusal were examined from this cross-sectional study. A third (n = 312; 33.4%) provided a hair sample. Lack of interest (21.0%), lack of time (19.8%), not wanting a lock of hair cut (17.7%), and disinterest in having hair cut in public (13.8%) were the main reported reasons for refusal. 4.7% refused because they could not receive results. Past-year drug users were more likely to fear identification than non-users (p<.001). Asian participants were at lower odds of providing a hair sample (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32-0.87), and those reporting past-year use of LSD (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.11-2.35), opioids (nonmedical; aOR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.25-2.99), and/or methamphetamine (aOR = 3.43, 95% CI = 1.36-8.62) were at higher odds of providing a sample than non-users of these drugs. Only a third of participants provided a hair sample and we found individual-level differences regarding willingness to provide a sample. Factors contributing to refusal should be considered to increase response rates and generalizability of results.

  5. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant

  6. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-07-10

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant.

  7. REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison: "U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample"

    OpenAIRE

    VENCHIARUTTI CELIA; VARGA ZSOLT; RICHTER Stephan; JAKOPIC Rozle; MAYER Klaus; AREGBE Yetunde

    2015-01-01

    The REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison aimed at determining the production date of a uranium certified test sample (i.e. the last chemical separation date of the material). Participants in REIMEP-22 on "U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample" received one low-enriched 20 mg uranium sample for mass spectrometry measurements and/or one 50 mg uranium sample for D-spectrometry measurements, with an undisclosed value for the production date. They ...

  8. Supramolecular Complex Antioxidant Consisting of Vitamins C, E and Hydrophilic-Hydrophobic Silica Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguta, I. V.; Kuzema, P. O.; Stavinskaya, O. N.; Kazakova, O. A.

    Samples with varied amount of surface trimethylsilyl groups were obtained via gas-phase chemical modification of silica nanoparticles. The biocompatibility tests conducted in erythrocyte suspension have shown that hydrophobization of silica decreases its damaging effect to the cells. Being wettable in aqueous media, partially silylated silicas have higher affinity to hydrophobic bioactive molecules in comparison with the initial silica. Novel antioxidant consisting of vitamins C and E and silica with 40% of surface trimethylsilyl groups was formulated. It was found that supramolecular complexes are formed on the silica surface due to the affinity of water- and fat-soluble antioxidants to hydrophilic silanol and hydrophobic trimethylsilyl groups, respectively. Test reactions (total phenolic index determination, DPPH test) and in vitro studies (spectral analysis of erythrocyte suspensions undergoing UV irradiation) revealed the correlation between antioxidant activity of the complex antioxidant and the vitamins’ content. The antioxidant remained active during long-term storage under standard conditions.

  9. Self-consistency corrections in effective-interaction calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkand, Y.; Kirson, M.W.

    1975-01-01

    Large-matrix extended-shell-model calculations are used to compute self-consistency corrections to the effective interaction and to the linked-cluster effective interaction. The corrections are found to be numerically significant and to affect the rate of convergence of the corresponding perturbation series. The influence of various partial corrections is tested. It is concluded that self-consistency is an important effect in determining the effective interaction and improving the rate of convergence. (author)

  10. Self-consistent asset pricing models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malevergne, Y.; Sornette, D.

    2007-08-01

    self-consistency condition derives a risk-factor decomposition in the multi-factor case which is identical to the principal component analysis (PCA), thus providing a direct link between model-driven and data-driven constructions of risk factors. This correspondence shows that PCA will therefore suffer from the same limitations as the CAPM and its multi-factor generalization, namely lack of out-of-sample explanatory power and predictability. In the multi-period context, the self-consistency conditions force the betas to be time-dependent with specific constraints.

  11. TEST BIAS--VALIDITY OF THE SCHOLASTIC APTITUDE TEST FOR NEGRO AND WHITE STUDENTS IN INTEGRATED COLLEGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLEARY, T. ANNE

    FOR THIS RESEARCH, A TEST WAS SAID TO BE BIASED FOR MEMBERS OF A SUBGROUP OF THE POPULATION IF, IN THE PREDICTION OF A CRITERION FOR WHICH THE TEST WAS DESIGNED, CONSISTENT NONZERO ERRORS OF PREDICTION ARE MADE FOR MEMBERS OF THE SUBGROUP. SAMPLES OF NEGRO AND WHITE STUDENTS FROM THREE INTEGRATED COLLEGES WERE STUDIED. IN THE TWO EASTERN COLLEGES,…

  12. [Consistency study of PowerPlex 21 kit and Goldeneye 20A kit and forensic application].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, He; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Qing-Xia; Jiao, Zhang-Ping

    2014-06-01

    To ensure the consistency of genotype results for PowerPlex 21 kit and Goldeneye 20A kit. The STR loci were amplified in DNA samples from 205 unrelated individuals in Beijing Han population. And consistency of 19 overlap STR loci typing were observed. The genetic polymorphism of D1S1656 locus was obtained. All 19 overlap loci typing showed consistent. The proportion of peak height of heterozygous loci in two kits showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The observed heterozygosis of D1S1656 was 0.878. The discrimination power was 0.949. The excluding probability of paternity of triplet was 0.751. The excluding probability of paternity of diploid was 0.506. The polymorphism information content was 0.810. PowerPlex 21 kit and Goldeneye 20A kit present a good consistency. The primer design is reasonable. The polymorphism of D1S1656 is good. The two kits can be used for human genetic analysis, paternity test, and individual identification in forensic practice.

  13. Short-Run Contexts and Imperfect Testing for Continuous Sampling Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Rodriguez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuous sampling plans are used to ensure a high level of quality for items produced in long-run contexts. The basic idea of these plans is to alternate between 100% inspection and a reduced rate of inspection frequency. Any inspected item that is found to be defective is replaced with a non-defective item. Because not all items are inspected, some defective items will escape to the customer. Analytical formulas have been developed that measure both the customer perceived quality and also the level of inspection effort. The analysis of continuous sampling plans does not apply to short-run contexts, where only a finite-size batch of items is to be produced. In this paper, a simulation algorithm is designed and implemented to analyze the customer perceived quality and the level of inspection effort for short-run contexts. A parameter representing the effectiveness of the test used during inspection is introduced to the analysis, and an analytical approximation is discussed. An application of the simulation algorithm that helped answer questions for the U.S. Navy is discussed.

  14. New Graphical Methods and Test Statistics for Testing Composite Normality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc S. Paolella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Several graphical methods for testing univariate composite normality from an i.i.d. sample are presented. They are endowed with correct simultaneous error bounds and yield size-correct tests. As all are based on the empirical CDF, they are also consistent for all alternatives. For one test, called the modified stabilized probability test, or MSP, a highly simplified computational method is derived, which delivers the test statistic and also a highly accurate p-value approximation, essentially instantaneously. The MSP test is demonstrated to have higher power against asymmetric alternatives than the well-known and powerful Jarque-Bera test. A further size-correct test, based on combining two test statistics, is shown to have yet higher power. The methodology employed is fully general and can be applied to any i.i.d. univariate continuous distribution setting.

  15. Active SAmpling Protocol (ASAP) to Optimize Individual Neurocognitive Hypothesis Testing: A BCI-Inspired Dynamic Experimental Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Gaëtan; Lecaignard, Françoise; Otman, Anatole; Maby, Emmanuel; Mattout, Jérémie

    2016-01-01

    The relatively young field of Brain-Computer Interfaces has promoted the use of electrophysiology and neuroimaging in real-time. In the meantime, cognitive neuroscience studies, which make extensive use of functional exploration techniques, have evolved toward model-based experiments and fine hypothesis testing protocols. Although these two developments are mostly unrelated, we argue that, brought together, they may trigger an important shift in the way experimental paradigms are being designed, which should prove fruitful to both endeavors. This change simply consists in using real-time neuroimaging in order to optimize advanced neurocognitive hypothesis testing. We refer to this new approach as the instantiation of an Active SAmpling Protocol (ASAP). As opposed to classical (static) experimental protocols, ASAP implements online model comparison, enabling the optimization of design parameters (e.g., stimuli) during the course of data acquisition. This follows the well-known principle of sequential hypothesis testing. What is radically new, however, is our ability to perform online processing of the huge amount of complex data that brain imaging techniques provide. This is all the more relevant at a time when physiological and psychological processes are beginning to be approached using more realistic, generative models which may be difficult to tease apart empirically. Based upon Bayesian inference, ASAP proposes a generic and principled way to optimize experimental design adaptively. In this perspective paper, we summarize the main steps in ASAP. Using synthetic data we illustrate its superiority in selecting the right perceptual model compared to a classical design. Finally, we briefly discuss its future potential for basic and clinical neuroscience as well as some remaining challenges.

  16. Shedding consistency of strongyle-type eggs in dutch boarding horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dopfer, D.D.V.; Kerssens, C.M.; Meijer, Y.G.M.; Boersema, J.H.; Eysker, M.

    2004-01-01

    Faeces of 484 horses were sampled twice with an interval of 6 weeks while anthelmintic therapy was halted. Faecal eggs counts revealed that 267 (55.2%) horses had consistently low numbers of eggs per gram faeces (EPG) (EPG <100 or = 100), 155 (32.0%) horses had consistently high EPGs (EPG >

  17. A Shandon PapSpin liquid-based gynecological test: A split-sample and direct-to-vial test with histology follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimiene J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies for liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap tests reveal that liquid-based cytology (LBC is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Although there is research on ThinPrep and SurePath systems, information is lacking to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of systems based on cytocentrifugation. This study is designed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Shandon PapSpin (ThermoShandon, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA liquid-based gynecological system. We used split-sample and direct-to-vial study design. Materials and Methods: 2,945 women referred to prophylactic check-up were enrolled in this study. Split sample design was used in 1,500 women and residual cervical cytology specimen from all these cases was placed in fluid for PapSpin preparation after performing conventional smear. The direct-to-vial study was carried out in another cohort of 1,445 women in whom the entire cervical material was investigated using only the PapSpin technique. Follow up histological diagnoses for 141 women were obtained from both study arms following 189 abnormal cytology cases. 80 LBC cases from the split sample group and 61 LBC cases in the direct-to-vial group were correlated with the histology results. The sensitivity and secificity of the conventional smear and PapSpin tests in both study arms were compared. Results: In the split sample group, conventional smears showed a higher proportion of ASC-US (atypical cells undetermined significance: 31 (2.1% vs 10 (0.7% in PapSpin (P = 0.001. A higher proportion of unsatisfactory samples was found in the conventional smear group: 25 (1.7% vs 6 (0.4% cases (P = 0.001. In the split sample group, the sensitivity of the conventional and PapSpin tests was 68.7% vs 78.1%, and the specificity 93.8% vs 91.8%, respectively. In the direct to vial group PapSpin sensitivity was 75.9% and specificity 96.5%. The differences in sensitivity and specificity were not significant. The

  18. Reliability of different methods used for forming of working samples in the laboratory for seed testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opra Branislava

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The testing of seed quality starts from the moment a sample is formed in a warehouse during processing or packaging of the seed. The seed sampling as the process of obtaining the working sample also assumes each step undertaken during its testing in the laboratory. With the aim of appropriate forming of a seed sample in the laboratory, the usage of seed divider is prescribed for large seeded species (such as seed the size of wheat or larger (ISTA Rules, 1999. The aim of this paper was the comparison of different methods used for obtaining the working samples of maize and wheat seeds using conical, soil and centrifugal dividers. The number of seed of added admixtures confirmed the reliability of working samples formation. To each maize sample (1000 g 10 seeds of the following admixtures were added: Zea mays L. (red pericarp, Hordeum vulgäre L., Triticum aestivum L., and Glycine max (L. Merr. Two methods were used for formation of maze seed working sample. To wheat samples (1000 g 10 seeds of each of the following species were added: Avena saliva (hulled seeds, Hordeum vulgäre L., Galium tricorne Stokes, and Polygonum lapatifolmm L. For formation of wheat seed working samples four methods were used. Optimum of 9, but not less than 7 seeds of admixture were due to be determined in the maize seed working sample, while for wheat, at least one seed of admixture was expected to be found in the working sample. The obtained results confirmed that the formation of the maize seed working samples was the most reliable when centrifugal divider, the first method was used (average of admixture - 9.37. From the observed admixtures the seed of Triticum aestivum L. was the most uniformly distributed, the first method also being used (6.93. The second method gains high average values satisfying the given criterion, but it should be used with previous homogenization of the sample being tested. The forming of wheat seed working samples is the most reliable if the

  19. Choice consistency and preference stability in test-retests of discrete choice experiment and open-ended willingness to pay elicitation formats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.; Logar, I.; Sheremet, O.I.

