WorldWideScience

Sample records for test piles

  1. Some Remarks on Foundation Pile Testing Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybak, Jarosław

    2017-10-01

    This work presents the review of pile capacity testing techniques. In an overview, the key points in pile designing are: determination of the appropriate computational schemes, reliable data on loads and the properties of structural materials (in particular, of the soil mass, which is marked by the greatest variability). The procedure of constructing a pile foundation should include: carrying out soil tests in the scope that ensures safe designing, selecting a piling technology that is relevant both to geotechnical conditions and expected loads, drafting a piling design together with the design of load tests, setting up a testing station for further load tests, static and/or dynamic tests of pile load capacity, preceded by supplementary soil tests when the conditions of test pile installation fail to comply with the design assumptions or when the pile length exceeds the depth of the previously investigated soil, making documentation of load capacity tests (with an additional correction of the piling design), the actual piling (ongoing analysis of pile driving logs and, if necessary, testing the piles’ integrity), drawing up the as-built documentation. Unfortunately, the design is corrected after the load test have been conducted only if the piles fail to show the designed bearing capacity. The designer is then obliged to revise the design assumptions on the basis of tests results. If the test results account for the a greater bearing capacity than necessary and it would be recommendable to limit the extent of the planned (i.e. set out in the contract) piling works, usually neither the contractor nor the designer, nor even the Construction Site Supervisor, acting for the benefit of the Investor, are willing to take on the responsibility for reducing the scope of the piling works. The necessity of conducting additional control tests before and during the implementation of the construction project is often treated by the investors as an attempt at extorting extra

  2. Test Setup for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test setup for testing axially static and cyclic loaded piles in sand is described in the following. The purpose for the tests is to examine the tensile capacity of axially loaded piles in dense fully saturated sand. The pile dimensions are chosen to resemble full scale dimension of piles used...... in offshore pile foundations today....

  3. Tension Tests On Bored Piles In Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Clausen, Johan; Damkilde, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The lengths of the bored piles varied from 2 m to 6 m and all were of a diameter of 140 mm. The piles were tested to failure in tension and the load-displacement relations were recorded. The investigation has shown pronounced differences between the load bearing capacities obtained by different...

  4. Static Tension Tests on Axially Loaded Pile Segments in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    This paper provides laboratory test results of static axially loaded piles in sand. With a newly developed test setup, the pile-soil interface friction was investigated by using an open-ended steel pile segment with a diameter of 0.5 m. Use of a pile length of 1 m enabled the pile-soil interface...

  5. Improved design for driven piles based on a pile load test program in Illinois : phase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A dynamic load test program consisting of 38 sites and 111 piles with restrikes was conducted throughout Illinois : to improve the Illinois Department of Transportation design of driven piling. Pile types included steel H-piles and : closed-ended pip...

  6. Static pile load tests on driven piles in Intermediate-Geo Materials : research brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Research Objectives: : Investigate the use of modified standard penetration tests (MSPT) : Compare field results with predictions made by the WisDOT driving formula, PDA and CAPWAP : Improve prediction of pile lengths and pile capacities ...

  7. Static pile load tests on driven piles into Intermediate-Geo Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) has concerns with both predicting pile lengths and pile capacities for H-piles driven into Intermediate-Geo Materials (IGM). The goal of the research was to perform 7 static axial load tests at 7 lo...

  8. Laboratory Test Setup for Cyclic Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive description and the considerations regarding the design of a new laboratory test setup for testing cyclic axially loaded piles in sand. The test setup aims at analysing the effect of axial one-way cyclic loading on pile capacity and accumulated displacements....... Another aim was to test a large diameter pile segment with dimensions resembling full-scale piles to model the interface properties between pile and sand correctly. The pile segment was an open-ended steel pipe pile with a diameter of 0.5 m and a length of 1 m. The sand conditions resembled the dense sand...... determined from the API RP 2GEO standard and from the test results indicated over consolidation of the sand. Two initial one-way cyclic loading tests provided results of effects on pile capacity and accumulated displacements in agreement with other researchers’ test results....

  9. Test Procedure for Axially Loaded Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The test procedure described in the following is used when examining the effects of static or cyclic loading on the skin friction of an axially loaded pile in dense sand. The pile specimen is only loaded in tension to avoid any contribution from the base resistance. The pile dimensions are chosen...... to resemble full scale dimension of piles used in offshore pile foundations today. In this report is given a detailed description of the soil preparation and pile installation procedures as well data acquisition methods....

  10. Literature review Quasi-static and Dynamic pile load tests : Primarily report on non-static pile load tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huy, N.Q.

    2010-01-01

    Pile testing, which plays an importance role in the field of deep foundation design, is performed by static and non-static methods to provide information about the following issues: (Poulos, 1998) - The ultimate capacity of a single pile. - The load-displacement behavior of a pile. - The performance

  11. Interesting Developments in Testing Methods Applied to Foundation Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobala, Dariusz; Tkaczyński, Grzegorz

    2017-10-01

    Both: piling technologies and pile testing methods are a subject of current development. New technologies, providing larger diameters or using in-situ materials, are very demanding in terms of providing proper quality of execution of works. That concerns the material quality and continuity which define the integral strength of pile. On the other side we have the capacity of the ground around the pile and its ability to carry the loads transferred by shaft and pile base. Inhomogeneous nature of soils and a relatively small amount of tested piles imposes very good understanding of small amount of results. In some special cases the capacity test itself form an important cost in the piling contract. This work presents a brief description of selected testing methods and authors remarks based on cooperation with Universities constantly developing new ideas. Paper presents some experience based remarks on integrity testing by means of low energy impact (low strain) and introduces selected (Polish) developments in the field of closed–end pipe piles testing based on bi-directional loading, similar to Osterberg idea, but without sacrificial hydraulic jack. Such test is suitable especially when steel piles are used for temporary support in the rivers, where constructing of conventional testing appliance with anchor piles or kentledge meets technical problems. According to the author’s experience, such tests were not yet used on the building site but they bring a real potential especially, when the displacement control can be provided from the river bank using surveying techniques.

  12. Evaluation of axial pile bearing capacity based on pile driving analyzer (PDA) test using Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maizir, H.; Suryanita, R.

    2018-01-01

    A few decades, many methods have been developed to predict and evaluate the bearing capacity of driven piles. The problem of the predicting and assessing the bearing capacity of the pile is very complicated and not yet established, different soil testing and evaluation produce a widely different solution. However, the most important thing is to determine methods used to predict and evaluate the bearing capacity of the pile to the required degree of accuracy and consistency value. Accurate prediction and evaluation of axial bearing capacity depend on some variables, such as the type of soil, diameter, and length of pile, etc. The aims of the study of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) are utilized to obtain more accurate and consistent axial bearing capacity of a driven pile. ANNs can be described as mapping an input to the target output data. The method using the ANN model developed to predict and evaluate the axial bearing capacity of the pile based on the pile driving analyzer (PDA) test data for more than 200 selected data. The results of the predictions obtained by the ANN model and the PDA test were then compared. This research as the neural network models give a right prediction and evaluation of the axial bearing capacity of piles using neural networks.

  13. Integrity Testing of Pile Cover Using Distributed Fibre Optic Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yi; Kechavarzi, Cedric; O’Leary, Frank; Barker, Chris; Nicholson, Duncan; Soga, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    The integrity of cast-in-place foundation piles is a major concern in geotechnical engineering. In this study, distributed fibre optic sensing (DFOS) cables, embedded in a pile during concreting, are used to measure the changes in concrete curing temperature profile to infer concrete cover thickness through modelling of heat transfer processes within the concrete and adjacent ground. A field trial was conducted at a high-rise building construction site in London during the construction of a 51 m long test pile. DFOS cables were attached to the reinforcement cage of the pile at four different axial directions to obtain distributed temperature change data along the pile. The monitoring data shows a clear development of concrete hydration temperature with time and the pattern of the change varies due to small changes in concrete cover. A one-dimensional axisymmetric heat transfer finite element (FE) model is used to estimate the pile geometry with depth by back analysing the DFOS data. The results show that the estimated pile diameter varies with depth in the range between 1.40 and 1.56 m for this instrumented pile. This average pile diameter profile compares well to that obtained with the standard Thermal Integrity Profiling (TIP) method. A parametric study is conducted to examine the sensitivity of concrete and soil thermal properties on estimating the pile geometry. PMID:29257094

  14. Integrity Testing of Pile Cover Using Distributed Fibre Optic Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Rui

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The integrity of cast-in-place foundation piles is a major concern in geotechnical engineering. In this study, distributed fibre optic sensing (DFOS cables, embedded in a pile during concreting, are used to measure the changes in concrete curing temperature profile to infer concrete cover thickness through modelling of heat transfer processes within the concrete and adjacent ground. A field trial was conducted at a high-rise building construction site in London during the construction of a 51 m long test pile. DFOS cables were attached to the reinforcement cage of the pile at four different axial directions to obtain distributed temperature change data along the pile. The monitoring data shows a clear development of concrete hydration temperature with time and the pattern of the change varies due to small changes in concrete cover. A one-dimensional axisymmetric heat transfer finite element (FE model is used to estimate the pile geometry with depth by back analysing the DFOS data. The results show that the estimated pile diameter varies with depth in the range between 1.40 and 1.56 m for this instrumented pile. This average pile diameter profile compares well to that obtained with the standard Thermal Integrity Profiling (TIP method. A parametric study is conducted to examine the sensitivity of concrete and soil thermal properties on estimating the pile geometry.

  15. Integrity Testing of Pile Cover Using Distributed Fibre Optic Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yi; Kechavarzi, Cedric; O'Leary, Frank; Barker, Chris; Nicholson, Duncan; Soga, Kenichi

    2017-12-19

    The integrity of cast-in-place foundation piles is a major concern in geotechnical engineering. In this study, distributed fibre optic sensing (DFOS) cables, embedded in a pile during concreting, are used to measure the changes in concrete curing temperature profile to infer concrete cover thickness through modelling of heat transfer processes within the concrete and adjacent ground. A field trial was conducted at a high-rise building construction site in London during the construction of a 51 m long test pile. DFOS cables were attached to the reinforcement cage of the pile at four different axial directions to obtain distributed temperature change data along the pile. The monitoring data shows a clear development of concrete hydration temperature with time and the pattern of the change varies due to small changes in concrete cover. A one-dimensional axisymmetric heat transfer finite element (FE) model is used to estimate the pile geometry with depth by back analysing the DFOS data. The results show that the estimated pile diameter varies with depth in the range between 1.40 and 1.56 m for this instrumented pile. This average pile diameter profile compares well to that obtained with the standard Thermal Integrity Profiling (TIP) method. A parametric study is conducted to examine the sensitivity of concrete and soil thermal properties on estimating the pile geometry.

  16. Field Test of Driven Pile Group under Lateral Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorska, Karolina; Rybak, Jaroslaw; Wyjadlowski, Marek

    2017-12-01

    All the geotechnical works need to be tested because the diversity of soil parameters is much higher than in other fields of construction. Horizontal load tests are necessary to determine the lateral capacity of driven piles subject to lateral load. Various load tests were carried out altogether on the test field in Kutno (Poland). While selecting the piles for load tests, different load combinations were taken into account. The piles with diverse length were chosen, on the basis of the previous tests of their length and integrity. The subsoil around the piles consisted of mineral soils: clays and medium compacted sands with the density index ID>0.50. The pile heads were free. The points of support of the “base” to which the dial gauges (displacement sensors) were fastened were located at the distance of 0.7 m from the side surface of the pile loaded laterally. In order to assure the independence of measurement, additional control (verifying) geodetic survey of the displacement of the piles subject to the load tests was carried out (by means of the alignment method). The trial load was imposed in stages by means of a hydraulic jack. The oil pressure in the actuator was corrected by means of a manual pump in order to ensure the constant value of the load in the on-going process of the displacement of the pile under test. On the basis of the obtained results it is possible to verify the numerical simulations of the behaviour of piles loaded by a lateral force.

  17. Laboratory Testing of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesen, Hanne Ravn; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Hansen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...

  18. Full size testing of sheet pile walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuilen, J.W.G. van de; Linden, M.L.R. van der; Katsma, H.; Stolle, P.

    1996-01-01

    Azobé (Lophira alata) is widely used in timber sheet pile walls in the Netherlands. The boards in these walls are coupled and therefore load-sharing can be expected. A simulation model based on the finite element method DIANA (DIANA, 1992) was developed and load-sharing could be calculated. To check

  19. Centrifuge model testing for pile foundation reuse

    OpenAIRE

    Begaj, L.; McNamara, A M

    2011-01-01

    With continuous development in the urban environment the ground is becoming more and more congested with redundant foundations. The underground development of services and infrastructure already restricts the location of new building foundations and the redundant foundations only add to this problem. This paper describes how existing single pile foundations in overconsolidated clay are likely to behave when their loading conditions are changed by un-loading caused by demolition and subsequent...

  20. Testing of Laterally Loaded Rigid Piles with Applied Overburden Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Foglia, Aligi

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale tests have been conducted to investigate the quasi-static behaviour of laterally loaded, non-slender piles installed in cohesionless soil. For that purpose, a new and innovative test setup has been developed. The tests have been conducted in a pressure tank such that it was possible...... to apply an overburden pressure to the soil. As a result of that, the traditional uncertainties related to low effective stresses for small-scale tests have been avoided. A normalisation criterion for laterally loaded piles has been proposed based on dimensional analysis. The test results using the novel...

  1. Experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles, task 3 - FRP composite pile flexural testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The overall goal of this project is the experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP : composite piles for load-bearing in bridges. This report covers Task 3, FRP Composite Pile Flexural Testing. : Hollow and concrete filled...

  2. Dynamic load testing on the bearing capacity of prestressed tubular concrete piles in soft ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuang; Liu, Songyu

    2008-11-01

    Dynamic load testing (DLT) is a high strain test method for assessing pile performance. The shaft capacity of a driven PTC (prestressed tubular concrete) pile in marine soft ground will vary with time after installation. The DLT method has been successfully transferred to the testing of prestressed pipe piles in marine soft clay of Lianyungang area in China. DLT is investigated to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of single pile at different period after pile installation. The ultimate bearing capacity of single pile was founded to increase more than 70% during the inventing 3 months, which demonstrate the time effect of rigid pile bearing capacity in marine soft ground. Furthermore, the skin friction and axial force along the pile shaft are presented as well, which present the load transfer mechanism of pipe pile in soft clay. It shows the economy and efficiency of DLT method compared to static load testing method.

  3. Thermal response testing of precast pile heat exchangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagola, Maria Alberdi; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    The report is organized as follows: first, the concept of TRT is explained. Second, the test sites are described. Third, the field work is presented and a summary of the future work regarding the methodology to treat the data from the tests is provided. Finally, further documentation of the field...... of the fieldwork, the pile heat exchangers and the TRT equipment is extended in diverse appendices....

  4. Enhanced In-Pile Instrumentation at the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joy Rempe; Darrell Knudson; Joshua Daw; Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Kurt Davis; Robert Schley; Steven Taylor

    2012-08-01

    Many of the sensors deployed at materials and test reactors cannot withstand the high flux/high temperature test conditions often requested by users at U.S. test reactors, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory. To address this issue, an instrumentation development effort was initiated as part of the ATR National Scientific User Facility in 2007 to support the development and deployment of enhanced in-pile sensors. This paper provides an update on this effort. Specifically, this paper identifies the types of sensors currently available to support in-pile irradiations and those sensors currently available to ATR users. Accomplishments from new sensor technology deployment efforts are highlighted by describing new temperature and thermal conductivity sensors now available to ATR users. Efforts to deploy enhanced in-pile sensors for detecting elongation and real-time flux detectors are also reported, and recently-initiated research to evaluate the viability of advanced technologies to provide enhanced accuracy for measuring key parameters during irradiation testing are noted.

  5. Enhanced In-Pile Instrumentation at the Advanced Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Rempe; D. Knudson; J. Daw; T. Unruh; B. Chase; K. Condie

    2011-06-01

    Many of the sensors deployed at materials and test reactors cannot withstand the high flux/high temperature test conditions often requested by users at U.S. test reactors, such as the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). To address this issue, an instrumentation development effort was initiated as part of the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) in 2007 to support the development and deployment of enhanced in-pile sensors. This paper reports results from this effort. Specifically, this paper identifies the types of sensors currently available to support in-pile irradiations and those sensors currently available to ATR users. Accomplishments from new sensor technology deployment efforts are highlighted by describing new temperature and thermal conductivity sensors now available to ATR users. Efforts to deploy enhanced in-pile sensors for detecting elongation and real-time flux detectors are also reported, and recently-initiated research to evaluate the viability of advanced technologies to provide enhanced accuracy for measuring key parameters during irradiation testing are noted.

  6. Centrifuge modeling of rapid load tests with open-ended piles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.C.; Van Lottum, H.; Holscher, P.; Van Tol, A.F.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid and static load tests were conducted on open-ended and close-ended piles in the Deltares GeoCentriflige. hi flight, a pile was driven into the soil. Both fme-grained sand and silt beds were tested. Both the rapid and static soil resistances o f a close-ended pile were higher than the soil

  7. Development and evaluation of pile "high strain dynamic test database" to improve driven capacity estimates : phase 2 report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Maine Department of Transportation (MaineDOT) has noted poor correlation between predicted pile resistances : calculated using commonly accepted design methods and measured pile resistance from dynamic pile load tests (also : referred to as high ...

  8. Static Test and Result Analysis on Different Types of Pile Composite Foundation in the Same Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Tuo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining with the situation of soil test site, the large scale experiment was studying about natural foundation, rammed soil-cement piles, CFG pile and gravel pil. A series of conclusions were given from p-s curve, the fitting curve, and the Angle of the stress ratio of pile-soil composite modulus. It has certain guiding significance for the design and construction of pile type, which is used in North China area.

  9. Numerical modeling of Thermal Response Tests in Energy Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A.; Toledo, M.; Moffat, R.; Herrera, P. A.

