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Sample records for test sample study

  1. Test sample handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A test sample handling apparatus using automatic scintillation counting for gamma detection, for use in such fields as radioimmunoassay, is described. The apparatus automatically and continuously counts large numbers of samples rapidly and efficiently by the simultaneous counting of two samples. By means of sequential ordering of non-sequential counting data, it is possible to obtain precisely ordered data while utilizing sample carrier holders having a minimum length. (U.K.)

  2. Analysis of small sample size studies using nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Mallawaarachchi, Indika; Alvarado, Luis A

    2017-06-30

    Experimental studies in biomedical research frequently pose analytical problems related to small sample size. In such studies, there are conflicting findings regarding the choice of parametric and nonparametric analysis, especially with non-normal data. In such instances, some methodologists questioned the validity of parametric tests and suggested nonparametric tests. In contrast, other methodologists found nonparametric tests to be too conservative and less powerful and thus preferred using parametric tests. Some researchers have recommended using a bootstrap test; however, this method also has small sample size limitation. We used a pooled method in nonparametric bootstrap test that may overcome the problem related with small samples in hypothesis testing. The present study compared nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method corresponding to parametric, nonparametric, and permutation tests through extensive simulations under various conditions and using real data examples. The nonparametric pooled bootstrap t-test provided equal or greater power for comparing two means as compared with unpaired t-test, Welch t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and permutation test while maintaining type I error probability for any conditions except for Cauchy and extreme variable lognormal distributions. In such cases, we suggest using an exact Wilcoxon rank sum test. Nonparametric bootstrap paired t-test also provided better performance than other alternatives. Nonparametric bootstrap test provided benefit over exact Kruskal-Wallis test. We suggest using nonparametric bootstrap test with pooled resampling method for comparing paired or unpaired means and for validating the one way analysis of variance test results for non-normal data in small sample size studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Location tests for biomarker studies: a comparison using simulations for the two-sample case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinhardt, M O; Ziegler, A

    2013-01-01

    Gene, protein, or metabolite expression levels are often non-normally distributed, heavy tailed and contain outliers. Standard statistical approaches may fail as location tests in this situation. In three Monte-Carlo simulation studies, we aimed at comparing the type I error levels and empirical power of standard location tests and three adaptive tests [O'Gorman, Can J Stat 1997; 25: 269 -279; Keselman et al., Brit J Math Stat Psychol 2007; 60: 267- 293; Szymczak et al., Stat Med 2013; 32: 524 - 537] for a wide range of distributions. We simulated two-sample scenarios using the g-and-k-distribution family to systematically vary tail length and skewness with identical and varying variability between groups. All tests kept the type I error level when groups did not vary in their variability. The standard non-parametric U-test performed well in all simulated scenarios. It was outperformed by the two non-parametric adaptive methods in case of heavy tails or large skewness. Most tests did not keep the type I error level for skewed data in the case of heterogeneous variances. The standard U-test was a powerful and robust location test for most of the simulated scenarios except for very heavy tailed or heavy skewed data, and it is thus to be recommended except for these cases. The non-parametric adaptive tests were powerful for both normal and non-normal distributions under sample variance homogeneity. But when sample variances differed, they did not keep the type I error level. The parametric adaptive test lacks power for skewed and heavy tailed distributions.

  4. A novel approach for small sample size family-based association studies: sequential tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilk, Ozlem; Rajabli, Farid; Dungul, Dilay Ciglidag; Ozdag, Hilal; Ilk, Hakki Gokhan

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) to overcome the problem of limited samples in studies related to complex genetic diseases. The results of this novel approach are compared with the ones obtained from the traditional transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) on simulated data. Although TDT classifies single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to only two groups (SNPs associated with the disease and the others), SPRT has the flexibility of assigning SNPs to a third group, that is, those for which we do not have enough evidence and should keep sampling. It is shown that SPRT results in smaller ratios of false positives and negatives, as well as better accuracy and sensitivity values for classifying SNPs when compared with TDT. By using SPRT, data with small sample size become usable for an accurate association analysis.

  5. Collecting Samples for Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Creatinine Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D ... that used for CSF in that they require aspiration of a sample of the fluid through a ...

  6. [Utilization of self-sampling kits for HPV testing in cervical cancer screening - pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondryášová, H; Koudeláková, V; Drábek, J; Vaněk, P; Slavkovský, R; Hajdúch, M

    2015-12-01

    To get initial experience with alternative sampling (self-sampling) for HPV testing as the means of cervical cancer screening program. Original work. Institute of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University in Olomouc. Based on expression of interest, 215 self-sampling kits were posted to women. Evalyn(®) Brush Vaginal swabs obtained by self-sampling were analyzed for the presence of HPV infection by Cobas 4800 HPV (Roche) followed by genotyping using PapilloCheck(®) HPV-Screening (Greiner Bio-One). Sixty women randomly chosen from our sample were sent a questionnaire focused on their experience with self-sampling. One hundred seventy-four of 215 (81%) distributed self-sampling devices have been delivered to analysis. All cervicovaginal swabs were sampled correctly and it was possible to analyze them by Cobas 4800 HPV test. Similarly, 98% (171/174) samples were analyzable by PapilloCheck(®) HPV-Screening.One hundred twenty-five (72%) of 174 tested samples were HPV negative. Low risk HPV infection was detected only in 7 samples (4%), and high risk HPV (hrHPV) infection was present in 42 samples (24%). The most frequently detected hrHPV genotypes were HPV16 (11/42; 26%) and HPV53 (6/42; 14%). HrHPV co-infection was detected in 10 cases, in 5 of them lrHPV infection was find also.Of the 60 questionnaires, 48 (80%) were returned. From this group, 47 (98%) women rated their experience with self-sampling device as good to excellent. User manual of self-sampling device was considered good to excellent by all women (100%). All women also rated the convenience of self-sampling device using as good to excellent. As expected, most of the women (n = 42 [88%]) preferred self-sampling to physician sampling. Cervicovaginal self-sampling leads to valid results of HPV screening using two molecular genetics methods and was accepted by Czech women very well. The self-sampling as an opportunity to participate in cervical cancer

  7. Experimental Investigation Of Microbially Induced Corrosion Of Test Samples And Effect Of Self-assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure Of Test Samples To Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, And Biochemical Studies

    CERN Document Server

    Laurinavichius, K S

    1998-01-01

    Experimental Investigation Of Microbially Induced Corrosion Of Test Samples And Effect Of Self-assembled Hydrophobic Monolayers. Exposure Of Test Samples To Continuous Microbial Cultures, Chemical Analysis, And Biochemical Studies

  8. DWPF Sample Vial Insert Study-Statistical Analysis of DWPF Mock-Up Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, S.P. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-09-18

    This report is prepared as part of Technical/QA Task Plan WSRC-RP-97-351 which was issued in response to Technical Task Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-970132 submitted by DWPF. Presented in this report is a statistical analysis of DWPF Mock-up test data for evaluation of two new analytical methods which use insert samples from the existing HydragardTM sampler. The first is a new hydrofluoric acid based method called the Cold Chemical Method (Cold Chem) and the second is a modified fusion method.Either new DWPF analytical method could result in a two to three fold improvement in sample analysis time.Both new methods use the existing HydragardTM sampler to collect a smaller insert sample from the process sampling system. The insert testing methodology applies to the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) and the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) samples.The insert sample is named after the initial trials which placed the container inside the sample (peanut) vials. Samples in small 3 ml containers (Inserts) are analyzed by either the cold chemical method or a modified fusion method. The current analytical method uses a HydragardTM sample station to obtain nearly full 15 ml peanut vials. The samples are prepared by a multi-step process for Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis by drying, vitrification, grinding and finally dissolution by either mixed acid or fusion. In contrast, the insert sample is placed directly in the dissolution vessel, thus eliminating the drying, vitrification and grinding operations for the Cold chem method. Although the modified fusion still requires drying and calcine conversion, the process is rapid due to the decreased sample size and that no vitrification step is required.A slurry feed simulant material was acquired from the TNX pilot facility from the test run designated as PX-7.The Mock-up test data were gathered on the basis of a statistical design presented in SRT-SCS-97004 (Rev. 0). Simulant PX-7 samples were taken in the DWPF Analytical Cell Mock

  9. DWPF Sample Vial Insert Study-Statistical Analysis of DWPF Mock-Up Test Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.P.

    1997-01-01

    This report is prepared as part of Technical/QA Task Plan WSRC-RP-97-351 which was issued in response to Technical Task Request HLW/DWPF/TTR-970132 submitted by DWPF. Presented in this report is a statistical analysis of DWPF Mock-up test data for evaluation of two new analytical methods which use insert samples from the existing HydragardTM sampler. The first is a new hydrofluoric acid based method called the Cold Chemical Method (Cold Chem) and the second is a modified fusion method.Both new methods use the existing HydragardTM sampler to collect a smaller insert sample from the process sampling system. The insert testing methodology applies to the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) and the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) samples. Samples in small 3 ml containers (Inserts) are analyzed by either the cold chemical method or a modified fusion method. The current analytical method uses a HydragardTM sample station to obtain nearly full 15 ml peanut vials. The samples are prepared by a multi-step process for Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis by drying, vitrification, grinding and finally dissolution by either mixed acid or fusion. In contrast, the insert sample is placed directly in the dissolution vessel, thus eliminating the drying, vitrification and grinding operations for the Cold chem method. Although the modified fusion still requires drying and calcine conversion, the process is rapid due to the decreased sample size and that no vitrification step is required.A slurry feed simulant material was acquired from the TNX pilot facility from the test run designated as PX-7.The Mock-up test data were gathered on the basis of a statistical design presented in SRT-SCS-97004 (Rev. 0). Simulant PX-7 samples were taken in the DWPF Analytical Cell Mock-up Facility using 3 ml inserts and 15 ml peanut vials. A number of the insert samples were analyzed by Cold Chem and compared with full peanut vial samples analyzed by the current methods. The remaining inserts were analyzed by

  10. On sample size of the kruskal-wallis test with application to a mouse peritoneal cavity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunpeng; Zhang, Donghui; Zhang, Cun-Hui

    2011-03-01

    As the nonparametric generalization of the one-way analysis of variance model, the Kruskal-Wallis test applies when the goal is to test the difference between multiple samples and the underlying population distributions are nonnormal or unknown. Although the Kruskal-Wallis test has been widely used for data analysis, power and sample size methods for this test have been investigated to a much lesser extent. This article proposes new power and sample size calculation methods for the Kruskal-Wallis test based on the pilot study in either a completely nonparametric model or a semiparametric location model. No assumption is made on the shape of the underlying population distributions. Simulation results show that, in terms of sample size calculation for the Kruskal-Wallis test, the proposed methods are more reliable and preferable to some more traditional methods. A mouse peritoneal cavity study is used to demonstrate the application of the methods. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  11. Tests on standard concrete samples

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1973-01-01

    Compression and tensile tests on standard concrete samples. The use of centrifugal force in tensile testing has been developed by the SB Division and the instruments were built in the Central workshops.

  12. Gleeble Testing of Tungsten Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    temperature on an Instron load frame with a 222.41 kN (50 kip) load cell . The samples were compressed at the same strain rate as on the Gleeble...ID % RE Initial Density (cm 3 ) Density after Compression (cm 3 ) % Change in Density Test Temperature NT1 0 18.08 18.27 1.06 1000 NT3 0...4.1 Nano-Tungsten The results for the compression of the nano-tungsten samples are shown in tables 2 and 3 and figure 5. During testing, sample NT1

  13. A new technique for testing distribution of knowledge and to estimate sampling sufficiency in ethnobiology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Thiago Antonio Sousa; Almeida, Alyson Luiz Santos; Melo, Joabe Gomes; Medeiros, Maria Franco Trindade; Ramos, Marcelo Alves; Silva, Rafael Ricardo Vasconcelos; Almeida, Cecília Fátima Castelo Branco Rangel; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-03-15

    We propose a new quantitative measure that enables the researcher to make decisions and test hypotheses about the distribution of knowledge in a community and estimate the richness and sharing of information among informants. In our study, this measure has two levels of analysis: intracultural and intrafamily. Using data collected in northeastern Brazil, we evaluated how these new estimators of richness and sharing behave for different categories of use. We observed trends in the distribution of the characteristics of informants. We were also able to evaluate how outliers interfere with these analyses and how other analyses may be conducted using these indices, such as determining the distance between the knowledge of a community and that of experts, as well as exhibiting the importance of these individuals' communal information of biological resources. One of the primary applications of these indices is to supply the researcher with an objective tool to evaluate the scope and behavior of the collected data.

  14. Evaluation of a low-cost liquid-based Pap test in rural El Salvador: a split-sample study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jin; Cremer, Miriam; Maza, Mauricio; Alfaro, Karla; Felix, Juan C

    2014-04-01

    We sought to test the diagnostic efficacy of a low-cost, liquid-based cervical cytology that could be implemented in low-resource settings. A prospective, split-sample Pap study was performed in 595 women attending a cervical cancer screening clinic in rural El Salvador. Collected cervical samples were used to make a conventional Pap (cell sample directly to glass slide), whereas residual material was used to make the liquid-based sample using the ClearPrep method. Selected samples were tested from the residual sample of the liquid-based collection for the presence of high-risk Human papillomaviruses. Of 595 patients, 570 were interpreted with the same diagnosis between the 2 methods (95.8% agreement). There were comparable numbers of unsatisfactory cases; however, ClearPrep significantly increased detection of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and decreased the diagnoses of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. ClearPrep identified an equivalent number of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cases as the conventional Pap. High-risk human papillomavirus was identified in all cases of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cancer as well as in 78% of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions out of the residual fluid of the ClearPrep vials. The low-cost ClearPrep Pap test demonstrated equivalent detection of squamous intraepithelial lesions when compared with the conventional Pap smear and demonstrated the potential for ancillary molecular testing. The test seems a viable option for implementation in low-resource settings.

  15. Estimating Sample Size for Usability Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Cazañas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available One strategy used to assure that an interface meets user requirements is to conduct usability testing. When conducting such testing one of the unknowns is sample size. Since extensive testing is costly, minimizing the number of participants can contribute greatly to successful resource management of a project. Even though a significant number of models have been proposed to estimate sample size in usability testing, there is still not consensus on the optimal size. Several studies claim that 3 to 5 users suffice to uncover 80% of problems in a software interface. However, many other studies challenge this assertion. This study analyzed data collected from the user testing of a web application to verify the rule of thumb, commonly known as the “magic number 5”. The outcomes of the analysis showed that the 5-user rule significantly underestimates the required sample size to achieve reasonable levels of problem detection.

  16. Community Laboratory Testing for Cryptosporidium: Multicenter Study Retesting Public Health Surveillance Stool Samples Positive for Cryptosporidium by Rapid Cartridge Assay with Direct Fluorescent Antibody Testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn M Roellig

    Full Text Available Cryptosporidium is a common cause of sporadic diarrheal disease and outbreaks in the United States. Increasingly, immunochromatography-based rapid cartridge assays (RCAs are providing community laboratories with a quick cryptosporidiosis diagnostic method. In the current study, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL, and four state health departments evaluated RCA-positive samples obtained during routine Cryptosporidium testing. All samples underwent "head to head" re-testing using both RCA and direct fluorescence assay (DFA. Community level results from three sites indicated that 54.4% (166/305 of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 87.0% (67/77 of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed by DFA. When samples were retested by RCA at state laboratories and compared with DFA, 83.3% (155/186 of Meridian ImmunoCard STAT! positives and 95.2% (60/63 of Remel Xpect positives were confirmed. The percentage of confirmed community results varied by site: Minnesota, 39.0%; New York, 63.9%; and Wisconsin, 72.1%. The percentage of confirmed community results decreased with patient age; 12.5% of community positive tests could be confirmed by DFA for patients 60 years of age or older. The percentage of confirmed results did not differ significantly by sex, storage temperature, time between sample collection and testing, or season. Findings from this study demonstrate a lower confirmation rate of community RCA positives when compared to RCA positives identified at state laboratories. Elucidating the causes of decreased test performance in order to improve overall community laboratory performance of these tests is critical for understanding the epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in the United States (US.

  17. Sampling analytical tests and destructive tests for quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.; Pasquini, S.; Jouan, A.; Angelis, de; Hreen Taywood, H.; Odoj, R.

    1990-01-01

    In the context of the third programme of the European Communities on the monitoring of radioactive waste, various methods have been developed for the performance of sampling and measuring tests on encapsulated waste of low and medium level activity, on the one hand, and of high level activity, on the other hand. The purpose was to provide better quality assurance for products to be stored on an interim or long-term basis. Various testing sampling means are proposed such as: - sampling of raw waste before conditioning and determination of the representative aliquot, - sampling of encapsulated waste on process output, - sampling of core specimens subjected to measurement before and after cutting. Equipment suitable for these sampling procedures have been developed and, in the case of core samples, a comparison of techniques has been made. The results are described for the various analytical tests carried out on the samples such as: - mechanical tests, - radiation resistance, - fire resistance, - lixiviation, - determination of free water, - biodegradation, - water resistance, - chemical and radiochemical analysis. Every time it was possible, these tests were compared with non-destructive tests on full-scale packages and some correlations are given. This word has made if possible to improve and clarify sample optimization, with fine sampling techniques and methodologies and draw up characterization procedures. It also provided an occasion for a first collaboration between the laboratories responsible for these studies and which will be furthered in the scope of the 1990-1994 programme

  18. Self-sampling kits to increase HIV testing among black Africans in the UK: the HAUS mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Maureen; Dodds, Catherine; Mugweni, Esther; McDaid, Lisa; Flowers, Paul; Wayal, Sonali; Zomer, Ella; Weatherburn, Peter; Fakoya, Ibidun; Hartney, Thomas; McDonagh, Lorraine; Hunter, Rachael; Young, Ingrid; Khan, Shabana; Freemantle, Nick; Chwaula, Jabulani; Sachikonye, Memory; Anderson, Jane; Singh, Surinder; Nastouli, Eleni; Rait, Greta; Burns, Fiona

    2018-04-01

    Timely diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) enables access to antiretroviral treatment, which reduces mortality, morbidity and further transmission in people living with HIV. In the UK, late diagnosis among black African people persists. Novel methods to enhance HIV testing in this population are needed. To develop a self-sampling kit (SSK) intervention to increase HIV testing among black Africans, using existing community and health-care settings (stage 1) and to assess the feasibility for a Phase III evaluation (stage 2). A two-stage, mixed-methods design. Stage 1 involved a systematic literature review, focus groups and interviews with key stakeholders and black Africans. Data obtained provided the theoretical base for intervention development and operationalisation. Stage 2 was a prospective, non-randomised study of a provider-initiated, HIV SSK distribution intervention targeted at black Africans. The intervention was assessed for cost-effectiveness. A process evaluation explored feasibility, acceptability and fidelity. Twelve general practices and three community settings in London. HIV SSK return rate. Stage 1 - the systematic review revealed support for HIV SSKs, but with scant evidence on their use and clinical effectiveness among black Africans. Although the qualitative findings supported SSK distribution in settings already used by black Africans, concerns were raised about the complexity of the SSK and the acceptability of targeting. These findings were used to develop a theoretically informed intervention. Stage 2 - of the 349 eligible people approached, 125 (35.8%) agreed to participate. Data from 119 were included in the analysis; 54.5% (65/119) of those who took a kit returned a sample; 83.1% of tests returned were HIV negative; and 16.9% were not processed, because of insufficient samples. Process evaluation showed the time pressures of the research process to be a significant barrier to feasibility. Other major barriers were

  19. Biological Sampling Variability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-11-08

    There are many sources of variability that exist in the sample collection and analysis process. This paper addresses many, but not all, sources of variability. The main focus of this paper was to better understand and estimate variability due to differences between samplers. Variability between days was also studied, as well as random variability within each sampler. Experiments were performed using multiple surface materials (ceramic and stainless steel), multiple contaminant concentrations (10 spores and 100 spores), and with and without the presence of interfering material. All testing was done with sponge sticks using 10-inch by 10-inch coupons. Bacillus atrophaeus was used as the BA surrogate. Spores were deposited using wet deposition. Grime was coated on the coupons which were planned to include the interfering material (Section 3.3). Samples were prepared and analyzed at PNNL using CDC protocol (Section 3.4) and then cultured and counted. Five samplers were trained so that samples were taken using the same protocol. Each sampler randomly sampled eight coupons each day, four coupons with 10 spores deposited and four coupons with 100 spores deposited. Each day consisted of one material being tested. The clean samples (no interfering materials) were run first, followed by the dirty samples (coated with interfering material). There was a significant difference in recovery efficiency between the coupons with 10 spores deposited (mean of 48.9%) and those with 100 spores deposited (mean of 59.8%). There was no general significant difference between the clean and dirty (containing interfering material) coupons or between the two surface materials; however, there was a significant interaction between concentration amount and presence of interfering material. The recovery efficiency was close to the same for coupons with 10 spores deposited, but for the coupons with 100 spores deposited, the recovery efficiency for the dirty samples was significantly larger (65

  20. Development of Whole Slide Imaging on Smartphones and Evaluation With ThinPrep Cytology Test Samples: Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuoxin; Yu, Hong; Jin, Yu-Biao; Zheng, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Background The smartphone-based whole slide imaging (WSI) system represents a low-cost and effective alternative to automatic scanners for telepathology. In a previous study, the development of one such solution, named scalable whole slide imaging (sWSI), was presented and analyzed. A clinical evaluation of its iOS version with 100 frozen section samples verified the diagnosis-readiness of the produced virtual slides. Objective The first aim of this study was to delve into the quantifying issues encountered in the development of an Android version. It should also provide insights into future high-resolution real-time feedback medical imaging apps on Android and invoke the awareness of smartphone manufacturers for collaboration. The second aim of this study was to further verify the clinical value of sWSI with cytology samples. This type is different from the frozen section samples in that they require finer detail on the cellular level. Methods During sWSI development on Android, it was discovered that many models do not support uncompressed camera pixel data with sufficient resolution and full field of view. The proportion of models supporting the optimal format was estimated in a test on 200 mainstream Android models. Other factors, including slower processing speed and camera preview freezing, also led to inferior performance of sWSI on Android compared with the iOS version. The processing speed was mostly determined by the central processing unit frequency in theory, and the relationship was investigated in the 200-model simulation experiment with physical devices. The camera preview freezing was caused by the lag between triggering photo capture and resuming preview. In the clinical evaluation, 100 ThinPrep cytology test samples covering 6 diseases were scanned with sWSI and compared against the ground truth of optical microscopy. Results Among the tested Android models, only 3.0% (6/200) provided an optimal data format, meeting all criteria of quality and

  1. Development of Whole Slide Imaging on Smartphones and Evaluation With ThinPrep Cytology Test Samples: Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Ning; Peng, Xing-Chun; Ma, Shuoxin; Yu, Hong; Jin, Yu-Biao; Zheng, Jun; Fu, Guo-Hui

    2018-04-04

    The smartphone-based whole slide imaging (WSI) system represents a low-cost and effective alternative to automatic scanners for telepathology. In a previous study, the development of one such solution, named scalable whole slide imaging (sWSI), was presented and analyzed. A clinical evaluation of its iOS version with 100 frozen section samples verified the diagnosis-readiness of the produced virtual slides. The first aim of this study was to delve into the quantifying issues encountered in the development of an Android version. It should also provide insights into future high-resolution real-time feedback medical imaging apps on Android and invoke the awareness of smartphone manufacturers for collaboration. The second aim of this study was to further verify the clinical value of sWSI with cytology samples. This type is different from the frozen section samples in that they require finer detail on the cellular level. During sWSI development on Android, it was discovered that many models do not support uncompressed camera pixel data with sufficient resolution and full field of view. The proportion of models supporting the optimal format was estimated in a test on 200 mainstream Android models. Other factors, including slower processing speed and camera preview freezing, also led to inferior performance of sWSI on Android compared with the iOS version. The processing speed was mostly determined by the central processing unit frequency in theory, and the relationship was investigated in the 200-model simulation experiment with physical devices. The camera preview freezing was caused by the lag between triggering photo capture and resuming preview. In the clinical evaluation, 100 ThinPrep cytology test samples covering 6 diseases were scanned with sWSI and compared against the ground truth of optical microscopy. Among the tested Android models, only 3.0% (6/200) provided an optimal data format, meeting all criteria of quality and efficiency. The image-processing speed

  2. STUDIES IN RESEARCH METHODOLOGY. IV. A SAMPLING STUDY OF THE CENTRAL LIMIT THEOREM AND THE ROBUSTNESS OF ONE-SAMPLE PARAMETRIC TESTS,

    Science.gov (United States)

    iconoclastic . Even at N=1024 these departures were quite appreciable at the testing tails, being greatest for chi-square and least for Z, and becoming worse in all cases at increasingly extreme tail areas. (Author)

  3. Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2014-03-01

    Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013

  4. A Shandon PapSpin liquid-based gynecological test: A split-sample and direct-to-vial test with histology follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rimiene J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies for liquid-based Papanicolaou (Pap tests reveal that liquid-based cytology (LBC is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional Pap smear. Although there is research on ThinPrep and SurePath systems, information is lacking to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of systems based on cytocentrifugation. This study is designed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the Shandon PapSpin (ThermoShandon, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA liquid-based gynecological system. We used split-sample and direct-to-vial study design. Materials and Methods: 2,945 women referred to prophylactic check-up were enrolled in this study. Split sample design was used in 1,500 women and residual cervical cytology specimen from all these cases was placed in fluid for PapSpin preparation after performing conventional smear. The direct-to-vial study was carried out in another cohort of 1,445 women in whom the entire cervical material was investigated using only the PapSpin technique. Follow up histological diagnoses for 141 women were obtained from both study arms following 189 abnormal cytology cases. 80 LBC cases from the split sample group and 61 LBC cases in the direct-to-vial group were correlated with the histology results. The sensitivity and secificity of the conventional smear and PapSpin tests in both study arms were compared. Results: In the split sample group, conventional smears showed a higher proportion of ASC-US (atypical cells undetermined significance: 31 (2.1% vs 10 (0.7% in PapSpin (P = 0.001. A higher proportion of unsatisfactory samples was found in the conventional smear group: 25 (1.7% vs 6 (0.4% cases (P = 0.001. In the split sample group, the sensitivity of the conventional and PapSpin tests was 68.7% vs 78.1%, and the specificity 93.8% vs 91.8%, respectively. In the direct to vial group PapSpin sensitivity was 75.9% and specificity 96.5%. The differences in sensitivity and specificity were not significant. The

  5. Emotion Recognition Ability Test Using JACFEE Photos: A Validity/Reliability Study of a War Veterans' Sample and Their Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Vale, Ivone; Severo, Milton; Carvalho, Davide; Mota-Cardoso, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Emotion recognition is very important for social interaction. Several mental disorders influence facial emotion recognition. War veterans and their offspring are subject to an increased risk of developing psychopathology. Emotion recognition is an important aspect that needs to be addressed in this population. To our knowledge, no test exists that is validated for use with war veterans and their offspring. The current study aimed to validate the JACFEE photo set to study facial emotion recognition in war veterans and their offspring. The JACFEE photo set was presented to 135 participants, comprised of 62 male war veterans and 73 war veterans' offspring. The participants identified the facial emotion presented from amongst the possible seven emotions that were tested for: anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. A loglinear model was used to evaluate whether the agreement between the intended and the chosen emotions was higher than the expected. Overall agreement between chosen and intended emotions was 76.3% (Cohen kappa = 0.72). The agreement ranged from 63% (sadness expressions) to 91% (happiness expressions). The reliability by emotion ranged from 0.617 to 0.843 and the overall JACFEE photo set Cronbach alpha was 0.911. The offspring showed higher agreement when compared with the veterans (RR: 41.52 vs 12.12, p < 0.001), which confirms the construct validity of the test. The JACFEE set of photos showed good validity and reliability indices, which makes it an adequate instrument for researching emotion recognition ability in the study sample of war veterans and their respective offspring.

  6. Emotion Recognition Ability Test Using JACFEE Photos: A Validity/Reliability Study of a War Veterans' Sample and Their Offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivone Castro-Vale

    Full Text Available Emotion recognition is very important for social interaction. Several mental disorders influence facial emotion recognition. War veterans and their offspring are subject to an increased risk of developing psychopathology. Emotion recognition is an important aspect that needs to be addressed in this population. To our knowledge, no test exists that is validated for use with war veterans and their offspring. The current study aimed to validate the JACFEE photo set to study facial emotion recognition in war veterans and their offspring. The JACFEE photo set was presented to 135 participants, comprised of 62 male war veterans and 73 war veterans' offspring. The participants identified the facial emotion presented from amongst the possible seven emotions that were tested for: anger, contempt, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, and surprise. A loglinear model was used to evaluate whether the agreement between the intended and the chosen emotions was higher than the expected. Overall agreement between chosen and intended emotions was 76.3% (Cohen kappa = 0.72. The agreement ranged from 63% (sadness expressions to 91% (happiness expressions. The reliability by emotion ranged from 0.617 to 0.843 and the overall JACFEE photo set Cronbach alpha was 0.911. The offspring showed higher agreement when compared with the veterans (RR: 41.52 vs 12.12, p < 0.001, which confirms the construct validity of the test. The JACFEE set of photos showed good validity and reliability indices, which makes it an adequate instrument for researching emotion recognition ability in the study sample of war veterans and their respective offspring.

  7. Laboratory Tests of Bitumen Samples Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziganshin, E. R.; Usmanov, S. A.; Khasanov, D. I.; Khamidullina, G. S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the elastic and acoustic properties of bitumen core samples. The travel velocities of the ultrasonic P- and S-waves were determined under in-situ simulation conditions. The resulting data were then used to calculate dynamic Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. The authors studied the correlation between the elasticity and the permeability and porosity. In addition, the tests looked into how the acoustic properties had changed with temperature rise.

  8. Tests on CANDU fuel elements sheath samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, S.; Uta, O.; Mincu, M.; Prisecaru, I.

    2016-01-01

    This work is a study of the behavior of CANDU fuel elements after irradiation. The tests are made on ring samples taken from fuel cladding in INR Pitesti. This paper presents the results of examinations performed in the Post Irradiation Examination Laboratory. By metallographic and ceramographic examination we determinate that the hydride precipitates are orientated parallel to the cladding surface. A content of hydrogen of about 120 ppm was estimated. After the preliminary tests, ring samples were cut from the fuel rod, and were subject of tensile test on an INSTRON 5569 model machine in order to evaluate the changes of their mechanical properties as consequence of irradiation. Scanning electron microscopy was performed on a microscope model TESCAN MIRA II LMU CS with Schottky FE emitter and variable pressure. The analysis shows that the central zone has deeper dimples, whereas on the outer zone, the dimples are tilted and smaller. (authors)

  9. A prospective cohort study of light transmission platelet aggregometry for bleeding disorders: is testing native platelet-rich plasma non-inferior to testing platelet count adjusted samples?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilloux, Jean Francois; Moffat, Karen A; Liu, Yang; Seecharan, Jodi; Pai, Menaka; Hayward, Catherine P M

    2011-10-01

    Light transmission platelet aggregometry (LTA) is important to diagnose bleeding disorders. Experts recommend testing LTA with native (N) rather than platelet count adjusted (A) platelet-rich plasma (PRP), although it is unclear if this provides non-inferior, or superior, detection of bleeding disorders. Our goal was to determine if LTA with NPRP is non-inferior to LTA with APRP for bleeding disorder assessments. A prospective cohort of patients, referred for bleeding disorder testing, and healthy controls, were evaluated by LTA using common agonists, NPRP and APRP (adjusted to 250 x 10⁹ platelets/l). Recruitment continued until 40 controls and 40 patients with definite bleeding disorders were tested. Maximal aggregation (MA) data were assessed for the detection of abnormalities from bleeding disorders (all causes combined to limit bias), using sample-type specific reference intervals. Areas under receiver-operator curves (AUROC) were evaluated using pre-defined criteria (area differences: 0 for superiority). Forty-four controls and 209 patients were evaluated. Chart reviews for 169 patients indicated 67 had bleeding disorders, 28 from inherited platelet secretion defects. Mean MA differences between NPRP and APRP were small for most agonists (ranges, controls: -3.3 to 5.8; patients: -3.0 to 13.7). With both samples, reduced MA with two or more agonists was associated with a bleeding disorder. AUROC differences between NPRP and APRP were small and indicated that NPRP were non-inferior to APRP for detecting bleeding disorders by LTA, whereas APRP met superiority criteria. Our study validates using either NPRP or APRP for LTA assessments of bleeding disorders.

  10. NH4NO3 extractable trace element contents of soil samples prepared for proficiency testing--a stability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traub, H; Scharf, H

    2001-06-01

    In view of its intended use as a sample for proficiency testing or as a reference material the stability of the extractable trace element contents of a soil from an irrigation field was tested using the extraction with 1 mol/L ammonium nitrate solution according to DIN 19730. Therefore, changes of the extractability of sterilized and non sterilized soil samples stored at different temperatures were evaluated over a period of 18 months. Sets of bottles were kept at -20 degrees C, +4 degrees C, about +20 degrees C and +40 degrees C, respectively. The NH4NO3 extractable contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined immediately after bottling and then after 3, 6, 12 and 18 months with ICP-AES or ETAAS. Appropriate storage conditions are of utmost importance to prevent deterioration of soil samples prepared for the determination of NH4NO3 extractable trace element contents. Temperatures above +20 degrees C must be avoided. The observed changes in the extractability of the metals (especially for Cr and Cu) most likely could be related to thermal degradation of the organic matter of the soil. There is no need to sterilize dry soil samples, because microbiological activity in soils with a low moisture content appears to be negligible with regard to trace element mobilization.

  11. Sensitivity and specificity of normality tests and consequences on reference interval accuracy at small sample size: a computer-simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boedec, Kevin

    2016-12-01

    According to international guidelines, parametric methods must be chosen for RI construction when the sample size is small and the distribution is Gaussian. However, normality tests may not be accurate at small sample size. The purpose of the study was to evaluate normality test performance to properly identify samples extracted from a Gaussian population at small sample sizes, and assess the consequences on RI accuracy of applying parametric methods to samples that falsely identified the parent population as Gaussian. Samples of n = 60 and n = 30 values were randomly selected 100 times from simulated Gaussian, lognormal, and asymmetric populations of 10,000 values. The sensitivity and specificity of 4 normality tests were compared. Reference intervals were calculated using 6 different statistical methods from samples that falsely identified the parent population as Gaussian, and their accuracy was compared. Shapiro-Wilk and D'Agostino-Pearson tests were the best performing normality tests. However, their specificity was poor at sample size n = 30 (specificity for P Box-Cox transformation) on all samples regardless of their distribution or adjusting, the significance level of normality tests depending on sample size would limit the risk of constructing inaccurate RI. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  12. Acceptance test procedure for core sample trucks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smalley, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure is to provide instruction and documentation for acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks, HO-68K-4600 and HO-68K-4647. The rotary mode core sample trucks were based upon the design of the second core sample truck (HO-68K-4345) which was constructed to implement rotary mode sampling of the waste tanks at Hanford. Acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks will verify that the design requirements have been met. All testing will be non-radioactive and stand-in materials shall be used to simulate waste tank conditions. Compressed air will be substituted for nitrogen during the majority of testing, with nitrogen being used only for flow characterization

  13. Respondent-Driven SamplingTesting Assumptions: Sampling with Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barash Vladimir D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Classical Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS estimators are based on a Markov Process model in which sampling occurs with replacement. Given that respondents generally cannot be interviewed more than once, this assumption is counterfactual. We join recent work by Gile and Handcock in exploring the implications of the sampling-with-replacement assumption for bias of RDS estimators. We differ from previous studies in examining a wider range of sampling fractions and in using not only simulations but also formal proofs. One key finding is that RDS estimates are surprisingly stable even in the presence of substantial sampling fractions. Our analyses show that the sampling-with-replacement assumption is a minor contributor to bias for sampling fractions under 40%, and bias is negligible for the 20% or smaller sampling fractions typical of field applications of RDS.

  14. Airflow Test of Acoustic Board Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Jensen, Lise Mellergaard

    In the laboratory of Indoor Environmental Engineering, Department of Civil Engineering, Aalborg University an airflow test on 2x10 samples of acoustic board were carried out the 2nd of June 2012. The tests were carried out for Rambøll and STO AG. The test includes connected values of volume flow...

  15. 30 CFR 14.5 - Test samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... MINING PRODUCTS REQUIREMENTS FOR THE APPROVAL OF FLAME-RESISTANT CONVEYOR BELTS General Provisions § 14.5 Test samples. Upon request by MSHA, the applicant must submit 3 precut, unrolled, flat conveyor belt...

  16. Testing a groundwater sampling tool: Are the samples representative?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaback, D.S.; Bergren, C.L.; Carlson, C.A.; Carlson, C.L.

    1989-01-01

    A ground water sampling tool, the HydroPunch trademark, was tested at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina to determine if representative ground water samples could be obtained without installing monitoring wells. Chemical analyses of ground water samples collected with the HydroPunch trademark from various depths within a borehole were compared with chemical analyses of ground water from nearby monitoring wells. The site selected for the test was in the vicinity of a large coal storage pile and a coal pile runoff basin that was constructed to collect the runoff from the coal storage pile. Existing monitoring wells in the area indicate the presence of a ground water contaminant plume that: (1) contains elevated concentrations of trace metals; (2) has an extremely low pH; and (3) contains elevated concentrations of major cations and anions. Ground water samples collected with the HydroPunch trademark provide in excellent estimate of ground water quality at discrete depths. Groundwater chemical data collected from various depths using the HydroPunch trademark can be averaged to simulate what a screen zone in a monitoring well would sample. The averaged depth-discrete data compared favorably with the data obtained from the nearby monitoring wells

  17. Longitudinal Study of Hepatitis A Infection by Saliva Sampling: The Kinetics of HAV Markers in Saliva Revealed the Application of Saliva Tests for Hepatitis A Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amado Leon, Luciane Almeida; de Almeida, Adilson José; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Tourinho, Renata Santos; Villela, Daniel Antunes Maciel; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing numbers of studies investigating hepatitis A diagnostic through saliva, the frequency and the pattern of hepatitis A virus (HAV) markers in this fluid still remains unknown. To address this issue, we carried on a longitudinal study to examine the kinetics of HAV markers in saliva, in comparison with serum samples. The present study followed-up ten patients with acute hepatitis A infection during 180 days post diagnosis (dpd). Total anti-HAV was detected in paired serum and saliva samples until the end of the follow-up, showing a peak titer at 90th. However, total anti-HAV level was higher in serum than in saliva samples. This HAV marker showed a probability of 100% to be detected in both serum and saliva during 180 dpd. The IgM anti-HAV could be detected in saliva up to 150 dpd, showing the highest frequency at 30th, when it was detected in all individuals. During the first month of HAV infection, this acute HAV marker showed a detection probability of 100% in paired samples. The detection of IgM anti-HAV in saliva was not dependent on its level in serum, HAV-RNA detection and/or viral load, since no association was found between IgM anti-HAV positivity in saliva and any of these parameter (p>0.05). Most of the patients (80%) were found to contain HAV-RNA in saliva, mainly at early acute phase (30th day). However, it was possible to demonstrate the HAV RNA presence in paired samples for more than 90 days, even after seroconversion. No significant relationship was observed between salivary HAV-RNA positivity and serum viral load, demonstrating that serum viral load is not predictive of HAV-RNA detection in saliva. Similar viral load was seen in paired samples (on average 104 copies/mL). These data demonstrate that the best diagnostic coverage can be achieved by salivary anti-HAV antibodies and HAV-RNA tests during 30–90 dpd. The long detection and high probability of specific-HAV antibodies positivity in saliva samples make the assessment of

  18. Outgassing tests on iras solar panel samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premat, G.; Zwaal, A.; Pennings, N. H.

    1980-01-01

    Several outgassing tests were carried out on representative solar panel samples in order to determine the extent of contamination that could be expected from this source. The materials for the construction of the solar panels were selected as a result of contamination obtained in micro volatile condensable materials tests.

  19. Study of the effects of low-fluence laser irradiation on wall paintings: Test measurements on fresco model samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raimondi, Valentina, E-mail: v.raimondi@ifac.cnr.it [‘Nello Carrara’Applied Physics Institute-National Research Council of Italy (CNR-IFAC), Firenze (Italy); Cucci, Costanza [‘Nello Carrara’Applied Physics Institute-National Research Council of Italy (CNR-IFAC), Firenze (Italy); Cuzman, Oana [Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage-National Research Council (CNR-ICVBC), Firenze (Italy); Fornacelli, Cristina [‘Nello Carrara’Applied Physics Institute-National Research Council of Italy (CNR-IFAC), Firenze (Italy); Galeotti, Monica [Opificio delle Pietre Dure (OPD), Firenze (Italy); Gomoiu, Ioana [National University of Art, Bucharest (Romania); Lognoli, David [‘Nello Carrara’Applied Physics Institute-National Research Council of Italy (CNR-IFAC), Firenze (Italy); Mohanu, Dan [National University of Art, Bucharest (Romania); Palombi, Lorenzo; Picollo, Marcello [‘Nello Carrara’Applied Physics Institute-National Research Council of Italy (CNR-IFAC), Firenze (Italy); Tiano, Piero [Institute for the Conservation and Promotion of Cultural Heritage-National Research Council (CNR-ICVBC), Firenze (Italy)

    2013-11-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence is widely applied in several fields as a diagnostic tool to characterise organic and inorganic materials and could be also exploited for non-invasive remote investigation of wall paintings using the fluorescence lidar technique. The latter relies on the use of a low-fluence pulsed UV laser and a telescope to carry out remote spectroscopy on a given target. A first step to investigate the applicability of this technique is to assess the effects of low-fluence laser radiation on wall paintings. This paper presents a study devoted to investigate the effects of pulsed UV laser radiation on a set of fresco model samples prepared using different pigments. To irradiate the samples we used a tripled-frequency Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (emission wavelength: 355 nm; pulse width: 5 ns). We varied the laser fluence from 0.1 mJ/cm{sup 2} to 1 mJ/cm{sup 2} and the number of laser pulses from 1 to 500 shots. We characterised the investigated materials using several diagnostic and analytical techniques (colorimetry, optical microscopy, fibre optical reflectance spectroscopy and ATR-FT-IR microscopy) to compare the surface texture and their composition before and after laser irradiation. Results open good prospects for a non-invasive investigation of wall paintings using the fluorescence lidar technique.

  20. Study of the effects of low-fluence laser irradiation on wall paintings: Test measurements on fresco model samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Valentina; Cucci, Costanza; Cuzman, Oana; Fornacelli, Cristina; Galeotti, Monica; Gomoiu, Ioana; Lognoli, David; Mohanu, Dan; Palombi, Lorenzo; Picollo, Marcello; Tiano, Piero

    2013-11-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence is widely applied in several fields as a diagnostic tool to characterise organic and inorganic materials and could be also exploited for non-invasive remote investigation of wall paintings using the fluorescence lidar technique. The latter relies on the use of a low-fluence pulsed UV laser and a telescope to carry out remote spectroscopy on a given target. A first step to investigate the applicability of this technique is to assess the effects of low-fluence laser radiation on wall paintings. This paper presents a study devoted to investigate the effects of pulsed UV laser radiation on a set of fresco model samples prepared using different pigments. To irradiate the samples we used a tripled-frequency Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (emission wavelength: 355 nm; pulse width: 5 ns). We varied the laser fluence from 0.1 mJ/cm2 to 1 mJ/cm2 and the number of laser pulses from 1 to 500 shots. We characterised the investigated materials using several diagnostic and analytical techniques (colorimetry, optical microscopy, fibre optical reflectance spectroscopy and ATR-FT-IR microscopy) to compare the surface texture and their composition before and after laser irradiation. Results open good prospects for a non-invasive investigation of wall paintings using the fluorescence lidar technique.

  1. Study of the effects of low-fluence laser irradiation on wall paintings: Test measurements on fresco model samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondi, Valentina; Cucci, Costanza; Cuzman, Oana; Fornacelli, Cristina; Galeotti, Monica; Gomoiu, Ioana; Lognoli, David; Mohanu, Dan; Palombi, Lorenzo; Picollo, Marcello; Tiano, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Laser-induced fluorescence is widely applied in several fields as a diagnostic tool to characterise organic and inorganic materials and could be also exploited for non-invasive remote investigation of wall paintings using the fluorescence lidar technique. The latter relies on the use of a low-fluence pulsed UV laser and a telescope to carry out remote spectroscopy on a given target. A first step to investigate the applicability of this technique is to assess the effects of low-fluence laser radiation on wall paintings. This paper presents a study devoted to investigate the effects of pulsed UV laser radiation on a set of fresco model samples prepared using different pigments. To irradiate the samples we used a tripled-frequency Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (emission wavelength: 355 nm; pulse width: 5 ns). We varied the laser fluence from 0.1 mJ/cm 2 to 1 mJ/cm 2 and the number of laser pulses from 1 to 500 shots. We characterised the investigated materials using several diagnostic and analytical techniques (colorimetry, optical microscopy, fibre optical reflectance spectroscopy and ATR-FT-IR microscopy) to compare the surface texture and their composition before and after laser irradiation. Results open good prospects for a non-invasive investigation of wall paintings using the fluorescence lidar technique.

  2. Delayed Measurement of Eosin-5'-Maleimide Binding May Affect the Test Results of Highly Hemolyzed Samples In Vivo and In Vitro-A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Olga; Adamowicz-Salach, Anna; Zdziechowicz, Izabela; Kotuła, Iwona

    2016-11-01

    Diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is based on clinical evaluation and eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) test. A decrease in EMA fluorescence compared with healthy individuals is typical for HS and serves as a basis for HS diagnosis. Sensitivity and specificity of the test is high and false-positive results rarely occur. Studies have shown that anticoagulated blood sample when stored at 4°C for 7 days do not affect the test results. This case study is about an autoimmune hemolytic anemia patient who showed a primary positive result for EMA test (decrease in EMA fluorescence-47% compared with 100% for samples of healthy individual), when the test was performed in the sample stored for 48 hours after venipuncture and before staining. An irrelevant decrease (92.5% compared with 100% for samples of healthy individual) was found when freshly collected sample was analyzed. On the basis of the results obtained, it is recommended that EMA staining should be performed on the same day of blood collection for patients with significant hemolysis.

  3. Forward selection two sample binomial test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Fai; Wong, Weng-Kee; Lin, Miao-Shan

    2016-01-01

    Fisher’s exact test (FET) is a conditional method that is frequently used to analyze data in a 2 × 2 table for small samples. This test is conservative and attempts have been made to modify the test to make it less conservative. For example, Crans and Shuster (2008) proposed adding more points in the rejection region to make the test more powerful. We provide another way to modify the test to make it less conservative by using two independent binomial distributions as the reference distribution for the test statistic. We compare our new test with several methods and show that our test has advantages over existing methods in terms of control of the type 1 and type 2 errors. We reanalyze results from an oncology trial using our proposed method and our software which is freely available to the reader. PMID:27335577

  4. [The comparative study of specificity of test-systems in diagnostic of HIV-infection on categories of samples of blood serum of pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharipova, I N; Khodak, N M; Puzirev, V F; Burkov, A N; Ulanova, T I

    2015-03-01

    The detection of false positive serological reactions (FPSR) on HIV-infection under screening examination of pregnant women is an actual problem of practical health care. The original observations testify that under analysis of the same samples of blood serum of pregnant women using screening immune enzyme test-systems of various manufacturers the unmatched data concerning FPSR can be obtained. The purpose of this study was to implement comparative evaluation of specificity of immune enzyme test-systems of three different manufacturers: "DS-IFA-HIV-AGAT-SCREEN" ("Diagnostic Systems"), "Genscreen Ultra HIV Ag-Ab" "Bio Rad" France) and "The CombiBest HIV-1,2 AG/AT" ("Vector-Best" Novosibirsk). The sampling of 440 samples of blood serums of pregnant women from various medical institutions of Nizhnii Novgorod was analyzed. The results of the study demonstrated that FPSR were detected in all test-systems and at that spectrum of samples differed. The identical specificity of compared test-systems amounted to 98.64%. The alternative approach to FPSR to HIV issue under screening examinations of pregnant women was proposed. The proposed mode consisted of consistent application of two test-systems of fourth generation with different format of setup of reaction.

  5. β-trace protein as a diagnostic marker for perilymphatic fluid fistula: a prospective controlled pilot study to test a sample collection technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann-Harildstad, Gregor; Stenklev, Niels Christian; Myrvoll, Elin; Jablonski, Greg; Klingenberg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of perilymphatic fluid (PLF) fistula is still challenging. Perilymphatic fluid fistula is one possible complication after stapedotomy or cochlear implant surgery. We have performed a prospective diagnostic pilot study to further investigate β-trace protein (β-TP) as a marker for PLF fistula. In this pilot study, we tested the sensitivity of the β-TP marker using a simple method for sample collection from the tympanic cavity. Prospective controlled diagnostic study. Two-center tertiary referral hospitals. A total of 35 adult patients undergoing ear surgery were included. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: 1) 19 patients undergoing stapedotomy were investigated for PLF fistula in samples obtained from the tympanic cavity and 2) 16 patients undergoing myringoplasty were investigated for PLF fistula in samples from the tympanic cavity. This group served as the control. Mean age +/- SD at surgery was 49.9 +/- 8.0 years in the study group and 39.69 +/- 15.47 years in the control group. β-Trace protein (prostaglandin D synthase) in tympanic cavity samples and serum samples was analyzed. The samples were collected by gradually filling the tympanic cavity with 100 to 200 μl sodium chloride and by immediately collecting a volume of 60 to 100 μl in a mucus specimen set container. The concentration of β-TP was quantified using laser nephelometry. The median β-TP in the study group was 0.8 mg/L (range, 0.05-4.5 mg/L). In the control group, the median β-TP value was 0.16 mg/L (range, 0.01-0.36 mg/L). Thirty-five percent of the values in the study group were below the highest value in the negative control group. The β-TP values of the tympanic cavity samples were significantly higher in the study group than in controls (p = 0.0001). The serum values were 0.55 +/- 0.18 and 0.53 +/- 0.11 mg/L, respectively. It may be feasible to test for PLF fistula using β-TP in samples from the tympanic cavity. Our results, however, suggest a relative low diagnostic

  6. Mixing and sampling tests for Radiochemical Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehinger, M.N.; Marfin, H.R.; Hunt, B.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes results and test procedures used to evaluate uncertainly and basis effects introduced by the sampler systems of a radiochemical plant, and similar parameters associated with mixing. This report will concentrate on experiences at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant. Mixing and sampling tests can be conducted to establish the statistical parameters for those activities related to overall measurement uncertainties. Density measurements by state-of-the art, commercially availability equipment is the key to conducting those tests. Experience in the U.S. suggests the statistical contribution of mixing and sampling can be controlled to less than 0.01 % and with new equipment and new tests in operating facilities might be controlled to better accuracy [ru

  7. A pilot study of community-based self-sampling for HPV testing among non-attenders of cervical cancer screening programs in El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskow, Bari; Figueroa, Ruben; Alfaro, Karla M; Scarinci, Isabel C; Conlisk, Elizabeth; Maza, Mauricio; Chang, Judy C; Cremer, Miriam

    2017-08-01

    To establish the feasibility and acceptability of home-based HPV self-sampling among women who did not attend screening appointments in rural El Salvador. In a cross-sectional study, data were collected from May 2015 to January 2016 among 60 women aged 30-59 years who were not pregnant, provided informed consent, had not been screened in 2 years, had no history of pre-cancer treatment, and did not attend a scheduled HPV screening. Participants completed questionnaires and received educational information before being given an opportunity to self-sample with the Hybrid Capture 2 High Risk HPV DNA Test. Self-sampling was accepted by 41 (68%) participants. Almost all women chose to self-sample because the process was easy (40/41, 98%), could be performed at home (40/41, 98%), and saved time (38/41, 93%), and because they felt less embarrassed (33/41, 80%). The most common reason for declining the test was not wanting to be screened (8/19, 42%). The prevalence of high-risk HPV types among women who accepted self-sampling was 17% (7/41). For most women, community-based self-sampling was an acceptable way to participate in a cervical cancer screening program. In low-resource countries, incorporating community-based self-sampling into screening programs might improve coverage of high-risk women. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  8. Lunar sample studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Lunar samples discussed and the nature of their analyses are: (1) an Apollo 15 breccia which is thoroughly analyzed as to the nature of the mature regolith from which it derived and the time and nature of the lithification process, (2) two Apollo 11 and one Apollo 12 basalts analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography, (3) eight Apollo 17 mare basalts, also analyzed in terms of chemistry, Cross-Iddings-Pirsson-Washington norms, mineralogy, and petrography. The first seven are shown to be chemically similar although of two main textural groups; the eighth is seen to be distinct in both chemistry and mineralogy, (4) a troctolitic clast from a Fra Mauro breccia, analyzed and contrasted with other high-temperature lunar mineral assemblages. Two basaltic clasts from the same breccia are shown to have affinities with rock 14053, and (5) the uranium-thorium-lead systematics of three Apollo 16 samples are determined; serious terrestrial-lead contamination of the first two samples is attributed to bandsaw cutting in the lunar curatorial facility

  9. Computing power and sample size for case-control association studies with copy number polymorphism: application of mixture-based likelihood ratio test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonkuk Kim

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that copy number polymorphisms (CNPs may play an important role in disease susceptibility and onset. Currently, the detection of CNPs mainly depends on microarray technology. For case-control studies, conventionally, subjects are assigned to a specific CNP category based on the continuous quantitative measure produced by microarray experiments, and cases and controls are then compared using a chi-square test of independence. The purpose of this work is to specify the likelihood ratio test statistic (LRTS for case-control sampling design based on the underlying continuous quantitative measurement, and to assess its power and relative efficiency (as compared to the chi-square test of independence on CNP counts. The sample size and power formulas of both methods are given. For the latter, the CNPs are classified using the Bayesian classification rule. The LRTS is more powerful than this chi-square test for the alternatives considered, especially alternatives in which the at-risk CNP categories have low frequencies. An example of the application of the LRTS is given for a comparison of CNP distributions in individuals of Caucasian or Taiwanese ethnicity, where the LRTS appears to be more powerful than the chi-square test, possibly due to misclassification of the most common CNP category into a less common category.

  10. DOE/DOT Crude Oil Characterization Research Study, Task 2 Test Report on Evaluating Crude Oil Sampling and Analysis Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Ray [Allen Energy Services, Inc., Longview, TX (United States); Rudeen, David [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The Crude Oil Characterization Research Study is designed to evaluate whether crude oils currently transported in North America, including those produced from "tight" formations, exhibit physical or chemical properties that are distinct from conventional crudes, and how these properties associate with combustion hazards with may be realized during transportation and handling.

  11. Tracer gas diffusion sampling test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohay, V.J.

    1993-01-01

    Efforts are under way to employ active and passive vapor extraction to remove carbon tetrachloride from the soil in the 200 West Area an the Hanford Site as part of the 200 West Area Carbon Tetrachloride Expedited Response Action. In the active approach, a vacuum is applied to a well, which causes soil gas surrounding the well to be drawn up to the surface. The contaminated air is cleaned by passage through a granular activated carbon bed. There are questions concerning the radius of influence associated with application of the vacuum system and related uncertainties about the soil-gas diffusion rates with and without the vacuum system present. To address these questions, a series of tracer gas diffusion sampling tests is proposed in which an inert, nontoxic tracer gas, sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6 ), will be injected into a well, and the rates of SF 6 diffusion through the surrounding soil horizon will be measured by sampling in nearby wells. Tracer gas tests will be conducted at sites very near the active vacuum extraction system and also at sites beyond the radius of influence of the active vacuum system. In the passive vapor extraction approach, barometric pressure fluctuations cause soil gas to be drawn to the surface through the well. At the passive sites, the effects of barometric ''pumping'' due to changes in atmospheric pressure will be investigated. Application of tracer gas testing to both the active and passive vapor extraction methods is described in the wellfield enhancement work plan (Rohay and Cameron 1993)

  12. The withdrawal from oncogenetic counselling and testing for hereditary and familial breast and ovarian cancer. A descriptive study of an Italian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cognetti Francesco

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oncogenetic counselling is seldom followed through, even when individuals are eligible according to the test criteria. The basic variables which influence the decision to undergo the genetic counselling process are: risk perception, expected benefit or limitations of genetic testing, general psychological distress or cancer-specific distress, lack of trust in one's emotional reactions when faced with negative events, expected level of family support and communications within the family. The aim of this study was to describe the psychosocial variables of an Italian sample that forgoes genetic counselling. Methods From May 2002 to December 2006 a psychological questionnaire was sent out to one hundred and six subjects, who freely requested a first genetic informative consultation, and never asked to have a second visit and the family tree drawn up in order to inquire about their eligibility for genetic testing. Statistical analysis was performed by Pearson chi-square test, t-test and Spearman RHO coefficient. Results The survey presents a lack of emotional cohesion and structured roles and rules within the family system and a positive correlation between the number of children, anxiety and risk perception. The main reasons for giving up on counselling were a sense that testing was a waste of time and the inability to emotionally handle the negative consequences of the test outcome. The subjects who maintained that test and an early diagnosis were a "waste of time" experienced more anxiety. Conclusion The study revealed the importance to ac knowledging the whole persona and their family system as well as provide information highlighting usefulness of early diagnosis.

  13. The withdrawal from oncogenetic counselling and testing for hereditary and familial breast and ovarian cancer. A descriptive study of an Italian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Anita; Vigna, Cristina; Maggi, Gabriella; Sega, Fabio Massimo; Cognetti, Francesco; Savarese, Antonella

    2008-11-24

    Oncogenetic counselling is seldom followed through, even when individuals are eligible according to the test criteria. The basic variables which influence the decision to undergo the genetic counselling process are: risk perception, expected benefit or limitations of genetic testing, general psychological distress or cancer-specific distress, lack of trust in one's emotional reactions when faced with negative events, expected level of family support and communications within the family. The aim of this study was to describe the psychosocial variables of an Italian sample that forgoes genetic counselling. From May 2002 to December 2006 a psychological questionnaire was sent out to one hundred and six subjects, who freely requested a first genetic informative consultation, and never asked to have a second visit and the family tree drawn up in order to inquire about their eligibility for genetic testing. Statistical analysis was performed by Pearson chi-square test, t-test and Spearman RHO coefficient. The survey presents a lack of emotional cohesion and structured roles and rules within the family system and a positive correlation between the number of children, anxiety and risk perception. The main reasons for giving up on counselling were a sense that testing was a waste of time and the inability to emotionally handle the negative consequences of the test outcome. The subjects who maintained that test and an early diagnosis were a "waste of time" experienced more anxiety. The study revealed the importance to ac knowledging the whole persona and their family system as well as provide information highlighting usefulness of early diagnosis.