    2017-01-01

    This study tests the temporal stability of preferences, choices and willingness to pay (WTP) values using both discrete choice experiment (DCE) and open-ended (OE) WTP elicitation formats. The same sample is surveyed three times over the course of two years using each time the same choice sets.

  20. Validity of the reduced-sample insulin modified frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test using the nonlinear regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Anne E; Luercio, Marcella F; Frempong, Barbara A; Ricks, Madia; Sen, Sabyasachi; Kushner, Harvey; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K

    2009-02-01

    The disposition index, the product of the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) and the acute insulin response to glucose, is linked in African Americans to chromosome 11q. This link was determined with S(I) calculated with the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model and data from the reduced-sample insulin-modified frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT). However, the application of the nonlinear regression approach to calculate S(I) using data from the Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT has been challenged as being not only inaccurate but also having a high failure rate in insulin-resistant subjects. Our goal was to determine the accuracy and failure rate of the Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT using the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model. With S(I) from the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT considered the standard and using the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model, we compared the agreement between S(I) from the Full- and Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT protocols. One hundred African Americans (body mass index, 31.3 +/- 7.6 kg/m(2) [mean +/- SD]; range, 19.0-56.9 kg/m(2)) had FSIGTs. Glucose (0.3 g/kg) was given at baseline. Insulin was infused from 20 to 25 minutes (total insulin dose, 0.02 U/kg). For the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT, S(I) was calculated based on the glucose and insulin samples taken at -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,10, 12, 14, 16, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 150, and 180 minutes. For the Reduced-Sample-FSIGT, S(I) was calculated based on the time points that appear in bold. Agreement was determined by Spearman correlation, concordance, and the Bland-Altman method. In addition, for both protocols, the population was divided into tertiles of S(I). Insulin resistance was defined by the lowest tertile of S(I) from the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT. The distribution of subjects across tertiles was compared by rank order and kappa statistic. We found that the rate of failure of resolution of S(I) by

  1. Using Set Covering with Item Sampling to Analyze the Infeasibility of Linear Programming Test Assembly Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitzing, Hiddo A.

    2004-01-01

    This article shows how set covering with item sampling (SCIS) methods can be used in the analysis and preanalysis of linear programming models for test assembly (LPTA). LPTA models can construct tests, fulfilling a set of constraints set by the test assembler. Sometimes, no solution to the LPTA model exists. The model is then said to be…

  2. Validity and reliability of the NAB Naming Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Bonnie C; Rush, Beth K; Pedraza, Otto

    2016-05-01

    Confrontation naming is commonly assessed in neuropsychological practice, but few standardized measures of naming exist and those that do are susceptible to the effects of education and culture. The Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) Naming Test is a 31-item measure used to assess confrontation naming. Despite adequate psychometric information provided by the test publisher, there has been limited independent validation of the test. In this study, we investigated the convergent and discriminant validity, internal consistency, and alternate forms reliability of the NAB Naming Test in a sample of adults (Form 1: n = 247, Form 2: n = 151) clinically referred for neuropsychological evaluation. Results indicate adequate-to-good internal consistency and alternate forms reliability. We also found strong convergent validity as demonstrated by relationships with other neurocognitive measures. We found preliminary evidence that the NAB Naming Test demonstrates a more pronounced ceiling effect than other commonly used measures of naming. To our knowledge, this represents the largest published independent validation study of the NAB Naming Test in a clinical sample. Our findings suggest that the NAB Naming Test demonstrates adequate validity and reliability and merits consideration in the test arsenal of clinical neuropsychologists.

  3. Detection of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori by polymerase chain reaction using residual samples from rapid urease test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sik Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, which corresponds to a high infection rate. Furthermore, the incidence of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori has increased with the recent rise in use of antibiotics for H. pylori elimination, suggesting growing treatment failures. Aim: The study was aimed to assess the use of residual samples from rapid urease test (RUT for biomolecular testing as an effective and accurate method to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Settings and Design: This study was a retrospective study performed using data obtained from medical records of previously isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: RUT was conducted for 5440 biopsy samples from individuals who underwent health examination in South Korea. Subsequently, 469 RUT residual samples were randomly selected and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test was used to analyse categorical data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed a concordance between the results of PCR and conventional RUT in 450 of 469 samples, suggesting that the H. pylori PCR test is a time- and cost-effective detection method. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that PCR test can aid physicians to prescribe the appropriate antibiotics at the time of diagnosis, thus preventing the reduction in H. pylori eradication due to antibiotic resistance, averting progression to serious diseases and increasing the treatment success rate.

  4. A single test for rejecting the null hypothesis in subgroups and in the overall sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yunzhi; Zhou, Kefei; Ganju, Jitendra

    2017-01-01

    In clinical trials, some patient subgroups are likely to demonstrate larger effect sizes than other subgroups. For example, the effect size, or informally the benefit with treatment, is often greater in patients with a moderate condition of a disease than in those with a mild condition. A limitation of the usual method of analysis is that it does not incorporate this ordering of effect size by patient subgroup. We propose a test statistic which supplements the conventional test by including this information and simultaneously tests the null hypothesis in pre-specified subgroups and in the overall sample. It results in more power than the conventional test when the differences in effect sizes across subgroups are at least moderately large; otherwise it loses power. The method involves combining p-values from models fit to pre-specified subgroups and the overall sample in a manner that assigns greater weight to subgroups in which a larger effect size is expected. Results are presented for randomized trials with two and three subgroups.

  5. Community Laboratory Testing for Cryptosporidium: Multicenter Study Retesting Public Health Surveillance Stool Samples Positive for Cryptosporidium by Rapid Cartridge Assay with Direct Fluorescent Antibody Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Roellig

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a common cause of sporadic diarrheal disease and outbreaks in the United States. Increasingly, immunochromatography-based rapid cartridge assays (RCAs are providing community laboratories with a quick cryptosporidiosis diagnostic method. In the current study, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL, and four state health departments evaluated RCA-positive samples obtained during routine Cryptosporidium testing. All samples underwent "head to head" re-testing using both RCA and direct fluorescence assay (DFA. Community level results from three sites indicated that 54.4% (166/305 of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 87.0% (67/77 of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed by DFA. When samples were retested by RCA at state laboratories and compared with DFA, 83.3% (155/186 of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 95.2% (60/63 of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed. The percentage of confirmed community results varied by site: Minnesota, 39.0%; New York, 63.9%; and Wisconsin, 72.1%. The percentage of confirmed community results decreased with patient age; 12.5% of community positive tests could be confirmed by DFA for patients 60 years of age or older. The percentage of confirmed results did not differ significantly by sex, storage temperature, time between sample collection and testing, or season. Findings from this study demonstrate a lower confirmation rate of community RCA positives when compared to RCA positives identified at state laboratories. Elucidating the causes of decreased test performance in order to improve overall community laboratory performance of these tests is critical for understanding the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in the United States (US.

  6. Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight in a Sample of Highly Educated Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tyler M; Basner, Mathias; Nasrini, Jad; Hermosillo, Emanuel; Kabadi, Sushila; Roalf, David R; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J; Ruparel, Kosha; Port, Allison M; Jackson, Chad T; Dinges, David F; Gur, Ruben C

    2017-10-01

    Neuropsychological changes that may occur due to the environmental and psychological stressors of prolonged spaceflight motivated the development of the Cognition Test Battery. The battery was designed to assess multiple domains of neurocognitive functions linked to specific brain systems. Tests included in Cognition have been validated, but not in high-performing samples comparable to astronauts, which is an essential step toward ensuring their usefulness in long-duration space missions. We administered Cognition (on laptop and iPad) and the WinSCAT, counterbalanced for order and version, in a sample of 96 subjects (50% women; ages 25-56 yr) with at least a Master's degree in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM). We assessed the associations of age, sex, and administration device with neurocognitive performance, and compared the scores on the Cognition battery with those of WinSCAT. Confirmatory factor analysis compared the structure of the iPad and laptop administration methods using Wald tests. Age was associated with longer response times (mean β = 0.12) and less accurate (mean β = -0.12) performance, women had longer response times on psychomotor (β = 0.62), emotion recognition (β = 0.30), and visuo-spatial (β = 0.48) tasks, men outperformed women on matrix reasoning (β = -0.34), and performance on an iPad was generally faster (mean β = -0.55). The WinSCAT appeared heavily loaded with tasks requiring executive control, whereas Cognition assessed a larger variety of neurocognitive domains. Overall results supported the interpretation of Cognition scores as measuring their intended constructs in high performing astronaut analog samples.Moore TM, Basner M, Nasrini J, Hermosillo E, Kabadi S, Roalf DR, McGuire S, Ecker AJ, Ruparel K, Port AM, Jackson CT, Dinges DF, Gur RC. Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for spaceflight in a sample of highly educated adults. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):937-946.

  7. High-performance speech recognition using consistency modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digalakis, Vassilios; Murveit, Hy; Monaco, Peter; Neumeyer, Leo; Sankar, Ananth

    1994-12-01

    The goal of SRI's consistency modeling project is to improve the raw acoustic modeling component of SRI's DECIPHER speech recognition system and develop consistency modeling technology. Consistency modeling aims to reduce the number of improper independence assumptions used in traditional speech recognition algorithms so that the resulting speech recognition hypotheses are more self-consistent and, therefore, more accurate. At the initial stages of this effort, SRI focused on developing the appropriate base technologies for consistency modeling. We first developed the Progressive Search technology that allowed us to perform large-vocabulary continuous speech recognition (LVCSR) experiments. Since its conception and development at SRI, this technique has been adopted by most laboratories, including other ARPA contracting sites, doing research on LVSR. Another goal of the consistency modeling project is to attack difficult modeling problems, when there is a mismatch between the training and testing phases. Such mismatches may include outlier speakers, different microphones and additive noise. We were able to either develop new, or transfer and evaluate existing, technologies that adapted our baseline genonic HMM recognizer to such difficult conditions.