    2013-05-01

    Nowadays, thermal response tests (TRT) are used as the main tools for the evaluation of low enthalpy geothermal systems such as heat exchangers. The results of TRT are used for estimating thermal conductivity and thermal resistance values of those systems. We present results of synthetic TRT simulations that model the behavior observed in an experimental energy pile system, which was installed at the new building of the Faculty of Engineering of Universidad de Chile. Moreover, we also present a parametric study to identify the most influent parameters in the performance of this type of tests. The modeling was developed using the finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics, which allows the incorporation of flow and heat transport processes. The modeled system consists on a concrete pile with 1 m diameter and 28 m deep, which contains a 28 mm diameter PEX pipe arranged in a closed circuit. Three configurations were analyzed: a U pipe, a triple U and a helicoid shape implemented at the experimental site. All simulations were run considering transient response in a three-dimensional domain. The simulation results provided the temperature distribution on the pile for a set of different geometry and physical properties of the materials. These results were compared with analytical solutions which are commonly used to interpret TRT data. This analysis demonstrated that there are several parameters that affect the system response in a synthetic TRT. For example, the diameter of the simulated pile affects the estimated effective thermal conductivity of the system. Moreover, the simulation results show that the estimated thermal conductivity for a 1 m diameter pile did not stabilize even after 100 hours since the beginning of the test, when it reached a value 30% below value used to set up the material properties in the simulation. Furthermore, we observed different behaviors depending on the thermal properties of concrete and soil. According to the simulations, the thermal

  10. Assessment of Feasibility of Suction Pile/Anchor Installation and Pullout Testing through Field Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vijaya

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Suction pile anchors are large cylindrical (inverted bucket type structure open at the bottom and closed at the top and largely used for mooring of offshore platforms, exploratory vessels etc. Prediction of the mooring capacity of suction piles is a critical issue faced by the design engineers and rational methods are required to produce reliable designs. Tests have been conducted in an existing natural pond within NIOT campus with the objective of developing methodology of deployment, design and logistics for suction pile installation and testing of mooring capacity under static pullout. Small size suction piles with varying diameters and lengths have been used in the tests. The tests have been carried out in the natural pond with constant water depth of 1.5 m with the top 1.5 m layer of bed comprising soft marine clay. It is found that pile geometry, aspect ratio and angle of pullout have a significant influence on the response to pullout. As angle of mooring load application changes from vertical to horizontal the reaction offered by the suction pile changes from skin friction to passive soil resistance. Resistance offered by the internal plug of soil is found to vary according to dimension of the anchor piles.

  11. EURIPIDES, load tests on large driven piles in dense silica sands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuidberg, H.M.; Vergobbi, P.

    1996-12-31

    In 1995 an extensive load testing program was conducted on 30 inch pipe piles in dense silica sands similar to those found in the southern North Sea. A highly instrumented pile was driven at one location, extracted and redriven at a second location. A total of twelve static compression and tension load tests were performed at three penetration depths between 30 and 47 meters. Test objectives included acquiring reliable data on capacity of offshore type piles in sands which hitherto were hardly available and to understand the failure mechanisms in order to improve current foundation design. The paper describes the design of the testing program and project organization and funding. Details of the test pile and instrumentation to measure the loads in the pile and the pile-sand interaction are highlighted with an emphasis on quality of the measurements. The field-work and innovative testing facilities are also described.

  12. Small-Scale Quasi-Static Tests on Non-Slender Piles Situated in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    In the period from February 2009 till March 2011 a series of small-scale tests on pile foundations has been conducted at Aalborg University. In all the tests the piles have been exposed to quasi-static loading and all the tests have been conducted in a pressure tank. The objective of the tests has...... been to investigate the effect of pile diameter and length to diameter ratio on the soil response in sand for non-slender piles. Further, the tests have been conducted to calibrate a three-dimensional numerical model in the commercial program FLAC3D....

  13. Comparative Model Tests of SDP and CFA Pile Groups in Non-Cohesive Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasiński, Adam; Kusio, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    The research topic relates to the subject of deep foundations supported on continuous flight auger (CFA) piles and screw displacement piles (SDP). The authors have decided to conduct model tests of foundations supported on the group of piles mentioned above and also the tests of the same piles working as a single. The tests are ongoing in Geotechnical Laboratory of Gdaňsk University of Technology. The description of test procedure, interpretation and analysis of the preliminary testing series results are presented in the paper.

  14. Determination Of Pile Quality Using Low Strain Integrity Testing And Automatic Signal Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Özüdoğru, Tolga Yılmaz

    2007-01-01

    Low strain pile integrity testing which utilizes one dimensional wave propagation theory makes it possible to detect major discontinuities or defects (cavities, cracks, decrease and increase in cross-section) within a pile quickly and economically. In this study, pile integrity testing data of 187 piles in two close sites located in Büyükçekmece are analyzed. The test method utilized in this project is the sonic echo method, and the test itself is specifically called the “Sonic Integrity Test...

  15. Supercritical water loop for in-pile materials testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzickova, M.; Vsolak, R.; Hajek, P.; Zychova, M.; Fukac, R. [Research Centre Rez Ltd., Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-01

    The Supercritical Water Loop (SCWL) has been designed and built within the HPLWR Phase 2 project, with the objective of testing materials under supercritical water conditions and radiation. The design parameters are set to 25MPa and 600{sup o}C in the testing area, where material samples shall be located. The loop has recently undergone pressure and leakage tests, during which the strength and tightness of the loop were proved. The loop has been also subjected to the first trial operation at nearly maximum operating parameters (temperature 550 {sup o}C was reached); loop operation was steady during several days. Presently, loop operation is envisaged in order to test the loop's long term operation ability. Samples of a material that needs further testing under out- of-pile conditions shall be exposed in the loop; the choice shall be made in agreement with the results of the WP4 - Materials of the HPLWR Phase 2 project. (author)

  16. Small-Scale Testing of Laterally Loaded Non-Slender Piles in a Pressure Tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    The monopile foundation concept is often employed as the foundation for offshore wind turbines. Typically, piles with diameters of 4-6 m and embedded lengths of 15-30 m are em¬ployed. Hence, the length to diameter ratio is around 5. The design method recommended by the American Petroleum Institute...... and Det Norske Veritas is, however, based on slender piles with length to diameter ratios larger than 10. Hence, the design method needs to be validated for non-slender piles. The aim of the present work is to investigate the pile behaviour for non-slender piles by means of small-scale testing. When...... were conducted on six piles with diameters between 40 and 100 mm and length to diameter ratios of 3-6 m. The effect of applying an overburden pressure is eval¬uated for the load-displacement relationships and the variation of pile deflection with depth....

  17. Field Tests to Investigate the Penetration Rate of Piles Driven by Vibratory Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohui Qin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Factors directly affecting the penetration rate of piles installed by vibratory driving technique are summarized and classified into seven aspects which are driving force, resistance, vibratory amplitude, energy consumption, speeding up at the beginning, pile plumbness keeping, and slowing down at the end, from the mechanism and engineering practice of the vibratory pile driving. In order to find out how these factors affect the penetration rate of the pile in three major actors of vibratory pile driving: (i the pile to be driven, (ii the selected driving system, and (iii the imposed soil conditions, field tests on steel sheet piles driven by vibratory driving technique in different soil conditions are conducted. The penetration rates of three different sheet pile types having up to four different lengths installed using two different vibratory driving systems are documented. Piles with different lengths and types driven with or without clutch have different penetration rates. The working parameters of vibratory hammer, such as driving force and vibratory amplitude, have great influences on the penetration rate of the pile, especially at the later stages of the sinking process. Penetration rate of piles driven in different soil conditions is uniform because of the different penetration resistance including shaft friction and toe resistance.

  18. Small-Scale Cyclic Tests on Nonslender Piles Situated in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    In the period from August 2011 till October 2011 a series of small-scale tests on pile foundations has been conducted at Aalborg University. In all the tests, the piles have been exposed to cyclic loading consisting of 20-25 load cycles and all the tests have been conducted in a pressure tank....... The objective of the tests has been to investigate the effect of pile diameter, length to diameter ratio and cyclic loading on the soil response for non-slender piles in sand....

  19. Pile-Reinforcement Behavior of Cohesive Soil Slopes: Numerical Modeling and Centrifuge Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Centrifuge model tests were conducted on pile-reinforced and unreinforced cohesive soil slopes to investigate the fundamental behavior and reinforcement mechanism. A finite element analysis model was established and confirmed to be effective in capturing the primary behavior of pile-reinforced slopes by comparing its predictions with experimental results. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the stress-deformation response was obtained by combining the numerical and physical simulations. The response of pile-reinforced slope was indicated to be significantly affected by pile spacing, pile location, restriction style of pile end, and inclination of slope. The piles have a significant effect on the behavior of reinforced slope, and the influencing area was described using a continuous surface, denoted as W-surface. The reinforcement mechanism was described using two basic concepts, compression effect and shear effect, respectively, referring to the piles increasing the compression strain and decreasing the shear strain of the slope in comparison with the unreinforced slope. The pile-soil interaction induces significant compression effect in the inner zone near the piles; this effect is transferred to the upper part of the slope, with the shear effect becoming prominent to prevent possible sliding of unreinforced slope.

  20. Lateral pile cap load tests with gravel backfill of limited width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the increase in passive force produced by compacting a dense granular fill adjacent to a pile cap or abutment wall when the surrounding soil is in a relative loose state. Lateral load tests were performed on a pile cap with th...

  1. Testing protocol for predicting driven pile behavior within pre-bored soil : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this project is to compile the state-of-the-art and best practice : results available on the subject of pre-bored piles and develop a research and : instrumentation testing plan for fi eld data collection and select multiple pile : d...

  2. Field testing of jet-grouted pile : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In many areas of Florida, local geology dictates the use of deep foundations for transportation structures bridges, noise walls, signage, etc. When concrete piles are used, they are either prestressed at the casting yard, cast in situ through a h...

  3. Experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles, task 6 - FRP composite pile axial compression testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The overall goal of this project is the experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP : composite piles for load-bearing in bridges. This report covers Task 6, FRP Composite Pile Axial Compression : Testing. : Hollow and conc...

  4. Regressive approach for predicting bearing capacity of bored piles from cone penetration test data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad S. Alkroosh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the least square support vector machine (LSSVM algorithm was applied to predicting the bearing capacity of bored piles embedded in sand and mixed soils. Pile geometry and cone penetration test (CPT results were used as input variables for prediction of pile bearing capacity. The data used were collected from the existing literature and consisted of 50 case records. The application of LSSVM was carried out by dividing the data into three sets: a training set for learning the problem and obtaining a relationship between input variables and pile bearing capacity, and testing and validation sets for evaluation of the predictive and generalization ability of the obtained relationship. The predictions of pile bearing capacity by LSSVM were evaluated by comparing with experimental data and with those by traditional CPT-based methods and the gene expression programming (GEP model. It was found that the LSSVM performs well with coefficient of determination, mean, and standard deviation equivalent to 0.99, 1.03, and 0.08, respectively, for the testing set, and 1, 1.04, and 0.11, respectively, for the validation set. The low values of the calculated mean squared error and mean absolute error indicated that the LSSVM was accurate in predicting the pile bearing capacity. The results of comparison also showed that the proposed algorithm predicted the pile bearing capacity more accurately than the traditional methods including the GEP model.

  5. Field instrumentation and testing to study set-up phenomenon of piles driven into Louisiana clayey soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    The main objective of this research study is to evaluate the time-dependent increase in pile capacity (or pile setup phenomenon) for piles driven into Louisiana soils through conducting repeated static and dynamic field testing with time on full-scal...

  6. Field testing of jet-grouted piles and drilled shafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A field study of deep foundations supporting high mast lighting and signage was undertaken in typical Florida : soils. Three drilled shafts (48 in x12 ft and two 48 in x18 ft) and two jet-grouted piles (28 in x18 ft) were : constructed in Keystone He...

  7. Fiber Bragg Grating-Based Performance Monitoring of Piles Fiber in a Geotechnical Centrifugal Model Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Weng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In centrifugal tests, conventional sensors can hardly capture the performance of reinforcement in small-scale models. However, recent advances in fiber optic sensing technologies enable the accurate and reliable monitoring of strain and temperature in laboratory geotechnical tests. This paper outlines a centrifugal model test, performed using a 60 g ton geocentrifuge, to investigate the performance of pipe piles used to reinforce the loess foundation below a widened embankment. Prior to the test, quasidistributed fiber Bragg grating (FBG strain sensors were attached to the surface of the pipe piles to measure the lateral friction resistance in real time. Via the centrifuge actuator, the driving of pipe piles was simulated. During testing, the variations of skin friction distribution along the pipe piles were measured automatically using an optical fiber interrogator. This paper represents the presentation and detailed analysis of monitoring results. Herein, we verify the reliability of the fiber optic sensors in monitoring the model piles without affecting the integrity of the centrifugal model. This paper, furthermore, shows that lateral friction resistance developed in stages with the pipe piles being pressed in and that this sometimes may become negative.

  8. Assessment of Calculation Procedures for Piles in Clay Based on Static Loading Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Andersen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Numerous methods are available for the prediction of the axial capacity of piles in clay. In this paper, two well-known models are considered, namely the current API-RP2A (1987 to present) and the recently developed ICP method. The latter is developed by Jardine and his co-workers at Imperial...... that the interpretation of the field tests is of paramount importance, both with regard to the soil profile and the loading conditions. Based on analyses of 253 static pile loading tests distributed on 111 sites, API-RP2A provides the better description of the data. However, it should be emphasised that some input....... Especially, API-RP2A underestimates the capacity of short piles ( 20 m). Neither method estimates the low shaft resistance measured in connection with piles installed in normally consolidated clay of low plasticity....

  9. Pile-Reinforcement Behavior of Cohesive Soil Slopes: Numerical Modeling and Centrifuge Testing

    OpenAIRE

    Liping Wang; Ga Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Centrifuge model tests were conducted on pile-reinforced and unreinforced cohesive soil slopes to investigate the fundamental behavior and reinforcement mechanism. A finite element analysis model was established and confirmed to be effective in capturing the primary behavior of pile-reinforced slopes by comparing its predictions with experimental results. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of the stress-deformation response was obtained by combining the numerical and physical simulations. Th...

  10. Production test-105-55-P -- Reactivity of the B Pile under shutdown conditions. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menegus, R.L.

    1946-07-26

    At the shutdown of the B Pile, 269 active tubes were discharged and ten poison columns were charged. As a result, the pile was let considerably below critical. The present test described in this report was set up to develop methods of detecting possible changes in reactivity by periodic measurements of neutron flux in the shutdown pile. The irradiation of indium foils in an empty process tube was found to provide a satisfactory method of monitoring the shutdown pile, and was sensitive than the proportional counter with was also tried. The accuracy with which the subcritical condition can be determined is roughly 20%. The uncertainty is due mostly to the irregular arrangement of metal and poison in the unit and the resulting difficulty in representing the neutron flux mathematically.

  11. CONDUCTING AND ANALYZING THE RESULTS OF THE EXPERIMENTAL BOX TEST OF RETAINING WALL MODELS WITHOUT PILES AND ON THE PILE FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lisnevskyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Taking into consideration that the bearing capacity of the foundation may be insufficient, in the study it is assumed that pile foundation can be used to reduce the impact of the construction of new retaining structures on roads and railways near the existing buildings or in areas of dense urban development and ensure the stability of the foundation. To reduce the volume of excavation it is necessary to choose the economic structure of the retaining wall. To do this, one should explore stress-strain state (SSS of the retaining walls, to develop methods to improve their strength and stability, as well as to choose the most appropriate method of their analysis. Methodology. In the design of retaining walls foundation mat and piles are considered as independent elements. Since the combined effect of the retaining wall, piles and foundation mat as well as the effect of soil or rock foundation on the structure are considered not fully, so there are some limitations in the existing design techniques. To achieve the purpose the box tests of retaining walls models without piles and with piles for studying their interaction with the surrounding soil massif were conducted. Findings. Laboratory simulation of complex systems «surrounding soil – retaining wall – pile» was carried out and on the basis of the box test results were analyzed strains and its main parameters of the stress-strain state. Analysis of the results showed that the structure of a retaining wall with piles is steady and stable. Originality. So far, in Ukraine has not been carried out similar experimental box tests with models of retaining walls in such combinations. In the article has been presented unique photos and test results, as well as their analysis. Practical value. Using the methodology of experimental tests of the retaining wall models with piles and without them gives a wider opportunity to study stress-strain state of such structures.

  12. Development of a new simplified load testing method of a pile. Kui no shinsaika shikenho no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, H.; Maruyama, O. (Japan Railway Construction Public Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Fujioka, T. (Chiyoda Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Kato, H. (Daido Concrete Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-10-15

    It is preferable to use a vertically loading test to verify bearing power of a pile. However, the conventional standard loading test could not be used easily because of much expense required for reactive piles and a loading device. Accordingly, a new load testing method was developed. The method places a load on a jack mounted initially near a pile tip, and measures the load on the jack, its vertical displacement and the strain and displacement in the pile including the pile head at each depth. Thus, the relationship between circumferential friction force at each part of the pile and the displacement, and the relationship between the jack load and the downward displacement are derived, which are converted to the relationship between the load on the pile head against the pile head loading and the amount of subsidence, using a load transmission analysis. The method features no necessity of reactive piles or loading girders, capability of measuring separately the circumferential friction force and the tip bearing power, safety, short construction time, and inexpensiveness. The jacks include types that are recovered after a test and not recovered. This new load testing method has been used on 18 different kinds of piles, in addition to verification test at sandy alluvial fan areas between Takasaki and Karuizawa in the planned Hokuriku Shinkansen line. 11 figs.

  13. CPT-Based Interpretation of Pile Load Tests in Clay-Silt Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakoso W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two pile axial load tests were performed in a site in Depok, West Java. The soil of the site is predominantly a silt-clay soil, characterized by seven mechanical cone penetration tests (CPTs. The piles were 5.5 m long and 11.5 m long, 250 mm square piles. The results of the static load tests showed that the ultimate capacities were achieved. The axial load tests were subsequently back-analyzed using an axisymmetric finite element model using PLAXIS. In the back-analyses, the soil modulus and shear strength in the model, using the cone penetration resistance as the reference, were adjusted so that the numerical load-settlement curves matched the actual curves. The results of the back-analyses are then synthesized with the results of the CPTs, and are compared with available design guidelines. Some recommendations are then proposed.