  14. Tests of gas sampling electromagnetic shower calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Carithers, W.; Day, C.; Johnson, K.J.; Wenzel, W.A.; Videau, H.

    1983-01-01

    An electromagnetic shower gas-sampling calorimeter has been tested in both Geiger and proportional discharge modes for incident electron energies in the range 0.125-16 GeV. The 0.2 radiation length-thick layers were lead-fiberglass laminates with cathode strips normal to the sense wires. The 5x10 mm 2 Geiger cells were formed with uniformly spaced nylon fibers perpendicular to the wires. Proportional mode measurements were carried out in the pressure range 1-10 atm. A Monte Carlo simulation is in good agreement with measured shower characteristics and has been used to predict the behavior for oblique of incidence and for various Geiger cell dimensions. (orig.)

  15. Vigorous decontamination tests of steel samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostinelli, A.; Bregani, F.; Pascali, R.; Ronchetti, C.

    1982-01-01

    Among operative deCommissioning problems, the chemical decontamination of metallic surfaces of LWR, mainly with the use of high vigorous reagents, is being studied in particular. ENEL research activities, partially financed by the European Community Commission, began at the end of 1980, and are being developed by CRTN, Centro di Ricerca Termica e Nucleare, in close connection with ENEL-DPT and CISE. The main aim is the identification, development, and assessment of vigorous decontamination techniques taking into account the amount and disposal cost of liquid radwaste. The test materials come from the primary loop of the BWR-Garigliano plant. Activity levels, mainly due to 60 Co, range from about 0.01 μCi/cm 2 for predecontaminated material to some μCi/cm 2 for virgin material. Moreover, traces of 90 Sr-Y beta pure emitter and alpha emitters are monitored. Research is at first carried out by screening static tests for the optimization of etching static parameters (time, temperature, reagent concentrations). Reagent effectiveness will then be tested in a special experimental loop (DECO), in dynamic conditions simulating in-situ real procedures of decontamination. Hydrofluoric, nitric and hydrochloric acids and mixtures of them have been used for the first tests. Sometimes total oxide removal is possible, and when this takes place, the final contamination levels are in accordance with limits indicated for unrestricted release materials in some countries. 18 references, 13 figures, 5 tables

  16. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    , sample extraction, and analytical methods to be used in the INL-2 study. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG using a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design. Then quality control (QC), reference material coupon (RMC), judgmental, and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the sampling plan for each test event. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples were selected with a random aspect and in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence for detecting contamination or clearing uncontaminated (or decontaminated) areas. Following sample collection for a given test event, the INL building will be decontaminated. For possibly contaminated areas, the numbers of probabilistic samples were chosen to provide 95% confidence of detecting contaminated areas of specified sizes. For rooms that may be uncontaminated following a contamination event, or for whole floors after decontamination, the numbers of judgmental and probabilistic samples were chosen using the CJR approach. The numbers of samples were chosen to support making X%/Y% clearance statements with X = 95% or 99% and Y = 96% or 97%. The experimental and sampling design also provides for making X%/Y% clearance statements using only probabilistic samples. For each test event, the numbers of characterization and clearance samples were selected within limits based on operational considerations while still maintaining high confidence for detection and clearance aspects. The sampling design for all five test events contains 2085 samples, with 1142 after contamination and 943 after decontamination. These numbers include QC, RMC, judgmental, and probabilistic samples. The experimental and sampling design specified in this report provides a good statistical foundation for achieving the objectives of the INL-2 study.

  17. Testing of Small Graphite Samples for Nuclear Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Chapman

    2010-11-01

    Accurately determining the mechanical properties of small irradiated samples is crucial to predicting the behavior of the overal irradiated graphite components within a Very High Temperature Reactor. The sample size allowed in a material test reactor, however, is limited, and this poses some difficulties with respect to mechanical testing. In the case of graphite with a larger grain size, a small sample may exhibit characteristics not representative of the bulk material, leading to inaccuracies in the data. A study to determine a potential size effect on the tensile strength was pursued under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant program. It focuses first on optimizing the tensile testing procedure identified in the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard C 781-08. Once the testing procedure was verified, a size effect was assessed by gradually reducing the diameter of the specimens. By monitoring the material response, a size effect was successfully identified.

  18. 46 CFR 160.050-5 - Sampling, tests, and inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... one from which any sample ring life buoy failed the buoyancy or strength test, the sample shall... ring life buoys with this subpart. The manufacturer shall provide means to secure any test that is not... procedures. Table 160.050-5(e)—Sampling for Buoyancy Tests Lot size Number of life buoys in sample 100 and...

  19. Sample Size Determination for Rasch Model Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draxler, Clemens

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with supplementing statistical tests for the Rasch model so that additionally to the probability of the error of the first kind (Type I probability) the probability of the error of the second kind (Type II probability) can be controlled at a predetermined level by basing the test on the appropriate number of observations.…

  20. Treatability study sample exemption: update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This document is a RCRA Information Brief intended to update the information in the 1991 Small-Scale Treatability Study Information Brief, and to address questions about the waste and treatability study sample exemptions that have arisen since References 3 and 5 were published

  1. Sample size in usability studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmettow, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Usability studies are important for developing usable, enjoyable products, identifying design flaws (usability problems) likely to compromise the user experience. Usability testing is recommended for improving interactive design, but discovery of usability problems depends on the number of users

  2. Sample test cases using the environmental computer code NECTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponting, A.C.

    1984-06-01

    This note demonstrates a few of the many different ways in which the environmental computer code NECTAR may be used. Four sample test cases are presented and described to show how NECTAR input data are structured. Edited output is also presented to illustrate the format of the results. Two test cases demonstrate how NECTAR may be used to study radio-isotopes not explicitly included in the code. (U.K.)

  3. Testing Homogeneity in a Semiparametric Two-Sample Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukun Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a two-sample homogeneity testing problem, in which one sample comes from a population with density f(x and the other is from a mixture population with mixture density (1−λf(x+λg(x. This problem arises naturally from many statistical applications such as test for partial differential gene expression in microarray study or genetic studies for gene mutation. Under the semiparametric assumption g(x=f(xeα+βx, a penalized empirical likelihood ratio test could be constructed, but its implementation is hindered by the fact that there is neither feasible algorithm for computing the test statistic nor available research results on its theoretical properties. To circumvent these difficulties, we propose an EM test based on the penalized empirical likelihood. We prove that the EM test has a simple chi-square limiting distribution, and we also demonstrate its competitive testing performances by simulations. A real-data example is used to illustrate the proposed methodology.

  4. [Saarland Growth Study: sampling design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danker-Hopfe, H; Zabransky, S

    2000-01-01

    The use of reference data to evaluate the physical development of children and adolescents is part of the daily routine in the paediatric ambulance. The construction of such reference data is based on the collection of extensive reference data. There are different kinds of reference data: cross sectional references, which are based on data collected from a big representative cross-sectional sample of the population, longitudinal references, which are based on follow-up surveys of usually smaller samples of individuals from birth to maturity, and mixed longitudinal references, which are a combination of longitudinal and cross-sectional reference data. The advantages and disadvantages of the different methods of data collection and the resulting reference data are discussed. The Saarland Growth Study was conducted for several reasons: growth processes are subject to secular changes, there are no specific reference data for children and adolescents from this part of the country and the growth charts in use in the paediatric praxis are possibly not appropriate any more. Therefore, the Saarland Growth Study served two purposes a) to create actual regional reference data and b) to create a database for future studies on secular trends in growth processes of children and adolescents from Saarland. The present contribution focusses on general remarks on the sampling design of (cross-sectional) growth surveys and its inferences for the design of the present study.

  5. Revision of the SNPforID 34-plex forensic ancestry test: Assay enhancements, standard reference sample genotypes and extended population studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fondevila, M; Phillips, C; Santos, C; Freire Aradas, A; Vallone, P M; Butler, J M; Lareu, M V; Carracedo, A

    2013-01-01

    A revision of an established 34 SNP forensic ancestry test has been made by swapping the under-performing rs727811 component SNP with the highly informative rs3827760 that shows a near-fixed East Asian specific allele. We collated SNP variability data for the revised SNP set in 66 reference populations from 1000 Genomes and HGDP-CEPH panels and used this as reference data to analyse four U.S. populations showing a range of admixture patterns. The U.S. Hispanics sample in particular displayed heterogeneous values of co-ancestry between European, Native American and African contributors, likely to reflect in part, the way this disparate group is defined using cultural as well as population genetic parameters. The genotyping of over 700 U.S. population samples also provided the opportunity to thoroughly gauge peak mobility variation and peak height ratios observed from routine use of the single base extension chemistry of the 34-plex test. Finally, the genotyping of the widely used DNA profiling Standard Reference Material samples plus other control DNAs completes the audit of the 34-plex assay to allow forensic practitioners to apply this test more readily in their own laboratories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 40 CFR 205.171-3 - Test motorcycle sample selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test motorcycle sample selection. 205... ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle Exhaust Systems § 205.171-3 Test motorcycle sample selection. A test motorcycle to be used for selective enforcement audit testing...

  7. Stress, coping, and depression: testing new hypotheses in a prospectively studied general population sample of U.S. born Whites and Blacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, K.M.; Barnes, D.; Bates, L.M.

    2010-01-01

    The scarcity of empirically supported explanations for the Black/White prevalence difference in depression in the U.S. is a conspicuous gap in the literature. Recent evidence suggests that the paradoxical observation of decreased risk of depression but elevated rates of physical illness among Blacks in the U.S. compared with Whites may be accounted for by the use of coping behaviors (e.g., alcohol and nicotine consumption, overeating) among Blacks exposed to high stress levels. Such coping behaviors may mitigate deleterious effects of stressful exposures on mental health while increasing the risk of physical ailments. The racial patterning in mental and physical health outcomes could therefore be explained by this mechanism if a) these behaviors were more prevalent among Blacks than Whites and/or b) the effect of these behavioral responses to stress was differential by race. The present study challenges this hypothesis using longitudinal, nationally-representative data with comprehensive DSM-IV diagnoses. Data are drawn from 34,653 individuals sampled in Waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) as part of the US National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results showed that a) Blacks were less likely to engage in alcohol or nicotine consumption at low, moderate, and high levels of stress compared to Whites, and b) there was a significant three-way interaction between race, stress, and coping behavior for BMI only (F=2.11, df=12, p=0.03), but, contrary to the hypothesis, elevated BMI was protective against depression in Blacks at low, not high, levels of stress. Further, engagement in unhealthy behaviors, especially at pathological levels, did not protect against depression in Blacks or in Whites. In sum, the impact of stress and coping processes on depression do not appear to operate differently in Blacks versus Whites. Further research testing innovative hypotheses that would explain the difference in Black/White depression prevalence is

  8. Can health workers reliably assess their own work? A test-retest study of bias among data collectors conducting a Lot Quality Assurance Sampling survey in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckworth, Colin A; Davis, Rosemary H; Faragher, Brian; Valadez, Joseph J

    2015-03-01

    Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) is a classification method that enables local health staff to assess health programmes for which they are responsible. While LQAS has been favourably reviewed by the World Bank and World Health Organization (WHO), questions remain about whether using local health staff as data collectors can lead to biased data. In this test-retest research, Pallisa Health District in Uganda is subdivided into four administrative units called supervision areas (SA). Data collectors from each SA conducted an LQAS survey. A week later, the data collectors were swapped to a different SA, outside their area of responsibility, to repeat the LQAS survey with the same respondents. The two data sets were analysed for agreement using Cohens' kappa coefficient and disagreements were analysed. Kappa values ranged from 0.19 to 0.97. On average, there was a moderate degree of agreement for knowledge indicators and a substantial level for practice indicators. Respondents were found to be systematically more knowledgeable on retest indicating bias favouring the retest, although no evidence of bias was found for practices indicators. In this initial study, using local health care providers to collect data did not bias data collection. The bias observed in the knowledge indicators is most likely due to the 'practice effect', whereby respondents increased their knowledge as a result of completing the first survey, as no corresponding effect was seen in the practices indicators. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  9. Normative reference values for the 20 m shuttle‐run test in a population‐based sample of school‐aged youth in Bogota, Colombia: the FUPRECOL study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios‐López, Adalberto; Humberto Prieto‐Benavides, Daniel; Enrique Correa‐Bautista, Jorge; Izquierdo, Mikel; Alonso‐Martínez, Alicia; Lobelo, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Our aim was to determine the normative reference values of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and to establish the proportion of subjects with low CRF suggestive of future cardio‐metabolic risk. Methods A total of 7244 children and adolescents attending public schools in Bogota, Colombia (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years) participated in this study. We expressed CRF performance as the nearest stage (minute) completed and the estimated peak oxygen consumption (V˙O2peak). Smoothed percentile curves were calculated. In addition, we present the prevalence of low CRF after applying a correction factor to account for the impact of Bogota's altitude (2625 m over sea level) on CRF assessment, and we calculated the number of participants who fell below health‐related FITNESSGRAM cut‐points for low CRF. Results Shuttles and V˙O2peak were higher in boys than in girls in all age groups. In boys, there were higher levels of performance with increasing age, with most gains between the ages of 13 and 17. The proportion of subjects with a low CRF, suggestive of future cardio‐metabolic risk (health risk FITNESSGRAM category) was 31.5% (28.2% for boys and 34.1% for girls; X2 P = .001). After applying a 1.11 altitude correction factor, the overall prevalence of low CRF was 11.5% (9.6% for boys and 13.1% for girls; X2 P = .001). Conclusions Our results provide sex‐ and age‐specific normative reference standards for the 20 m shuttle‐run test and estimated V˙O2peak values in a large, population‐based sample of schoolchildren from a large Latin‐American city at high altitude. PMID:27500986

  10. Prehistoric spatial patterning and subsistence studies: Archaeological investigations at Sample Unit U19arP4, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.G.; DuBarton, A.; Edwards, S.; Drollinger, H.

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the methods and results of archaeological investigations at Sample Unit U19arP4 on Pahute Mesa at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Eight sites were located there: four lithic artifact scatters (26NY1370, 26NY1372, 26NY3666 and 26NY3667), two temporary camps (26NY3665 and 26NY5418), one artifact locality (26NY5419), and one quarry (26NY3664). One of the lithic scatters, 26NY3667, incorporated a previously recorded rock ring, 26NY1371, that could not be relocated during subsequent investigations. Surface artifacts were collected from all but two of the sites, 26NY1370 and 26NY1372. The data retrieved from these investigations include over one thousand artifacts, such as projectile points, bifaces, debitage, groundstone, and pottery. The temporally diagnostic materials indicate periodic use of Sample Unit U19arP4 from the Middle Archaic to the Shoshonean period

  11. Regeneration Study Test Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data (2 excel files) consist of the analytical test results on water sample collected from the two adsorption media tanks of the arsenic removal system during the...

  12. Stress, coping, and depression: testing a new hypothesis in a prospectively studied general population sample of U.S.-born Whites and Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, K M; Barnes, David M; Bates, L M

    2011-03-01

    The scarcity of empirically supported explanations for the Black/White prevalence difference in depression in the U.S. is a conspicuous gap in the literature. Recent evidence suggests that the paradoxical observation of decreased risk of depression but elevated rates of physical illness among Blacks in the U.S. compared with Whites may be accounted for by the use of coping behaviors (e.g., alcohol and nicotine consumption, overeating) among Blacks exposed to high stress levels. Such coping behaviors may mitigate deleterious effects of stressful exposures on mental health while increasing the risk of physical ailments. The racial patterning in mental and physical health outcomes could therefore be explained by this mechanism if a) these behaviors were more prevalent among Blacks than Whites and/or b) the effect of these behavioral responses to stress was differential by race. The present study challenges this hypothesis using longitudinal, nationally-representative data with comprehensive DSM-IV diagnoses. Data are drawn from 34,653 individuals sampled in Waves 1 (2001-2002) and 2 (2004-2005) as part of the US National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results showed that a) Blacks were less likely to engage in alcohol or nicotine consumption at low, moderate, and high levels of stress compared to Whites, and b) there was a significant three-way interaction between race, stress, and coping behavior for BMI only (F = 2.11, df = 12, p = 0.03), but, contrary to the hypothesis, elevated BMI was protective against depression in Blacks at low, not high, levels of stress. Further, engagement in unhealthy behaviors, especially at pathological levels, did not protect against depression in Blacks or in Whites. In sum, the impact of stress and coping processes on depression does not appear to operate differently in Blacks versus Whites. Further research testing innovative hypotheses that would explain the difference in Black/White depression prevalence is

  13. On the Representativeness of Norming Samples for Aptitude Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sims, William

    2003-01-01

    ...). We regressed aptitude test scores on demographics and concluded that: ̂ Norming sample for aptitude tests must be representative of the target population with respect to age, race"ethnicity, gender, respondent's education, and mother's...

  14. A One-Sample Test for Normality with Kernel Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Kellner , Jérémie; Celisse , Alain

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new one-sample test for normality in a Reproducing Kernel Hilbert Space (RKHS). Namely, we test the null-hypothesis of belonging to a given family of Gaussian distributions. Hence our procedure may be applied either to test data for normality or to test parameters (mean and covariance) if data are assumed Gaussian. Our test is based on the same principle as the MMD (Maximum Mean Discrepancy) which is usually used for two-sample tests such as homogeneity or independence testing. O...

  15. Estimation of sample size and testing power (part 5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo

    2012-02-01

    Estimation of sample size and testing power is an important component of research design. This article introduced methods for sample size and testing power estimation of difference test for quantitative and qualitative data with the single-group design, the paired design or the crossover design. To be specific, this article introduced formulas for sample size and testing power estimation of difference test for quantitative and qualitative data with the above three designs, the realization based on the formulas and the POWER procedure of SAS software and elaborated it with examples, which will benefit researchers for implementing the repetition principle.

  16. 7 CFR 28.952 - Testing of samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing of samples. 28.952 Section 28.952 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... processing tests of the properties of cotton samples and report the results thereof to the persons from whom...

  17. Sample Size Determination for One- and Two-Sample Trimmed Mean Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Wei-Ming; Olejnik, Stephen; Guo, Jiin-Huarng

    2008-01-01

    Formulas to determine the necessary sample sizes for parametric tests of group comparisons are available from several sources and appropriate when population distributions are normal. However, in the context of nonnormal population distributions, researchers recommend Yuen's trimmed mean test, but formulas to determine sample sizes have not been…

  18. Search for cosmic ray origins by the study of supernova remnants associated with molecular clouds with HESS and test of HESS II sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiasson, A.

    2008-03-01

    The H.E.S.S. telescope (High energy Stereoscopic System), located in Namibia, is currently the most efficient for the observation of very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray sources. It is composed of 4 large diameter telescopes working in stereoscopic mode and allows an unequaled survey of the galactic plane at these extreme wavelengths. The H.E.S.S. experiment showed the presence of high energy particles up to 100 TeV within supernova remnant. This astrophysical objects are believed to be the main particle accelerator within the Galaxy. However, the particle nature remains unclear. This thesis presents a new observational approach in order to show hadronic particles acceleration through diffusive shock within supernova remnant. A search of supernova remnant associated with molecular cloud have been led within the HESS source catalog and the H.E.S.S. observations. An analysis of the new VHE gamma-ray source in Monoceros and its interpretation are presented. As well, the analysis and interpretation of new observations of the unidentified source HESS J1745-303 are presented. The multi-wavelength analysis of the new source HESS J1714-385, coincident with the supernova remnant CTB37A is presented. A contribution to the H.E.S.S. phase II building is also presented. This second phase consists in the building of a fifth telescope at the center of the existing system. The series tests of the new camera sampling system are reported. (author)

  19. Acceptance test report for core sample trucks 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Report is to provide documentation for the acceptance testing of the rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4, designated as HO-68K-4600 and HO-68K-4647, respectively. This report conforms to the guidelines established in WHC-IP-1026, ''Engineering Practice Guidelines,'' Appendix M, ''Acceptance Test Procedures and Reports.'' Rotary mode core sample trucks 3 and 4 were based upon the design of the second core sample truck (HO-68K-4345) which was constructed to implement rotary mode sampling of the waste tanks at Hanford. Successful completion of acceptance testing on June 30, 1995 verified that all design requirements were met. This report is divided into four sections, beginning with general information. Acceptance testing was performed on trucks 3 and 4 during the months of March through June, 1995. All testing was performed at the ''Rock Slinger'' test site in the 200 West area. The sequence of testing was determined by equipment availability, and the initial revision of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) was used for both trucks. Testing was directed by ICF-KH, with the support of WHC Characterization Equipment Engineering and Characterization Project Operations. Testing was completed per the ATP without discrepancies or deviations, except as noted

  20. Feasibility tests of a high resolution sampling radial drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huth, J.

    1985-01-01

    The design concept and results of feasibility tests for a vertex detector intended for use in the TPC-PEP4/9 experiment are presented. The detector is based on a slow radial drift in dimethyl ether. High resolution localization of the avalanches at the sense wire is accomplished with nearby pickup wires and the utilization of waveform sampling electronics. The avalanche angular coordinate measurements, combined with knowledge of the electric field distribution and drift velocity permit reconstruction of the trajectory using essentially all track information. Measurements with a test chamber constructed to study characteristics of avalanche localization indicate that the recoverable track information in one centimeter of dimethyl ether at 1.5 atm is equivalent to 30 measurements of 40 μm accuracy. (orig.)

  1. Impact of Genetic Counseling and Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 Testing on Deaf Identity and Comprehension of Genetic Test Results in a Sample of Deaf Adults: A Prospective, Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Christina G. S.; Boudreault, Patrick; Baldwin, Erin E.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.

    2014-01-01

    Using a prospective, longitudinal study design, this paper addresses the impact of genetic counseling and testing for deafness on deaf adults and the Deaf community. This study specifically evaluated the effect of genetic counseling and Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic test results on participants' deaf identity and understanding of their genetic test results. Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic testing was offered to participants in the context of linguistically and culturally appropriate genetic counseling. Questionnaire data collected from 209 deaf adults at four time points (baseline, immediately following pre-test genetic counseling, 1-month following genetic test result disclosure, and 6-months after result disclosure) were analyzed. Four deaf identity orientations (hearing, marginal, immersion, bicultural) were evaluated using subscales of the Deaf Identity Development Scale-Revised. We found evidence that participants understood their specific genetic test results following genetic counseling, but found no evidence of change in deaf identity based on genetic counseling or their genetic test results. This study demonstrated that culturally and linguistically appropriate genetic counseling can improve deaf clients' understanding of genetic test results, and the formation of deaf identity was not directly related to genetic counseling or Connexin-26 and Connexin-30 genetic test results. PMID:25375116

  2. Estimation of sample size and testing power (Part 3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo

    2011-12-01

    This article introduces the definition and sample size estimation of three special tests (namely, non-inferiority test, equivalence test and superiority test) for qualitative data with the design of one factor with two levels having a binary response variable. Non-inferiority test refers to the research design of which the objective is to verify that the efficacy of the experimental drug is not clinically inferior to that of the positive control drug. Equivalence test refers to the research design of which the objective is to verify that the experimental drug and the control drug have clinically equivalent efficacy. Superiority test refers to the research design of which the objective is to verify that the efficacy of the experimental drug is clinically superior to that of the control drug. By specific examples, this article introduces formulas of sample size estimation for the three special tests, and their SAS realization in detail.

  3. Test plan for core sampling drill bit temperature monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, P.M.

    1994-01-01

    At WHC, one of the functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System division is sampling waste tanks to characterize their contents. The push-mode core sampling truck is currently used to take samples of liquid and sludge. Sampling of tanks containing hard salt cake is to be performed with the rotary-mode core sampling system, consisting of the core sample truck, mobile exhauster unit, and ancillary subsystems. When drilling through the salt cake material, friction and heat can be generated in the drill bit. Based upon tank safety reviews, it has been determined that the drill bit temperature must not exceed 180 C, due to the potential reactivity of tank contents at this temperature. Consequently, a drill bit temperature limit of 150 C was established for operation of the core sample truck to have an adequate margin of safety. Unpredictable factors, such as localized heating, cause this buffer to be so great. The most desirable safeguard against exceeding this threshold is bit temperature monitoring . This document describes the recommended plan for testing the prototype of a drill bit temperature monitor developed for core sampling by Sandia National Labs. The device will be tested at their facilities. This test plan documents the tests that Westinghouse Hanford Company considers necessary for effective testing of the system

  4. Optimum sample size allocation to minimize cost or maximize power for the two-sample trimmed mean test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jiin-Huarng; Luh, Wei-Ming

    2009-05-01

    When planning a study, sample size determination is one of the most important tasks facing the researcher. The size will depend on the purpose of the study, the cost limitations, and the nature of the data. By specifying the standard deviation ratio and/or the sample size ratio, the present study considers the problem of heterogeneous variances and non-normality for Yuen's two-group test and develops sample size formulas to minimize the total cost or maximize the power of the test. For a given power, the sample size allocation ratio can be manipulated so that the proposed formulas can minimize the total cost, the total sample size, or the sum of total sample size and total cost. On the other hand, for a given total cost, the optimum sample size allocation ratio can maximize the statistical power of the test. After the sample size is determined, the present simulation applies Yuen's test to the sample generated, and then the procedure is validated in terms of Type I errors and power. Simulation results show that the proposed formulas can control Type I errors and achieve the desired power under the various conditions specified. Finally, the implications for determining sample sizes in experimental studies and future research are discussed.

  5. Test of a sample container for shipment of small size plutonium samples with PAT-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, E.; Aigner, H.; Deron, S.

    1981-11-01

    A light-weight container for the air transport of plutonium, to be designated PAT-2, has been developed in the USA and is presently undergoing licensing. The very limited effective space for bearing plutonium required the design of small size sample canisters to meet the needs of international safeguards for the shipment of plutonium samples. The applicability of a small canister for the sampling of small size powder and solution samples has been tested in an intralaboratory experiment. The results of the experiment, based on the concept of pre-weighed samples, show that the tested canister can successfully be used for the sampling of small size PuO 2 -powder samples of homogeneous source material, as well as for dried aliquands of plutonium nitrate solutions. (author)

  6. Sample size calculation in metabolic phenotyping studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billoir, Elise; Navratil, Vincent; Blaise, Benjamin J

    2015-09-01

    The number of samples needed to identify significant effects is a key question in biomedical studies, with consequences on experimental designs, costs and potential discoveries. In metabolic phenotyping studies, sample size determination remains a complex step. This is due particularly to the multiple hypothesis-testing framework and the top-down hypothesis-free approach, with no a priori known metabolic target. Until now, there was no standard procedure available to address this purpose. In this review, we discuss sample size estimation procedures for metabolic phenotyping studies. We release an automated implementation of the Data-driven Sample size Determination (DSD) algorithm for MATLAB and GNU Octave. Original research concerning DSD was published elsewhere. DSD allows the determination of an optimized sample size in metabolic phenotyping studies. The procedure uses analytical data only from a small pilot cohort to generate an expanded data set. The statistical recoupling of variables procedure is used to identify metabolic variables, and their intensity distributions are estimated by Kernel smoothing or log-normal density fitting. Statistically significant metabolic variations are evaluated using the Benjamini-Yekutieli correction and processed for data sets of various sizes. Optimal sample size determination is achieved in a context of biomarker discovery (at least one statistically significant variation) or metabolic exploration (a maximum of statistically significant variations). DSD toolbox is encoded in MATLAB R2008A (Mathworks, Natick, MA) for Kernel and log-normal estimates, and in GNU Octave for log-normal estimates (Kernel density estimates are not robust enough in GNU octave). It is available at http://www.prabi.fr/redmine/projects/dsd/repository, with a tutorial at http://www.prabi.fr/redmine/projects/dsd/wiki. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. In-Pipe Wireless Communication for Underground Sampling and Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Nhan D.T.; Le, Duc V.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present an effective and low- cost wireless communication system for extremely long and narrow pipes that can replay the extant wire system in underground sensor network applications such as soil sampling and testing with the Cone Penetration Test (CPT), the most widely used

  8. Can local staff reliably assess their own programs? A confirmatory test-retest study of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling data collectors in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckworth, Colin A; Anguyo, Robert; Kyakulaga, Francis Cranmer; Lwanga, Stephen K; Valadez, Joseph J

    2016-08-17

    Data collection techniques that routinely provide health system information at the local level are in demand and needed. LQAS is intended for use by local health teams to collect data at the district and sub-district levels. Our question is whether local health staff produce biased results as they are responsible for implementing the programs they also assess. This test-retest study replicates on a larger scale an earlier LQAS reliability assessment in Uganda. We conducted in two districts an LQAS survey using 15 local health staff as data collectors. A week later, the data collectors swapped districts, where they acted as disinterested non-local data collectors, repeating the LQAS survey with the same respondents. We analysed the resulting two data sets for agreement using Cohens' Kappa. The average Kappa score for the knowledge indicators was k = 0.43 (SD = 0.16) and for practice indicators k = 0.63 (SD = 0.17). These scores show moderate agreement for knowledge indicators and substantial agreement for practice indicators. Analyses confirm that respondents were more knowledgeable on retest; no evidence of bias was found for practice indicators. The findings of this study are remarkably similar to those produced in the first reliability study. There is no evidence that using local healthcare staff to collect LQAS data biases data collection in an LQAS study. The bias observed in the knowledge indicators was most likely due to a 'practice effect', whereby respondents increased their knowledge as a result of completing the first survey; no corresponding effect was seen in the practice indicators.

  9. Operability test procedure for PFP wastewater sampling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirzel, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Document provides instructions for performing the Operability Test of the 225-WC Wastewater Sampling Station which monitors the discharge to the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility from the Plutonium Finishing Plant. This Operability Test Procedure (OTP) has been prepared to verify correct configuration and performance of the PFP Wastewater sampling system installed in Building 225-WC located outside the perimeter fence southeast of the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). The objective of this test is to ensure the equipment in the sampling facility operates in a safe and reliable manner. The sampler consists of two Manning Model S-5000 units which are rate controlled by the Milltronics Ultrasonic flowmeter at manhole No.C4 and from a pH measuring system with the sensor in the stream adjacent to the sample point. The intent of the dual sampling system is to utilize one unit to sample continuously at a rate proportional to the wastewater flow rate so that the aggregate tests are related to the overall flow and thereby eliminate isolated analyses. The second unit will only operate during a high or low pH excursion of the stream (hence the need for a pH control). The major items in this OTP include testing of the Manning Sampler System and associated equipment including the pH measuring and control system, the conductivity monitor, and the flow meter

  10. A Fault Sample Simulation Approach for Virtual Testability Demonstration Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong; QIU Jing; LIU Guanjun; YANG Peng

    2012-01-01

    Virtual testability demonstration test has many advantages,such as low cost,high efficiency,low risk and few restrictions.It brings new requirements to the fault sample generation.A fault sample simulation approach for virtual testability demonstration test based on stochastic process theory is proposed.First,the similarities and differences of fault sample generation between physical testability demonstration test and virtual testability demonstration test are discussed.Second,it is pointed out that the fault occurrence process subject to perfect repair is renewal process.Third,the interarrival time distribution function of the next fault event is given.Steps and flowcharts of fault sample generation are introduced.The number of faults and their occurrence time are obtained by statistical simulation.Finally,experiments are carried out on a stable tracking platform.Because a variety of types of life distributions and maintenance modes are considered and some assumptions are removed,the sample size and structure of fault sample simulation results are more similar to the actual results and more reasonable.The proposed method can effectively guide the fault injection in virtual testability demonstration test.

  11. Estimation of sample size and testing power (Part 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo

    2012-01-01

    Sample size estimation is necessary for any experimental or survey research. An appropriate estimation of sample size based on known information and statistical knowledge is of great significance. This article introduces methods of sample size estimation of difference test for data with the design of one factor with two levels, including sample size estimation formulas and realization based on the formulas and the POWER procedure of SAS software for quantitative data and qualitative data with the design of one factor with two levels. In addition, this article presents examples for analysis, which will play a leading role for researchers to implement the repetition principle during the research design phase.

  12. Evaluation of aerodynamic forces acting on oscillating cantilever beams based on the study of the damped flexural vibration of aluminium test samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A. G.; Kamalutdinov, A. M.; Nuriev, A. N.

    2018-05-01

    The paper is devoted to study of the aerodynamic forces acting on flat cantilever beams performing flexural vibrations in a viscous fluid. Original method for the force evaluation is presented based on analysis of experimental measurements of a logarithmic decrement of vibrations and relative variation in frequency of duralumin test specimens. The theoretical core of the method is based on the classical theory of bending beam oscillations and quasi-two dimensional model of interaction between a beam and a gas. Using the proposed method, extensive series of experiments for a wide range of oscillations parameters were carried out. The processing of the experimental data allowed to establish the global influence of the aerodynamic effects on beam oscillations and the local force characteristics of each cross-section of the beam in the form of universal functions of dimensionless amplitude and dimensionless frequency of oscillation. The obtained estimates of the drag and added mass forces showed a good correspondence with the available numerical and experimental data practically in the entire range of the investigated parameters.

  13. Failure-censored accelerated life test sampling plans for Weibull distribution under expected test time constraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, D.S.; Chun, Y.R.; Kim, J.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper considers the design of life-test sampling plans based on failure-censored accelerated life tests. The lifetime distribution of products is assumed to be Weibull with a scale parameter that is a log linear function of a (possibly transformed) stress. Two levels of stress higher than the use condition stress, high and low, are used. Sampling plans with equal expected test times at high and low test stresses which satisfy the producer's and consumer's risk requirements and minimize the asymptotic variance of the test statistic used to decide lot acceptability are obtained. The properties of the proposed life-test sampling plans are investigated

  14. Sample size in qualitative interview studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane

    2016-01-01

    Sample sizes must be ascertained in qualitative studies like in quantitative studies but not by the same means. The prevailing concept for sample size in qualitative studies is “saturation.” Saturation is closely tied to a specific methodology, and the term is inconsistently applied. We propose...... the concept “information power” to guide adequate sample size for qualitative studies. Information power indicates that the more information the sample holds, relevant for the actual study, the lower amount of participants is needed. We suggest that the size of a sample with sufficient information power...... and during data collection of a qualitative study is discussed....

  15. Test plan for the Sample Transfer Canister system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, B.D.

    1998-01-01

    The Sample Transfer Canister will be used by the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP) for the transport of small quantity liquid samples that meet the definition of a limited quantity radioactive material, and may also be corrosive and/or flammable. These samples will be packaged and shipped in accordance with the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulation 49 CFR 173.4, ''Exceptions for small quantities.'' The Sample Transfer Canister is of a ''French Can'' design, intended to be mated with a glove box for loading/unloading. Transport will typically take place north of the Wye Barricade between WRAP and the 222-S Laboratory. The Sample Transfer Canister will be shipped in an insulated ice chest, but the ice chest will not be a part of the small quantity package during prototype testing

  16. CHARACTERIZATION AND ACTUAL WASTE TEST WITH TANK 5F SAMPLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, D.

    2007-01-01

    The initial phase of bulk waste removal operations was recently completed in Tank 5F. Video inspection of the tank indicates several mounds of sludge still remain in the tank. Additionally, a mound of white solids was observed under Riser 5. In support of chemical cleaning and heel removal programs, samples of the sludge and the mound of white solids were obtained from the tank for characterization and testing. A core sample of the sludge and Super Snapper sample of the white solids were characterized. A supernate dip sample from Tank 7F was also characterized. A portion of the sludge was used in two tank cleaning tests using oxalic acid at 50 C and 75 C. The filtered oxalic acid from the tank cleaning tests was subsequently neutralized by addition to a simulated Tank 7F supernate. Solids and liquid samples from the tank cleaning test and neutralization test were characterized. A separate report documents the results of the gas generation from the tank cleaning test using oxalic acid and Tank 5F sludge. The characterization results for the Tank 5F sludge sample (FTF-05-06-55) appear quite good with respect to the tight precision of the sample replicates, good results for the glass standards, and minimal contamination found in the blanks and glass standards. The aqua regia and sodium peroxide fusion data also show good agreement between the two dissolution methods. Iron dominates the sludge composition with other major contributors being uranium, manganese, nickel, sodium, aluminum, and silicon. The low sodium value for the sludge reflects the absence of supernate present in the sample due to the core sampler employed for obtaining the sample. The XRD and CSEM results for the Super Snapper salt sample (i.e., white solids) from Tank 5F (FTF-05-07-1) indicate the material contains hydrated sodium carbonate and bicarbonate salts along with some aluminum hydroxide. These compounds likely precipitated from the supernate in the tank. A solubility test showed the material

  17. Meteorological testing and analysis of sampling equipment for wet deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkler, P.; Jobst, S.; Harder, C.

    1989-01-01

    11 rain collector types for wet deposition were subjected to a field test. Two of the nine types were identically constructed. The following measured values were analyzed: amount of rainfall, electrical conductivity, pH value, Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 = , NH 4 + , Na + , K + , Ca ++ , Mg ++ , Fe, Pb, Cu, Cd. The analysis was restricted to rainfall. In a basic study structural and statistical analyses of precipitations were made in order to find out from which extent of intensity resp. rain volume per rainfall the precipitations are important for wet deposition. Some sensors required intensities of nearly 1 mm/h in order to recognize all rainfalls. In order to reach a better standardization of the measuring technique the funnel geometry should be standardized. The current technique is not suited for correctly registering the deposition which is connected with light and very light rainfall. It was found out in rinsing tests with diluted HNO 3 that considerable amounts of trace metals accumulate at funnel walls and in headers, although the collecting device had been subjected to a thorough acid purification before. For the determination of the wet deposition of the trace metals problems arise if the samples are filtered and the filters are not analyzed. In that case particle-bound metals which are suspended in raindrops will not be registered. After comparing the equipment some of the devices were improved in order to eliminate known sources of contamination. (orig./KW) [de

  18. The Walking Corsi Test (WalCT): a normative study of topographical working memory in a sample of 4- to 11-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccardi, L; Palermo, L; Leonzi, M; Risetti, M; Zompanti, L; D'Amico, S; Guariglia, C

    2014-01-01

    We report normative data on topographical working memory collected through the Walking Corsi Test (WalCT; Piccardi et al., 2008 ) for developing a standard administration procedure to be used in clinical and educational practice. A total of 268 typically developing Italian children aged 4-11 years performed both WalCT and Corsi Block-Tapping Test (CBT; Corsi, 1972 ) a well-known visuo-spatial memory test. WalCT has already been validated in adults, demonstrating sensitivity in detecting topographical memory deficits even in individuals who have no other memory impairments. Our results showed that age, but not sex, affected performances. Both girls and boys had a larger span on the CBT than the WalCT. The youngest group did not differ in performing WalCT and CBT, but from 5.6 years of age children performed better on CBT than WalCT, suggesting that memory in reaching space develops before topographical memory. Only after 5 years of age do children learn to process specifically topographical stimuli, suggesting that this happens when their environmental knowledge becomes operational and they increase environmental independence. We also discuss the importance to introduce WalCT in the clinical assessment.

  19. ISOLOK VALVE ACCEPTANCE TESTING FOR DWPF SME SAMPLING PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, T.; Hera, K.; Coleman, C.; Jones, M.; Wiedenman, B.

    2011-12-05

    Evaluation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) cycle time identified several opportunities to improve the CPC processing time. Of the opportunities, a focus area related to optimizing the equipment and efficiency of the sample turnaround time for DWPF Analytical Laboratory was identified. The Mechanical Systems & Custom Equipment Development (MS&CED) Section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated the possibility of using an Isolok{reg_sign} sampling valve as an alternative to the Hydragard{reg_sign} valve for taking process samples. Previous viability testing was conducted with favorable results using the Isolok sampler and reported in SRNL-STI-2010-00749 (1). This task has the potential to improve operability, reduce maintenance time and decrease CPC cycle time. This report summarizes the results from acceptance testing which was requested in Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0036 (2) and which was conducted as outlined in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNL-RP-2011-00145 (3). The Isolok to be tested is the same model which was tested, qualified, and installed in the Sludge Receipt Adjustment Tank (SRAT) sample system. RW-0333P QA requirements apply to this task. This task was to qualify the Isolok sampler for use in the DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) sampling process. The Hydragard, which is the current baseline sampling method, was used for comparison to the Isolok sampling data. The Isolok sampler is an air powered grab sampler used to 'pull' a sample volume from a process line. The operation of the sampler is shown in Figure 1. The image on the left shows the Isolok's spool extended into the process line and the image on the right shows the sampler retracted and then dispensing the liquid into the sampling container. To determine tank homogeneity, a Coliwasa sampler was used to grab samples at a high and low location within the mixing tank. Data from

  20. Measuring Student Achievement in Travel and Tourism. Sample Test Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Business Education.

    The sample test items included in this document are intended as a resource for teachers of Marketing and Distributive Education programs with emphasis on hospitality and recreation marketing, and tourism and travel services marketing. The related curriculum material has been published in the Travel and Tourism syllabus, an advanced-level module in…

  1. 40 CFR 205.57-2 - Test vehicle sample selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pursuant to a test request in accordance with this subpart will be selected in the manner specified in the... then using a table of random numbers to select the number of vehicles as specified in paragraph (c) of... with the desig-nated AQL are contained in Appendix I, -Table II. (c) The appropriate batch sample size...

  2. Post-Decontamination Vapor Sampling and Analytical Test Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-12

    is decontaminated that could pose an exposure hazard to unprotected personnel. The chemical contaminants may include chemical warfare agents (CWAs... decontamination process. Chemical contaminants can include chemical warfare agents (CWAs) or their simulants, nontraditional agents (NTAs), toxic industrial...a range of test articles from coupons, panels, and small fielded equipment items. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Vapor hazard; vapor sampling; chemical warfare

  3. A novel PMT test system based on waveform sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, S.; Ma, L.; Ning, Z.; Qian, S.; Wang, Y.; Jiang, X.; Wang, Z.; Yu, B.; Gao, F.; Zhu, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Comparing with the traditional test system based on a QDC and TDC and scaler, a test system based on waveform sampling is constructed for signal sampling of the 8"R5912 and the 20"R12860 Hamamatsu PMT in different energy states from single to multiple photoelectrons. In order to achieve high throughput and to reduce the dead time in data processing, the data acquisition software based on LabVIEW is developed and runs with a parallel mechanism. The analysis algorithm is realized in LabVIEW and the spectra of charge, amplitude, signal width and rising time are analyzed offline. The results from Charge-to-Digital Converter, Time-to-Digital Converter and waveform sampling are discussed in detailed comparison.

  4. The relative performance of bivariate causality tests in small samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, J..R.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Causality tests have been applied to establish directional effects and to reduce the set of potential predictors, For the latter type of application only bivariate tests can be used, In this study we compare bivariate causality tests. Although the problem addressed is general and could benefit

  5. Harmonisation of microbial sampling and testing methods for distillate fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, G.C.; Hill, E.C. [ECHA Microbiology Ltd., Cardiff (United Kingdom)

    1995-05-01

    Increased incidence of microbial infection in distillate fuels has led to a demand for organisations such as the Institute of Petroleum to propose standards for microbiological quality, based on numbers of viable microbial colony forming units. Variations in quality requirements, and in the spoilage significance of contaminating microbes plus a tendency for temporal and spatial changes in the distribution of microbes, makes such standards difficult to implement. The problem is compounded by a diversity in the procedures employed for sampling and testing for microbial contamination and in the interpretation of the data obtained. The following paper reviews these problems and describes the efforts of The Institute of Petroleum Microbiology Fuels Group to address these issues and in particular to bring about harmonisation of sampling and testing methods. The benefits and drawbacks of available test methods, both laboratory based and on-site, are discussed.

  6. A Study on Individualized Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin YAŞAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to compare KR-20 reliability levels of “Paper and Pencil Test” developed according to Classical Test Theory and “Individualized Test” developed according to Item Response Theory (Two-Parameter Logistic Model, and the correlation levels of skill measurements obtained via these two methods in a group of students. Individualized test developed in accordance with the Two-Parameter Logistic Model was applied by means of a question pool consisting of 61 multiple-choice items which can be answered in 13 steps. On the other hand, a paper and pencil test of 47 multiple-choice items was applied to the sample student group. After the test developed according to these two methods was applied to the same group, KR-20 reliability coefficient was calculated as 0.67 for the individualized test and as 0.75 for the paper and pencil test prepared according to Classical test theory. Calculated KR-20 reliability coefficients obtained from the study were converted into Fisher Z and tested at the significance level of 0.05. No meaningful difference was detected at the 0.05 significant difference level between the two KR-20 reliability coefficients obtained from the two methods. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient was calculated as 0.36 between the points of the individualized test and the measurement results of the paper and pencil test. A positive yet low correlation was observed between the measurement results obtained from the tests developed according to both methods. Consequently, it was seen that at the 0.05 significance level there was no statistically significant difference between KR-20 reliability coefficients of the tests developed according to the two methods and that there was a low correlation between the skill measurements of the students in both tests, but there was no significant correlation at the 0.05 significance level between the skill measurements obtained from both tests.

  7. The Effects of Test Length and Sample Size on Item Parameters in Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Alper; Anil, Duygu

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of sample size and test length on item-parameter estimation in test development utilizing three unidimensional dichotomous models of item response theory (IRT). For this purpose, a real language test comprised of 50 items was administered to 6,288 students. Data from this test was used to obtain data sets of…

  8. Quality standards for sample collection in coagulation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2012-09-01

    Preanalytical activities, especially those directly connected with blood sample collection and handling, are the most vulnerable steps throughout the testing process. The receipt of unsuitable samples is commonplace in laboratory practice and represents a serious problem, given the reliability of test results can be adversely compromised following analysis of these specimens. The basic criteria for an appropriate and safe venipuncture are nearly identical to those used for collecting blood for clinical chemistry and immunochemistry testing, and entail proper patient identification, use of the correct technique, as well as appropriate devices and needles. There are, however, some peculiar aspects, which are deemed to be particularly critical when collecting quality specimens for clot-based tests, and these require clearer recognition. These include prevention of prolonged venous stasis, collection of nonhemolyzed specimens, order of draw, and appropriate filling and mixing of the primary collection tubes. All of these important preanalytical issues are discussed in this article, and evidence-based suggestions as well as recommendations on how to obtain a high-quality sample for coagulation testing are also illustrated. We have also performed an investigation aimed to identify variation of test results due to underfilling of primary blood tubes, and have identified a clinically significant bias in test results when tubes are drawn at less than 89% of total fill for activated partial thromboplastin time, less than 78% for fibrinogen, and less than 67% for coagulation factor VIII, whereas prothrombin time and activated protein C resistance remain relatively reliable even in tubes drawn at 67% of the nominal volume. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Systematic versus random sampling in stereological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Mark J

    2012-12-01

    The sampling that takes place at all levels of an experimental design must be random if the estimate is to be unbiased in a statistical sense. There are two fundamental ways by which one can make a random sample of the sections and positions to be probed on the sections. Using a card-sampling analogy, one can pick any card at all out of a deck of cards. This is referred to as independent random sampling because the sampling of any one card is made without reference to the position of the other cards. The other approach to obtaining a random sample would be to pick a card within a set number of cards and others at equal intervals within the deck. Systematic sampling along one axis of many biological structures is more efficient than random sampling, because most biological structures are not randomly organized. This article discusses the merits of systematic versus random sampling in stereological studies.

  10. Robustness to non-normality of various tests for the one-sample location problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle K. McDougall

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of the normal distribution assumption on the power and size of the sign test, Wilcoxon's signed rank test and the t-test when used in one-sample location problems. Power functions for these tests under various skewness and kurtosis conditions are produced for several sample sizes from simulated data using the g-and-k distribution of MacGillivray and Cannon [5].

  11. GASOLINE VEHICLE EXHAUST PARTICLE SAMPLING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kittelson, D; Watts, W; Johnson, J; Zarling, D Schauer,J Kasper, K; Baltensperger, U; Burtscher, H

    2003-08-24

    The University of Minnesota collaborated with the Paul Scherrer Institute, the University of Wisconsin (UWI) and Ricardo, Inc to physically and chemically characterize the exhaust plume from recruited gasoline spark ignition (SI) vehicles. The project objectives were: (1) Measure representative particle size distributions from a set of on-road SI vehicles and compare these data to similar data collected on a small subset of light-duty gasoline vehicles tested on a chassis dynamometer with a dilution tunnel using the Unified Drive Cycle, at both room temperature (cold start) and 0 C (cold-cold start). (2) Compare data collected from SI vehicles to similar data collected from Diesel engines during the Coordinating Research Council E-43 project. (3) Characterize on-road aerosol during mixed midweek traffic and Sunday midday periods and determine fleet-specific emission rates. (4) Characterize bulk- and size-segregated chemical composition of the particulate matter (PM) emitted in the exhaust from the gasoline vehicles. Particle number concentrations and size distributions are strongly influenced by dilution and sampling conditions. Laboratory methods were evaluated to dilute SI exhaust in a way that would produce size distributions that were similar to those measured during laboratory experiments. Size fractionated samples were collected for chemical analysis using a nano-microorifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-MOUDI). In addition, bulk samples were collected and analyzed. A mixture of low, mid and high mileage vehicles were recruited for testing during the study. Under steady highway cruise conditions a significant particle signature above background was not measured, but during hard accelerations number size distributions for the test fleet were similar to modern heavy-duty Diesel vehicles. Number emissions were much higher at high speed and during cold-cold starts. Fuel specific number emissions range from 1012 to 3 x 1016 particles/kg fuel. A simple

  12. Testing results of Monte Carlo sampling processes in MCSAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinnera, I.; Cruz, C.; Abreu, Y.; Leyva, A.; Correa, C.; Demydenko, C.

    2009-01-01

    The Monte Carlo Simulation of Atom Displacements (MCSAD) is a code implemented by the authors to simulate the complete process of atom displacement (AD) formation. This code makes use of the Monte Carlo (MC) method to sample all the processes involved in the gamma and electronic radiation transport through matter. The kernel of the calculations applied to this code relies on a model based on an algorithm developed by the authors, which firstly splits out multiple electron elastic scattering events from those single ones at higher scattering angles and then, from the last one, sampling those leading to AD at high transferred atomic recoil energies. Some tests have been developed to check the sampling algorithms with the help of the corresponding theoretical distribution functions. Satisfactory results have been obtained, which indicate the strength of the methods and subroutines used in the code. (Author)

  13. Estimation of sample size and testing power (part 6).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang-ping; Bao, Xiao-lei; Guan, Xue; Zhou, Shi-guo

    2012-03-01

    The design of one factor with k levels (k ≥ 3) refers to the research that only involves one experimental factor with k levels (k ≥ 3), and there is no arrangement for other important non-experimental factors. This paper introduces the estimation of sample size and testing power for quantitative data and qualitative data having a binary response variable with the design of one factor with k levels (k ≥ 3).

  14. Summary of Test Results for Daya Bay Rock Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Celia Tiemi; Dobson, Patrick; Nakagawa, Seiji

    2004-01-01

    A series of analytical tests was conducted on a suite of granitic rock samples from the Daya Bay region of southeast China. The objective of these analyses was to determine key rock properties that would affect the suitability of this location for the siting of a neutrino oscillation experiment. This report contains the results of chemical analyses, rock property measurements, and a calculation of the mean atomic weight

  15. Data Quality Objectives For Selecting Waste Samples To Test The Fluid Bed Steam Reformer Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banning, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing. The type, quantity and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluid bed steam reformer (FBSR). A determination of the adequacy of the FBSR process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the FBSR process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used to test the FBSR process. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the testing criteria.

  16. Performance of an adult Brazilian sample on the Trail Making Test and Stroop Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenia Repiso Campanholo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The Trail Making Test (TMT and Stroop Test (ST are attention tests widely used in clinical practice and research. The aim of this study was to provide normative data for the adult Brazilian population and to study the influence of gender, age and education on the TMT parts A and B, and ST cards A, B and C. Methods: We recruited 1447 healthy subjects aged ≥18 years with an educational level of 0-25 years who were native speakers of Portuguese (Brazilian. The subjects were evaluated by the Matrix Reasoning and Vocabulary subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III, along with the TMTA, TMTB and ST A, B and C. Results: Among the participants, mean intellectual efficiency was 103.20 (SD: 12.0, age 41.0 (SD: 16.4 years and education 11.9 (SD: 5.6 years. There were significant differences between genders on the TMTA (p=0.002, TMTB (p=0.017 and STC (p=0.024. Age showed a positive correlation with all attention tests, whereas education showed a negative correlation. Gender was not found to be significant on the multiple linear regression model, but age and education maintained their interference. Conclusion: Gender did not have the major impact on attentional tasks observed for age and education, both of which should be considered in the stratification of normative samples.

  17. Frictional sliding tests on combined coal-rock samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A test system was developed to understand the sliding mechanism of coal-rock structure. The test system was composed by a double-shear testing model and an acousto-optic monitoring system in association with a digital camera and an acoustic emission (AE instrument. The tests can simulate the movement of activated faults and the sliding in coal-rock structure. In this regard, instable sliding conditions of coal-rock samples, sliding types under different conditions, displacement evolution law, and AE characteristics during sliding process were investigated. Several sliding types were monitored in the tests, including unstable continuous sliding, unstable discontinuous sliding, and stable sliding. The sliding types have close relation with the axial loads and loading rates. Larger axial load and smaller loading rate mean that unstable sliding is less likely to occur. The peak shear stress was positively correlated with the axial load when sliding occurred, whereas the displacement induced by unstable sliding was uncorrelated with the axial load. A large number of AE events occurred before sliding, and the AE rate decreased after stable sliding. The results show that the tests can well simulate the process of structural instability in a coal bump, and are helpful in the understanding of fault activation and the physical processes during squeezing process of roof and floor.

  18. Inert medium (helium) irradiation testing of pressure tube samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancuta, M.; Radu, V.; Stefan, V.; Preda, M.

    2001-01-01

    Irradiation tests currently performed in C-5 capsule aim at obtaining data and information concerning behavior to irradiation of pressure tubes of CANDU type fuel channel, to evidence the factors limiting operation life span. A calculation code for analysis and prediction of pressure tube behavior should be based upon periodical inspection results, post irradiation examination of the removed from reactor pressure tubes as well as on the experimental results obtained with materials subjected to irradiation conditions identical with the operational ones. Mechanical behavior analysis should focus both complex thermal-mechanical type stresses and mechanical properties alteration under irradiation. The experimental results should be applied: - to evaluate the irradiation effects upon mechanical properties of Zr-2.5% Nb exposed to fluences up to 10 21 n·cm -2 ; - to gather data concerning the real stress / real deformation characteristic from which characteristic quantities can be deduced as, for instance, elasticity modulus, plasticity modulus, exponent of stress term in the Tsu-Berteles relation, to be used within the CANTUP simulation code describing pressure tube behavior, currently developed at INR Pitesti; - to develop prediction methods of pressure tube behavior and merging with in-service inspection procedure in order to forecast the life span and the proper timing for replacement before major failures occur. The samples irradiated in C-5 capsule were extracted from the ends of Zr-2.5% Nb pressure tubes resulting from Cernavoda NPP Unit 1. The samples for tensile tests were extracted on longitudinal and transversal directions of the pressure tube. The tests were carried out under following conditions: - test environment temperature, 260 - 280 deg.C; - testing medium, helium at 1 - 6 b pressure; - neutron flux (E n > 1 MeV), 1 - 2 · 10 13 ncm -2 s -1 ; - neutron fluence (E n > 1 MeV), 4 · 10 20 ncm -2 . The following characteristics were obtained from tensile

  19. Enhanced Sampling and Analysis, Selection of Technology for Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svoboda, John; Meikrantz, David

    2010-02-01

    The focus of this study includes the investigation of sampling technologies used in industry and their potential application to nuclear fuel processing. The goal is to identify innovative sampling methods using state of the art techniques that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements. This report details the progress made in the first half of FY 2010 and includes a further consideration of the research focus and goals for this year. Our sampling options and focus for the next generation sampling method are presented along with the criteria used for choosing our path forward. We have decided to pursue the option of evaluating the feasibility of microcapillary based chips to remotely collect, transfer, track and supply microliters of sample solutions to analytical equipment in support of aqueous processes for used nuclear fuel cycles. Microchip vendors have been screened and a choice made for the development of a suitable microchip design followed by production of samples for evaluation by ANL, LANL, and INL on an independent basis.

  20. REDESIGN OF CERNS QUADRUPOLE RESONATOR FOR TESTING OF SUPERCONDUCTING SAMPLES

    CERN Document Server

    Del Pozo Romano, Veronica

    2017-01-01

    The quadrupole resonator (QPR) was constructed in 1997 to measure the surface resistance of niobium samples at 400 MHz, the technology and RF frequency chosen for the LHC. It allows measurement of the RF properties of superconducting films deposited on disk-shaped metallic substrates. The samples are used to study different coatings which is much faster than the coating, stripping and re-coating of sample cavities. An electromagnetic and mechanical re-design of the existing QPR has been done with the goal of doubling the magnetic peak fields on the samples. Electromagnetic simulations were carried out on a completely parametrized model, using the existings QPR as baseline and modifying its dimensions. The aim was to optimize the measurement range and resolution by increasing the ratio between the magnetic peak fields on the sample and in the cavity. Increasing the average magnetic field on the sample leads to a more homogenous field distribution over the sample. Some of the modifications were based on t...

  1. Mars Sample Return Architecture Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centuori, S.; Hermosín, P.; Martín, J.; De Zaiacomo, G.; Colin, S.; Godfrey, A.; Myles, J.; Johnson, H.; Sachdev, T.; Ahmed, R.

    2018-04-01

    Current paper presents the results of ESA funded activity "Mars Sample Return Architecture Assessment Study" carried-out by DEIMOS Space, Lockheed Martin UK Ampthill, and MDA Corporation, where more than 500 mission design options have been studied.

  2. Research on test of product based on spatial sampling criteria and variable step sampling mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruihong; Han, Yueping

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents an effective approach for online testing the assembly structures inside products using multiple views technique and X-ray digital radiography system based on spatial sampling criteria and variable step sampling mechanism. Although there are some objects inside one product to be tested, there must be a maximal rotary step for an object within which the least structural size to be tested is predictable. In offline learning process, Rotating the object by the step and imaging it and so on until a complete cycle is completed, an image sequence is obtained that includes the full structural information for recognition. The maximal rotary step is restricted by the least structural size and the inherent resolution of the imaging system. During online inspection process, the program firstly finds the optimum solutions to all different target parts in the standard sequence, i.e., finds their exact angles in one cycle. Aiming at the issue of most sizes of other targets in product are larger than that of the least structure, the paper adopts variable step-size sampling mechanism to rotate the product specific angles with different steps according to different objects inside the product and match. Experimental results show that the variable step-size method can greatly save time compared with the traditional fixed-step inspection method while the recognition accuracy is guaranteed.