  8. Collection and Characterization of Samples for Establishment of a Serum Repository for Lyme Disease Diagnostic Test Development and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins, Claudia R.; Sexton, Christopher; Young, John W.; Ashton, Laura V.; Pappert, Ryan; Beard, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    Serological assays and a two-tiered test algorithm are recommended for laboratory confirmation of Lyme disease. In the United States, the sensitivity of two-tiered testing using commercially available serology-based assays is dependent on the stage of infection and ranges from 30% in the early localized disease stage to near 100% in late-stage disease. Other variables, including subjectivity in reading Western blots, compliance with two-tiered recommendations, use of different first- and second-tier test combinations, and use of different test samples, all contribute to variation in two-tiered test performance. The availability and use of sample sets from well-characterized Lyme disease patients and controls are needed to better assess the performance of existing tests and for development of improved assays. To address this need, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health prospectively collected sera from patients at all stages of Lyme disease, as well as healthy donors and patients with look-alike diseases. Patients and healthy controls were recruited using strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. Samples from all included patients were retrospectively characterized by two-tiered testing. The results from two-tiered testing corroborated the need for novel and improved diagnostics, particularly for laboratory diagnosis of earlier stages of infection. Furthermore, the two-tiered results provide a baseline with samples from well-characterized patients that can be used in comparing the sensitivity and specificity of novel diagnostics. Panels of sera and accompanying clinical and laboratory testing results are now available to Lyme disease serological test users and researchers developing novel tests. PMID:25122862

  9. A note on power and sample size calculations for the Kruskal-Wallis test for ordered categorical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunpeng; Zhang, Donghui

    2012-01-01

    Although the Kruskal-Wallis test has been widely used to analyze ordered categorical data, power and sample size methods for this test have been investigated to a much lesser extent when the underlying multinomial distributions are unknown. This article generalizes the power and sample size procedures proposed by Fan et al. ( 2011 ) for continuous data to ordered categorical data, when estimates from a pilot study are used in the place of knowledge of the true underlying distribution. Simulations show that the proposed power and sample size formulas perform well. A myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) induced experimental autoimmunce encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse study is used to demonstrate the application of the methods.

  10. 'Nano-immuno test' for the detection of live Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis bacilli in the milk samples using magnetic nano-particles and chromogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manju; Singh, Shoor Vir; Gupta, Saurabh; Chaubey, Kundan Kumar; Stephan, Bjorn John; Sohal, Jagdip Singh; Dutta, Manali

    2018-04-26

    Early rapid detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) bacilli in milk samples is the major challenge since traditional culture method is time consuming and laboratory dependent. We report a simple, sensitive and specific nano-technology based 'Nano-immuno test' capable of detecting viable MAP bacilli in the milk samples within 10 h. Viable MAP bacilli were captured by MAP specific antibody-conjugated magnetic nano-particles using resazurin dye as chromogen. Test was optimized using true culture positive (10-bovine and 12-goats) and true culture negative (16-bovine and 25-goats) raw milk samples. Domestic livestock species in India are endemically infected with MAP. After successful optimization, sensitivity and specificity of the 'nano-immuno test' in goats with respect to milk culture was 91.7% and 96.0%, respectively. Whereas, it was 90.0% (sensitivity) and 92.6% (specificity) with respect to IS900 PCR. In bovine milk samples, sensitivity and specificity of 'nano-immuno test' with respect to milk culture was 90.0% and 93.7%, respectively. However, with respect to IS900 PCR, the sensitivity and specificity was 88.9% and 94.1%, respectively. Test was validated with field raw milk samples (goats-258 and bovine-138) collected from domestic livestock species to detect live/viable MAP bacilli. Of 138 bovine raw milk samples screened by six diagnostic tests, 81 (58.7%) milk samples were positive for MAP infection in one or more than one diagnostic tests. Of 81 (58.7%) positive bovine raw milk samples, only 24 (17.4%) samples were detected positive for the presence of viable MAP bacilli. Of 258 goats raw milk samples screened by six diagnostic tests, 141 (54.6%) were positive for MAP infection in one or more than one test. Of 141 (54.6%) positive raw milk samples from goats, only 48 (34.0%) were detected positive for live MAP bacilli. Simplicity and efficiency of this novel 'nano-immuno test' makes it suitable for wide-scale screening of milk

  11. Testing the accuracy of a Bayesian central-dose model for single-grain OSL, using known-age samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerin, Guillaume; Combès, Benoit; Lahaye, Christelle

    2015-01-01

    on multi-grain OSL age estimates, these samples are presumed to have been both well-bleached at burial, and unaffected by mixing after deposition. Two ways of estimating single-grain ages are then compared: the standard approach on the one hand, consisting of applying the Central Age Model to De values...... for well-bleached samples; (ii) dose recovery experiments do not seem to be a very reliable tool to estimate the accuracy of a SAR measurement protocol for age determination....

  12. Consistency relations in effective field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munshi, Dipak; Regan, Donough, E-mail: D.Munshi@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: D.Regan@sussex.ac.uk [Astronomy Centre, School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-01

    The consistency relations in large scale structure relate the lower-order correlation functions with their higher-order counterparts. They are direct outcome of the underlying symmetries of a dynamical system and can be tested using data from future surveys such as Euclid. Using techniques from standard perturbation theory (SPT), previous studies of consistency relation have concentrated on continuity-momentum (Euler)-Poisson system of an ideal fluid. We investigate the consistency relations in effective field theory (EFT) which adjusts the SPT predictions to account for the departure from the ideal fluid description on small scales. We provide detailed results for the 3D density contrast δ as well as the scaled divergence of velocity θ-bar . Assuming a ΛCDM background cosmology, we find the correction to SPT results becomes important at k ∼> 0.05 h/Mpc and that the suppression from EFT to SPT results that scales as square of the wave number k , can reach 40% of the total at k ≈ 0.25 h/Mpc at z = 0. We have also investigated whether effective field theory corrections to models of primordial non-Gaussianity can alter the squeezed limit behaviour, finding the results to be rather insensitive to these counterterms. In addition, we present the EFT corrections to the squeezed limit of the bispectrum in redshift space which may be of interest for tests of theories of modified gravity.

  13. Fault Sample Generation for Virtual Testability Demonstration Test Subject to Minimal Maintenance and Scheduled Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual testability demonstration test brings new requirements to the fault sample generation. First, fault occurrence process is described by stochastic process theory. It is discussed that fault occurrence process subject to minimal repair is nonhomogeneous Poisson process (NHPP. Second, the interarrival time distribution function of the next fault event is proposed and three typical kinds of parameterized NHPP are discussed. Third, the procedure of fault sample generation is put forward with the assumptions of minimal maintenance and scheduled replacement. The fault modes and their occurrence time subject to specified conditions and time period can be obtained. Finally, an antenna driving subsystem in automatic pointing and tracking platform is taken as a case to illustrate the proposed method. Results indicate that both the size and structure of the fault samples generated by the proposed method are reasonable and effective. The proposed method can be applied to virtual testability demonstration test well.

  14. Statistical searches for microlensing events in large, non-uniformly sampled time-domain surveys: A test using palomar transient factory data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Agüeros, Marcel A. [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 W 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Fournier, Amanda P. [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Street, Rachel [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, Inc., 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Ofek, Eran O. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel); Covey, Kevin R. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Levitan, David; Sesar, Branimir [Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Laher, Russ R.; Surace, Jason, E-mail: adrn@astro.columbia.edu [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 314-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-01-20

    Many photometric time-domain surveys are driven by specific goals, such as searches for supernovae or transiting exoplanets, which set the cadence with which fields are re-imaged. In the case of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), several sub-surveys are conducted in parallel, leading to non-uniform sampling over its ∼20,000 deg{sup 2} footprint. While the median 7.26 deg{sup 2} PTF field has been imaged ∼40 times in the R band, ∼2300 deg{sup 2} have been observed >100 times. We use PTF data to study the trade off between searching for microlensing events in a survey whose footprint is much larger than that of typical microlensing searches, but with far-from-optimal time sampling. To examine the probability that microlensing events can be recovered in these data, we test statistics used on uniformly sampled data to identify variables and transients. We find that the von Neumann ratio performs best for identifying simulated microlensing events in our data. We develop a selection method using this statistic and apply it to data from fields with >10 R-band observations, 1.1 × 10{sup 9} light curves, uncovering three candidate microlensing events. We lack simultaneous, multi-color photometry to confirm these as microlensing events. However, their number is consistent with predictions for the event rate in the PTF footprint over the survey's three years of operations, as estimated from near-field microlensing models. This work can help constrain all-sky event rate predictions and tests microlensing signal recovery in large data sets, which will be useful to future time-domain surveys, such as that planned with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope.

  15. Monitoring the quality consistency of Fufang Danshen Pills using micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprint coupled with prediction of antioxidant activity and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhengchao; Sun, Wanyang; Sun, Guoxiang; Zhang, Jin

    2016-08-01

    A fast micellar electrokinetic chromatography fingerprint method combined with quantification was developed and validated to evaluate the quality of Fufang Danshen Pills, a traditional Chinese Medicine, which has been used in the treatment of cardiovascular system diseases, in which the tetrahedron optimization method was first used to optimize the background electrolyte solution. Subsequently, the index of the fingerprint information amount of I was performed as an excellent objective indictor to investigate the experimental conditions. In addition, a systematical quantified fingerprint method was constructed for evaluating the quality consistency of 20 batches of test samples obtained from the same drug manufacturer. The fingerprint analysis combined with quantitative determination of two components showed that the quality consistency of the test samples was quite good within the same commercial brand. Furthermore, the partial least squares model analysis was used to explore the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between active components and antioxidant activity in vitro, which can be applied for the assessment of anti-oxidant activity of Fufang Danshen pills and provide valuable medicinal information for quality control. The result illustrated that the present study provided a reliable and reasonable method for monitoring the quality consistency of Fufang Danshen pills. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  17. WOrk-Related Questionnaire for UPper extremity disorders (WORQ-UP): Factor Analysis and Internal Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Bas R; Kuijer, P Paul; Beumer, Annechien; Eygendaal, Denise; Frings-Dresen, Monique H

    2018-04-17

    To test a 17-item questionnaire, the WOrk-Related Questionnaire for UPper extremity disorders (WORQ-UP), for dimensionality of the items (factor analysis) and internal consistency. Cross-sectional study. Outpatient clinic. A consecutive sample of patients (N=150) consisting of all new referral patients (either from a general physician or other hospital) who visited the orthopedic outpatient clinic because of an upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder. Not applicable. Number and dimensionality of the factors in the WORQ-UP. Four factors with eigenvalues (EVs) >1.0 were found. The factors were named exertion, dexterity, tools & equipment, and mobility. The EVs of the factors were, respectively, 5.78, 2.38, 1.81, and 1.24. The factors together explained 65.9% of the variance. The Cronbach alpha values for these factors were, respectively, .88, .74, .87, and .66. The 17 items of the WORQ-UP resemble 4 factors-exertion, dexterity, tools & equipment, and mobility-with a good internal consistency. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Discomfort associated with dental extraction surgery and development of a questionnaire (QCirDental). Part I: Impacts and internal consistency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Martins, Luciana Dorochenko; Takahashi, André; Ribeiro, Bianca; Martins, Ligiane; Pinto, Marcia Helena Baldani

    2018-01-01

    The scope of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire (QCirDental) to measure the impacts associated with dental extraction surgery. The QCirDental questionnaire was developed in two steps; (1) question and item generation and selection, and (2) pretest of the questionnaire with evaluation of the its measurement properties (internal consistency and responsiveness). The sample was composed of 123 patients. None of the patients had any difficulty in understanding the QCirDental. The instrument was found to have excellent internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of 0.83. The principal component analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy 0,72 and Bartlett's Test of Sphericity with p < 0.001) showed six (6) dimensions explaining 67.5% of the variance. The QCirDental presented excellent internal consistency, being a questionnaire that is easy to read and understand with adequate semantic and content validity. More than 80% of the patients who underwent dental extraction reported some degree of discomfort within the perioperative period which highlights the necessity to assess the quality of care and impacts of dental extraction surgery.