  14. RATE-DEPENDENT PULL-OUT BEARING CAPACITY OF PILES BY SIMILITUDE MODEL TESTS USING SEEPAGE FORCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Tatsuya; Kokusho, Takaji

    Pull-out test of model piles was conducted by varying the pull-out velocity and skin friction of piles using a seepage force similitude model test apparatus. Due to the seepage consolidation under the pressure of 150kPa, the effective stress distribution in a prototype saturated soil of 17m could be successfully reproduced in the model ground of 28cm thick, in which the pull-out tests were carried out. The pull-out load rose to a peak value at small displacement, and then decreased to a residual value. At the same time, pore pressure in the vicinity of the pile decreased due to suction near the tip and the positive dilatancy near the pile skin. The maximum pull-out load, pile axial load, side friction and the corresponding displacement increased dramatically with increasing pull-out velocity. It was found that these rate-dependent trends become more prominent with increasing skin friction.

  15. Application Study of Self-balanced Testing Method on Big Diameter Rock-socketed Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-biao WANG

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Through the technological test of self-balanced testing method on big diameter rock-socketed piles of broadcasting centre building of Tai’an, this paper studies and analyzes the links of the balance position selection, the load cell production and installation, displacement sensor selection and installation, loading steps, stability conditions and determination of the bearing capacity in the process of self-balanced testing. And this paper summarizes key technology and engineering experience of self-balanced testing method of big diameter rock-socketed piles and, meanwhile, it also analyzes the difficult technical problems needed to be resolved urgently at present. Conclusion of the study has important significance to the popularization and application of self-balanced testing method and the similar projects.

  16. Development of Out-pile Test Technology for Fuel Assembly Performance Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Tae Hyun; In, W. K.; Oh, D. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2007-03-15

    Out-pile tests with full scale fuel assembly are to verify the design and to evaluate the performance of the final products. HTL for the hydraulic tests and FAMeCT for mechanical/structural tests were constructed in this project. The maximum operating conditions of HTL are 30 bar, 320 .deg. C, and 500 m3/hr. This facility can perform the pressure drop test, fuel assembly uplift test, and flow induced vibration test. FAMeCT can perform the bending and vibration tests. The verification of the developed facilities were carried out by comparing the reference data of the fuel assembly which was obtained at the Westinghouse Co. The compared data showed a good coincidence within uncertainties. FRETONUS was developed for high temperature and high pressure fretting wear simulator and performance test. A performance test was conducted for 500 hours to check the integrity, endurance, data acquisition capability of the simulator. The technology of turbulent flow analysis and finite element analysis by computation was developed. From the establishments of out-pile test facilities for full scale fuel assembly, the domestic infrastructure for PWR fuel development has been greatly upgraded.

  17. In-pile and out-of-pile testing of a molybdenum-uranium dioxide cermet fueled themionic diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diianni, D. C.

    1972-01-01

    The behavior of Mo-UO2 cermet fuel in a diode for thermionic reactor application was studied. The diode had a Mo-0.5 Ti emitter and niobium collector. Output power ranged from 1.4 to 2.8 W/cm squared at emitter and collector temperatures of 1500 deg and 540 C. Thermionic performance was stable within the limits of the instrumentation sensitivity. Through 1000 hours of in-pile operation the emitter was dimensionally stable. However, some fission gases (15 percent) leaked through an inner clad imperfection that occurred during fuel fabrication.

  18. In-pile testing of HCPB submodules. Feasibility study for the European Blanket project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Laan, J.G.; Bakker, K.; Fokkens, J.H.; Haverkate, B.R.W.; Sciolla, C.M. [ECN Nuclear Research, Petten (Netherlands); Conrad, R. [JRC-IAM, HFR-Unit, Petten (Netherlands)

    1998-02-01

    Full size module systems of the candidate DEMO blanket concepts selected for the European Blanket Project (EBP) will be tested in ITER, presently called Test Blanket modules (TBM). The Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) is one of the two concepts developed in the European Union (EU). This development path consists of several scaling steps, including integral testing of a subsized module at realistic operation conditions. As part of the HCPB development work for the TBMs, ECN performed jointly with JRC/IAM at Petten a feasibility study for irradiation tests of subsized HCPB modules. The first stage of the study was concluded with a report on the conceptual design of an in-pile test of a single submodule with a helium cooling loop. Such test was considered technically feasible, but would require significant project duration and expenditures. Further development of detailed objectives for in-pile tests was recommended, in particular in view of the different parameters for the HCPB-ITM and DEMO-concept. This objective has been modified by the EBP in fall 1997. For the final stage of the study the test objective has been: the in-pile testing of the thermal/mechanical behaviour of the HCPB ceramic breeder beds, while giving lower priority to tritium transport issues (release, permeation). Several configuration options in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) in Petten, Netherlands, to perform in-pile test of HCPB submodules have been considered. Neutronics analyses along with thermal and structural analyses have been made for selected options and several HFR peripheral in-tank positions. These pre-design analyses show that the whole range of breeder bed power densities and temperature levels, which are relevant to the HCPB DEMO and BTM designs, can be reached with the options presented. The options are all cooled by the reactor coolant flow. The use of an helium loop is not compulsory and is considered as an unnecessary complication with regard to the present test objectives

  19. Load rating and retrofit testing of bridge timber piles subjected to eccentric loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    This report first evaluated the load rating procedure currently in use by the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) for rating timber : piles supporting multiple-span, simply supported bridges. For simplicity, these piles are often rated under...

  20. Comparison of Numerical Analyses with a Static Load Test of a Continuous Flight Auger Pile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michal Hoľko; Jakub Stacho

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with numerical analyses of a Continuous Flight Auger (CFA) pile. The analyses include a comparison of calculated and measured load-settlement curves as well as a comparison of the load distribution over a pile's length...

  1. Validity and Utilization of the Out-Pile Testing Facilities at HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Kee-Nam; Cho, Man-Soon; Yang, Sung-Woo; Shin, Yoon-Taek; Park, Seng-Jae; Jun, Byung-Hyuk; Kim, Myong-Seop [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Various neutron irradiation facilities such as rabbit irradiation facilities, loop facilities and the capsule irradiation facilities for irradiation tests of nuclear materials, fuels and radioisotope products have been developed at HANARO. Among these irradiation facilities, the capsule is the most useful device for coping with the various test requirements at HANARO. To support the national research and development programs on nuclear reactors and the nuclear fuel cycle technology in Korea, new irradiation capsules have been developed and actively utilized for the irradiation tests requested by numerous users. The environmental conditions for these reactors are generally beyond present day reactor technology, especially regarding the higher neutron fluence and higher operating temperature. To effectively support the national R and Ds relevant to the future nuclear systems, the development of advanced irradiation technologies concerning higher neutron fluence and irradiation temperature are being preferentially developed at HANARO. The utilization of the out-pile testing facilities to satisfy the criteria of safety evaluation for a new device installed in the core of HANARO was summarized. In addition, the validity of the out-pile testing facilities was evaluated and proved to be effective for verifying the integrity of irradiation capsule.

  2. IN-PILE PERFORMANCE OF HANA CLADDING TESTED IN HALDEN REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HYUN-GIL KIM

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An in-pile performance test of HANA claddings was conducted at up to 67 GWD/MTU in the Halden research reactor in Norway over a 6.5 year period. Four types of HANA claddings (HANA-3, HANA-4, HANA-5, and HANA-6 and a reference Zircaloy-4 cladding were used for the in-pile test. The evaluation parameters of the HANA claddings were the corrosion behavior, dimensional changes, hydrogen uptake, and tensile strength after the claddings were tested under the simulated operation conditions of a Korean commercial reactor. The oxide thickness ranged from 15 to 37 mm at a high flux region in the test rods, and all HANA claddings showed corrosion resistance superior to the Zircaloy-4 cladding. The creep-down rate of all HANA claddings was lower than that of the Zircaloy-4 cladding. In addition, the hydrogen content of the HANA claddings ranged from 54 to 96 wppm at the high heat flux region of the test rods, whereas the hydrogen content of the Zircaloy-4 cladding was 119 wppm. The tensile strength of the HANA and Zircaloy-4 claddings was similarly increased when compared to the un-irradiated claddings owing to the radiation-induced hardening.

  3. Modelling of pile load tests in granular soils : Loading rate effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.C.

    2017-01-01

    People have used pile foundations throughout history to support structures by transferring
    loads to deeper and stronger soil layers. One of the most important questions during the design of the pile foundation is the bearing capacity of the pile. The most reliable method for determining the

  4. Pile Driving Analysis for Pile Design and Quality Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Driven piles are commonly used in foundation engineering. The most accurate measurement of pile capacity is achieved from measurements made during static load tests. Static load tests, however, may be too expensive for certain projects. In these case...

  5. Analysis of Bearing Capacity Pile Foundation with Using Capwap Software for Testing Pile Driving Analyzer (pda) at Fasfel Development Project Parlimbungan Ketek Sikara-Kara Mandailing Natal District (north Sumatera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlyn Simanjuntak, Johan; Suita, Diana

    2017-12-01

    Pile foundation is one type deep foundation that serves to distribute the load of hard soil structure loading which has a high bearing capacity that is located deep enough inside the soil. To determine the bearing capacity of the pile and at the same time control the Calendring results, the Pile Driving Analyzer (PDA) test at 8 pile sections from the 84 point piling section (10% of the number sections), the results were analyzed by CAPWAP SOFTWARE, and the highest bearing capacity of Ru 177 ton and the lowest bearing capacity of 111 tons, is bigger than the plan load which load plans that is 60,9 tons. Finally the PDA safe is bearing bearing capacity of the load planning.

  6. Thermal-Hydraulics and Electrochemistry of a Boiling Solution in a Porous Sludge Pile A Test Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.F. Voelker

    2001-05-03

    When boiling occurs in a pile of porous corrosion products (sludge), chemical species can concentrate. These species can react with the corrosion products and transform the sludge into a rock hard mass and/or create a corrosive environment. In-situ measurements are required to improve the understanding of this process, and the thermal-hydraulic and electrochemical environment in the pile. A test method is described that utilizes a water heated instrumented tube array in an autoclave to perform the in-situ measurements. As a proof of method feasibility, tests were performed in an alkaline phosphate solution. The test data is discussed. Temperature changes and electrochemical potential shifts were used to indicate when chemicals concentrate and if/when the pile hardens. Post-test examinations confirmed hardening occurred. Experiments were performed to reverse the hardening process. A one-dimensional model, utilizing capillary forces, was developed to understand the thermal-hydraulic measurements.

  7. Capsule development and utilization for material irradiation tests; study on the in-pile creep measuring method of zirconium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong; Lee, Byung Kee; Lee, Jong Jea; Kim, Chang Sik; Kim, B. Hun; Cho, I. Sik [Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea)

    2002-02-01

    The final objective of this project is to obtain a design and fabrication technology of an in-pile creep test machine of zirconium alloys. First, design concepts of the in-pile creep test machines of various foreign countries were reviewed and a preliminary design of the equipment was carried. Second, the mock-up of the in-pile creep test machine was fabricated based on the preliminary design. The mock-up consisted of upper and lower grips, a yoke, a pressure chamber including a bellows, a push rod and LVDT. Each part was made of 304 L stainless steel. The average surface roughness of the parts was 1.0-14.7 {mu}m. The mock-up precisely determined an extension of a specimen by gas pressure. Finally, in-pile creep capsule was designed, fabricated and modified. High pure aluminum blocks were put in the capsule. Considering heat transfer coefficients of helium and nitrogen gases, the cooling efficiency is about 4 .deg. C at the condition of 300 .deg. C creep test. Yield strength, ultimate tensile strength and elongation at 300 .deg. C were 335 MPa, 591 MPa, 19.8%, respectively. which were lower than the values at room temperature, 353 MPa, 740 MPa, 12.5%. This study gave an important technology related to design, fabrication and performance tests of the in-pile creep test machine, which is applied to the fabrication of a special capsule and also used for the fundamental data for the fabrication of various in-pile creep capsules. 6 refs., 45 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  8. Tension pile study : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-07-01

    This report contains the results of a short term study of a pile in tension loads. The piles tested were driven on Louisiana Department of Highway's property in response to preceding research work entitled "Stability of Slender Prestressed Concrete P...

  9. Monitoring and Analysis of In-Pile Phenomena in Advanced Test Reactor using Acoustic Telemetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Dept. of Human Factors, Controls, and Statistics; Smith, James A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Dept. of Fuel Performance and Design; Jewell, James Keith [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Dept. of Fuel Performance and Design

    2015-02-01

    The interior of a nuclear reactor presents a particularly harsh and challenging environment for both sensors and telemetry due to high temperatures and high fluxes of energetic and ionizing particles among the radioactive decay products. A number of research programs are developing acoustic-based sensing approach to take advantage of the acoustic transmission properties of reactor cores. Idaho National Laboratory has installed vibroacoustic receivers on and around the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) containment vessel to take advantage of acoustically telemetered sensors such as thermoacoustic (TAC) transducers. The installation represents the first step in developing an acoustic telemetry infrastructure. This paper presents the theory of TAC, application of installed vibroacoustic receivers in monitoring the in-pile phenomena inside the ATR, and preliminary data processing results.

  10. Experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles : Task 5 : laminate durability testing : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The overall goal of this project is the experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles for load-bearing in bridges. This report covers Task 5, Laminate Durability Testing. : Mechanical properties of the FRP mat...

  11. Effect of Passive Pile on 3D Ground Deformation and on Active Pile Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bingxiang; Teng, Jun; Peng, Tao; Feng, Zhongwen

    2014-01-01

    Using a series of model tests, this study investigated the effect of a passive pile on 3D ground deformation around a laterally loaded pile and on that laterally loaded pile's response in sand. The active pile head was subjected to lateral loads, and the passive pile was arranged in front of the active pile. In the model tests, the distance between the two pile centers was set to zero (i.e., a single pile test), 2.5, 4, and 6 times the pile width (B). The 3D ground surface deformations around the active and passive piles were obtained using a newly developed Stereo-PIV technique. The experimental results showed that the ground surface movements were restrained by the passive pile when the pile spacing was less than 6B. The response of the active pile was affected by the passive pile when the pile spacing was less than 4B. This study combined the response of the active pile and surrounding 3D ground deformation to investigate the effect of the passive pile, which is useful to further understand the pile-soil-pile interactions and to enhance pile foundation design in engineering practice. PMID:25250391

  12. Big Pile or Small Pile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, Mario; Quidacciolu, Rossana G.; Soletta, Isabella

    2013-01-01

    The construction of a voltaic pile (battery) is a simple laboratory activity that commemorates the invention of this important device and is of great help in teaching physics. The voltaic pile is often seen as a scientific toy, with the "pile" being constructed from fruit. These toys use some strips of copper and zinc inserted in a piece…

  13. Real Scale test and analysis of the skin friction on a pile in rock; Ensayo a escala real e interpretacion del comportamiento de un pilote por fuest en roca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmo, D. del; Melentijevic, S.; Prieto, L.; Olalla, C.

    2011-07-01

    The skin friction behaviour of a pile in a flysch rock in San Sebastian (Guipuzcoa) has been studied. The static load test was performed on a pile of 1 meter diameter, on the 5 meter length segment of the pile between 12 and 17 meters depth- Two Osterberg cells were embedded into the pile segment to apply the load on the pile-rock system. The mechanism of the load transfer between the pile and the rock has been analyzed by laboratory tests on rock samples, load test results and a finite element method calculus. the results have also been compared to the existing formations of world wide published standards. (Author) 16 refs.

  14. Strain measurements by fiber Bragg grating sensors for in situ pile loading tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Hattenberger, Cornelia; Straub, Tilmann; Naumann, Marcel; Borm, Günter; Lauerer, Robert; Beck, Christoph; Schwarz, Wolfgang

    2003-07-01

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network has been installed into a large diameter concrete pile on a real construction site. The intention was to monitor its deformation behavior during several quasi-static loading cycles. The skin friction between pile and subsoil affecting the ultimate bearing capacity of the pile as well as the settlement behavior of the structure under investigation has been derived from our measurements. A comparison between the results of the fiber Bragg grating sensors and conventional concrete strain gages (CSG) has shown excellent correspondence.

  15. Effect of Passive Pile on 3D Ground Deformation and on Active Pile Response

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Bingxiang; Chen, Rui; Teng, Jun; Peng, Tao; Feng, Zhongwen

    2014-01-01

    Using a series of model tests, this study investigated the effect of a passive pile on 3D ground deformation around a laterally loaded pile and on that laterally loaded pile’s response in sand. The active pile head was subjected to lateral loads, and the passive pile was arranged in front of the active pile. In the model tests, the distance between the two pile centers was set to zero (i.e., a single pile test), 2.5, 4, and 6 times the pile width (B). The 3D ground surface deformations around...

  16. Thermal and chemical analysis of carbon dioxide reforming of methane using the out-of-pile test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Ziyong [Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, Tsinghua University (China); Ohashi, Hirofumi; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki [Department of Advanced Nuclear Heat Technology, Oarai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    In the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, a hydrogen production system is being designed to produce hydrogen by means of steam reforming of natural gas (its main composition is methane(CH{sub 4})) using nuclear heat (10 MW, 1178 K) supplied by the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). Prior to coupling of the steam reforming system with the HTTR, an out-of-pile demonstration test was planned to confirm safety, controllability and performance of the steam reforming system under simulated operational conditions of the prototype. The out-of-pile test facility simulates key components downstream to an intermediate heat exchanger of the HTTR hydrogen production system on a scale of 1 : 30 and has a hydrogen production capacity of 110 Nm{sup 3}/h using an electric heater as a reactor substitute. The test facility is presently under construction. Reforming of natural gas with carbon dioxide CO{sub 2} (CO{sub 2} reforming) using the out-of-pile test facility is also being considered. In recent years, catalytic reforming of natural gas with CO{sub 2} to synthesis gas (CO and H{sub 2}) has been proposed as one of the most promising technologies for utilization of those two greenhouse gases. Numerical analysis on heat and mass balance has practical significance in CO{sub 2} reforming when the steam reforming process is adopted in the out-of-pile test. Numerical analysis of CO{sub 2} reforming and reforming of natural gas with CO{sub 2} and steam (CO{sub 2}+H{sub 2}O reforming) have been carried out using the mathematical model. Results such as the methane conversion rate, product gas composition, and the components temperature distribution considering the effects of helium gas temperature, reforming pressure, molar ratio of process gases and so on have been obtained in the numerical analysis. Heat and mass balance of the out-of-pile test facility considering chemical reactions are evaluated well. The methane conversation rates are about 0.36 and 0.35 which

  17. Model Test Research on the End Bearing Behavior of the Large-Diameter Cast-in-Place Concrete Pile for Jointed Rock Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingwei Cai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For large-diameter, cast-in-place concrete piles, the end bearing capacity of a single pile is affected by discontinuous surfaces that exist in natural rock masses when the bearing layer of the pile end is located in the rock layer. In order to study the influence of the jointed dip angle on the bearing characteristics of the pile end, the discrete element models are adopted to simulate the mechanical characteristics of the jointed rock masses, and the model tests of the failure mode of the jointed rock masses were also designed. The results of the numerical calculations and modeling tests show that the joints, which have a filtering effect on the internal stress of the bedrock located at the pile end, change the load transferring paths. And the failure mode of the jointed rock foundation also changes as jointed dip angle changes. The rock located at the pile end generally presents a wedge failure mode. In addition, the Q-S curves obtained by model tests show that the ultimate end bearing capacity of a single pile is influenced by the jointed dip angle. The above results provide an important theoretical basis for how to correctly calculate end resistance for a cast-in-place concrete pile.