  3. Failure analysis of burst tested fuel tube samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmaprabu, C.; Ramana Rao, S.V.; Srivatsava, R.K.

    2005-01-01

    The Total Circumferential Elongation (TCE) is an important parameter for evaluation of ductility of the Zircaloy-4 fuel tubes for the PHWR reactors. The TCE values of the fuel tubes were obtained using the burst testing technique. In some lots there is a variation in the values of the TCE. To investigate the reasons for such a large variation in the TCE, samples were selected at appropriate intervals and sectioned at the fractured portion. The surface morphology of the fractured surfaces was examined under Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). The morphologies show segregation of elements at specific locations. Energy dispersive spectra was obtained from those segregated particles. According to the magnitude of TCE value the samples were classified into low, intermediate and high ductility. Low ductility samples were found to contain large amount of segregations along the thickness direction of the tube. This forms a brittle region and a path for the easy crack growth along thickness direction. In the case of intermediate samples the segregation occurred in fewer locations compared to low ductile samples and also confined to the circumferential direction of the outside surface of the tube. Due to this, probability of crack formation at the surface of the tube could be high. But crack growth would be slower in the ductile matrix along the thickness direction resulting in the enhancement of TCE value compared to the low ductile sample. In the high ductile samples, the segregations were very scarce and found to be isolated and embedded in the ductile matrix. The mode of failure in these types of samples was found to be purely ductile. Cracks were found to originate solely from the micro voids in the material. As the probability of crack formation and its propagation is low, very high TCE values were observed in these samples. Microstructural observations of fractured surfaces and EDAX analysis was able to identify the

  4. Mineralogic and petrologic investigation of post-test core samples from the Spent Fuel Test - Climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, F.J.; Beiriger, J.

    1985-02-01

    We have characterized a suite of samples taken subsequent to the end of the Spent Fuel Test - Climax by petrographic and microanalytical techniques and determined their mineral assemblage, modal properties, and mineral chemistry. The samples were obtained immediately adjacent to the canister borehole at a variety of depths and positions within the canister drift, as well as radially outward from each canister hole. This method of sampling allows variations in post-test mineralogic properties to be evaluated on the basis of (1) depth along a particular canister hole and (2) position within the canister drift, with respect to the heat and radiation sources, and with respect to the pre - test samples. In no case did we find any significant correlation between the mineralogical properties and variables listed above. In short, the Spent Fuel Test - Climax has produced no identifiable mineralogical response in the Climax quartz monzonite. 12 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  5. Experimental study of glass sampling devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Moncouyoux, J.P.; Meyere, A.

    1992-01-01

    Two high-level liquid waste containment glass sampling systems have been designed and built. The first device fits entirely inside a standard glass storage canister, and may thus be used in facilities not initially designed for this function. It has been tested successfully in the nonradioactive prototype unit at Marcoule. The work primarily covered the design and construction of an articulated arm supporting the sampling vessel, and the mechanisms necessary for filling the vessel and recovering the sample. System actuation and operation are fully automatic, and the resulting sample is representative of the glass melt. Implementation of the device is delicate however, and its reliability is estimated at about 75%. A second device was designed specifically for new vitrification facilities. It is installed directly on the glass melting furnace, and meets process operating and quality control requirements. Tests conducted at the Marcoule prototype vitrification facility demonstrated the feasibility of the system. Special attention was given to the sampling vessel transfer mechanisms, with two filling and controlled sample cooling options

  6. Results from tests of TFL Hydragard sampling loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.

    1995-03-01

    When the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is operational, processed radioactive sludge will be transferred in batches to the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), where glass frit will be added and the contents concentrated by boiling. Batches of the slurry mixture are transferred from the SME to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT). Hydragard reg-sign sampling systems are used on the SME and the MFT for collecting slurry samples in vials for chemical analysis. An accurate replica of the Hydragard sampling system was built and tested in the thermal Fluids Laboratory (TFL) to determine the hydragard accuracy. It was determined that the original Hydragard valve frequently drew a non-representative sample stream through the sample vial that ranged from frit enriched to frit depleted. The Hydragard valve was modified by moving the plunger and its seat backwards so that the outer surface of the plunger was flush with the inside diameter of the transfer line when the valve was open. The slurry flowing through the vial accurately represented the composition of the slurry in the reservoir for two types of slurries, different dilution factors, a range of transfer flows and a range of vial flows. It was then found that the 15 ml of slurry left in the vial when the Hydragard valve was closed, which is what will be analyzed at DWPF, had a lower ratio of frit to sludge as characterized by the lithium to iron ratio than the slurry flowing through it. The reason for these differences is not understood at this time but it is recommended that additional experimentation be performed with the TFL Hydragard loop to determine the cause

  7. 21 CFR 864.3260 - OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 864.3260 Section 864.3260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology...

  8. Study of phosphors determination in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Rosangela Magda de.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, phosphors determination by neutron activation analysis in milk and bone samples was studied employing both instrumental and radiochemical separation methods. The analysis with radiochemistry separation consisted of the simultaneous irradiation of the samples and standards during 30 minutes, dissolution of the samples, hold back carrier, addition precipitation of phosphorus with ammonium phosphomolibdate (A.M.P.) and phosphorus-32 by counting by using Geiger-Mueller detector. The instrumental analysis consisted of the simultaneous irradiation of the samples and standards during 30 minutes, transfer of the samples into a counting planchet and measurement of the beta radiation emitted by phosphorus-32, after a suitable decay period. After the phosphorus analysis methods were established they were applied to both commercial milk and animal bone samples, and data obtained in the instrumental and radiochemical separation methods for each sample, were compared between themselves. In this work, it became possible to obtain analysis methods for phosphorus that can be applied independently of the sample quantity available, and the phosphorus content in the samples or interference that can be present in them. (author). 51 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Neutron-Irradiated Samples as Test Materials for MPEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Ronald James; Rapp, Juergen

    2015-01-01

    Plasma Material Interaction (PMI) is a major concern in fusion reactor design and analysis. The Material-Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX) will explore PMI under fusion reactor plasma conditions. Samples with accumulated displacements per atom (DPA) damage produced by fast neutron irradiations in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) will be studied in the MPEX facility. This paper presents assessments of the calculated induced radioactivity and resulting radiation dose rates of a variety of potential fusion reactor plasma-facing materials (such as tungsten). The scientific code packages MCNP and SCALE were used to simulate irradiation of the samples in HFIR including the generation and depletion of nuclides in the material and the subsequent composition, activity levels, gamma radiation fields, and resultant dose rates as a function of cooling time. A challenge of the MPEX project is to minimize the radioactive inventory in the preparation of the samples and the sample dose rates for inclusion in the MPEX facility

  10. Small Sample Properties of the Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with Discontinuous and Dependent Observations

    OpenAIRE

    Nadine Chlass; Jens J. Krueger

    2007-01-01

    This Monte-Carlo study investigates sensitivity of the Wilcoxon signed rank test to certain assumption violations in small samples. Emphasis is put on within-sample-dependence, between-sample dependence, and the presence of ties. Our results show that both assumption violations induce severe size distortions and entail power losses. Surprisingly, these consequences do vary substantially with other properties the data may display. Results provided are particularly relevant for experimental set...

  11. Performances on five verbal fluency tests in a healthy, elderly Danish sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, Jette; Jørgensen, Kasper; Vogel, Asmus

    2013-01-01

    Verbal fluency tests are widely used as measures of language and executive functions. This study presents data for five tests; semantic fluency (animals, supermarket items and alternating between cities and professions), lexical fluency (s-words), and action fluency (verbs) based on a sample of 100...

  12. The first DC performance test and analysis of CC conductor short sample at ASIPP conductor test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yi; Wu Yu; Liu Huajun; Long Feng; Qian Li; Ren Zhibin; Li Shaolei; Liu Bo; Chen Jinglin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study the first DC performance experiments of ITER correction coil conductor short sample have been carried out in ASIPP test facility. ► A CC conductor short sample was fabricated and tested to confirm the capability of this test facility for qualification tests of CC conductors. ► There is no obvious impact of cycling on DC performance measurement. ► Those measured results of current sharing temperature are in agreement with the expected results from strand scaling - Abstract: The first DC performance experiments of ITER correction coil (CC) conductor short sample have been carried out in the conductor test facility of Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS (ASIPP) in January this year. Those experiments aim to investigate the DC performance of ITER CC conductor. The tested conductor short sample is bended as a half circle with the diameter of 270 mm to meet the background magnetic field shape. The half circle part of sample is longer than the final twist pitch. The current sharing temperature (T cs ) in the 3.86 T external magnetic field (B ex ), ≤12 kA could be measured including the critical current (I c ) run. There is no obvious impact of 1000 cycles on DC performance. Those measured T cs results are in agreement with the expected results from strand scaling.

  13. Performances on Symbol Digit Modalities Test, Color Trails Test, and modified Stroop test in a healthy, elderly Danish sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogel, Asmus; Stokholm, Jette; Jørgensen, Kasper

    2013-01-01

    This study presents Danish data for the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Color Trails Test (CTT), and a modified Stroop test from 100 subjects aged 60-87 years. Among the included demographic variables, age had the highest impact on test performances. Thus, the study presents separate data...

  14. On Wasserstein Two-Sample Testing and Related Families of Nonparametric Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaditya Ramdas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonparametric two-sample or homogeneity testing is a decision theoretic problem that involves identifying differences between two random variables without making parametric assumptions about their underlying distributions. The literature is old and rich, with a wide variety of statistics having being designed and analyzed, both for the unidimensional and the multivariate setting. Inthisshortsurvey,wefocusonteststatisticsthatinvolvetheWassersteindistance. Usingan entropic smoothing of the Wasserstein distance, we connect these to very different tests including multivariate methods involving energy statistics and kernel based maximum mean discrepancy and univariate methods like the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, probability or quantile (PP/QQ plots and receiver operating characteristic or ordinal dominance (ROC/ODC curves. Some observations are implicit in the literature, while others seem to have not been noticed thus far. Given nonparametric two-sample testing’s classical and continued importance, we aim to provide useful connections for theorists and practitioners familiar with one subset of methods but not others.

  15. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study

  16. Mobile Variable Depth Sampling System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-08-25

    A design study is presented for a mobile, variable depth sampling system (MVDSS) that will support the treatment and immobilization of Hanford LAW and HLW. The sampler can be deployed in a 4-inch tank riser and has a design that is based on requirements identified in the Level 2 Specification (latest revision). The waste feed sequence for the MVDSS is based on Phase 1, Case 3S6 waste feed sequence. Technical information is also presented that supports the design study.

  17. Statistics and sampling in transuranic studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, L.L.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1980-01-01

    The existing data on transuranics in the environment exhibit a remarkably high variability from sample to sample (coefficients of variation of 100% or greater). This chapter stresses the necessity of adequate sample size and suggests various ways to increase sampling efficiency. Objectives in sampling are regarded as being of great importance in making decisions as to sampling methodology. Four different classes of sampling methods are described: (1) descriptive sampling, (2) sampling for spatial pattern, (3) analytical sampling, and (4) sampling for modeling. A number of research needs are identified in the various sampling categories along with several problems that appear to be common to two or more such areas

  18. Performance test of SAUNA xenon mobile sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Dan; Yang Bin; Yang Weigeng; Jia Huaimao; Wang Shilian; Li Qi; Zhao Yungang; Fan Yuanqing; Chen Zhanying; Chang Yinzhong; Liu Shujiang; Zhang Xinjun; Wang Jun

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the structure and basic functions of SAUNA noble gas xenon mobile sampling system are introduced. The sampling capability of this system is about 2.2 mL per day, as a result from a 684-h operation. The system can be transported to designated locations conveniently to collect xenon sample for routine or emergency environment monitoring. (authors)

  19. The validation of a computer-adaptive test (CAT) for assessing health-related quality of life in children and adolescents in a clinical sample: study design, methods and first results of the Kids-CAT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, D; Otto, C; Nolte, S; Meyrose, A-K; Fischer, F; Devine, J; Walter, O; Mierke, A; Fischer, K I; Thyen, U; Klein, M; Ankermann, T; Rose, M; Ravens-Sieberer, U

    2017-05-01

    Recently, we developed a computer-adaptive test (CAT) for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in children and adolescents: the Kids-CAT. It measures five generic HRQoL dimensions. The aims of this article were (1) to present the study design and (2) to investigate its psychometric properties in a clinical setting. The Kids-CAT study is a longitudinal prospective study with eight measurements over one year at two University Medical Centers in Germany. For validating the Kids-CAT, 270 consecutive 7- to 17-year-old patients with asthma (n = 52), diabetes (n = 182) or juvenile arthritis (n = 36) answered well-established HRQoL instruments (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ (PedsQL), KIDSCREEN-27) and scales measuring related constructs (e.g., social support, self-efficacy). Measurement precision, test-retest reliability, convergent and discriminant validity were investigated. The mean standard error of measurement ranged between .38 and .49 for the five dimensions, which equals a reliability between .86 and .76, respectively. The Kids-CAT measured most reliably in the lower HRQoL range. Convergent validity was supported by moderate to high correlations of the Kids-CAT dimensions with corresponding PedsQL dimensions ranging between .52 and .72. A lower correlation was found between the social dimensions of both instruments. Discriminant validity was confirmed by lower correlations with non-corresponding subscales of the PedsQL. The Kids-CAT measures pediatric HRQoL reliably, particularly in lower areas of HRQoL. Its test-retest reliability should be re-investigated in future studies. The validity of the instrument was demonstrated. Overall, results suggest that the Kids-CAT is a promising candidate for detecting psychosocial needs in chronically ill children.

  20. Transfer of test samples and wastes between post-irradiation test facilities (FMF, AGF, MMF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Yasukazu; Suzuki, Kazuhisa; Ebihara, Hikoe; Matsushima, Yasuyoshi; Kashiwabara, Hidechiyo

    1975-02-01

    Wide review is given on the problems associated with the transfer of test samples and wastes between post-irradiation test facilities, FMF (Fuel Monitoring Facility), AGF (Alpha Gamma Facility), and MMF (Material Monitoring Facility) at the Oarai Engineering Center, PNC. The test facilities are connected with the JOYO plant, an experimental fast reactor being constructed at Oarai. As introductory remarks, some special features of transferring irradiated materials are described. In the second part, problems on the management of nuclear materials and radio isotopes are described item by item. In the third part, the specific materials that are envisaged to be transported between JOYO and the test facilities are listed together with their geometrical shapes, dimensions, etc. In the fourth part, various routes and methods of transportation are explained with many block charts and figures. Brief explanation with lists and drawings is also given to transportation casks and vessels. Finally, some future problems are discussed, such as the prevention of diffusive contamination, ease of decontamination, and the identification of test samples. (Aoki, K.)

  1. Pigeons exhibit higher accuracy for chosen memory tests than for forced memory tests in duration matching-to-sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Allison; Santi, Angelo

    2011-03-01

    Following training to match 2- and 8-sec durations of feederlight to red and green comparisons with a 0-sec baseline delay, pigeons were allowed to choose to take a memory test or to escape the memory test. The effects of sample omission, increases in retention interval, and variation in trial spacing on selection of the escape option and accuracy were studied. During initial testing, escaping the test did not increase as the task became more difficult, and there was no difference in accuracy between chosen and forced memory tests. However, with extended training, accuracy for chosen tests was significantly greater than for forced tests. In addition, two pigeons exhibited higher accuracy on chosen tests than on forced tests at the short retention interval and greater escape rates at the long retention interval. These results have not been obtained in previous studies with pigeons when the choice to take the test or to escape the test is given before test stimuli are presented. It appears that task-specific methodological factors may determine whether a particular species will exhibit the two behavioral effects that were initially proposed as potentially indicative of metacognition.

  2. Principles of Work Sample Testing. 1. A Non-Empirical Taxonomy of Test Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    UNIVERSITY % ’ Bowling Green , Ohio 43403 e April 1979 Contract DAHC 19-77-C-0007 Cj Prepared for U.S. ARMY RESEARCH INSTITUTEfor the BEHAVIORAL and...inferring changes in enotionality, and GSR is said to be a measure of emotion . Much of psychological measurement is derived measurement, but it is...ARI TECHNICAL REPORT TR-79-A8 Principles of Work Sample Testingi I. A Non-Empirical Taxonomy of Test Uses b y Robert M. Guion BOWLING GREEN STATE

  3. Sample size allocation in multiregional equivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Jason J Z; Yu, Ziji; Li, Yulan

    2018-06-17

    With the increasing globalization of drug development, the multiregional clinical trial (MRCT) has gained extensive use. The data from MRCTs could be accepted by regulatory authorities across regions and countries as the primary sources of evidence to support global marketing drug approval simultaneously. The MRCT can speed up patient enrollment and drug approval, and it makes the effective therapies available to patients all over the world simultaneously. However, there are many challenges both operationally and scientifically in conducting a drug development globally. One of many important questions to answer for the design of a multiregional study is how to partition sample size into each individual region. In this paper, two systematic approaches are proposed for the sample size allocation in a multiregional equivalence trial. A numerical evaluation and a biosimilar trial are used to illustrate the characteristics of the proposed approaches. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Surface studies of plasma processed Nb samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Puneet V.; Doleans, Marc; Hannah, Brian S.; Afanador, Ralph; Stewart, Stephen; Mammosser, John; Howell, Matthew P; Saunders, Jeffrey W; Degraff, Brian D; Kim, Sang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Contaminants present at top surface of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities can act as field emitters and restrict the cavity accelerating gradient. A room temperature in-situ plasma processing technology for SRF cavities aiming to clean hydrocarbons from inner surface of cavities has been recently developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). Surface studies of the plasma-processed Nb samples by Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and Scanning Kelvin Probe (SKP) showed that the NeO_2 plasma processing is very effective to remove carbonaceous contaminants from top surface and improves the surface work function by 0.5 to 1.0 eV.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of one versus two sample faecal immunochemical testing for colorectal cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, S Lucas; van Roon, Aafke H C; Reijerink, Jacqueline C I Y; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Habbema, J Dik F; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Leerdam, Monique E; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2013-05-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of a single faecal immunochemical test (FIT) are limited. The performance of FIT screening can be improved by increasing the screening frequency or by providing more than one sample in each screening round. This study aimed to evaluate if two-sample FIT screening is cost-effective compared with one-sample FIT. The MISCAN-colon microsimulation model was used to estimate costs and benefits of strategies with either one or two-sample FIT screening. The FIT cut-off level varied between 50 and 200 ng haemoglobin/ml, and the screening schedule was varied with respect to age range and interval. In addition, different definitions for positivity of the two-sample FIT were considered: at least one positive sample, two positive samples, or the mean of both samples being positive. Within an exemplary screening strategy, biennial FIT from the age of 55-75 years, one-sample FIT provided 76.0-97.0 life-years gained (LYG) per 1000 individuals, at a cost of € 259,000-264,000 (range reflects different FIT cut-off levels). Two-sample FIT screening with at least one sample being positive provided 7.3-12.4 additional LYG compared with one-sample FIT at an extra cost of € 50,000-59,000. However, when all screening intervals and age ranges were considered, intensifying screening with one-sample FIT provided equal or more LYG at lower costs compared with two-sample FIT. If attendance to screening does not differ between strategies it is recommended to increase the number of screening rounds with one-sample FIT screening, before considering increasing the number of FIT samples provided per screening round.

  6. Statistics of sampling for microbiological testing of foodborne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite the many recent advances in protocols for testing for pathogens in foods, a number of challenges still exist. For example, the microbiological safety of food cannot be completely ensured by testing because microorganisms are not evenly distributed throughout the food. Therefore, since it i...

  7. Evaluation of a liver micronucleus assay in young rats (IV): a study using a double-dosing/single-sampling method by the Collaborative Study Group for the Micronucleus Test (CSGMT)/Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society (JEMS)-Mammalian Mutagenicity Study Group (MMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takasawa, Hironao; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Izumi; Shimada, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Kazuo; Terashima, Yukari; Matsumoto, Hirotaka; Oshida, Keiyu; Ohta, Ryo; Imamura, Tadashi; Miyazaki, Atsushi; Kawabata, Masayoshi; Minowa, Shigenori; Maeda, Akihisa; Hayashi, Makoto

    2010-04-30

    A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate whether a liver micronucleus assay using four-week-old male F344 rats can be used to detect genotoxic rat hepatocarcinogens using double-dosing with a single-sampling 4 days after the second dose. The assay methods were thoroughly validated by the seven laboratories involved in the study. Seven chemicals, 2,4-diaminotoluene, diethyl nitrosamine, p-dimethylaminoazobenzene, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride, 2,4-dinitrotolunene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene and mitomycin C, known to produce positive responses in the single-dosing/triple-sampling method were selected for use in the present study, and each chemical was examined in two laboratories with the exception of 2,4-dinitrotolunene. Although several of the compounds were examined at lower doses for reasons of toxicity than in the single-dosing/triple-sampling method, all chemicals tested in the present study induced micronuclei in liver cells indicating a positive result. These findings suggest that the liver micronucleus assay can be used in young rats to detect genotoxic rat hepatocarcinogens using a double-dosing/single-sampling procedure. Further, the number of animals used in the liver micronucleus assay can be reduced by one-third to a half by using the double-dosing/single-sampling method. This reduction in animal numbers also has significant savings in time and resource for liver perfusion and hepatocyte isolation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The Agreement between the MMSE and IQCODE Tests in a Community-Based Sample of Subjects Aged 70 Years or Older Receiving In-Home Nursing: An Explorative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øyvind Kirkevold

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: It was the aim of this study to compare the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE with the Informant Questionnaire for Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE and to explore the characteristics of subjects with possible dementia with only one of the two tools. Methods: We used a random sample of patients aged 70+ receiving social service or in-home nursing. The patients were tested with the MMSE, and the next of kin was interviewed using the following: the IQCODE, the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI, instrumental activities of daily living (IADL, personal ADL (PADL and the General Medical Health Rating (GMHR. Results: Subjects with dementia defined only according to the MMSE showed a pattern of scores on IADL, PADL, CSDD, NPI-10 and GMHR similar to the no-dementia group according to both the MMSE and the IQCODE. Those with dementia defined only according to the IQCODE showed a pattern of scores similar to the possible dementia group according to both the MMSE and the IQCODE.

  9. [Guidelines concerning sample reception and request recording of laboratory tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailly, P; Dhondt, J L; Drouard, L; Houlbert, C; Soubiran, P; Szymanowicz, A

    2010-12-01

    The process is described to help to achieve the requirements of the ISO 15189 standard. The precautions to be respected for a correct recording of the request are specified. The criteria for traceability are formalized. A logogram illustrates the propositions of attitude to be followed when occurs nonconformities. Then, we propose guidelines for the treatment of the identification uncertainties of the primary sample. An algorithm is proposed to formalize the process and treat the situations which can be met with an irreplaceable or critical sample.

  10. Validity of the reduced-sample insulin modified frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test using the nonlinear regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Anne E; Luercio, Marcella F; Frempong, Barbara A; Ricks, Madia; Sen, Sabyasachi; Kushner, Harvey; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K

    2009-02-01

    The disposition index, the product of the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)) and the acute insulin response to glucose, is linked in African Americans to chromosome 11q. This link was determined with S(I) calculated with the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model and data from the reduced-sample insulin-modified frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT). However, the application of the nonlinear regression approach to calculate S(I) using data from the Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT has been challenged as being not only inaccurate but also having a high failure rate in insulin-resistant subjects. Our goal was to determine the accuracy and failure rate of the Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT using the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model. With S(I) from the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT considered the standard and using the nonlinear regression approach to the minimal model, we compared the agreement between S(I) from the Full- and Reduced-Sample-IM-FSIGT protocols. One hundred African Americans (body mass index, 31.3 +/- 7.6 kg/m(2) [mean +/- SD]; range, 19.0-56.9 kg/m(2)) had FSIGTs. Glucose (0.3 g/kg) was given at baseline. Insulin was infused from 20 to 25 minutes (total insulin dose, 0.02 U/kg). For the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT, S(I) was calculated based on the glucose and insulin samples taken at -1, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,10, 12, 14, 16, 19, 22, 23, 24, 25, 27, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 150, and 180 minutes. For the Reduced-Sample-FSIGT, S(I) was calculated based on the time points that appear in bold. Agreement was determined by Spearman correlation, concordance, and the Bland-Altman method. In addition, for both protocols, the population was divided into tertiles of S(I). Insulin resistance was defined by the lowest tertile of S(I) from the Full-Sample-IM-FSIGT. The distribution of subjects across tertiles was compared by rank order and kappa statistic. We found that the rate of failure of resolution of S(I) by

  11. The Effect of Sample Preparation and Testing Procedure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    School of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Addis Ababa Institute of Technology,. 3. Murray Rix ... the application of laboratory testing and ... clay, tropical red clay, lateritic clay and laterite, ..... grading curves using mass and modified mass.

  12. Paleomagnetic Studies of Returned Samples from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, B. P.; Beaty, D. W.; McSween, H. Y.; Carrier, B. L.; Czaja, A. D.; Goreva, Y. S.; Hausrath, E.; Herd, C. D. K.; Humayun, M.; McCubbin, F. M.; McLennan, S. M.; Pratt, L. M.; Sephton, M. A.; Steele, A.

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic measurements of returned samples could transform our understanding of the martian dynamo and its connection to climatic and planetary thermal evolution and provide powerful constraints on the preservation state of sample biosignatures.

  13. Cost-effectiveness of one versus two sample faecal immunochemical testing for colorectal cancer screening

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Goede (Luuk); A.H.C. Roon (Aafke); J.C.I.Y. Reijerink (Jacqueline); A.J. van Vuuren (Hanneke); I. Lansdorp-Vogelaar (Iris); J.D.F. Habbema (Dik); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst); M.E. van Leerdam (Monique); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective The sensitivity and specificity of a single faecal immunochemical test (FIT) are limited. The performance of FIT screening can be improved by increasing the screening frequency or by providing more than one sample in each screening round. This study aimed to evaluate if

  14. A Third Moment Adjusted Test Statistic for Small Sample Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Johnny; Bentler, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    Goodness of fit testing in factor analysis is based on the assumption that the test statistic is asymptotically chi-square; but this property may not hold in small samples even when the factors and errors are normally distributed in the population. Robust methods such as Browne's asymptotically distribution-free method and Satorra Bentler's mean scaling statistic were developed under the presumption of non-normality in the factors and errors. This paper finds new application to the case where factors and errors are normally distributed in the population but the skewness of the obtained test statistic is still high due to sampling error in the observed indicators. An extension of Satorra Bentler's statistic is proposed that not only scales the mean but also adjusts the degrees of freedom based on the skewness of the obtained test statistic in order to improve its robustness under small samples. A simple simulation study shows that this third moment adjusted statistic asymptotically performs on par with previously proposed methods, and at a very small sample size offers superior Type I error rates under a properly specified model. Data from Mardia, Kent and Bibby's study of students tested for their ability in five content areas that were either open or closed book were used to illustrate the real-world performance of this statistic.

  15. Study on graphite samples for nuclear usage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, J.C.M.; Silva Roseira, M. da

    1994-01-01

    Available as short communication only. The graphite, due to its properties (mechanical strength, thermal conductivity, high-temperature stability, machinability etc.) have many industrial applications, and consequently, an important strategic value. In the nuclear area, it has been used as moderator and reflector of neutrons in the fission process of uranium. The graphite can be produced from many types of carbonaceous materials by a variety of process dominated by the manufactures. This is the reason why there are in the world market a lot of graphite types with different physical and mechanical properties. The present investigation studies some physical characteristics of the graphite samples destined to use in a nuclear reactor. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig, 1 tab

  16. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    2006-01-01

    on the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications for research...... design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive......Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus...

  17. Sample damage investigation by laboratory testing and DDM modelling by FRACOD2D of Brazilian tests on Toki granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanaro, Flavio; Sato, Toshinori; Funato, Akio

    2008-01-01

    Numerical scooping calculations by means of FRACOD 2D had shown that Brazilian test models present a bend in the relation between the sample deformation perpendicularly to the loading direction and the load itself. The input 'direct' tensile strength of the rock could be re-obtained based on the numerical load at the bend. In this study, a similar technique is applied to specially designed Brazilian tests on Toki granite (Gifu, Japan) which also exhibits such bend for a tensile stress in the centre of the samples of about 2.6 MPa. However, the samples show a wide range of Brazilian tensile strengths that appear to be negatively correlated to the level of in-situ stress at the depth where the samples were taken. The correlation was interpreted as an effect of sample damage due to drilling in a stressed rock mass. Numerical models were designed with various preexist ent crack patterns to simulate the sample damage. The numerical results show Brazilian peak strength results ranging between 6.7 and 13.0 MPa, which are very realistic considering that the laboratory Brazilian tensile strength was observed to vary between 4.1 and 11.3 MPa. These values are all larger than the stress at the bend which is then interpreted as the tensile strength of the weakest grains in the granite. It is also shown that the occurrence of newly initiated cracks at the bend completely changes the stress distribution and failure mechanism of the samples: this explains why the Brazilian tensile strength should be higher than the 'direct' tensile strength of the rock from uniaxial tests. (author)

  18. 40 CFR 205.160-2 - Test sample selection and preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test sample selection and preparation... sample selection and preparation. (a) Vehicles comprising the sample which are required to be tested... maintained in any manner unless such preparation, tests, modifications, adjustments or maintenance are part...

  19. Small Sample Robust Testing for Normality against Pareto Tails

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stehlík, M.; Fabián, Zdeněk; Střelec, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 7 (2012), s. 1167-1194 ISSN 0361-0918 Grant - others:Aktion(CZ-AT) 51p7, 54p21, 50p14, 54p13 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : consistency * Hill estimator * t-Hill estimator * location functional * Pareto tail * power comparison * returns * robust tests for normality Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.295, year: 2012

  20. Apparatus for Crossflow Filtration Testing of High Level Waste Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.

    1998-05-01

    Remotely-operated experimental apparatuses for verifying crossflow filtration of high level nuclear waste have been constructed at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These units have been used to demonstrate filtration processes at the Savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The current work covers the design considerations for experimentation as well as providing results from testing at SRS

  1. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different...... research paths....

  2. Neuromuscular dose-response studies: determining sample size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopman, A F; Lien, C A; Naguib, M

    2011-02-01

    Investigators planning dose-response studies of neuromuscular blockers have rarely used a priori power analysis to determine the minimal sample size their protocols require. Institutional Review Boards and peer-reviewed journals now generally ask for this information. This study outlines a proposed method for meeting these requirements. The slopes of the dose-response relationships of eight neuromuscular blocking agents were determined using regression analysis. These values were substituted for γ in the Hill equation. When this is done, the coefficient of variation (COV) around the mean value of the ED₅₀ for each drug is easily calculated. Using these values, we performed an a priori one-sample two-tailed t-test of the means to determine the required sample size when the allowable error in the ED₅₀ was varied from ±10-20%. The COV averaged 22% (range 15-27%). We used a COV value of 25% in determining the sample size. If the allowable error in finding the mean ED₅₀ is ±15%, a sample size of 24 is needed to achieve a power of 80%. Increasing 'accuracy' beyond this point requires increasing greater sample sizes (e.g. an 'n' of 37 for a ±12% error). On the basis of the results of this retrospective analysis, a total sample size of not less than 24 subjects should be adequate for determining a neuromuscular blocking drug's clinical potency with a reasonable degree of assurance.

  3. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  4. The UK Biobank sample handling and storage validation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peakman, Tim C; Elliott, Paul

    2008-04-01

    and aims UK Biobank is a large prospective study in the United Kingdom to investigate the role of genetic factors, environmental exposures and lifestyle in the causes of major diseases of late and middle age. It involves the collection of blood and urine from 500 000 individuals aged between 40 and 69 years. How the samples are collected, processed and stored will have a major impact on the future scientific usefulness of the UK Biobank resource. A series of validation studies was recommended to test the robustness of the draft sample handling and storage protocol. Samples of blood and urine were collected from 40 healthy volunteers and either processed immediately according to the protocol or maintained at specified temperatures (4 degrees C for all tubes with the exception of vacutainers containing acid citrate dextrose that were maintained at 18 degrees C) for 12, 24 or 36 h prior to processing. A further sample was maintained for 24 h at 4 degrees C, processed and the aliquots frozen at -80 degrees C for 20 days and then thawed under controlled conditions. The stability of the samples was compared for the different times in a wide variety of assays. The samples maintained at 4 degrees C were stable for at least 24 h after collection for a wide range of assays. Small but significant changes were observed in metabonomic studies in samples maintained at 4 degrees C for 36 h. There was no degradation of the samples for a range of biochemical assays after short-term freezing and thawing under controlled conditions. Whole blood maintained at 18 degrees C for 24 h in vacutainers containing acid citrate dextrose is suitable for viral immortalization techniques. The validation studies reported in this supplement provide justification for the sample handling and storage procedures adopted in the UK Biobank project.

  5. Estimation of AUC or Partial AUC under Test-Result-Dependent Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Ma, Junling; George, Stephen; Zhou, Haibo

    2012-01-01

    The area under the ROC curve (AUC) and partial area under the ROC curve (pAUC) are summary measures used to assess the accuracy of a biomarker in discriminating true disease status. The standard sampling approach used in biomarker validation studies is often inefficient and costly, especially when ascertaining the true disease status is costly and invasive. To improve efficiency and reduce the cost of biomarker validation studies, we consider a test-result-dependent sampling (TDS) scheme, in which subject selection for determining the disease state is dependent on the result of a biomarker assay. We first estimate the test-result distribution using data arising from the TDS design. With the estimated empirical test-result distribution, we propose consistent nonparametric estimators for AUC and pAUC and establish the asymptotic properties of the proposed estimators. Simulation studies show that the proposed estimators have good finite sample properties and that the TDS design yields more efficient AUC and pAUC estimates than a simple random sampling (SRS) design. A data example based on an ongoing cancer clinical trial is provided to illustrate the TDS design and the proposed estimators. This work can find broad applications in design and analysis of biomarker validation studies.

  6. Smart management of sample dilution using an artificial neural network to achieve streamlined processes and saving resources: the automated nephelometric testing of serum free light chain as case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ialongo, Cristiano; Pieri, Massimo; Bernardini, Sergio

    2017-02-01

    Saving resources is a paramount issue for the modern laboratory, and new trainable as well as smart technologies can be used to allow the automated instrumentation to manage samples more efficiently in order to achieve streamlined processes. In this regard the serum free light chain (sFLC) testing represents an interesting challenge, as it usually causes using a number of assays before achieving an acceptable result within the analytical range. An artificial neural network based on the multi-layer perceptron (MLP-ANN) was used to infer the starting dilution status of sFLC samples based on the information available through the laboratory information system (LIS). After the learning phase, the MLP-ANN simulation was applied to the nephelometric testing routinely performed in our laboratory on a BN ProSpec® System analyzer (Siemens Helathcare) using the N Latex FLC kit. The MLP-ANN reduced the serum kappa free light chain (κ-FLC) and serum lambda free light chain (λ-FLC) wasted tests by 69.4% and 70.8% with respect to the naïve stepwise dilution scheme used by the automated analyzer, and by 64.9% and 66.9% compared to a "rational" dilution scheme based on a 4-step dilution. Although it was restricted to follow-up samples, the MLP-ANN showed good predictive performance, which alongside the possibility to implement it in any automated system, made it a suitable solution for achieving streamlined laboratory processes and saving resources.

  7. Water evaporation: a transition path sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varilly, Patrick; Chandler, David

    2013-02-07

    We use transition path sampling to study evaporation in the SPC/E model of liquid water. On the basis of thousands of evaporation trajectories, we characterize the members of the transition state ensemble (TSE), which exhibit a liquid-vapor interface with predominantly negative mean curvature at the site of evaporation. We also find that after evaporation is complete, the distributions of translational and angular momenta of the evaporated water are Maxwellian with a temperature equal to that of the liquid. To characterize the evaporation trajectories in their entirety, we find that it suffices to project them onto just two coordinates: the distance of the evaporating molecule to the instantaneous liquid-vapor interface and the velocity of the water along the average interface normal. In this projected space, we find that the TSE is well-captured by a simple model of ballistic escape from a deep potential well, with no additional barrier to evaporation beyond the cohesive strength of the liquid. Equivalently, they are consistent with a near-unity probability for a water molecule impinging upon a liquid droplet to condense. These results agree with previous simulations and with some, but not all, recent experiments.

  8. On the matched pairs sign test using bivariate ranked set sampling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BVRSS) is introduced and investigated. We show that this test is asymptotically more efficient than its counterpart sign test based on a bivariate simple random sample (BVSRS). The asymptotic null distribution and the efficiency of the test are derived.

  9. Operability test procedure for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System Exhausters 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WSaldo, E.J.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a procedure for performing operability testing of the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System Exhausters 3 ampersand 4. Upon completion of testing activities an operability testing report will be issued

  10. The effect of sample storage on the performance and reproducibility of the galactomannan EIA test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimpton, George; White, P Lewis; Barnes, Rosemary A

    2014-08-01

    Galactomannan enzyme immune assay (GM EIA) is a nonculture test for detecting invasive aspergillosis (IA) forming a key part of diagnosis and management. Recent reports have questioned the reproducibility of indices after sample storage. To investigate this, 198 serum samples (72 from cases and 126 from controls) and 61 plasma samples (24 from cases and 37 from controls), initially tested between 2010 and 2013, were retested to determine any change in index. Data were also collected on circulatory protein levels for false-positive serum samples. Serum indices significantly declined on retesting (median: initial, 0.50, retest, 0.23; P < 0.0001). This was shown to be diagnosis dependent as the decline was apparent on retesting of control samples (median: initial 0.50, retest 0.12; P < 0.0001), but was not evident with case samples (median: initial, 0.80, retest, 0.80; P = 0.724). Plasma samples showed little change on reanalysis after long-term storage at 4°C. Retesting after freezing showed a decrease in index values for controls (median: initial 0.40, retest 0.26; P = 0.0505), but no significant change in cases. Circulatory proteins showed a correlation between serum albumin concentration and difference in index value on retesting. Overall, this study suggests that a lack of reproducibility in GM EIA positivity is only significant when disease is absent. Retesting after freezing helps to differentiate false-positive GM EIA results and, with consecutive positivity, could help to improve accuracy in predicting disease status. The freezing of samples prior to testing could potentially reduce false-positivity rates and the need to retest. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. TESTING IN SITU ASSEMBLY WITH THE KEPLER PLANET CANDIDATE SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Brad M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Murray, Norm, E-mail: hansen@astro.ucla.edu, E-mail: murray@cita.utoronto.ca [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2013-09-20

    We present a Monte Carlo model for the structure of low-mass (total mass <25 M{sub ⊕}) planetary systems that form by the in situ gravitational assembly of planetary embryos into final planets. Our model includes distributions of mass, eccentricity, inclination, and period spacing that are based on the simulation of a disk of 20 M{sub ⊕}, forming planets around a solar-mass star, and assuming a power-law surface density distribution that drops with distance a as ∝ a {sup –1.5}. The output of the Monte Carlo model is then subjected to the selection effects that mimic the observations of a transiting planet search such as that performed by the Kepler satellite. The resulting comparison of the output to the properties of the observed sample yields an encouraging agreement in terms of the relative frequencies of multiple-planet systems and the distribution of the mutual inclinations when moderate tidal circularization is taken into account. The broad features of the period distribution and radius distribution can also be matched within this framework, although the model underpredicts the distribution of small period ratios. This likely indicates that some dissipation is still required in the formation process. The most striking deviation between the model and observations is in the ratio of single to multiple systems in that there are roughly 50% more single-planet candidates observed than are produced in any model population. This suggests that some systems must suffer additional attrition to reduce the number of planets or increase the range of inclinations.

  12. Sample size for estimation of the Pearson correlation coefficient in cherry tomato tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Giacomini Sari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to determine the required sample size for estimation of the Pearson coefficient of correlation between cherry tomato variables. Two uniformity tests were set up in a protected environment in the spring/summer of 2014. The observed variables in each plant were mean fruit length, mean fruit width, mean fruit weight, number of bunches, number of fruits per bunch, number of fruits, and total weight of fruits, with calculation of the Pearson correlation matrix between them. Sixty eight sample sizes were planned for one greenhouse and 48 for another, with the initial sample size of 10 plants, and the others were obtained by adding five plants. For each planned sample size, 3000 estimates of the Pearson correlation coefficient were obtained through bootstrap re-samplings with replacement. The sample size for each correlation coefficient was determined when the 95% confidence interval amplitude value was less than or equal to 0.4. Obtaining estimates of the Pearson correlation coefficient with high precision is difficult for parameters with a weak linear relation. Accordingly, a larger sample size is necessary to estimate them. Linear relations involving variables dealing with size and number of fruits per plant have less precision. To estimate the coefficient of correlation between productivity variables of cherry tomato, with a confidence interval of 95% equal to 0.4, it is necessary to sample 275 plants in a 250m² greenhouse, and 200 plants in a 200m² greenhouse.

  13. Basic distribution free identification tests for small size samples of environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, A.G.; Musmeci, F.

    1998-01-01

    Testing two or more data sets for the hypothesis that they are sampled form the same population is often required in environmental data analysis. Typically the available samples have a small number of data and often then assumption of normal distributions is not realistic. On the other hand the diffusion of the days powerful Personal Computers opens new possible opportunities based on a massive use of the CPU resources. The paper reviews the problem introducing the feasibility of two non parametric approaches based on intrinsic equi probability properties of the data samples. The first one is based on a full re sampling while the second is based on a bootstrap approach. A easy to use program is presented. A case study is given based on the Chernobyl children contamination data [it

  14. Physical and chemical parameters acquisition in situ, in deep clay. Development of sampling and testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajudie, A.; Coulon, H.; Geneste, P.

    1991-01-01

    Knowledge of deep formation for radioactive waste disposal requires field-tests or bench-scale experiments on samples of the site material. In the case of clay massifs the taking of cores and the sampling of these are particularly difficult. The most suitable materials and techniques were selected from a study of clay colling and conservation methods. These were used for a series of core samples taken at Mol in Belgium. Subsequently permeability measurements were carried out in laboratory on samples from vertical drilling and compared with in situ measurements. The latter were made by horizontal drillings from the shaft excavation of the underground facility HADES at Mol. There is a good overall agreement between the results of the two types of measurements. 25 figs.; 4 tabs.; 12 refs.; 16 photos

  15. Robust non-parametric one-sample tests for the analysis of recurrent events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebora, Paola; Galimberti, Stefania; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia

    2010-12-30

    One-sample non-parametric tests are proposed here for inference on recurring events. The focus is on the marginal mean function of events and the basis for inference is the standardized distance between the observed and the expected number of events under a specified reference rate. Different weights are considered in order to account for various types of alternative hypotheses on the mean function of the recurrent events process. A robust version and a stratified version of the test are also proposed. The performance of these tests was investigated through simulation studies under various underlying event generation processes, such as homogeneous and nonhomogeneous Poisson processes, autoregressive and renewal processes, with and without frailty effects. The robust versions of the test have been shown to be suitable in a wide variety of event generating processes. The motivating context is a study on gene therapy in a very rare immunodeficiency in children, where a major end-point is the recurrence of severe infections. Robust non-parametric one-sample tests for recurrent events can be useful to assess efficacy and especially safety in non-randomized studies or in epidemiological studies for comparison with a standard population. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Daily self-sampling for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanner, Karin; Wikström, Ingrid; Gustavsson, Inger; Wilander, Erik; Lindberg, Julia Hedlund; Gyllensten, Ulf; Olovsson, Matts

    2015-12-01

    Self-sampling for HPV as part of primary screening is a well-tolerated method for women not attending organized Pap smear screening and could increase coverage of cervical cancer screening. To investigate if the prevalence of HR-HPV varies from day to day in infected women and if one single sample is reliable for detecting an ongoing infection. This is a prospective cohort study on 12 premenopausal and 13 postmenopausal women performing daily self-sampling for HR-HPV testing. They were all HR-HPV-positive 1-3 months ago. Postmenopausal women were sampled for 28 days and premenopausal women sampled during bleeding-free days in one menstrual cycle. A possible difference in viral load between the estrogen-dominated proliferative phase and the progesterone-dominated secretory phase was analyzed. Consistent results throughout the sampling period were observed for 19 women, with either a daily presence of HPV (14 women) or no HPV at all during the sampling period (5 women). Of 607 samples from 25 women, 596 were consistently positive or negative for HPV during the sampling period and 11 were inconsistent (2%). There was no difference in HPV copy number between the estrogen dominated proliferative or progesterone dominated secretory menstrual cycle phases. The major finding was a high degree of consistency concerning HR-HPV positivity and negativity of HR-HPV in vaginal fluid during a sustained period of daily self-sampling. It does not appear to matter whether the sample is collected in the proliferative or secretory phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Randomized comparison of vaginal self-sampling by standard vs. dry swabs for Human papillomavirus testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eperon, Isabelle; Vassilakos, Pierre; Navarria, Isabelle; Menoud, Pierre-Alain; Gauthier, Aude; Pache, Jean-Claude; Boulvain, Michel; Untiet, Sarah; Petignat, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate if human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling (Self-HPV) using a dry vaginal swab is a valid alternative for HPV testing. Women attending colposcopy clinic were recruited to collect two consecutive Self-HPV samples: a Self-HPV using a dry swab (S-DRY) and a Self-HPV using a standard wet transport medium (S-WET). These samples were analyzed for HPV using real time PCR (Roche Cobas). Participants were randomized to determine the order of the tests. Questionnaires assessing preferences and acceptability for both tests were conducted. Subsequently, women were invited for colposcopic examination; a physician collected a cervical sample (physician-sampling) with a broom-type device and placed it into a liquid-based cytology medium. Specimens were then processed for the production of cytology slides and a Hybrid Capture HPV DNA test (Qiagen) was performed from the residual liquid. Biopsies were performed if indicated. Unweighted kappa statistics (κ) and McNemar tests were used to measure the agreement among the sampling methods. A total of 120 women were randomized. Overall HPV prevalence was 68.7% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 59.3–77.2) by S-WET, 54.4% (95% CI 44.8–63.9) by S-DRY and 53.8% (95% CI 43.8–63.7) by HC. Among paired samples (S-WET and S-DRY), the overall agreement was good (85.7%; 95% CI 77.8–91.6) and the κ was substantial (0.70; 95% CI 0.57-0.70). The proportion of positive type-specific HPV agreement was also good (77.3%; 95% CI 68.2-84.9). No differences in sensitivity for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade one (CIN1) or worse between the two Self-HPV tests were observed. Women reported the two Self-HPV tests as highly acceptable. Self-HPV using dry swab transfer does not appear to compromise specimen integrity. Further study in a large screening population is needed. ClinicalTrials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01316120

  18. Case studies in ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, V.; Satheesh, C.; Varde, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is widely used Non Destructive Testing (NDT) method and forms the essential part of In-service inspection programme of nuclear reactors. Main application of ultrasonic testing is for volumetric scanning of weld joints followed by thickness gauging of pipelines and pressure vessels. Research reactor Dhruva has completed the first In Service Inspection programme in which about 325 weld joints have been volumetrically scanned, in addition to thickness gauging of 300 meters of pipe lines of various sizes and about 24 nos of pressure vessels. Ultrasonic testing is also used for level measurements, distance measurements and cleaning and decontamination of tools. Two case studies are brought out in this paper in which ultrasonic testing is used successfully for identification of butterfly valve opening status and extent of choking in pipe lines in Dhruva reactor systems

  19. Abbreviated sampling and analysis plan for planning decontamination and decommissioning at Test Reactor Area (TRA) facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The objective is to sample and analyze for the presence of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents within certain areas of the Test Reactor Area (TRA), prior to D and D activities. The TRA is composed of three major reactor facilities and three smaller reactors built in support of programs studying the performance of reactor materials and components under high neutron flux conditions. The Materials Testing Reactor (MTR) and Engineering Test Reactor (ETR) facilities are currently pending D/D. Work consists of pre-D and D sampling of designated TRA (primarily ETR) process areas. This report addresses only a limited subset of the samples which will eventually be required to characterize MTR and ETR and plan their D and D. Sampling which is addressed in this document is intended to support planned D and D work which is funded at the present time. Biased samples, based on process knowledge and plant configuration, are to be performed. The multiple process areas which may be potentially sampled will be initially characterized by obtaining data for upstream source areas which, based on facility configuration, would affect downstream and as yet unsampled, process areas. Sampling and analysis will be conducted to determine the level of gamma emitting isotopes and hazardous constituents present in designated areas within buildings TRA-612, 642, 643, 644, 645, 647, 648, 663; and in the soils surrounding Facility TRA-611. These data will be used to plan the D and D and help determine disposition of material by D and D personnel. Both MTR and ETR facilities will eventually be decommissioned by total dismantlement so that the area can be restored to its original condition

  20. Pumping test and fluid sampling report - Sawyer No. 1 well, Palo Duro Basin, Texas: unanalyzed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report describes pumping test and fluid sampling activities performed at the Sawyer No. 1 well, Donley County, Texas. Sawyer No. 1 well is located along the eastern margin of the Palo Duro Basin in an area of active dissolution within the Permian salt section. These data were collected by Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation working in conjunction with the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology as part of a nationwide program to identify potential locations for a nuclear waste repository. These data support studies to determine the hydrologic characteristics of deep water-bearing formations. Formation fluid studies samples were analyzed in order to evaluate fluid migration and age relationships in the Permian Basin. These data were collected from June until October, 1981. Zone isolation for pump testing was accomplished in November, 1981. These data are preliminary. They have been neither analyzed nor evaluated

  1. Comparative evaluation of blood and serum samples in rapid immunochromatographic tests for visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Khanal, Basudha; Tiwary, Puja; Mudavath, Shyam Lal; Tiwary, Narendra K; Singh, Rupa; Koirala, Kanika; Boelaert, Marleen; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam

    2013-12-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based on the detection of specific antibodies in serum are commonly used for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Several commercial kits are available, and some of them allow the use of whole-blood samples instead of serum. An RDT is much more user-friendly for blood samples than for serum samples. In this study, we examined the sensitivities and specificities of six different commercially available immunochromatographic tests for their accuracy in detecting Leishmania infection in whole blood and serum of parasitologically confirmed VL cases. This study was performed in areas of India and Nepal where VL is endemic. A total of 177 confirmed VL cases, 208 healthy controls from areas of endemicity (EHCs), 26 malaria patients (MP), and 37 tuberculosis (TB) patients were enrolled. The reproducibilities of the blood and serum results and between-reader and between-laboratory results were tested. In India, the sensitivities of all the RDTs ranged between 94.7 and 100.0%, with no significant differences between whole blood and serum. The specificities ranged between 92.4 and 100.0%, except for the specificity of the Onsite Leishmania Ab RevB kit, which was lower (33.6 to 42.0%). No differences in specificities were observed for blood and serum. In Nepal, the sensitivities of all the test kits, for whole-blood as well as serum samples, ranged between 96.3 and 100.0%, and the specificities ranged between 90.1 and 96.1%, again with the exception of that of the Onsite Leishmania Ab RevB test, which was markedly lower (48.7 to 49.3%). The diagnostic accuracies of all the tests, except for one brand, were excellent for the whole-blood and serum samples. We conclude that whole blood is an adequate alternative for serum in RDTs for VL, with sensitivities and specificities comparable to those obtained in serum samples, provided that the test kit is of overall good quality.

  2. The Study on Mental Health at Work: Design and sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Uwe; Schiel, Stefan; Schröder, Helmut; Kleudgen, Martin; Tophoven, Silke; Rauch, Angela; Freude, Gabriele; Müller, Grit

    2017-08-01

    The Study on Mental Health at Work (S-MGA) generates the first nationwide representative survey enabling the exploration of the relationship between working conditions, mental health and functioning. This paper describes the study design, sampling procedures and data collection, and presents a summary of the sample characteristics. S-MGA is a representative study of German employees aged 31-60 years subject to social security contributions. The sample was drawn from the employment register based on a two-stage cluster sampling procedure. Firstly, 206 municipalities were randomly selected from a pool of 12,227 municipalities in Germany. Secondly, 13,590 addresses were drawn from the selected municipalities for the purpose of conducting 4500 face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire covers psychosocial working and employment conditions, measures of mental health, work ability and functioning. Data from personal interviews were combined with employment histories from register data. Descriptive statistics of socio-demographic characteristics and logistic regressions analyses were used for comparing population, gross sample and respondents. In total, 4511 face-to-face interviews were conducted. A test for sampling bias revealed that individuals in older cohorts participated more often, while individuals with an unknown educational level, residing in major cities or with a non-German ethnic background were slightly underrepresented. There is no indication of major deviations in characteristics between the basic population and the sample of respondents. Hence, S-MGA provides representative data for research on work and health, designed as a cohort study with plans to rerun the survey 5 years after the first assessment.

  3. The Study on Mental Health at Work: Design and sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Uwe; Schiel, Stefan; Schröder, Helmut; Kleudgen, Martin; Tophoven, Silke; Rauch, Angela; Freude, Gabriele; Müller, Grit

    2017-01-01

    Aims: The Study on Mental Health at Work (S-MGA) generates the first nationwide representative survey enabling the exploration of the relationship between working conditions, mental health and functioning. This paper describes the study design, sampling procedures and data collection, and presents a summary of the sample characteristics. Methods: S-MGA is a representative study of German employees aged 31–60 years subject to social security contributions. The sample was drawn from the employment register based on a two-stage cluster sampling procedure. Firstly, 206 municipalities were randomly selected from a pool of 12,227 municipalities in Germany. Secondly, 13,590 addresses were drawn from the selected municipalities for the purpose of conducting 4500 face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire covers psychosocial working and employment conditions, measures of mental health, work ability and functioning. Data from personal interviews were combined with employment histories from register data. Descriptive statistics of socio-demographic characteristics and logistic regressions analyses were used for comparing population, gross sample and respondents. Results: In total, 4511 face-to-face interviews were conducted. A test for sampling bias revealed that individuals in older cohorts participated more often, while individuals with an unknown educational level, residing in major cities or with a non-German ethnic background were slightly underrepresented. Conclusions: There is no indication of major deviations in characteristics between the basic population and the sample of respondents. Hence, S-MGA provides representative data for research on work and health, designed as a cohort study with plans to rerun the survey 5 years after the first assessment. PMID:28673202

  4. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Dissing; Løkke, Ann-Kristina

    2006-01-01

    design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive...

  5. Evaluation Of ARG-1 Samples Prepared By Cesium Carbonate Dissolution During The Isolok SME Acceptability Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, T.; Hera, K.; Coleman, C.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Chemical Process Cell (CPC) cycle time identified several opportunities to improve the CPC processing time. The Mechanical Systems and Custom Equipment Development (MS and CED) Section of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recently completed the evaluation of one of these opportunities - the possibility of using an Isolok sampling valve as an alternative to the Hydragard valve for taking DWPF process samples at the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). The use of an Isolok for SME sampling has the potential to improve operability, reduce maintenance time, and decrease CPC cycle time. The SME acceptability testing for the Isolok was requested in Task Technical Request (TTR) HLW-DWPF-TTR-2010-0036 and was conducted as outlined in Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) SRNLRP-2011-00145. RW-0333P QA requirements applied to the task, and the results from the investigation were documented in SRNL-STI-2011-00693. Measurement of the chemical composition of study samples was a critical component of the SME acceptability testing of the Isolok. A sampling and analytical plan supported the investigation with the analytical plan directing that the study samples be prepared by a cesium carbonate (Cs 2 CO 3 ) fusion dissolution method and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma - Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The use of the cesium carbonate preparation method for the Isolok testing provided an opportunity for an additional assessment of this dissolution method, which is being investigated as a potential replacement for the two methods (i.e., sodium peroxide fusion and mixed acid dissolution) that have been used at the DWPF for the analysis of SME samples. Earlier testing of the Cs 2 CO 3 method yielded promising results which led to a TTR from Savannah River Remediation, LLC (SRR) to SRNL for additional support and an associated TTQAP to direct the SRNL efforts. A technical report resulting from this

  6. 9 CFR 147.8 - Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... samples for diagnostic tests. 147.8 Section 147.8 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... IMPROVEMENT PLAN Blood Testing Procedures § 147.8 Procedures for preparing egg yolk samples for diagnostic... for diagnostic testing. (b) The authorized laboratory must identify each egg as to the breeding flock...

  7. Development of a new protocol for rapid bacterial identification and susceptibility testing directly from urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zboromyrska, Y; Rubio, E; Alejo, I; Vergara, A; Mons, A; Campo, I; Bosch, J; Marco, F; Vila, J

    2016-06-01

    The current gold standard method for the diagnosis of urinary tract infections (UTI) is urine culture that requires 18-48 h for the identification of the causative microorganisms and an additional 24 h until the results of antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are available. The aim of this study was to shorten the time of urine sample processing by a combination of flow cytometry for screening and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) for bacterial identification followed by AST directly from urine. The study was divided into two parts. During the first part, 675 urine samples were processed by a flow cytometry device and a cut-off value of bacterial count was determined to select samples for direct identification by MALDI-TOF-MS at ≥5 × 10(6) bacteria/mL. During the second part, 163 of 1029 processed samples reached the cut-off value. The sample preparation protocol for direct identification included two centrifugation and two washing steps. Direct AST was performed by the disc diffusion method if a reliable direct identification was obtained. Direct MALDI-TOF-MS identification was performed in 140 urine samples; 125 of the samples were positive by urine culture, 12 were contaminated and 3 were negative. Reliable direct identification was obtained in 108 (86.4%) of the 125 positive samples. AST was performed in 102 identified samples, and the results were fully concordant with the routine method among 83 monomicrobial infections. In conclusion, the turnaround time of the protocol described to diagnose UTI was about 1 h for microbial identification and 18-24 h for AST. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Robustness to non-normality of common tests for the many-sample location problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmeri Khan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of deviating from the normal distribution assumption when considering the power of two many-sample location test procedures: ANOVA (parametric and Kruskal-Wallis (non-parametric. Power functions for these tests under various conditions are produced using simulation, where the simulated data are produced using MacGillivray and Cannon's [10] recently suggested g-and-k distribution. This distribution can provide data with selected amounts of skewness and kurtosis by varying two nearly independent parameters.