  19. 40 CFR 80.580 - What are the sampling and testing methods for sulfur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... [email protected] from the ASTM Web site of http://www.astm.org. (i) ASTM standard method D2622-05 (“ASTM... methods for sulfur? 80.580 Section 80.580 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... the sampling and testing methods for sulfur? The sulfur content of diesel fuel and diesel fuel...

  20. Sampling and analyses report for June 1992 semiannual postburn sampling at the RM1 UCG site, Hanna, Wyoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, S.R.

    1992-08-01

    The Rocky Mountain 1 (RMl) underground coal gasification (UCG) test was conducted from November 16, 1987 through February 26, 1988 (United Engineers and Constructors 1989) at a site approximately one mile south of Hanna, Wyoming. The test consisted of dual module operation to evaluate the controlled retracting injection point (CRIP) technology, the elongated linked well (ELW) technology, and the interaction of closely spaced modules operating simultaneously. The test caused two cavities to be formed in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam and associated overburden. The Hanna No. 1 coal seam is approximately 30 ft thick and lays at depths between 350 ft and 365 ft below the surface in the test area. The coal seam is overlain by sandstones, siltstones and claystones deposited by various fluvial environments. The groundwater monitoring was designed to satisfy the requirements of the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ) in addition to providing research data toward the development of UCG technology that minimizes environmental impacts. The June 1992 semiannual groundwater.sampling took place from June 10 through June 13, 1992. This event occurred nearly 34 months after the second groundwater restoration at the RM1 site and was the fifteenth sampling event since UCG operations ceased. Samples were collected for analyses of a limited suite set of parameters as listed in Table 1. With a few exceptions, the groundwater is near baseline conditions. Data from the field measurements and analysis of samples are presented. Benzene concentrations in the groundwater were below analytical detection limits

  1. A United States forensic sample for the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, I Bruce; Lally, Stephen J; Sexton, James E

    2012-01-01

    The Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scales (GSS) is a valuable test to use as part of a comprehensive assessment of psychological and interrogative factors relevant to a defendant's vulnerability to giving a false or involuntary confession. One limitation of the test is that the manual only provides information for samples from Iceland and Great Britain. This report describes the results of 334 individuals in the United States, who were administered the tests as part of an evaluation to assess confession-related issues in a forensic context (i.e., capacity to waive Miranda rights or vulnerability in providing a false or involuntary confession). This forensic sample includes both juveniles and adults. Results are consistent with Gudjonsson's British and Icelandic samples, in which the Yield 1 score is more affected by intellectual and cognitive variables, but Shift and, to a lesser extent, Yield 2 scores are more related to emotional and personality characteristics. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography consisting of twelve second-dimension columns for comprehensive analysis of intact proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jiangtao; Beckner, Matthew A; Lynch, Kyle B; Chen, Huang; Zhu, Zaifang; Yang, Yu; Chen, Apeng; Qiao, Zhenzhen; Liu, Shaorong; Lu, Joann J

    2018-05-15

    A comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LCxLC) system consisting of twelve columns in the second dimension was developed for comprehensive analysis of intact proteins in complex biological samples. The system consisted of an ion-exchange column in the first dimension and the twelve reverse-phase columns in the second dimension; all thirteen columns were monolithic and prepared inside 250 µm i.d. capillaries. These columns were assembled together through the use of three valves and an innovative configuration. The effluent from the first dimension was continuously fractionated and sequentially transferred into the twelve second-dimension columns, while the second-dimension separations were carried out in a series of batches (six columns per batch). This LCxLC system was tested first using standard proteins followed by real-world samples from E. coli. Baseline separation was observed for eleven standard proteins and hundreds of peaks were observed for the real-world sample analysis. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography, often considered as an effective tool for mapping proteins, is seen as laborious and time-consuming when configured offline. Our online LCxLC system with increased second-dimension columns promises to provide a solution to overcome these hindrances. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimization of Sample Preparation for the Identification and Quantification of Saxitoxin in Proficiency Test Mussel Sample using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsi Harju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Saxitoxin (STX and some selected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP analogues in mussel samples were identified and quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Sample extraction and purification methods of mussel sample were optimized for LC-MS/MS analysis. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the homogenized mussel samples in the proficiency test (PT within the EQuATox project (Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk. Ten laboratories from eight countries participated in the STX PT. Identification of PSP toxins in naturally contaminated mussel samples was performed by comparison of product ion spectra and retention times with those of reference standards. The quantitative results were obtained with LC-MS/MS by spiking reference standards in toxic mussel extracts. The results were within the z-score of ±1 when compared to the results measured with the official AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists method 2005.06, pre-column oxidation high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD.

  4. Sampling artifacts in measurement of elemental and organic carbon: Low-volume sampling in indoor and outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David A.; Norris, Gary A.

    Experiments were completed to determine the extent of artifacts from sampling elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) under sample conditions consistent with personal sampling. Two different types of experiments were completed; the first examined possible artifacts from oils used in personal environmental monitor (PEM) impactor plates, and the second examined artifacts from microenvironmental sampling using different sampling media combinations (quartz, Teflon, XAD denuder, and electrostatic precipitator). The effectiveness of front and backup filters was evaluated for most sampling configurations. Mean total carbon concentrations from sampling configurations using impactor oils were not statistically different from the control case (using a sharp cut cyclone). Three microenvironments were tested (kitchen, library, and ambient); carbon concentrations were highest in the kitchen using a front quartz filter (mean OC of 16.4 μg m -3). The lowest front quartz filter concentrations were measured in the library using XAD denuders (mean OC of 3.6 μg m -3). Denuder removal efficiencies (average of 82% for total carbon) were lower compared with previous ambient studies and may indicate that indoor sources influenced denuder efficiency during sample collection. The highest carbon concentrations from backup quartz filters were measured using the Teflon-quartz combination.

  5. Consistency in boldness, activity and exploration at different stages of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Animals show consistent individual behavioural patterns over time and over situations. This phenomenon has been referred to as animal personality or behavioural syndromes. Little is known about consistency of animal personalities over entire life times. We investigated the repeatability of behaviour in common voles (Microtus arvalis) at different life stages, with different time intervals, and in different situations. Animals were tested using four behavioural tests in three experimental groups: 1. before and after maturation over three months, 2. twice as adults during one week, and 3. twice as adult animals over three months, which resembles a substantial part of their entire adult life span of several months. Results Different behaviours were correlated within and between tests and a cluster analysis showed three possible behavioural syndrome-axes, which we name boldness, exploration and activity. Activity and exploration behaviour in all tests was highly repeatable in adult animals tested over one week. In animals tested over maturation, exploration behaviour was consistent whereas activity was not. Voles that were tested as adults with a three-month interval showed the opposite pattern with stable activity but unstable exploration behaviour. Conclusions The consistency in behaviour over time suggests that common voles do express stable personality over short time. Over longer periods however, behaviour is more flexible and depending on life stage (i.e. tested before/after maturation or as adults) of the tested individual. Level of boldness or activity does not differ between tested groups and maintenance of variation in behavioural traits can therefore not be explained by expected future assets as reported in other studies. PMID:24314274

  6. Content validation: clarity/relevance, reliability and internal consistency of enunciative signs of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crestani, Anelise Henrich; Moraes, Anaelena Bragança de; Souza, Ana Paula Ramos de

    2017-08-10

    To analyze the results of the validation of building enunciative signs of language acquisition for children aged 3 to 12 months. The signs were built based on mechanisms of language acquisition in an enunciative perspective and on clinical experience with language disorders. The signs were submitted to judgment of clarity and relevance by a sample of six experts, doctors in linguistic in with knowledge of psycholinguistics and language clinic. In the validation of reliability, two judges/evaluators helped to implement the instruments in videos of 20% of the total sample of mother-infant dyads using the inter-evaluator method. The method known as internal consistency was applied to the total sample, which consisted of 94 mother-infant dyads to the contents of the Phase 1 (3-6 months) and 61 mother-infant dyads to the contents of Phase 2 (7 to 12 months). The data were collected through the analysis of mother-infant interaction based on filming of dyads and application of the parameters to be validated according to the child's age. Data were organized in a spreadsheet and then converted to computer applications for statistical analysis. The judgments of clarity/relevance indicated no modifications to be made in the instruments. The reliability test showed an almost perfect agreement between judges (0.8 ≤ Kappa ≥ 1.0); only the item 2 of Phase 1 showed substantial agreement (0.6 ≤ Kappa ≥ 0.79). The internal consistency for Phase 1 had alpha = 0.84, and Phase 2, alpha = 0.74. This demonstrates the reliability of the instruments. The results suggest adequacy as to content validity of the instruments created for both age groups, demonstrating the relevance of the content of enunciative signs of language acquisition.

  7. Specific wavelength colorimeter. [for measuring given solute concentration in test sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, C. C.; Mcdavid, L. S.; Walsh, J. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A self contained, specific wavelength, single beam colorimeter is described for direct spectrophotometric measurement of the concentration of a given solute in a test sample. An electrical circuit employing a photoconductive cell converts the optical output into a linear, directly readable meter output. The colorimeter is simple to operate and is adapted for use in zero gravity conditions. In a specific application, the colorimeter is designed to analyze the concentration of iodine in potable water carried aboard a space vehicle such as the 4B stage of Skylab.