  18. Pile Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Machine-oriented structural engineering firm TERA, Inc. is engaged in a project to evaluate the reliability of offshore pile driving prediction methods to eventually predict the best pile driving technique for each new offshore oil platform. Phase I Pile driving records of 48 offshore platforms including such information as blow counts, soil composition and pertinent construction details were digitized. In Phase II, pile driving records were statistically compared with current methods of prediction. Result was development of modular software, the CRIPS80 Software Design Analyzer System, that companies can use to evaluate other prediction procedures or other data bases.

  19. A study on seismic behavior of pile foundations of bridge abutment on liquefiable ground through shaking table tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Mitsuhiko; Tanimoto, Shunsuke; Ishida, Shuichi; Ohsumi, Michio; Hoshikuma, Jun-ichi

    2017-10-01

    There is risk of bridge foundations to be damaged by liquefaction-induced lateral spreading of ground. Once bridge foundations have been damaged, it takes a lot of time for restoration. Therefore, it is important to assess the seismic behavior of the foundations on liquefiable ground appropriately. In this study, shaking table tests of models on a scale of 1/10 were conducted at the large scale shaking table in Public Works Research Institute, Japan, to investigate the seismic behavior of pile-supported bridge abutment on liquefiable ground. The shaking table tests were conducted for three types of model. Two are models of existing bridge which was built without design for liquefaction and the other is a model of bridge which was designed based on the current Japanese design specifications for highway bridges. As a result, the bending strains of piles of the abutment which were designed based on the current design specifications were less than those of the existing bridge.

  20. Analytical Analysis and Field Test Investigation of Consolidation for CCSG Pile Composite Foundation in Soft Clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-grade concrete-cored sand-gravel (CCSG pile composite foundation is a new kind of composite foundation for thick and soft clay ground treatment. An analytical solution was derived for calculating the consolidation process of this composite foundation by considering coefficients of horizontal permeability in smear zone, the radial flow within the sand-gravel shell, and the impervious property of concrete-cored pile. The results show that Terzaghi’s one-dimensional consolidation solution and the consolidation analytical solution of ordinary composite foundation were special cases of this solution. Curves of the average consolidation degree of the composite foundation under various nondimensional parameters were observed using the program based on the theoretical formula. Meanwhile, a series of in situ measurements including the settlement of pile and soil, the pore water pressure, and the total stress under embankment load were obtained on the CCSG pile composite foundation on a section of Zhenjiang-Liyang highway. The analyzed results show that the new style composite foundation patent technology has many advantages such as small differential postconstruction settlement (differential is not good, small is, reliable quality, high bearing capacity, and stability. And the consolidation of composite foundation is largely affected by the nondimensional parameters. The analytical solution is finally verified with the actual measurement data.

  1. Mono pile foundation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyngesen, S.; Brendstrup, C.

    1997-02-01

    The use of mono piles as foundations for maritime structures has been developed during the last decades. The installation requirements within the offshore sector have resulted in equipment enabling driving of piles up to 3-4 m to large penetration depths. The availability of this equipment has made the use of large mono piles feasible as foundations for structures like wind turbines. The mono pile foundations consists of three parts; the bare pile, a conical transition and a boat landing. All parts are prefitted at the yard in order to minimise the installation work that has to be carried out offshore. The study of a mono pile foundations for a 1.5 MW wind turbine has been conducted for two locations, Horns Rev and Roedsand. Three different water depths: 5, 8 and 11 m have been investigated in the study. The on-site welding between pile and conical transition is performed by an automatic welding machine. Final testing and eventually repair of the weld are conducted at least 16 hours after welding. This is followed by final installation of J-tube, tie-in to subsea cables and installation of the impressed current system for corrosive protection of the mono pile. The total cost for procurement and installation of the mono pile using the welded connection is estimated. The price does not include procurement and installation of access platform and boat landing. These costs are estimated to 250.000 DKK. Depending on water depth the cost of the pile ranges from 2,2 to 2,7 million DKK. Procurement and fabrication of the pile are approx. 75% of the total costs. The remaining 25% are due to installation. The total costs are very sensitive to the unit price of pile steel. During the project it became obvious that ice load has a very large influence on the dimensions of the mono pile. (EG)

  2. Laterally Loaded Piles in Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Helle; Niewald, Gitte

    1992-01-01

    The ultimate lateral resistance of a pile element moved horizontally can be analyzed by the theory of plasticity. At a certain depth the movements around the pile are purely horizontal and upper bound solutions can be estimated theoretically under undrained circumstances. Model tests in the labor...

  3. Input Correlations for Irradiation Creep of FeCrAl and SiC Based on In-Pile Halden Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrani, K. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Karlsen, T. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Swelling and creep behavior of wrought FeCrAl alloys and CVD-SiC, two candidate accident tolerant fuel cladding materials, are being examined using in-pile tests at the Halden reactor. The outcome of these tests are material property correlations that are inputs into fuel performance analysis tools. The results are discussed and compared with what is available in literature from irradiation experiments in other reactors or out-of-pile tests. Specific recommendation on what correlations should be used for swelling, thermal, and irradiation creep for each material are provided in this document.

  4. Big Pile or Small Pile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branca, Mario; Quidacciolu, Rossana G.; Soletta, Isabella

    2013-10-01

    The construction of a voltaic pile (battery) is a simple laboratory activity that commemorates the invention of this important device and is of great help in teaching physics. The voltaic pile is often seen as a scientific toy, with the "pile" being constructed from fruit. These toys use some strips of copper and zinc inserted in a piece of fruit to produce a low-intensity electrical current to power a digital device. In a voltaic pile of this type, the zinc acts as an anode while the copper acts as a cathode. The reduction reaction [i.e.,2H+(aq)+2e⇋H2(g)] occurs on the copper (the cathode). The two electrons that are needed for the reduction are taken from the metal (copper), which remains positively charged, while the anode is the zinc, which is oxidized through the reaction Zn∘(m)⇋Zn+2(aq )+2e, and the two electrons remain on the metal, which is negatively charged. If the two pieces of metal are connected by an external conductor, electrons flow from the zinc to the copper. The electromotive force of this system is about 0.76 V, which is the reduction potential of zinc, as can be found in the table of standard reduction potentials.

  5. A Case Study On Pile Relaxation In Dilative Silts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    along the proposed track of the bridge . It is interesting to note that the geotechnical consultant, SPA, recommended precast prestressed concrete ...Pile Test Program, Prestressed Concrete Piles, Jamestown Bridge Replacement. Consulting Engineer. Davisson, M. T. (1989). Summary of Composite Pile...Test Program, Composite Prestressed - Concrete and Steel H-Piles, Jamestown Bridge Replacement. Consulting Engineer. Fellenius, B. H. (2009). Basics of

  6. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Nazir

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted.

  7. Pullout capacity of batter pile in sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Ashraf; Nasr, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Also most of retaining walls are subjected to horizontal forces and bending moments, these forces are due to earth pressure. For foundations in such structures, usually a combination of vertical and batter piles is used. Little information is available in the literature about estimating the capacity of piles under uplift. In cases where these supporting piles are not vertical, the behavior under axial pullout is not well established. In order to delineate the significant variables affecting the ultimate uplift shaft resistance of batter pile in dry sand, a testing program comprising 62 pullout tests was conducted. The tests are conducted on model steel pile installed in loose, medium, and dense sand to an embedded depth ratio, L/d, vary from 7.5 to 30 and with various batter angles of 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Results indicate that the pullout capacity of a batter pile constructed in dense and/or medium density sand increases with the increase of batter angle attains maximum value and then decreases, the maximum value of Pα occurs at batter angle approximately equal to 20°, and it is about 21–31% more than the vertical pile capacity, while the pullout capacity for batter pile that constructed in loose sand decreases with the increase of pile inclination. The results also indicated that the circular pile is more resistant to pullout forces than the square and rectangular pile shape. The rough model piles tested is experienced 18–75% increase in capacity compared with the smooth model piles. The suggested relations for the pullout capacity of batter pile regarding the vertical pile capacity are well predicted. PMID:25685412

  8. Pile Load Capacity – Calculation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wrana Bogumił

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is a review of the current problems of the foundation pile capacity calculations. The article considers the main principles of pile capacity calculations presented in Eurocode 7 and other methods with adequate explanations. Two main methods are presented: α – method used to calculate the short-term load capacity of piles in cohesive soils and β – method used to calculate the long-term load capacity of piles in both cohesive and cohesionless soils. Moreover, methods based on cone CPTu result are presented as well as the pile capacity problem based on static tests.

  9. Introduction to Single Piles under Lateral Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    The purpose of this chapter is to give a short introduction to single piles subjected to lateral loading. First, the observed behaviour of laterally loaded piles is described, i.e. the effects of loading conditions, installation procedure, pile type etc. on pile behaviour are presented (section 1.......2). The description is based on results of laboratory tests, full-scale field tests as well as numerical investigations presented in literature. Second, general methods that attempt to model lateral pile response are discussed in section 1.4. Third, focus is paid to a widely used method for prediction of the response...... of a lateral loaded pile, namely the Winkler approach in which the pile is modelled as an elastic beam on an elastic foundation (section 1.5). The soil response and thereby the elastic foundation is represented by springs with nonlinear behaviour (p-y curves). In section 1.6 different types and formulations...

  10. Global and local scour at pile groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Bundgaard, Klavs; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on scour around pile groups with different configurations exposed to steady current. Two kinds of tests were carried out: (1) Rigid-bed tests, and (2) Actual scour tests. In the former tests, the mean and turbulence properties...... of the flow were measured across the pile groups. The pile group configurations were such that the global scour was distinguished from the local scour. The results show that the global scour can be quite substantial....

  11. Analysis of uplift bearing capacity of pile based on ABAQUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Fu, Jianbao

    2017-04-01

    The uplift bearing capacity of pile in soil foundation is mainly obtained by load test, which is time-consuming and low-efficiency. A small sliding model and the contact pairs in large-scale finite element software ABAQUS are used to simulate the friction between pile and soil, and a good fitting curve of pile foundation bearing capacity is obtained. According to the results of finite element software, the lateral friction of the pile is fully developed, and the stress of the pile gradually reaches the ultimate pullup capacity with the increase of pile displacement. The finite element software ABAQUS can be used to simulate uplift capacity of pile.

  12. Global and local scour at pile groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Bundgaard, Klavs; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on scour around pile groups with different configurations exposed to steady current. Two kinds of tests were carried out: rigid-bed tests and actual scour tests. In these, the mean and turbulence properties of the flow were measured...... across the pile groups. The pile-group configurations were such that the global scour was distinguished from the local scour. The results show that the global scour can be quite substantial....

  13. Introduction of effective piles in a base structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.Б. Кашка

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available  Design features of effective piles such as СВ and their advantages in use are considered at the device of the pile bases in comparison with widely widespread types of piles. From results of comparative tests of piles under static pressing loading in different earth conditions the tendency of redistribution of bearing (carrying ability between a trunk and expansions an effective pile such as СВ was determined on earth conditions.

  14. Design of an instrumented model pile for axial cyclic loading

    OpenAIRE

    Rakotonindriana, Julio; Le Kouby, Alain; Buttigieg, Stéphane; Derkx, François; Thorel, Luc; Garnier, Jacques

    2010-01-01

    To study the behavior of a pile foundation under a cyclic axial loading, an instrumented pile was developed for centrifuge tests. The design of the instrumented pile takes into account some constraints due to centrifuge tests and allows us to install the pile in flight. The instrumentation of the pile permits the measure of the skin friction at five depths and the tip resistance. Some static and cyclic tests have been made and show the efficiency of the instrumented pile in capturing the main...

  15. Experimental Study on Post Grouting Bearing Capacity of Large Diameter Bored Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Duanduan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Post grouting can improve the inherent defects such as the formation of the mud cake at pile side and the sediment at pile end in the process of bored pile construction. Thus post grouting has been widely used in Engineering. The purpose of this paper is to research the influences of post grouting to pile bearing capacity more systematically and intuitively. Combined with the static load test of four test piles in Weihe River Bridge test area of new airport highway in Xi’an, the bearing capacity and settlement of routine piles and post grouting piles are comparatively analyzed. The test results show that under the same geological condition, post grouting can improve the properties of pile tip and pile shaft soil of bored piles significantly, enhance the ultimate resistance, improve the ultimate bearing capacity and reduce the pile tip settlement. Then post grouting can aim to optimize pile foundation.

  16. The effect of loading rate on pile bearing capacity of saturated sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Archeewa, E.

    2005-01-01

    Pile load tests are commonly used by engineers to determine its bearing capacity. At present, there are three methods of pile load tests: the static, the dynamic and the quasi-static test. The static pile load test is done by applying an axial load on the pile with a long duration. The dynamic and

  17. Allowable stress in piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    "This study presents methods for establishing allowable stresses in steel, concrete, and timber piles using load/resistance factor concepts. These methods take into account not only the material properties of the pile itself but also the individual e...

  18. The pile EL3; Pile EL3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, J.; Raievski, V. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Hainzelin, J. [Chantiers de l' Atlantique (Penhoet-Loire), 75 - Paris (France)

    1959-07-01

    The programme of the high flux laboratory pile EL3 was laid down in october 1954. It is a heavy-water moderated and cooled pile. The fuel rods are of uranium metal with 1.6 per cent - 2 per cent of molybdenum, with aluminium canning. The maximum thermal flux in the moderator is 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s. Studies began in january 1955, construction in may 1955, and the first divergence took place in July 1957. This report gives a general description of the pile and its adjacent buildings, the physical study of the pile, and certain technological studies carried out for the construction of EL3. (author) [French] Le programme de la pile laboratoire a haut flux EL3, a ete fixe en octobre 1954. C'est une pile moderee et refroidie a l'eau lourde. Les barres de combustible sont en uranium metal a 1,6 pour cent - 2 pour cent de molybdene, gainees a l'aluminium. Le flux thermique maximum dans le moderateur est de 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2}/s. Les etudes ont commence en janvier 1955, la construction en mai 1955, la premiere divergence a eu lieu en juillet 1957. On trouvera dans ce rapport, une description generale de la pile et de ses batiments annexes, l'etude physique de la pile et un certain nombre d'etudes technologiques executees pour la construction d'EL3. (auteur)

  19. Heave induced reduction of friction capacity of pile embedded in clays

    OpenAIRE

    Setyo Budi Gogot; Wibowo Tantri Gondo

    2017-01-01

    Installation of new piles may cause heave which influence friction capacity of existing piles. The heave can be observed from the difference in the elevation of existing pile heads recorded before and after the installation of new piles or through load-settlement diagram from Static Load Test data. This paper presents the study of bearing capacity of hollow cylindrical concrete piles with diameter of 800 mm from two projects. The piles at Project I and Project II were hydraulically jacked int...

  20. A theoretical analysis of the bearing performance of vertically loaded large-diameter pipe pile groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xuanming; Zhang, Ting; Li, Ping; Cheng, Ke

    2016-02-01

    This paper aims to present a theoretical method to study the bearing performance of vertically loaded large-diameter pipe pile groups. The interactions between group piles result in different bearing performance of both a single pile and pile groups. Considering the pile group effect and the skin friction from both outer and inner soils, an analytical solution is developed to calculate the settlement and axial force in large-diameter pipe pile groups. The analytical solution was verified by centrifuge and field testing results. An extensive parametric analysis was performed to study the bearing performance of the pipe pile groups. The results reveal that the axial forces in group piles are not the same. The larger the distance from central pile, the larger the axial force. The axial force in the central pile is the smallest, while that in corner piles is the largest. The axial force on the top of the corner piles decreases while that in the central pile increases with increasing of pile spacing and decreasing of pile length. The axial force in side piles varies little with the variations of pile spacing, pile length, and shear modulus of the soil and is approximately equal to the average load shared by one pile. For a pile group, the larger the pile length is, the larger the influence radius is. As a result, the pile group effect is more apparent for a larger pile length. The settlement of pile groups decreases with increasing of the pile number in the group and the shear modulus of the underlying soil.

  1. Tuff Pile 1 -- A justification of the projection of material properties within a portion of Los Alamos Test Areas 1, 3, 4 and 7 -- Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    App, F.N.; Marusak, N.L.

    1997-06-01

    The Los Alamos underground nuclear test area which is located west of the Yucca fault and north of Nevada state coordinate N256000 m has been used for testing since 1964. The area encompasses parts of Areas 1, 3, 4 and 7. All of the 25 events conducted in the area have been successfully contained. As knowledge of the geology has improved with additional holes and geophysical surveys, it has become increasingly apparent that this is one of the least complex areas they have for testing outside of Area 3 alluvium. Particularly in the southern three quarters of the area, they found that as each new hole was drilled, the stratigraphy and physical properties encountered were as expected. They have never been surprised. This prompted them to formally evaluate a large portion of the area as a Tuff Pile, a term borrowed from the Area 3 Sandpile, and one that implies that physical properties in the area are sufficiently predictable that most measurements no longer need to be routinely made for containment evaluation. This report is the result of that evaluation.