  9. Test plan for evaluating the performance of the in-tank fluidic sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    The PHMC will provide Low Activity Wastes (LAW) tank wastes for final treatment by a privatization contractor from double-shell feed tanks, 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104, Concerns about the inability of the baseline ''grab'' sampling to provide large volume samples within time constraints has led to the development of a conceptual sampling system that would be deployed in a feed tank riser, This sampling system will provide large volume, representative samples without the environmental, radiation exposure, and sample volume impacts of the current base-line ''grab'' sampling method. This test plan identifies ''proof-of-principle'' cold tests for the conceptual sampling system using simulant materials. The need for additional testing was identified as a result of completing tests described in the revision test plan document, Revision 1 outlines tests that will evaluate the performance and ability to provide samples that are representative of a tanks' content within a 95 percent confidence interval, to recovery from plugging, to sample supernatant wastes with over 25 wt% solids content, and to evaluate the impact of sampling at different heights within the feed tank. The test plan also identifies operating parameters that will optimize the performance of the sampling system

  10. Willingness to Provide a Hair Sample for Drug Testing among Electronic Dance Music Party Attendees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palamar, Joseph J; Salomone, Alberto; Cleland, Charles M; Sherman, Scott

    2018-04-25

    Non-disclosure of drug use on surveys is common and many drug users unknowingly ingest adulterant or replacement drugs, which leads to underreporting of use of these drugs. Biological testing can complement survey research, and hair-testing is an appealing method as many drugs are detectable for months post-use. We examined willingness to donate a hair sample to be tested among those surveyed in a population at high risk for consuming adulterated drugs-electronic dance music (EDM) party attendees. We surveyed 933 adults entering EDM parties in New York City in 2017. Hair donation response rates and reasons for refusal were examined from this cross-sectional study. A third (n = 312; 33.4%) provided a hair sample. Lack of interest (21.0%), lack of time (19.8%), not wanting a lock of hair cut (17.7%), and disinterest in having hair cut in public (13.8%) were the main reported reasons for refusal. 4.7% refused because they could not receive results. Past-year drug users were more likely to fear identification than non-users (p<.001). Asian participants were at lower odds of providing a hair sample (aOR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32-0.87), and those reporting past-year use of LSD (aOR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.11-2.35), opioids (nonmedical; aOR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.25-2.99), and/or methamphetamine (aOR = 3.43, 95% CI = 1.36-8.62) were at higher odds of providing a sample than non-users of these drugs. Only a third of participants provided a hair sample and we found individual-level differences regarding willingness to provide a sample. Factors contributing to refusal should be considered to increase response rates and generalizability of results.

  11. Testing of Alignment Parameters for Ancient Samples: Evaluating and Optimizing Mapping Parameters for Ancient Samples Using the TAPAS Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike H. Taron

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available High-throughput sequence data retrieved from ancient or other degraded samples has led to unprecedented insights into the evolutionary history of many species, but the analysis of such sequences also poses specific computational challenges. The most commonly used approach involves mapping sequence reads to a reference genome. However, this process becomes increasingly challenging with an elevated genetic distance between target and reference or with the presence of contaminant sequences with high sequence similarity to the target species. The evaluation and testing of mapping efficiency and stringency are thus paramount for the reliable identification and analysis of ancient sequences. In this paper, we present ‘TAPAS’, (Testing of Alignment Parameters for Ancient Samples, a computational tool that enables the systematic testing of mapping tools for ancient data by simulating sequence data reflecting the properties of an ancient dataset and performing test runs using the mapping software and parameter settings of interest. We showcase TAPAS by using it to assess and improve mapping strategy for a degraded sample from a banded linsang (Prionodon linsang, for which no closely related reference is currently available. This enables a 1.8-fold increase of the number of mapped reads without sacrificing mapping specificity. The increase of mapped reads effectively reduces the need for additional sequencing, thus making more economical use of time, resources, and sample material.

  12. Sample preparation of tank 241-C-106 grab samples and testing For compatibility with tank 241-AY-102 supernate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    This test plan describes a sample separation method which will be used to obtain physical measurements and separated 241-C-106 solids and supernate fractions. In addition compatibility of tank 241-C-106 sludge with tank 241-AY-102 supernate will be determined

  13. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-09-30

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner.

  14. WRAP Module 1 sampling strategy and waste characterization alternatives study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergeson, C.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Waste Receiving and Processing Module 1 Facility is designed to examine, process, certify, and ship drums and boxes of solid wastes that have a surface dose equivalent of less than 200 mrem/h. These wastes will include low-level and transuranic wastes that are retrievably stored in the 200 Area burial grounds and facilities in addition to newly generated wastes. Certification of retrievably stored wastes processing in WRAP 1 is required to meet the waste acceptance criteria for onsite treatment and disposal of low-level waste and mixed low-level waste and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Waste Acceptance Criteria for the disposal of TRU waste. In addition, these wastes will need to be certified for packaging in TRUPACT-II shipping containers. Characterization of the retrievably stored waste is needed to support the certification process. Characterization data will be obtained from historical records, process knowledge, nondestructive examination nondestructive assay, visual inspection of the waste, head-gas sampling, and analysis of samples taken from the waste containers. Sample characterization refers to the method or methods that are used to test waste samples for specific analytes. The focus of this study is the sample characterization needed to accurately identify the hazardous and radioactive constituents present in the retrieved wastes that will be processed in WRAP 1. In addition, some sampling and characterization will be required to support NDA calculations and to provide an over-check for the characterization of newly generated wastes. This study results in the baseline definition of WRAP 1 sampling and analysis requirements and identifies alternative methods to meet these requirements in an efficient and economical manner

  15. Shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s tests for high-dimensional small sample size data

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Kai

    2015-09-16

    DNA sequencing techniques bring novel tools and also statistical challenges to genetic research. In addition to detecting differentially expressed genes, testing the significance of gene sets or pathway analysis has been recognized as an equally important problem. Owing to the “large pp small nn” paradigm, the traditional Hotelling’s T2T2 test suffers from the singularity problem and therefore is not valid in this setting. In this paper, we propose a shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test for both one-sample and two-sample cases. We also suggest several different ways to derive the approximate null distribution under different scenarios of pp and nn for our proposed shrinkage-based test. Simulation studies show that the proposed method performs comparably to existing competitors when nn is moderate or large, but it is better when nn is small. In addition, we analyze four gene expression data sets and they demonstrate the advantage of our proposed shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test.

  16. Shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s tests for high-dimensional small sample size data

    KAUST Repository

    Dong, Kai; Pang, Herbert; Tong, Tiejun; Genton, Marc G.

    2015-01-01

    DNA sequencing techniques bring novel tools and also statistical challenges to genetic research. In addition to detecting differentially expressed genes, testing the significance of gene sets or pathway analysis has been recognized as an equally important problem. Owing to the “large pp small nn” paradigm, the traditional Hotelling’s T2T2 test suffers from the singularity problem and therefore is not valid in this setting. In this paper, we propose a shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test for both one-sample and two-sample cases. We also suggest several different ways to derive the approximate null distribution under different scenarios of pp and nn for our proposed shrinkage-based test. Simulation studies show that the proposed method performs comparably to existing competitors when nn is moderate or large, but it is better when nn is small. In addition, we analyze four gene expression data sets and they demonstrate the advantage of our proposed shrinkage-based diagonal Hotelling’s test.

  17. Testing the efficiency of rover science protocols for robotic sample selection: A GeoHeuristic Operational Strategies Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yingst, R. A.; Bartley, J. K.; Chidsey, T. C.; Cohen, B. A.; Gilleaudeau, G. J.; Hynek, B. M.; Kah, L. C.; Minitti, M. E.; Williams, R. M. E.; Black, S.; Gemperline, J.; Schaufler, R.; Thomas, R. J.

    2018-05-01

    The GHOST field tests are designed to isolate and test science-driven rover operations protocols, to determine best practices. During a recent field test at a potential Mars 2020 landing site analog, we tested two Mars Science Laboratory data-acquisition and decision-making methods to assess resulting science return and sample quality: a linear method, where sites of interest are studied in the order encountered, and a "walkabout-first" method, where sites of interest are examined remotely before down-selecting to a subset of sites that are interrogated with more resource-intensive instruments. The walkabout method cost less time and fewer resources, while increasing confidence in interpretations. Contextual data critical to evaluating site geology was acquired earlier than for the linear method, and given a higher priority, which resulted in development of more mature hypotheses earlier in the analysis process. Combined, this saved time and energy in the collection of data with more limited spatial coverage. Based on these results, we suggest that the walkabout method be used where doing so would provide early context and time for the science team to develop hypotheses-critical tests; and that in gathering context, coverage may be more important than higher resolution.

  18. Experimental Study of Impregnation Birch and Aspen Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Vladislavovich Grigorev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of wood impregnation was implemented by applying centrifugal methods. The impregnants were a 10% aqueous solution of potassium chloride and a 2% aqueous solution of borax. Birch (Betula pendula and aspen (Populus tremula wood samples in different moisture content were tested. The impregnation time in the centrifugal device were 30 seconds repeated 21 times, and the samples were measured after every 30 seconds. The experimental results were fitted to a nonlinear filtration law, which indicated that the centrifugal wood impregnation was dependent on wood species, wood moisture, rotational speed, and radius. Determination of rotational speed and centrifuge radius for impregnating aspen and birch at varying lengths and humidity under conditions of the nonlinear impregnant filtration law can be done using the example charts that were developed and presented in this study.

  19. Optimizing human semen cryopreservation by reducing test vial volume and repetitive test vial sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian F S; Ohl, Dana A; Parker, Walter R

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate optimal test vial (TV) volume, utility and reliability of TVs, intermediate temperature exposure (-88°C to -93°C) before cryostorage, cryostorage in nitrogen vapor (VN2) and liquid nitrogen (LN2), and long-term stability of VN2 cryostorage of human semen. DESIGN......: Prospective clinical laboratory study. SETTING: University assisted reproductive technology (ART) laboratory. PATIENT(S): A total of 594 patients undergoing semen analysis and cryopreservation. INTERVENTION(S): Semen analysis, cryopreservation with different intermediate steps and in different volumes (50......-1,000 μL), and long-term storage in LN2 or VN2. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Optimal TV volume, prediction of cryosurvival (CS) in ART procedure vials (ARTVs) with pre-freeze semen parameters and TV CS, post-thaw motility after two- or three-step semen cryopreservation and cryostorage in VN2 and LN2. RESULT...

  20. Novel device to sample the esophageal microbiome--the esophageal string test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie A Fillon

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies implicate the microbiome in the pathogenesis of intestinal inflammation. Previous work has shown that adults with esophagitis related to gastroesophageal reflux disease have altered esophageal microbiota compared to those who do not have esophagitis. In these studies, sampling of the esophageal microbiome was accomplished by isolating DNA from esophageal biopsies obtained at the time of upper endoscopy. The aim of the current study was to identify the esophageal microbiome in pediatric individuals with normal esophageal mucosa using a minimally invasive, capsule-based string technology, the Enterotest™. We used the proximal segment of the Enterotest string to sample the esophagus, and term this the "Esophageal String Test" (EST. We hypothesized that the less invasive EST would capture mucosal adherent bacteria present in the esophagus in a similar fashion as mucosal biopsy. EST samples and mucosal biopsies were collected from children with no esophageal inflammation (n = 15 and their microbiome composition determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Microbiota from esophageal biopsies and ESTs produced nearly identical profiles of bacterial genera and were different from the bacterial contents of samples collected from the nasal and oral cavity. We conclude that the minimally invasive EST can serve as a useful device for study of the esophageal microbiome.

  1. A closer look at the effect of preliminary goodness-of-fit testing for normality for the one-sample t-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, Justine; Kieser, Meinhard

    2011-11-01

    Student's one-sample t-test is a commonly used method when inference about the population mean is made. As advocated in textbooks and articles, the assumption of normality is often checked by a preliminary goodness-of-fit (GOF) test. In a paper recently published by Schucany and Ng it was shown that, for the uniform distribution, screening of samples by a pretest for normality leads to a more conservative conditional Type I error rate than application of the one-sample t-test without preliminary GOF test. In contrast, for the exponential distribution, the conditional level is even more elevated than the Type I error rate of the t-test without pretest. We examine the reasons behind these characteristics. In a simulation study, samples drawn from the exponential, lognormal, uniform, Student's t-distribution with 2 degrees of freedom (t(2) ) and the standard normal distribution that had passed normality screening, as well as the ingredients of the test statistics calculated from these samples, are investigated. For non-normal distributions, we found that preliminary testing for normality may change the distribution of means and standard deviations of the selected samples as well as the correlation between them (if the underlying distribution is non-symmetric), thus leading to altered distributions of the resulting test statistics. It is shown that for skewed distributions the excess in Type I error rate may be even more pronounced when testing one-sided hypotheses. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Psychometric Investigation of the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices Test in a Sample of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lúcio, Patrícia Silva; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Puglisi, Marina; Polanczyk, Guilherme Vanoni; Little, Todd D

    2017-11-01

    The present study investigated the psychometric properties of the Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) test in a sample of preschoolers from Brazil ( n = 582; age: mean = 57 months, SD = 7 months; 46% female). We investigated the plausibility of unidimensionality of the items (confirmatory factor analysis) and differential item functioning (DIF) for sex and age (multiple indicators multiple causes method). We tested four unidimensional models and the one with the best-fit index was a reduced form of the Raven's CPM. The DIF analysis was carried out with the reduced form of the test. A few items presented DIF (two for sex and one for age), confirming that the Raven's CPM items are mostly measurement invariant. There was no effect of sex on the general factor, but increasing age was associated with higher values of the g factor. Future research should indicate if the reduced form is suitable for evaluating the general ability of preschoolers.

  3. Study of polyconsumption in a 2005 Bogota driver's sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Armando Sánchez Cardozo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We do not know of studies in our city that indicate the degree of poly illicit drugs consumption in motor vehicles drivers. Use of illicit drugs can explain in some cases the lack of agreement among measurement of breath alcohol test, blood alcohol concentration, and clinical examination in motor vehicles drivers when they are suspects of alcoholic intoxication. In this report we want to center on showing the use of illicit drugs and their clinical manifestations in a sample of motor vehicles drivers. Objective. To determine the consumption of illicit drugs in a sample of motor vehicle drivers, when they are suspects of alcoholic intoxication. Materials and methods. We took a representative sample within 68 motor vehicle drivers. We performed on all of them clinical examination, measurement of breath alcohol tests and blood alcohol concentration. Also we collected urine samples. Five (5 substances were investigated according to their high prevalence in our population: opiate, marijuana, cocaine, amphetamines and benzodiazepines. Results.There were seven cases of illicit drug consumption: the most frequent combination found was (5-7 cases alcohol plus marijuana. In three cases we found consumption of three illicit drugs: 2 cases have alcohol, marijuana and cocaine. Only one case of alcohol, benzodiazepine and cocaine. Conclusions. In the sample analyzed the use of illicit drugs was 10.14 %. The most common form of use is a depressor with a stimulant. If it is recent, it diminishes the neurological manifestations, but it does not affect the presentation nor the severity of the rotacional nystagmus. The alterations of the superior mental functions were seen to be associated with alcohol consumption plus benzodiazepines. Combination of two depressors increases the motor alterations and seems that it alters the superior mental functions. In the negative clinical examinations it was concluded that there was no alcohol intoxication and no

  4. Bovine milk sampling efficiency for pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) detection test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, H. K. da; Cassoli, L.D.; Pantoja, J.F.C.; Cerqueira, P.H.R.; Coitinho, T.B.; Machado, P.F.

    2016-07-01

    Two experiments were conducted to verify whether the time of day at which a milk sample is collected and the possible carryover in the milking system may affect pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results in dairy cows. In experiment one, we evaluated the effect of time of day at which the milk sample is collected from 51 cows. In experiment two, which evaluated the possible occurrence of carryover in the milk meter milking system, milk samples from 94 cows belonging to two different farms were used. The samples were subjected to pregnancy test using ELISA methodology to measure PAG concentrations and to classify the samples as positive (pregnant), negative (nonpregnant), or suspicious (recheck). We found that the time of milking did not affect the PAG levels. As to the occurrence of carryover in the milk meter, the PAG levels of the samples collected from Farm-2 were heavily influenced by a carryover effect compared with the samples from Farm-1. Thus, milk samples submitted to a pregnancy test can be collected during the morning or the evening milking. When the sample is collected from the milk meters, periodic equipment maintenance should be noted, including whether the milk meter is totally drained between different animals’ milking and equipment cleaning between milking is performed correctly to minimize the occurrence of carryover, thereby avoiding the effect on PAG levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results. Therefore, a single milk sample can be used for both milk quality tests and pregnancy test.

  5. Bovine milk sampling efficiency for pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) detection test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, H. K. da; Cassoli, L.D.; Pantoja, J.F.C.; Cerqueira, P.H.R.; Coitinho, T.B.; Machado, P.F.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to verify whether the time of day at which a milk sample is collected and the possible carryover in the milking system may affect pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results in dairy cows. In experiment one, we evaluated the effect of time of day at which the milk sample is collected from 51 cows. In experiment two, which evaluated the possible occurrence of carryover in the milk meter milking system, milk samples from 94 cows belonging to two different farms were used. The samples were subjected to pregnancy test using ELISA methodology to measure PAG concentrations and to classify the samples as positive (pregnant), negative (nonpregnant), or suspicious (recheck). We found that the time of milking did not affect the PAG levels. As to the occurrence of carryover in the milk meter, the PAG levels of the samples collected from Farm-2 were heavily influenced by a carryover effect compared with the samples from Farm-1. Thus, milk samples submitted to a pregnancy test can be collected during the morning or the evening milking. When the sample is collected from the milk meters, periodic equipment maintenance should be noted, including whether the milk meter is totally drained between different animals’ milking and equipment cleaning between milking is performed correctly to minimize the occurrence of carryover, thereby avoiding the effect on PAG levels and, consequently, the pregnancy test results. Therefore, a single milk sample can be used for both milk quality tests and pregnancy test.

  6. 36 CFR 9.42 - Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys. Any technical data gathered... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well records and reports, plots and maps, samples, tests and surveys. 9.42 Section 9.42 Parks, Forests, and Public Property...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 431 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY... to Subpart U of Part 431—Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Electric Motors Step 1. The first...

  8. 40 CFR 205.171-2 - Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Systems § 205.171-2 Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation. (a)(1) Exhaust systems... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test exhaust system sample selection and preparation. 205.171-2 Section 205.171-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...

  9. Test plan for K Basin Sludge Canister and Floor Sampling Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meling, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides the test plan and procedure forms for conducting the functional and operational acceptance testing of the K Basin Sludge Canister and Floor Sampling Device(s). These samplers samples sludge off the floor of the 100K Basins and out of 100K fuel storage canisters

  10. Page sample size in web accessibility testing: how many pages is enough?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velleman, Eric Martin; van der Geest, Thea

    2013-01-01

    Various countries and organizations use a different sampling approach and sample size of web pages in accessibility conformance tests. We are conducting a systematic analysis to determine how many pages is enough for testing whether a website is compliant with standard accessibility guidelines. This

  11. Acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in women living in rural and urban areas of ... Conclusion: Acceptability of self-sampling for HPV testing was similarly excellent in both groups despite their difference in terms ... cancer is the leading cause of death caused by cancer in.

  12. Group SkSP-R sampling plan for accelerated life tests

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muhammad Aslam

    2017-09-15

    Sep 15, 2017 ... SkSP-R sampling; life test; Weibull distribution; producer's risk; ... designed a sampling plan under a time-truncated life test .... adjusted using an acceleration factor. ... where P is the probability of lot acceptance for a single.

  13. Electrofracturing test system and method of determining material characteristics of electrofractured material samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Stephen J.; Glover, Steven F.; Pfeifle, Tom; Su, Jiann-Cherng; Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Broome, Scott Thomas; Gardner, William Payton

    2017-08-01

    A device for electrofracturing a material sample and analyzing the material sample is disclosed. The device simulates an in situ electrofracturing environment so as to obtain electrofractured material characteristics representative of field applications while allowing permeability testing of the fractured sample under in situ conditions.

  14. Gas liquid sampling for closed canisters in KW Basin - test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitkoff, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    Test procedures for the gas/liquid sampler. Characterization of the Spent Nuclear Fuel, SNF, sealed in canisters at KW-Basin is needed to determine the state of storing SNF wet. Samples of the liquid and the gas in the closed canisters will be taken to gain characterization information. Sampling equipment has been designed to retrieve gas and liquid from the closed canisters in KW basin. This plan is written to outline the test requirements for this developmental sampling equipment

  15. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  16. Two-Sample Tests for High-Dimensional Linear Regression with an Application to Detecting Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yin; Cai, Tianxi; Cai, T Tony

    2018-01-01

    Motivated by applications in genomics, we consider in this paper global and multiple testing for the comparisons of two high-dimensional linear regression models. A procedure for testing the equality of the two regression vectors globally is proposed and shown to be particularly powerful against sparse alternatives. We then introduce a multiple testing procedure for identifying unequal coordinates while controlling the false discovery rate and false discovery proportion. Theoretical justifications are provided to guarantee the validity of the proposed tests and optimality results are established under sparsity assumptions on the regression coefficients. The proposed testing procedures are easy to implement. Numerical properties of the procedures are investigated through simulation and data analysis. The results show that the proposed tests maintain the desired error rates under the null and have good power under the alternative at moderate sample sizes. The procedures are applied to the Framingham Offspring study to investigate the interactions between smoking and cardiovascular related genetic mutations important for an inflammation marker.

  17. Aluminium, extractable from soil samples by the acid ammonium acetate soil-testing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmo Mäkitie

    1968-05-01

    Full Text Available The extractant, 0.5 M acetic acid –0.5 M ammonium acetate at pH 4.65, which is used in soil-testing, extracts relatively high amounts of aluminium from acid soils. The mean values of acetate-extractable aluminium at pH 4.65, 1.75 meq Al/100 g of soil, and of exchangeable aluminium (M KCI extraction, 0.41 meq Al were obtained from a material of 30 samples of acid soils (Table 2. Several other acetic acid ammonium acetate extractants, from M acetic acid to M ammonium acetate solution were also used for studying the extractability of soil aluminium. The soil-testing extractant can be used for the estimation of the soluble amounts of aluminium in acid soils, however, further studies are needed for a better interpretation of the ammonium acetate extractable (at pH 4.65 aluminium in our soils.

  18. LEAK AND GAS PERMEABILITY TESTING DURING SOIL-GAS SAMPLING AT HAL'S CHEVRON LUST SITE IN GREEN RIVER, UTAH

    Science.gov (United States)

    The results of gas permeability and leak testing during active soil-gas sampling at Hal’s Chevron LUST Site in Green River, Utah are presented. This study was conducted to support development of a passive soil-gas sampling method. Gas mixtures containing helium and methane were...

  19. Different goodness of fit tests for Rayleigh distribution in ranked set sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Al-Omari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, different goodness of fit tests for the Rayleigh distribution are considered based on simple random sampling (SRS and ranked set sampling (RSS techniques. The performance of the suggested estimators is evaluated in terms of the power of the tests by using Monte Carlo simulation. It is found that the suggested RSS tests perform better than their counterparts  in SRS.

  20. Filtration and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Geeting, John GH; Hallen, Richard T.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-02-20

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP-RPP-WTP-467, eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste-testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on filtration/leaching tests performed on two of the eight waste composite samples and follow-on parametric tests to support aluminum leaching results from those tests.

  1. Evidentials and advertising: a sample study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cruz García

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the use of evidential devices in press adverts in English in a compilation of original advertisements. Due to the appellative nature of advertising discourse, I think that these texts are likely to convey source of knowledge through evidentials as an advertising strategy in order to pragmatically manifest a higher level of credibility and reliability of the information presented concerning the products and the brands. The selected corpus of adverts will allow us to focus special attention on this particular genre and on how evidentials are used, in the fashion of other works carried out in other textual genres (cf. Fox, 2001; Kaplan, 2007; Marín-Arrese, 2004, 2007; Ortega-Barrera and Torres-Ramírez, 2010. Evidentials are studied as part of a set of persuasion strategies used by different linguistic communities in the discourse of advertising (Block de Behar, 1992; Cook, 1992; Cortés de los Ríos, 2001; Pavitt, 2000; Rein, 1982. Conclusions will report on how evidentials are used in print adverts, and whether a type of evidential device prevails over the rest.

  2. Basic distribution free identification tests for small size samples of environmental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federico, A.G.; Musmeci, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-01-01

    Testing two or more data sets for the hypothesis that they are sampled form the same population is often required in environmental data analysis. Typically the available samples have a small number of data and often then assumption of normal distributions is not realistic. On the other hand the diffusion of the days powerful Personal Computers opens new possible opportunities based on a massive use of the CPU resources. The paper reviews the problem introducing the feasibility of two non parametric approaches based on intrinsic equi probability properties of the data samples. The first one is based on a full re sampling while the second is based on a bootstrap approach. A easy to use program is presented. A case study is given based on the Chernobyl children contamination data. [Italiano] Nell`analisi di dati ambientali ricorre spesso il caso di dover sottoporre a test l`ipotesi di provenienza di due, o piu`, insiemi di dati dalla stessa popolazione. Tipicamente i dati disponibili sono pochi e spesso l`ipotesi di provenienza da distribuzioni normali non e` sostenibile. D`altra aprte la diffusione odierna di Personal Computer fornisce nuove possibili soluzioni basate sull`uso intensivo delle risorse della CPU. Il rapporto analizza il problema e presenta la possibilita` di utilizzo di due test non parametrici basati sulle proprieta` intrinseche di equiprobabilita` dei campioni. Il primo e` basato su una tecnica di ricampionamento esaustivo mentre il secondo su un approccio di tipo bootstrap. E` presentato un programma di semplice utilizzo e un caso di studio basato su dati di contaminazione di bambini a Chernobyl.

  3. Genotoxicity assessment of water sampled from R-11 reservoir by means of allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukatich, E.; Pryakhin, E. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (Russian Federation); Geraskin, S. [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    The Mayak PA was the first enterprise for the production of weapon-grade plutonium in Russia and it incorporates uranium-graphite reactors for plutonium production and radiochemical facilities for its separation. Radiochemical processing resulted in huge volumes of liquid radioactive wastes of different specific activities. To reduce the radionuclides release into the environment, a system of bypasses and ponds (the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system) to store low-activity liquid wastes has been constructed in the upper reaches of the Techa River. Currently, industrial reservoirs of Mayak PA contain over 350 million m{sup 3} of low-level radioactive liquid wastes with total activity over 7.4 x 10{sup 15} Bq. Reservoir R-11 is the final reservoir in the Techa Cascade Reservoirs system. The average specific activity of main radionuclides in the water of R-11 are: {sup 90}Sr - 1.4x10{sup 3} Bq/l; {sup 137}Cs - 3 Bq/l; {sup 3}H - 7x10{sup 2} Bq/l; α-emitting radionuclides - 2.6 x 10{sup -1} Bq/l. In our study the Allium-test was employed to estimate reservoir R-11 water genotoxic effects. In 2012, 3 water samples were collected in different parts of reservoir R-11. Water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (artificial reservoir on the Miass River designed for Chelyabinsk city water supply) were used as natural control. Samples of distilled and bottled water were used as an additional laboratory control. The common onion, Allium cepa L. (Stuttgarter Riesen) was used. Healthy equal-sized bulbs were soaked for 24 hours at +4±2 deg. C to synchronize cell division. The bulbs were maintained in distilled water at +23 deg. C until roots have grown up to 2±1 mm length and then plunged into water samples. Control samples remained in distilled and bottled water as well as in water samples from the Shershnevskoye reservoir (natural control). Roots of the 18±3 mm length were randomly sampled and fixed in an alcohol/acetic acid mixture. For microscopic analysis, squashed

  4. Pumping test and fluid sampling report - Mansfield No. 1 (PD-4) well, Palo Duro Basin, Texas: unanalyzed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-07-01

    This report contains pumping test and fluid sampling data collected at Mansfield No. 1 well, located in Oldham County, in the Permian Basin of Texas. These data were collected by Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation to support studies of fluid migration and age relationships in the Permian Basin. The testing and sampling took place between October 1981 and October 1982. These data are preliminary. They have been neither analyzed nor evaluated. 4 references, 8 figures, 2 tables

  5. An empirical test of Maslow's theory of need hierarchy using hologeistic comparison by statistical sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Sharts, J

    1986-10-01

    Maslow's hierarchy of basic human needs provides a major theoretical framework in nursing science. The purpose of this study was to empirically test Maslow's need theory, specifically at the levels of physiological and security needs, using a hologeistic comparative method. Thirty cultures taken from the 60 cultural units in the Health Relations Area Files (HRAF) Probability Sample were found to have data available for examining hypotheses about thermoregulatory (physiological) and protective (security) behaviors practiced prior to sleep onset. The findings demonstrate there is initial worldwide empirical evidence to support Maslow's need hierarchy.

  6. Microbiological analyses of samples from the H-Area injection well test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilde, E.W.; Franck, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    Microbial populations in well water from monitoring wells at the test site were one to three orders of magnitude higher than well water from the Cretaceous aquifer (used as dilution water for the tests) or from a control well adjacent to the test site facility. Coupons samples placed in monitoring and control wells demonstrated progressive adhesion by microbes to materials used in well construction. Samples of material scraped from test well components during abandonment of the test site project revealed the presence of a variety of attached microbes including iron bacteria. Although the injection wells at the actual remediation facility for the F- and H-Area seepage basins remediation project are expected to be subjected to somewhat different conditions (e.g. considerably lower iron concentrations) than was the case at the test site, the potential for microbiologically mediated clogging and fouling within the process should be considered. A sampling program that includes microbiological testing is highly recommended

  7. Testing the Cuckoldry Risk Hypothesis of Partner Sexual Coercion in Community and Forensic Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Camilleri

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theory has informed the investigation of male sexual coercion but has seldom been applied to the analysis of sexual coercion within established couples. The cuckoldry risk hypothesis, that sexual coercion is a male tactic used to reduce the risk of extrapair paternity, was tested in two studies. In a community sample, indirect cues of infidelity predicted male propensity for sexual coaxing in the relationship, and direct cues predicted propensity for sexual coercion. In the forensic sample, we found that most partner rapists experienced cuckoldry risk prior to committing their offence and experienced more types of cuckoldry risk events than non-sexual partner assaulters. These findings suggest that cuckoldry risk influences male sexual coercion in established sexual relationships.

  8. First Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence round-robin test of water samples: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgese, Laura; Bilo, Fabjola [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy); Tsuji, Kouichi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, Osaka (Japan); Fernández-Ruiz, Ramón [Servicio Interdepartamental de Investigación (SIdI), Laboratorio de TXRF, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Margui, Eva [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Girona (Spain); Streli, Christina [TU Wien, Atominstitut,Radiation Physics, Vienna (Austria); Pepponi, Giancarlo [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Povo, Trento (Italy); Stosnach, Hagen [Bruker Nano GmbH, Berlin (Germany); Yamada, Takashi [Rigaku Corporation, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan); Vandenabeele, Peter [Department of Archaeology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Maina, David M.; Gatari, Michael [Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Nairobi, Nairobi (Kenya); Shepherd, Keith D.; Towett, Erick K. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi (Kenya); Bennun, Leonardo [Laboratorio de Física Aplicada, Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción (Chile); Custo, Graciela; Vasquez, Cristina [Gerencia Química, Laboratorio B025, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, San Martín (Argentina); Depero, Laura E., E-mail: laura.depero@unibs.it [Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia, Brescia (Italy)

    2014-11-01

    Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) is a mature technique to evaluate quantitatively the elemental composition of liquid samples deposited on clean and well polished reflectors. In this paper the results of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples, involving 18 laboratories in 10 countries are presented and discussed. The test was performed within the framework of the VAMAS project, interlaboratory comparison of TXRF spectroscopy for environmental analysis, whose aim is to develop guidelines and a standard methodology for biological and environmental analysis by means of the TXRF analytical technique. - Highlights: • The discussion of the first worldwide TXRF round-robin test of water samples (18 laboratories of 10 countries) is reported. • Drinking, waste, and desalinated water samples were tested. • Data dispersion sources were identified: sample concentration, preparation, fitting procedure, and quantification. • The protocol for TXRF analysis of drinking water is proposed.

  9. 40 CFR 80.582 - What are the sampling and testing methods for the fuel marker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the sampling and testing... commercially available diesel fuel which meets the applicable industry consensus and federal regulatory...) Qualification of test methods approved by voluntary consensus-based standards bodies. Any standard test method...

  10. Using Set Covering with Item Sampling to Analyze the Infeasibility of Linear Programming Test Assembly Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huitzing, Hiddo A.

    2004-01-01

    This article shows how set covering with item sampling (SCIS) methods can be used in the analysis and preanalysis of linear programming models for test assembly (LPTA). LPTA models can construct tests, fulfilling a set of constraints set by the test assembler. Sometimes, no solution to the LPTA model exists. The model is then said to be…

  11. Operability test report for rotary mode core sampling system number 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbett, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    This report documents the successful completion of operability testing for the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) system number-sign 3. The Report includes the test procedure (WHC-SD-WM-OTP-174), exception resolutions, data sheets, and a test report summary

  12. A note on power and sample size calculations for the Kruskal-Wallis test for ordered categorical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Chunpeng; Zhang, Donghui

    2012-01-01

    Although the Kruskal-Wallis test has been widely used to analyze ordered categorical data, power and sample size methods for this test have been investigated to a much lesser extent when the underlying multinomial distributions are unknown. This article generalizes the power and sample size procedures proposed by Fan et al. ( 2011 ) for continuous data to ordered categorical data, when estimates from a pilot study are used in the place of knowledge of the true underlying distribution. Simulations show that the proposed power and sample size formulas perform well. A myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) induced experimental autoimmunce encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse study is used to demonstrate the application of the methods.

  13. Benefits of expressive writing in reducing test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial in Chinese samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lujun; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Meng

    2018-01-01

    To explore the effect of expressive writing of positive emotions on test anxiety among senior-high-school students. The Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) was used to assess the anxiety level of 200 senior-high-school students. Seventy-five students with high anxiety were recruited and divided randomly into experimental and control groups. Each day for 30 days, the experimental group engaged in 20 minutes of expressive writing of positive emotions, while the control group was asked to merely write down their daily events. A second test was given after the month-long experiment to analyze whether there had been a reduction in anxiety among the sample. Quantitative data was obtained from TAS scores. The NVivo10.0 software program was used to examine the frequency of particular word categories used in participants' writing manuscripts. Senior-high-school students indicated moderate to high test anxiety. There was a significant difference in post-test results (P 0.05). Students' writing manuscripts were mainly encoded on five code categories: cause, anxiety manifestation, positive emotion, insight and evaluation. There was a negative relation between positive emotion, insight codes and test anxiety. There were significant differences in the positive emotion, anxiety manifestation, and insight code categories between the first 10 days' manuscripts and the last 10 days' ones. Long-term expressive writing of positive emotions appears to help reduce test anxiety by using insight and positive emotion words for Chinese students. Efficient and effective intervention programs to ease test anxiety can be designed based on this study.

  14. Benefits of expressive writing in reducing test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial in Chinese samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lujun Shen

    Full Text Available To explore the effect of expressive writing of positive emotions on test anxiety among senior-high-school students.The Test Anxiety Scale (TAS was used to assess the anxiety level of 200 senior-high-school students. Seventy-five students with high anxiety were recruited and divided randomly into experimental and control groups. Each day for 30 days, the experimental group engaged in 20 minutes of expressive writing of positive emotions, while the control group was asked to merely write down their daily events. A second test was given after the month-long experiment to analyze whether there had been a reduction in anxiety among the sample. Quantitative data was obtained from TAS scores. The NVivo10.0 software program was used to examine the frequency of particular word categories used in participants' writing manuscripts.Senior-high-school students indicated moderate to high test anxiety. There was a significant difference in post-test results (P 0.05. Students' writing manuscripts were mainly encoded on five code categories: cause, anxiety manifestation, positive emotion, insight and evaluation. There was a negative relation between positive emotion, insight codes and test anxiety. There were significant differences in the positive emotion, anxiety manifestation, and insight code categories between the first 10 days' manuscripts and the last 10 days' ones.Long-term expressive writing of positive emotions appears to help reduce test anxiety by using insight and positive emotion words for Chinese students. Efficient and effective intervention programs to ease test anxiety can be designed based on this study.

  15. Benefits of expressive writing in reducing test anxiety: A randomized controlled trial in Chinese samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Meng

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To explore the effect of expressive writing of positive emotions on test anxiety among senior-high-school students. Methods The Test Anxiety Scale (TAS) was used to assess the anxiety level of 200 senior-high-school students. Seventy-five students with high anxiety were recruited and divided randomly into experimental and control groups. Each day for 30 days, the experimental group engaged in 20 minutes of expressive writing of positive emotions, while the control group was asked to merely write down their daily events. A second test was given after the month-long experiment to analyze whether there had been a reduction in anxiety among the sample. Quantitative data was obtained from TAS scores. The NVivo10.0 software program was used to examine the frequency of particular word categories used in participants’ writing manuscripts. Results Senior-high-school students indicated moderate to high test anxiety. There was a significant difference in post-test results (P 0.05). Students’ writing manuscripts were mainly encoded on five code categories: cause, anxiety manifestation, positive emotion, insight and evaluation. There was a negative relation between positive emotion, insight codes and test anxiety. There were significant differences in the positive emotion, anxiety manifestation, and insight code categories between the first 10 days’ manuscripts and the last 10 days’ ones. Conclusions Long-term expressive writing of positive emotions appears to help reduce test anxiety by using insight and positive emotion words for Chinese students. Efficient and effective intervention programs to ease test anxiety can be designed based on this study. PMID:29401473

  16. Influence of population versus convenience sampling on sample characteristics in studies of cognitive aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaty, Henry; Mothakunnel, Annu; de Vel-Palumbo, Melissa; Ames, David; Ellis, Kathryn A; Reppermund, Simone; Kochan, Nicole A; Savage, Greg; Trollor, Julian N; Crawford, John; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether differences in findings of studies examining mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were associated with recruitment methods by comparing sample characteristics in two contemporaneous Australian studies, using population-based and convenience sampling. The Sydney Memory and Aging Study invited participants randomly from the electoral roll in defined geographic areas in Sydney. The Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle Study of Ageing recruited cognitively normal (CN) individuals via media appeals and MCI participants via referrals from clinicians in Melbourne and Perth. Demographic and cognitive variables were harmonized, and similar diagnostic criteria were applied to both samples retrospectively. CN participants recruited via convenience sampling were younger, better educated, more likely to be married and have a family history of dementia, and performed better cognitively than those recruited via population-based sampling. MCI participants recruited via population-based sampling had better memory performance and were less likely to carry the apolipoprotein E ε4 allele than clinically referred participants but did not differ on other demographic variables. A convenience sample of normal controls is likely to be younger and better functioning and that of an MCI group likely to perform worse than a purportedly random sample. Sampling bias should be considered when interpreting findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sampling study in milk storage tanks by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.G.C.; Nadai Fernandes de, E.A.; Bacchi, M.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the representativeness of samples for assessing chemical elements in milk bulk tanks. Milk samples were collected from a closed tank in a dairy plant and from an open top tank in a dairy farm. Samples were analyzed for chemical elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). For both experiments, Br, Ca, Cs, K, Na, Rb and Zn did not present significant differences between samples thereby indicating the appropriateness of the sampling procedure adopted to evaluate the analytes of interest. (author)

  18. Cooling tower wood sampling and analyses: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haymore, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Extensive wood sampling and analyses programs were initiated on crossflow and counterflow cooling towers that have been in service since 1951 and 1955, respectively. Wood samples were taken from all areas of the towers and were subjected to biological, chemical and physical tests. The tests and results for the analyses are discussed. The results indicate the degree of wood deterioration, and areas of the towers which experience the most advanced degree of degradation

  19. tscvh R Package: Computational of the two samples test on microarray-sequencing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajriyah, Rohmatul; Rosadi, Dedi

    2017-12-01

    We present a new R package, a tscvh (two samples cross-variance homogeneity), as we called it. This package is a software of the cross-variance statistical test which has been proposed and introduced by Fajriyah ([3] and [4]), based on the cross-variance concept. The test can be used as an alternative test for the significance difference between two means when sample size is small, the situation which is usually appeared in the bioinformatics research. Based on its statistical distribution, the p-value can be also provided. The package is built under a homogeneity of variance between samples.

  20. 21 CFR 809.40 - Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. 809.40 Section 809.40 Food and Drugs... Restrictions on the sale, distribution, and use of OTC test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing. (a) Over-the-counter (OTC) test sample collection systems for drugs of abuse testing (§ 864.3260...

  1. Integrated sample-to-detection chip for nucleic acid test assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, R; Pabbaraju, K; Wong, S; Tellier, R; Kaler, K V I S

    2016-06-01

    Nucleic acid based diagnostic techniques are routinely used for the detection of infectious agents. Most of these assays rely on nucleic acid extraction platforms for the extraction and purification of nucleic acids and a separate real-time PCR platform for quantitative nucleic acid amplification tests (NATs). Several microfluidic lab on chip (LOC) technologies have been developed, where mechanical and chemical methods are used for the extraction and purification of nucleic acids. Microfluidic technologies have also been effectively utilized for chip based real-time PCR assays. However, there are few examples of microfluidic systems which have successfully integrated these two key processes. In this study, we have implemented an electro-actuation based LOC micro-device that leverages multi-frequency actuation of samples and reagents droplets for chip based nucleic acid extraction and real-time, reverse transcription (RT) PCR (qRT-PCR) amplification from clinical samples. Our prototype micro-device combines chemical lysis with electric field assisted isolation of nucleic acid in a four channel parallel processing scheme. Furthermore, a four channel parallel qRT-PCR amplification and detection assay is integrated to deliver the sample-to-detection NAT chip. The NAT chip combines dielectrophoresis and electrostatic/electrowetting actuation methods with resistive micro-heaters and temperature sensors to perform chip based integrated NATs. The two chip modules have been validated using different panels of clinical samples and their performance compared with standard platforms. This study has established that our integrated NAT chip system has a sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the standard platforms while providing up to 10 fold reduction in sample/reagent volumes.

  2. Performance Evaluation of Commercial Dengue Diagnostic Tests for Early Detection of Dengue in Clinical Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan Nur Akmalina Mat Jusoh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The shattering rise in dengue virus infections globally has created a need for an accurate and validated rapid diagnostic test for this virus. Rapid diagnostic test (RDT and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR diagnostic detection are useful tools for diagnosis of early dengue infection. We prospectively evaluated the diagnostic performance of nonstructural 1 (NS1 RDT and real-time RT-PCR diagnostic kits in 86 patient serum samples. Thirty-six samples were positive for dengue NS1 antigen while the remaining 50 were negative when tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Commercially available RDTs for NS1 detection, RTK ProDetect™, and SD Bioline showed high sensitivity of 94% and 89%, respectively, compared with ELISA. GenoAmp® Trioplex Real-Time RT-PCR and RealStar® Dengue RT-PCR tests presented a comparable kappa agreement with 0.722. The result obtained from GenoAmp® Real-Time RT-PCR Dengue test showed that 14 samples harbored dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1, 8 samples harbored DENV-2, 2 samples harbored DENV-3, and 1 sample harbored DENV-4. 1 sample had a double infection with DENV-1 and DENV-2. The NS1 RDTs and real-time RT-PCR tests were found to be a useful diagnostic for early and rapid diagnosis of acute dengue and an excellent surveillance tool in our battle against dengue.

  3. Effects of fecal sampling on preanalytical and analytical phases in quantitative fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapi, Stefano; Berardi, Margherita; Cellai, Filippo; Ciattini, Samuele; Chelazzi, Laura; Ognibene, Agostino; Rubeca, Tiziana

    2017-07-24

    Information on preanalytical variability is mandatory to bring laboratories up to ISO 15189 requirements. Fecal sampling is greatly affected by lack of harmonization in laboratory medicine. The aims of this study were to obtain information on the devices used for fecal sampling and to explore the effect of different amounts of feces on the results from the fecal immunochemical test for hemoglobin (FIT-Hb). Four commercial sample collection devices for quantitative FIT-Hb measurements were investigated. The volume of interest (VOI) of the probes was measured from diameter and geometry. Quantitative measurements of the mass of feces were carried out by gravimetry. The effects of an increased amount of feces on the analytical environment were investigated measuring the Hb values with a single analytical method. VOI was 8.22, 7.1 and 9.44 mm3 for probes that collected a target of 10 mg of feces, and 3.08 mm3 for one probe that targeted 2 mg of feces. The ratio between recovered and target amounts of devices ranged from 56% to 121%. Different changes in the measured Hb values were observed, in adding increasing amounts of feces in commercial buffers. The amounts of collected materials are related to the design of probes. Three out 4 manufacturers declare the same target amount using different sampling volumes and obtaining different amounts of collected materials. The introduction of a standard probes to reduce preanalytical variability could be an useful step for fecal test harmonization and to fulfill the ISO 15189 requirements.

  4. Sample size of the reference sample in a case-augmented study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Palash; Dewanji, Anup

    2017-05-01

    The case-augmented study, in which a case sample is augmented with a reference (random) sample from the source population with only covariates information known, is becoming popular in different areas of applied science such as pharmacovigilance, ecology, and econometrics. In general, the case sample is available from some source (for example, hospital database, case registry, etc.); however, the reference sample is required to be drawn from the corresponding source population. The required minimum size of the reference sample is an important issue in this regard. In this work, we address the minimum sample size calculation and discuss related issues. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Design of sample analysis device for iodine adsorption efficiency test in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jinnan

    2015-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, iodine adsorption efficiency test is used to check the iodine adsorption efficiency of the iodine adsorber. The iodine adsorption efficiency can be calculated through the analysis of the test sample, and thus to determine if the performance of the adsorber meets the requirement on the equipment operation and emission. Considering the process of test and actual demand, in this paper, a special device for the analysis of this kind of test sample is designed. The application shows that the device is with convenient operation and high reliability and accurate calculation, and improves the experiment efficiency and reduces the experiment risk. (author)

  6. Drilling induced damage of core samples. Evidences from laboratory testing and numerical modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanaro, Flavio

    2008-01-01

    Extensive sample testing in uniaxial and Brazilian test conditions were carried out for the Shobasama and MIU Research Laboratory Site (Gifu Pref., Japan). The compressive and tensile strength of the samples was observed to be negatively correlated to the in-situ stress components. Such correlation was interpreted as stress-release induced sample damage. Similar stress conditions were then numerically simulated by means of the BEM-DDM code FRACOD 2D in plane strain conditions. This method allows for explicitly consider the influence of newly initiated or propagating fractures on the stress field and deformation of the core during drilling process. The models show that already at moderate stress levels some fracturing of the core during drilling might occur leading to reduced laboratory strength of the samples. Sample damage maps were produced independently from the laboratory test results and from the numerical models and show good agreement with each other. (author)

  7. Women’s experience with home-based self-sampling for human papillomavirus testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, Farhana; Mullins, Robyn; English, Dallas R.; Simpson, Julie A.; Drennan, Kelly T.; Heley, Stella; Wrede, C. David; Brotherton, Julia M. L.; Saville, Marion; Gertig, Dorota M.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing cervical screening coverage by reaching inadequately screened groups is essential for improving the effectiveness of cervical screening programs. Offering HPV self-sampling to women who are never or under-screened can improve screening participation, however participation varies widely between settings. Information on women’s experience with self-sampling and preferences for future self-sampling screening is essential for programs to optimize participation. The survey was conducted as part of a larger trial (“iPap”) investigating the effect of HPV self-sampling on participation of never and under-screened women in Victoria, Australia. Questionnaires were mailed to a) most women who participated in the self-sampling to document their experience with and preference for self-sampling in future, and b) a sample of the women who did not participate asking reasons for non-participation and suggestions for enabling participation. Reasons for not having a previous Pap test were also explored. About half the women who collected a self sample for the iPap trial returned the subsequent questionnaire (746/1521). Common reasons for not having cervical screening were that having Pap test performed by a doctor was embarrassing (18 %), not having the time (14 %), or that a Pap test was painful and uncomfortable (11 %). Most (94 %) found the home-based self-sampling less embarrassing, less uncomfortable (90 %) and more convenient (98 %) compared with their last Pap test experience (if they had one); however, many were unsure about the test accuracy (57 %). Women who self-sampled thought the instructions were clear (98 %), it was easy to use the swab (95 %), and were generally confident that they did the test correctly (81 %). Most preferred to take the self-sample at home in the future (88 %) because it was simple and did not require a doctor’s appointment. Few women (126/1946, 7 %) who did not return a self-sample in the iPap trial returned the questionnaire

  8. Preparation of irritant polymer samples for an in vitro round robin study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coleman, Kelly P; Grailer, Thomas P; McNamara, Lori R; Rollins, Beau L; Christiano, Nicholas J; Kandárová, Helena; De Jong, Wim H

    2018-01-01

    A round robin study using reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) tissues was conducted to test medical device polymer extracts for skin irritation potential. Test samples were four irritant and three non-irritant medical device polymers. Five of these polymer samples were developed and two were

  9. Laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry: effects of test conditions on the determination of herbicide and field sample toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjollema, Sascha B; van Beusekom, Sebastiaan A M; van der Geest, Harm G; Booij, Petra; de Zwart, Dick; Vethaak, A Dick; Admiraal, Wim

    2014-05-01

    Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry, based on chlorophyll a fluorescence, is a frequently used technique in algal bioassays to assess toxicity of single compounds or complex field samples. Several test conditions can influence the test results, and because a standardized test protocol is currently lacking, linking the results of different studies is difficult. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to gain insight into the effects of test conditions of laboratory algal bioassays using PAM fluorometry on the outcome of toxicity tests. To this purpose, we described the results from several pilot studies on test development in which information is provided on the effects of the main test factors during the pretest phase, the test preparation, the exposure period, and the actual measurement. The experiments were focused on individual herbicides and complex field samples and included the effects of culturing conditions, cell density, solvent concentration, exposure time, and the presence of actinic light. Several of these test conditions were found to influence the outcome of the toxicity test, and the presented information provides important background information for the interpretation of toxicity results and describes which test conditions should be taken into account when using an algal bioassay with PAM fluorometry. Finally, the application of PAM fluorometry in algal toxicity testing is discussed. © 2014 SETAC.

  10. Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of mixer pumps in tank 241-AZ-101. The primary purpose of the mixer pump test (MPT) is to demonstrate that the two 300 horsepower mixer pumps installed in tank 241-AZ-101 can mobilize the settled sludge so that it can be retrieved for treatment and vitrification. Sampling will be performed in accordance with Tank 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test Data Quality Objective (Banning 1999) and Data Quality Objectives for Regulatory Requirements for Hazardous and Radioactive Air Emissions Sampling and Analysis (Mulkey 1999). The sampling will verify if current air emission estimates used in the permit application are correct and provide information for future air permit applications

  11. The Bootstrap, the Jackknife, and the Randomization Test: A Sampling Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J L

    1999-10-01

    A simple sampling taxonomy is defined that shows the differences between and relationships among the bootstrap, the jackknife, and the randomization test. Each method has as its goal the creation of an empirical sampling distribution that can be used to test statistical hypotheses, estimate standard errors, and/or create confidence intervals. Distinctions between the methods can be made based on the sampling approach (with replacement versus without replacement) and the sample size (replacing the whole original sample versus replacing a subset of the original sample). The taxonomy is useful for teaching the goals and purposes of resampling schemes. An extension of the taxonomy implies other possible resampling approaches that have not previously been considered. Univariate and multivariate examples are presented.

  12. Feasibility of self-sampled dried blood spot and saliva samples sent by mail in a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Bastani, Nasser Ezzatkhah; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Gundersen, Thomas Erik; Blomhoff, Rune; Ursin, Giske

    2015-01-01

    In large epidemiological studies it is often challenging to obtain biological samples. Self-sampling by study participants using dried blood spots (DBS) technique has been suggested to overcome this challenge. DBS is a type of biosampling where blood samples are obtained by a finger-prick lancet, blotted and dried on filter paper. However, the feasibility and efficacy of collecting DBS samples from study participants in large-scale epidemiological studies is not known. The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility and response rate of collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples in a population–based study of women above 50 years of age. We determined response proportions, number of phone calls to the study center with questions about sampling, and quality of the DBS. We recruited women through a study conducted within the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Invitations, instructions and materials were sent to 4,597 women. The data collection took place over a 3 month period in the spring of 2009. Response proportions for the collection of DBS and saliva samples were 71.0% (3,263) and 70.9% (3,258), respectively. We received 312 phone calls (7% of the 4,597 women) with questions regarding sampling. Of the 3,263 individuals that returned DBS cards, 3,038 (93.1%) had been packaged and shipped according to instructions. A total of 3,032 DBS samples were sufficient for at least one biomarker analysis (i.e. 92.9% of DBS samples received by the laboratory). 2,418 (74.1%) of the DBS cards received by the laboratory were filled with blood according to the instructions (i.e. 10 completely filled spots with up to 7 punches per spot for up to 70 separate analyses). To assess the quality of the samples, we selected and measured two biomarkers (carotenoids and vitamin D). The biomarker levels were consistent with previous reports. Collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples through the postal services provides a low cost, effective and feasible

  13. Feasibility of self-sampled dried blood spot and saliva samples sent by mail in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Bastani, Nasser Ezzatkhah; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Gundersen, Thomas Erik; Blomhoff, Rune; Ursin, Giske

    2015-04-11

    In large epidemiological studies it is often challenging to obtain biological samples. Self-sampling by study participants using dried blood spots (DBS) technique has been suggested to overcome this challenge. DBS is a type of biosampling where blood samples are obtained by a finger-prick lancet, blotted and dried on filter paper. However, the feasibility and efficacy of collecting DBS samples from study participants in large-scale epidemiological studies is not known. The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility and response rate of collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples in a population-based study of women above 50 years of age. We determined response proportions, number of phone calls to the study center with questions about sampling, and quality of the DBS. We recruited women through a study conducted within the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Invitations, instructions and materials were sent to 4,597 women. The data collection took place over a 3 month period in the spring of 2009. Response proportions for the collection of DBS and saliva samples were 71.0% (3,263) and 70.9% (3,258), respectively. We received 312 phone calls (7% of the 4,597 women) with questions regarding sampling. Of the 3,263 individuals that returned DBS cards, 3,038 (93.1%) had been packaged and shipped according to instructions. A total of 3,032 DBS samples were sufficient for at least one biomarker analysis (i.e. 92.9% of DBS samples received by the laboratory). 2,418 (74.1%) of the DBS cards received by the laboratory were filled with blood according to the instructions (i.e. 10 completely filled spots with up to 7 punches per spot for up to 70 separate analyses). To assess the quality of the samples, we selected and measured two biomarkers (carotenoids and vitamin D). The biomarker levels were consistent with previous reports. Collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples through the postal services provides a low cost, effective and feasible

  14. Rapid detection of fumonisin B1 using a colloidal gold immunoassay strip test in corn samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Sumei; Wang, Rongzhi; Gu, Xiaosong; Wen, Can; Chen, Lingling; Chen, Zhibin; Chen, Qing-Ai; Xiao, Shiwei; Yang, Yanling; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

    2015-12-15

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is the most common and highest toxic of fumonisins species, exists frequently in corn and corn-based foods, leading to several animal and human diseases. Furthermore, FB1 was reported that it was associated with the human esophageal cancer. In view of the harmful of FB1, it is urgent to develop a feasible and accuracy method for rapid detection of FB1. In this study, a competitive immunoassay for FB1 detection was developed based on colloidal gold-antibody conjugate. The FB1-keyhole limpet hemoeyanin (FB1-KLH) conjugate was embedded in the test line, and goat anti-mouse IgG antibody embedded in the control line. The color density of the test line correlated with the concentration of FB1 in the range from 2.5 to 10 ng/mL, and the visual limit detection of test for FB1 was 2.5 ng/mL. The results indicated that the test strip is specific for FB1, and no cross-reactivity to other toxins. The quantitative detection for FB1 was simple, only needing one step without complicated assay performance and expensive equipment, and the total time of visual evaluation was less than 5 min. Hence, the developed colloidal gold-antibody assay can be used as a feasible method for FB1 rapid and quantitative detection in corn samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sample Size in Qualitative Interview Studies: Guided by Information Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Guassora, Ann Dorrit

    2015-11-27

    Sample sizes must be ascertained in qualitative studies like in quantitative studies but not by the same means. The prevailing concept for sample size in qualitative studies is "saturation." Saturation is closely tied to a specific methodology, and the term is inconsistently applied. We propose the concept "information power" to guide adequate sample size for qualitative studies. Information power indicates that the more information the sample holds, relevant for the actual study, the lower amount of participants is needed. We suggest that the size of a sample with sufficient information power depends on (a) the aim of the study, (b) sample specificity, (c) use of established theory, (d) quality of dialogue, and (e) analysis strategy. We present a model where these elements of information and their relevant dimensions are related to information power. Application of this model in the planning and during data collection of a qualitative study is discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. A ring test of in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility: analytical variability and sample ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M B; Mertens, D R

    2012-04-01

    In vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (NDFD) is an empirical measurement of fiber fermentability by rumen microbes. Variation is inherent in all assays and may be increased as multiple steps or differing procedures are used to assess an empirical measure. The main objective of this study was to evaluate variability within and among laboratories of 30-h NDFD values analyzed in repeated runs. Subsamples of alfalfa (n=4), corn forage (n=5), and grass (n=5) ground to pass a 6-mm screen passed a test for homogeneity. The 14 samples were sent to 10 laboratories on 3 occasions over 12 mo. Laboratories ground the samples and ran 1 to 3 replicates of each sample within fermentation run and analyzed 2 or 3 sets of samples. Laboratories used 1 of 2 NDFD procedures: 8 labs used procedures related to the 1970 Goering and Van Soest (GVS) procedure using fermentation vessels or filter bags, and 2 used a procedure with preincubated inoculum (PInc). Means and standard deviations (SD) of sample replicates within run within laboratory (lab) were evaluated with a statistical model that included lab, run within lab, sample, and lab × sample interaction as factors. All factors affected mean values for 30-h NDFD. The lab × sample effect suggests against a simple lab bias in mean values. The SD ranged from 0.49 to 3.37% NDFD and were influenced by lab and run within lab. The GVS procedure gave greater NDFD values than PInc, with an average difference across all samples of 17% NDFD. Because of the differences between GVS and PInc, we recommend using results in contexts appropriate to each procedure. The 95% probability limits for within-lab repeatability and among-lab reproducibility for GVS mean values were 10.2 and 13.4%, respectively. These percentages describe the span of the range around the mean into which 95% of analytical results for a sample fall for values generated within a lab and among labs. This degree of precision was supported in that the average maximum

  17. The impact of screening-test negative samples not enumerated by MPN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Ribeiro Duarte, Ana Sofia; de Knegt, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    that includes false negative results from the screening, and a third that considers the entire data set. The relative sensitivity of the screening test was also calculated assuming as gold standard samples with confirmed Salmonella. Salmonella was confirmed by a reference laboratory in 29 samples either...