  8. Bootstrap-Based Inference for Cube Root Consistent Estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cattaneo, Matias D.; Jansson, Michael; Nagasawa, Kenichi

    This note proposes a consistent bootstrap-based distributional approximation for cube root consistent estimators such as the maximum score estimator of Manski (1975) and the isotonic density estimator of Grenander (1956). In both cases, the standard nonparametric bootstrap is known...... to be inconsistent. Our method restores consistency of the nonparametric bootstrap by altering the shape of the criterion function defining the estimator whose distribution we seek to approximate. This modification leads to a generic and easy-to-implement resampling method for inference that is conceptually distinct...... from other available distributional approximations based on some form of modified bootstrap. We offer simulation evidence showcasing the performance of our inference method in finite samples. An extension of our methodology to general M-estimation problems is also discussed....

  9. Stability of Mixed Preparations Consisting of Commercial Moisturizing Creams with an Ointment Base Investigated by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuki, Yoshinori; Funatani, Chiaki; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Fukami, Toshiro; Koide, Tatsuo; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Takayama, Kozo

    2017-01-01

    A moisturizing cream mixed with a steroid ointment is frequently prescribed to patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. However, there is a concern that the mixing operation causes destabilization. The present study was performed to investigate the stability of such preparations closely using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). As sample preparations, five commercial moisturizing creams that are popular in Japan were mixed with an ointment base, a white petrolatum, at a volume ratio of 1 : 1. The mixed preparations were stored at 60°C to accelerate the destabilization processes. Subsequently, the phase separations induced by the storage test were monitored using MRI. Using advanced MR technologies including spin-spin relaxation time (T 2 ) mapping and MR spectroscopy, we successfully characterized the phase-separation behavior of the test samples. For most samples, phase separations developed by the bleeding of liquid oil components. From a sample consisting of an oil-in-water-type cream, Urepearl Cream 10%, a distinct phase-separation mode was observed, which was initiated by the aqueous component separating from the bottom part of the sample. The resultant phase separation was the most distinct among the test samples. To investigate the phase separation quantitatively and objectively, we conducted a histogram analysis on the acquired T 2 maps. The water-in-oil type creams were found to be much more stable after mixing with ointment base than those of oil-in-water type creams. This finding strongly supported the validity of the mixing operation traditionally conducted in pharmacies.

  10. Cost-effectiveness of one versus two sample faecal immunochemical testing for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, S Lucas; van Roon, Aafke H C; Reijerink, Jacqueline C I Y; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Habbema, J Dik F; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Leerdam, Monique E; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2013-05-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of a single faecal immunochemical test (FIT) are limited. The performance of FIT screening can be improved by increasing the screening frequency or by providing more than one sample in each screening round. This study aimed to evaluate if two-sample FIT screening is cost-effective compared with one-sample FIT. The MISCAN-colon microsimulation model was used to estimate costs and benefits of strategies with either one or two-sample FIT screening. The FIT cut-off level varied between 50 and 200 ng haemoglobin/ml, and the screening schedule was varied with respect to age range and interval. In addition, different definitions for positivity of the two-sample FIT were considered: at least one positive sample, two positive samples, or the mean of both samples being positive. Within an exemplary screening strategy, biennial FIT from the age of 55-75 years, one-sample FIT provided 76.0-97.0 life-years gained (LYG) per 1000 individuals, at a cost of € 259,000-264,000 (range reflects different FIT cut-off levels). Two-sample FIT screening with at least one sample being positive provided 7.3-12.4 additional LYG compared with one-sample FIT at an extra cost of € 50,000-59,000. However, when all screening intervals and age ranges were considered, intensifying screening with one-sample FIT provided equal or more LYG at lower costs compared with two-sample FIT. If attendance to screening does not differ between strategies it is recommended to increase the number of screening rounds with one-sample FIT screening, before considering increasing the number of FIT samples provided per screening round.

  11. VENOUS SAMPLING FOR CUSHING DISEASE: COMPARISON OF INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN AND INFERIOR PETROSAL SINUS SAMPLING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radvany, Martin G; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Gallia, Gary L; Wand, Gary S; Salvatori, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    Because magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) fails to detect many adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas, inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) is considered the gold standard to differentiate Cushing disease (CD) from ectopic ACTH secretion syndrome (EAS). Some authors have suggested internal jugular vein sampling (IJVS) as an alternative to IPSS. We simultaneously compared IJVS to IPSS in 30 consecutive patients referred for ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome and equivocal MRI exams. Five sites were simultaneously sampled in each patient (right and left IPS, right and left IJV, and femoral vein) before and after the administration of corticotrophin-releasing hormone or desmopressin. The test was considered consistent with CD when the IPS to peripheral ratio was >2 at baseline or >3 after stimulus and the IJV to peripheral ratio was >1.7 at baseline or >2 after stimulus. In 27 of 30 patients, IPSS results were consistent with a central source of ACTH. Two of the other 3 patients had EAS (one lung carcinoid and one occult), and 1 patient had pathology-proven CD. The sensitivity of IPSS was 96.4%. Only 64.2% of these patients had results meeting criteria for a central source of ACTH by IJVS criteria. Twenty patients with centralizing IPPS have undergone pituitary surgery. Of these, the central origin of excessive ACTH was confirmed with certainty in 16 patients. Among these 16 patients, the IPSS sensitivity was 93.8%, whereas 5 patients had false-negative IJVS (68.7% sensitivity). These results do not support the routine use of IJVS in establishing if the pituitary is the source of excessive ACTH. ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone CD = Cushing disease CRH = corticotrophin-releasing hormone CS = Cushing syndrome DDAVP = desmopressin EAS = ectopic ACTH secretion IJVS = internal jugular vein sampling IPSS = inferior petrosal sinus sampling JVS = jugular venous sampling MRI = magnetic resonance imaging.

  12. Quality control in diagnostic molecular pathology in the Netherlands; proficiency testing for patient identification in tissue samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thunnissen, F. B. J. M.; Tilanus, M. G. J.; Ligtenberg, M. J. L.; Nederlof, P. M.; Dinjens, W. N. M.; Meulemans, E.; van den Brule, A. J. C.; van Noesel, C. J. M.; de Leeuw, W. J. F.; Schuuring, E.

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To describe the evolution of proficiency testing for molecular diagnostic pathology with respect to determining unambiguously the patient identity of tissue samples by microsatellite analysis. Method: Four rounds of quality control exchanges of samples from different patients were sent with

  13. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  14. Evaluation of dengue NS1 antigen rapid tests and ELISA kits using clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhamoy Pal

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV infection can improve clinical outcomes by ensuring close follow-up, initiating appropriate supportive therapies and raising awareness to the potential of hemorrhage or shock. Non-structural glycoprotein-1 (NS1 has proven to be a useful biomarker for early diagnosis of dengue. A number of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs targeting NS1 antigen (Ag are now commercially available. Here we evaluated these tests using a well-characterized panel of clinical samples to determine their effectiveness for early diagnosis.Retrospective samples from South America were used to evaluate the following tests: (i "Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP" and (ii "Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag ELISA" (Bio-Rad, France, (iii "Dengue NS1 Detect Rapid Test (1st Generation" and (iv "DENV Detect NS1 ELISA" (InBios International, United States, (v "Panbio Dengue Early Rapid (1st generation" (vi "Panbio Dengue Early ELISA (2nd generation" and (vii "SD Bioline Dengue NS1 Ag Rapid Test" (Alere, United States. Overall, the sensitivity of the RDTs ranged from 71.9%-79.1% while the sensitivity of the ELISAs varied between 85.6-95.9%, using virus isolation as the reference method. Most tests had lower sensitivity for DENV-4 relative to the other three serotypes, were less sensitive in detecting secondary infections, and appeared to be most sensitive on Day 3-4 post symptom onset. The specificity of all evaluated tests ranged from 95%-100%.ELISAs had greater overall sensitivity than RDTs. In conjunction with other parameters, the performance data can help determine which dengue diagnostics should be used during the first few days of illness, when the patients are most likely to present to a clinic seeking care.

  15. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests supporting refinement of the Nepheline model for the high aluminum Hanford Glass composition region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Mcclane, D. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-02-17

    In this report, SRNL provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for a series of simulated HLW glasses fabricated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as part of an ongoing nepheline crystallization study. The results of these analyses will be used to improve the ability to predict crystallization of nepheline as a function of composition and heat treatment for glasses formulated at high alumina concentrations.

  16. A boundary-optimized rejection region test for the two-sample binomial problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Erin E; Nason, Martha; Fay, Michael P; Follmann, Dean A

    2018-03-30

    Testing the equality of 2 proportions for a control group versus a treatment group is a well-researched statistical problem. In some settings, there may be strong historical data that allow one to reliably expect that the control proportion is one, or nearly so. While one-sample tests or comparisons to historical controls could be used, neither can rigorously control the type I error rate in the event the true control rate changes. In this work, we propose an unconditional exact test that exploits the historical information while controlling the type I error rate. We sequentially construct a rejection region by first maximizing the rejection region in the space where all controls have an event, subject to the constraint that our type I error rate does not exceed α for any true event rate; then with any remaining α we maximize the additional rejection region in the space where one control avoids the event, and so on. When the true control event rate is one, our test is the most powerful nonrandomized test for all points in the alternative space. When the true control event rate is nearly one, we demonstrate that our test has equal or higher mean power, averaging over the alternative space, than a variety of well-known tests. For the comparison of 4 controls and 4 treated subjects, our proposed test has higher power than all comparator tests. We demonstrate the properties of our proposed test by simulation and use our method to design a malaria vaccine trial. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Consistency Analysis of Nearest Subspace Classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The Nearest subspace classifier (NSS) finds an estimation of the underlying subspace within each class and assigns data points to the class that corresponds to its nearest subspace. This paper mainly studies how well NSS can be generalized to new samples. It is proved that NSS is strongly consistent under certain assumptions. For completeness, NSS is evaluated through experiments on various simulated and real data sets, in comparison with some other linear model based classifiers. It is also ...

  18. Oxygen index tests of thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The flammability characteristics of nine thermosetting resins under evaluation for use in aircraft interiors are described. These resins were evaluated using the Oxygen Index (ASTM 2863) testing procedure. The test specimens consisted of both neat resin and glass reinforced resin. When testing glass-reinforced samples it was observed that Oxygen Index values varied inversely with resin content. Oxygen values were also obtained on specimens exposed to temperatures up to 300 C. All specimens experienced a decline in Oxygen Index when tested at an elevated temperature.