  2. The Tensile Capacity Of Bored Piles In Frictional Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbenhøft, Sven; Andersen, Allan; Damkilde, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Three series of 10 piles each were installed in two different locations. The length of the piles varied from 2 to 6 m and the diameters were 14 and 25 cm. The piles were constructed above the groundwater table using continuous flight augers and the concrete was placed by gravity free fall....... The piles were tested to failure in axial uplift and the load-displacement relations were recorded....

  3. Low drift type N thermocouples in out-of-pile advanced gas reactor mock-up test: metallurgical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scervini, M. [University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, CB30FS Cambridge, (United Kingdom); Palmer, J.; Haggard, D.C.; Swank, W.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840, (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Thermocouples are the most commonly used sensors for temperature measurement in nuclear reactors. They are crucial for the control of current nuclear reactors and for the development of GEN IV reactors. In nuclear applications thermocouples are strongly affected by intense neutron fluxes. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. Thermocouple drift can be very significant for in-pile temperature measurements and may render the temperature sensors unreliable after exposure to nuclear radiation for relatively short times compared to the life required for temperature sensors in nuclear applications. Previous experiences with type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluxes. Currently the use of Nickel based thermocouples is limited to temperatures lower than 1000 deg. C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. As part of a collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the University of Cambridge a variety of Type N thermocouples have been exposed at INL in an Advanced Gas Reactor mock-up test at 1150 deg. C for 2000 h, 1200 deg. C for 2000 h, 125 deg. C for 200 h and 1300 deg. C for 200 h, and later analysed metallurgically at the University of Cambridge. The use of electron microscopy allows to identify the metallurgical changes occurring in the thermocouples during high temperature exposure and correlate the time dependent thermocouple drift with the microscopic changes experienced by the thermoelements of different thermocouple designs. In this paper conventional Inconel 600 sheathed type N thermocouples and a type N using a customized sheath developed at the University of

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles and Debris) Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastor, Laura

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 511, Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris). The CAU is comprised of nine corrective action sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 4, 6, 7, 18, and 19 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 511 is comprised of nine CASs: (1) 03-08-02, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (2) 03-99-11, Waste Dump (Piles); (3) 03-99-12, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (4) 04-99-04, Contaminated Trench/Berm; (5) 06-16-01, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (6) 06-17-02, Scattered Ordnance/Automatic Weapons Range; (7) 07-08-01, Contaminated Mound; (8) 18-99-10, Ammunition Dump; and (9) 19-19-03, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris). The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 511 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) and closure activities were performed from January 2005 through August 2005, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris)'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Record of Technical Change No. 1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 511 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the data quality objective data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate preliminary

  5. Experimental Comparison of Statically and Cyclically Loaded Non-Slender Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    on slender piles with length to diameter ratios larger than ten and outer pile diameters less than two meters. Hence, the pile tests that form the basis of the currently recommended p-y curve formulation are conducted with use of piles that exhibits a flexible behaviour, which is in contrast to the piles...... and hence the effective stresses in the soil have been increased homogeneously. The tests have been conducted in a pressure tank at Aalborg University. A total of 29 quasi-static tests and 14 cyclic tests have been conducted on laterally loaded piles situated in sand. Aluminium pipe piles instrumented...

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris), Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with ROTC 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Strand

    2004-08-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 511: Waste Dumps (Piles & Debris), Nevada Test Site, Nevada, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The general purpose of the investigation is to ensure adequate data are collected to provide sufficient and reliable information to identify, evaluate, and select viable corrective actions. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details for CAU 511, whereas programmatic aspects of this project are discussed in the ''Project Management Plan'' (DOE/NV, 1994). General field and laboratory quality assurance and quality control issues are presented in the ''Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan'' (NNSA/NV, 2002). Health and safety aspects of the project are documented in the current version of the Environmental Engineering Services Contractor's Health and Safety Plan and will be supplemented with a site-specific safety basis document. Corrective Action Unit 511 is comprised of the following nine corrective action sites in Nevada Test Site Areas 3, 4, 6, 7, 18, and 19: (1) 03-08-02, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (2) 03-99-11, Waste Dump (Piles); (3) 03-99-12, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (4) 04-99-04, Contaminated Trench/Berm; (5) 06-16-01, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris); (6) 06-17-02, Scattered Ordnance/Automatic Weapons Range; (7) 07-08-01, Contaminated Mound; (8) 18-99-10, Ammunition Dump; and (9) 19-19-03, Waste Dump (Piles & Debris). Corrective Action Sites 18-99-10 and 19-19-03 were identified after a review of the ''1992 RCRA Part B Permit Application for Waste Management Activities at the Nevada Test Site, Volume IV, Section L Potential Solid Waste Management Unit'' (DOE/NV, 1992). The remaining seven sites were first identified in the 1991 Reynolds

  7. Piles of objects

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many of these situations by explicitly modeling the piles that the objects may form into. By modeling pile behavior rather than the behavior of all individual objects, we can achieve realistic results in less time, and without directly modeling the frictional component that leads to desired pile shapes. Our method is simple to implement and can be easily integrated with existing rigid body simulations. We observe notable speedups in several rigid body examples, and generate a wider variety of piled structures than possible with strict impulse-based simulation. © 2010 ACM.

  8. Measurements of pile driving noise from control piles and noise-reduced piles at the Vashon Island ferry dock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    As part of the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) pile attenuation test program, : researchers from the University of Washington Applied Physics Laboratory (APL-UW) conducted underwater sound : measurements on 7 and 8 December 2015...

  9. Improvement of driven pile installation and design in Illinois : phase 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    A dynamic load test program consisting of 38 sites and 111 piles with restrikes was conducted throughout Illinois : to improve the Illinois Department of Transportation design of driven piling. Pile types included steel H-piles and : closed-ended pip...

  10. Comparison of Axial Capacity of Vibratory-Driven Piles to Impact-Driven Piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    vibratory-driven process results in less compacatiori at the pile tip, thus lowering the tip capacity. Hunter and Davisson (1969), in their...Loading Tests," US Army Engineer District, Little Rock, Ark. Hunter, A. A., and Davisson , M. T. (1969). "Measurement of Pile Load Transfer," Performance

  11. The Use of Tactile Sensors and PIV Analysis for Understanding the Bearing Mechanism of Pile Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijia You

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Model tests were carried out in dry silica sand under pile loading and visualizing observation to investigate the behavior of a pile group. The pile group consisted of nine cylindrical model piles of 40 mm in diameter in most tests or three rectangular parallelepiped model piles in the visualizing observation. Pile spacings of 200 mm and 100 mm between pile centers were used in the models. Tactile sensors were installed to measure the pressure distribution in the ground and colored sand layer with particle image velocimetry (PIV analysis to reveal the ground deformation in addition to strain gauges inside the model piles to investigate the interaction among group piles. The tests results showed that a narrower spacing between piles resulted in a wider affected area of the ground and the interaction was more significant below the tips.

  12. The Use of Tactile Sensors and PIV Analysis for Understanding the Bearing Mechanism of Pile Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Zhijia; Chen, Yulong

    2018-02-06

    Model tests were carried out in dry silica sand under pile loading and visualizing observation to investigate the behavior of a pile group. The pile group consisted of nine cylindrical model piles of 40 mm in diameter in most tests or three rectangular parallelepiped model piles in the visualizing observation. Pile spacings of 200 mm and 100 mm between pile centers were used in the models. Tactile sensors were installed to measure the pressure distribution in the ground and colored sand layer with particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis to reveal the ground deformation in addition to strain gauges inside the model piles to investigate the interaction among group piles. The tests results showed that a narrower spacing between piles resulted in a wider affected area of the ground and the interaction was more significant below the tips.

  13. The Effects of Time on Soil Behaviour and Pile Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders

    When designing pile foundations, static design equations, pile driving formulae, static loading tests or stress wave analyses can be employed to estimate the axial capacity of single piles. Both laboratory and field tests show that soil exhibits time-dependent behaviour. An important result...... is that soil gains additional strength and stiffness with time due to time-dependent processes such as ageing. Similarly, results show that the capacity of piles increases, to a certain extent, with time after installation due to time-dependent processes in the soil. However, most design methods do not take...... this into account. This implies that the design methods used today do not in general make use of the full capacity of piles. This thesis is based on a number of scientific papers and reports that deal with elements of pile design and time effects in soils in general. With regard to pile design, focus is placed...

  14. Thermo active piles and diaphragm walls building process and thermal response test; Pilotes y pantallas termoactivas. Proceso constructivo y caracterizacion termica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazariegos, A.; Anton, L. C.; Valle, R.; Urchueguia, J.; Quilis, S.; Martinez, S.; Magraner, T.

    2009-07-01

    Thermo active foundation technology uses building foundation piles diaphragm wall slabs as ground heat exchangers to provide building with heating and cooling. This type of foundation is based on the use of the ground temperature to enhance the heat pump coefficient of performance (COP). In this kind of structures, the heat exchange can be done through a closed circuit installed on the reinforced of the foundation. This closed circuit is made up of HDPE pipes geothermal probes, through which water or brine circulates producing a heat exchange between this fluid and the ground. this fluid is led to a geothermal heat pump GHP, generating the energy required for air-conditioning a building. ENERGESIS, leading company in the air-conditioning field using geothermal energy and RADIO KRONSA, leading company in the engineering field of soil and subsoil, with the collaboration of the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (UPV) and the Escuela Universitaria de Ingenieria Tecnica de Obras Publicas (UPM), have developed an action line to design and implement saving energy facilities by using geothermal energy associated with the foundations. A series of tests at work have been done in order to have a procedure to implement the thermal response of thermo active piles and diaphragm walls. (Author) 7 refs.

  15. Centrifuge modelling of drained lateral pile - soil response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte

    popular foundation methods today for offshore wind turbines. These piles are often installed in dense sand at water depths ranging from 10-30 meters. A monopile is a single, large diameter tubular steel pile. The current design methodology originates from tests on long slender piles but is also used...... for monopiles today. Therefore it appears that the methodology for monopiles lacks scientific justification and a better understanding of rigid piles is needed. More than 70 centrifuge tests on laterally loaded rigid model piles have been carried out in connection with this thesis to get a better understanding...... of rigid piles. The tests have been performed in homogeneously dense dry or saturated Fontainebleau sand in order to mimic simplified drained offshore soil conditions. Approximately half of the tests have been carried out to investigate the centrifuge procedure in order to create a methodology of testing...

  16. Summary of Thermocouple Performance During Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor and Out-of-Pile Thermocouple Testing in Support of Such Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. J. Palmer; DC Haggard; J. W. Herter; M. Scervini; W. D. Swank; D. L. Knudson; R. S. Cherry

    2011-07-01

    High temperature gas reactor experiments create unique challenges for thermocouple based temperature measurements. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. This drift is particularly severe for high temperature platinum-rhodium thermocouples (Types S, R, and B); and tungsten-rhenium thermocouples (Types C and W). For lower temperature applications, previous experiences with type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluxes. Currently the use of these Nickel based thermocouples is limited when the temperature exceeds 1000°C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. High rates of open-circuit failure are also typical. Over the past ten years, three long-term Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experiments have been conducted with measured temperatures ranging from 700oC – 1200oC. A variety of standard Type N and specialty thermocouple designs have been used in these experiments with mixed results. A brief summary of thermocouple performance in these experiments is provided. Most recently, out of pile testing has been conducted on a variety of Type N thermocouple designs at the following (nominal) temperatures and durations: 1150oC and 1200oC for 2000 hours at each temperature, followed by 200 hours at 1250oC, and 200 hours at 1300oC. The standard Type N design utilizes high purity crushed MgO insulation and an Inconel 600 sheath. Several variations on the standard Type N design were tested, including Haynes 214 alloy sheath, spinel (MgAl2O4) insulation instead of MgO, a customized sheath developed at the University of Cambridge, and finally a loose assembly thermocouple with hard fired alumina

  17. Summary of thermocouple performance during advanced gas reactor fuel irradiation experiments in the advanced test reactor and out-of-pile thermocouple testing in support of such experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. J.; Haggard, DC; Herter, J. W.; Swank, W. D.; Knudson, D. L.; Cherry, R. S. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 4112, Idaho Falls, ID, (United States); Scervini, M. [University of Cambridge, Department of Material Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, CB3 0FS, Cambridge, (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    High temperature gas reactor experiments create unique challenges for thermocouple-based temperature measurements. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time-dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time-dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. This drift is particularly severe for high temperature platinum-rhodium thermocouples (Types S, R, and B) and tungsten-rhenium thermocouples (Type C). For lower temperature applications, previous experiences with Type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly, Type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluence. Currently, the use of these nickel-based thermocouples is limited when the temperature exceeds 1000 deg. C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. High rates of open-circuit failure are also typical. Over the past 10 years, three long-term Advanced Gas Reactor experiments have been conducted with measured temperatures ranging from 700 deg. C - 1200 deg. C. A variety of standard Type N and specialty thermocouple designs have been used in these experiments with mixed results. A brief summary of thermocouple performance in these experiments is provided. Most recently, out-of-pile testing has been conducted on a variety of Type N thermocouple designs at the following (nominal) temperatures and durations: 1150 deg. C and 1200 deg. C for 2,000 hours at each temperature, followed by 200 hours at 1250 deg. C and 200 hours at 1300 deg. C. The standard Type N design utilizes high purity, crushed MgO insulation and an Inconel 600 sheath. Several variations on the standard Type N design were tested, including a Haynes 214 alloy sheath, spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) insulation instead of MgO, a customized sheath developed at the University of Cambridge, and finally a loose assembly

  18. Experimental Investigations of Tension Piles in Sand Subjected to Static and Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina

    The present thesis regards the behavior of the piles in jacket pile foundations used for offshore wind turbines. The piles are often loaded in tension because of the combination of wind and wave conditions and the low self-weight of the wind turbine. The repeated cyclic loading can lead...... to accumulated upwards displacement of the piles and, thus, undesired deflection of the wind turbine structure. This study concerns the effect of cyclic loading on a pile installed in dense sand and loaded in tension. A new laboratory test setup was constructed to make these pile load tests. The thesis discusses...... the advantages and disadvantages of the test setup. The results of cyclic loading tests showed that the loading conditions are very important for the behavior of piles. Some wind and wave conditions can be beneficial and increase the pile capacity while other conditions can be damaging and reduce the pile...

  19. A Pile of Legos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePino, Andrew, Jr.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the relationships a high school built with neighborhood industry, a national laboratory, a national museum, and a large university while trying to build a scale model of the original atomic pile. Provides suggestions for teachers. (MVL)

  20. Soil-Pile Interaction in the Pile Vertical Vibration Based on Fictitious Soil-Pile Model

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Guodong; Zhang, Jiasheng; Wu, Wenbing; Shi, Xiong; Meng, Fei

    2014-01-01

    By introducing the fictitious soil-pile model, the soil-pile interaction in the pile vertical vibration is investigated. Firstly, assuming the surrounding soil of pile to be viscoelastic material and considering its vertical wave effect, the governing equations of soil-pile system subjected to arbitrary harmonic dynamic force are founded based on the Euler-Bernoulli rod theory. Secondly, the analytical solution of velocity response in frequency domain and its corresponding semianalytical solu...

  1. Use of Pile Driving Analysis for Assessment of Axial Load Capacity of Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Driven piles are commonly used in foundation engineering. Pile driving formulae, which directly relate the pile set per blow : to the capacity of the pile, are commonly used to decide whether an installed pile will have the designed capacity. However...

  2. Use of pile driving analysis for assessment of axial load capacity of piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Driven piles are commonly used in foundation engineering. Pile driving formulae, which directly relate the pile set per blow : to the capacity of the pile, are commonly used to decide whether an installed pile will have the designed capacity. However...

  3. Lateral resistance of piles near vertical MSE abutment walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Full scale lateral load tests were performed on eight piles located at various distances behind MSE walls. The objective of the testing was to determine the effect of spacing from the wall on the lateral resistance of the piles and on the force induc...

  4. Centrifuge modelling of a laterally cyclic loaded pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte; Leth, Caspar Thrane; Hededal, Ole

    2010-01-01

    A total number of 9 static and 6 cyclic centrifuge tests on laterally loaded piles in very dense, dry sand was erformed. The prototype dimensions of the piles were 1 meter in diameter and penetration depths varying from 6 to 10 meters. The static tests were used to investigate the initial subgrade...

  5. Study on the Deformation Measurement of the Cast-In-Place Large-Diameter Pile Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Yang, Kai; Chen, Xiaorui; Yu, Xiangjuan

    2017-03-03

    Compared with conventional piles such as the circle pile, the cast-in-place large-diameter pile (PCC pile) has many advantages: the lateral area of PCC pile is larger and the bearing capacity of PCC pile is higher. It is more cost-effective than other piles such as square pile under the same condition. The deformation of the PCC pile is very important for its application. In order to obtain the deformation of the PCC pile, a new type of quasi-distributed optical fiber sensing technology named a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) is used to monitor the deformation of the PCC pile. The PCC model pile is made, the packaging process of the PCC model pile and the layout of fiber sensors are designed, and the strains of the PCC model pile based on FBG sensors are monitored. The strain of the PCC pile is analyzed by the static load test. The results show that FBG technology is successfully applied for monitoring the deformation of the PCC pile, the monitoring data is more useful for the PCC pile. It will provide a reference for the engineering applications.

  6. Structural monitoring of composite marine piles using fiber optic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Christopher S.; Poloso, Toni; Chen, Peter C.; Niemczuk, John B.; Kiddy, Jason S.; Ealy, Carl

    2001-07-01

    This paper discusses structural health monitoring data obtained using an optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor system consisting of sensors embedded in the filament-wound composite marine pile. A composite marine pile is a tube containing a cement core that is used to support bridges, piers, and other structures. This system has applications for structural health monitoring of these structures. This paper presents the results of tests that retrofit two existing composite piles with 30 Bragg grating sensors. Each pile was retrofitted with three arrays, two arrays consisting of 6 gratings and one consisting of 3 gratings for strain and temperature measurements, respectively. Grooves were cut in the piles to allow for adhesive installation of the sensor arrays, and fiberglass cloth tape was laminated over the arrays to protect the optical fiber during the pile driving process. Data were collected prior to and during the pile driving process using a commercial off-the-shelf FBG interrogation system. The purposes of these tests were to (1) determine the survivability of the sensor arrays during the pile driving process, (2) measure residual strains on the filament wound composite tube following the pile driving process, and (3) determine whether structural integrity issues are observed from the strain data.