  18. Probabilistic Requirements (Partial) Verification Methods Best Practices Improvement. Variables Acceptance Sampling Calculators: Empirical Testing. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kenneth L.; White, K. Preston, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center was requested to improve on the Best Practices document produced for the NESC assessment, Verification of Probabilistic Requirements for the Constellation Program, by giving a recommended procedure for using acceptance sampling by variables techniques as an alternative to the potentially resource-intensive acceptance sampling by attributes method given in the document. In this paper, the results of empirical tests intended to assess the accuracy of acceptance sampling plan calculators implemented for six variable distributions are presented.

  19. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing: Increased Cervical Cancer Screening Participation and Incorporation in International Screening Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sarah; Palmer, Christina; Bik, Elisabeth M.; Cardenas, Juan P.; Nuñez, Harold; Kraal, Laurens; Bird, Sara W.; Bowers, Jennie; Smith, Alison; Walton, Nathaniel A.; Goddard, Audrey D.; Almonacid, Daniel E.; Zneimer, Susan; Richman, Jessica; Apte, Zachary S.

    2018-01-01

    In most industrialized countries, screening programs for cervical cancer have shifted from cytology (Pap smear or ThinPrep) alone on clinician-obtained samples to the addition of screening for human papillomavirus (HPV), its main causative agent. For HPV testing, self-sampling instead of clinician-sampling has proven to be equally accurate, in particular for assays that use nucleic acid amplification techniques. In addition, HPV testing of self-collected samples in combination with a follow-up Pap smear in case of a positive result is more effective in detecting precancerous lesions than a Pap smear alone. Self-sampling for HPV testing has already been adopted by some countries, while others have started trials to evaluate its incorporation into national cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling may result in more individuals willing to participate in cervical cancer screening, because it removes many of the barriers that prevent women, especially those in low socioeconomic and minority populations, from participating in regular screening programs. Several studies have shown that the majority of women who have been underscreened but who tested HPV-positive in a self-obtained sample will visit a clinic for follow-up diagnosis and management. In addition, a self-collected sample can also be used for vaginal microbiome analysis, which can provide additional information about HPV infection persistence as well as vaginal health in general. PMID:29686981

  20. Smoking, activity level and exercise test outcomes in a young population sample without cardiopulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozoris, N T; O'donnell, D E

    2015-01-01

    Whether reduced activity level and exercise intolerance precede the clinical diagnosis of cardiopulmonary disorders in smokers is not known. We examined activity level and exercise test outcomes in a young population-based sample without overt cardiopulmonary disease, differentiating by smoking history. This was a multiyear cross-sectional study using United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 1999-2004. Self-reported activity level and incremental exercise treadmill testing were obtained on survey participants ages 20-49 years, excluding individuals with cardio-pulmonary disease. Three thousand seven hundred and one individuals completed exercise testing. Compared to never smokers, current smokers with >10 pack years reported significantly higher odds of little or no recreation, sport, or physical activity (adjusted OR 1.62; 95% CI 1.12-2.35). Mean perceived exertion ratings (Borg 6-20) at an estimated standardized workload were significantly greater among current smokers (18.3-18.6) compared to never (17.3) and former smokers (17.9) (psmoking abstinence was associated with significantly lower likelihood of low estimated peak oxygen uptake categorization (psmoking cessation, these results set the stage for future studies that examine mechanisms of activity restriction in young smokers and the utility of measures of activity restriction in the earlier diagnosis of smoking-related diseases.

  1. An initial validation of the Virtual Reality Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test in a college sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Thomas D; Courtney, Christopher G

    2014-01-30

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) has utility for the detection of cognitive processing deficits. While the PASAT has demonstrated high levels of internal consistency and test-retest reliability, administration of the PASAT has been known to create undue anxiety and frustration in participants. As a result, degradation of performance may be found on the PASAT. The difficult nature of the PASAT may subsequently decrease the probability of their return for follow up testing. This study is a preliminary attempt at assessing the potential of a PASAT embedded in a virtual reality environment. The Virtual Reality PASAT (VR-PASAT) was compared with a paper-and-pencil version of the PASAT as well as other standardized neuropsychological measures. The two modalities of the PASAT were conducted with a sample of 50 healthy university students, between the ages of 19 and 34 years. Equivalent distributions were found for age, gender, education, and computer familiarity. Moderate relationships were found between VR-PASAT and other putative attentional processing measures. The VR-PASAT was unrelated to indices of learning, memory, or visuospatial processing. Comparison of the VR-PASAT with the traditional paper-and-pencil PASAT indicated that both versions require the examinee to sustain attention at an increasingly demanding, externally determined rate. Results offer preliminary support for the construct validity (in a college sample) of the VR-PASAT as an attentional processing measure and suggest that this task may provide some unique information not tapped by traditional attentional processing tasks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. June 2012 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on June 26-27, 2012, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface and the addendum to the 'Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan' completed in 2008. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated).

  3. May 2011 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on May 10-11, 2011, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface and the addendum to the 'Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan' completed in 2008. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated)

  4. Test plan for FY-91 dust control studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winberg, M.R.

    1991-03-01

    This test plan defines basic test procedures for testing commercially available vendor products as soil fixatives and dust suppression agents to determine their capability to control fugitive dust generation during transuranic waste retrieval and handling operations. A description of the test apparatus and methods are provided in this test plan. This test plan defines the sampling procedures, controls, and analytical methods for the samples collected. Data management is discussed, as well as quality assurance and safety requirements for the study. 6 refs., 5 figs

  5. Advances in paper-based sample pretreatment for point-of-care testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Rui Hua; Yang, Hui; Choi, Jane Ru; Gong, Yan; Feng, Shang Sheng; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Huang, Qing Sheng; Shi, Jun Ling; Mei, Qi Bing; Xu, Feng

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, paper-based point-of-care testing (POCT) has been widely used in medical diagnostics, food safety and environmental monitoring. However, a high-cost, time-consuming and equipment-dependent sample pretreatment technique is generally required for raw sample processing, which are impractical for low-resource and disease-endemic areas. Therefore, there is an escalating demand for a cost-effective, simple and portable pretreatment technique, to be coupled with the commonly used paper-based assay (e.g. lateral flow assay) in POCT. In this review, we focus on the importance of using paper as a platform for sample pretreatment. We firstly discuss the beneficial use of paper for sample pretreatment, including sample collection and storage, separation, extraction, and concentration. We highlight the working principle and fabrication of each sample pretreatment device, the existing challenges and the future perspectives for developing paper-based sample pretreatment technique.

  6. 76 FR 69585 - Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification Regarding Representative Samples for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... 1107 Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification Regarding Representative Samples for... [CPSC Docket No. CPSC-2011-0082] Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification Regarding... to Product Certification.'' The proposed rule was intended to implement what was then known as...

  7. Proposed optical test of Bell's inequalities not resting upon the fair sampling assumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Emilio

    2004-01-01

    Arguments are given against the fair sampling assumption, used to claim an empirical disproof of local realism. New tests are proposed, able to discriminate between quantum mechanics and a restricted, but appealing, family of local hidden-variables models. Such tests require detectors with efficiencies just above 20%

  8. Power and Sample Size Calculations for Logistic Regression Tests for Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhushan

    2014-01-01

    Logistic regression is a popular method for detecting uniform and nonuniform differential item functioning (DIF) effects. Theoretical formulas for the power and sample size calculations are derived for likelihood ratio tests and Wald tests based on the asymptotic distribution of the maximum likelihood estimators for the logistic regression model.…

  9. Sample Size Calculation for Estimating or Testing a Nonzero Squared Multiple Correlation Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, K.; Xia, Yanping

    2008-01-01

    The problems of hypothesis testing and interval estimation of the squared multiple correlation coefficient of a multivariate normal distribution are considered. It is shown that available one-sided tests are uniformly most powerful, and the one-sided confidence intervals are uniformly most accurate. An exact method of calculating sample size to…

  10. Testing the normality assumption in the sample selection model with an application to travel demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klaauw, B.; Koning, R.H.

    2003-01-01

    In this article we introduce a test for the normality assumption in the sample selection model. The test is based on a flexible parametric specification of the density function of the error terms in the model. This specification follows a Hermite series with bivariate normality as a special case.

  11. Testing the normality assumption in the sample selection model with an application to travel demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klauw, B.; Koning, R.H.

    In this article we introduce a test for the normality assumption in the sample selection model. The test is based on a flexible parametric specification of the density function of the error terms in the model. This specification follows a Hermite series with bivariate normality as a special case.

  12. Developing Sampling Frame for Case Study: Challenges and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Noriah Mohd; Abu Bakar, Abu Yazid

    2014-01-01

    Due to statistical analysis, the issue of random sampling is pertinent to any quantitative study. Unlike quantitative study, the elimination of inferential statistical analysis, allows qualitative researchers to be more creative in dealing with sampling issue. Since results from qualitative study cannot be generalized to the bigger population,…

  13. Testing odorants recovery from a novel metallized fluorinated ethylene propylene gas sampling bag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenda; Koziel, Jacek A; Cai, Lingshuang; Wright, Donald; Kuhrt, Fred

    2015-12-01

    Industry-standard Tedlar bags for odor sample collection from confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) have been challenged by the evidence of volatile organic compound (VOC) losses and background interferences. Novel impermeable aluminum foil with a thin layer of fluorinated ethylene propylene (FEP) film on the surface that is in contact with a gas sample was developed to address this challenge. In this research, Tedlar and metallized FEP bags were compared for (a) recoveries of four characteristic CAFO odorous VOCs (ethyl mercaptan, butyric acid, isovaleric acid and p-cresol) after 30 min and 24 hr sample storage time and for (b) chemical background interferences. All air sampling and analyses were performed with solid-phase microextraction (SPME) followed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Mean target gas sample recoveries from metallized FEP bags were 25.9% and 28.0% higher than those in Tedlar bags, for 30 min and 24 hr, respectively. Metallized FEP bags demonstrated the highest p-cresol recoveries after 30-min and 24-hr storage, 96.1±44.5% and 44.8±10.2%, respectively, among different types of sampling bags reported in previous studies. However, a higher variability was observed for p-cresol recovery with metallized FEP bags. A 0% recovery of ethyl mercaptan was observed with Tedlar bags after 24-hr storage, whereas an 85.7±7.4% recovery was achieved with metallized FEP bags. Recoveries of butyric and isovaleric acids were similar for both bag types. Two major impurities in Tedlar bags' background were identified as N,N-dimethylacetamide and phenol, while backgrounds of metallized FEP bags were significantly cleaner. Reusability of metallized FEP bags was tested. Caution is advised when using polymeric materials for storage of livestock-relevant odorous volatile organic compounds. The odorants loss with storage time confirmed that long-term storage in whole-air form is ill advised. A focused short-term odor sample containment should be

  14. Chemical decontamination for decommissioning purposes. (Vigorous decontamination tests of steel samples in a special test loop)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bregani, F.; Pascali, R.; Rizzi, R.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the research activities described was to develop vigorous decontamination techniques for decommissioning purposes, taking into account the cost of treatment of the radwaste, to achieve possibly unrestricted release of the treated components, and to obtain know-how for in situ hard decontamination. The decontamination procedures for strong decontamination have been optimized in static and dynamic tests (DECO-loop). The best values have been found for: (i) hydrochloric acid: 4 to 5% vol. at low temperature, 0.7 to 1% vol. at high temperature (80 0 C); (ii) hydrofluoric plus nitric acid: 1.5% vol. HF + 5% vol. HNO 3 at low temperature; 0.3 to 0.5% vol. HF + 2.5 to 5% vol. HNO 3 at high temperature. High flow rates are not necessary, but a good re-circulation of the solution is needed. The final contamination levels, after total oxide removal, are in accordance with limits indicated for unrestricted release of materials in some countries. The arising of the secondary waste is estimated. Decontamination of a 10 m 2 surface would typically produce 0.5 to 3.0 kg of dry waste, corresponding to 1.6 to 10 kg of concrete conditioned waste

  15. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen Enerly

    Full Text Available Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance. To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP, 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited to be part of the intervention group. Women in this group received one of two self-sampling devices, Evalyn Brush or Delphi Screener. To attend screening, women in the intervention group had the option of using the self-sampling device (self-sampling subgroup or visiting their physician for a cervical smear. Self-sampled specimens were split and analyzed for the presence of high-risk (hr HPV by the CLART® HPV2 test and the digene® Hybrid Capture (HC2 test. The control group consisted of 2593 women who received a 2nd reminder letter according to the current guidelines of the NCCSP. The attendance rates were 33.4% in the intervention group and 23.2% in the control group, with similar attendance rates for both self-sampling devices. Women in the self-sampling subgroup responded favorably to both self-sampling devices and cited not remembering receiving a call for screening as the most dominant reason for previous non-attendance. Thirty-two of 34 (94.1% hrHPV-positive women in the self-sampling subgroup attended follow-up. In conclusion, self-sampling increased attendance rates and was feasible and well received. This study lends further support to the proposal that self-sampling may be a valuable alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway.

  16. Self-Sampling for Human Papillomavirus Testing among Non-Attenders Increases Attendance to the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enerly, Espen; Bonde, Jesper; Schee, Kristina; Pedersen, Helle; Lönnberg, Stefan; Nygård, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Increasing attendance to screening offers the best potential for improving the effectiveness of well-established cervical cancer screening programs. Self-sampling at home for human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as an alternative to a clinical sampling can be a useful policy to increase attendance. To determine whether self-sampling improves screening attendance for women who do not regularly attend the Norwegian Cervical Cancer Screening Programme (NCCSP), 800 women aged 25-69 years in the Oslo area who were due to receive a 2nd reminder to attend regular screening were randomly selected and invited to be part of the intervention group. Women in this group received one of two self-sampling devices, Evalyn Brush or Delphi Screener. To attend screening, women in the intervention group had the option of using the self-sampling device (self-sampling subgroup) or visiting their physician for a cervical smear. Self-sampled specimens were split and analyzed for the presence of high-risk (hr) HPV by the CLART® HPV2 test and the digene® Hybrid Capture (HC)2 test. The control group consisted of 2593 women who received a 2nd reminder letter according to the current guidelines of the NCCSP. The attendance rates were 33.4% in the intervention group and 23.2% in the control group, with similar attendance rates for both self-sampling devices. Women in the self-sampling subgroup responded favorably to both self-sampling devices and cited not remembering receiving a call for screening as the most dominant reason for previous non-attendance. Thirty-two of 34 (94.1%) hrHPV-positive women in the self-sampling subgroup attended follow-up. In conclusion, self-sampling increased attendance rates and was feasible and well received. This study lends further support to the proposal that self-sampling may be a valuable alternative for increasing cervical cancer screening coverage in Norway.

  17. EPS-LASSO: Test for High-Dimensional Regression Under Extreme Phenotype Sampling of Continuous Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Fang, Jian; Shen, Hui; Wang, Yu-Ping; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2018-01-25

    Extreme phenotype sampling (EPS) is a broadly-used design to identify candidate genetic factors contributing to the variation of quantitative traits. By enriching the signals in extreme phenotypic samples, EPS can boost the association power compared to random sampling. Most existing statistical methods for EPS examine the genetic factors individually, despite many quantitative traits have multiple genetic factors underlying their variation. It is desirable to model the joint effects of genetic factors, which may increase the power and identify novel quantitative trait loci under EPS. The joint analysis of genetic data in high-dimensional situations requires specialized techniques, e.g., the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). Although there are extensive research and application related to LASSO, the statistical inference and testing for the sparse model under EPS remain unknown. We propose a novel sparse model (EPS-LASSO) with hypothesis test for high-dimensional regression under EPS based on a decorrelated score function. The comprehensive simulation shows EPS-LASSO outperforms existing methods with stable type I error and FDR control. EPS-LASSO can provide a consistent power for both low- and high-dimensional situations compared with the other methods dealing with high-dimensional situations. The power of EPS-LASSO is close to other low-dimensional methods when the causal effect sizes are small and is superior when the effects are large. Applying EPS-LASSO to a transcriptome-wide gene expression study for obesity reveals 10 significant body mass index associated genes. Our results indicate that EPS-LASSO is an effective method for EPS data analysis, which can account for correlated predictors. The source code is available at https://github.com/xu1912/EPSLASSO. hdeng2@tulane.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2018). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please

  18. A GMM-Based Test for Normal Disturbances of the Heckman Sample Selection Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pfaffermayr

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Heckman sample selection model relies on the assumption of normal and homoskedastic disturbances. However, before considering more general, alternative semiparametric models that do not need the normality assumption, it seems useful to test this assumption. Following Meijer and Wansbeek (2007, the present contribution derives a GMM-based pseudo-score LM test on whether the third and fourth moments of the disturbances of the outcome equation of the Heckman model conform to those implied by the truncated normal distribution. The test is easy to calculate and in Monte Carlo simulations it shows good performance for sample sizes of 1000 or larger.

  19. The reliability of test results from simple test samples in predicting the fatigue performance of automotive components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourlaris, G.; Ellwood, R.; Jones, T.B.

    2007-01-01

    The use of high strength steels (HSS) in automotive components is steadily increasing as automotive designers use modern steel grades to improve structural performance, reduce vehicle weight and enhance crash performance. Weight reduction can be achieved by substituting mild steel with a thinner gauge HSS, however, it must be ensured that no deterioration in performance including fatigue capability occurs. In this study, tests have been carried out to determine the effects that gauge and material strength have on the fatigue performance of a fusion welded automotive suspension arm. Current finite element (FE) modelling and fatigue prediction techniques have been evaluated to determine their reliability when used for thin strip steels. Results have shown the fatigue performance of welded components to be independent of the strength of the parent material for the steel grades studied, with material thickness and joining process the key features determining the fatigue performance. The correlation between the fatigue performance of simple welded samples under uniaxial, constant amplitude loading and complex components under biaxial in service road load data, has been shown to be unreliable. This study also indicates that with the application of modern technologies, such as tailor-welded blanks (TWB), significant weight savings can be achieved. This is demonstrated by a 19% weight reduction with no detrimental effect on the fatigue performance

  20. Sample and injection manifolds used to in-place test of nuclear air-cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Dangui; Li Xinzhi; Hou Jianrong; Qiao Taifei; Wu Tao; Zhang Jirong; Han Lihong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: According to the regulations of nuclear safety rules and related standards, in-place test of the nuclear air-cleaning systems should be carried out before and during operation of the nuclear facilities, which ensure them to be in good condition. In some special conditions, the use of sample and injection manifolds is required to make the test tracer and ventilating duct air fully mixed, so as to get the on-spot typical sample. Methods: This paper introduces the technology and application of the sample and injection manifolds in nuclear air-cleaning system. Results: Multi point injection and multi point sampling technology as an effective experimental method, has been used in a of domestic and international nuclear facilities. Conclusion: The technology solved the problem of uniformly of on-spot injection and sampling,which plays an important role in objectively evaluating the function of nuclear air-cleaning system. (authors)

  1. A Note on Confidence Interval for the Power of the One Sample Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In introductory statistics texts, the power of the test of a one-sample mean when the variance is known is widely discussed. However, when the variance is unknown, the power of the Student's -test is seldom mentioned. In this note, a general methodology for obtaining inference concerning a scalar parameter of interest of any exponential family model is proposed. The method is then applied to the one-sample mean problem with unknown variance to obtain a (1−100% confidence interval for the power of the Student's -test that detects the difference (−0. The calculations require only the density and the cumulative distribution functions of the standard normal distribution. In addition, the methodology presented can also be applied to determine the required sample size when the effect size and the power of a size test of mean are given.

  2. Swab2know: An HIV-Testing Strategy Using Oral Fluid Samples and Online Communication of Test Results for Men Who Have Sex With Men in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platteau, Tom; Fransen, Katrien; Apers, Ludwig; Kenyon, Chris; Albers, Laura; Vermoesen, Tine; Loos, Jasna; Florence, Eric

    2015-09-01

    As HIV remains a public health concern, increased testing among those at risk for HIV acquisition is important. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the most important group for targeted HIV testing in Europe. Several new strategies have been developed and implemented to increase HIV-testing uptake in this group, among them the Swab2know project. In this project, we aim to assess the acceptability and feasibility of outreach and online HIV testing using oral fluid samples as well as Web-based delivery of test results. Sample collection happened between December 2012 and April 2014 via outreach and online sampling among MSM. Test results were communicated through a secured website. HIV tests were executed in the laboratory. Each reactive sample needed to be confirmed using state-of-the-art confirmation procedures on a blood sample. Close follow-up of participants who did not pick up their results, and those with reactive results, was included in the protocol. Participants were asked to provide feedback on the methodology using a short survey. During 17 months, 1071 tests were conducted on samples collected from 898 men. Over half of the samples (553/1071, 51.63%) were collected during 23 outreach sessions. During an 8-month period, 430 samples out of 1071 (40.15%) were collected from online sampling. Additionally, 88 samples out of 1071 (8.22%) were collected by two partner organizations during face-to-face consultations with MSM and male sex workers. Results of 983 out of 1071 tests (91.78%) had been collected from the website. The pickup rate was higher among participants who ordered their kit online (421/430, 97.9%) compared to those participating during outreach activities (559/641, 87.2%; Ponline participants were more likely to have never been tested before (17.3% vs 10.0%; P=.001) and reported more sexual partners in the 6 months prior to participation in the project (mean 7.18 vs 3.23; Ponline counseling tool), and in studying the cost effectiveness of the

  3. Halide test agent replacement study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, E.M.; Freeman, W.P.; Kovach, B.J. [and others

    1995-02-01

    The intended phaseout of the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) from commercial use required the evaluation of substitute materials for the testing for leak paths through both individual adsorbers and installed adsorbent banks. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Committee on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (CONAGT) is in charge of maintaining the standards and codes specifying adsorbent leak test methods for the nuclear safety related air cleaning systems. The currently published standards and codes cite the use of R-11, R-12 and R-112 for leak path test agents. All of these compounds are CFCs. There are other agencies and organizations (USDOE, USDOD and USNRC) also specifying testing for leak paths or in some cases for special life tests using the above compounds. The CONAGT has recently developed criteria for the suitability evaluation of substitute test agents. On the basis of these criteria, several compounds were evaluated for their acceptability as adsorbent bed leak and life test agents. The ASME CONAGT Test Agent Qualification Criteria. The test agent qualification is based on the following parameters: (1) Similar retention times on activated carbons at the same concentration levels as one of the following: R-11, R-12, R-112 or R-112a. (2) Similar lower detection limit sensitivity and precision in the concentration range of use as R-11, R-12, R-112 and R-112a. (3) Gives the same in-place leak test results as R-11, R-12, R-112, or R-112a. (4) Chemical and radiological stability under the use conditions. (5) Causes no degradation of the carbon and its impregnant or of the other NATS components under the use conditions. (6) Is listed in the USEPA Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) inventory for commercial use.

  4. Evaluation of rapid diagnostic test kits for feline leukemia virus infection using samples from naturally infected cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiayou Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Feline leukemia virus (FeLV is a potentially life-threatening oncogenic retrovirus. The p27 viral core protein is produced by the virus in infected feline cells, is found in the cytoplasm in several blood cells and can be free in the serum and plasma. ELISA or particle-based immunoassay are commonly used to detect the presence of the p27 core protein in samples obtained from blood. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of several in-clinic tests: the SNAP Feline Triple Test (IDEXX Laboratories, the WITNESS FeLV-FIV Test (Zoetis and the VetScan Feline FeLV/FIV Rapid Test (Abaxis. Methods The sample population (100 positive, 105 negative samples consisted of serum and plasma samples submitted to IDEXX’s worldwide reference laboratory for feline retrovirus testing. Virus isolation and reverse transcriptase PCR results were not available and so samples were judged to be positive or negative based on the results of the ViraCHEK FeLV (Zoetis microtiter plate assay. Results The percentage of samples positive and negative for FeLV p27 antigen using the three in-clinic tests compared with the ViraCHEK method were as follows: IDEXX Feline Triple (positive 98.0%, negative 100%; Zoetis WITNESS (positive 79.0%, negative 97.1%; Abaxis VetScan (positive 73.0%, negative 97.1%. Conclusions and relevance The SNAP Feline Triple Test demonstrated a high level of agreement for FeLV-positive and FeLV-negative samples when assessed in this model. Results of FeLV assays can vary among tests.

  5. Evaluation of rapid diagnostic test kits for feline leukemia virus infection using samples from naturally infected cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiayou; O'Connor, Thomas; Beall, Melissa; Chandrashekar, Ramaswamy; Lappin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a potentially life-threatening oncogenic retrovirus. The p27 viral core protein is produced by the virus in infected feline cells, is found in the cytoplasm in several blood cells and can be free in the serum and plasma. ELISA or particle-based immunoassay are commonly used to detect the presence of the p27 core protein in samples obtained from blood. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of several in-clinic tests: the SNAP Feline Triple Test (IDEXX Laboratories), the WITNESS FeLV-FIV Test (Zoetis) and the VetScan Feline FeLV/FIV Rapid Test (Abaxis). The sample population (100 positive, 105 negative samples) consisted of serum and plasma samples submitted to IDEXX's worldwide reference laboratory for feline retrovirus testing. Virus isolation and reverse transcriptase PCR results were not available and so samples were judged to be positive or negative based on the results of the ViraCHEK FeLV (Zoetis) microtiter plate assay. The percentage of samples positive and negative for FeLV p27 antigen using the three in-clinic tests compared with the ViraCHEK method were as follows: IDEXX Feline Triple (positive 98.0%, negative 100%); Zoetis WITNESS (positive 79.0%, negative 97.1%); Abaxis VetScan (positive 73.0%, negative 97.1%). The SNAP Feline Triple Test demonstrated a high level of agreement for FeLV-positive and FeLV-negative samples when assessed in this model. Results of FeLV assays can vary among tests.

  6. Reliability of different methods used for forming of working samples in the laboratory for seed testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opra Branislava

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The testing of seed quality starts from the moment a sample is formed in a warehouse during processing or packaging of the seed. The seed sampling as the process of obtaining the working sample also assumes each step undertaken during its testing in the laboratory. With the aim of appropriate forming of a seed sample in the laboratory, the usage of seed divider is prescribed for large seeded species (such as seed the size of wheat or larger (ISTA Rules, 1999. The aim of this paper was the comparison of different methods used for obtaining the working samples of maize and wheat seeds using conical, soil and centrifugal dividers. The number of seed of added admixtures confirmed the reliability of working samples formation. To each maize sample (1000 g 10 seeds of the following admixtures were added: Zea mays L. (red pericarp, Hordeum vulgäre L., Triticum aestivum L., and Glycine max (L. Merr. Two methods were used for formation of maze seed working sample. To wheat samples (1000 g 10 seeds of each of the following species were added: Avena saliva (hulled seeds, Hordeum vulgäre L., Galium tricorne Stokes, and Polygonum lapatifolmm L. For formation of wheat seed working samples four methods were used. Optimum of 9, but not less than 7 seeds of admixture were due to be determined in the maize seed working sample, while for wheat, at least one seed of admixture was expected to be found in the working sample. The obtained results confirmed that the formation of the maize seed working samples was the most reliable when centrifugal divider, the first method was used (average of admixture - 9.37. From the observed admixtures the seed of Triticum aestivum L. was the most uniformly distributed, the first method also being used (6.93. The second method gains high average values satisfying the given criterion, but it should be used with previous homogenization of the sample being tested. The forming of wheat seed working samples is the most reliable if the

  7. Testing the influence of external and internal cues on smoking motivation using a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Erika B; Brandon, Thomas H

    2010-02-01

    Exposing smokers to either external cues (e.g., pictures of cigarettes) or internal cues (e.g., negative affect induction) can induce urge to smoke and other behavioral and physiological responses. However, little is known about whether the two types of cues interact when presented in close proximity, as is likely the case in the real word. Additionally, potential moderators of cue reactivity have rarely been examined. Finally, few cue-reactivity studies have used representative samples of smokers. In a randomized 2 x 2 crossed factorial between-subjects design, the current study tested the effects of a negative affect cue intended to produce anxiety (speech preparation task) and an external smoking cue on urge and behavioral reactivity in a community sample of adult smokers (N = 175), and whether trait impulsivity moderated the effects. Both types of cues produced main effects on urges to smoke, despite the speech task failing to increase anxiety significantly. The speech task increased smoking urge related to anticipation of negative affect relief, whereas the external smoking cues increased urges related to anticipation of pleasure; however, the cues did not interact. Impulsivity measures predicted urge and other smoking-related variables, but did not moderate cue-reactivity. Results suggest independent rather than synergistic effects of these contributors to smoking motivation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. A two-sample Bayesian t-test for microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimmic Matthew W

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining whether a gene is differentially expressed in two different samples remains an important statistical problem. Prior work in this area has featured the use of t-tests with pooled estimates of the sample variance based on similarly expressed genes. These methods do not display consistent behavior across the entire range of pooling and can be biased when the prior hyperparameters are specified heuristically. Results A two-sample Bayesian t-test is proposed for use in determining whether a gene is differentially expressed in two different samples. The test method is an extension of earlier work that made use of point estimates for the variance. The method proposed here explicitly calculates in analytic form the marginal distribution for the difference in the mean expression of two samples, obviating the need for point estimates of the variance without recourse to posterior simulation. The prior distribution involves a single hyperparameter that can be calculated in a statistically rigorous manner, making clear the connection between the prior degrees of freedom and prior variance. Conclusion The test is easy to understand and implement and application to both real and simulated data shows that the method has equal or greater power compared to the previous method and demonstrates consistent Type I error rates. The test is generally applicable outside the microarray field to any situation where prior information about the variance is available and is not limited to cases where estimates of the variance are based on many similar observations.

  9. A simple nomogram for sample size for estimating sensitivity and specificity of medical tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Rajeev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity and specificity measure inherent validity of a diagnostic test against a gold standard. Researchers develop new diagnostic methods to reduce the cost, risk, invasiveness, and time. Adequate sample size is a must to precisely estimate the validity of a diagnostic test. In practice, researchers generally decide about the sample size arbitrarily either at their convenience, or from the previous literature. We have devised a simple nomogram that yields statistically valid sample size for anticipated sensitivity or anticipated specificity. MS Excel version 2007 was used to derive the values required to plot the nomogram using varying absolute precision, known prevalence of disease, and 95% confidence level using the formula already available in the literature. The nomogram plot was obtained by suitably arranging the lines and distances to conform to this formula. This nomogram could be easily used to determine the sample size for estimating the sensitivity or specificity of a diagnostic test with required precision and 95% confidence level. Sample size at 90% and 99% confidence level, respectively, can also be obtained by just multiplying 0.70 and 1.75 with the number obtained for the 95% confidence level. A nomogram instantly provides the required number of subjects by just moving the ruler and can be repeatedly used without redoing the calculations. This can also be applied for reverse calculations. This nomogram is not applicable for testing of the hypothesis set-up and is applicable only when both diagnostic test and gold standard results have a dichotomous category.

  10. Relationships between narrative language samples and norm-referenced test scores in language assessments of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danahy Ebert, Kerry; Scott, Cheryl M

    2014-10-01

    Both narrative language samples and norm-referenced language tests can be important components of language assessment for school-age children. The present study explored the relationship between these 2 tools within a group of children referred for language assessment. The study is a retrospective analysis of clinical records from 73 school-age children. Participants had completed an oral narrative language sample and at least one norm-referenced language test. Correlations between microstructural language sample measures and norm-referenced test scores were compared for younger (6- to 8-year-old) and older (9- to 12-year-old) children. Contingency tables were constructed to compare the 2 types of tools, at 2 different cutpoints, in terms of which children were identified as having a language disorder. Correlations between narrative language sample measures and norm-referenced tests were stronger for the younger group than the older group. Within the younger group, the level of language assessed by each measure contributed to associations among measures. Contingency analyses revealed moderate overlap in the children identified by each tool, with agreement affected by the cutpoint used. Narrative language samples may complement norm-referenced tests well, but age combined with narrative task can be expected to influence the nature of the relationship.

  11. Solubility testing of actinides on breathing-zone and area air samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzger, R.L.; Jessop, B.H.; McDowell, B.L.

    1996-02-01

    A solubility testing method for several common actinides has been developed with sufficient sensitivity to allow profiles to be determined from routine breathing zone and area air samples in the workplace. Air samples are covered with a clean filter to form a filter-sample-filter sandwich which is immersed in an extracellular lung serum simulant solution. The sample is moved to a fresh beaker of the lung fluid simulant each day for one week, and then weekly until the end of the 28 day test period. The soak solutions are wet ashed with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide to destroy the organic components of the lung simulant solution prior to extraction of the nuclides of interest directly into an extractive scintillator for subsequent counting on a Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation (PERALS reg-sign) spectrometer. Solvent extraction methods utilizing the extractive scintillators have been developed for the isotopes of uranium, plutonium, and curium. The procedures normally produce an isotopic recovery greater than 95% and have been used to develop solubility profiles from air samples with 40 pCi or less of U 3 O 8 . Profiles developed for U 3 O 8 samples show good agreement with in vitro and in vivo tests performed by other investigators on samples from the same uranium mills

  12. Adaptive designs for the one-sample log-rank test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rene; Faldum, Andreas; Kwiecien, Robert

    2017-09-22

    Traditional designs in phase IIa cancer trials are single-arm designs with a binary outcome, for example, tumor response. In some settings, however, a time-to-event endpoint might appear more appropriate, particularly in the presence of loss to follow-up. Then the one-sample log-rank test might be the method of choice. It allows to compare the survival curve of the patients under treatment to a prespecified reference survival curve. The reference curve usually represents the expected survival under standard of the care. In this work, convergence of the one-sample log-rank statistic to Brownian motion is proven using Rebolledo's martingale central limit theorem while accounting for staggered entry times of the patients. On this basis, a confirmatory adaptive one-sample log-rank test is proposed where provision is made for data dependent sample size reassessment. The focus is to apply the inverse normal method. This is done in two different directions. The first strategy exploits the independent increments property of the one-sample log-rank statistic. The second strategy is based on the patient-wise separation principle. It is shown by simulation that the proposed adaptive test might help to rescue an underpowered trial and at the same time lowers the average sample number (ASN) under the null hypothesis as compared to a single-stage fixed sample design. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  13. A cryogenic tensile testing apparatus for micro-samples cooled by miniature pulse tube cryocooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L B; Liu, S X; Gu, K X; Zhou, Y; Wang, J J

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces a cryogenic tensile testing apparatus for micro-samples cooled by a miniature pulse tube cryocooler. At present, tensile tests are widely applied to measure the mechanical properties of materials; most of the cryogenic tensile testing apparatus are designed for samples with standard sizes, while for non-standard size samples, especially for microsamples, the tensile testing cannot be conducted. The general approach to cool down the specimens for tensile testing is by using of liquid nitrogen or liquid helium, which is not convenient: it is difficult to keep the temperature of the specimens at an arbitrary set point precisely, besides, in some occasions, liquid nitrogen, especially liquid helium, is not easily available. To overcome these limitations, a cryogenic tensile testing apparatus cooled by a high frequency pulse tube cryocooler has been designed, built and tested. The operating temperatures of the developed tensile testing apparatus cover from 20 K to room temperature with a controlling precision of ±10 mK. The apparatus configurations, the methods of operation and some cooling performance will be described in this paper. (paper)

  14. Operability test report for core sample truck number one flammable gas modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report primarily consists of the original test procedure used for the Operability Testing of the flammable gas modifications to Core Sample Truck No. One. Included are exceptions, resolutions, comments, and test results. This report consists of the original, completed, test procedure used for the Operability Testing of the flammable gas modifications to the Push Mode Core Sample Truck No. 1. Prior to the Acceptance/Operability test the truck No. 1 operations procedure (TO-080-503) was revised to be more consistent with the other core sample truck procedures and to include operational steps/instructions for the SR weather cover pressurization system. A draft copy of the operations procedure was used to perform the Operability Test Procedure (OTP). A Document Acceptance Review Form is included with this report (last page) indicating the draft status of the operations procedure during the OTP. During the OTP 11 test exceptions were encountered. Of these exceptions four were determined to affect Acceptance Criteria as listed in the OTP, Section 4.7 ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

  15. Detection of clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori by polymerase chain reaction using residual samples from rapid urease test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Sik Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, which corresponds to a high infection rate. Furthermore, the incidence of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori has increased with the recent rise in use of antibiotics for H. pylori elimination, suggesting growing treatment failures. Aim: The study was aimed to assess the use of residual samples from rapid urease test (RUT for biomolecular testing as an effective and accurate method to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Settings and Design: This study was a retrospective study performed using data obtained from medical records of previously isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: RUT was conducted for 5440 biopsy samples from individuals who underwent health examination in South Korea. Subsequently, 469 RUT residual samples were randomly selected and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR to detect antibiotic-resistant H. pylori. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test was used to analyse categorical data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed a concordance between the results of PCR and conventional RUT in 450 of 469 samples, suggesting that the H. pylori PCR test is a time- and cost-effective detection method. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that PCR test can aid physicians to prescribe the appropriate antibiotics at the time of diagnosis, thus preventing the reduction in H. pylori eradication due to antibiotic resistance, averting progression to serious diseases and increasing the treatment success rate.

  16. A note on Poisson goodness-of-fit tests for ionizing radiation induced chromosomal aberration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Manuel; González, J E; Di Giorgio, Marina; Barquinero, J F

    2018-05-18

    To present Poisson exact goodness-of-fit tests as alternatives and complements to the asymptotic u-test, which is the most widely used in cytogenetic biodosimetry, to decide whether a sample of chromosomal aberrations in blood cells comes from an homogeneous or inhomogeneous exposure. Three Poisson exact goodness-of-fit test from the literature are introduced and implemented in the R environment. A Shiny R Studio application, named GOF Poisson, has been updated for the purpose of giving support to this work. The three exact tests and the u-test are applied in chromosomal aberration data from clinical and accidental radiation exposure patients. It is observed how the u-test is not an appropriate approximation in small samples with small yield of chromosomal aberrations. Tools are provided to compute the three exact tests, which is not as trivial as the implementation of the u-test. Poisson exact goodness-of-fit tests should be considered jointly to the u-test for detecting inhomogeneous exposures in the cytogenetic biodosimetry practice.

  17. Filtration and Leach Testing for PUREX Cladding Sludge and REDOX Cladding Sludge Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hallen, Richard T.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-02

    A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan (Barnes and Voke 2006). The test program was subdivided into logical increments. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Under test plan TP RPP WTP 467 (Fiskum et al. 2007), eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. Under this test plan, a waste testing program was implemented that included: • Homogenizing the archive samples by group as defined in the test plan. • Characterizing the homogenized sample groups. • Performing parametric leaching testing on each group for compounds of interest. • Performing bench-top filtration/leaching tests in the hot cell for each group to simulate filtration and leaching activities if they occurred in the UFP2 vessel of the WTP Pretreatment Facility. This report focuses on a filtration/leaching test performed using two of the eight waste composite samples. The sample groups examined in this report were the plutonium-uranium extraction (PUREX) cladding waste sludge (Group 3, or CWP) and reduction-oxidation (REDOX) cladding waste sludge (Group 4, or CWR). Both the Group 3 and 4 waste composites were anticipated to be high in gibbsite, thus requiring caustic leaching. WTP RPT 167 (Snow et al. 2008) describes the homogenization, characterization, and parametric leaching activities before benchtop filtration/leaching testing of these two waste groups. Characterization and initial parametric data in that report were used to plan a single filtration/leaching test using a blend of both wastes. The test focused on filtration testing of the waste and caustic leaching for aluminum, in the form

  18. The application of variable sampling method in the audit testing of insurance companies' premium income

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovković Biljana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the procedure of audit sampling using the variable sampling methods for conducting the tests of income from insurance premiums in insurance company 'Takovo'. Since the incomes from the insurance premiums from vehicle insurance and third-party vehicle insurance have the dominant share of the insurance company's income, the application of this method will be shown in the audit examination of these incomes - incomes from VI and TPVI premiums. For investigating the applicability of these methods in testing the income of other insurance companies, we shall implement the method of variable sampling in the audit testing of the premium income from the three leading insurance companies in Serbia, 'Dunav', 'DDOR' and 'Delta Generali' Insurance.

  19. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart K of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... yields a 97.5 percent confidence level for a one-tailed t-test. Step 7. Compare the mean of the first sample (X 1) with the lower control limit (LCL1) to determine one of the following: (i) If the mean of... from Step 5. Compare the combined sample mean (X 2) to the lower control limit (LCL2) to find one of...

  20. Genetic Testing for Wolfram Syndrome Mutations in a Sample of 71 Patients with Hereditary Optic Neuropathy and Negative Genetic Test Results for OPA1/OPA3/LHON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Ruiz, Alberto; Galindo-Ferreiro, Alicia; Schatz, Patrik

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the authors present a sample of 71 patients with hereditary optic neuropathy and negative genetic test results for OPA1/OPA3/LHON. All of these patients later underwent genetic testing to rule out WFS. As a result, 53 patients (74.7%) were negative and 18 patients (25.3%) were positive for some type of mutation or variation in the WFS gene. The authors believe that this study is interesting because it shows that a sizeable percentage (25.3%) of patients with hereditary optic 25 neuropathy and negative genetic test results for OPA1/OPA3/LHON had WFS mutations or variants.

  1. Sample size calculations for case-control studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This R package can be used to calculate the required samples size for unconditional multivariate analyses of unmatched case-control studies. The sample sizes are for a scalar exposure effect, such as binary, ordinal or continuous exposures. The sample sizes can also be computed for scalar interaction effects. The analyses account for the effects of potential confounder variables that are also included in the multivariate logistic model.

  2. Testing and sampling of deep brine aquifers in the Palo Duro Basin, West Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deyling, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is investigating the Palo Duro Basin of West Texas along with locations in Nevada, Washington, Utah, Mississippi and Louisiana as potential sites for storage of high-level nuclear waste. Ten wells have been drilled to depths between 3000 and 8300 feet. Testing and sampling of deep test zones requires advance planning and analysis of what must be obtained from the well. Various alternatives are available depending on data needs. In this particular instance, both hydrologic and geochemical data were required. The methods chosen were field proven methods used in the oil field industry for many years. Short term testing has included conventional oil-field-type drill stem tests and drill stem equipment with surface pressure readout. Long term testing has consisted of a series of production and recovery tests. Fluid sampling was performed in two stages. The first was at the well head under an imposed pressure of several hundred psi. The second fluid samples were collected downhole at the production zone under pressures close to ambient pressure. The geochemical data and hydrologic data can be used as independent checks on each other in many cases. Test results from the well along with examination of recovered core provided maximum data for each well. 5 references, 8 figures

  3. Characterization, Leaching, and Filtration Testing for Tributyl Phosphate (TBP, Group 7) Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matthew K.; Billing, Justin M.; Blanchard, David L.; Buck, Edgar C.; Casella, Amanda J.; Casella, Andrew M.; Crum, J. V.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Fiskum, Sandra K.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Peterson, Reid A.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2009-03-09

    .A testing program evaluating actual tank waste was developed in response to Task 4 from the M-12 External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The bulk water-insoluble solid wastes that are anticipated to be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) were identified according to type such that the actual waste testing could be targeted to the relevant categories. Eight broad waste groupings were defined. Samples available from the 222S archive were identified and obtained for testing. The actual waste-testing program included homogenizing the samples by group, characterizing the solids and aqueous phases, and performing parametric leaching tests. The tributyl phosphate sludge (TBP, Group 7) is the subject of this report. The Group 7 waste was anticipated to be high in phosphorus as well as aluminum in the form of gibbsite. Both are believed to exist in sufficient quantities in the Group 7 waste to address leaching behavior. Thus, the focus of the Group 7 testing was on the removal of both P and Al. The waste-type definition, archived sample conditions, homogenization activities, characterization (physical, chemical, radioisotope, and crystal habit), and caustic leaching behavior as functions of time, temperature, and hydroxide concentration are discussed in this report. Testing was conducted according to TP-RPP-WTP-467.

  4. Dual p16 and Ki-67 Expression in Liquid-Based Cervical Cytological Samples Compared to Pap Cytology Findings, Biopsies, and HPV Testing in Cervical Cancer Screening: A Diagnostic Accuracy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prigenzi, Karla Calaça Kabbach; Heinke, Thaís; Salim, Rafael Calil; Focchi, Gustavo Rubino de Azevedo

    2018-01-01

    Our objective was to verify the sensitivity and specificity of dual immunocytochemistry staining for p16 and Ki-67 in liquid-based samples (the "dual" assay) for cervical lesion screening, compared to biopsy findings and human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA molecular detection. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values for the "dual immunocytochemistry assay" were calculated and compared to histopathological results and to high-risk HPV DNA detection in adult women or teenagers submitted to cervical cancer screening. A total of 151 women were included. The majority (96.2%) of those with negative dual assay results had lower biopsy grades (p cytology results suggestive of cervical cancer had positive dual immunocytochemistry assay results more frequently (p < 0.001), and these positive results were also significantly associated with biopsy findings (p < 0.001) and with high-risk genotype HPV infection (p = 0.007). Specificity and PPV for the dual assay were 0.972 (0.855-0.999) and 0.800 (0.284-0.995), respectively, and 1.000 (0.590-1.000) and 1.000 (0.631-1.000) for HPV detection. The dual immunocytochemistry assay had high specificity and PPV. It reveals a persistent HPV infection, avoiding the need for new tissue collections for biopsies or hybrid capture. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Usability Testing: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisman, Janet; Walbridge, Sharon; Diller, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the development and results of usability testing of Washington State University's Web-based OPAC (online public access catalog); examines how easily users could navigate the catalog and whether they understood what they were seeing; and identifies problems and what action if any was taken. (LRW)

  6. Finish-Kazakhstan cooperation on an aerosols sampling - testing of a new methods for nuclear monitoring improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarvajnen, M.; Akhmetov, M.A.; Ptitskaya, L.D.; Osintsev, A.Yu.; Zhantikin, T.M.; Eligbaeva, G.

    2001-01-01

    The aerosols sampling is the powerful method of air radioactivity monitoring both the natural and artificial origin. Up to the today the IAEA does not engage of aerosols sampling study. To study of possibility of this method examination for radiation monitoring - the state authorities of Finland and the Republic of Kazakhstan - Department of Radiation and Nuclear Safety (Stuck) and Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee - jointly carried out the field tests in Kazakhstan. The test was began in the Kurchatov in April 2000 - at the desire of IAEA working team on Iraq - close to former Semipalatinsk test site and was ended in Astana in August of 2001. The main aim of the field test was study of possibility and appropriateness of concept and technology of aerosols sampling developed for the complete condition of environment. In the paper the role of participating sides in the field test and main results and conclusions are discussed as well. The gained experience will allow developing the method aerosols sampling for IAEA international safeguard measures strengthening application

  7. Critical tests for determination of microbiological quality and biological activity in commercial vermicompost samples of different origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantina-Ievina, Lelde; Andersone, Una; Berkolde-Pīre, Dace; Nikolajeva, Vizma; Ievinsh, Gederts

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present paper was to show that differences in biological activity among commercially produced vermicompost samples can be found by using a relatively simple test system consisting of microorganism tests on six microbiological media and soilless seedling growth tests with four vegetable crop species. Significant differences in biological properties among analyzed samples were evident both at the level of microbial load as well as plant growth-affecting activity. These differences were mostly manufacturer- and feedstock-associated, but also resulted from storage conditions of vermicompost samples. A mature vermicompost sample that was produced from sewage sludge still contained considerable number of Escherichia coli. Samples from all producers contained several potentially pathogenic fungal species such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Pseudallescheria boidii, Pseudallescheria fimeti, Pseudallescheria minutispora, Scedosporium apiospermum, Scedosporium prolificans, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Stachybotrys chartarum, Geotrichum spp., Aphanoascus terreus, and Doratomyces columnaris. In addition, samples from all producers contained plant growth-promoting fungi from the genera Trichoderma and Mortierella. The described system can be useful both for functional studies aiming at understanding of factors affecting quality characteristics of vermicompost preparations and for routine testing of microbiological quality and biological activity of organic waste-derived composts and vermicomposts.

  8. Testing the DSM-5 severity indicator for bulimia nervosa in a treatment-seeking sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Clerici, Massimo; Riva, Giuseppe; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    This study tested the new DSM-5 severity criterion for bulimia nervosa (BN) based on the frequency of inappropriate weight compensatory behaviors in a treatment-seeking sample. Participants were 345 adults with DSM-5 BN presenting for treatment. They were sub-grouped based on DSM-5 severity levels and compared on a range of variables of clinical interest and demographics. Based on DSM-5 severity definitions, 27.2 % of the sample was categorized with mild, 26.1 % with moderate, 24.9 % with severe, and 21.8 % with extreme severity of BN. Analyses revealed that the four (mild, moderate, severe, and extreme) severity groups of BN significantly differed from each other in eating disordered and body-related attitudes and behaviors, factors involved in the maintenance process of the disorder, comorbid psychiatric disorders, psychological distress, and psychosocial impairment (medium-to-large effect sizes). No significant between-group differences were observed in demographics, body mass index, or at the age when BN first occurred, lending some credence to recent suggestions that age-at-onset of BN may be more a disorder- than a severity-dependent variable. Collectively, our findings provide support for the severity indicator for BN introduced in the DSM-5 as a means of addressing heterogeneity and variability in the severity of the disorder.

  9. Salmonella testing of pooled pre-enrichment broth cultures for screening multiple food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, W R; Olsen, R A; Hunter, J E

    1972-04-01

    A method has been described for testing multiple food samples for Salmonella without loss in sensitivity. The method pools multiple pre-enrichment broth cultures into single enrichment broths. The subsequent stages of the Salmonella analysis are not altered. The method was found applicable to several dry food materials including nonfat dry milk, dried egg albumin, cocoa, cottonseed flour, wheat flour, and shredded coconut. As many as 25 pre-enrichment broth cultures were pooled without apparent loss in the sensitivity of Salmonella detection as compared to individual sample analysis. The procedure offers a simple, yet effective, way to increase sample capacity in the Salmonella testing of foods, particularly where a large proportion of samples ordinarily is negative. It also permits small portions of pre-enrichment broth cultures to be retained for subsequent individual analysis if positive tests are found. Salmonella testing of pooled pre-enrichment broths provides increased consumer protection for a given amount of analytical effort as compared to individual sample analysis.

  10. Compressive and Flexural Tests on Adobe Samples Reinforced with Wire Mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokhio, G. A.; Al-Tawil, Y. M. Y.; Syed Mohsin, S. M.; Gul, Y.; Ramli, N. I.

    2018-03-01

    Adobe is an economical, naturally available, and environment friendly construction material that offers excellent thermal and sound insulations as well as indoor air quality. It is important to understand and enhance the mechanical properties of this material, where a high degree of variation is reported in the literature owing to lack of research and standardization in this field. The present paper focuses first on the understanding of mechanical behaviour of adobe subjected to compressive stresses as well as flexure and then on enhancing the same with the help of steel wire mesh as reinforcement. A total of 22 samples were tested out of which, 12 cube samples were tested for compressive strength, whereas 10 beams samples were tested for modulus of rupture. Half of the samples in each category were control samples i.e. without wire mesh reinforcement, whereas the remaining half were reinforced with a single layer of wire mesh per sample. It has been found that the compressive strength of adobe increases by about 43% after adding a single layer of wire mesh reinforcement. The flexural response of adobe has also shown improvement with the addition of wire mesh reinforcement.

  11. Acceptance sampling for attributes via hypothesis testing and the hypergeometric distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samohyl, Robert Wayne

    2017-10-01

    This paper questions some aspects of attribute acceptance sampling in light of the original concepts of hypothesis testing from Neyman and Pearson (NP). Attribute acceptance sampling in industry, as developed by Dodge and Romig (DR), generally follows the international standards of ISO 2859, and similarly the Brazilian standards NBR 5425 to NBR 5427 and the United States Standards ANSI/ASQC Z1.4. The paper evaluates and extends the area of acceptance sampling in two directions. First, by suggesting the use of the hypergeometric distribution to calculate the parameters of sampling plans avoiding the unnecessary use of approximations such as the binomial or Poisson distributions. We show that, under usual conditions, discrepancies can be large. The conclusion is that the hypergeometric distribution, ubiquitously available in commonly used software, is more appropriate than other distributions for acceptance sampling. Second, and more importantly, we elaborate the theory of acceptance sampling in terms of hypothesis testing rigorously following the original concepts of NP. By offering a common theoretical structure, hypothesis testing from NP can produce a better understanding of applications even beyond the usual areas of industry and commerce such as public health and political polling. With the new procedures, both sample size and sample error can be reduced. What is unclear in traditional acceptance sampling is the necessity of linking the acceptable quality limit (AQL) exclusively to the producer and the lot quality percent defective (LTPD) exclusively to the consumer. In reality, the consumer should also be preoccupied with a value of AQL, as should the producer with LTPD. Furthermore, we can also question why type I error is always uniquely associated with the producer as producer risk, and likewise, the same question arises with consumer risk which is necessarily associated with type II error. The resolution of these questions is new to the literature. The

  12. A Note on Confidence Interval for the Power of the One Sample Test

    OpenAIRE

    A. Wong

    2010-01-01

    In introductory statistics texts, the power of the test of a one-sample mean when the variance is known is widely discussed. However, when the variance is unknown, the power of the Student's -test is seldom mentioned. In this note, a general methodology for obtaining inference concerning a scalar parameter of interest of any exponential family model is proposed. The method is then applied to the one-sample mean problem with unknown variance to obtain a ( 1 − ) 100% confidence interval for...

  13. Characterization of a low-level radioactive waste grout: Sampling and test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.F.C.; Lokken, R.O.

    1992-12-01

    WHC manages and operates the grout treatment facility at Hanford as part of a DOE program to clean up wastes stored at federal nuclear production sites. PNL provides support to the grout disposal program through pilot-scale tests, performance assessments, and formulation verification activities. in 1988 and 1989, over one million gallons of a low-level radioactive liquid waste was processed through the facility to produce a grout waste that was then deposited in an underground vault. The liquid waste was phosphate/sulfate waste (PSW) generated in decontamination of the N Reactor. PNL sampled and tested the grout produced during the second half of the PSW campaign to support quality verification activities prior to grout vault closure. Samples of grout were obtained by inserting nested-tube samplers into the grout slurry in the vault. After the grout had cured, the inner tube of the sampler was removed and the grout samples extracted. Tests for compressive strength, sonic velocity, and leach testing were used to assess grout quality; results were compared to those from pilot-scale test grouts made with a simulated PSW. The grout produced during the second half of the PSW campaign exceeded compressive strength and leachability formulation criteria. The nested tube samplers were effective in collecting samples of grout although their use introduced greater variability into the compressive strength data

  14. Acceptance Sampling Plans Based on Truncated Life Tests for Sushila Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Ibrahim Al-Omari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An acceptance sampling plan problem based on truncated life tests when the lifetime following a Sushila distribution is considered in this paper. For various acceptance numbers, confidence levels and values of the ratio between fixed experiment time and particular mean lifetime, the minimum sample sizes required to ascertain a specified mean life were found. The operating characteristic function values of the suggested sampling plans and the producer’s risk are presented. Some tables are provided and the results are illustrated by an example of a real data set.

  15. 90Sr and 137Cs in environmental samples from Dolon near the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastberger, M; Steinhäusler, F; Gerzabek, M H; Hubmer, A; Lettner, H

    2000-09-01

    The (90)Sr and (137)Cs activities of soil, plant, and milk samples from the village of Dolon, located close to the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan, were determined. The areal deposition at the nine sampling sites is in the range of sites both nuclides mainly have remained in the top 6 cm of the soil profiles; at others they were partly transported into deeper soil layers since the deposition. For most of the samples the (90)Sr yield after destruction of the soil matrix is significantly higher than after extracting with 6 M HCl indicating that (90)Sr is partly associated with fused silicates. The low mean (90)Sr activity concentrations of vegetation samples (14 Bq kg(-1) dw) and milk samples (0.05 Bq kg(-1) fw) suggest that this has favorable consequences in terms of limiting its bioavailability.

  16. Cone penetrometer tests and HydroPunch sampling: A screening technique for plume definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolley, M.; Kappmeyer, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    Cone penetrometer tests and HydroPunch sampling were used to define the extent of volatile organic compounds in ground water. The investigation indicated that the combination of the these techniques is effective for obtaining ground water samples for preliminary plume definition. HydroPunch samples can be collected in unconsolidated sediments and the analytical results obtained from these samples are comparable to those obtained from adjacent monitoring wells. This sampling method is a rapid and cost-effective screening technique for characterizing the extent of contaminant plumes in soft sediment environments. Use of this screening technique allowed monitoring wells to be located at the plume boundary, thereby reducing the number of wells installed and the overall cost of the plume definition program

  17. Quantitative determination of minerals in Nevada Test Site samples by x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawloski, G.A.

    1983-07-01

    The external standard intensity ratio technique has been developed into a routine procedure for quantitatively determining mineralogic compositions of Nevada Test Site (NTS) samples by x-ray diffraction. This technique used ratios of x-ray intensity peaks from the same run which eliminates many possible errors. Constants have been determined for each of thirteen minerals commonly found in NTS samples - quartz, montmorillonite, illite, clinoptilolite, cristobalite, feldspars, calcite, dolomite, hornblende, kaolinite, muscovite, biotite, and amorphous glass. Ratios of the highest intensity peak of each mineral to be quantified in the sample and the highest intensity peak of quartz are used to calculate sample composition. The technique has been tested on samples with three to eleven components representative of geologic environments at NTS, and is accurate to 7.0 wt % of the total sample. The minimum amount of each of these minerals detectable by x-ray diffraction has also been determined. QUANTS is a computer code that calculates mineral contents and produces a report sheet. Constants for minerals in NTS samples other than those listed above can easily be determined, and added to QUANTS at any time

  18. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant

  19. Characterization and Leach Testing for REDOX Sludge and S-Saltcake Actual Waste Sample Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiskum, Sandra K.; Buck, Edgar C.; Daniel, Richard C.; Draper, Kathryn E.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Hubler, Timothy L.; Jagoda, Lynette K.; Jenson, Evan D.; Kozelisky, Anne E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; McNamara, Bruce K.; Peterson, Reid A.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Snow, Lanee A.; Swoboda, Robert G.