  19. Tank vapor sampling and analysis data package for tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process test phase III, sampled March 28, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the March 28, 1999, vapor sampling of Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 during active sluicing. Samples were obtained from the 296-C-006 ventilation system stack and ambient air at several locations. Characterization Project Operations (CPO) was responsible for the collection of all SUMMATM canister samples. The Special Analytical Support (SAS) vapor team was responsible for the collection of all triple sorbent trap (TST), sorbent tube train (STT), polyurethane foam (PUF), and particulate filter samples collected at the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team used the non-electrical vapor sampling (NEVS) system to collect samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team collected and analyzed these samples for Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) and Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in accordance with the sampling and analytical requirements specified in the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Evaluation of Organic Emissions, Process Test Phase III, HNF-4212, Rev. 0-A, (LMHC, 1999). All samples were stored in a secured Radioactive Materials Area (RMA) until the samples were radiologically released and received by SAS for analysis. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) performed the radiological analyses. The samples were received on April 5, 1999

  20. WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant]/SRL in situ tests: Part 2, Pictorial history of MIIT [Materials Interface Interactions Tests] and final MIIT matrices, assemblies, and sample listings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, G.G.; Weinle, M.E.; Molecke, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    In situ testing of Savannah River Plant [SRP] waste glass is an important component in ensuring technical and public confidence in the safety and effective performance of the wasteforms. Savannah River Laboratory [SRL] is currently involved in joint programs involving field testing of SRP waste in Sweden, Belgium, and the United Kingdom. Most recently, this in situ effort has been expanded to include the first field tests to be conducted in the United States, involving burial of a variety of simulated nuclear waste systems. This new effort, called the Materials Interface Interactions Tests or MIIT, is a program jointly conducted by Sandia National Laboratory/Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP] and SRL. Over 1800 samples, supplied by the United States, France, West Germany, Belgium, Canada, Japan, and the United Kingdom, were buried approximately 650m below the earth's surface in the salt geology at WIPP, near Carlsbad, New Mexico. The MIIT program is one of the largest cooperative efforts ever undertaken in the waste management field; the data produced from these tests are designed to benefit a wide cross-section of the waste management community. An earlier document provided an overview of the WIPP MIIT program and described its place in the waste glass assessment program at Savannah River. This document represents the second in this series and its objectives include: (1) providing a pictorial history of assembly and installation of wasteforms, metals, and geologic samples in WIPP; (2) providing 'finalized and completed' sample matrices for the entire 7-part MIIT program; (3) documenting final sample assemblies by the use of schematic drawings, including each sample, its orientation, and its environment; and (4) providing a complete listing of all samples and the means for managing analyses and resulting data

  1. Sample size for estimation of the Pearson correlation coefficient in cherry tomato tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Giacomini Sari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the required sample size for estimation of the Pearson coefficient of correlation between cherry tomato variables. Two uniformity tests were set up in a protected environment in the spring/summer of 2014. The observed variables in each plant were mean fruit length, mean fruit width, mean fruit weight, number of bunches, number of fruits per bunch, number of fruits, and total weight of fruits, with calculation of the Pearson correlation matrix between them. Sixty eight sample sizes were planned for one greenhouse and 48 for another, with the initial sample size of 10 plants, and the others were obtained by adding five plants. For each planned sample size, 3000 estimates of the Pearson correlation coefficient were obtained through bootstrap re-samplings with replacement. The sample size for each correlation coefficient was determined when the 95% confidence interval amplitude value was less than or equal to 0.4. Obtaining estimates of the Pearson correlation coefficient with high precision is difficult for parameters with a weak linear relation. Accordingly, a larger sample size is necessary to estimate them. Linear relations involving variables dealing with size and number of fruits per plant have less precision. To estimate the coefficient of correlation between productivity variables of cherry tomato, with a confidence interval of 95% equal to 0.4, it is necessary to sample 275 plants in a 250m² greenhouse, and 200 plants in a 200m² greenhouse.

  2. Self-sampling for human papillomavirus testing among rural young women of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbatha, J N; Galappaththi-Arachchige, H N; Mtshali, A; Taylor, M; Ndhlovu, P D; Kjetland, E F; Baay, M F D; Mkhize-Kwitshana, Z L

    2017-12-06

    Cervical cancer is a major problem in women and it is important to find a suitable and acceptable screening method, especially among young in low-resource areas for future human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine follow-up investigations. The study sought to test the acceptability of self-sampling as well as the suitability of the specimen collecting devices. Ninety-eight young women from rural KwaZulu-Natal were enrolled between March and July 2014. Collected genital specimens were transferred to colour indicator cards for HPV detection. Participants answered a questionnaire where they described their experiences with self-sampling. Samples were tested for high-risk HPV using GP5/6+ PCR. Of the enrolled participants, 91 answered questionnaires and indicated that self-sampling was preferred by 51/91 (56%) women while 40/91 (44%) indicated preference for sampling by a doctor (p = 0.023). The majority, 64% were comfortable using a swab, 22% preferred a brush while 11% were comfortable with both devices. Of the 98 self-sampled specimens 61 were negative for HPV in both specimens while 37 were HPV-positive in either brush or swab. Of the 37, 26 (70%) were HPV-positive in both brush and swab (kappa = 0.743) and 11 (30%) were discordant. Self-sampling was acceptable to the majority of participants in this rural area. The Dacron swab was the preferred device, and can be used in combination with colour indicator cards for comfortable self-sampling, easy storage and transport of specimens plus detection.

  3. Acceptability of self-collection sampling for HPV-DNA testing in low-resource settings: a mixed methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansil, Pooja; Wittet, Scott; Lim, Jeanette L; Winkler, Jennifer L; Paul, Proma; Jeronimo, Jose

    2014-06-12

    Vaginal self-sampling with HPV-DNA tests is a promising primary screening method for cervical cancer. However, women's experiences, concerns and the acceptability of such tests in low-resource settings remain unknown. In India, Nicaragua, and Uganda, a mixed-method design was used to collect data from surveys (N = 3,863), qualitative interviews (N = 72; 20 providers and 52 women) and focus groups (N = 30 women) on women's and providers' experiences with self-sampling, women's opinions of sampling at home, and their future needs. Among surveyed women, 90% provided a self- collected sample. Of these, 75% reported it was easy, although 52% were initially concerned about hurting themselves and 24% were worried about not getting a good sample. Most surveyed women preferred self-sampling (78%). However it was not clear if they responded to the privacy of self-sampling or the convenience of avoiding a pelvic examination, or both. In follow-up interviews, most women reported that they didn't mind self-sampling, but many preferred to have a provider collect the vaginal sample. Most women also preferred clinic-based screening (as opposed to home-based self-sampling), because the sample could be collected by a provider, women could receive treatment if needed, and the clinic was sanitary and provided privacy. Self-sampling acceptability was higher when providers prepared women through education, allowed women to examine the collection brush, and were present during the self-collection process. Among survey respondents, aids that would facilitate self-sampling in the future were: staff help (53%), additional images in the illustrated instructions (31%), and a chance to practice beforehand with a doll/model (26%). Self-and vaginal-sampling are widely acceptable among women in low-resource settings. Providers have a unique opportunity to educate and prepare women for self-sampling and be flexible in accommodating women's preference for self-sampling.

  4. Investigation on cause of malfunction of wide range monitor (WRM) in high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR). Sample tests and destructive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Masanori; Saito, Kenji; Haga, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Shinji; Katsuyama, Kozo; Motegi, Toshihiro; Takada, Kiyoshi; Higashimura, Keisuke; Fujii, Junichi; Ukai, Takayuki; Moriguchi, Yusuke

    2012-11-01

    An event, in which one of WRMs were disabled to detect the neutron flux in the reactor core, occurred during the period of reactor shut down of HTTR in March, 2010. The actual life time of WRM was unexpectedly shorter than the past developed life time. Investigation of the cause of the outage of WRM toward the recovery of the life time up to the past developed life is one of the issues to develop the technology basis of High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR). Then, two experimental investigations were carried out to reveal the cause of the malfunction by specifying the damaged part causing the event in the WRM. One is an experiment using a mock-up sample test which strength degradation at assembly process and heat cycle to specify the damaged part in the WRM. The other is a destructive test in Fuels Monitoring Facility (FMF) to specify the damaged part in the WRM. This report summarized the results of the destructive test and the experimental investigation using the mock-up to reveal the cause of malfunction of WRM. (author)

  5. Multiple sample setup for testing the hydrothermal stability of adsorbents in thermal energy storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Fabian; Laevemann, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    Thermal energy storage based on adsorption and desorption of water on an adsorbent can achieve high energy storage densities. Many adsorbents lose adsorption capacity when operated under unfavourable hydrothermal conditions during adsorption and desorption. The stability of an adsorbent against stressing hydrothermal conditions is a key issue for its usability in adsorption thermal energy storage. We built an experimental setup that simultaneously controls the hydrothermal conditions of 16 samples arranged in a matrix of four temperatures and four water vapour pressures. This setup allows the testing of potential adsorbents between temperatures of 50 °C and 350 °C and water vapour pressures of up to 32 kPa. A measurement procedure that allows the detection of the hydrothermal stability of an adsorbent after defined time spans has been designed. We verified the functionality of the multiple sample measurements with a microporous adsorbent, a zeolite NaMSX. The hydrothermal stability of this zeolite is tested by water uptake measurements. A standard deviation lower than 1% of the 16 samples for detecting the hydrothermal stability enables setting different conditions in each sample cell. Further, we compared the water uptake measurements by measuring their adsorption isotherms with the volumetric device BELSORP Aqua 3 from Bel Japan. (paper)

  6. Cost-effectiveness of one versus two sample faecal immunochemical testing for colorectal cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Goede (Luuk); A.H.C. Roon (Aafke); J.C.I.Y. Reijerink (Jacqueline); A.J. van Vuuren (Hanneke); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M.E. van Leerdam (Monique); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective The sensitivity and specificity of a single faecal immunochemical test (FIT) are limited. The performance of FIT screening can be improved by increasing the screening frequency or by providing more than one sample in each screening round. This study aimed to evaluate if

  7. 77 FR 72205 - Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification Regarding Representative Samples for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... testing periodically and when there has been a material change in the product's design or manufacturing... control data during product manufacture; and using manufacturing techniques with intrinsic manufacturing... sample in the production population an equal probability of being selected (75 FR at 28349 through 28350...

  8. Parameters, test criteria and fault assessment in random sampling of waste barrels from non-qualified processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, B.R.

    1989-01-01

    In the context of random sampling tests, parameters are checked on the waste barrels and criteria are given on which these tests are based. Also, it is shown how faulty data on the properties of the waste or faulty waste barrels should be treated. To decide the extent of testing, the properties of the waste relevant to final storage are determined based on the conditioning process used. (DG) [de

  9. Factor structure and invariance test of the alcohol use disorder identification test (AUDIT): Comparison and further validation in a U.S. and Philippines college student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuliao, Antover P; Landoy, Bernice Vania N; McChargue, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    The Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test's factor structure varies depending on population and culture. Because of this inconsistency, this article examined the factor structure of the test and conducted a factorial invariance test between a U.S. and a Philippines college sample. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a three-factor solution outperforms the one- and two-factor solution in both samples. Factorial invariance analyses further supports the confirmatory findings by showing that factor loadings were generally invariant across groups; however, item intercepts show non-invariance. Country differences between factors show that Filipino consumption factor mean scores were significantly lower than their U.S. counterparts.

  10. A New Family of Consistent and Asymptotically-Normal Estimators for the Extremal Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Olmo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The extremal index (θ is the key parameter for extending extreme value theory results from i.i.d. to stationary sequences. One important property of this parameter is that its inverse determines the degree of clustering in the extremes. This article introduces a novel interpretation of the extremal index as a limiting probability characterized by two Poisson processes and a simple family of estimators derived from this new characterization. Unlike most estimators for θ in the literature, this estimator is consistent, asymptotically normal and very stable across partitions of the sample. Further, we show in an extensive simulation study that this estimator outperforms in finite samples the logs, blocks and runs estimation methods. Finally, we apply this new estimator to test for clustering of extremes in monthly time series of unemployment growth and inflation rates and conclude that runs of large unemployment rates are more prolonged than periods of high inflation.