  7. Experimental study of the progressive collapse mechanism of excavations retained by cantilever piles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Diao, Y; Nie, D.Q; Deng, C.H; Zheng, G; Cheng, X.S; Huang, T.M; Lei, Y.W

    2017-01-01

    ... (sudden failures of certain retaining piles) and progressive collapse. The model test results show that partial collapse can cause a sudden increase in the bending moments of adjacent piles via an arching effect...

  8. Assessment of current AASHTO LRFD methods for static pile capacity analysis in Rhode Island soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This report presents an assessment of current AASHTO LRFD methods for static pile capacity analysis in Rhode : Island soils. Current static capacity methods and associated resistance factors are based on pile load test data in sands : and clays. Some...

  9. Experimental study on the mechanical behaviour of a heat exchanger pile using physical modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Yavari, Neda; Tang, Anh Minh; Pereira, Jean-Michel; Hassen, Ghazi

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to provide knowledge on the thermo-mechanical behaviour of heat exchanger piles, through a laboratory scale model. The model pile (20 mm in external diameter) was embedded in dry sand. The behaviour of the axially loaded pile under thermal cycles was investigated. After applying the axial load on the pile head, the pile's temperature was varied between 5 °C and 30 °C. Seven tests, corresponding to various axial loads ranging from 0 to 70 % of the pile estimated bearing capacit...

  10. Simulation of the in-pile test Phebus-FPT3 using ASTEC V2 and ATHLET-CD 2.1A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Philipp; Koch, Marco K. [Bochum Univ. (Germany). Chair of Energy Systems and Energy Economics

    2011-07-01

    The Phebus-FPT programme, initiated in 1988 by the 'Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire' (IRSN) and the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC), was performed in the Phebus facility operated by 'Commissariat a'Energie Atomique' (CEA). The facility represent a 900 MWe Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) scaled down by a factor 1:5000 which objective is to study fuel degradation and the subsequent release, transport and retention of fission products, structure, control rod and fuel materials, in case of a severe accident. The Phebus-FPT programme consists of integral in-pile tests, varying the fuel burn-up and geometry, the control rod nature, the thermal hydraulic conditions in the bundle and through the experimental circuit as well as in the containment. In primary, the integral experiments should outline a detailed description of the main phenomena of core degradation, fission product release and transport as well as radionuclide interactions. Due to that it is possible to analyse the physical and chemical processes due to a severe accident. With the ascertained data, an evaluation of the accident management measures could be made as well. A secondary aim of the Phebus tests was to enable model development and evaluation of severe accident codes such like ASTEC and ATHLET-CD. (orig.)

  11. Flexible pile thermal barrier insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G. E.; Fell, D. M.; Tesinsky, J. S. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A flexible pile thermal barrier insulator included a plurality of upstanding pile yarns. A generally planar backing section supported the upstanding pile yarns. The backing section included a plurality of filler yarns forming a mesh in a first direction. A plurality of warp yarns were looped around said filler yarns and pile yarns in the backing section and formed a mesh in a second direction. A binder prevented separation of the yarns in the backing section.

  12. Characterizing hand-piled fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton S. Wright; Paige C. Eagle; Cameron S. Balog

    2010-01-01

    Land managers throughout the West pile and burn surface fuels to mitigate fire hazard in dry forests. Whereas piling was historically conducted with heavy machinery following commercial harvesting operations, land managers are increasingly prescribing the use of hand piling and burning to treat surface fuels created by thinning and brush cutting. An estimate of the...

  13. Assessment of Time Functions for Piles Driven in Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Andersen, Lars; Sørensen, Carsten Steen

    The vertical bearing capacity of piles situated in clay is studied with regard to the long-term set-up. A statistical analysis is carried out on the basis of data from numerous static loading tests. The database covers a wide range of both soil and pile properties, which ensures a general...

  14. Estimating setup of driven piles into Louisiana clayey soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Two types of mathematical models for pile setup prediction, the Skov-Denver model and the newly developed rate-based model, have been established from all the dynamic and static testing data, including restrikes of the production piles, restrikes, st...

  15. Visualization of soil arching in flexible piled embankments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Piled embankments rely on soil arching, but, when geogrid reinforce- ments are used, membrane action within the reinforcement contributes to load distribution. The arching of soil in unreinforced and reinforced piled embankments is evaluated in this study. A small-scale test apparatus is used to model the ...

  16. Discovery: Pile Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2017-01-01

    Earlier "Discovery" articles (de Mestre, 1999, 2003, 2006, 2010, 2011) considered patterns from many mathematical situations. This article presents a group of patterns used in 19th century mathematical textbooks. In the days of earlier warfare, cannon balls were stacked in various arrangements depending on the shape of the pile base…

  17. Soil-Pile Interaction in the Pile Vertical Vibration Based on Fictitious Soil-Pile Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By introducing the fictitious soil-pile model, the soil-pile interaction in the pile vertical vibration is investigated. Firstly, assuming the surrounding soil of pile to be viscoelastic material and considering its vertical wave effect, the governing equations of soil-pile system subjected to arbitrary harmonic dynamic force are founded based on the Euler-Bernoulli rod theory. Secondly, the analytical solution of velocity response in frequency domain and its corresponding semianalytical solution of velocity response in time domain are derived by means of Laplace transform technique and separation of variables technique. Based on the obtained solutions, the influence of parameters of pile end soil on the dynamic response is studied in detail for different designing parameters of pile. Lastly, the fictitious soil-pile model and other pile end soil supporting models are compared. It is shown that the dynamic response obtained by the fictitious soil-pile model is among the dynamic responses obtained by other existing models if there are appropriate material parameters and thickness of pile end soil for the fictitious soil-pile model.

  18. The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasinski Adam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of screw displacement piles (SDP is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.

  19. The influence of connecting pile cap-column in the mechanisms of break in the two pile caps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. MESQUITA

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper analyzes the two pile caps with partially embedded socket and subject a center load. Three models were experimentally tested, varying the type of conformation of the column and walls of the socket, with a smooth, the other rough, and a monolithic two pile cap, used for reference. The roughening of the column-socket interface was examined with the aim of verifying the difference of the distribution of compressive and tensile stresses in the strut an tie model used for design. The experimental test to show that the two pile caps with conformation rough of the column and walls of the socket, support more load in comparison with two pile caps with smooth of the column and walls of the socket. Both however underperformed the monolithic two pile cap, with values of 66% and 36% respectively.

  20. An experimental study on mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced concrete of energy piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songying Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The technology of energy piles for heat storage involves turning the concrete piles buried beneath the ground into a part of the ground-source heat pump system and burying the heat-transfer tubes in the foundation piles, which are regarded as heat transfer wells. The heat transfer tubes are embedded in the concrete foundation piles, destroying the mechanical bearing capacity of the piles and damaging the safety of the buildings. Thus, considering the structural stability and the degree of heat transfer of concrete piles, as well as the selection of material for the foundation piles, the mixing ratio of the material of the energy piles is experimentally studied by the orthogonal method. The optimum mixing ratio of the energy pile is thus obtained. A concrete test block is used to conduct a static load test and splitting test to verify the mixing ratio of the concrete of the energy pile. The results show that steel fiber can be used to enhance the bearing capacity of the storage pile as a reinforcement material. Under a reasonable ratio, the reinforced pile can absolutely meet the original design requirements. Ordinary Portland cement or composite Portland cement can be used as cementitious materials for energy piles. Through an experiment, it is proved that the composite Portland cement can better meet the requirements of the concrete foundation piles than the cementitious material. As thermal conductivity materials, the addition of industrial graphite and scrap copper slag can improve the thermal conductivity of the pile, but it can also reduce the mechanical properties of the pile. It is necessary to control it in a certain range and not to add a large amount of graphite just to improve the thermal conductivity.

  1. On the Modelling of Pile Installation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis introduces two different types of physical model tests to investigate the stress and density change in the soil during installation of a jacked pile as well as two numerical modelling approaches to model the same process in a finite element code capable of large deformations.

  2. Lay-out and materials for in pile tritium transport testing of breeder-inside-tube pin assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvani, C. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Avon, J. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Rome (Italy)]|[CEA, CEN, Grenoble (France); Casadio, S. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Mancini, M.R. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Nannetti, C.A. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Rome (Italy); Pruzzo, G. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Rome (Italy)]|[FN, Bosco Marengo-Alessandria (Italy); Ravel, S. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Rome (Italy)]|[CEA, CEN, Grenoble (France); Roux, N. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Rome (Italy)]|[CEA, CEN Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Terlain, A. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Rome (Italy)]|[CEA, CEN, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Terrosi [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Rome (Italy)]|[FN, Bosco Marengo-Alessandria (Italy); Zaghini, P. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Rome (Italy)]|[FIN-Ceramica, Faenza, Ravenna (Italy); Zanardi, P. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Rome (Italy)]|[ENEA, CR Clementel-Bologna (Italy); Zanotti, M. [ENEA, CR Casaccia, Rome (Italy)]|[ENEA, CR Clementel-Bologna (Italy)

    1995-12-31

    An irradiation experiment (90 FPD in SILOE reactor) has been designed in order to evaluate the in-situ effect of red-ox power of sweeping gas (helium with 100 vpm of H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O with relative concentrations varying from pure H{sub 2} to pure H{sub 2}O) on (a) Tritium removal from LiAlO{sub 2} and Li{sub 2}ZrO{sub 3}; (b) Tritium permeation through AISI-316L SS tubes with bare and coated surfaces. The conditions and materials explored were selected in order to test possible improvements with respect to critical issues for the `Breeder Inside Tube` (BIT) blanket concept development. (orig.).

  3. Physical Modelling of Cyclic Laterally Loaded Pile in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette; Wolf, Torben K.; Rasmussen, Kristian L.

    Offshore wind turbines are normally founded with large diameter monopiles and placed in rough environments subjected to variable lateral loads from wind and waves. A long-term lateral loading may create rotation (tilt) of the pile by change in the pile-soil system which is critical...... in the serviceability limit state. In this paper small-scale testing of a pile subjected to cyclic, lateral loading is treated in order to investigate the effect of cyclic loading. The test setup, which is an improvement of a previous setup, is described and the first results of testing are compared with previous...

  4. Stress transfer from pile group in saturated and unsaturated soil using theoretical and experimental approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    al-Omari Raid R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Piles are often used in groups, and the behavior of pile groups under the applied loads is generally different from that of single pile due to the interaction of neighboring piles, therefore, one of the main objectives of this paper is to investigate the influence of pile group (bearing capacity, load transfer sharing for pile shaft and tip in comparison to that of single piles. Determination of the influence of load transfer from the pile group to the surrounding soil and the mechanism of this transfer with increasing the load increment on the tip and pile shaft for the soil in saturated and unsaturated state (when there is a negative pore water pressure. Different basic properties are used that is (S = 90%, γd = 15 kN / m3, S = 90%, γd = 17 kN / m3 and S = 60%, γd =15 kN / m3. Seven model piles were tested, these was: single pile (compression and pull out test, 2×1, 3×1, 2×2, 3×2 and 3×3 group. The stress was measured with 5 cm diameter soil pressure transducer positioned at a depth of 5 cm below the pile tip for all pile groups. The measured stresses below the pile tip using a soil pressure transducer positioned at a depth of 0.25L (where L is the pile length below the pile tip are compared with those calculated using theoretical and conventional approaches. These methods are: the conventional 2V:1H method and the method used the theory of elasticity. The results showed that the method of measuring the soil stresses with soil pressure transducer adopted in this study, gives in general, good results of stress transfer compared with the results obtained from the theoretical and conventional approaches.

  5. Finite element analysis of the lateral load test on battered pile group at I-10 twin span bridge : research project capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of this research study are to develop a three-dimensional FE : model for simulating the behavior of a battered pile group foundation subjected : to lateral loading, and to verify the model using results from a unique static : lateral l...

  6. Athena Pile-Up Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Luehring, F C

    2001-01-01

    Requirements for the pile-up algorithm in Athena are derived from experiences of simulating pile-up for the Physics TDR and from user requirements. Simulating pile-up is one of the most demanding jobs that the Athena framework will be required to do. Care must be taken to make sure that the implemented algorithm will meet the diverse requirements of the various subdetectors and still be able to generate events efficiently. This document looks at how ATLSIM and a special algorithm implemented by LAr subdetector were used during the Physics TDR studies to generate pile-up and also at how ATLSIM has been modified since then to be more robust while doing pile-up. Based on these experiences and detailed requirements put forth by the subdetector groups, a list of requirements on the Athena pile-up algorithm is developed.

  7. Three dimensional modeling of laterally loaded pile groups resting in sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Farouk Elhakim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many structures often carry lateral loads due to earth pressure, wind, earthquakes, wave action and ship impact. The accurate predictions of the load–displacement response of the pile group as well as the straining actions are needed for a safe and economic design. Most research focused on the behavior of laterally loaded single piles though piles are most frequently used in groups. Soil is modeled as an elastic-perfectly plastic model using the Mohr–Coulomb constitutive model. The three-dimensional Plaxis model is validated using load–displacement results from centrifuge tests of laterally loaded piles embedded in sand. This study utilizes three dimensional finite element modeling to better understand the main parameters that affect the response of laterally loaded pile groups (2 × 2 and 3 × 3 pile configurations including sand relative density, pile spacing (s = 2.5 D, 5 D and 8 D and pile location within the group. The fixity of the pile head affects its load–displacement under lateral loading. Typically, the pile head may be unrestrained (free head as the pile head is allowed to rotate, or restrained (fixed head condition where no pile head rotation is permitted. The analyses were performed for both free and fixed head conditions.

  8. 20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders; Andersen, Lars

    This document is the third of four notes concerning the vertical capacity of piles. It includes an assessment of the effect of previous static load testing upon the measured capacity, i.e. preshearing effects....

  9. Performance of pile supported sign structures : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Foundations for sign structures are subjected primarily to overturning loads, but published methods for designing driven pile groups only address groups subjected either to compression or uplift, not both simultaneously. A lateral load test of two fo...

  10. Use of geothermal piles combined with pile foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kuzytskyi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of use of geothermal piles in conditions of cold climate is considered. Full-scale experiment is conducted for using this technology in Kiev. Obtained results testify about a possibility for using the system in conditions of Ukraine, but this technology requires more detailed study and simulation of multiannual cycle of use of geothermal piles 

  11. Pile technology section, annual report for 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-03-15

    This report is the 1955 annual report from the Pile Technology Section at Hanford. It summarizes work on pile engineering, pile materials, physics research, metallurgy, and fuel technology, related to the production reactors at Hanford.

  12. Evaluation of pile repair splice design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    The Oregon Department of Transportation (ODOT) Major Bridge Maintenance Engineer has proposed an in-house pile repair scheme for decayed piles. This repair scheme involves removing decayed area within the pile leaving a 2 outer shell, filling it u...

  13. Case Study of CPT-based Design Methods for Axial Capacity of Driven Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2012-01-01

    Today the design of onshore axially loaded driven piles in cohesionless soil is commonly made on basis of CPT-based methods because field investigations have shown strong correlation between the local shaft friction and the CPT cone resistance. However, the recommended design method for axially...... loaded offshore driven piles in cohesionless soil has until now been the β-method given in API. The API-method is based on the effective overburden pressure at the depth in question. Previous studies show deviations between full-scale load test measurements of the axial pile capacity and the predictions...... found by means of the API-method. Compared to the test measurements, the API-method under-estimates the capacity of short piles (piles in loose sand, and gives a shaft capacity less conservative for piles in tension than for piles in compression...

  14. Grouting for Pile Foundation Improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Stoel, A.E.C.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the use of grouting methods for pile foundation improvement, a generic term that is used here to define both foundation renovation (increasing the bearing capacity of a pile foundation that has insufficient bearing capacity) and foundation protection

  15. Analysis of static and dynamic pile-soil-jacket behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azadi, Mohammad Reza Emami

    1998-12-31

    In the offshore industry, recent extreme storms, severe earthquakes and subsidence of the foundation of jacket platforms have shown that new models and methods must take into account the jacket- pile-soil foundation interaction as well as the non-linear dynamic performance/loading effects. This thesis begins with a review of the state of art pile-soil interaction model, recognizing that most existing pile-soil models have been established based on large diameter pile tests on specific sites. The need for site independent and mechanistic pile-soil interaction models led to the development of new (t-z) and (p-y) disk models. These are validated using the available database from recent large diameter pile tests in the North Sea and Gulf of Mexico. The established static disk models are applied for non-linear static analysis of the jacket-pile-soil system under extreme wave loading. Dynamic pile-soil interaction is studied and a new disk-cone model is developed for the non-linear and non-homogeneous soils. This model is applied to both surface and embedded disks in a soil layer with non-linear properties. Simplified non-linear as well as more complex analysis methods are used to study the dynamic response of the jacket platform under extreme sea and seismic loading. Ductility spectra analysis is introduced and used to study the dynamic performance of the jacket systems near collapse. Case studies are used to illustrate the effects of structural, foundation failure characteristics as well as dynamic loading effects on the overall performance of the jacket-pile-soil systems near ultimate collapse. 175 refs., 429 figs., 70 tabs.

  16. Corrosion Activity on CFRP-Strengthened RC Piles of High-Pile Wharf in a Simulated Marine Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report test results from an experimental study to investigate the effectiveness of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP against reinforcing steel bar corrosion. Twelve reinforced-concrete pile specimens of 180 mm square by 1,600 mm long were cast. Three pile specimens were corroded to 5% steel mass loss and then strengthened with CFRP sheets; four specimens were strengthened by using CFRP sheets, whereas the remaining five specimens were not strengthened. The specimens were placed in a simulated marine environment, and corrosion was induced by an impressed current technique. At different theoretical corrosion degrees, nondestructive tests were performed to investigate the corrosion activity of the pile specimens, and destructive tests were performed to determine reinforcing steel bar mass loss. Based on the findings, the effectiveness of the CFRP-strengthened RC piles under aggressive marine environmental conditions was established.

  17. 40 CFR 264.554 - Staging piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Staging piles. 264.554 Section 264.554... for Cleanup § 264.554 Staging piles. This section is written in a special format to make it easier to... staging pile? A staging pile is an accumulation of solid, non-flowing remediation waste (as defined in...