    2008-07-10

    This report describes processing and analysis results of boehmite waste type (Group 5) and insoluble high Cr waste type (Group 6). The sample selection, compositing, subdivision, physical and chemical characterization are described. Extensive batch leach testing was conducted to define kinetics and leach factors of selected analytes as functions of NaOH concentration and temperature. Testing supports issue M-12 resolution for the Waste Treatment Plant.

  20. Recommended procedures for performance testing of radiobioassay laboratories: Volume 2, In vitro samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenrick, H.W.; MacLellan, J.A.

    1988-11-01

    Draft American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Standard N13.30 (Performance Criteria for Radiobioassay) was developed for the US Department of Energy and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to help ensure that bioassay laboratories provide accurate and consistent results. The draft standard specifies the criteria for defining the procedures necessary to establish a bioassay performance-testing laboratory and program. The bioassay testing laboratory will conduct tests to evaluate the performance of service laboratories. Pacific Northwest Laboratory helped develop testing procedures as part of an effort to evaluate the performance criteria by testing the existing measurement capabilities of various bioassay laboratories. This report recommends guidelines for the preparation, handling, storage, distribution, shipping, and documentation of in vitro test samples (artificial urine and fecal matter) for indirect bioassay. The data base and recommended records system for documenting radiobioassay performance at the service laboratories are also presented. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  1. Fatigue testing on samples from Zircaloy-4 tubes type SEU-43

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaru, V.; Ionescu, V.; Nitu, A.; Ionescu, D.; Voicu, F.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the testing of samples worked from Zicaloy-4 tubes (as-received.. metallurgical state), utilized in the composition of the CANDU SEU-43 fuel bundle. These tests are intended to simulate their behaviour in a power cycling process inside the reactor. The testing process is of low cycle fatigue type, done outside of the reactor, on ''C-ring'' samples, cut along the transversal direction. These samples are tested at 1%, 2% and 3% amplitude deformation, at room temperature. The calibration curves for both types of tube (small and big diameter) are determined by using the finite element analyses with the ANSYS computer code. The cycling test results are in the form of a fatigue life curve (N-e) for zircaloy-4 used in the SEU-43 fuel bundle. The curve is determined by the experimental dependency between the number of cycles to fracture and the deformation amplitude. The low cycle fatigue mechanical tests done at room temperature together with electronic microscopy analyses have reflected the characteristic behaviour of the zircaloy-4 metal in the given environment conditions. (authors)

  2. The Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence in a Dutch sample of daily smokers and ex-smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, Jacqueline M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Beem, A. Leo; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2005-01-01

    We explored the performance of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) in a sample of 1378 daily smokers and 1058 ex-smokers who participated in a survey study of the Netherlands Twin Register. FTND scores were higher for smokers than for ex-smokers. Nicotine dependence level was not

  3. Monolith Chromatography as Sample Preparation Step in Virome Studies of Water Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Kutnjak, Denis; Rački, Nejc; Rupar, Matevž; Ravnikar, Maja

    2018-01-01

    Viruses exist in aquatic media and many of them use this media as transmission route. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have opened new doors in virus research, allowing also to reveal a hidden diversity of viral species in aquatic environments. Not surprisingly, many of the newly discovered viruses are found in environmental fresh and marine waters. One of the problems in virome research can be the low amount of viral nucleic acids present in the sample in contrast to the background ones (host, eukaryotic, prokaryotic, environmental). Therefore, virus enrichment prior to NGS is necessary in many cases. In water samples, an added problem resides in the low concentration of viruses typically present in aquatic media. Different concentration strategies have been used to overcome such limitations. CIM monoliths are a new generation of chromatographic supports that due to their particular structural characteristics are very efficient in concentration and purification of viruses. In this chapter, we describe the use of CIM monolithic chromatography for sample preparation step in NGS studies targeting viruses in fresh or marine water. The step-by-step protocol will include a case study where CIM concentration was used to study the virome of a wastewater sample using NGS.

  4. Acoustically levitated droplets: a contactless sampling method for fluorescence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiterer, Jork; Grabolle, Markus; Rurack, Knut; Resch-Genger, Ute; Ziegler, Jan; Nann, Thomas; Panne, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic levitation is used as a new tool to study concentration-dependent processes in fluorescence spectroscopy. With this technique, small amounts of liquid and solid samples can be measured without the need for sample supports or containers, which often limits signal acquisition and can even alter sample properties due to interactions with the support material. We demonstrate that, because of the small sample volume, fluorescence measurements at high concentrations of an organic dye are possible without the limitation of inner-filter effects, which hamper such experiments in conventional, cuvette-based measurements. Furthermore, we show that acoustic levitation of liquid samples provides an experimentally simple way to study distance-dependent fluorescence modulations in semiconductor nanocrystals. The evaporation of the solvent during levitation leads to a continuous increase of solute concentration and can easily be monitored by laser-induced fluorescence.

  5. New complete sample of identified radio sources. Part 2. Statistical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltan, A.

    1978-01-01

    Complete sample of radio sources with known redshifts selected in Paper I is studied. Source counts in the sample and the luminosity - volume test show that both quasars and galaxies are subject to the evolution. Luminosity functions for different ranges of redshifts are obtained. Due to many uncertainties only simplified models of the evolution are tested. Exponential decline of the liminosity with time of all the bright sources is in a good agreement both with the luminosity- volume test and N(S) realtion in the entire range of observed flux densities. It is shown that sources in the sample are randomly distributed in scales greater than about 17 Mpc. (author)

  6. Astronaut Neil Armstrong studies rock samples during geological field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, studies rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  7. 21 CFR 211.110 - Sampling and testing of in-process materials and drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... PHARMACEUTICALS Production and Process Controls § 211.110 Sampling and testing of in-process materials and drug... capsule weight variation; (2) Disintegration time; (3) Adequacy of mixing to assure uniformity and... production process, e.g., at commencement or completion of significant phases or after storage for long...

  8. 40 CFR 80.580 - What are the sampling and testing methods for sulfur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... [email protected] from the ASTM Web site of http://www.astm.org. (i) ASTM standard method D2622-05 (“ASTM... methods for sulfur? 80.580 Section 80.580 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... the sampling and testing methods for sulfur? The sulfur content of diesel fuel and diesel fuel...

  9. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-09-01

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested [1,2] and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [5]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi 2/Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  10. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2011-01-01

    Verification of the reliability of metrology data from high quality X-ray optics requires that adequate methods for test and calibration of the instruments be developed. For such verification for optical surface profilometers in the spatial frequency domain, a modulation transfer function (MTF) calibration method based on binary pseudo-random (BPR) gratings and arrays has been suggested and proven to be an effective calibration method for a number of interferometric microscopes, a phase shifting Fizeau interferometer, and a scatterometer [5]. Here we describe the details of development of binary pseudo-random multilayer (BPRML) test samples suitable for characterization of scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) electron microscopes. We discuss the results of TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a WiSi 2 /Si multilayer coating with pseudo-randomly distributed layers. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize X-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with X-ray microscopes is in progress.

  11. Testing of a Microfluidic Sampling System for High Temperature Electrochemical MC&A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Nichols, Kevin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2013-11-27

    This report describes the preliminary validation of a high-temperature microfluidic chip system for sampling of electrochemical process salt. Electroanalytical and spectroscopic techniques are attractive candidates for improvement through high-throughput sample analysis via miniaturization. Further, microfluidic chip systems are amenable to micro-scale chemical processing such as rapid, automated sample purification to improve sensor performance. The microfluidic chip was tested to determine the feasibility of the system for high temperature applications and conditions under which microfluidic systems can be used to generate salt droplets at process temperature to support development of material balance and control systems in a used fuel treatment facility. In FY13, the project focused on testing a quartz microchip device with molten salts at near process temperatures. The equipment was installed in glove box and tested up to 400°C using commercial thermal transfer fluids as the carrier phase. Preliminary tests were carried out with a low-melting halide salt to initially characterize the properties of this novel liquid-liquid system and to investigate the operating regimes for inducing droplet flow within candidate carrier fluids. Initial results show that the concept is viable for high temperature sampling but further development is required to optimize the system to operate with process relevant molten salts.

  12. 43 CFR 11.64 - Injury determination phase-testing and sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, the American Society for Testing and Materials, and the American Public Health Association. (iii) Methods selected for air sampling and analysis shall be methods... stresses simulated; (B) How the model approximates the geohydrological framework of the assessment area; (C...

  13. Acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in women living in rural and urban areas of Madagascar. Materials and methods: Participants were recruited in a health care center (urban group) and smaller affiliated dispensaries (rural group). They were invited to perform ...

  14. Test Sample for the Spatially Resolved Quantification of Illicit Drugs on Fingerprints Using Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muramoto, S.; Forbes, T.P.; van Asten, A.C.; Gillen, G.

    2015-01-01

    A novel test sample for the spatially resolved quantification of illicit drugs on the surface of a fingerprint using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) was demonstrated. Calibration curves relating the signal

  15. Use of PCR on lymph-node sample as test of cure of visceral leishmaniasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osman, O. F.; Kager, P. A.; Zijlstra, E. E.; El-Hassan, A. M.; Oskam, L.

    1997-01-01

    When the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to test lymph-node aspirates from 35 patients from eastern Sudan, who had had visceral leishmaniasis but were believed cured, leishmanial DNA was detected in samples from 14 of the patients. There were no significant differences between the

  16. 77 FR 72205 - Testing and Labeling Pertaining to Product Certification Regarding Representative Samples for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... testing periodically and when there has been a material change in the product's design or manufacturing... control data during product manufacture; and using manufacturing techniques with intrinsic manufacturing... sample in the production population an equal probability of being selected (75 FR at 28349 through 28350...

  17. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hong-Wei; Li, Wei; Li, Rong-Guo; Li, Yong; Zhang, Yi; Sun, En-Hua

    2018-01-01

    Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  18. Simple Sample Preparation Method for Direct Microbial Identification and Susceptibility Testing From Positive Blood Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-wei Pan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Rapid identification and determination of the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of the infectious agents in patients with bloodstream infections are critical steps in choosing an effective targeted antibiotic for treatment. However, there has been minimal effort focused on developing combined methods for the simultaneous direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of bacteria in positive blood cultures. In this study, we constructed a lysis-centrifugation-wash procedure to prepare a bacterial pellet from positive blood cultures, which can be used directly for identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and antibiotic susceptibility testing by the Vitek 2 system. The method was evaluated using a total of 129 clinical bacteria-positive blood cultures. The whole sample preparation process could be completed in <15 min. The correct rate of direct MALDI-TOF MS identification was 96.49% for gram-negative bacteria and 97.22% for gram-positive bacteria. Vitek 2 antimicrobial susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria showed an agreement rate of antimicrobial categories of 96.89% with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 2.63, 0.24, and 0.24%, respectively. Category agreement of antimicrobials against gram-positive bacteria was 92.81%, with a minor error, major error, and very major error rate of 4.51, 1.22, and 1.46%, respectively. These results indicated that our direct antibiotic susceptibility analysis method worked well compared to the conventional culture-dependent laboratory method. Overall, this fast, easy, and accurate method can facilitate the direct identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of bacteria in positive blood cultures.

  19. Strength and deformability of hollow concrete blocks: correlation of block and cylindrical sample test results

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, C. S.; Hanai, J.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with correlations among mechanical properties of hollow blocks and those of concrete used to make them. Concrete hollow blocks and test samples were moulded with plastic consistency concrete, to assure the same material in all cases, in three diferente levels of strength (nominally 10 N/mm², 20 N/mm² and 30 N/mm²). The mechanical properties and structural behaviour in axial compression and tension tests were determined by standard tests in blocks and cylinders. Stress and str...

  20. Characterization of electron microscopes with binary pseudo-random multilayer test samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Conley, Raymond; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Bouet, Nathalie; McKinney, Wayne R.; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the results of SEM and TEM measurements with the BPRML test samples fabricated from a BPRML (WSi2/Si with fundamental layer thickness of 3 nm) with a Dual Beam FIB (focused ion beam)/SEM technique. In particular, we demonstrate that significant information about the metrological reliability of the TEM measurements can be extracted even when the fundamental frequency of the BPRML sample is smaller than the Nyquist frequency of the measurements. The measurements demonstrate a number of problems related to the interpretation of the SEM and TEM data. Note that similar BPRML test samples can be used to characterize x-ray microscopes. Corresponding work with x-ray microscopes is in progress.

  1. A technique for extracting blood samples from mice in fire toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, T. J.; Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of adequate blood samples from moribund and dead mice has been a problem because of the small quantity of blood in each animal and the short time available between the animals' death and coagulation of the blood. These difficulties are particularly critical in fire toxicity tests because removal of the test animals while observing proper safety precautions for personnel is time-consuming. Techniques for extracting blood samples from mice were evaluated, and a technique was developed to obtain up to 0.8 ml of blood from a single mouse after death. The technique involves rapid exposure and cutting of the posterior vena cava and accumulation of blood in the peritoneal space. Blood samples of 0.5 ml or more from individual mice have been consistently obtained as much as 16 minutes after apparent death. Results of carboxyhemoglobin analyses of blood appeared reproducible and consistent with carbon monoxide concentrations in the exposure chamber.

  2. Fault Sample Generation for Virtual Testability Demonstration Test Subject to Minimal Maintenance and Scheduled Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual testability demonstration test brings new requirements to the fault sample generation. First, fault occurrence process is described by stochastic process theory. It is discussed that fault occurrence process subject to minimal repair is nonhomogeneous Poisson process (NHPP. Second, the interarrival time distribution function of the next fault event is proposed and three typical kinds of parameterized NHPP are discussed. Third, the procedure of fault sample generation is put forward with the assumptions of minimal maintenance and scheduled replacement. The fault modes and their occurrence time subject to specified conditions and time period can be obtained. Finally, an antenna driving subsystem in automatic pointing and tracking platform is taken as a case to illustrate the proposed method. Results indicate that both the size and structure of the fault samples generated by the proposed method are reasonable and effective. The proposed method can be applied to virtual testability demonstration test well.

  3. ELIMINATION OF THE CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF POUR STREAM SAMPLE AND THE GLASS FABRICATION AND TESTING OF THE DWPF SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J.; Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.

    2012-05-11

    contrast, the variability study has significantly added value to the DWPF's qualification strategy. The variability study has evolved to become the primary aspect of the DWPF's compliance strategy as it has been shown to be versatile and capable of adapting to the DWPF's various and diverse waste streams and blending strategies. The variability study, which aims to ensure durability requirements and the PCT and chemical composition correlations are valid for the compositional region to be processed at the DWPF, must continue to be performed. Due to the importance of the variability study and its place in the DWPF's qualification strategy, it will also be discussed in this report. An analysis of historical data and Production Records indicated that the recommendation of the Six Sigma team to eliminate all characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and PCT performed with the qualification glass does not compromise the DWPF's current compliance plan. Furthermore, the DWPF should continue to produce an acceptable waste form following the remaining elements of the Glass Product Control Program; regardless of a sludge-only or coupled operations strategy. If the DWPF does decide to eliminate the characterization of pour stream samples, pour stream samples should continue to be collected for archival reasons, which would allow testing to be performed should any issues arise or new repository test methods be developed.

  4. Elimination Of The Characterization Of DWPF Pour Stream Sample And The Glass Fabrication And Testing Of The DWPF Sludge Batch Qualification Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoroso, J.; Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.

    2012-01-01

    variability study has significantly added value to the DWPF's qualification strategy. The variability study has evolved to become the primary aspect of the DWPF's compliance strategy as it has been shown to be versatile and capable of adapting to the DWPF's various and diverse waste streams and blending strategies. The variability study, which aims to ensure durability requirements and the PCT and chemical composition correlations are valid for the compositional region to be processed at the DWPF, must continue to be performed. Due to the importance of the variability study and its place in the DWPF's qualification strategy, it will also be discussed in this report. An analysis of historical data and Production Records indicated that the recommendation of the Six Sigma team to eliminate all characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and PCT performed with the qualification glass does not compromise the DWPF's current compliance plan. Furthermore, the DWPF should continue to produce an acceptable waste form following the remaining elements of the Glass Product Control Program; regardless of a sludge-only or coupled operations strategy. If the DWPF does decide to eliminate the characterization of pour stream samples, pour stream samples should continue to be collected for archival reasons, which would allow testing to be performed should any issues arise or new repository test methods be developed.

  5. Studies on Hepa filter test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Jon, K.S.; Park, W.J.; Ryoo, R.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare testing methods of the HEPA filter adopted in other countries with each other, and to design and construct a test duct system to establish testing methods. The American D.O.P. test method, the British NaCl test method and several other independently developed methods are compared. It is considered that the D.O.P. method is most suitable for in-plant and leak tests

  6. Evaluation of sampling methods for toxicological testing of indoor air particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirkkonen, Jenni; Täubel, Martin; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Leppänen, Hanna; Lindsley, William G; Chen, Bean T; Hyvärinen, Anne; Huttunen, Kati

    2016-09-01

    There is a need for toxicity tests capable of recognizing indoor environments with compromised air quality, especially in the context of moisture damage. One of the key issues is sampling, which should both provide meaningful material for analyses and fulfill requirements imposed by practitioners using toxicity tests for health risk assessment. We aimed to evaluate different existing methods of sampling indoor particulate matter (PM) to develop a suitable sampling strategy for a toxicological assay. During three sampling campaigns in moisture-damaged and non-damaged school buildings, we evaluated one passive and three active sampling methods: the Settled Dust Box (SDB), the Button Aerosol Sampler, the Harvard Impactor and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Bioaerosol Cyclone Sampler. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages were exposed to particle suspensions and cell metabolic activity (CMA), production of nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) were determined after 24 h of exposure. The repeatability of the toxicological analyses was very good for all tested sampler types. Variability within the schools was found to be high especially between different classrooms in the moisture-damaged school. Passively collected settled dust and PM collected actively with the NIOSH Sampler (Stage 1) caused a clear response in exposed cells. The results suggested the higher relative immunotoxicological activity of dust from the moisture-damaged school. The NIOSH Sampler is a promising candidate for the collection of size-fractionated PM to be used in toxicity testing. The applicability of such sampling strategy in grading moisture damage severity in buildings needs to be developed further in a larger cohort of buildings.

  7. Testing common stream sampling methods for broad-scale, long-term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric K. Archer; Brett B. Roper; Richard C. Henderson; Nick Bouwes; S. Chad Mellison; Jeffrey L. Kershner

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated sampling variability of stream habitat sampling methods used by the USDA Forest Service and the USDI Bureau of Land Management monitoring program for the upper Columbia River Basin. Three separate studies were conducted to describe the variability of individual measurement techniques, variability between crews, and temporal variation throughout the summer...

  8. Norm Block Sample Sizes: A Review of 17 Individually Administered Intelligence Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfolk, Philip A.; Farmer, Ryan L.; Floyd, Randy G.; Woods, Isaac L.; Hawkins, Haley K.; Irby, Sarah M.

    2015-01-01

    The representativeness, recency, and size of norm samples strongly influence the accuracy of inferences drawn from their scores. Inadequate norm samples may lead to inflated or deflated scores for individuals and poorer prediction of developmental and academic outcomes. The purpose of this study was to apply Kranzler and Floyd's method for…

  9. Sampling and physical and actinide characterization of colloids from the Grimsel test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longworth, G.; Ivanovich, M.

    1990-01-01

    Samples of groundwater from a granite fracture at the Grimsel test site in Switzerland have been collected as part of a second intercomparison of groundwater colloid sampling and characterization techniques carried out by members of the Coco Club (colloids and complexes) sponsored by the CEC. This report describes the Harwell contribution to this exercise. The bulk of naturally occurring actinides were found to reside in solution with 10 particles/I (detection limit ∼50 nm) for samples determined by three laboratories. The colloids were shown to be negatively charged using microelectrophoresis and to be relatively stable. There was evidence of a reduction in the pH of the water after storage due to air contamination. This work has served to identify the problems associated with colloid sampling and characterization techniques

  10. A Mixed Methods Sampling Methodology for a Multisite Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Julia L.; Mobley, Catherine; Hammond, Cathy; Withington, Cairen; Drew, Sam; Stringfield, Sam; Stipanovic, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    The flexibility of mixed methods research strategies makes such approaches especially suitable for multisite case studies. Yet the utilization of mixed methods to select sites for these studies is rarely reported. The authors describe their pragmatic mixed methods approach to select a sample for their multisite mixed methods case study of a…

  11. Dispersant testing : a study on analytical test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingas, M.F.; Fieldhouse, B.; Wang, Z.; Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON

    2004-01-01

    Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons, ranging from small, volatile compounds to very large, non-volatile compounds. Analysis of the dispersed oil is crucial. This paper described Environment Canada's ongoing studies on various traits of dispersants. In particular, it describes small studies related to dispersant effectiveness and methods to improve analytical procedures. The study also re-evaluated the analytical procedure for the Swirling Flask Test, which is now part of the ASTM standard procedure. There are new and improved methods for analyzing oil-in-water using gas chromatography (GC). The methods could be further enhanced by integrating the entire chromatogram rather than just peaks. This would result in a decrease in maximum variation from 5 per cent to about 2 per cent. For oil-dispersant studies, the surfactant-dispersed oil hydrocarbons consist of two parts: GC-resolved hydrocarbons and GC-unresolved hydrocarbons. This study also tested a second feature of the Swirling Flask Test in which the side spout was tested and compared with a new vessel with a septum port instead of a side spout. This decreased the variability as well as the energy and mixing in the vessel. Rather than being a variation of the Swirling Flask Test, it was suggested that a spoutless vessel might be considered as a completely separate test. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  12. A generalized Levene's scale test for variance heterogeneity in the presence of sample correlation and group uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soave, David; Sun, Lei

    2017-09-01

    We generalize Levene's test for variance (scale) heterogeneity between k groups for more complex data, when there are sample correlation and group membership uncertainty. Following a two-stage regression framework, we show that least absolute deviation regression must be used in the stage 1 analysis to ensure a correct asymptotic χk-12/(k-1) distribution of the generalized scale (gS) test statistic. We then show that the proposed gS test is independent of the generalized location test, under the joint null hypothesis of no mean and no variance heterogeneity. Consequently, we generalize the recently proposed joint location-scale (gJLS) test, valuable in settings where there is an interaction effect but one interacting variable is not available. We evaluate the proposed method via an extensive simulation study and two genetic association application studies. © 2017 The Authors Biometrics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Biometric Society.

  13. Investigative studies on water contamination in Bangladesh. Primary treatment of water samples at the sampling site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, K.; Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Takatsuji, T.; Nakamura, T.; Goto, S.; Takahashi, C.; Saitoh, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic concentration in 13 well waters, 9 pond waters, 10 agricultural waters and a coconut juice taken in Comilla district, Bangladesh, where the problem of arsenic pollution is the most severe, was investigated. High-level arsenic is detected even in the well water which has been kept drinking by the people. Relatively high arsenic concentration was detected for some pond and farm waters even though the sampling was performed just after the rainy season and the waters were expected to be highly diluted. Clear relationship was observed in elemental compositions between the pond water and the coconut juice collected at the edge of the water. These results are expected to become the basic information for evaluating the risk of individual food such as cultured fishes, shrimps and farm products, and for controlling total intakes of arsenic. In order to solve the problem of transportation of water samples internationally, a simple method of target preparation performed at the sampling site was established and its validity was confirmed. All targets were prepared at the sampling sites in this study on the basis of this method. (author)

  14. Virtual rough samples to test 3D nanometer-scale scanning electron microscopy stereo photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarrubia, J S; Tondare, V N; Vladár, A E

    2016-01-01

    The combination of scanning electron microscopy for high spatial resolution, images from multiple angles to provide 3D information, and commercially available stereo photogrammetry software for 3D reconstruction offers promise for nanometer-scale dimensional metrology in 3D. A method is described to test 3D photogrammetry software by the use of virtual samples-mathematical samples from which simulated images are made for use as inputs to the software under test. The virtual sample is constructed by wrapping a rough skin with any desired power spectral density around a smooth near-trapezoidal line with rounded top corners. Reconstruction is performed with images simulated from different angular viewpoints. The software's reconstructed 3D model is then compared to the known geometry of the virtual sample. Three commercial photogrammetry software packages were tested. Two of them produced results for line height and width that were within close to 1 nm of the correct values. All of the packages exhibited some difficulty in reconstructing details of the surface roughness.

  15. Reporting altered test results in hemolyzed samples: is the cure worse than the disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Plebani, Mario

    2017-07-26

    The management of laboratory data in unsuitable (hemolyzed) samples remains an almost unresolved dilemma. Whether or not laboratory test results obtained by measuring unsuitable specimens should be made available to the clinicians has been the matter of fierce debates over the past decades. Recently, an intriguing alternative to suppressing test results and recollecting the specimen has been put forward, entailing the definition and implementation of specific algorithms that would finally allow reporting a preanalytically altered laboratory value within a specific comment about its uncertainty of measurement. This approach carries some advantages, namely the timely communication of potentially life-threatening laboratory values, but also some drawbacks. These especially include the challenging definition of validated performance specifications for hemolyzed samples, the need to producing reliable data with the lowest possible uncertainty, the short turnaround time for repeating most laboratory tests, the risk that the comments may be overlooked in short-stay and frequently overcrowded units (e.g. the emergency department), as well as the many clinical advantages of a direct communication with the physician in charge of the patient. Despite the debate remains open, we continue supporting the suggestion that suppressing data in unsuitable (hemolyzed) samples and promptly notifying the clinicians about the need to recollect the samples remains the most (clinically and analytically) safe practice.

  16. Test of Creative Imagination: Validity and Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogan, Aysun; Ari, Meziyet; Gonen, Mubeccel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate validity and reliability of the test of creative imagination. This study was conducted with the participation of 1000 children, aged between 9-14 and were studying in six primary schools in the city center of Denizli Province, chosen by cluster ratio sampling. In the study, it was revealed that the…

  17. Sampling Key Populations for HIV Surveillance: Results From Eight Cross-Sectional Studies Using Respondent-Driven Sampling and Venue-Based Snowball Sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Amrita; Stahlman, Shauna; Hargreaves, James; Weir, Sharon; Edwards, Jessie; Rice, Brian; Kochelani, Duncan; Mavimbela, Mpumelelo; Baral, Stefan

    2017-10-20

    In using regularly collected or existing surveillance data to characterize engagement in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services among marginalized populations, differences in sampling methods may produce different pictures of the target population and may therefore result in different priorities for response. The objective of this study was to use existing data to evaluate the sample distribution of eight studies of female sex workers (FSW) and men who have sex with men (MSM), who were recruited using different sampling approaches in two locations within Sub-Saharan Africa: Manzini, Swaziland and Yaoundé, Cameroon. MSM and FSW participants were recruited using either respondent-driven sampling (RDS) or venue-based snowball sampling. Recruitment took place between 2011 and 2016. Participants at each study site were administered a face-to-face survey to assess sociodemographics, along with the prevalence of self-reported HIV status, frequency of HIV testing, stigma, and other HIV-related characteristics. Crude and RDS-adjusted prevalence estimates were calculated. Crude prevalence estimates from the venue-based snowball samples were compared with the overlap of the RDS-adjusted prevalence estimates, between both FSW and MSM in Cameroon and Swaziland. RDS samples tended to be younger (MSM aged 18-21 years in Swaziland: 47.6% [139/310] in RDS vs 24.3% [42/173] in Snowball, in Cameroon: 47.9% [99/306] in RDS vs 20.1% [52/259] in Snowball; FSW aged 18-21 years in Swaziland 42.5% [82/325] in RDS vs 8.0% [20/249] in Snowball; in Cameroon 15.6% [75/576] in RDS vs 8.1% [25/306] in Snowball). They were less educated (MSM: primary school completed or less in Swaziland 42.6% [109/310] in RDS vs 4.0% [7/173] in Snowball, in Cameroon 46.2% [138/306] in RDS vs 14.3% [37/259] in Snowball; FSW: primary school completed or less in Swaziland 86.6% [281/325] in RDS vs 23.9% [59/247] in Snowball, in Cameroon 87.4% [520/576] in RDS vs 77.5% [238/307] in Snowball) than the snowball

  18. Air-deployable oil spill sampling devices review phase 2 testing. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, L.; Dumouchel, A.; Fingas, M.; Brown, C.E.

    2007-01-01

    SAIC Canada tested air deployable oil sampling devices for the Emergencies Science and Technology Division of Environment Canada in order to determine the applicability and status of these devices. The 3 devices tested were: Canada's SABER (sampling autonomous buoy for evidence recovery), the United States' POPEIE (probe for oil pollution evidence in the environment); and, Sweden's SAR Floatation 2000. They were tested for buoyancy properties, drift behaviour and sampler sorbent pickup ratios. The SAR and SABER both had lesser draft and greater freeboard, while the POPEIE had much greater draft than freeboard. All 3 devices could be used for oil sample collection in that their drift characteristics would allow for the SABER and SAR devices to be placed upwind of the slick while the POPEIE device could be placed downwind of an oil spill. The sorbent testing revealed that Sefar sorbent and Spectra sorbent used in the 3 devices had negative pickup ratios for diesel but performance improved as oil viscosity increased. Both sorbents are inert and capable of collecting oil in sufficient volumes for consistent fingerprinting analysis. 10 refs., 8 tabs., 8 figs

  19. Adult health study reference papers. Selection of the sample. Characteristics of the sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, G W; Fujisawa, Hideo; Yamasaki, Mitsuru

    1960-12-14

    The characteristics and selection of the clinical sample have been described in some detail to provide information on the comparability of the exposure groups with respect to factors excluded from the matching criteria and to provide basic descriptive information potentially relevant to individual studies that may be done within the framework of the Adult Health Study. The characteristics under review here are age, sex, many different aspects of residence, marital status, occupation and industry, details of location and shielding ATB, acute radiation signs and symptoms, and prior ABCC medical or pathology examinations. 5 references, 57 tables.

  20. Development, validation and testing of a skin sampling method for assessment of metal exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Behnaz; Midander, Klara; Lidén, Carola; Julander, Anneli

    2017-07-01

    Nickel, cobalt and chromium are frequent skin sensitizers. Skin exposure results in eczema in sensitized individuals, the risk being related to the skin dose. To develop a self-sampling method for quantification of skin exposure to metals, to validate the method, and to assess its feasibility. Defined metal doses (0.01-5 µg) were applied to the fingers of 5 participants. Skin areas (2 cm 2 ) were sampled with 1% HNO 3 , either as 0.1 ml on a swab, or as 0.5 ml on a wipe. Furthermore, 17 participants performed self-sampling by swab after 2 h of leisure activity. Samples were extracted in 1% HNO 3 and analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The sampling efficiency by swab was 46%, as compared with 93% for acid wipe sampling, for all tested doses. Most metal from the skin dose was detected in the first swab (33-43%). Despite lower sampling efficiency by swab, skin doses of metals following 2 h of leisure activity without hand washing were quantified in all participants, and ranged from 0.0016 to 0.15 µg/cm 2 , from 0.00014 to -0.0020 µg/cm 2 and from 0.00048 to -0.027 µg/cm 2 for nickel, cobalt, and chromium, respectively. The results indicate a future potential of skin sampling by swab to detect and monitor metals on skin by self-sampling. This will contribute to better knowledge of metal skin exposure among dermatitis patients, workers, and the general population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Mineralogic and petrologic investigation of pre-test core samples from the spent fuel test-climax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryerson, F.J.; Qualheim, B.J.

    1983-12-01

    Pre-test samples obtained from just inside the perimeter of the canister emplacement holes of the Spent Fuel Test-Climax have been characterized by petrographic and microanalytical techniques. The primary quartz monzonite has undergone various degrees of hydrothermal alteration as a result of natural processes. Alteration is most apparent on primary plagioclase and biotite. The most common secondary phases on plagioclase are muscovite and calcite, while the most common secondary phases on biotite are epidote and chlorite. The major alteration zones encountered are localized along filled fractures, i.e. veins. The thickness and mineralogy of the alteration zones can be correlated with the vein mineralogy, becoming wider and more complex mineralogically when the veins contain calcite. 7 references, 10 figures, 4 tables

  2. Sample Processor for Life on Icy Worlds (SPLIce): Design and Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Tori N.; Lee, Anthony K.; Boone, Travis D.; Tan, Ming X.; Chin, Matthew M.; McCutcheon, Griffin C.; Horne, Mera F.; Padgen, Michael R.; Blaich, Justin T.; Forgione, Joshua B.; hide

    2017-01-01

    We report the design, development, and testing of the Sample Processor for Life on Icy Worlds (SPLIce) system, a microfluidic sample processor to enable autonomous detection of signatures of life and measurements of habitability parameters in Ocean Worlds. This monolithic fluid processing-and-handling system (Figure 1; mass 0.5 kg) retrieves a 50-L-volume sample and prepares it to supply a suite of detection instruments, each with unique preparation needs. SPLIce has potential applications in orbiter missions that sample ocean plumes, such as found in Saturns icy moon Enceladus, or landed missions on the surface of icy satellites, such as Jupiters moon Europa. Answering the question Are we alone in the universe? is captivating and exceptionally challenging. Even general criteria that define life very broadly include a significant role for water [1,2]. Searches for extinct or extant life therefore prioritize locations of abundant water whether in ancient (Mars), or present (Europa and Enceladus) times. Only two previous planetary missions had onboard fluid processing: the Viking Biology Experiments [3] and Phoenixs Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) [4]. SPLIce differs crucially from those systems, including its capability to process and distribute L-volume samples and the integration autonomous control of a wide range of fluidic functions, including: 1) retrieval of fluid samples from an evacuated sample chamber; 2) onboard multi-year storage of dehydrated reagents; 3) integrated pressure, pH, and conductivity measurement; 4) filtration and retention of insoluble particles for microscopy; 5) dilution or vacuum-driven concentration of samples to accommodate instrument working ranges; 6) removal of gas bubbles from sample aliquots; 7) unidirectional flow (check valves); 8) active flow-path selection (solenoid-actuated valves); 9) metered pumping in 100 nL volume increments. The SPLIce manifold, made of three thermally fused layers of precision-machined cyclo

  3. Microbiological evaluation of milk samples positive to California Mastitis Test in dairy buffalo cows (Buballus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.J. Sturion

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to observe the microbiological status of CMT positive samples, 734 apparently health mammary quarters from buffalo cows were submitted to physical evaluation, strip cup test and CMT. After milk samples inoculation in 10% ovine blood agar base media and in MacConkey agar and incubation under aerobic condition for 72 hours at 37oC, identification was proceeded. According to CMT, 227 quarters (30,93% were positive, among them 73 (32,16% presented 1+ reaction, 53 (23,35% were 2+ and 101 (44,49% were 3+. Microbiological exams of such samples were positive in 147 (64,76% out of 227 CMT positive samples and among the remaining 72 (31,72% were negative and 8 (3,52 were contaminated. In the 147 microbiological positive samples 204 bacteria were found in pure or associated growth and the most frequent agents were: Corynebacterium sp (59,25%; Staphylococcus sp (17,65% among which 86,11% were coagulase negative and 13,89% were coagulase positive; and Micrococcus sp (6,37%. The results revealed that, excluding the eight contaminated samples, 147 (67,12% quarters out of 219 CMT positive could be considered as bacteria-carrier and that even in a smaller percentage false-positive results can cause problems in a sanitary program for mastitis control in dairy buffalo cows.

  4. Development of a short sample test facility for evaluating superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.R.; Kulkarni, D.G.; Sahni, V.C.; Ravikumar, G.; Patel, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe a short sample test facility we have set up at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). This facility has been used to measure critical currents of NbTi/Cu composite superconducting wires by recording V versus I data at 4.2 K. It offers sample current as large as 1500 A and a transverse magnetic field up to 7.4 T. A power law, V ∼I n( H) is fitted to the resistive transition region to estimate the exponent n, which is a measure of the uniformity of superconducting filaments in composite wires. It is observed that inadequate thermal stabilization of sample wire results in thermal runaway, which limits the V-I data to∼ 2μ V . This in turn affects the reliability of estimated filament uniformity. To mitigate this problem, we have used a sample holder made of OFHC-Cu which enhances thermal stabilization of the sample. With this sample holder, the results of measurements carried out on wires developed by the Atomic Fuel Division, BARC show a high filament uniformity (n ∼ 58). (author)

  5. Serum Dried Samples to Detect Dengue Antibodies: A Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Maldonado-Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dried blood and serum samples are useful resources for detecting antiviral antibodies. The conditions for elution of the sample need to be optimized for each disease. Dengue is a widespread disease in Mexico which requires continuous surveillance. In this study, we standardized and validated a protocol for the specific detection of dengue antibodies from dried serum spots (DSSs. Methods. Paired serum and DSS samples from 66 suspected cases of dengue were collected in a clinic in Veracruz, Mexico. Samples were sent to our laboratory, where the conditions for optimal elution of DSSs were established. The presence of anti-dengue antibodies was determined in the paired samples. Results. DSS elution conditions were standardized as follows: 1 h at 4°C in 200 µl of DNase-, RNase-, and protease-free PBS (1x. The optimal volume of DSS eluate to be used in the IgG assay was 40 µl. Sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 93.3%, and kappa concordance of 0.87 were obtained when comparing the antidengue reactivity between DSSs and serum samples. Conclusion. DSS samples are useful for detecting anti-dengue IgG antibodies in the field.

  6. Testing the predictions of the existential constructivist theory of suicide in a college student sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockman, Jennifer D; Servaty-Seib, Heather L

    2018-04-01

    There is a lack of empirically supported theories explaining suicidal ideation and few theories describe how suicidal ideation can be prevented in the context of normative human development. Rogers (2001) proposed an existential constructivist theory of suicide (ECTS) wherein existential distress and the inability to reconstruct meaning from adverse life events contribute to suicidal ideation. The ECTS includes a distinct focus on meaning reconstruction from adverse life events, which is congruent with existing research on college students and developmental frameworks used by counseling psychologists. Thus, in the present study, we tested the predictions of the ECTS in a college student sample. We collected data online from 195 college students (i.e., ages 18-25) attending a large, Midwestern university and analyzed the data using structural equation modeling. Findings provided partial support for the original ECTS. Post hoc analyses of an alternate ECTS model indicated that existential distress mediated the negative association between meaning reconstruction and suicidal ideation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Strength and deformability of hollow concrete blocks: correlation of block and cylindrical sample test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. S. Barbosa

    Full Text Available This paper deals with correlations among mechanical properties of hollow blocks and those of concrete used to make them. Concrete hollow blocks and test samples were moulded with plastic consistency concrete, to assure the same material in all cases, in three diferente levels of strength (nominally 10 N/mm², 20 N/mm² and 30 N/mm². The mechanical properties and structural behaviour in axial compression and tension tests were determined by standard tests in blocks and cylinders. Stress and strain analyses were made based on concrete’s modulus of elasticity obtained in the sample tests as well as on measured strain in the blocks’ face-shells and webs. A peculiar stress-strain analysis, based on the superposition of effects, provided an estimation of the block load capacity based on its deformations. In addition, a tentative method to preview the block deformability from the concrete mechanical properties is described and tested. This analysis is a part of a broader research that aims to support a detailed structural analysis of blocks, prisms and masonry constructions.

  8. Testing of a method of importance sampling for use with SYVAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalrymple, G.J.; Prust, J.O.; Edwards, H.H.

    1985-10-01

    The Importance Sampling Scheme is designed to concentrate sampling in the high dose region of the parameter space. A sensitivity analysis of an intitial case study is used to roughly define the high dose and risk region of the parameter space. By applying modified distribution to the individual parameter ranges it was possible to concentrate sampling in regions of the parameter range that lead to high doses and risks. Comparison of risk estimates and cumulative distribution functions of dose for an increasing number of runs of the SYVAC model indicated that the risk estimate had converged at 1200 Importance Sampling runs. Examination of a plot of risk in various dose bands supported this conclusion. It was clear that the random sampling had not achieved convergence at 400 runs. (author)

  9. Evaluation of ELISA screening test for detecting aflatoxin in biogenic dust samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, J.T.

    1996-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic chemical that is sometimes produced when agricultural commodities are infested by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. Parasiticus. Aflatoxin has been found to be present in air samples taken around persons handling materials likely to be contaminated. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of using an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit that was developed to screen for aflatoxin in bulk agricultural commodities, to an air sample. Samples were taken from two environments likely to be contaminated with aflatoxin, a dairy farm feed mixing operation and a peanut bagging operation. The dust collected from these environments was considered to be biogenic, in that it originated primarily from biological materials.

  10. Methodic aspects of autoclave tests of compact samples on cyclic crack resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokhmurskij, V.I.; Gnyp, I.P.; Popov, A.A.; Tarasyuk, G.P.; Dutsyak, I.Z.; Timonin, V.M.

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory autoclave LAKIM-25 was created for investigation of cyclic and static crack resistance of vessel materials of power plants under the conditions close to operation ones. It enables to investigate the cyclic crack resistance of standard samples of up to 25 mm thickness in water at 623 K and 18 MPa. The friction force changes during tests from 6.1 up to 6.4 kN, therefore it is necessary to correct regularly the force of sample loading, recording the s-n diagram on a drum of UMEh-10TM plant. The periodic record of loading diagram coincides with respect to time with the necessity of controlling the change of sample pliability during crack propagation

  11. Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight in a Sample of Highly Educated Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Tyler M; Basner, Mathias; Nasrini, Jad; Hermosillo, Emanuel; Kabadi, Sushila; Roalf, David R; McGuire, Sarah; Ecker, Adrian J; Ruparel, Kosha; Port, Allison M; Jackson, Chad T; Dinges, David F; Gur, Ruben C

    2017-10-01

    Neuropsychological changes that may occur due to the environmental and psychological stressors of prolonged spaceflight motivated the development of the Cognition Test Battery. The battery was designed to assess multiple domains of neurocognitive functions linked to specific brain systems. Tests included in Cognition have been validated, but not in high-performing samples comparable to astronauts, which is an essential step toward ensuring their usefulness in long-duration space missions. We administered Cognition (on laptop and iPad) and the WinSCAT, counterbalanced for order and version, in a sample of 96 subjects (50% women; ages 25-56 yr) with at least a Master's degree in science, technology, engineering, or mathematics (STEM). We assessed the associations of age, sex, and administration device with neurocognitive performance, and compared the scores on the Cognition battery with those of WinSCAT. Confirmatory factor analysis compared the structure of the iPad and laptop administration methods using Wald tests. Age was associated with longer response times (mean β = 0.12) and less accurate (mean β = -0.12) performance, women had longer response times on psychomotor (β = 0.62), emotion recognition (β = 0.30), and visuo-spatial (β = 0.48) tasks, men outperformed women on matrix reasoning (β = -0.34), and performance on an iPad was generally faster (mean β = -0.55). The WinSCAT appeared heavily loaded with tasks requiring executive control, whereas Cognition assessed a larger variety of neurocognitive domains. Overall results supported the interpretation of Cognition scores as measuring their intended constructs in high performing astronaut analog samples.Moore TM, Basner M, Nasrini J, Hermosillo E, Kabadi S, Roalf DR, McGuire S, Ecker AJ, Ruparel K, Port AM, Jackson CT, Dinges DF, Gur RC. Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for spaceflight in a sample of highly educated adults. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):937-946.

  12. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, A. L. II [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-03-03

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material.

  13. Measurement of flat samples with rough surfaces by Magnetic Adaptive Testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomáš, Ivan; Kadlecová, Jana; Vértesy, G.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2012), s. 1441-1444 ISSN 0018-9464. [Conference on Soft Magnetic Materials (SMM20) /20./. Kos Island, 18.09.2011-22.09.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1323 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : magnetic contact * magnetic adaptive testing * magnetically open samples * magnetic NDE Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.422, year: 2012

  14. Testing the entrepreneurial intention model on a two-country sample

    OpenAIRE

    Liñán, Francisco; Chen, Yi-Wen

    2006-01-01

    This paper tests the Entrepreneurial Intention Model -which is adapted from the Theory of Planned Behavior- on a sample of 533 individuals from two quite different countries: one of them European (Spain) and the other South Asian (Taiwan). A newly developed Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (EIQ) has being used which tries to overcome some of the limitations of previous instruments. Structural equations techniques were used in the empirical analysis. Results are generally...

  15. Testing the entrepreneurial intention model on a two-country sample

    OpenAIRE

    Liñán, Francisco

    2006-01-01

    This paper tests the Entrepreneurial Intention Model -which is adapted from the Theory of Planned Behavior- on a sample of 533 individuals from two quite different countries: one of them European (Spain) and the other South Asian (Taiwan). A newly developed Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (EIQ) has being used which tries to overcome some of the limitations of previous instruments. Structural equations techniques were used in the empirical analysis. Results are generally satisfactory, ...

  16. Sample Results From The Extraction, Scrub, And Strip Test For The Blended NGS Solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of the extraction, scrub, and strip testing for the September 2013 sampling of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Blended solvent from the Modular Caustic Side-Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) Solvent Hold Tank. MCU is in the process of transitioning from the BOBCalixC6 solvent to the NGS Blend solvent. As part of that transition, MCU has intentionally created a blended solvent to be processed using the Salt Batch program. This sample represents the first sample received from that blended solvent. There were two ESS tests performed where NGS blended solvent performance was assessed using either the Tank 21 material utilized in the Salt Batch 7 analyses or a simulant waste material used in the V-5/V-10 contactor testing. This report tabulates the temperature corrected cesium distribution, or DCs values, step recovery percentage, and actual temperatures recorded during the experiment. This report also identifies the sample receipt date, preparation method, and analysis performed in the accumulation of the listed values. The calculated extraction DCs values using the Tank 21H material and simulant are 59.4 and 53.8, respectively. The DCs values for two scrub and three strip processes for the Tank 21 material are 4.58, 2.91, 0.00184, 0.0252, and 0.00575, respectively. The D-values for two scrub and three strip processes for the simulant are 3.47, 2.18, 0.00468, 0.00057, and 0.00572, respectively. These values are similar to previous measurements of Salt Batch 7 feed with lab-prepared blended solvent. These numbers are considered compatible to allow simulant testing to be completed in place of actual waste due to the limited availability of feed material

  17. Multiple sample setup for testing the hydrothermal stability of adsorbents in thermal energy storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Fabian; Laevemann, Eberhard

    2015-01-01

    Thermal energy storage based on adsorption and desorption of water on an adsorbent can achieve high energy storage densities. Many adsorbents lose adsorption capacity when operated under unfavourable hydrothermal conditions during adsorption and desorption. The stability of an adsorbent against stressing hydrothermal conditions is a key issue for its usability in adsorption thermal energy storage. We built an experimental setup that simultaneously controls the hydrothermal conditions of 16 samples arranged in a matrix of four temperatures and four water vapour pressures. This setup allows the testing of potential adsorbents between temperatures of 50 °C and 350 °C and water vapour pressures of up to 32 kPa. A measurement procedure that allows the detection of the hydrothermal stability of an adsorbent after defined time spans has been designed. We verified the functionality of the multiple sample measurements with a microporous adsorbent, a zeolite NaMSX. The hydrothermal stability of this zeolite is tested by water uptake measurements. A standard deviation lower than 1% of the 16 samples for detecting the hydrothermal stability enables setting different conditions in each sample cell. Further, we compared the water uptake measurements by measuring their adsorption isotherms with the volumetric device BELSORP Aqua 3 from Bel Japan. (paper)

  18. Report of testing and sampling of municipal supply well PM-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, Richard J.; Longmire, Patrick; Rogers, David B.; Mullen, Ken

    1999-01-01

    During drilling of regional aquifer characterization borehole R-25, located in the western part of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) at Technical Area (TA) 16, groundwater samples were collected from perched zones of saturation and the regional aquifer that contained elevated levels of high explosive (HE) compounds. One of the nearest Los Alamos County municipal supply wells potentially located down gradient from borehole R-25 is PM-4, located on Mesita del Buey at the west end of TA-54. During the winter of 1998 and 1999 the pump in PM-4 had been removed from the well for scheduled maintenance by the Los Alamos County Public Utilities Department (PUD). Because the pump was removed from PM-4, the opportunity existed to enter the well to (1) perform tests to determine where within the regional aquifer groundwater entered the well and (2) collect groundwater samples from the producing zones for analyses to determine if HE contaminants were present in discrete zones within the regional aquifer. The report of the activities that were performed during March 1999 for the testing and sampling of municipal supply well PM-4 is provided. The report provides a description of the field activities associated with the two phases of the project, including (1) the results of the static and dynamic spinner log surveys, and (2) a description of the sampling activities and the field-measured groundwater quality parameters that were obtained during sampling activities. This report also provides the analytical results of the groundwater samples and a brief discussion of the results of the project

  19. Testing an Impedance Non-destructive Method to Evaluate Steel-Fiber Concrete Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komarkova, Tereza; Fiala, Pavel; Steinbauer, Miloslav; Roubal, Zdenek

    2018-02-01

    Steel-fiber reinforced concrete is a composite material characterized by outstanding tensile properties and resistance to the development of cracks. The concrete, however, exhibits such characteristics only on the condition that the steel fibers in the final, hardened composite have been distributed evenly. The current methods to evaluate the distribution and concentration of a fiber composite are either destructive or exhibit a limited capability of evaluating the concentration and orientation of the fibers. In this context, the paper discusses tests related to the evaluation of the density and orientation of fibers in a composite material. Compared to the approaches used to date, the proposed technique is based on the evaluation of the electrical impedance Z in the band close to the resonance of the sensor-sample configuration. Using analytically expressed equations, we can evaluate the monitored part of the composite and its density at various depths of the tested sample. The method employs test blocks of composites, utilizing the resonance of the measuring device and the measured sample set; the desired state occurs within the interval of between f=3 kHz and 400 kHz.

  20. A boundary-optimized rejection region test for the two-sample binomial problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Erin E; Nason, Martha; Fay, Michael P; Follmann, Dean A

    2018-03-30

    Testing the equality of 2 proportions for a control group versus a treatment group is a well-researched statistical problem. In some settings, there may be strong historical data that allow one to reliably expect that the control proportion is one, or nearly so. While one-sample tests or comparisons to historical controls could be used, neither can rigorously control the type I error rate in the event the true control rate changes. In this work, we propose an unconditional exact test that exploits the historical information while controlling the type I error rate. We sequentially construct a rejection region by first maximizing the rejection region in the space where all controls have an event, subject to the constraint that our type I error rate does not exceed α for any true event rate; then with any remaining α we maximize the additional rejection region in the space where one control avoids the event, and so on. When the true control event rate is one, our test is the most powerful nonrandomized test for all points in the alternative space. When the true control event rate is nearly one, we demonstrate that our test has equal or higher mean power, averaging over the alternative space, than a variety of well-known tests. For the comparison of 4 controls and 4 treated subjects, our proposed test has higher power than all comparator tests. We demonstrate the properties of our proposed test by simulation and use our method to design a malaria vaccine trial. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Evaluation of dengue NS1 antigen rapid tests and ELISA kits using clinical samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhamoy Pal

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV infection can improve clinical outcomes by ensuring close follow-up, initiating appropriate supportive therapies and raising awareness to the potential of hemorrhage or shock. Non-structural glycoprotein-1 (NS1 has proven to be a useful biomarker for early diagnosis of dengue. A number of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs targeting NS1 antigen (Ag are now commercially available. Here we evaluated these tests using a well-characterized panel of clinical samples to determine their effectiveness for early diagnosis.Retrospective samples from South America were used to evaluate the following tests: (i "Dengue NS1 Ag STRIP" and (ii "Platelia Dengue NS1 Ag ELISA" (Bio-Rad, France, (iii "Dengue NS1 Detect Rapid Test (1st Generation" and (iv "DENV Detect NS1 ELISA" (InBios International, United States, (v "Panbio Dengue Early Rapid (1st generation" (vi "Panbio Dengue Early ELISA (2nd generation" and (vii "SD Bioline Dengue NS1 Ag Rapid Test" (Alere, United States. Overall, the sensitivity of the RDTs ranged from 71.9%-79.1% while the sensitivity of the ELISAs varied between 85.6-95.9%, using virus isolation as the reference method. Most tests had lower sensitivity for DENV-4 relative to the other three serotypes, were less sensitive in detecting secondary infections, and appeared to be most sensitive on Day 3-4 post symptom onset. The specificity of all evaluated tests ranged from 95%-100%.ELISAs had greater overall sensitivity than RDTs. In conjunction with other parameters, the performance data can help determine which dengue diagnostics should be used during the first few days of illness, when the patients are most likely to present to a clinic seeking care.

  2. Membrane materials for storing biological samples intended for comparative nanotoxicological testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metelkin, A.; Kuznetsov, D.; Kolesnikov, E.; Chuprunov, K.; Kondakov, S.; Osipov, A.; Samsonova, J.

    2015-11-01

    The study is aimed at identifying the samples of most promising membrane materials for storing dry specimens of biological fluids (Dried Blood Spots, DBS technology). Existing sampling systems using cellulose fiber filter paper have a number of drawbacks such as uneven distribution of the sample spot, dependence of the spot spreading area on the individual biosample properties, incomplete washing-off of the sample due to partially inconvertible sorption of blood components on cellulose fibers, etc. Samples of membrane materials based on cellulose, polymers and glass fiber with applied biosamples were studied using methods of scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and surface-wetting measurement. It was discovered that cellulose-based membrane materials sorb components of biological fluids inside their structure, while membranes based on glass fiber display almost no interaction with the samples and biological fluid components dry to films in the membrane pores between the structural fibers. This characteristic, together with the fact that membrane materials based on glass fiber possess sufficient strength, high wetting properties and good storage capacity, attests them as promising material for dry samples of biological fluids storage systems.

  3. Membrane materials for storing biological samples intended for comparative nanotoxicological testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metelkin, A; Kuznetsov, D; Kolesnikov, E; Chuprunov, K; Kondakov, S; Osipov, A; Samsonova, J

    2015-01-01

    The study is aimed at identifying the samples of most promising membrane materials for storing dry specimens of biological fluids (Dried Blood Spots, DBS technology). Existing sampling systems using cellulose fiber filter paper have a number of drawbacks such as uneven distribution of the sample spot, dependence of the spot spreading area on the individual biosample properties, incomplete washing-off of the sample due to partially inconvertible sorption of blood components on cellulose fibers, etc. Samples of membrane materials based on cellulose, polymers and glass fiber with applied biosamples were studied using methods of scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and surface-wetting measurement. It was discovered that cellulose-based membrane materials sorb components of biological fluids inside their structure, while membranes based on glass fiber display almost no interaction with the samples and biological fluid components dry to films in the membrane pores between the structural fibers. This characteristic, together with the fact that membrane materials based on glass fiber possess sufficient strength, high wetting properties and good storage capacity, attests them as promising material for dry samples of biological fluids storage systems. (paper)

  4. Aspects of analysis of small-sample right censored data using generalized Wilcoxon rank tests

    OpenAIRE

    Öhman, Marie-Louise

    1994-01-01

    The estimated bias and variance of commonly applied and jackknife variance estimators and observed significance level and power of standardised generalized Wilcoxon linear rank sum test statistics and tests, respectively, of Gehan and Prentice are compared in a Monte Carlo simulation study. The variance estimators are the permutational-, the conditional permutational- and the jackknife variance estimators of the test statistic of Gehan, and the asymptotic- and the jackknife variance estimator...

  5. Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) studies of returned comet nucleus samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Fundow; Kim, S.S.; Liang, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    The most important objective of the Comet Nucleus Sample Returm Mission is to return samples which could reflect formation conditions and evolutionary processes in the early solar nebula. It is expected that the returned samples will consist of fine-grained silicate materials mixed with ices composed of simple molecules such as H 2 O, NH 3 , CH 4 as well as organics and/or more complex compounds. Because of the exposure to ionizing radiation from cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, and solar wind protons at low temperature, free radicals are expected to be formed and trapped in the solid ice matrices. The kind of trapped radical species together with their concentration and thermal stability can be used as a dosimeter as well as a geothermometer to determine thermal and radiation histories as well as outgassing and other possible alternation effects since the nucleus material was formed. Since free radicals that are known to contain unpaired electrons are all paramagnetic in nature, they can be readily detected and characterized in their native form by the Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) method. In fact, ESR has been shown to be a non-destructive, highly sensitive tool for the detection and characterization of paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, and radiation damage centers in terrestrial and extraterrestrial geological samples. The potential use of ESR as an effective method in the study of returned comet nucleus samples, in particular, in the analysis of fine-grained solid state icy samples is discussed

  6. A single test for rejecting the null hypothesis in subgroups and in the overall sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yunzhi; Zhou, Kefei; Ganju, Jitendra

    2017-01-01

    In clinical trials, some patient subgroups are likely to demonstrate larger effect sizes than other subgroups. For example, the effect size, or informally the benefit with treatment, is often greater in patients with a moderate condition of a disease than in those with a mild condition. A limitation of the usual method of analysis is that it does not incorporate this ordering of effect size by patient subgroup. We propose a test statistic which supplements the conventional test by including this information and simultaneously tests the null hypothesis in pre-specified subgroups and in the overall sample. It results in more power than the conventional test when the differences in effect sizes across subgroups are at least moderately large; otherwise it loses power. The method involves combining p-values from models fit to pre-specified subgroups and the overall sample in a manner that assigns greater weight to subgroups in which a larger effect size is expected. Results are presented for randomized trials with two and three subgroups.