  11. On the internal consistency of the term structure of forecasts of housing starts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierdzioch, C.; Rulke, J. C.; Stadtmann, G.

    2013-01-01

    We use the term structure of forecasts of housing starts to test for rationality of forecasts. Our test is based on the idea that short-term and long-term forecasts should be internally consistent. We test the internal consistency of forecasts using data for Australia, Canada, Japan and the United...

  12. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Empirical Testing. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K. Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. In this paper, the results of empirical tests intended to assess the accuracy of acceptance sampling plan calculators implemented for six variable distributions are presented.

  13. Testing of candidate non-lethal sampling methods for detection of Renibacterium salmoninarum in juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; McKibben, Constance L.; Conway, Carla M.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Chase, Dorothy M.; Applegate, Lynn M.

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal pathogen testing can be a useful tool for fish disease research and management. Our research objectives were to determine if (1) fin clips, gill snips, surface mucus scrapings, blood draws, or kidney biopsies could be obtained non-lethally from 3 to 15 g Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, (2) non-lethal samples could accurately discriminate between fish exposed to the bacterial kidney disease agent Renibacterium salmoninarum and non-exposed fish, and (3) non-lethal samples could serve as proxies for lethal kidney samples to assess infection intensity. Blood draws and kidney biopsies caused ≥5% post-sampling mortality (Objective 1) and may be appropriate only for larger fish, but the other sample types were non-lethal. Sampling was performed over 21 wk following R. salmoninarum immersion challenge of fish from 2 stocks (Objectives 2 and 3), and nested PCR (nPCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) results from candidate non-lethal samples were compared with kidney tissue analysis by nPCR, qPCR, bacteriological culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and histopathology/immunohistochemistry. R. salmoninarum was detected by PCR in >50% of fin, gill, and mucus samples from challenged fish. Mucus qPCR was the only non-lethal assay exhibiting both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity estimates >90% for distinguishing between R. salmoninarum-exposed and non-exposed fish and was the best candidate for use as an alternative to lethal kidney sample testing. Mucus qPCR R. salmoninarum quantity estimates reflected changes in kidney bacterial load estimates, as evidenced by significant positive correlations with kidney R. salmoninaruminfection intensity scores at all sample times and in both fish stocks, and were not significantly impacted by environmentalR. salmoninarum concentrations.

  14. GLASS FABRICATION AND PRODUCT CONSISTENCY TESTING OF LANTHANIDE BOROSHILICATE FRIT X COMPOSITION FOR PLUTONIUM DISPOSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marra, J

    2006-11-21

    The Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) plans to conduct the Plutonium Disposition Project at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to disposition excess weapons-usable plutonium. A plutonium glass waste form is the preferred option for immobilization of the plutonium for subsequent disposition in a geologic repository. A reference glass composition (Lanthanide Borosilicate (LaBS) Frit B) was developed during the Plutonium Immobilization Program (PIP) to immobilize plutonium in the late 1990's. A limited amount of performance testing was performed on this baseline composition before efforts to further pursue Pu disposition via a glass waste form ceased. Recent FY05 studies have further investigated the LaBS Frit B formulation as well as development of a newer LaBS formulation denoted as LaBS Frit X. The objectives of this present task were to fabricate plutonium loaded LaBS Frit X glass and perform corrosion testing to provide near-term data that will increase confidence that LaBS glass product is suitable for disposal in the Yucca Mountain Repository. Specifically, testing was conducted in an effort to provide data to Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) personnel for use in performance assessment calculations. Plutonium containing LaBS glass with the Frit X composition with a 9.5 wt% PuO{sub 2} loading was prepared for testing. Glass was prepared to support Product Consistency Testing (PCT) at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The glass was thoroughly characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) prior to performance testing. A series of PCTs were conducted at SRNL using quenched Pu Frit X glass with varying exposed surface areas. Effects of isothermal and can-in-canister heat treatments on the Pu Frit X glass were also investigated. Another series of PCTs were performed on these different heat-treated Pu Frit X glasses. Leachates from all these PCTs

  15. Two-Sample Tests for High-Dimensional Linear Regression with an Application to Detecting Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yin; Cai, Tianxi; Cai, T Tony

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by applications in genomics, we consider in this paper global and multiple testing for the comparisons of two high-dimensional linear regression models. A procedure for testing the equality of the two regression vectors globally is proposed and shown to be particularly powerful against sparse alternatives. We then introduce a multiple testing procedure for identifying unequal coordinates while controlling the false discovery rate and false discovery proportion. Theoretical justifications are provided to guarantee the validity of the proposed tests and optimality results are established under sparsity assumptions on the regression coefficients. The proposed testing procedures are easy to implement. Numerical properties of the procedures are investigated through simulation and data analysis. The results show that the proposed tests maintain the desired error rates under the null and have good power under the alternative at moderate sample sizes. The procedures are applied to the Framingham Offspring study to investigate the interactions between smoking and cardiovascular related genetic mutations important for an inflammation marker.

  16. Testing to expand the rotary-mode core sampling system operating envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Rotary sampling using the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System (RMCSS) is constrained by what is referred to as the ''Operating Envelope''. The Operating Envelop defines the maximum downward force, maximum rotational speed and minimum purge gas flow allowed during operation of the RMCSS. The original values of 1170 lb. down force, 55 RPM rotational speed, and 30 SCFM nitrogen purge gas were determined during original envelope testing. This envelope was determined by observing the temperature rise on the bitface while drilling into waste simulants. The maximum temperature in single-shell tanks (SSTS) is considered to be approximately 9O C and the critical drill bit temperature, which is the temperature at which an exothermic reaction could be initiated in the tank waste, was previously determined to be 150 C. Thus, the drill bit temperature increase was limited to 60 C. Thermal properties of these simulants approximated typical properties of waste tank saltcake. Later, more detailed envelope testing which used a pumice block simulant, showed a notably higher temperature rise while drilling. This pumice material, which simulated a ''worst case'' foreign object embedded in the waste, has lower thermal conductivity and lower thermal diffusivity than earlier simulants. These properties caused a slower heat transfer in the pumice than in the previous simulants and consequently a higher temperature rise. The maximum downward force was subsequently reduced to 750 lb (at a maximum 55 RPM and minimum 30 SCFM purge gas flow) which was the maximum value at which the drill bit could be operated and still remain below the 60 C temperature rise

  17. Impact of grey zone sample testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in enhancing blood safety: Experience at a tertiary care hospital in North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Archana; Singh, Abhay; Chaudhary, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used for screening blood donors for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) can sometimes fail to detect blood donors who are recently infected or possessing the low strength of pathogen. Estimation of a grey zone in ELISA testing and repeat testing of grey zone samples can further help in reducing the risks of TTI in countries where nucleic acid amplification testing for TTIs is not feasible. Grey zone samples with optical density (OD) lying between cut-off OD and 10% below the cut-off OD (cut-off OD × 0.9) were identified during routine ELISA testing. On performing repeat ELISA testing on grey zone samples in duplicate, the samples showing both OD value below grey zone were marked nonreactive, and samples showing one or both OD value in the grey zone were marked indeterminate. The samples on repeat testing showing one or both OD above cut-off value were marked positive. About 119 samples (77 for hepatitis B virus [HBV], 23 for human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and 19 for hepatitis C virus [HCV]) were found to be in grey zone. On repeat testing of these samples in duplicate, 70 (58.8%) samples (45 for HBV, 12 for HIV, and 13 for HCV) were found to be reactive. Six (5%) samples (four for HBV, one for HIV, and one for HCV) were found to be indeterminate. Seventy donors initially screened negative, were found out to be potentially infectious on repeat grey zone testing. Thus, estimation of grey zone samples with repeat testing can further enhance the safety of blood transfusion.

  18. 21 CFR 211.110 - Sampling and testing of in-process materials and drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICALS Production and Process Controls § 211.110 Sampling and testing of in-process materials and drug... capsule weight variation; (2) Disintegration time; (3) Adequacy of mixing to assure uniformity and... production process, e.g., at commencement or completion of significant phases or after storage for long...

  19. Use of PCR on lymph-node sample as test of cure of visceral leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, O. F.; Kager, P. A.; Zijlstra, E. E.; El-Hassan, A. M.; Oskam, L.

    1997-01-01

    When the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to test lymph-node aspirates from 35 patients from eastern Sudan, who had had visceral leishmaniasis but were believed cured, leishmanial DNA was detected in samples from 14 of the patients. There were no significant differences between the

  20. Reliability of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence in 2 Diverse Samples of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Robinson, Leah E; Webster, E Kipling; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2015-08-01

    The purpose was to determine the reliability of an instrument designed to assess young children's perceived movement skill competence in 2 diverse samples. A pictorial instrument assessed 12 perceived Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) based on the Test of Gross Motor Development 2nd edition. Intra-Class Correlations (ICC) and internal consistency analyses were conducted. Paired sample t tests assessed change in mean perceived skill scores. Bivariate correlations between the intertrial difference and the mean of the trials explored proportional bias. Sample 1 (S1) were culturally diverse Australian children (n = 111; 52% boys) aged 5 to 8 years (mean = 6.4, SD = 1.0) with educated parents. Sample 2 (S2) were racially diverse and socioeconomically disadvantaged American children (n = 110; 57% boys) aged 5 to 10 years (mean = 6.8, SD = 1.1). For all children, the internal consistency for 12 FMS was acceptable (S1 = 0.72, 0.75, S2 = 0.66, 0.67). ICCs were higher in S1 (0.73) than S2 (0.50). Mean changes between trials were small. There was little evidence of proportional bias. Lower values in S2 may be due to differences in study demographic and execution. While the instrument demonstrated reliability/internal consistency, further work is recommended in diverse samples.

  1. Two-Sample Two-Stage Least Squares (TSTSLS estimates of earnings mobility: how consistent are they?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jerrim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Academics and policymakers have shown great interest in cross-national comparisons of intergenerational earnings mobility. However, producing consistent and comparable estimates of earnings mobility is not a trivial task. In most countries researchers are unable to observe earnings information for two generations. They are thus forced to rely upon imputed data from different surveys instead. This paper builds upon previous work by considering the consistency of the intergenerational correlation (ρ as well as the elasticity (β, how this changes when using a range of different instrumental (imputer variables, and highlighting an important but infrequently discussed measurement issue. Our key finding is that, while TSTSLS estimates of β and ρ are both likely to be inconsistent, the magnitude of this problem is much greater for the former than it is for the latter. We conclude by offering advice on estimating earnings mobility using this methodology.