  18. Decomposition rates for hand-piled fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton S. Wright; Alexander M. Evans; Joseph C. Restaino

    2017-01-01

    Hand-constructed piles in eastern Washington and north-central New Mexico were weighed periodically between October 2011 and June 2015 to develop decay-rate constants that are useful for estimating the rate of piled biomass loss over time. Decay-rate constants (k) were determined by fitting negative exponential curves to time series of pile weight for each site. Piles...

  19. Lateral response of pile foundations in liquefiable soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asskar Janalizadeh

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Liquefaction has been a main cause of damage to civil engineering structures in seismically active areas. The effects of damage of liquefaction on deep foundations are very destructive. Seismic behavior of pile foundations is widely discussed by many researchers for safer and more economic design purposes. This paper presents a pseudo-static method for analysis of piles in liquefiable soil under seismic loads. A free-field site response analysis using three-dimensional (3D numerical modeling was performed to determine kinematic loads from lateral ground displacements and inertial loads from vibration of the superstructure. The effects of various parameters, such as soil layering, kinematic and inertial forces, boundary condition of pile head and ground slope, on pile response were studied. By comparing the numerical results with the centrifuge test results, it can be concluded that the use of the p-y curves with various degradation factors in liquefiable sand gives reasonable results.

  20. A Vertical Bearing Capacity Experimental Analysis of Prestressed Concrete Piles Based on Material Constitutive Relation of Piles and Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to research the vertical bearing capacity and settlement idiosyncracies of prestressed concrete piles. In-situ experiments, which was carried out by anchor-pile beam counterforce device, and numerical analysis methods was adopted as research methods on 3 tested piles. Mohr-Coulomb model was employed as the constitutive model of soil mass and isotropic elastic damage model as the constitutive model of piles to analyze its yield functions. Furthermore, the basic idea of modelling large deformation problems was analyzed based on Finite Difference Method (FDM. The comparison results was obtained in the paper and it suggested that the simulated data is highly identical with the experimental ones. Load-settlement curve basically presents a quadratic function form.

  1. Static Analysis of the Interaction Among Soil, Slab and Piles in Pile-Slab Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xiao Hong; Gong Xiaoping; Yang Song

    2013-01-01

    .... A three-dimensional finite element model including train, track and pile-slab structure is established so as to make a systemic mechanical analysis of the slab, piles and subgrade soil in pile-slab structure...

  2. Underwater noise reduction of marine pile driving using a double pile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Impact pile driving of steel piles in marine environments produces extremely high sound levels in the water. : It has been shown that current pile driving noise attenuation techniques, such as bubble curtains and : cofferdams, provide limited noise r...

  3. An experimental study on the resistance and movement of short pile installed in sands under horizontal pullout load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Kyun Kwon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the model tests were conducted on the short piles installed in sands under a horizontal pullout load to investigate their behavior characteristics. From the horizontal loading tests where dimensions of the pile diameter and length, and loading point were varied, the horizontal pullout resistance and the rotational and translational movement pattern of the pile were investigated. As a result, the horizontal pullout resistance of the pile embedded in sands was dependent on the pile length, diameter, loading point, etc. The ultimate horizontal pullout load tended to increase as the loading point (h/L moved to the bottom from the top of the pile, regardless of the ratio between the pile length and diameter (L/D, reached the maximum value at the point of h/L = 0.75, and decreased afterwards. When the horizontal pullout load acted on the upper part above the middle of the pile, the pile rotated clockwise and moved to the pullout direction, and the pivot point of the pile was located at 150–360mm depth below the ground surface. On the other hand, when the horizontal pullout load acted on the lower part of the pile, the pile rotated counterclockwise and travelled horizontally, and the rotational angle was very small.

  4. Theoretical computation background for transformation of foundations using pile drains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Martirosyan Zaven

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the design of foundations for buildings and structures of various purposes, including improved risk, weak water-saturated clay soils with low mechanical characteristics are often found on a construction site. One of the possible ways of using them as a foundation is to seal them in various ways, including using pile drains of sand or rock stone material that are capable of both absorbing the load at the base and accelerating the process of filtration consolidation. This paper describes an analytical solution to the problem of interaction between the pile and the mattress with the surrounding soil of the foundation, taking into account the possibility of expanding the pile shaft. Solutions are obtained for determining the stresses in the shaft of the pile drain and in the soil under the mattress. The solution takes into account the influence of the pre-stressed state of the foundation after compaction on the formation of a stress-strain state during the erection and operation of structures. The solutions are relevant for consolidating pile drains made of rubble or for jet grouting piles, the rigidity of which is comparable to the rigidity of the surrounding soil. The paper describes the technique for determining the characteristics of the strength and deformability of the converted foundation and the results of large-scale tests at the experimental site for the construction of a large energy facility in Russia.

  5. Contribution to Estimating Bearing Capacity of Pile in Clayey Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drusa Marián

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of real geotechnical parameters is key factor for safe and economic design of geotechnical structures. One of these are pile foundations, which require proper design and evaluation due to accessing more deep foundation soil and because remediation work of not bearable piles or broken piles is a crucial operation. For this reason, geotechnical field testing like cone penetration test (CPT, standard penetration (SPT or dynamic penetration test (DP are realized in order to receive continuous information about soil strata. Comparing with rotary core drilling type of survey with sampling, these methods are more progressive. From engineering geologist point of view, it is more important to know geological characterization of locality but geotechnical engineers have more interest above the real geotechnical parameters of foundation soils. The role of engineering geologist cannot be underestimated because important geological processes in origin or during history can explain behaviour of a geological environment. In effort to streamline the survey, investigation by penetration tests is done as it is able to provide enough information for designers. This paper deals with actual trends in pile foundation design; because there are no new standards and usable standards are very old. Estimation of the bearing capacity of a single pile can be demonstrated on the example of determination of the cone factor Nk from CPT testing. Then results were compared with other common methods.

  6. Horizontal Displacement Control in Course of Lateral Loading of a Pile in a Slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muszyński, Zbigniew; Rybak, Jarosław

    2017-10-01

    Standard procedures concerning axial and lateral capacity testing of foundation piles usually consist of a single loading cycle. Constant load steps or constant settlement increments may be applied in the test. Such a procedure significantly differs from in-situ conditions of pile loading, which can be cyclic – especially in the case of the constructions, which are subject to wind load. Several tests were performed to observe the behaviour of the driven piles subject to fast cyclic loading in horizontal direction (lateral load). The manner in which the load tests were performed made it possible to determine the displacement of the 40×40 cm pile in the least favourable loading scheme, i.e. the lateral load capacity of the pile oriented towards the embankment slope. The piles were originally designed for the foundation of noise barriers along the highway. Some of the piles were broken in course of driving and a cautious check of their behaviour under load was requested before the assembling of the entire structure. Eight load tests were carried out altogether. While selecting the piles for further load tests, the representativeness of the random sample was taken into account. The piles with diverse cross section and length were chosen, on the basis of the previous low strain tests of their integrity. The subsoil around the piles consisted of medium and coarse sands with the density index ID>0.67. The pile heads were free. The points of support of the reference frame to which the sensors were fastened were located at the distance of 0.6 m from the side surface of the pile loaded laterally. In order to assure the independence of measurement, additional control (verifying) geodetic survey of the displacements of the piles subject to the load tests was carried out. The research conducted at Wroclaw University of Technology made it possible to collect and summarize the results of displacement measurements in course of static load testing of driven piles in a slope

  7. Conditions of Proper Interaction of Low-Pressure Injection Piles (LIP) with Structure and Soil, Carrying Capacity of Pile Anchorage in Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachla, Henryk

    2016-12-01

    The formation of a pile in the existing foundation and soil creates a new foundation construction which has a structure of foundation-pile-soil. This construction must be able to transfer loads from the foundation to the pile and from the pile to the soil. The pile structure has to transfer an imposed load. From the point of view of continuum mechanics determination of the capacity of such a system is preceded by the analysis of contact problem of three contact surfaces. Each of these surfaces is determined by different pairs of materials. The pair which creates a pile anchorage is a material from which the foundation is built (structure of stone and grout, brick and grout, concrete or reinforced concrete and grout. The pile structure is formed by grout and steel rebar. The pile formed in soil is created by a pair of grout and soil. What is important is that on contact surfaces the materials adhering to one another are subjected to different deformation types that are controlled by mechanical properties and geometry of these surfaces. In the paper, additional conditions that should be fulfilled for the foundation-pile-soil system to make load transfer from foundation to soil possible and safe are presented. The results of research done by the author on foundation-pile contact surface are discussed. The tests were targeted at verifying the bearing capacity of anchorage and deformation of piles made of grout and other materials from which foundations are built. The specimens were tested in tension and compression. The experiments were conducted on the amount specimens which is regarded as small sample to enable the statistical analysis of the results.

  8. Some aspects of skin friction of piles in clay under cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, H. G.

    1980-12-01

    A number of mode tests on a pile shaft in clay were performed to investigate the influence of cyclic loading on the ultimate skin friction. It is found that the loss of skin friction due to cyclic loading depends on both the cyclic displacement prior to failure and the number of cycles of load. Such loss of skin friction can occur both for one way or two way cyclic loading. The cyclic stiffness of the pile depends on the cyclic displacement of the pile. The rate of loading also influences the skin friction but does not appear to influence the stiffness of the pile.

  9. Improved Design Basis for Laterally Loaded Large Diameter Pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    . Comparison of the different approaches shows some discrepancy and conflicting statements, but the main findings can be summarized as: • The standard p-y curves are inadequate to describe the behaviour of lateral loaded large diameter rigid piles. • Initial stiffness of the p-y curves is depended...... of up-to-date facilities has been: Equipment for controlling centrifuge tests, data acquisition, preparation of test samples and equipment for and making of lateral load tests. The present research has been narrowed to investigate the static and cyclic behaviour of stiff piles with a diameter of 1-3 m...

  10. Analytical Solution for Stress and Displacement after X-Section Cast-in-Place Pile Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available X-section cast-in-place (referred to as XCC pile, which is one of new pile types developed by Hohai University, is widely used for pile foundation and pile-supported embankment over soft ground in China. However, little research has been carried out on this new type pile, especially the surrounding soil disturbance under XCC pile installation. This paper presents an analytical solution for estimating the horizontal stress and displacement of surrounding soil of XCC pile after XCC pile installation. The reliability and accuracy of the present solution are verified by comparing them with the field test results. Then, parametric studies, such as outsourcing diameter (a, open arc distance (b, open arc angle (θ, the undrained strength (Su, the limit pile cavity pressure (Plim, and the radius of the plastic zone (Rp, are discussed for the practice engineering design. The results show that the stress and displacement distributions of surrounding soil calculated by this paper are in agreement with field test results.

  11. Damage detection in prestressed pile to bent cap connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larosche, Aaron; Mangual, Jese; Ziehl, Paul

    2011-04-01

    South Carolina is one of the most seismically active states in the eastern U.S. Due to this high level of seismic activity, structural health monitoring is important to ensure a high level of confidence in the state's infrastructure. The University of South Carolina (U.SC) is currently studying the behavior of prestressed pile to bent-cap connections that are typical of construction used in the state. Bent caps are generally constructed with multiple piles. In these tests single pile specimens were created for both interior and exterior piles. Interior specimens were subjected to a constant compressive load while exterior specimens experienced both compressive and tensile loads. Acoustic Emission (AE) sensing was utilized on fullscale test specimens to investigate the feasibility of detecting and characterizing damage in these connections during a seismic event. Seven full-scale prestressed concrete piles have been embedded into cast-in-place (CIP) reinforced concrete bent caps and tested under reverse cyclic loading. AE data has been gathered with eight strategically placed AE sensors. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates that AE is promising method with respect to the detection of damage prior to detection by visual observation. AE activity is used to detect both the onset and location of cracking and to characterize the extent of damage at later stages of degradation. One focus of the work is to minimize the amount of AE data recorded for the development of wireless systems having low power consumption.

  12. Design criteria for driven piles in permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Past placment of structural foundation support piles in frozen soils generally has been performed using drilled and slurry backfill techniques. The early success of specially modified H-pile structural shapes driven into permafrost, and the promise o...

  13. Multi-scale sensitivity analysis of pile installation using DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Ricardo Gurevitz; Velloso, Raquel Quadros; , Eurípedes do Amaral Vargas, Jr.; Danziger, Bernadete Ragoni

    2017-12-01

    The disturbances experienced by the soil due to the pile installation and dynamic soil-structure interaction still present major challenges to foundation engineers. These phenomena exhibit complex behaviors, difficult to measure in physical tests and to reproduce in numerical models. Due to the simplified approach used by the discrete element method (DEM) to simulate large deformations and nonlinear stress-dilatancy behavior of granular soils, the DEM consists of an excellent tool to investigate these processes. This study presents a sensitivity analysis of the effects of introducing a single pile using the PFC2D software developed by Itasca Co. The different scales investigated in these simulations include point and shaft resistance, alterations in porosity and stress fields and particles displacement. Several simulations were conducted in order to investigate the effects of different numerical approaches showing indications that the method of installation and particle rotation could influence greatly in the conditions around the numerical pile. Minor effects were also noted due to change in penetration velocity and pile-soil friction. The difference in behavior of a moving and a stationary pile shows good qualitative agreement with previous experimental results indicating the necessity of realizing a force equilibrium process prior to any load-test to be simulated.

  14. Bore pile foundation tall buildings closed in the heritage building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triastuti, Nusa Setiani

    2017-11-01

    Bore pile foundation for high building surroundings heritage building should be not damage. Construction proses must good, no necking, no mixed deep water, no sliding soil, nonporous concrete. Objective the execution of bore pile so that heritage buildings and neighboring buildings that are old do not experience cracks, damage and tilting. The survey methodology was observe the process of the implementation of the dominant silt, clay soil, in addition a limited space and to analyze the results of loading tests, investigations of soil and daily reports. Construction process determines the success of the structure bore pile in high building structure bearing, without damaging a heritage building. Attainment the hard soil depth, density concrete, observable clean reinforcement in the implementation. Monitoring the implementation of, among others, the face of the ground water little reduce in the area and outside the footprint of the building, no impact of vibration drilling equipment, watching the mud content on the water coming out at the time of drilling, concrete volume was monitored each 2 m bore depth of pile, The result researched heritage building was not damage. The test results bore pile axial, lateral analyzed the results have the appropriate force design required.

  15. Measurement of stress waves in EDC piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-30

    "This project focused on instrumentation analysis of one Smart Structures Incorporated, EDC pile. In general, the EDC pile is a pre-stressed 18" x 18" concrete pile that has been outfitted with embedded strain gages and accelerometers at six location...

  16. Experimental Comparison of Non-Slender Piles under Static Loading and under Cyclic Loading in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of the pile behavior of non-slender piles exposed to static and cyclic lateral loading is presented. The tests were conducted in a pressure tank at Aalborg University. This enabled the possibility of applying an overburden pressure to the soil. When conducting small...

  17. Nondestructive evaluation of potential quality of creosote-treated piles removed from service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping. Wang; Robert J. Ross; John R. Erickson; John W. Forsman; Gary D. McGinnis; Rodney C. De Groot

    2001-01-01

    Stress-wave-based nondestructive evaluation methods were used to evaluate the potential quality and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of wood from creosote-treated Douglas-fir and southern pine piles removed from service. Stress-wave measurements were conducted on each pile section. Stress-wave propagation speeds were obtained to estimate the MOE of the wood. Tests were then...

  18. APPLICATION OF RIT PILES IN FOUNDATIONS OF HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubetskiy Valeriy Leonidovich

    2012-07-01

    On the basis of the analysis of the monitoring results, the technology and tests of PIT piles, a conclusion can be made that PIT piles, that have a diameter of 320 mm, assure the pre-set reliability of high-rise buildings in complex engineering and geological environments.

  19. Time scale of scour around a pile in combined waves and current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thor Ugelvig; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    The time scale of the scour process around a circular vertical pile is studied in combined waves and current. A series of tests were carried out in a flume with pile diameters 40 mm and 75 mm, in both steady current, waves and combined waves and current. In the combined wave and current flow regime...

  20. Effect of relative pile’s stiffness on lateral pile response under loading of large eccentricity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Hededal, Ole; Klinkvort, R.T.

    2015-01-01

    The wide application of monopiles as foundations for offshore wind turbines has raised the issue of the suitability of the p –y curves proposed by API for lateral pile loading, since the latter were developed after full-scale tests on flexible and slender piles. This study investigates the role o...

  1. Research on the reasonable pile spacing of micro pile composite soil nailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun yan; Liu, Yan; Song, Xiang hua

    2017-08-01

    Through the numerical simulation software FLAC3D, study on the synergetic effect of micro pile composite soil nailing will be studied. By adjusting the micro pile spacing and analysing the displacement field and stress field of soil, we can find that supporting effect of the soil nail hasn’t work yet when the micro pile spacing is 2D. The soil arching between piles has been formed in the pile spacing 4D ∼ 6D. The composite effect of micro pile and soil nailing will be the best and the soil arch behind piles will be firstly formed in 6D, the horizontal saddle soil arch will be formed between the nails. The nail head coincidence pressure area and micro pile pressure area are overlapping to maintain stability in the soil between piles. When the micro pile spacing is 9D, the arch behind piles will be failure, the soil flows around, but the saddle arch between the nails into circular arch, the supporting effect of the soil nailing is enhanced. When the micro pile spacing is 12D, the arch of the nails becomes smaller, sliding surface appears primitively. Based on the conclusions above, it is suggested that the micro pile spacing between 2D ∼ 6D is suitable for the micro pile and soil nailing composite support. The conclusion can provide theoretical basis for the design and construction of micro pile composite soil nailing.