  7. Leach testing of SYNROC and glass samples at 85 and 200/degree/C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oversby, V.M.; Ringwood, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    Leach tests were conducted on 0.5 g disc samples of SYNROC and two glass types using distilled water at 85 and 200/degree/C. No leaching was detected for SYNROC at either temperature. Thus, the upper limit on leach rate for SYNROC is <0.005 g/m/sup 2/d. Waste glass PNL 76-68 had leach rates of 1.4 g/m/sup 2/ d at 85/degree/C and 8.9 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C, while 73-1 glass frit had a leach rate of 41 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C. The leach tests were repeated in the presence of rock powders. Again, no leaching was measurable for SYNROC. PNL 76-68 glass had leach rates between 4 and 23 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C and 73-1 frit leached at rates between 29 and 176 g/m/sup 2/ d at 200/degree/C. Tests were also conducted on crushed glass samples (PNL 76-68, 100-200 /mu/m size fraction). Bulk leach rates were calculated based on measurement of Ca, Cs, and U in the leach solutions. The results of the leach tests show that SYNROC is several orders of magnitude more resistant to leaching than glass

  8. Testing an ionization chamber with gaseous samples and measurements of the (n, alpha) reaction cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Gledenov, Yu M; Salatskii, V I; Sedyshev, P V; Andrzejewski, J; Szalanski, P

    1999-01-01

    A new ionization chamber with gaseous samples (GIC) has been designed and tested on the thermal and resonance neutron beams of FLNP's neutron sources. The exposed gas volume serves as a target for neutrons. The obtained thermal cross sections for the sup 1 sup 7 O(n, alpha) sup 1 sup 4 C, sup 2 sup 1 Ne(n, alpha) sup 1 sup 8 O and sup 3 sup 6 Ar(n, alpha) sup 3 sup 3 S reactions are (233+-12) mb, (0.18+-0.09) mb and (5.43+-0.27) mb, respectively. These measurements have been performed on a pure beam of thermal neutrons from the high flux reactor IBR-2; and they demonstrated high efficiency and reliability of the method. Compared to samples on substrates, the application of gaseous samples makes the beam background essentially lower, and what is more important, the background component is totally absent due to the absence of Li and B microimpurities in gaseous samples while they do present in the samples on substrates. The method is also applicable to measurements with resonance neutrons. The recovery capabili...

  9. Test of Fibre Bragg Gratings samples under High Fast Neutrons Fluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheymol, G.; Remy, L.; Gusarov, A.; Kinet, D.; Mégret, P.; Laffont, G.; Blanchet, T.; Morana, A.; Marin, E.; Girard, S.

    2018-01-01

    Optical fibre sensors (OFS) are worthy of interest for measurements in nuclear reactor thanks to their unique features, particularly compact size and remote multi-point sensing for some of them. But besides non negligible constraints associated with the high temperature environment of the experiments of interest, it is well known that the performances of OFS can be severely affected by high level of radiations. The Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) in the fibre is probably most known effect, which can be to some extent circumvented by using rad hard fibres to limit the dynamic loss. However, when the fast neutron fluence reaches 1018 to 1019 n/cm2, the density and index variations associated to structural changes may deteriorate drastically the performances of OFS even if they are based on rad hard fibres, by causing direct errors in the measurements of temperature and/or strain changes. The aim of the present study is to access the effect of nuclear radiations on the Fabry Perot (FP) and of Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors through the comparison of measurements made on these OFS - or part of them - before and after irradiation [1]. In the context of development of OFS for high irradiation environment and especially for Material Testing Reactors (MTRs), Sake 2 experiment consists in an irradiation campaign at high level of gamma and neutron fluxes conducted on samples of fibre optics - bare or functionalised with FBG. The irradiation was performed at two levels of fast neutron fluence: 1 and 3.1019 n/cm2 (E>1MeV), at 250°± 25°C, in the SCK•CEN BR2 reactor (Mol Belgium). An irradiation capsule was designed to allow irradiation at the specified temperature without active control. The neutron fluence was measured with activation dosimeters and the results were compared with MCPN computations. Investigation of bare samples gives information on the density changes, while for the FBGs both density and refractive index perturbation are involved. Some results for

  10. The Stice model of overeating: Tests in clinical and non-clinical samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Snoek, H.M.

    2005-01-01

    The present study tested the dual pathway model of Stice [Stice, E (1994). A review of the evidence for a sociocultural model of bulimia nervosa and an exploration of the mechanisms of action. Clinical Psychology Review, 14, 633-661 and Stice, E. (2001). A prospective test of the dual-pathway model

  11. Test Design Project: Studies in Test Adequacy. Annual Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    These studies in test adequacy focus on two problems: procedures for estimating reliability, and techniques for identifying ineffective distractors. Fourteen papers are presented on recent advances in measuring achievement (a response to Molenaar); "an extension of the Dirichlet-multinomial model that allows true score and guessing to be…

  12. [The Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test in cognitively healthy and clinical samples. An update of normative data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Toutert, Meta; Diesfeldt, Han; Hoek, Dirk

    2016-10-01

    The six tests in the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test (ADST) examine the cognitive domains of episodic memory (delayed picture recognition, word learning), orientation, category fluency (animals and occupations), constructional ability (figure copying) and executive function (alternating sequences). New normative data were collected in a sample of 102 elderly volunteers (aged 65-94), including subjects with medical or other health conditions, except dementia or frank cognitive impairment (MMSE > 24). Included subjects were independent in complex instrumental activities of daily living.Fluency, not the other tests, needed adjustment for age and education. A deficit score (0-1) was computed for each test. Summation (range 0-6) proved useful in differentiating patients with dementia (N = 741) from normal elderly (N = 102).Positive and negative predictive power across a range of summed deficit scores and base rates are displayed in Bayesian probability tables.In the normal elderly, delayed recall for eight words was tested and adjusted for initial recall. A recognition test mixed the target words with eight distractors. Delayed recognition was adjusted for immediate and delayed recall.The ADST and the normative data in this paper help the clinical neuropsychologist to make decisions concerning the presence or absence of neurocognitive disorder in individual elderly examinees.

  13. Tank vapor sampling and analysis data package for tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process test phase III, sampled March 28, 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOCKREM, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    This data package presents sampling data and analytical results from the March 28, 1999, vapor sampling of Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 during active sluicing. Samples were obtained from the 296-C-006 ventilation system stack and ambient air at several locations. Characterization Project Operations (CPO) was responsible for the collection of all SUMMATM canister samples. The Special Analytical Support (SAS) vapor team was responsible for the collection of all triple sorbent trap (TST), sorbent tube train (STT), polyurethane foam (PUF), and particulate filter samples collected at the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team used the non-electrical vapor sampling (NEVS) system to collect samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the 296-C-006 stack. The SAS vapor team collected and analyzed these samples for Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) and Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) in accordance with the sampling and analytical requirements specified in the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) for Evaluation of Organic Emissions, Process Test Phase III, HNF-4212, Rev. 0-A, (LMHC, 1999). All samples were stored in a secured Radioactive Materials Area (RMA) until the samples were radiologically released and received by SAS for analysis. The Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) performed the radiological analyses. The samples were received on April 5, 1999

  14. Test Plan for Rotary Mode Core Sample Truck Grapple Hoist Level Wind System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-12-09

    A Grapple Hoist Assembly is currently used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling Trucks (RMCSTs) to actuate the sampler and retrieve the pintle rod during sampling operations. The hoist assembly includes a driven drum approximately two inches wide and six inches in diameter that rotates to pay out or reel in the 5/32-in. cable The current Grapple Hoist Assembly, detailed on drawing H-2-690057, is prone to ''bird nesting'' the cable on the drum. ''Bird nesting'' is a condition in which the cable does not wind onto the drum in a uniformly layered manner, but winds in a random fashion where the cable essentially ''piles up'' inappropriately on the drum and, on some occasions, winds on the drum drive shaft. A system to help control this ''bird nesting'' problem has been designed as an addition to the existing components of the Grapple Hoist Assembly. The new design consists of a mechanism that is timed with, and driven by, the shaft that drives the drum. This mechanism traverses back and forth across the width of the drum to lay the cable on the drum in a uniformly layered manner. This test plan establishes the acceptance criteria, test procedure and test conditions It also describes the test apparatus necessary to verify the adequacy of the level wind system design. The test is defined as qualification testing (LMHC 1999b) and as such will be performed at conditions beyond the parameters that the Grapple Hoist Assembly is allowed to operate by the Safety Equipment List (SEL)(LMHC 1998).

  15. Test Plan for Rotary Mode Core Sample Truck Grapple Hoist Level Wind System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    A Grapple Hoist Assembly is currently used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling Trucks (RMCSTs) to actuate the sampler and retrieve the pintle rod during sampling operations. The hoist assembly includes a driven drum approximately two inches wide and six inches in diameter that rotates to pay out or reel in the 5/32-in. cable. The current Grapple Hoist Assembly, detailed on drawing H-2-690057, is prone to ''bird nesting'' the cable on the drum. ''Bird nesting'' is a condition in which the cable does not wind onto the drum in a uniformly layered manner, but winds in a random fashion where the cable essentially ''piles up'' inappropriately on the drum and, on some occasions, winds on the drum drive shaft. A system to help control this ''bird nesting'' problem has been designed as an addition to the existing components of the Grapple Hoist Assembly. The new design consists of a mechanism that is timed with, and driven by, the shaft that drives the drum. This mechanism traverses back and forth across the width of the drum to lay the cable on the drum in a uniformly layered manner. This test plan establishes the acceptance criteria, test procedure and test conditions. It also describes the test apparatus necessary to verify the adequacy of the level wind system design. The test is defined as qualification testing (LMHC 1999b) and as such will be performed at conditions beyond the parameters that the Grapple Hoist Assembly is allowed to operate by the Safety Equipment List

  16. Test Plan for Rotary Mode Core Sample Truck Grapple Hoist Level Wind System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    A Grapple Hoist Assembly is currently used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling Trucks (RMCSTs) to actuate the sampler and retrieve the pintle rod during sampling operations. The hoist assembly includes a driven drum approximately two inches wide and six inches in diameter that rotates to pay out or reel in the 5/32-in. cable The current Grapple Hoist Assembly, detailed on drawing H-2-690057, is prone to ''bird nesting'' the cable on the drum. ''Bird nesting'' is a condition in which the cable does not wind onto the drum in a uniformly layered manner, but winds in a random fashion where the cable essentially ''piles up'' inappropriately on the drum and, on some occasions, winds on the drum drive shaft. A system to help control this ''bird nesting'' problem has been designed as an addition to the existing components of the Grapple Hoist Assembly. The new design consists of a mechanism that is timed with, and driven by, the shaft that drives the drum. This mechanism traverses back and forth across the width of the drum to lay the cable on the drum in a uniformly layered manner. This test plan establishes the acceptance criteria, test procedure and test conditions It also describes the test apparatus necessary to verify the adequacy of the level wind system design. The test is defined as qualification testing (LMHC 1999b) and as such will be performed at conditions beyond the parameters that the Grapple Hoist Assembly is allowed to operate by the Safety Equipment List (SEL)(LMHC 1998)

  17. Centrifugation protocols: tests to determine optimal lithium heparin and citrate plasma sample quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeski, Goce; Solano, Connie; Petroff, Mark K; Hynd, Matthew

    2011-05-01

    Currently, no clear guidelines exist for the most appropriate tests to determine sample quality from centrifugation protocols for plasma sample types with both lithium heparin in gel barrier tubes for biochemistry testing and citrate tubes for coagulation testing. Blood was collected from 14 participants in four lithium heparin and one serum tube with gel barrier. The plasma tubes were centrifuged at four different centrifuge settings and analysed for potassium (K(+)), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), glucose and phosphorus (Pi) at zero time, poststorage at six hours at 21 °C and six days at 2-8°C. At the same time, three citrate tubes were collected and centrifuged at three different centrifuge settings and analysed immediately for prothrombin time/international normalized ratio, activated partial thromboplastin time, derived fibrinogen and surface-activated clotting time (SACT). The biochemistry analytes indicate plasma is less stable than serum. Plasma sample quality is higher with longer centrifugation time, and much higher g force. Blood cells present in the plasma lyse with time or are damaged when transferred in the reaction vessels, causing an increase in the K(+), LD and Pi above outlined limits. The cells remain active and consume glucose even in cold storage. The SACT is the only coagulation parameter that was affected by platelets >10 × 10(9)/L in the citrate plasma. In addition to the platelet count, a limited but sensitive number of assays (K(+), LD, glucose and Pi for biochemistry, and SACT for coagulation) can be used to determine appropriate centrifuge settings to consistently obtain the highest quality lithium heparin and citrate plasma samples. The findings will aid laboratories to balance the need to provide the most accurate results in the best turnaround time.

  18. Analysis of fingerprint samples, testing various conditions, for forensic DNA identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Lana; Wurmbach, Elisa

    2017-01-01

    Fingerprints can be of tremendous value for forensic biology, since they can be collected from a wide variety of evident types, such as handles of weapons, tools collected in criminal cases, and objects with no apparent staining. DNA obtained from fingerprints varies greatly in quality and quantity, which ultimately affects the quality of the resulting STR profiles. Additional difficulties can arise when fingerprint samples show mixed STR profiles due to the handling of multiple persons. After applying a tested protocol for sample collection (swabbing with 5% Triton X-100), DNA extraction (using an enzyme that works at elevated temperatures), and PCR amplification (AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® using 31cycles) extensive analysis was performed to better understand the challenges inherent to fingerprint samples, with the ultimate goal of developing valuable profiles (≥50% complete). The impact of time on deposited fingerprints was investigated, revealing that while the quality of profiles deteriorated, full STR profiles could still be obtained from samples after 40days of storage at room temperature. By comparing the STR profiles from fingerprints of the dominant versus the non-dominant hand, we found a slightly better quality from the non-dominant hand, which was not always significant. Substrates seem to have greater effects on fingerprints. Tests on glass, plastic, paper and metal (US Quarter dollar, made of Cu and Ni), common substrates in offices and homes, showed best results for glass, followed by plastic and paper, while almost no profiles were obtained from a Quarter dollar. Important for forensic casework, we also assessed three-person mixtures of touched fingerprint samples. Unlike routinely used approaches for sampling evidence, the surface of an object (bottle) was sectioned into six equal parts and separate samples were taken from each section. The samples were processed separately for DNA extraction and STR amplification. The results included a few single

  19. Systematic studies of small scintillators for new sampling calorimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new sampling calorimeter using very thin scintillators and the multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) has been proposed to produce better position resolution for the international linear collider (ILC) experiment. As part of this R & D study, small plastic scintillators of different sizes, thickness and wrapping reflectors are ...

  20. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin study rock samples during field trip

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, and Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, Lunar module pilot for Apollo 11, study rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  1. Sampling challenges in a study examining refugee resettlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman-Hill, Cheryl Mr; Thompson, Sandra C

    2011-03-15

    As almost half of all refugees currently under United Nations protection are from Afghanistan or Iraq and significant numbers have already been resettled outside the region of origin, it is likely that future research will examine their resettlement needs. A number of methodological challenges confront researchers working with culturally and linguistically diverse groups; however, few detailed articles are available to inform other studies. The aim of this paper is to outline challenges with sampling and recruitment of socially invisible refugee groups, describing the method adopted for a mixed methods exploratory study assessing mental health, subjective wellbeing and resettlement perspectives of Afghan and Kurdish refugees living in New Zealand and Australia. Sampling strategies used in previous studies with similar refugee groups were considered before determining the approach to recruitment A snowball approach was adopted for the study, with multiple entry points into the communities being used to choose as wide a range of people as possible to provide further contacts and reduce selection bias. Census data was used to assess the representativeness of the sample. A sample of 193 former refugee participants was recruited in Christchurch (n = 98) and Perth (n = 95), 47% were of Afghan and 53% Kurdish ethnicity. A good gender balance (males 52%, females 48%) was achieved overall, mainly as a result of the sampling method used. Differences in the demographic composition of groups in each location were observed, especially in relation to the length of time spent in a refugee situation and time since arrival, reflecting variations in national humanitarian quota intakes. Although some measures were problematic, Census data comparison to assess reasonable representativeness of the study sample was generally reassuring. Snowball sampling, with multiple initiation points to reduce selection bias, was necessary to locate and identify participants, provide reassurance and

  2. Sampling challenges in a study examining refugee resettlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Sandra C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As almost half of all refugees currently under United Nations protection are from Afghanistan or Iraq and significant numbers have already been resettled outside the region of origin, it is likely that future research will examine their resettlement needs. A number of methodological challenges confront researchers working with culturally and linguistically diverse groups; however, few detailed articles are available to inform other studies. The aim of this paper is to outline challenges with sampling and recruitment of socially invisible refugee groups, describing the method adopted for a mixed methods exploratory study assessing mental health, subjective wellbeing and resettlement perspectives of Afghan and Kurdish refugees living in New Zealand and Australia. Sampling strategies used in previous studies with similar refugee groups were considered before determining the approach to recruitment Methods A snowball approach was adopted for the study, with multiple entry points into the communities being used to choose as wide a range of people as possible to provide further contacts and reduce selection bias. Census data was used to assess the representativeness of the sample. Results A sample of 193 former refugee participants was recruited in Christchurch (n = 98 and Perth (n = 95, 47% were of Afghan and 53% Kurdish ethnicity. A good gender balance (males 52%, females 48% was achieved overall, mainly as a result of the sampling method used. Differences in the demographic composition of groups in each location were observed, especially in relation to the length of time spent in a refugee situation and time since arrival, reflecting variations in national humanitarian quota intakes. Although some measures were problematic, Census data comparison to assess reasonable representativeness of the study sample was generally reassuring. Conclusions Snowball sampling, with multiple initiation points to reduce selection bias, was

  3. Self-sampling for human papillomavirus testing among rural young women of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbatha, J N; Galappaththi-Arachchige, H N; Mtshali, A; Taylor, M; Ndhlovu, P D; Kjetland, E F; Baay, M F D; Mkhize-Kwitshana, Z L

    2017-12-06

    Cervical cancer is a major problem in women and it is important to find a suitable and acceptable screening method, especially among young in low-resource areas for future human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine follow-up investigations. The study sought to test the acceptability of self-sampling as well as the suitability of the specimen collecting devices. Ninety-eight young women from rural KwaZulu-Natal were enrolled between March and July 2014. Collected genital specimens were transferred to colour indicator cards for HPV detection. Participants answered a questionnaire where they described their experiences with self-sampling. Samples were tested for high-risk HPV using GP5/6+ PCR. Of the enrolled participants, 91 answered questionnaires and indicated that self-sampling was preferred by 51/91 (56%) women while 40/91 (44%) indicated preference for sampling by a doctor (p = 0.023). The majority, 64% were comfortable using a swab, 22% preferred a brush while 11% were comfortable with both devices. Of the 98 self-sampled specimens 61 were negative for HPV in both specimens while 37 were HPV-positive in either brush or swab. Of the 37, 26 (70%) were HPV-positive in both brush and swab (kappa = 0.743) and 11 (30%) were discordant. Self-sampling was acceptable to the majority of participants in this rural area. The Dacron swab was the preferred device, and can be used in combination with colour indicator cards for comfortable self-sampling, easy storage and transport of specimens plus detection.

  4. Testing the sampling efficiency of a nuclear power station stack monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, L.H. [Instrumentinvest, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    The test method comprises the injection of known amounts of monodisperse particles in the stack air stream, at a suitable point upstream of the sampling installation. To find a suitable injection polls, the gas flow was mapped by means of a tracer gas, released in various points in the stack base. The resulting concentration distributions at the stack sampler level were observed by means of an array of gas detectors. An injection point that produced symmetrical distribution over the stack area, and low concentrations at the stack walls was selected for the particle tests. Monodisperse particles of 6, 10, and 19 {mu}m aerodynamic diameter, tagged with dysprosium, were dispersed in the selected injection point. Particle concentration at the sampler level was measured. The losses to the stack walls were found to be less than 10 %. The particle concentrations at the four sampler inlets were calculated from the observed gas distribution. The amount calculated to be aspirated into the sampler piping was compared with the quantity collected by the sampling train ordinary filter, to obtain the sampling line transmission efficiency. 1 ref., 2 figs.

  5. Four-sample lactose hydrogen breath test for diagnosis of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-Feng; Fox, Mark; Chu, Hua; Zheng, Xia; Long, Yan-Qin; Pohl, Daniel; Fried, Michael; Dai, Ning

    2015-06-28

    To validate 4-sample lactose hydrogen breath testing (4SLHBT) compared to standard 13-sample LHBT in the clinical setting. Irritable bowel syndrome patients with diarrhea (IBS-D) and healthy volunteers (HVs) were enrolled and received a 10 g, 20 g, or 40 g dose lactose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) in a randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. The lactase gene promoter region was sequenced. Breath samples and symptoms were acquired at baseline and every 15 min for 3 h (13 measurements). The detection rates of lactose malabsorption (LM) and lactose intolerance (LI) for a 4SLHBT that acquired four measurements at 0, 90, 120, and 180 min from the same data set were compared with the results of standard LHBT. Sixty IBS-D patients and 60 HVs were studied. The genotype in all participants was C/C-13910. LM and LI detection rates increased with lactose dose from 10 g, 20 g to 40 g in both groups (P lactose doses in both groups. Reducing the number of measurements from 13 to 4 samples did not significantly impact on the accuracy of LHBT in health and IBS-D. 4SLHBT is a valid test for assessment of LM and LI in clinical practice.

  6. Study of β-NMR for Liquid Biological Samples

    CERN Document Server

    Beattie, Caitlin

    2017-01-01

    β-NMR is an exotic form of NMR spectroscopy that allows for the characterization of matter based on the anisotropic β-decay of radioactive probe nuclei. This has been shown to be an effective spectroscopic technique for many different compounds, but its use for liquid biological samples is relatively unexplored. The work at the VITO line of ISOLDE seeks to employ this technique to study such samples. Currently, preparations are being made for an experiment to characterize DNA G-quadruplexes and their interactions with stabilizing cations. More specifically, the work in which I engaged as a summer student focused on the experiment’s liquid handling system and the stability of the relevant biological samples under vacuum.

  7. Irradiation test of HAFM and tag gas samples at the standard neutron field of 'YAYOI'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, Tetsuo

    1997-03-01

    To check the accuracy of helium accumulation neutron fluence monitors (HAFM) as new technique for fast reactor neutron dosimetry and the applicability of tag gas activation analysis to fast reactor failed fuel detection, their samples were irradiated at the standard neutron field of the fast neutron source reactor 'YAYOI' (Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo). Since October in 1996, the HAFM samples such as 93% enriched boron (B) powders of 1 mg and natural B powders of 10 mg contained in vanadium (V) capsule were intermittently irradiated at the reactor core center (Glory hole: Gy) and/or under the leakage neutron field from the reactor core (Fast column: FC). In addition, new V capsules filled with enriched B of 40 mg and Be of 100 mg, respectively, were put into an experimental hole through the blanket surrounding the core. These neutron fields were monitored by the activation foils consisting of Fe, Co, Ni, Au, 235 U, 237 Np etc., mainly to confirm the results obtained from 1995's preliminary works. In particular, neutron flux distributions in the vicinity of irradiated samples were measured in more detail. At the end of March in 1997, the irradiated neutron fluence have reached the goal necessary to produce the detectable number of He atoms more than ∼10 13 in each HAFM sample. Six kinds of tag gas samples, which are the mixed gases of isotopically adjusted Xe and Kr contained in SUS capsules, were separately irradiated three times at Gy under the neutron fluence of ∼10 16 n/cm 2 in average. After irradiation, γ-ray spectra were measured for each sample. Depending on the composition of tag gas mixtures, the different patterns of γ-ray peak spectra from 79 Kr, 125 Xe, etc. produced through tag gas activation were able to be clearly identified. These experimental data will be very useful for the benchmark test of tag gas activation calculation applied to the fast reactor failed fuel detection. (author)

  8. Overestimation of test performance by ROC analysis: Effect of small sample size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeley, G.W.; Borgstrom, M.C.; Patton, D.D.; Myers, K.J.; Barrett, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    New imaging systems are often observer-rated by ROC techniques. For practical reasons the number of different images, or sample size (SS), is kept small. Any systematic bias due to small SS would bias system evaluation. The authors set about to determine whether the area under the ROC curve (AUC) would be systematically biased by small SS. Monte Carlo techniques were used to simulate observer performance in distinguishing signal (SN) from noise (N) on a 6-point scale; P(SN) = P(N) = .5. Four sample sizes (15, 25, 50 and 100 each of SN and N), three ROC slopes (0.8, 1.0 and 1.25), and three intercepts (0.8, 1.0 and 1.25) were considered. In each of the 36 combinations of SS, slope and intercept, 2000 runs were simulated. Results showed a systematic bias: the observed AUC exceeded the expected AUC in every one of the 36 combinations for all sample sizes, with the smallest sample sizes having the largest bias. This suggests that evaluations of imaging systems using ROC curves based on small sample size systematically overestimate system performance. The effect is consistent but subtle (maximum 10% of AUC standard deviation), and is probably masked by the s.d. in most practical settings. Although there is a statistically significant effect (F = 33.34, P<0.0001) due to sample size, none was found for either the ROC curve slope or intercept. Overestimation of test performance by small SS seems to be an inherent characteristic of the ROC technique that has not previously been described

  9. Further examination of embedded performance validity indicators for the Conners' Continuous Performance Test and Brief Test of Attention in a large outpatient clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharland, Michael J; Waring, Stephen C; Johnson, Brian P; Taran, Allise M; Rusin, Travis A; Pattock, Andrew M; Palcher, Jeanette A

    2018-01-01

    Assessing test performance validity is a standard clinical practice and although studies have examined the utility of cognitive/memory measures, few have examined attention measures as indicators of performance validity beyond the Reliable Digit Span. The current study further investigates the classification probability of embedded Performance Validity Tests (PVTs) within the Brief Test of Attention (BTA) and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II), in a large clinical sample. This was a retrospective study of 615 patients consecutively referred for comprehensive outpatient neuropsychological evaluation. Non-credible performance was defined two ways: failure on one or more PVTs and failure on two or more PVTs. Classification probability of the BTA and CPT-II into non-credible groups was assessed. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were derived to identify clinically relevant cut-off scores. When using failure on two or more PVTs as the indicator for non-credible responding compared to failure on one or more PVTs, highest classification probability, or area under the curve (AUC), was achieved by the BTA (AUC = .87 vs. .79). CPT-II Omission, Commission, and Total Errors exhibited higher classification probability as well. Overall, these findings corroborate previous findings, extending them to a large clinical sample. BTA and CPT-II are useful embedded performance validity indicators within a clinical battery but should not be used in isolation without other performance validity indicators.

  10. Sampling based uncertainty analysis of 10% hot leg break LOCA in large scale test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Samiran; Kraina, V.; Dubey, S. K.; Rao, R. S.; Gupta, S. K.

    2010-01-01

    Sampling based uncertainty analysis was carried out to quantify uncertainty in predictions of best estimate code RELAP5/MOD3.2 for a thermal hydraulic test (10% hot leg break LOCA) performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) as a part of an IAEA coordinated research project. The nodalisation of the test facility was qualified for both steady state and transient level by systematically applying the procedures led by uncertainty methodology based on accuracy extrapolation (UMAE); uncertainty analysis was carried out using the Latin hypercube sampling (LHS) method to evaluate uncertainty for ten input parameters. Sixteen output parameters were selected for uncertainty evaluation and uncertainty band between 5 th and 95 th percentile of the output parameters were evaluated. It was observed that the uncertainty band for the primary pressure during two phase blowdown is larger than that of the remaining period. Similarly, a larger uncertainty band is observed relating to accumulator injection flow during reflood phase. Importance analysis was also carried out and standard rank regression coefficients were computed to quantify the effect of each individual input parameter on output parameters. It was observed that the break discharge coefficient is the most important uncertain parameter relating to the prediction of all the primary side parameters and that the steam generator (SG) relief pressure setting is the most important parameter in predicting the SG secondary pressure

  11. Sample size determination for disease prevalence studies with partially validated data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shi-Fang; Poon, Wai-Yin; Tang, Man-Lai

    2016-02-01

    Disease prevalence is an important topic in medical research, and its study is based on data that are obtained by classifying subjects according to whether a disease has been contracted. Classification can be conducted with high-cost gold standard tests or low-cost screening tests, but the latter are subject to the misclassification of subjects. As a compromise between the two, many research studies use partially validated datasets in which all data points are classified by fallible tests, and some of the data points are validated in the sense that they are also classified by the completely accurate gold-standard test. In this article, we investigate the determination of sample sizes for disease prevalence studies with partially validated data. We use two approaches. The first is to find sample sizes that can achieve a pre-specified power of a statistical test at a chosen significance level, and the second is to find sample sizes that can control the width of a confidence interval with a pre-specified confidence level. Empirical studies have been conducted to demonstrate the performance of various testing procedures with the proposed sample sizes. The applicability of the proposed methods are illustrated by a real-data example. © The Author(s) 2012.

  12. Spearman's "law of diminishing returns" and the role of test reliability investigated in a large sample of Danish military draftees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teasdale, Thomas William; Hartmann, P.

    2005-01-01

    The present article investigates Spearman's "Law of Diminishing Returns" (SLODR), which hypothesizes that the g saturation for cognitive tests is lower for high ability subjects than for low ability subjects. This hypothesis was tested in a large sample of Danish military draftees (N = 6757) who...... were representative of the young adult male population, aged 18-19, and tested with a group-administered intelligence test comprised of four subtests. The aim of the study was twofold. The first was to reproduce previous SLODR findings by the present authors. This was done by replicating...... in reliability could account for the difference in g saturation across ability groups. The results showed that the reliability was larger for the High ability group, thereby not explaining the present findings....

  13. Validation of ten-minute single sample carbon-14 urea breath test for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabakaran, K.; Fernandes, V.; McDonald, J.

    1996-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is traditionally diagnosed by endoscopy followed by gastric biopsy and histologic demonstration of organisms, rapid urease test and culture. The non-invasive carbon-14-urea breath test has been widely accepted now for the diagnosis of this bacterium. This study was aimed to establish and validate normal and abnormal values for an Australian population, for a single sample carbon-14-urea breath test at ten minutes. A dose of 185 kBq was used in order to achieve reasonable counting statistics. The derived values were validated with the results of the rapid urease test. This method has a high sensitivity, specificity and greater patient acceptance, and could be used in many clinical settings as the first modality for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection and for documenting response or cure after antibiotic therapy for eradication. 11 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  14. Modeling and Testing of Phase Transition-Based Deployable Systems for Small Body Sample Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quadrelli, Marco; Backes, Paul; Wilkie, Keats; Giersch, Lou; Quijano, Ubaldo; Keim, Jason; Mukherjee, Rudranarayan

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the modeling, simulation, and testing work related to the development of technology to investigate the potential that shape memory actuation has to provide mechanically simple and affordable solutions for delivering assets to a surface and for sample capture and return. We investigate the structural dynamics and controllability aspects of an adaptive beam carrying an end-effector which, by changing equilibrium phases is able to actively decouple the end-effector dynamics from the spacecraft dynamics during the surface contact phase. Asset delivery and sample capture and return are at the heart of several emerging potential missions to small bodies, such as asteroids and comets, and to the surface of large bodies, such as Titan.

  15. Testing smooth and notched samples for identification of brittle material fracture mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, S.M.; Ivanov, V.S.

    1987-01-01

    Mechanical tests of cermet made of LaCrO 3 and Cr powder mixture in 3:2 mass ratio were conducted in LaCrO 3 -Cr system. Powder mixtures were exposed to static pressing and sintering (sintered cermets) or to high-speed pressing with following thermal treatment (high-speed pressing cermets). It is shown, that nonlinear deformation strength at deformation of brittle material smooth and notched samples allows to evaluate properly correlation of microplasticity and microcracking at brittle powder materials fracture

  16. Numerical modelling of fracture initiation and propagation in biaxial tests on rock samples

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van de Steen, B

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available and Peirce, 1995). Additional edges can be obtained in the Voronoi tessellation, by connecting the geometric centre of the Voronoi polygons with the vertices of the polygons. These last elements are further referred to as the internal fracture paths, while... samples without flaws therefore display a very brittle behaviour (Napier and Peirce, 1995). To obtain a more plastic behaviour, it may be necessary to adjust the flaw density as well (D0 to D0b, Table 2). The brittleness of the simulated biaxial tests...

  17. Specific wavelength colorimeter. [for measuring given solute concentration in test sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, C. C.; Mcdavid, L. S.; Walsh, J. M. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A self contained, specific wavelength, single beam colorimeter is described for direct spectrophotometric measurement of the concentration of a given solute in a test sample. An electrical circuit employing a photoconductive cell converts the optical output into a linear, directly readable meter output. The colorimeter is simple to operate and is adapted for use in zero gravity conditions. In a specific application, the colorimeter is designed to analyze the concentration of iodine in potable water carried aboard a space vehicle such as the 4B stage of Skylab.

  18. Test in a beam of large-area Micromegas chambers for sampling calorimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Dalmaz, A.; Drancourt, C.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Koletsou, I.; Peltier, F.; Samarati, J.; Vouters, G.

    2014-06-11

    Application of Micromegas for sampling calorimetry puts specific constraints on the design and performance of this gaseous detector. In particular, uniform and linear response, low noise and stability against high ionisation density deposits are prerequisites to achieving good energy resolution. A Micromegas-based hadronic calorimeter was proposed for an application at a future linear collider experiment and three technologically advanced prototypes of 1$\\times$1 m$^{2}$ were constructed. Their merits relative to the above-mentioned criteria are discussed on the basis of measurements performed at the CERN SPS test-beam facility.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION AND SETTLING TESTS WITH TANK 51H SLURRY SAMPLES HTF-076-081

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAY, MICHAEL

    2006-01-01

    Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) is the next sludge batch being prepared for feed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SB4 includes sludge from Tanks 5F, 6F, and 11H and heels from Tanks 7F and 51H. In preparation of SB4, sludge was transferred from Tank 11H to Tank 51H. The sludge currently in Tank 51H has been found to settle at slower rates than previous sludge batches. The slow sludge settling in Tank 51H impacts the ability to wash SB4 to the desired final weight percent insoluble solids and sodium endpoint. This could impact the ability to have SB4 ready on time to support DWPF and result in increased recycle back to the Tank Farm, reduced waste loading at DWPF, and lengthened cycle time in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT). The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to characterize and investigate the slower settling rate with six slurry dip samples of Tank 51H sludge. The filtered supernate and the total dried solids of the sludge were analyzed and summaries of the results published in the references listed below. The sludge composition was found to be consistent with H-Area high aluminum sludge. Difficulties were encountered with dissolving all of the material in the dried sludge solids. An analysis of the undissolved material from the digestions found the main constituent was Boehmite (AlO(OH)). This report provides all of the compositional data and an analysis of the data with recommended values to use for the composition of the Tank 51H composite sample. Tables 3-2 through 3-4 provide the composition of the Tank 51H composite sample. Settling tests conducted with the Tank 51H sludge showed a much slower settling rate than with the sludge in Sludge Batch 3 (SB3). A mixture of Tank 51H and sludge from SB3 was prepared to mimic the projected final composition of Sludge Batch 4 (SB4). The mixture showed minimal improvement in the settling rate versus Tank 51H sludge alone. An attempt to

  20. The replacement of an electromagnetic primary sodium sampling pump in the Fast Flux Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grygiel, M.L.; McCargar, C.G.

    1985-01-01

    On November 16, 1984 a leak was discovered in one of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Primary Sodium Sampling System electromagnetic pumps. The leak was discovered in the course of routine cell entry to investigate a shorted trace heat element. The purpose of this paper is to describe the circumstances surrounding the occurrence of the leak, the actions taken to replace the damaged pump and the additional steps which were necessary to return the plant to power. In addition, the processes involved in producing the leak are described briefly. The relative ease of recovery from this incident is indicative of the overall feasibility of the Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) operational concept

  1. Validating internet research: a test of the psychometric equivalence of internet and in-person samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerson, Paul; Tryon, Warren W

    2003-11-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric equivalency of Web-based research. The Sexual Boredom Scale was presented via the World-Wide Web along with five additional scales used to validate it. A subset of 533 participants that matched a previously published sample (Watt & Ewing, 1996) on age, gender, and race was identified. An 8 x 8 correlation matrix from the matched Internet sample was compared via structural equation modeling with a similar 8 x 8 correlation matrix from the previously published study. The Internet and previously published samples were psychometrically equivalent. Coefficient alpha values calculated on the matched Internet sample yielded reliability coefficients almost identical to those for the previously published sample. Factors such as computer administration and uncontrollable administration settings did not appear to affect the results. Demographic data indicated an overrepresentation of males by about 6% and Caucasians by about 13% relative to the U.S. Census (2000). A total of 2,230 participants were obtained in about 8 months without remuneration. These results suggest that data collection on the Web is (1) reliable, (2) valid, (3) reasonably representative, (4) cost effective, and (5) efficient.

  2. Clinical evaluation of human papillomavirus detection by careHPV™ test on physician-samples and self-samples using the indicating FTA Elute® card.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shao-Ming; Hu, Shang-Ying; Chen, Feng; Chen, Wen; Zhao, Fang-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Ma, Xin-Ming; Qiao, You-Lin

    2014-01-01

    To make the clinical evaluation of a solid-state human papillomavirus (HPV) sampling medium in combination with an economical HPV testing method (careHPV™) for cervical cancer screening. 396 women aged 25-65 years were enrolled for cervical cancer screening, and four samples were collected. Two samples were collected by woman themselves, among which one was stored in DCM preservative solution (called "liquid sample") and the other was applied on the Whatman Indicating FTA Elute® card (FTA card). Another two samples were collected by physician and stored in DCM preservative solution and FTA card, respectively. All the samples were detected by careHPV™ test. All the women were administered a colposcopy examination, and biopsies were taken for pathological confirmation if necessary. FTA card demonstrated a comparable sensitivity of detecting high grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) with the liquid sample carrier for self and physician-sampling, but showed a higher specificity than that of liquid sample carrier for self-sampling (FTA vs Liquid: 79.0% vs 71.6%, p=0.02). Generally, the FTA card had a comparable accuracy with that of Liquid-based medium by different sampling operators, with an area under the curve of 0.807 for physician and FTA, 0.781 for physician and Liquid, 0.728 for self and FTA, and 0.733 for self and Liquid (p>0.05). FTA card is a promising sample carrier for cervical cancer screening. With appropriate education programmes and further optimization of the experimental workflow, FTA card based self-collection in combination with centralized careHPV™ testing can help expand the coverage of cervical cancer screening in low-resource areas.

  3. Sampling pig farms at the abattoir in a cross-sectional study - Evaluation of a sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2017-09-15

    A cross-sectional study design is relatively inexpensive, fast and easy to conduct when compared to other study designs. Careful planning is essential to obtaining a representative sample of the population, and the recommended approach is to use simple random sampling from an exhaustive list of units in the target population. This approach is rarely feasible in practice, and other sampling procedures must often be adopted. For example, when slaughter pigs are the target population, sampling the pigs on the slaughter line may be an alternative to on-site sampling at a list of farms. However, it is difficult to sample a large number of farms from an exact predefined list, due to the logistics and workflow of an abattoir. Therefore, it is necessary to have a systematic sampling procedure and to evaluate the obtained sample with respect to the study objective. We propose a method for 1) planning, 2) conducting, and 3) evaluating the representativeness and reproducibility of a cross-sectional study when simple random sampling is not possible. We used an example of a cross-sectional study with the aim of quantifying the association of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial consumption in Danish slaughter pigs. It was not possible to visit farms within the designated timeframe. Therefore, it was decided to use convenience sampling at the abattoir. Our approach was carried out in three steps: 1) planning: using data from meat inspection to plan at which abattoirs and how many farms to sample; 2) conducting: sampling was carried out at five abattoirs; 3) evaluation: representativeness was evaluated by comparing sampled and non-sampled farms, and the reproducibility of the study was assessed through simulated sampling based on meat inspection data from the period where the actual data collection was carried out. In the cross-sectional study samples were taken from 681 Danish pig farms, during five weeks from February to March 2015. The evaluation showed that the sampling

  4. Motor coordination, working memory, and academic achievement in a normative adolescent sample: testing a mediation model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rigoli, D; Piek, J.P.; Kane, R; Oosterlaan, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the relationship between motor coordination and academic achievement is mediated by working memory (WM) in a normative adolescent sample. Participants included 93 adolescents aged 12-16. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 provided three

  5. A ring test of in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility: Analytical variability and sample ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (NDFD) is an empirical measurement used to describe fermentability of NDF by rumen microbes. Variability is inherent in assays and affects the precision that can be expected for replicated samples. The study objective was to evaluate variability w...

  6. Study on uranium leaching behavior from coal fly ash samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Police, S.; Maity, S.; Chaudhary, D.K.; Sahu, S.K.; Pandit, G.G.

    2017-01-01

    Leachability of trace and toxic metals from coal fly ash (FA) poses significant environmental problems especially ground and surface water contamination. In the present study, leachability of U using batch leaching tests (i.e., at various leachate pH values) and using TCLP was studied. Results of pH variation study indicate that, U has higher leachability in acidic medium as compared to slightly alkaline medium. The leachable U concentrations observed in pH variation study are well below the WHO safety limits. In TCLP leachates, the leachable U concentrations are found to be higher than that observed in pH variation study. (author)

  7. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, M.; Martinetto, P.; Somogyi, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Dooryhee, E.; Peltier, N.; Alianelli, L.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.

    2004-01-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used

  8. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez del Río, M.; Martinetto, P.; Somogyi, A.; Reyes-Valerio, C.; Dooryhée, E.; Peltier, N.; Alianelli, L.; Moignard, B.; Pichon, L.; Calligaro, T.; Dran, J.-C.

    2004-10-01

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  9. Microanalysis study of archaeological mural samples containing Maya blue pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, M. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France)]. E-mail: srio@esrf.fr; Martinetto, P. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Somogyi, A. [ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble (France); Reyes-Valerio, C. [INAH, Mexico DF (Mexico); Dooryhee, E. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Peltier, N. [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, BP166 F-30842 Grenoble (France); Alianelli, L. [INFM-OGG c/o ESRF, BP220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Moignard, B. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Calligaro, T. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France); Dran, J.-C. [C2RMF, 6 Rue des Pyramides, F-75041 Paris Cedex 01 (France)

    2004-10-08

    Elemental analysis by X-ray fluorescence and particle induced X-ray emission is applied to the study of several Mesoamerican mural samples containing blue pigments. The most characteristic blue pigment is Maya blue, a very stable organo-clay complex original from Maya culture and widely used in murals, pottery and sculptures in a vast region of Mesoamerica during the pre-hispanic time (from VIII century) and during the colonization until 1580. The mural samples come from six different archaeological sites (four pre-hispanic and two from XVI century colonial convents). The correlation between the presence of some elements and the pigment colour is discussed. From the comparative study of the elemental concentration, some conclusions are drawn on the nature of the pigments and the technology used.

  10. Analysis of intraosseous samples in endotoxemic shock--an experimental study in the anaesthetised pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, G; Larsson, A; Lipcsey, M; Berglund, L; Eriksson, M

    2014-03-01

    Intraosseous (IO) access is used in emergency situations to allow rapid initiation of treatment. IO access is also sometimes used for blood sampling, although data on accuracy of such sampling in critical illness are limited. There is also a potential risk that bone marrow fragments in IO samples may damage laboratory equipment. It is ethically questionable to perform a simultaneous comparison between IO and arterial/venous sampling in critically ill humans. We have, thus, studied the analytical performance of IO sampling in a porcine septic shock model using a cartridge-based analyser. Eight pigs with endotoxin-induced septic shock were sampled hourly for 6 h, and analysed for blood gases, acid base status, haemoglobin, glucose and lactate using point of care instruments. Samples were taken from three IO cannulae (tibia bilaterally, one with infusion, and humerus), one arterial and one venous. An interaction test was used to assess changes in agreement between methods over time. Bland–Altman plots were constructed to study bias between methods. There were, to a varying extent, differences between IO and arterial/venous levels for all studied variables, but agreement did not change significantly during the experiment. A general finding was a large dispersion of differences between methods. IO sample values should be treated with caution in this setting but may add useful information to the clinical picture. The tibia or humerus may be used for sampling. IO infusion decreases agreement, thus sampling during infusion should be avoided.

  11. Use of Dried Capillary Blood Sampling for Islet Autoantibody Screening in Relatives: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingley, Polly J; Rafkin, Lisa E; Matheson, Della; Steck, Andrea K; Yu, Liping; Henderson, Courtney; Beam, Craig A; Boulware, David C

    2015-12-01

    Islet autoantibody testing provides the basis for assessment of risk of progression to type 1 diabetes. We set out to determine the feasibility and acceptability of dried capillary blood spot-based screening to identify islet autoantibody-positive relatives potentially eligible for inclusion in prevention trials. Dried blood spot (DBS) and venous samples were collected from 229 relatives participating in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study. Both samples were tested for glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen 2, and zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies, and venous samples were additionally tested for insulin autoantibodies and islet cell antibodies. We defined multiple autoantibody positive as two or more autoantibodies in venous serum and DBS screen positive if one or more autoantibodies were detected. Participant questionnaires compared the sample collection methods. Of 44 relatives who were multiple autoantibody positive in venous samples, 42 (95.5%) were DBS screen positive, and DBS accurately detected 145 of 147 autoantibody-negative relatives (98.6%). Capillary blood sampling was perceived as more painful than venous blood draw, but 60% of participants would prefer initial screening using home fingerstick with clinic visits only required if autoantibodies were found. Capillary blood sampling could facilitate screening for type 1 diabetes prevention studies.

  12. Dipstick test for rapid diagnosis of Shigella dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and its potential use on stool samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelam Taneja

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We describe a test for rapid detection of S. dysenteriae 1 in bacterial cultures and in stools, at the bedside of patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The test is based on the detection of S. dysenteriae 1 lipopolysaccharide (LPS using serotype 1-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles and displayed on a one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 15 ng/ml of LPS was detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in 10 minutes. In distilled water and in reconstituted stools, an unequivocal positive reaction was obtained with 1.6×10⁶ CFU/ml and 4.9×10⁶ CFU/ml of S. dysenteriae 1, respectively. Optimal conditions to read the test have been determined to limit the risk of ambiguous results due to appearance of a faint yellow test band in some negative samples. The specificity was 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and unrelated strains in culture. When tested on 328 clinical samples in India, Vietnam, Senegal and France by laboratory technicians and in Democratic Republic of Congo by a field technician, the specificity (312/316 was 98.7% (95% CI:96.6-99.6% and the sensitivity (11/12 was 91.7% (95% CI:59.8-99.6%. Stool cultures and the immunochromatographic test showed concordant results in 98.4 % of cases (323/328 in comparative studies. Positive and negative predictive values were 73.3% (95% CI:44.8-91.1% and 99.7% (95% CI:98-100%. CONCLUSION: The initial findings presented here for a simple dipstick-based test to diagnose S. dysenteriae 1 demonstrates its promising potential to become a powerful tool for case management and epidemiological surveys.

  13. High explosive spot test analyses of samples from Operable Unit (OU) 1111

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRae, D.; Haywood, W.; Powell, J.; Harris, B.

    1995-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation has been completed of environmental contaminants at selected sites within the Group DX-10 (formally Group M-7) area. Soil samples taken from specific locations at this detonator facility were analyzed for harmful metals and screened for explosives. A sanitary outflow, a burn pit, a pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) production outflow field, an active firing chamber, an inactive firing chamber, and a leach field were sampled. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) was used to obtain semi-quantitative concentrations of metals in the soil. Two field spot-test kits for explosives were used to assess the presence of energetic materials in the soil and in items found at the areas tested. PETN is the major explosive in detonators manufactured and destroyed at Los Alamos. No measurable amounts of PETN or other explosives were detected in the soil, but items taken from the burn area and a high-energy explosive (HE)/chemical sump were contaminated. The concentrations of lead, mercury, and uranium are given.

  14. Test of methods for retrospective activity size distribution determination from filter samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisenberg, Oliver; Tschiersch, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Determining the activity size distribution of radioactive aerosol particles requires sophisticated and heavy equipment, which makes measurements at large number of sites difficult and expensive. Therefore three methods for a retrospective determination of size distributions from aerosol filter samples in the laboratory were tested for their applicability. Extraction into a carrier liquid with subsequent nebulisation showed size distributions with a slight but correctable bias towards larger diameters compared with the original size distribution. Yields in the order of magnitude of 1% could be achieved. Sonication-assisted extraction into a carrier liquid caused a coagulation mode to appear in the size distribution. Sonication-assisted extraction into the air did not show acceptable results due to small yields. The method of extraction into a carrier liquid without sonication was applied to aerosol samples from Chernobyl in order to calculate inhalation dose coefficients for 137 Cs based on the individual size distribution. The effective dose coefficient is about half of that calculated with a default reference size distribution. - Highlights: • Activity size distributions can be recovered after aerosol sampling on filters. • Extraction into a carrier liquid and subsequent nebulisation is appropriate. • This facilitates the determination of activity size distributions for individuals. • Size distributions from this method can be used for individual dose coefficients. • Dose coefficients were calculated for the workers at the new Chernobyl shelter

  15. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, J.L.; Davies, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140 Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5–7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra Lynx TM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident

  16. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, J. L.; Davies, A. V.

    2014-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a 140Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5-7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra LynxTM multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  17. Cosmic veto gamma-spectrometry for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, J.L., E-mail: jonathan.burnett@awe.co.uk; Davies, A.V.

    2014-05-21

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) is supported by a global network of monitoring stations that perform high-resolution gamma-spectrometry on air filter samples for the identification of 85 radionuclides. At the UK CTBT Radionuclide Laboratory (GBL15), a novel cosmic veto gamma-spectrometer has been developed to improve the sensitivity of station measurements, providing a mean background reduction of 80.8% with mean MDA improvements of 45.6%. The CTBT laboratory requirement for a {sup 140}Ba MDA is achievable after 1.5 days counting compared to 5–7 days using conventional systems. The system consists of plastic scintillation plates that detect coincident cosmic-ray interactions within an HPGe gamma-spectrometer using the Canberra Lynx{sup TM} multi-channel analyser. The detector is remotely configurable using a TCP/IP interface and requires no dedicated coincidence electronics. It would be especially useful in preventing false-positives at remote station locations (e.g. Halley, Antarctica) where sample transfer to certified laboratories is logistically difficult. The improved sensitivity has been demonstrated for a CTBT air filter sample collected after the Fukushima incident.

  18. Ground-water sampling of the NNWSI (Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation) water table test wells surrounding Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuska, N.A.

    1988-12-01

    The US Geological Survey (USGS), as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) study of the water table in the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, completed 16 test holes on the Nevada Test Site and Bureau of Land Management-administered lands surrounding Yucca Mountain. These 16 wells are monitored by the USGS for water-level data; however, they had not been sampled for ground-water chemistry or isotropic composition. As part of the review of the proposed Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository, the Desert Research Institute (DRI) sampled six of these wells. The goal of this sampling program was to measure field-dependent parameters of the water such as electrical conductivity, pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen, and to collect samples for major and minor element chemistry and isotopic analysis. This information will be used as part of a program to geochemically model the flow direction between the volcanic tuff aquifers and the underlying regional carbonate aquifer

  19. Health Orientation, Knowledge, and Attitudes toward Genetic Testing and Personalized Genomic Services: Preliminary Data from an Italian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Oliveri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The study aims at assessing personality tendencies and orientations that could be closely correlated with knowledge, awareness, and interest toward undergoing genetic testing. Methods. A sample of 145 subjects in Italy completed an online survey, investigating demographic data, health orientation, level of perceived knowledge about genetic risk, genetic screening, and personal attitudes toward direct to consumer genetic testing (DTCGT. Results. Results showed that respondents considered genetic assessment to be helpful for disease prevention, but they were concerned that results could affect their life planning with little clinical utility. Furthermore, a very high percentage of respondents (67% had never heard about genetic testing directly available to the public. Data showed that personality tendencies, such as personal health consciousness, health internal control, health esteem, and confidence, motivation to avoid unhealthiness and motivation for healthiness affected the uptake of genetic information and the interest in undergoing genetic testing. Conclusions. Public knowledge and attitudes toward genetic risk and genetic testing among European countries, along with individual personality and psychological tendencies that could affect these attitudes, remain unexplored. The present study constitutes one of the first attempts to investigate how such personality tendencies could motivation to undergo genetic testing and engagement in lifestyle changes.

  20. Dustiness test of nanopowders using a standard rotating drum with a modified sampling train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Chuen-Jinn; Wu, Chien-Hsien; Leu, Ming-Long; Chen, Sheng-Chieh; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Ko, Fu-Hsiang

    2009-01-01

    The standard rotating drum tester was used to determine the dustiness of two nanopowders, nano-TiO 2 and fine ZnO, in standard 1-min tests. Then, the sampling train was modified to determine the number and mass distributions of the generated particles in the respirable size range using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS) and a Multi-orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (MOUDI) in the 30-min tests. It was found that very few particles below 100 nm were generated and the released rate of particles decreased with increasing rotation time for both nanopowders in the 30-min tests. Due to the fluffy structure of the released TiO 2 agglomerated particles, the mass distributions measured by the MOUDI showed large differences with those determined by the APS assuming the apparent bulk densities of the powders. The differences were small for the ZnO agglomerates, which were more compact than the TiO 2 agglomerates.

  1. Efficiency of Direct Microscopy of Stool Samples Using an Antigen-Specific Adhesin Test for Entamoeba Histolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu İrvem

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: E. histolytica is among the common causes of acute gastroenteritis. The pathogenic species E. histolytica and the nonpathogenic species E. dispar cannot be morphologically differentiated, although correct identification of these protozoans is important for treatment and public health. In many laboratories, the screening of leukocytes, erythrocytes, amoebic cysts, trophozoites and parasite eggs is performed using Native-Lugol’s iodine for pre-diagnosis. Aims: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of E. histolytica in stool samples collected from 788 patients residing in the Anatolian region of İstanbul who presented with gastrointestinal complaints. We used the information obtained to evaluate the effectiveness of microscopic examinations when used in combination with the E. histolytica adhesin antigen test. Study Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study Methods: Preparations of stool samples stained with Native-Lugol’s iodine were evaluated using the E. histolytica adhesin test and examined using standard light microscopy at ×40 magnification. Pearson’s Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used for multivariate analysis. Results: Of 788 samples, 38 (4.8% were positive for E. histolytica adhesin antigens. When evaluated together with the presences of erythrocytes, leukocytes, cysts, and trophozoites, respectively, using logistic regression analysis, leukocyte positivity was significantly higher. The odds ratio of leukocyte positivity increased adhesin test-positivity by 2,530-fold (95% CI=1.01–6.330. Adhesin test-positivity was significant (p=0.047. Conclusion: In line with these findings, the consistency between the presence of cysts and erythrocytes and adhesin test-positivity was found to be highly significant, but that of higher levels of leukocytes was found to be discordant. It was concluded that leukocytes and trophozoites were

  2. DNA methylation analysis from saliva samples for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishitani, Shota; Parets, Sasha E; Haas, Brian W; Smith, Alicia K

    2018-06-18

    Saliva is a non-invasive, easily accessible tissue, which is regularly collected in large epidemiological studies to examine genetic questions. Recently, it is becoming more common to use saliva to assess DNA methylation. However, DNA extracted from saliva is a mixture of both bacterial and human DNA derived from epithelial and immune cells in the mouth. Thus, there are unique challenges to using salivary DNA in methylation studies that can influence data quality. This study assesses: (1) quantification of human DNA after extraction; (2) delineation of human and bacterial DNA; (3) bisulfite conversion (BSC); (4) quantification of BSC DNA; (5) PCR amplification of BSC DNA from saliva and; (6) quantitation of DNA methylation with a targeted assay. The framework proposed will allow saliva samples to be more widely used in targeted epigenetic studies.

  3. Determination of 226Ra by gamma spectrometry: study of packaging vial of sample for analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Andre Cavalcanti

    2015-01-01

    Determination of radioactivity levels of 226 Ra by gamma spectrometry in a sample is based on measurements of 214 Pb and 214 Bi, daughters of 222 Rn. Because radon is a gas, it can leak from the sample vial or accumulate on the upper empty it. If the vial has any crack, there will be loss of gas, which will cause error in determining the 226 Ra concentration. One possible cause of cracks in the vials, that houses standards and samples, is the radiolysis action in the vial material, usually a polymer. As the demand 226 Ra analysis in different matrices (geological samples, food, plants, etc.) is increasing, it was decided to study some polymer vials available on the market, to verify the feasibility to be used when is applied the analysis method using gamma spectrometry. Four types of polymer vials have been studied. The radiation doses in walls of the vials caused by natural radionuclides present in the sample were simulated using gamma irradiation. Tests, such as compressive strength test and tightness, were applied to the irradiated and non-irradiated vials. First, to verify the effect of radiolysis on the vial material and also if there was 222 Rn diffusion in their walls. These preliminary results pointed out that the acrylic vials are the best option of packaging samples for analysis. This study should be repeated in a larger number of samples for a better evaluation. (author)

  4. Hackers' Motivations: Testing Schwartz's Theory of Motivational Types of Values in a Sample of Hackers

    OpenAIRE

    Renushka Madarie

    2017-01-01

    Although much has been written on topic of hacker motivations, little empirical research has been conducted and even less research has attempted to quantify hackers’ motivations. The present study analyses relationships between the frequency of several hacking behaviours and motivations to hack in a sample of male hackers and potential hackers. Motivations frequently recurring in the literature are assessed and Schwartz´s (1992) Theory of Motivational Types of Values is applied. A preference ...

  5. Characterization of Decommissioned PWR Vessel Internals Material Samples: Tensile and SSRT Testing (Nonproprietary Version)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, M.; Shogan, R.

    2004-01-01

    Pressurized water reactor (PWR) cores operate under extreme environmental conditions due to coolant chemistry, operating temperature, and neutron exposure. Extending the life of PWRs requires detailed knowledge of the changes in mechanical and corrosion properties of the structural austenitic stainless steel components adjacent to the fuel (internals) subjected to such conditions. This project studied the effects of reactor service on the mechanical and corrosion properties of samples of baffle plate, former plate, and core barrel from a decommissioned PWR

  6. Transport studies in p-type double quantum well samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyndman, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    The motivation for the study of double quantum well samples is that the extra spatial degree of freedom can modify the ground state energies of the system, leading to new and interesting many body effects. Electron bi-layers have been widely studied but the work presented here is the first systematic study of transport properties of a p-type, double quantum well system. The samples, grown on the 311 plane, consisted of two 100A GaAs wells separated by a 30A AlAs barrier. The thin barrier in our structures, gives rise to very strong inter-layer Coulombic interactions but in contrast to electron double quantum well samples, tunnelling between the two wells is very weak. This is due to the large effective mass of holes compared with electrons. It is possible to accurately control the total density of a sample and the relative occupancy of each well using front and back gates. A systematic study of the magnetoresistance properties of the p-type bi-layers, was carried out at low temperatures and in high magnetic fields, for samples covering a range of densities. Considerable care was required to obtain reliable results as the samples were extremely susceptible to electrical shock and were prone to drift in density slowly over time. With balanced wells, the very low tunnelling in the p-type bi-layer leads to a complete absence of all odd integers in both resistance and thermopower except for the v=1 state, ( v 1/2 in each layer) where v is the total Landau level filling factor. Unlike other FQHE features the v=1 state strengthens with increased density as inter-layer interactions increase in strength over intra-layer interactions. The state is also destroyed at a critical temperature, which is much lower than the measured activation temperature. This is taken as evidence for a finite temperature phase transition predicted for the bi-layer v=1. From the experimental observations, we construct a phase diagram for the state, which agree closely with theoretical predictions

  7. Conceptual studies of plasma engineering test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Toru; Tazima, Teruhiko; Sugihara, Masayoshi; Kasai, Masao; Shinya, Kichiro

    1979-04-01

    Conceptual studies have been made of a Plasma Engineering Test Facility, which is to be constructed following JT-60 prior to the experimental power reactor. The physical aim of this machine is to examine self-ignition conditions. This machine possesses all essential technologies for reactor plasma, i.e. superconducting magnet, remote maintenance, shielding, blanket test modules, tritium handling. Emphasis in the conceptual studies was on structural consistency of the machine and whether the machine would be constructed practically. (author)

  8. Test results of the first 50 kA NbTi full size sample for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciazynski, D.; Zani, L.; Huber, S.; Stepanov, B.; Karlemo, B.