  2. Consistent assignment of nursing staff to residents in nursing homes: a critical review of conceptual and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Tonya; Nolet, Kimberly; Bowers, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    Consistent assignment of nursing staff to residents is promoted by a number of national organizations as a strategy for improving nursing home quality and is included in pay for performance schedules in several states. However, research has shown inconsistent effects of consistent assignment on quality outcomes. In order to advance the state of the science of research on consistent assignment and inform current practice and policy, a literature review was conducted to critique conceptual and methodological understandings of consistent assignment. Twenty original research reports of consistent assignment in nursing homes were found through a variety of search strategies. Consistent assignment was conceptualized and operationalized in multiple ways with little overlap from study to study. There was a lack of established methods to measure consistent assignment. Methodological limitations included a lack of control and statistical analyses of group differences in experimental-level studies, small sample sizes, lack of attention to confounds in multicomponent interventions, and outcomes that were not theoretically linked. Future research should focus on developing a conceptual understanding of consistent assignment focused on definition, measurement, and links to outcomes. To inform current policies, testing consistent assignment should include attention to contexts within and levels at which it is most effective. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2013.

  3. Simulated tempering distributed replica sampling: A practical guide to enhanced conformational sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauscher, Sarah; Pomes, Regis, E-mail: pomes@sickkids.ca

    2010-11-01

    Simulated tempering distributed replica sampling (STDR) is a generalized-ensemble method designed specifically for simulations of large molecular systems on shared and heterogeneous computing platforms [Rauscher, Neale and Pomes (2009) J. Chem. Theor. Comput. 5, 2640]. The STDR algorithm consists of an alternation of two steps: (1) a short molecular dynamics (MD) simulation; and (2) a stochastic temperature jump. Repeating these steps thousands of times results in a random walk in temperature, which allows the system to overcome energetic barriers, thereby enhancing conformational sampling. The aim of the present paper is to provide a practical guide to applying STDR to complex biomolecular systems. We discuss the details of our STDR implementation, which is a highly-parallel algorithm designed to maximize computational efficiency while simultaneously minimizing network communication and data storage requirements. Using a 35-residue disordered peptide in explicit water as a test system, we characterize the efficiency of the STDR algorithm with respect to both diffusion in temperature space and statistical convergence of structural properties. Importantly, we show that STDR provides a dramatic enhancement of conformational sampling compared to a canonical MD simulation.

  4. Individual behavioural differences in pigs: intra- and inter-test consistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.; Burbidge, J.A.; Lawrence, A.B.; Simmins, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    Two studies have been carried out in pigs to determine the relation between escape behaviour and production parameters and between escape behaviour and other factors. In the first, 823 piglets were tested with the backtest at 10 and 17 days of age. Production parameters, such as average daily weight

  5. Quality improvement in determination of chemical oxygen demand in samples considered difficult to analyze, through participation in proficiency-testing schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raposo, Francisco; Fernández-Cegrí, V.; De la Rubia, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a critical analytical parameter in waste and wastewater treatment, more specifically in anaerobic digestion, although little is known about the quality of measuring COD of anaerobic digestion samples. Proficiency testing (PT) is a powerful tool that can be used...... to test the performance achievable in the participants laboratories, so we carried out a second PT of COD determination in samples considered ‘‘difficult’’ to analyze (i.e. solid samples and liquid samples with high concentrations of suspended solids). The results obtained (based on acceptable z...

  6. A Robust PCR Protocol for HIV Drug Resistance Testing on Low-Level Viremia Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivani Gupta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of drug resistance (DR mutations in people with HIV-1 infection, particularly those with low-level viremia (LLV, supports the need to improve the sensitivity of amplification methods for HIV DR genotyping in order to optimize antiretroviral regimen and facilitate HIV-1 DR surveillance and relevant research. Here we report on a fully validated PCR-based protocol that achieves consistent amplification of the protease (PR and reverse transcriptase (RT regions of HIV-1 pol gene across many HIV-1 subtypes from LLV plasma samples. HIV-spiked plasma samples from the External Quality Assurance Program Oversight Laboratory (EQAPOL, covering various HIV-1 subtypes, as well as clinical specimens were used to optimize and validate the protocol. Our results demonstrate that this protocol has a broad HIV-1 subtype coverage and viral load span with high sensitivity and reproducibility. Moreover, the protocol is robust even when plasma sample volumes are limited, the HIV viral load is unknown, and/or the HIV subtype is undetermined. Thus, the protocol is applicable for the initial amplification of the HIV-1 PR and RT genes required for subsequent genotypic DR assays.

  7. A One System Integrated Approach to Simulant Selection for Hanford High Level Waste Mixing and Sampling Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thien, Mike G.; Barnes, Steve M.

    2013-01-01

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capabilities using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This represents one of the largest remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. Previous testing has focused on very specific TOC or WTP test objectives and consequently the simulants were narrowly focused on those test needs. A key attribute in the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 2010-2 is to ensure testing is performed with a simulant that represents the broad spectrum of Hanford waste. The One System Integrated Project Team is a new joint TOC and WTP organization intended to ensure technical integration of specific TOC and WTP systems and testing. A new approach to simulant definition has been mutually developed that will meet both TOC and WTP test objectives for the delivery and receipt of HLW. The process used to identify critical simulant characteristics, incorporate lessons learned from previous testing, and identify specific simulant targets that ensure TOC and WTP testing addresses the broad spectrum of Hanford waste characteristics that are important to mixing, sampling, and transfer performance are described

  8. Pumping test and fluid sampling report - Mansfield No. 1 (PD-4) well, Palo Duro Basin, Texas: unanalyzed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This report contains pumping test and fluid sampling data collected at Mansfield No. 1 well, located in Oldham County, in the Permian Basin of Texas. These data were collected by Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation to support studies of fluid migration and age relationships in the Permian Basin. The testing and sampling took place between October 1981 and October 1982. These data are preliminary. They have been neither analyzed nor evaluated. 4 references, 8 figures, 2 tables

  9. Initial testing of TiB2 and TiC coated limiters in ISX-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langley, R.A.; Emerson, R.A.; Whitley, J.B.; Mullendore, A.W.

    1980-01-01

    Low-Z coatings on graphite substrates have been developed for testing as limiters in the Impurity Study Experiment (ISX-B) tokamak. Laboratory and tokamak testings have been accomplished. The laboratory tests included thermal shock experiments by means of pulsed e-beam irradiation, arcing experiments, and hydrogen and xenon ion erosion experiments. The tokamak testing consisted of ohmically heated plasma exposures with energy depositions up to 10 kJ/discharge on the limiters. The coatings, applied by chemical vapor deposition, consisted of TiB 2 and TiC deposited on POCO graphite substrates. The limiter samples were interchanged through the use of a transfer chamber without atmospheric exposure of the ISX-B tokamak. Limiter samples were baked out in the transfer chamber before use in the tokamak. Provisions for both heating and cooling the limiter during tokamak discharge were made. Initial testing of the limiter samples consisted of exposure to only ohmically heated plasma; subsequent testing will be performed in neutral-beam-heated plasmas having up to 3 MW of injected power. Bulk and surface temperatures of the samples were measured to allow the determination of energy deposition. Extensive plasma and edge diagnostics were used to evaluate the effect of the limiter on the plasma (e.g. vacuum ultraviolet spectrometry to determine plasma impurity concentrations, Thomson scattering to determine Z effective, IR camera to measure limiter surface temperature, and laser fluorescence spectrometry to determine neutral impurity concentration and velocity distribution in the limiter region). (orig.)

  10. Chemical composition analysis and product consistency tests supporting refinement of the Nepheline Model for the high aluminum Hanford glass composition region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Mcclane, D. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    In this report, Savannah River National Laboratory provides chemical analyses and Product Consistency Test (PCT) results for a series of simulated high level waste (HLW) glasses fabricated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) as part of an ongoing nepheline crystallization study. The results of these analyses will be used to improve the ability to predict crystallization of nepheline as a function of composition and heat treatment for glasses formulated at high alumina concentrations.

  11. Testing smooth and notched samples for identification of brittle material fracture mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, S.M.; Ivanov, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Mechanical tests of cermet made of LaCrO 3 and Cr powder mixture in 3:2 mass ratio were conducted in LaCrO 3 -Cr system. Powder mixtures were exposed to static pressing and sintering (sintered cermets) or to high-speed pressing with following thermal treatment (high-speed pressing cermets). It is shown, that nonlinear deformation strength at deformation of brittle material smooth and notched samples allows to evaluate properly correlation of microplasticity and microcracking at brittle powder materials fracture

  12. Performance test of SAUNA xenon mobile sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Dan; Yang Bin; Yang Weigeng; Jia Huaimao; Wang Shilian; Li Qi; Zhao Yungang; Fan Yuanqing; Chen Zhanying; Chang Yinzhong; Liu Shujiang; Zhang Xinjun; Wang Jun

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the structure and basic functions of SAUNA noble gas xenon mobile sampling system are introduced. The sampling capability of this system is about 2.2 mL per day, as a result from a 684-h operation. The system can be transported to designated locations conveniently to collect xenon sample for routine or emergency environment monitoring. (authors)

  13. Choice of Sample Split in Out-of-Sample Forecast Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Timmermann, Allan

    , while conversely the power of forecast evaluation tests is strongest with long out-of-sample periods. To deal with size distortions, we propose a test statistic that is robust to the effect of considering multiple sample split points. Empirical applications to predictabil- ity of stock returns......Out-of-sample tests of forecast performance depend on how a given data set is split into estimation and evaluation periods, yet no guidance exists on how to choose the split point. Empirical forecast evaluation results can therefore be difficult to interpret, particularly when several values...... and inflation demonstrate that out-of-sample forecast evaluation results can critically depend on how the sample split is determined....

  14. Advanced computer-controlled automatic alpha-beta air sample counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, W.P.; Bruinekool, D.J.; Stapleton, E.E.

    1983-01-01

    An improved computer controlled automatic alpha-beta air sample counter was developed, based upon an earlier automatic air sample counter design. The system consists of an automatic sample changer, an electronic counting system utilizing a large silicon diode detector, a small desk-type microcomputer, a high speed matrix printer, and the necessary data interfaces. The system is operated by commands from the keyboard and programs stored on magnetic tape cassettes. The programs provide for background counting, Chi 2 test, radon subtraction, and sample counting for sample periods of one day to one week. Output data are printed by the matrix printer on standard multifold paper. The data output includes gross beta, gross alpha, and plutonium results. Data are automatically corrected for background, counter efficiency, and in the gross alpha and plutonium channels, for the presence of radon

  15. The test of variables of attention (TOVA): Internal consistency (Q1 vs. Q2 and Q3 vs. Q4) in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The internal consistency of the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) was examined in a cohort of 6- to 12-year-old children (N = 63) strictly diagnosed with ADHD. The internal consistency of errors of omission (OMM), errors of commission (COM), response time (RT), and response time variability (RTV...

  16. Sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotay, Steven J; Cook, Jo Marie

    2015-05-13

    Proper sampling and sample processing in pesticide residue analysis of food and soil have always been essential to obtain accurate results, but the subject is becoming a greater concern as approximately 100 mg test portions are being analyzed with automated high-throughput analytical methods by agrochemical industry and contract laboratories. As global food trade and the importance of monitoring increase, the food industry and regulatory laboratories are also considering miniaturized high-throughput methods. In conjunction with a summary of the symposium "Residues