    2003-01-01

    Within the framework of the research studies for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, the first full size NbTi conductor sample was fabricated in industry and tested in the SULTAN facility (Villigen, Switzerland). This sample (PF-FSJS), which is relevant to the Poloidal Field coils of ITER, is composed of two parallel straight bars of conductor, connected at bottom through a joint designed according to the Cea twin-box concept. The two conductor legs are identical except for the use of different strands: a nickel plated NbTi strand with a pure copper matrix in one leg, and a bare NbTi strand with copper matrix and internal CuNi barrier in the other leg. The two conductors and the joint were extensively tested regarding DC (direct current) and AC (alternative current) properties. This paper reports on the tests results and analysis, stressing the differences between the two conductor legs and discussing the impact of the test results on the ITER design criteria for conductor and joint. While joint DC resistance, conductors and joint AC losses, fulfilled the ITER requirements, neither conductor could reach its current sharing temperature at relevant ITER currents, due to instabilities. Although the drop in temperature is slight for the CuNi strand cable, it is more significant for the Ni plated strand cable. (authors)

  9. Psychometric Quality of the Dutch Version of the Children's Eating Attitude Test in a Community Sample and a Sample of Overweight Youngsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Theuwis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Disturbed eating attitudes may be important precursors of pathological eating patterns and, therefore need to be researched adequately. The Children's Eating Attitude Test (ChEAT is indicated for detecting at-risk attitudes and concerns in youngsters. Method. The present study was designed to provide a preliminary psychometric evaluation of the Dutch version of the ChEAT, by examining reliability and validity in a sample of 166 youngsters. Results. Generally the ChEAT seems to be a reliable instrument. Concurrent validity was demonstrated by positive correlations with measures assessing pathological eating behaviour and with related psychological problems. The discriminant validity was good. Based on ChEAT scores we can distinguish overweight youngsters from the community sample and “dieters” from “non dieters”. Divergent validity and factor structure show still shortcomings. Discussion. The Dutch version of the ChEAT seems to be a promising screening- and research instrument. Future prospective research could focus on a cut-off score for identifying at-risk youngsters.

  10. Social Connectedness and Life Satisfaction: Comparing Mean Levels for 2 Undergraduate Samples and Testing for Improvement Based on Brief Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Gary; DiMino, John; DeMaria, Peter A.; Beverly, Clyde; Chessler, Marcy; Drennan, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Comparing the mean levels of social connectedness and life satisfaction, and analyzing their relationship for 2 undergraduate samples, and testing for an increase in their means for a brief counseling sample. Participants: Between October 2013 and May 2015, 3 samples were collected: not-in-counseling (NIC; n = 941), initial counseling…

  11. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M

    2002-01-01

    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  12. Dynamic Sampling of Trace Contaminants During the Mission Operations Test of the Deep Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Oscar; Valling, Simo; Cornish, Jim

    2013-01-01

    The atmospheric composition inside spacecraft during long duration space missions is dynamic due to changes in the living and working environment of crew members, crew metabolism and payload operations. A portable FTIR gas analyzer was used to monitor the atmospheric composition within the Deep Space Habitat (DSH) during the Mission Operations Test (MOT) conducted at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The FTIR monitored up to 20 gases in near- real time. The procedures developed for operating the FTIR were successful and data was collected with the FTIR at 5 minute intervals. Not all the 20 gases sampled were detected in all the modules and it was possible to measure dynamic changes in trace contaminant concentrations that were related to crew activities involving exercise and meal preparation.

  13. The outcome of dimethylglyoxime testing in a sample of cell phones in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel dermatitis may be caused by frequent and prolonged use of cell phones. Because little is known about the frequency of nickel release from cell phones, it is difficult to estimate the risk of nickel sensitization and dermatitis among their users. OBJECTIVE: Inspired by a recent...... case of nickel dermatitis from prolonged cell phone use, the frequency of dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-positive cell phones on the Danish market was investigated. METHODS: Five major cell phone companies were contacted. Two were visited, and the DMG test was performed on a sample of their products. RESULTS...... phones from the Danish market. Prolonged use of cell phones may in some cases fulfil the criteria for items included in the European Union Nickel Directive. We believe that this new cause of nickel dermatitis should be carefully followed and that regulatory steps may be necessary....

  14. The outcome of dimethylglyoxime testing in a sample of cell phones in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J.P.; Johansen, J.D.; Zachariae, C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Nickel dermatitis may be caused by frequent and prolonged use of cell phones. Because little is known about the frequency of nickel release from cell phones, it is difficult to estimate the risk of nickel sensitization and dermatitis among their users. Objective: Inspired by a recent...... case of nickel dermatitis from prolonged cell phone use, the frequency of dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-positive cell phones on the Danish market was investigated. Methods: Five major cell phone companies were contacted. Two were visited, and the DMG test was performed on a sample of their products. Results...... phones from the Danish market. Prolonged use of cell phones may in some cases fulfil the criteria for items included in the European Union Nickel Directive. We believe that this new cause of nickel dermatitis should be carefully followed and that regulatory steps may be necessary Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  15. Testing to expand the rotary-mode core sampling system operating envelope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witwer, K.S.

    1998-01-01

    Rotary sampling using the Rotary Mode Core Sampling System (RMCSS) is constrained by what is referred to as the ''Operating Envelope''. The Operating Envelop defines the maximum downward force, maximum rotational speed and minimum purge gas flow allowed during operation of the RMCSS. The original values of 1170 lb. down force, 55 RPM rotational speed, and 30 SCFM nitrogen purge gas were determined during original envelope testing. This envelope was determined by observing the temperature rise on the bitface while drilling into waste simulants. The maximum temperature in single-shell tanks (SSTS) is considered to be approximately 9O C and the critical drill bit temperature, which is the temperature at which an exothermic reaction could be initiated in the tank waste, was previously determined to be 150 C. Thus, the drill bit temperature increase was limited to 60 C. Thermal properties of these simulants approximated typical properties of waste tank saltcake. Later, more detailed envelope testing which used a pumice block simulant, showed a notably higher temperature rise while drilling. This pumice material, which simulated a ''worst case'' foreign object embedded in the waste, has lower thermal conductivity and lower thermal diffusivity than earlier simulants. These properties caused a slower heat transfer in the pumice than in the previous simulants and consequently a higher temperature rise. The maximum downward force was subsequently reduced to 750 lb (at a maximum 55 RPM and minimum 30 SCFM purge gas flow) which was the maximum value at which the drill bit could be operated and still remain below the 60 C temperature rise

  16. Genetic Influences on Pulmonary Function: A Large Sample Twin Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Truls S; Thomsen, Simon F; van der Sluis, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Heritability of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC), and peak expiratory flow (PEF) has not been previously addressed in large twin studies. We evaluated the genetic contribution to individual differences observed in FEV(1), FVC, and PEF using data from...... the largest population-based twin study on spirometry. Specially trained lay interviewers with previous experience in spirometric measurements tested 4,314 Danish twins (individuals), 46-68 years of age, in their homes using a hand-held spirometer, and their flow-volume curves were evaluated. Modern variance...

  17. Performance of laboratories analysing welding fume on filter samples: results from the WASP proficiency testing scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Peter; Butler, Owen

    2008-06-01

    This paper emphasizes the need for occupational hygiene professionals to require evidence of the quality of welding fume data from analytical laboratories. The measurement of metals in welding fume using atomic spectrometric techniques is a complex analysis often requiring specialist digestion procedures. The results from a trial programme testing the proficiency of laboratories in the Workplace Analysis Scheme for Proficiency (WASP) to measure potentially harmful metals in several different types of welding fume showed that most laboratories underestimated the mass of analyte on the filters. The average recovery was 70-80% of the target value and >20% of reported recoveries for some of the more difficult welding fume matrices were welding fume trial filter samples. Consistent rather than erratic error predominated, suggesting that the main analytical factor contributing to the differences between the target values and results was the effectiveness of the sample preparation procedures used by participating laboratories. It is concluded that, with practice and regular participation in WASP, performance can improve over time.

  18. Short-Run Contexts and Imperfect Testing for Continuous Sampling Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Rodriguez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuous sampling plans are used to ensure a high level of quality for items produced in long-run contexts. The basic idea of these plans is to alternate between 100% inspection and a reduced rate of inspection frequency. Any inspected item that is found to be defective is replaced with a non-defective item. Because not all items are inspected, some defective items will escape to the customer. Analytical formulas have been developed that measure both the customer perceived quality and also the level of inspection effort. The analysis of continuous sampling plans does not apply to short-run contexts, where only a finite-size batch of items is to be produced. In this paper, a simulation algorithm is designed and implemented to analyze the customer perceived quality and the level of inspection effort for short-run contexts. A parameter representing the effectiveness of the test used during inspection is introduced to the analysis, and an analytical approximation is discussed. An application of the simulation algorithm that helped answer questions for the U.S. Navy is discussed.

  19. Intrusive sampling and testing of ferrocyanide tanks, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington: Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The proposed action involves intrusive sampling and testing of 24 Hanford Site single-shell waste tanks that contain ferrocyanide-nitrate/nitrite mixtures to determine the physical and chemical properties of the waste material. The Department of Energy (DOE) needs to take this action to help define the required controls to prevent or mitigate the potential for an accident during future characterization and monitoring of these tanks. Given the Unreviewed Safety Question associated with the consequences of a potential ferrocyanide nitrate/nitrite reaction, two safety assessments and this environmental assessment (EA) have been prepared to help ensure that the proposed action is conducted in a safe and environmentally sound manner. Standard operating procedures for sampling high-level waste tanks have been revised to reflect the potential presence of flammable or explosive mixtures in the waste. The proposed action would be conducted using nonsparking materials, spark resistant tools, and a portable containment enclosure (greenhouse) and plastic ground cover. The proposed activities involving Hanford Site ferrocyanide-containing tanks would be on land dedicated to DOE waste management

  20. Analysis and tests of TF magnet insulation samples for the JET upgrade to 4 tesla

    CERN Document Server

    Miele, P; Bettinali, L; Kaye, A; Last, J; Papastergiou, S; Riccardo, V; Visca, E

    2000-01-01

    The JET Toroidal Field (TF) coils were originally designed for operation at 3.4 tesla. In order to upgrade the field to 4 tesla and thus improve the performance of the JET machine, new mechanical tests and analysis were carried out on the insulation of TF coil samples. They are aimed at investigating the mechanical properties and the status of the insulation in order to set allowable stresses and force limits. In particular since the shear stress in the insulation is strongly affected by the shear modulus of elasticity G, it is important to measure this parameter. A method for the measurement of G in glass-resin fibres, the V-notched beam method (Iosipescu method) , was applied. The particular shape of the rectangular Iosipescu V- notched sample and the particular modality of force application produce pure shear stress for a reliable measurement of the G value and of the shear strength of the insulation. The effect of temperature on these mechanical properties was also investigated. Results show higher averag...

  1. Manufacturing and testing of reference samples for the definition of acceptance criteria for the ITER divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visca, Eliseo; Cacciotti, E.; Libera, S.; Mancini, A.; Pizzuto, A.; Roccella, S.; Riccardi, B.; Escourbiac, F.; Sanguinetti, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    The most critical part of a high heat flux (HHF) plasma facing component (PFC) is the armour to heat sink joint. An experimental study was launched by EFDA in order to define the acceptance criteria to be used for the procurements of the ITER Divertor PFCs. ENEA is involved in the European International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) R and D activities and together with Ansaldo Ricerche S.p.A. has manufactured several PFCs mock-ups using the Hot Radial Pressing and Pre-Brazed Casting technologies. According to the technical specifications issued by EFDA, ENEA and Ansaldo have collaborated to manufacture half of the samples with calibrated artificial defects required for this experimental study. After manufacturing, the samples were examined by ultrasonic and SATIR non-destructive examination (NDE) methods in order to confirm the size and position of the artificial defects. In particular, it was concluded that defects are detectable with these NDE techniques and they finally gave indication about the threshold of propagation during high heat flux experiments relevant with heat fluxes expected in ITER Divertor. This paper reports the manufacturing procedure used to obtain the required calibrated artificial defects in the CFC and W armoured samples as well as the NDE results and the thermal high heat flux results.

  2. Manufacturing and testing of reference samples for the definition of acceptance criteria for the ITER divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visca, Eliseo, E-mail: visca@frascati.enea.i [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Cacciotti, E.; Libera, S.; Mancini, A.; Pizzuto, A.; Roccella, S. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy); Riccardi, B., E-mail: Bruno.Riccardi@f4e.europa.e [Fusion For Energy, Barcelona (Spain); Escourbiac, F., E-mail: frederic.escourbiac@iter.or [ITER Organization, Cadarache (France); Sanguinetti, G.P., E-mail: gianpaolo.sanguinetti@aen.ansaldo.i [Ansaldo Energia S.p.A., Genova (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    The most critical part of a high heat flux (HHF) plasma facing component (PFC) is the armour to heat sink joint. An experimental study was launched by EFDA in order to define the acceptance criteria to be used for the procurements of the ITER Divertor PFCs. ENEA is involved in the European International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) R and D activities and together with Ansaldo Ricerche S.p.A. has manufactured several PFCs mock-ups using the Hot Radial Pressing and Pre-Brazed Casting technologies. According to the technical specifications issued by EFDA, ENEA and Ansaldo have collaborated to manufacture half of the samples with calibrated artificial defects required for this experimental study. After manufacturing, the samples were examined by ultrasonic and SATIR non-destructive examination (NDE) methods in order to confirm the size and position of the artificial defects. In particular, it was concluded that defects are detectable with these NDE techniques and they finally gave indication about the threshold of propagation during high heat flux experiments relevant with heat fluxes expected in ITER Divertor. This paper reports the manufacturing procedure used to obtain the required calibrated artificial defects in the CFC and W armoured samples as well as the NDE results and the thermal high heat flux results.

  3. Separation tests of heavy metals in samples of industrial wastes through flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrego L, J.

    1995-12-01

    Samples of residual muds, taken at the exit of the filter-press of the water treatment plant of a galvanoplastics industry in Lerma, Estado de Mexico, its were prepared for its qualitative and quantitative analysis. Likewise, the residual waters of the cistern located at the end of the electrodeposition process, was subjected to qualitative chemical analysis for the neutron activation technique and to quantitative analysis by atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were treated by a flotation process by means of the one which it was studied the heavy metals removal. The results show that the AP-845 collector is the one that better it fulfilled the objectives since, it solves the problem, unless by the copper that although their concentration in the residual waters drop a lot, it was not inside the standard. (Author)

  4. On the High-dimensional Power of Linear-time Kernel Two-Sample Testing under Mean-difference Alternatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ramdas, Aaditya; Reddi, Sashank J.; Poczos, Barnabas; Singh, Aarti; Wasserman, Larry

    2014-01-01

    Nonparametric two sample testing deals with the question of consistently deciding if two distributions are different, given samples from both, without making any parametric assumptions about the form of the distributions. The current literature is split into two kinds of tests - those which are consistent without any assumptions about how the distributions may differ (\\textit{general} alternatives), and those which are designed to specifically test easier alternatives, like a difference in me...

  5. Experimental study on the particles deposition in the sampling duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vendel, J.; Charuau, J. [Institut de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, Yvette (France)

    1995-02-01

    A high standard of protection against the harmful effects of radioactive aerosol dissemination requires a measurement, as representative as possible, of their concentration. This measurement depends on the techniques used for aerosol sampling and transfer to the detector, as well as on the location of the latter with respect to the potential sources. The aeraulic design of the apparatus is also an important factor. Once collected the aerosol particles often have to travel through a variably shaped duct to the measurement apparatus. This transport is responsible for losses due to the particles deposition on the walls, leading to a distortion on the concentration measurements and a change in the particle size distribution. To estimate and minimize measurement errors it is important to determine the optimal transport conditions when designing a duct; its diameter and material, the radius of curvature of the bends and the flow conditions must be defined in particular. This paper presents an experimental study in order to determine, for each deposition mechanism, the retained fraction, or the deposition velocity for different flow regimes. This study has pointed out that it exists a favourable flow regime for the particle transport through the sampling ducts (2 500 < Re < 5 000). It has been established, for any particle diameters, equations to predict the aerosol penetration in smooth-walled cylindrical metal ducts.

  6. Automated aerosol sampling and analysis for the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, H.S.; Bowyer, S.M.; Hubbard, C.W.; McKinnon, A.D.; Perkins, R.W.; Thompson, R.C.; Warner, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Detecting nuclear debris from a nuclear weapon exploded in or substantially vented to the Earth's atmosphere constitutes the most certain indication that a violation of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty has occurred. For this reason, a radionuclide portion of the International Monitoring System is being designed and implemented. The IMS will monitor aerosols and gaseous xenon isotopes to detect atmospheric and underground tests, respectively. An automated system, the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA), has been developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to meet CTBT aerosol measurement requirements. This is achieved by the use of a novel sampling apparatus, a high-resolution germanium detector, and very sophisticated software. This system draws a large volume of air (∼ 20,000 m 3 /day), performs automated gamma-ray spectral measurements (MDC( 140 Ba) 3 ), and communicates this and other data to a central data facility. Automated systems offer the added benefit of rigid controls, easily implemented QA/QC procedures, and centralized depot maintenance and operation. Other types of automated communication include pull or push transmission of State-Of-Health data, commands, and configuration data. In addition, a graphical user interface, Telnet, and other interactive communications are supported over ordinary phone or network lines. This system has been the subject of a USAF commercialization effort to meet US CTBT monitoring commitments. It will also be available to other CTBT signatories and the monitoring community for various governmental, environmental, or commercial needs. The current status of the commercialization is discussed

  7. Molding of strength testing samples using modern PDCPD material for purpose of automotive industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, L.; Baier, A.; Sobek, M.

    2017-08-01

    The casting of metal materials is widely known but the molding of composite polymer materials is not well-known method still. The initial choice of method for producing composite bodies was the method of casting of PDCPD material. For purpose of performing casting of polymer composite material, a special mold was made. Firstly, the 3D printed, using PLA material, mold was used. After several attempts of casting PDCPD many problems were encountered. The second step was to use mold milled from a firm and dense isocyanate foam. After several attempts research shown that this solution is more resistant to high-temperature peak, but this material is too fragile to use it several times. This solution also prevents mold from using external heating, which can be necessary for performing correct molding process. The last process was to use the aluminum mold, which is dedicated to PDCPD polymer composite, because of low adhesiveness. This solution leads to perform correct PDCPD polymer composite material injection. After performing casting operation every PDCPD testing samples were tested. These results were compared together. The result of performed work was to archive correct properties of injection of composite material. Research and results were described in detail in this paper.

  8. Testing the effects of educational toilet posters: a novel way of reducing haemolysis of blood samples within ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkill, David

    2012-02-01

    Haemolysed blood samples are an unnecessary burden on Emergency Departments (ED) as they increase workloads and drive down efficiencies. Little empirical data exists that demonstrates the effectiveness of educational posters displayed in staff toilet cubicles. This study explored the impact educational toilet posters have on reducing haemolysis rates within the ED. A time series study of the clinical effect of educational toilet posters on reducing haemolysis rates throughout a 12 month period at the Gold Coast Hospital ED was undertaken. The GCH ED is a tertiary emergency service that has approximately 66,000 patient presentations per year. Data was collected prospectively. Analysis was undertaken to investigate the effects on total number of haemolysed samples and those clinically significant samples with a haemolytic index >3. Further investigation explored the specific effects on medical and nursing staff. Analysis undertaken using an independent t-test found that the pre-intervention data demonstrates a medium haemolysis rate of 4.92% (SD=1.04). This is a statistically significantly different (t=3.56, df=50, p=0.001) from the median post intervention data of 3.95% (SD=0.84). The difference of 0.97% (95%CI=0.42, 1.52) represents a 19.72% reduction in clinically significant haemolysed samples over the study period. This study reveals that the use of educational toilet posters had a positive impact on reducing the rates of haemolysed samples collected within the ED. This simple and cost effective educational initiative changed the behaviour of clinical staff. Further investigation is warranted to examine the impact of educational toilet posters on additional clinical scenarios. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Legionella real-time PCR against traditional culture for routine and public health testing of water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, S; Stevenson, D; Walker, J; Bennett, A

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of Legionella qPCR alongside traditional culture for enumeration of Legionella from water samples as part of both routine and public health investigation testing. Routine water samples (n = 2002) and samples from public health investigations (n = 215) were analysed by culture and qPCR for Legionella spp., Legionella pneumophila and L. pneumophila sg-1. A negative qPCR result was highly predictive of a negative culture result for all water systems (negative predictive values, NPV from 97·4 to 100%). Positive predictive values (PPV) were lower (0-50%). Results for qPCR were generally larger than culture with average log 10 differences of 1·1 for Legionella spp. and 1·2 for L. pneumophila. Alert and action levels of 1000 and 10 000 GU per litre, respectively, are proposed for Legionella qPCR for hot and cold water systems (HCWS). The use of qPCR significantly reduced the time to results for public health investigations by rapidly identifying potential sources and ruling out others, thus enabling a more rapid and efficient response. The high NPV of qPCR supports its use to rapidly screen out negative samples without culture. Alert and action levels for Legionella qPCR for HCWS are proposed. Quantitative PCR will be a valuable tool for both routine and public health testing. This study generated comparative data of >2000 water samples by qPCR and culture. Action and alert levels have been recommended that could enable duty holders to interpret qPCR results to facilitate timely Legionella control and public health protection. © 2017 Crown copyright. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Busted Butte Phase 2: Analysis of Post-Test Mineback and Overcore Rock Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turin, H.J.; McGraw, M.A.; Jones, C.L.; Scism, C.D.; Soll, W.E.

    2002-01-01

    A complex tracer mixture was injected continuously for over two years into a 10 x 10 x 7 m block of tuff as part of the unsaturated-zone (UZ) tracer test at Busted Butte. The test was designed to address uncertainties associated with flow and transport models within the Topopah Springs and Calico Hills tuffs. The tracer mixture included nonreactive (Br, I, and FBAs) and reactive tracers (Li, Ce, Sm, Ni, Coy and Mn) and synthetic colloids. Once injection was completed, samples from the block were collected in two ways. Overcores were taken from around and below injection holes. Then, the entire block was excavated via mineback--during which progressive vertical planes of the block were exposed. Samples from the overcores and mineback were analyzed to determine the distribution of tracers on different spatial scales than available from collection borehole data. Rock analyses confirmed collection pad results that the nonreactive tracers, Br and FBAs, moved several meters. Furthermore, Br and FBAs are observed above and lateral to the injector planes suggesting that capillarity was an important process for tracer movement. Lithium, the most mobile of the metals, was transported on a scale of meters. This is consistent with laboratory sorption measurements and observed breakthrough on the collection pads. Co and Ni show transport distances of tens of cm, while Sm and Ce moved far less, possibly due to precipitation and sorption effects. Colloid transport was assessed using 1 ft3 blocks extracted from the BB Phase 2 block. In the Calico Hills material, after 15 L of water was injected over 3.5 months, less than 1% of the colloids injected were recovered. Flow patterns in the block indicate that water injected at the center imbibed outward from the injection point. In a block taken from a boundary of the Calico Hills ashfall layer, breakthrough was observed only due to fractures formed during drying of the block. The colloid transport module for FEHM was tested against

  11. Frailty Testing Pilot Study: Pros and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlam, Taylor; Ulrich, Elizabeth; Kent, Missy; Malinzak, Lauren

    2018-02-01

    Frailty can be defined as an inflammatory state with a loss of physiologic reserve in multiple systems that manifests as a decreased ability to respond to stressors that ultimately leads to an increased risk of adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the ease of frailty testing in a pre-kidney transplant clinic and the resources required to do so. A secondary goal was to better understand the utility of frailty testing when evaluating potential kidney transplant recipients. Frailty testing was conducted at a pre-kidney transplant clinic in three phases using Fried's frailty phenotype (shrinking, exhaustion, low physical activity, slowness, and grip strength). A total of 132 frailty tests were completed on 128 patients. Frail patients had significantly higher rates of shrinking (26% vs. 8.5%, P testing was most complete when an examiner dedicated to frailty testing performed the testing. Frailty testing is feasible to complete in a pre-transplant clinic with an appropriate investment in personnel and resources.

  12. Iodine-129 measurements in soil samples from Dolon village near the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Satoru; Tomita, Junpei; Tanaka, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Fukutani, Satoshi; Imanaka, Tetsuji; Sakaguchi, Aya; Amano, Hikaru; Kawamura, Hidehisa; Kawamura, Hisao; Apsalikov, Kazbek N; Gusev, Boris I; Whitehead, Neil E; Shinkarev, Sergey; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2008-07-01

    Dolon village, located about 60 km from the border of the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site, is known to be heavily contaminated by the first USSR atomic bomb test in August 1949. Soil samples around Dolon were taken in October 2005 in an attempt to evaluate internal thyroid dose arising from incorporation of radioiodine isotopes (mainly (131)I). Iodine-129 in soil was measured by using the technique of accelerator mass spectrometry. The (129)I/(127)I atom ratios measured were in the range from 3.3 x 10(-9) to 3.3 x 10(-7). These values were within the range of the current background level ( approximately 10(-9) to 10(-7)) in the environment, including contributions from the global fallout of atmospheric nuclear tests and local fallout of nuclear facilities. The (129)I atom accumulated level in soil ranged from 1.28 x 10(13) to 1.59 x 10(14) atoms m(-2), the average (8.0 x 10(13)) of which was higher than the background level of (2-5) x 10(13). From the relationship between (129)I and( 137)Cs (corrected for background and decay from 1949 to 2005) accumulated levels, the background level of (129)I and the (129)I/(137)Cs ratio around Dolon were estimated to be (6.4 +/- 0.4) x 10(13) atoms m(-2) and 0.25 +/- 0.16, respectively. This (129)I/(137)Cs ratio is almost similar to the fission yield ratio for (239)Pu fast fission (0.24).

  13. Sampling pig farms at the abattoir in a cross-sectional study − Evaluation of a sampling method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkegård, Anna Camilla; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2017-01-01

    slaughter pigs. It was not possible to visit farms within the designated timeframe. Therefore, it was decided to use convenience sampling at the abattoir. Our approach was carried out in three steps: 1) planning: using data from meat inspection to plan at which abattoirs and how many farms to sample; 2......A cross-sectional study design is relatively inexpensive, fast and easy to conduct when compared to other study designs. Careful planning is essential to obtaining a representative sample of the population, and the recommended approach is to use simple random sampling from an exhaustive list...... of units in the target population. This approach is rarely feasible in practice, and other sampling procedures must often be adopted. For example, when slaughter pigs are the target population, sampling the pigs on the slaughter line may be an alternative to on-site sampling at a list of farms. However...

  14. Studies of U in the blood of two population samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Olguin, M.E.; Romero, M.

    1986-01-01

    The present work, attempts to establish the statistical distribution of blood uranium in a population of the same community, similar in age and in living patterns. U traces were evaluated by a fission track technique both in whole blood and plasma samples. Dried samples were compressed into pellets and irradiated in a nuclear reactor using the external detector method. For U quantification, standard U samples were used. A comparative sampling of U content in blood samples from a group of radiation exposed workers and another of leukemia patients was also carried out. Results from the sampling groups are reported and discussed. (author)

  15. Mechanical characteristics of historic mortars from tests on small-sample non-standard on small-sample non-standard specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Miloš; Slížková, Zuzana

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 1 (2008), s. 20-29 ISSN 1407-7353 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/06/1609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : small-sample non-standard testing * lime * historic mortar Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  16. Evaluation of Legionella Air Contamination in Healthcare Facilities by Different Sampling Methods: An Italian Multicenter Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Napoli, Christian; Pacifico, Claudia; Agodi, Antonella; Baldovin, Tatjana; Casini, Beatrice; Coniglio, Maria Anna; D’Errico, Marcello Mario; Delia, Santi Antonino; Deriu, Maria Grazia; Guida, Marco; Laganà, Pasqualina; Liguori, Giorgio; Moro, Matteo; Mura, Ida; Pennino, Francesca; Privitera, Gaetano; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Sembeni, Silvia; Spagnolo, Anna Maria; Tardivo, Stefano; Torre, Ida; Valeriani, Federica; Albertini, Roberto; Pasquarella, Cesira

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare facilities (HF) represent an at-risk environment for legionellosis transmission occurring after inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In general, the control of water is preferred to that of air because, to date, there are no standardized sampling protocols. Legionella air contamination was investigated in the bathrooms of 11 HF by active sampling (Surface Air System and Coriolis®μ) and passive sampling using settling plates. During the 8-hour sampling, hot tap water was sampled three times. All air samples were evaluated using culture-based methods, whereas liquid samples collected using the Coriolis®μ were also analyzed by real-time PCR. Legionella presence in the air and water was then compared by sequence-based typing (SBT) methods. Air contamination was found in four HF (36.4%) by at least one of the culturable methods. The culturable investigation by Coriolis®μ did not yield Legionella in any enrolled HF. However, molecular investigation using Coriolis®μ resulted in eight HF testing positive for Legionella in the air. Comparison of Legionella air and water contamination indicated that Legionella water concentration could be predictive of its presence in the air. Furthermore, a molecular study of 12 L. pneumophila strains confirmed a match between the Legionella strains from air and water samples by SBT for three out of four HF that tested positive for Legionella by at least one of the culturable methods. Overall, our study shows that Legionella air detection cannot replace water sampling because the absence of microorganisms from the air does not necessarily represent their absence from water; nevertheless, air sampling may provide useful information for risk assessment. The liquid impingement technique appears to have the greatest capacity for collecting airborne Legionella if combined with molecular investigations. PMID:28640202

  17. Evaluation of Legionella Air Contamination in Healthcare Facilities by Different Sampling Methods: An Italian Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Maria Teresa; De Giglio, Osvalda; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Napoli, Christian; Pacifico, Claudia; Agodi, Antonella; Baldovin, Tatjana; Casini, Beatrice; Coniglio, Maria Anna; D'Errico, Marcello Mario; Delia, Santi Antonino; Deriu, Maria Grazia; Guida, Marco; Laganà, Pasqualina; Liguori, Giorgio; Moro, Matteo; Mura, Ida; Pennino, Francesca; Privitera, Gaetano; Romano Spica, Vincenzo; Sembeni, Silvia; Spagnolo, Anna Maria; Tardivo, Stefano; Torre, Ida; Valeriani, Federica; Albertini, Roberto; Pasquarella, Cesira

    2017-06-22

    Healthcare facilities (HF) represent an at-risk environment for legionellosis transmission occurring after inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In general, the control of water is preferred to that of air because, to date, there are no standardized sampling protocols. Legionella air contamination was investigated in the bathrooms of 11 HF by active sampling (Surface Air System and Coriolis ® μ) and passive sampling using settling plates. During the 8-hour sampling, hot tap water was sampled three times. All air samples were evaluated using culture-based methods, whereas liquid samples collected using the Coriolis ® μ were also analyzed by real-time PCR. Legionella presence in the air and water was then compared by sequence-based typing (SBT) methods. Air contamination was found in four HF (36.4%) by at least one of the culturable methods. The culturable investigation by Coriolis ® μ did not yield Legionella in any enrolled HF. However, molecular investigation using Coriolis ® μ resulted in eight HF testing positive for Legionella in the air. Comparison of Legionella air and water contamination indicated that Legionella water concentration could be predictive of its presence in the air. Furthermore, a molecular study of 12 L. pneumophila strains confirmed a match between the Legionella strains from air and water samples by SBT for three out of four HF that tested positive for Legionella by at least one of the culturable methods. Overall, our study shows that Legionella air detection cannot replace water sampling because the absence of microorganisms from the air does not necessarily represent their absence from water; nevertheless, air sampling may provide useful information for risk assessment. The liquid impingement technique appears to have the greatest capacity for collecting airborne Legionella if combined with molecular investigations.

  18. Influence of secular trends and sample size on reference equations for lung function tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanjer, P H; Stocks, J; Cole, T J; Hall, G L; Stanojevic, S

    2011-03-01

    The aim of our study was to determine the contribution of secular trends and sample size to lung function reference equations, and establish the number of local subjects required to validate published reference values. 30 spirometry datasets collected between 1978 and 2009 provided data on healthy, white subjects: 19,291 males and 23,741 females aged 2.5-95 yrs. The best fit for forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV(1)), forced vital capacity (FVC) and FEV(1)/FVC as functions of age, height and sex were derived from the entire dataset using GAMLSS. Mean z-scores were calculated for individual datasets to determine inter-centre differences. This was repeated by subdividing one large dataset (3,683 males and 4,759 females) into 36 smaller subsets (comprising 18-227 individuals) to preclude differences due to population/technique. No secular trends were observed and differences between datasets comprising >1,000 subjects were small (maximum difference in FEV(1) and FVC from overall mean: 0.30- -0.22 z-scores). Subdividing one large dataset into smaller subsets reproduced the above sample size-related differences and revealed that at least 150 males and 150 females would be necessary to validate reference values to avoid spurious differences due to sampling error. Use of local controls to validate reference equations will rarely be practical due to the numbers required. Reference equations derived from large or collated datasets are recommended.

  19. Review: Diagnostic accuracy of PCR-based detection tests for Helicobacter Pylori in stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadangi, Fatemeh; Yassi, Maryam; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2017-12-01

    Although different methods have been established to detect Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, identifying infected patients is an ongoing challenge. The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide pooled diagnostic accuracy measures for stool PCR test in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. In this study, a systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out on various sources, including MEDLINE, Web of Sciences, and the Cochrane Library from April 1, 1999, to May 1, 2016. This meta-analysis adheres to the guidelines provided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses report (PRISMA Statement). The clinical value of DNA stool PCR test was based on the pooled false positive, false negative, true positive, and true negative of different genes. Twenty-six of 328 studies identified met the eligibility criteria. Stool PCR test had a performance of 71% (95% CI: 68-73) sensitivity, 96% (95% CI: 94-97) specificity, and 65.6 (95% CI: 30.2-142.5) diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) in diagnosis of H. pylori. The DOR of genes which showed the highest performance of stool PCR tests was as follows: 23S rRNA 152.5 (95% CI: 55.5-418.9), 16S rRNA 67.9 (95%CI: 6.4-714.3), and glmM 68.1 (95%CI: 20.1-231.7). The sensitivity and specificity of stool PCR test are relatively in the same spectrum of other diagnostic methods for the detection of H. pylori infection. In descending order of significance, the most diagnostic candidate genes using PCR detection were 23S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and glmM. PCR for 23S rRNA gene which has the highest performance could be applicable to detect H. pylori infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Sample holder for studying temperature dependent particle guiding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bereczky, R.J.; Toekesi, K.; Kowarik, G.; Aumayr, F.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The so called guiding effect is a complex process involving the interplay of a large number of charged particles with a solid. Although many research groups joined this field and carried out various experiments with insulator capillaries many details of the interactions are still unknown. We investigated the temperature dependence of the guiding since it opens new possibilities both for a fundamental understanding of the guiding phenomenon and for applications. For the temperature dependent guiding experiments a completely new heatable sample holder was designed. We developed and built such a heatable sample holder to make accurate and reproducible studies of the temperature dependence of the ion guiding effect possible. The target holder (for an exploded view see Fig. 1) consists of two main parts, the front and the back plates. The two plates of the sample holder, which function as an oven, are made of copper. These parts surround the capillary in order to guarantee a uniform temperature along the whole tube. The temperature of the copper parts is monitored by a K-Type thermocouple. Stainless steel coaxial heaters surrounding the oven are used for heating. The heating power up to a few watts is regulated by a PID controller. Cooling of the capillary is achieved by a copper feed-through connected to a liquid nitrogen bath outside the UHV chamber. This solution allows us to change the temperature of the sample from -30 deg C up to 90 deg C. Our experiments with this newly developed temperature regulated capillary holder show that the glass temperature (i.e. conductivity) can be used to control the guiding properties of the glass capillary and adjust the conditions from guiding at room temperature to simple geometrical transmission at elevated temperatures. This holds the promise to investigate the effect of conductivity on particle transport (build-up and removal of charge patches) through capillaries in more details

  1. Tracking pyrethroid toxicity in surface water samples: Exposure dynamics and toxicity identification tools for laboratory tests with Hyalella azteca (Amphipoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deanovic, Linda A; Stillway, Marie; Hammock, Bruce G; Fong, Stephanie; Werner, Inge

    2018-02-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides are commonly used in pest control and are present at toxic concentrations in surface waters of agricultural and urban areas worldwide. Monitoring is challenging as a result of their high hydrophobicity and low toxicity thresholds, which often fall below the analytical methods detection limits (MDLs). Standard daphnid bioassays used in surface water monitoring are not sensitive enough to protect more susceptible invertebrate species such as the amphipod Hyalella azteca and chemical loss during toxicity testing is of concern. In the present study, we quantified toxicity loss during storage and testing, using both natural and synthetic water, and presented a tool to enhance toxic signal strength for improved sensitivity of H. azteca toxicity tests. The average half-life during storage in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) cubitainers (Fisher Scientific) at 4 °C of 5 pyrethroids (permethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, and esfenvalerate) and one organophosphate (chlorpyrifos; used as reference) was 1.4 d, and piperonyl butoxide (PBO) proved an effective tool to potentiate toxicity. We conclude that toxicity tests on ambient water samples containing these hydrophobic insecticides are likely to underestimate toxicity present in the field, and mimic short pulse rather than continuous exposures. Where these chemicals are of concern, the addition of PBO during testing can yield valuable information on their presence or absence. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:462-472. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  2. A comparative study of general intelligence in Spanish and Moroccan samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Amelia; Sellami, Khadija; Infanzón, Eugenia; Lanzón, Teresa; Lynn, Richard

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study is to fill a gap in intelligence research by presenting data for the average IQ in Morocco and for a comparable sample in Spain. Adult samples were administered the Raven Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM) (Raven, Court, & Raven, 2001) and scored for the total test and for the three sub-factors of gestalt continuation, verbal-analytical reasoning and visuospatial ability identified by Lynn, Allik, and Irwing (2004). The total test and the three factors have shown satisfactory reliability. Our results for the Moroccan sample show significant relationship between general intelligence factor, gestalt continuation and visuospatial ability with education level and income. Conversely, these variables have been shown to be independent for the Spanish sample. This sample obtained significantly higher scores for the four factors assessed than the Moroccan one. These differences have been found also comparing samples with the same education levels. Finally, the errors percentage for Moroccans has been higher than for Spaniards in all the items, suggesting that the level of difficulty was higher for the Moroccan sample.

  3. Neutron radiographic testing of samples of special concrete containing recycled PET granules as aggregate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Antonio Carlos Alves de; Crispim, Verginia Reis

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at inspecting microcracks in test specimens of special concrete, through neutron radiography tests. The thermal neutron flux used was extracted from the J-9 irradiation channel, placed in the thermal column of Argonauta/IEN/CNEN/RJ reactor, where a neutron radiographic system is installed. The test specimens inspected were molded in a cylindrical shape, with standard concrete and modified concrete where coarse sand was substituted by granules of recycled PET. They were submitted to compression in a SHIMADSU UH F 1000 press, causing microcracks. Then, slices of 50 μm thickness were obtained using an electrical saw. Gadolinium nitrate was used as contrast liquid in order to enhance the visualization of those microcracks. The Neutron Radiography technique proved to be appropriate for this kind of inspection, allowing to clearly visualizing the microcracks. Recycled PET granules met ABNT standards, and may be used in the construction of low income people houses, as structural concrete (25 % PP) or house floors (25% to 50% PEAD). The mechanical properties of compression and elasticity demonstrated for this special concrete, on Civil Engineering conventional tests, and by the neutron radiographic images obtained, showed that its use is viable even for civil construction in areas subject to seismic vents. (author)

  4. Investigation on cause of malfunction of wide range monitor (WRM) in high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR). Sample tests and destructive tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Masanori; Saito, Kenji; Haga, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Shinji; Katsuyama, Kozo; Motegi, Toshihiro; Takada, Kiyoshi; Higashimura, Keisuke; Fujii, Junichi; Ukai, Takayuki; Moriguchi, Yusuke

    2012-11-01

    An event, in which one of WRMs were disabled to detect the neutron flux in the reactor core, occurred during the period of reactor shut down of HTTR in March, 2010. The actual life time of WRM was unexpectedly shorter than the past developed life time. Investigation of the cause of the outage of WRM toward the recovery of the life time up to the past developed life is one of the issues to develop the technology basis of High Temperature Gas cooled Reactor (HTGR). Then, two experimental investigations were carried out to reveal the cause of the malfunction by specifying the damaged part causing the event in the WRM. One is an experiment using a mock-up sample test which strength degradation at assembly process and heat cycle to specify the damaged part in the WRM. The other is a destructive test in Fuels Monitoring Facility (FMF) to specify the damaged part in the WRM. This report summarized the results of the destructive test and the experimental investigation using the mock-up to reveal the cause of malfunction of WRM. (author)

  5. REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison: "U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample"

    OpenAIRE

    VENCHIARUTTI CELIA; VARGA ZSOLT; RICHTER Stephan; JAKOPIC Rozle; MAYER Klaus; AREGBE Yetunde

    2015-01-01

    The REIMEP-22 inter-laboratory comparison aimed at determining the production date of a uranium certified test sample (i.e. the last chemical separation date of the material). Participants in REIMEP-22 on "U Age Dating - Determination of the production date of a uranium certified test sample" received one low-enriched 20 mg uranium sample for mass spectrometry measurements and/or one 50 mg uranium sample for D-spectrometry measurements, with an undisclosed value for the production date. They ...

  6. Study on sampling conditions for the monitoring of waste air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.J.; Buetefisch, K.A.

    1998-01-01

    The technical codes for radiological monitoring of the waste air released from a radwaste repository demand that sampling for determination of aerosol-borne radioactivity is to be made with a screener equipped with a suitable number of measuring probes extending over the entire cross-sectional surface of the vent. Another requirement is to ensure that the waste air stream passing through the measuring channel is representative, containing the typical, operation-induced distribution of aerosols across the surface to be scanned. The study reported was intended to determine in a scaled-down model (1:10) of a repository ventilating duct the typical spatial distribution of aerosols (3D particulate density) in order to establish information on the type of typical distributions of aerosols, to be used for optimisation of the measuring site and monitoring instruments. (orig./CB) [de

  7. Testing sequential extraction methods for the analysis of multiple stable isotope systems from a bone sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlstedt, Elina; Arppe, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Stable isotope composition of bones, analysed either from the mineral phase (hydroxyapatite) or from the organic phase (mainly collagen) carry important climatological and ecological information and are therefore widely used in paleontological and archaeological research. For the analysis of the stable isotope compositions, both of the phases, hydroxyapatite and collagen, have their more or less well established separation and analytical techniques. Recent development in IRMS and wet chemical extraction methods have facilitated the analysis of very small bone fractions (500 μg or less starting material) for PO43-O isotope composition. However, the uniqueness and (pre-) historical value of each archaeological and paleontological finding lead to preciously little material available for stable isotope analyses, encouraging further development of microanalytical methods for the use of stable isotope analyses. Here we present the first results in developing extraction methods for combining collagen C- and N-isotope analyses to PO43-O-isotope analyses from a single bone sample fraction. We tested sequential extraction starting with dilute acid demineralization and collection of both collagen and PO43-fractions, followed by further purification step by H2O2 (PO43-fraction). First results show that bone sample separates as small as 2 mg may be analysed for their δ15N, δ13C and δ18OPO4 values. The method may be incorporated in detailed investigation of sequentially developing skeletal material such as teeth, potentially allowing for the investigation of interannual variability in climatological/environmental signals or investigation of the early life history of an individual.

  8. Pilot evaluation of the Computer-Based Assessment for Sampling Personal Characteristics test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipper, Edward S; Mazer, Laura M; Merrell, Sylvia Bereknyei; Lin, Dana T; Lau, James N; Melcher, Marc L

    2017-07-01

    High attrition rates hint at deficiencies in the resident selection process. The evaluation of personal characteristics representative of success is difficult. Here, we evaluate a novel tool for assessing personal characteristics. To evaluate feasibility, we used an anonymous voluntary survey questionnaire offered to study participants before and after contact with the CASPer test. To evaluate the CASPer test as a predictor of success, we compared CASPer test assessments of personal characteristics versus traditional faculty assessment of personal characteristics with applicant rank list position. All applicants (n = 77) attending an in-person interview for general surgery residency, and all faculty interviewers (n = 34) who reviewed these applications were invited to participate. Among applicants, 84.4% of respondents (65 of 77) reported that a requirement to complete the CASPer test would have no bearing or would make them more likely to apply to the program (mean = 3.30, standard deviation = 0.96). Among the faculty, 62.5% respondents (10 of 16) reported that the same condition would have no bearing or would make applicants more likely to apply to the program (mean = 3.19, standard deviation = 1.33). The Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficients for the relationships between traditional faculty assessment of personal characteristics and applicant rank list position, and novel CASPer assessment of personal characteristics and applicant rank list position, were -0.45 (P = 0.033) and -0.41 (P = 0.055), respectively. The CASPer test may be feasibly implemented as component of the resident selection process, with the potential to predict applicant rank list position and improve the general surgery resident selection process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Study population, questionnaire, data management and sample description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara de Waure

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: This article describes methodological issues of the "Sportello Salute Giovani" project ("Youth Health Information Desk", a multicenter study aimed at assessing the health status and attitudes and behaviours of university students in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The questionnaire used to carry out the study was adapted from the Italian health behaviours in school-aged children (HBSC project and consisted of 93 items addressing: demographics; nutritional habits and status; physical activity; lifestyles; reproductive and preconception health; health and satisfaction of life; attitudes and behaviours toward academic study and new technologies. The questionnaire was administered to a pool of 12 000 students from 18 to 30 years of age who voluntary decided to participate during classes held at different Italian faculties or at the three "Sportello Salute Giovani" centers which were established in the three sites of the Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore (Catholic University of the Sacred Heart of Rome. RESULTS: The final study sample was composed by 8516 university students. The mean age of responders was 22.2 (Standard Deviation 2.0 and 5702 (67.0% were females. According to the distribution in age classes, 3601 (43.3% belonged to the 18-21 one, 3796 (44.5% to the 22-24 class and 1019 (12.2% to the 25-30 class. With respect to socio-economic status, data were available for 8410 responders and showed that 50.3% of students belonged to the middle class. DISCUSSION: The project took into consideration a large number of individuals from different regions of the country and therefore may be considered representative of the general population of Italian university students. Furthermore, it is the first to address, at the same time, several issues, in particular attitudes and behaviours toward health, in Italian university students. CONCLUSION: The analysis of data from such a large sample of university students sets the basis for

  10. Physical work environment: testing an expanded model of job satisfaction in a sample of registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine; Budin, Wendy C; Norman, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The impact of personal, organizational, and economic factors on nurses' job satisfaction have been studied extensively, but few studies exist in which the effects of physical work environment--including perceptions of architectural, interior design, and ambient features on job satisfaction-are examined. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of perceived physical work environment on job satisfaction, adjusting for multiple personal, organizational, and economic determinants of job satisfaction. A cross-sectional, predictive design and a Web-based survey instrument were used to collect data from staff registered nurses in a large metropolitan hospital. The survey included 34 questions about multiple job satisfaction determinants, including 18 Likert-type measures with established good validity (comparative fit index = .97, Tucker-Lewis index = .98, root mean square error of approximation = .06) and reliability (r ≥ .70). A response rate of 48.5% resulted in a sample of 362, with 80% power to detect a medium effect of perceived physical environment on job satisfaction. On average, nurses had negative perceptions of physical work environment (M = 2.9, SD = 2.2). Although physical environment was related positively to job satisfaction (r =.256, p = .01) in bivariate analysis, in ordered probit regression, no effect of physical work environment on job satisfaction was found. In future studies, this relationship should be examined in larger and more representative samples of nurses. Qualitative methods should be used to explore how negatively perceived physical work environment impacts nurses. Rebuilding of U.S. hospitals, with a planned investment of $200 billion without considering how physical environment contributes to nurse work outcomes, threatens to exacerbate organizational nurse turnover.

  11. Detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis from stored DNA Samples: A multicenter study

    OpenAIRE

    Marie Sylvianne Rabodoarivelo; A Brandao; M C Cergole Novella; A G C. Bombonatte; B Imperiale; N Rakotosamimanana; N Morcillo; V Rasolofo; J C Palomino; A Martin

    2018-01-01

    Background: In low-income countries, rapid detection of tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance is often restricted by the difficulties of transporting and storing sputum samples from remote health centers to the reference laboratories where molecular tests are available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of four transport and storage systems for molecular detection of rifampicin (RIF) and isoniazid (INH) resistance. Methods: This was a multicenter study. Molecular detection of ...

  12. Comparison of the Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test and the Roche cobas 4800 HPV test using urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Myong Cheol; Lee, Do-Hoon; Hwang, Sang-Hyun; Hwang, Na Rae; Lee, Bomyee; Shin, Hye Young; Jun, Jae Kwan; Yoo, Chong Woo; Lee, Dong Ock; Seo, Sang-Soo; Park, Sang-Yoon; Joo, Jungnam

    2017-05-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing based on cervical samples is important for use in cervical cancer screening. However, cervical sampling is invasive. Therefore, non-invasive methods for detecting HPV, such as urine samples, are needed. For HPV detection in urine samples, two real-time PCR (RQ-PCR) tests, Roche cobas 4800 test (Roche_HPV; Roche Molecular Diagnostics) and Abbott RealTime High Risk HPV test (Abbott_HPV; Abbott Laboratories) were compared to standard cervical samples. The performance of Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV for HPV detection was evaluated at the National Cancer Center using 100 paired cervical and urine samples. The tests were also compared using urine samples stored at various temperatures and for a range of durations. The overall agreement between the Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV tests using urine samples for any hrHPV type was substantial (86.0% with a kappa value of 0.7173), and that for HPV 16/18 was nearly perfect (99.0% with a kappa value of 0.9668). The relative sensitivities (based on cervical samples) for HPV 16/18 detection using Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV with urine samples were 79.2% (95% CI; 57.9-92.9%) and 81.8% (95% CI; 59.7-94.8%), respectively. When the cut-off C T value for Abbott_HPV was extended to 40 for urine samples, the relative sensitivity of Abbott_HPV increased to 91.7% from 81.8% for HPV16/18 detection and to 87.0% from 68.5% for other hrHPV detection. The specificity was not affected by the change in the C T threshold. Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV showed high concordance. However, HPV DNA detection using urine samples was inferior to HPV DNA detection using cervical samples. Interestingly, when the cut-off C T value was set to 40, Abbott_HPV using urine samples showed high sensitivity and specificity, comparable to those obtained using cervical samples. Fully automated DNA extraction and detection systems, such as Roche_HPV and Abbott_HPV, could reduce the variability in HPV detection and accelerate the standardization of HPV

  13. Sample Size and Statistical Conclusions from Tests of Fit to the Rasch Model According to the Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Model (Rumm) Program in Health Outcome Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagell, Peter; Westergren, Albert

    Sample size is a major factor in statistical null hypothesis testing, which is the basis for many approaches to testing Rasch model fit. Few sample size recommendations for testing fit to the Rasch model concern the Rasch Unidimensional Measurement Models (RUMM) software, which features chi-square and ANOVA/F-ratio based fit statistics, including Bonferroni and algebraic sample size adjustments. This paper explores the occurrence of Type I errors with RUMM fit statistics, and the effects of algebraic sample size adjustments. Data with simulated Rasch model fitting 25-item dichotomous scales and sample sizes ranging from N = 50 to N = 2500 were analysed with and without algebraically adjusted sample sizes. Results suggest the occurrence of Type I errors with N less then or equal to 500, and that Bonferroni correction as well as downward algebraic sample size adjustment are useful to avoid such errors, whereas upward adjustment of smaller samples falsely signal misfit. Our observations suggest that sample sizes around N = 250 to N = 500 may provide a good balance for the statistical interpretation of the RUMM fit statistics studied here with respect to Type I errors and under the assumption of Rasch model fit within the examined frame of reference (i.e., about 25 item parameters well targeted to the sample).

  14. Development study of the X-ray scattering properties of a group of optically polished flat samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froechtenigt, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    A group of twelve optically polished flat samples were used to study the scattering of X-rays. The X-ray beam reflected from the twelve optical flat samples was analyzed by means of a long vacuum system of special design for these tests. The scattering measurements were made at 8.34A and 0.92 deg angle of incidence. The results for ten of the samples are comparable, the two exceptions being the fire polished samples.

  15. Improving toxicity assessment of pesticide mixtures: the use of polar passive sampling devices extracts in microalgae toxicity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra KIM TIAM

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Complexity of contaminants exposure needs to be taking in account for an appropriate evaluation of risks related to mixtures of pesticides released in the ecosystems. Toxicity assessment of such mixtures can be made through a variety of toxicity tests reflecting different level of biological complexity. This paper reviews the recent developments of passive sampling techniques for polar compounds, especially Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS and Chemcatcher® and the principal assessment techniques using microalgae in laboratory experiments. The progresses permitted by the coupled use of such passive samplers and ecotoxicology testing as well as their limitations are presented. Case studies combining passive sampling devices (PSD extracts and toxicity assessment toward microorganisms at different biological scales from single organisms to communities level are presented. These case studies, respectively aimed i at characterizing the toxic potential of waters using dose-response curves, and ii at performing microcosm experiments with increased environmental realism in the toxicant exposure in term of cocktail composition and concentration. Finally perspectives and limitations of such approaches for future applications in the area of environmental risk assessment are discussed.

  16. Proceedings of a technical session on rock mechanics ''Advance in laboratory sample testing''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Come, B.

    1984-01-01

    This report brings together a series of papers about rock mechanics. The meeting was divided into three sessions, which dealt with the three main types of rock formation currently considered in the CEC Programme: granite, clay and salt. Safe disposal of high-level radioactive waste involves the proper design of deep underground repositories. This necessitates an in-depth knowledge of the mechanical properties of the rock mass. The behaviour of the rock mass must be known both for the construction and the operation (heating effects) of the repository. Usually, the dominant factor for designing an underground structure is the fracturing of the rock mass. In the present case, the rock is chosen with a very low fracturing. Therefore, the mechanical properties of the formation are mainly those of the rock matrix. These properties are obtained, at least in a first exploratory step, by laboratory testing of rock samples obtained by core-drilling from surface. This aspect of rock characterization was thought to deserve a special technical meeting, in order to bring together most of the results obtained in this field by contracting partners of the CEC for the years 1980-82

  17. Mini mental Parkinson test: standardization and normative data on an Italian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Alberto; Bagoj, Eriola; Monaco, Marco; Zabberoni, Silvia; De Rosa, Salvatore; Mundi, Ciro; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2013-10-01

    The mini mental Parkinson (MMP) is a test built to overcome the limits of the mini mental state examination (MMSE) in the short-time screening of cognitive disorders in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). In fact, in this scale, items tapping executive functioning are included to better capture PD-related cognitive changes. Some data sustain the sensitivity and validity of the MMP in the short neuropsychological screening of these individuals. Here, we report normative data on the MMP we collected on a sample of 307 Italian healthy subjects ranging from 40 to 91 years. The results document a detrimental effect of age and an ameliorative effect of education on the MMP total performance score. We provide for correction grids for age and literacy that derive from results of the regression analyses. Moreover, we also computed equivalent scores in order to allow a direct and fast comparison between the performance on the MMP and on other psychometric measures that can be administered to the subjects.

  18. 101-SY waste sample speed of sound/rheology testing for sonic probe program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, N.S.

    1994-01-01

    One problem faced in the clean-up operation at Hanford is that a number of radioactive waste storage tanks are experiencing a periodic buildup and release of potentially explosive gases. The best known example is Tank 241-SY-101 (commonly referred to as 101-SY) in which hydrogen gas periodically built up within the waste to the point that increased buoyancy caused a roll-over event, in which the gas was suddenly released in potentially explosive concentrations (if an ignition source were present). The sonic probe concept is to generate acoustic vibrations in the 101-SY tank waste at nominally 100 Hz, with sufficient amplitude to cause the controlled release of hydrogen bubbles trapped in the waste. The sonic probe may provide a potentially cost-effective alternative to large mixer pumps now used for hydrogen mitigation purposes. Two important parameters needed to determine sonic probe effectiveness and design are the speed of sound and yield stress of the tank waste. Tests to determine these parameters in a 240 ml sample of 101-SY waste (obtained near the tank bottom) were performed, and the results are reported

  19. The Mann-Whitney U: A Test for Assessing Whether Two Independent Samples Come from the Same Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadim Nachar

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available It is often difficult, particularly when conducting research in psychology, to have access to large normally distributed samples. Fortunately, there are statistical tests to compare two independent groups that do not require large normally distributed samples. The Mann-Whitney U is one of these tests. In the following work, a summary of this test is presented. The explanation of the logic underlying this test and its application are presented. Moreover, the forces and weaknesses of the Mann-Whitney U are mentioned. One major limit of the Mann-Whitney U is that the type I error or alpha (? is amplified in a situation of heteroscedasticity.

  20. Results of the Characterization and Dissolution Tests of Samples from Tank 16H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hay, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Samples from Tank 16H annulus and one sample from the tank interior were characterized to provide a source term for use in fate and transport modeling. Four of the annulus samples appeared to be similar based on visual examination and were combined to form a composite. One of the annulus samples appeared to be different from the other four based on visual examination and was analyzed separately. The analytical results of the tank interior sample indicate the sample is composed predominantly of iron containing compounds. Both of the annulus samples are composed mainly of sodium salts, however, the composite sample contained significantly more sludge/sand material of low solubilitity. The characterization of the tank 16H annulus and tank interior samples was hampered by the high dose rate and the nature of the samples. The difficulties resulted in large uncertainties in the analy