  2. DRIVEN POLYSTRONG REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES AND NEW DESIGN OF PILE CAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Bekbasarov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents constructional and technological features for manufacturing driven piles with variable strength of pile shaft. Economical efficiency of their production has been shown in the paper. The paper provides a pile cap design that ensures perception of hammer impacts with the help of lateral edges of the pile cap. Driven reinforced concrete piles which are manufactured from three shaft sections having various strength have been proposed in the paper. Material strength (concrete grade and diameter of bars and length of shaft sections are given on a case by case basis in accordance with nature and rate of stresses in piles during their driving process. Manufacturing of polystrong piles provides an opportunity to select them for a particular construction site with due account of their preservation during driving process.A pile cap has been developed that as opposed to existing analogous designs makes it possible to transmit impact efforts from a hammer to the pile through lateral surface of its head part. The pile cap provides the possibility to increase an area for perception of hammer impact efforts by the pile and in doing so it is possible significantly to reduce a damage risk and destruction of pile concrete during its driving. Application of polystrong piles and their driving with the help of new pile cap are considered as a basis for defect-free and resource-saving technology for pile foundations in the construction.

  3. Response of stiff piles in sand to long-term cyclic lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmar, Christian LeBlanc; Houlsby, Guy T.; Byrne, Byron W.

    2010-01-01

    . To address this, a series of laboratory tests were conducted where a stiff pile in drained sand was subjected to between 8000 and 60000 cycles of combined moment and horizontal loading. A typical design for an offshore wind turbine monopile was used as a basis for the study, to ensure that pile dimensions...... and loading ranges were realistic. A complete non-dimensional framework for stiff piles in sand is presented and applied to interpret the test results. The accumulated rotation was found to be dependent on relative density and was strongly affected by the characteristics of the applied cyclic load. The pile...... stiffness increased with number of cycles, which contrasts with the current methodology where static p - y curves are degraded to account for cyclic loading. Methods are presented to predict the change in stiffness and the accumulated rotation of a stiff pile due to long-term cyclic loading. The use...

  4. Settlement Analysis of Saturated Tailings Dam Treated by CFG Pile Composite Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement fly ash gravel (CFG pile composite foundation is an effective and economic foundation treatment approach, which is significant to building foundation, subgrade construction, and so forth. The present paper aims at investigating the settlement behaviors of saturated tailings dam soft ground under CFG pile composite foundation treatment, in which FEM and laboratory model test were utilized. The proposed findings demonstrate that CFG pile treatment is effective in reinforcing saturated tailings dam and loading has little influence on settlement of soil between piles. The variation of soil between piles settlement in FEM has a good agreement with the laboratory model test. Additionally, the cushion deformation modulus has a small effect on the composite foundation settlement, although the cushion thickness will generate certain influence on the settlement distribution of the composite foundation.

  5. Wave Run-up on Slender Piles in Design Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Frigaard, Peter; Damsgaard, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    in the design of Horns Reef 1. As a consequence damage was observed on the platforms. This has been the situation for several sites and design tools for platform loads are lacking. As a consequence a physical model test study was initiated at Aalborg University to clarify wave run-up on cylindrical piles...... to the pile an empirical factor is included on the velocity head. The evaluation of the calculation model shows that an accurate design rule can be established even in breaking wave conditions. However, calibration of a load model showed that it was necessary to increase the run-up factor on the velocity head...

  6. Collapse mechanisms and strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe G.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an upper bound plasticity approach for strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps. A number of collapse mechanisms are identified and analysed. The procedure leads to an estimate of the load-carrying capacity and an identification of the critical collapse mechanism....... Calculations have been compared with nearly 200 test results found in the literature. Satisfactory agreement has been found. The analyses are conducted on concentrically loaded caps supported by four piles. The paper briefly outlines how the approach may be extended to more complicated loadings and geometries...

  7. The influence of connecting pile cap-column in the mechanisms of break in the two pile caps

    OpenAIRE

    MESQUITA, A. C.; ROCHA,A. S.; DELALIBERA,R. G.; W. A. DA SILVA

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The paper analyzes the two pile caps with partially embedded socket and subject a center load. Three models were experimentally tested, varying the type of conformation of the column and walls of the socket, with a smooth, the other rough, and a monolithic two pile cap, used for reference. The roughening of the column-socket interface was examined with the aim of verifying the difference of the distribution of compressive and tensile stresses in the strut an tie model used for design...

  8. Pile-up correction by Genetic Algorithm and Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafaee, M.; Saramad, S.

    2009-08-01

    Pile-up distortion is a common problem for high counting rates radiation spectroscopy in many fields such as industrial, nuclear and medical applications. It is possible to reduce pulse pile-up using hardware-based pile-up rejections. However, this phenomenon may not be eliminated completely by this approach and the spectrum distortion caused by pile-up rejection can be increased as well. In addition, inaccurate correction or rejection of pile-up artifacts in applications such as energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrometers can lead to losses of counts, will give poor quantitative results and even false element identification. Therefore, it is highly desirable to use software-based models to predict and correct any recognized pile-up signals in data acquisition systems. The present paper describes two new intelligent approaches for pile-up correction; the Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs). The validation and testing results of these new methods have been compared, which shows excellent agreement with the measured data with 60Co source and NaI detector. The Monte Carlo simulation of these new intelligent algorithms also shows their advantages over hardware-based pulse pile-up rejection methods.

  9. Analysis Method for Laterally Loaded Pile Groups Using an Advanced Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacul, Stefano; Squeglia, Nunziante

    2018-02-15

    A Boundary Element Method (BEM) approach was developed for the analysis of pile groups. The proposed method includes: the non-linear behavior of the soil by a hyperbolic modulus reduction curve; the non-linear response of reinforced concrete pile sections, also taking into account the influence of tension stiffening; the influence of suction by increasing the stiffness of shallow portions of soil and modeled using the Modified Kovacs model; pile group shadowing effect, modeled using an approach similar to that proposed in the Strain Wedge Model for pile groups analyses. The proposed BEM method saves computational effort compared to more sophisticated codes such as VERSAT-P3D, PLAXIS 3D and FLAC-3D, and provides reliable results using input data from a standard site investigation. The reliability of this method was verified by comparing results from data from full scale and centrifuge tests on single piles and pile groups. A comparison is presented between measured and computed data on a laterally loaded fixed-head pile group composed by reinforced concrete bored piles. The results of the proposed method are shown to be in good agreement with those obtained in situ.

  10. 30 CFR 817.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 817.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 817.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 817.81, the... drainage may not be diverted over the outslope of the refuse pile. Runoff from areas above the refuse pile...

  11. Underwater Sound Propagation from Marine Pile Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyff, James A

    2016-01-01

    Pile driving occurs in a variety of nearshore environments that typically have very shallow-water depths. The propagation of pile-driving sound in water is complex, where sound is directly radiated from the pile as well as through the ground substrate. Piles driven in the ground near water bodies can produce considerable underwater sound energy. This paper presents examples of sound propagation through shallow-water environments. Some of these examples illustrate the substantial variation in sound amplitude over time that can be critical to understand when computing an acoustic-based safety zone for aquatic species.

  12. Artificial Neural Network Model for Prediction of Bearing Capacity of Driven Pile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harnedi Maizir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of ANN model for prediction of axial capacity of a driven pile based on Pile Driving Analyzer (PDA test data. As many as 300 sets of high quality test data from dynamic load test performed at several construction projects in Indonesia and Malaysia were selected for this study.Input considered in the modeling are pile characteristics (diameter, length as well as compression and tension capacity, pile set, and hammer characteristics (ram weight, drop height, and energy transferred.An ANN model (named: ANN-HM was developed in this study using a computerized intelligent system for predicting the total pile capacity as well as shaft resistance and end bearing capacity for various pile and hammer characteristics. The results show that the ANN-HM serves as a reliable prediction tool to predict the resistance of the driven pile with coefficient of correlation (R values close to 0.9 and mean squared error (MSE less than 1% after 15,000 number of iteration process.

  13. Settlement of Thick Clay Deposits under Piled-Raft Foundation and Design Considerations (Pile Dimensions)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee K.Y

    2015-01-01

    .... Practical design of piled raft foundations is made for the light bridges and five story buildings on thick clay deposits to discuss the long-term settlement, and it is found that the piled raft is well applicable and effective on thick clay deposits, and that differential settlements of the foundation should be managed by designing the configuration of pile lengths and spacing.

  14. Use of pile driving analysis for assessment of axial load capacity of piles : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic response of a pile during driving is very : complex, involving the interactions of the hammer, cushion, : pile and soil during application of an impact load. : The first analysis aimed at simulating a hammer blow on : a pile was published...

  15. Evaluation of Pile Response Due to Liquefaction - Induced Lateral Spreading of the Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    This paper reports a cooperative project between teams at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) and Cornell University to evaluate the effect of lateral spreading on pile foundations. Centrifuge tests of lateral spreading and the corresponding perma...

  16. Prediction of pile set-up for Ohio soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ODOT typically uses small diameter driven pipe piles for bridge foundations. When a pile is driven into the subsurface, it disturbs and displaces the soil. As the soil surrounding the pile recovers from the installation disturbance, a time dependant ...

  17. Design phase identification of high pile rebound soils : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-15

    An engineering problem has occurred when installing displacement piles in certain soils. During driving, piles are rebounding excessively during each hammer blow, causing delay and as a result may not achieve the required design capacities. Piles dri...

  18. Simulating pile load-settlement behavior from CPT data using intelligent computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkroosh, I.; Nikraz, H.

    2011-09-01

    Analysis of pile load-settlement behavior is a complex problem due to the participation of many factors involved. This paper presents a new procedure based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) for simulating the load-settlement behavior of pile foundations embedded in sand and mixed soils (subjected to axial loads). Three ANN models have been developed, a model for bored piles and two other models for driven piles (a model for each of concrete and steel piles). The data used for development of the ANN models is collected from the literature and comprise a series of in-situ piles load tests as well as cone penetration test (CPT) results. The data of each model is divided into two subsets: Training set for model calibration and independent validation set for model verification. Predictions from the ANN models are compared with the results of experimental data and with predictions of number of currently adopted load-transfer methods. Statistical analysis is used to verify the performance of the models. The results indicate that the ANN model performs very well and able to predict the pile load-settlement behaviour accurately.

  19. Stress Analysis of CFG Pile Composite Foundation in Consolidating Saturated Mine Tailings Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxing Lai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement fly-ash gravel (CFG pile is a widely used ground reinforcement technique. This paper aims to address the mechanical characteristics of CFG composite foundation in consolidating saturated mine tailings (MTs dam. The field static load tests were employed to explore the bearing capacity of the CFG composite foundation, and finite element (FE models in three dimensions validated through comparison with experimental results were used to discuss the pile-soil stress distribution and pile-soil stress ratio of the CFG composite foundation. The results indicate that the distribution of earth pressure and pile stress is relatively homogeneous and stable over depth and load, while the development of CFG composite foundation bearing capacity is insufficient, in which the developed bearing capacity of CFG piles is less than 50% of its characteristic value. Additionally, compared with the laboratory model test results, the pile-soil stress ratio decreases with the increasing of the load in FEM results proved to better conform to the actual engineering conditions. Furthermore, the deformation modulus and thickness of cushion exert significant influence on pile-soil stress ratio and integral bearing capacity of CFG composite foundation.

  20. The impact of wind energy turbine piles on ocean dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grashorn, Sebastian; Stanev, Emil V.

    2016-04-01

    The small- and meso-scale ocean response to wind parks has not been investigated in the southern North Sea until now with the help of high-resolution numerical modelling. Obstacles such as e.g. wind turbine piles may influence the ocean current system and produce turbulent kinetic energy which could affect sediment dynamics in the surrounding area. Two setups of the unstructured-grid model SCHISM (Semi-implicit Cross-scale Hydroscience Integrated System Model) have been developed for an idealized channel including a surface piercing cylindrical obstacle representing the pile and a more realistic test case including four exemplary piles. Experiments using a constant flow around the obstacles and a rotating M2 tidal wave are carried out. The resulting current and turbulence patterns are investigated to estimate the influence of the obstacles on the surrounding ocean dynamics. We demonstrate that using an unstructured ocean model provides the opportunity to embed a high-resolution representation of a wind park turbine pile system into a coarser North Sea setup, which is needed in order to perform a seamless investigation of the resulting geophysical processes.

  1. Beam parameters observations during the second high pile-up collisions fill in 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Trad, G; Buffat, X; Calaga, R; Cornelis, K; Herr, W; Jacquet, D; Papotti, G; Schaumann, M; Venturini Delsolaro, W

    2012-01-01

    On the 25th of October 2011, a physics fill( Fill nr 2252) was dedicated to providing ATLAS & CMS with high pile-up collisions. A peak pile-up (number of inelastic interactions per crossing) μ of almost 35 was achieved. Part of the test was also to bring the pile-up to values < 0.5 and this was achieved by separating the beams in steps. The Head-On collisions were restored after each IP separation to study its effects. In this note observations of the beam parameters evolution (bunch current, emittances and length) are presented. Some conclusions are drawn and suggestions for future MDs are discussed.

  2. Pile hole drilling for North Sea platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dressel, E.J.

    1975-05-01

    According to J.R. McDermott and Co., deep waters and a sea bottom composed of both dense sands and hard clays call for utmost sophistication of equipment and techniques for offshore platform installation in the North Sea. The water depth requires modification of conventional platform installation procedures with an intermediate foundation and temporary pile installation module. Normally, piling is installed by driving to grade with conventional pile-driving equipment. For 2 different types of offshore platform foundations now being utilized in the North Sea, however, drilling is required. One, a belled footing, requires drilling because underreaming is a necessity. The second, a deep-water platform with skirt piles, utilizes drilling because pile/follower weights coupled with soil conditions make conventional pile driving inefficient or impossible. The total equipment package required depends on the platform installation procedures used. Available packages vary from a minimal pile-top rig to a platform-contained, barge-assisted pile installation unit.

  3. Steel Sheet Pile Walls in Soft Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kort, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    For almost a century, steel sheet pile walls are applied worldwide as earth retaining structures for excavations and quay walls. Within the framework of the development of European structural codes for Civil Engineering works, the Eurocodes, Eurocode 3 Part 5 for design of steel sheet pile walls was

  4. Settlement of Thick Clay Deposits under Piled-Raft Foundation and Design Considerations (Pile Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee K.Y.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics and histories of the deltaic deposits in geotechnical perspective are studied. Geotechnical issues of clay deposits under floating foundation systems also analyzed. Theoretical expressions and parameters were examined by an experimental study and numerical analysis on the laboratory scales and field measurement in this study. Also, piled raft foundation on thick clay deposits is designated to optimize pile configuration. The predictions of settlements of piled rafts foundation are proposed based on pile dimensions by utilizing a normalized Ap/nL and Bg/Br. Practical design of piled raft foundations is made for the light bridges and five story buildings on thick clay deposits to discuss the long-term settlement, and it is found that the piled raft is well applicable and effective on thick clay deposits, and that differential settlements of the foundation should be managed by designing the configuration of pile lengths and spacing.

  5. Analysis of the Load Sharing Behaviour and Cushion Failure Mode for a Disconnected Piled Raft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-jun Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disconnected piled raft (DPR foundations are characterized by having no structural connection to a raft. The raft-pile gap is filled with a granular cushion, which creates a more uniform pressure distribution on the raft and reduces the differential settlement. A series of tests has been performed to investigate the load transfer mechanisms of a DPR. The effects of the thickness and stiffness of the cushion and the pile diameter are presented and discussed. A simple failure mode of the cushion is also put forward according to the cushion slip plane obtained by using the digital image correlation technique that tracks the pixels in the images and generates a displacement field. Then a new theoretical analysis has been presented for rigid pile composite foundation. Through comparative studies, it is found that the present method is validated as reasonable by laboratory tests and is in agreement with several current design methods.

  6. Safety precautions in atomic pile control (1962); Securite dans le controle des piles atomiques (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    We have been led to study the problem of safety in atomic pile control as a result of our participation on the one hand in the planning of C.E.A. atomic piles, and on the other hand in the pile safety sub omission considering atomic pile safety of operational or planned C.E.A. piles. We have thus had to consider the wishes occurring in piles during their operation and also their behaviour in the dynamic state The present work deals mainly with the importance of intrinsic safety devices, with the influence of reactivity variations on the power fluctuations during accidental operation, and with the development of robust and reliable safety appliances. The starting p accident has been especially studied both for low-flux piles where a compromise is necessary between the response time of the safety appliances and the statistical fluctuations and for high lux piles where xenon poisoning has an effect on the lower limit of the velocity of reactivity liberation. The desirability has been stressed of automation as a safety factor in atomic pile control. The details required for an understanding of the diagrams of the apparatus are given. (author) [French] Nous avons aborde le probleme de la securite dans le controle des piles atomiques a la suite de notre participation d'une part aux avant rojets de piles atomiques du CE.A. et d'autre part a l'examen au sein de la sous ommission de surete des piles, de la securite des piles du CE.A. en fonctionnement ou en projet. Nous avons ete amenes a nous interesser alors aux risques encourus par les piles pendant leur fonctionnement et par la meme a leur comportement en regime dynamique. Ce travail traite principalement de l'importance des securites intrinseques, de l'influence des variations de reactivite sur les evolutions de puissance en regime d'accident et du developpement d'appareillages de securite robustes et de fonctionnement tres sur. L'accident de demarrage a ete particulierement

  7. Element soil behaviour during pile installation simulated by 2D-DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yi Pik; Liu, Junwei

    2017-06-01

    The estimation of the skin friction of onshore or offshore piles in sand is still a difficult problem for geotechnical engineers. It has been accepted by many researchers that the mechanism of driving piles in the soil has shared some similarities with that of an element shear test under the constant normal stiffness (CNS) condition. This paper describes the behaviour of an element of soil next to a pile during the process of pile penetration into dense fine sand using the 2D-DEM numerical simulation software. A new CNS servo was added to the horizontal boundary while maintaining the vertical stress constant. This should simulate the soil in a similar manner to that of a CNS pile-soil interface shear test, but allowing the vertical stress to remain constant which is more realistic to the field situation. Shear behaviours observed in these simulations were very similar to the results from previous researchers' lab shearing tests. With the normal stress and shear stress obtained from the virtual models, the friction angle and the shaft friction factor β mentioned in the API-2007 offshore pile design guideline were calculated and compared with the API recommended values.

  8. Element soil behaviour during pile installation simulated by 2D-DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The estimation of the skin friction of onshore or offshore piles in sand is still a difficult problem for geotechnical engineers. It has been accepted by many researchers that the mechanism of driving piles in the soil has shared some similarities with that of an element shear test under the constant normal stiffness (CNS condition. This paper describes the behaviour of an element of soil next to a pile during the process of pile penetration into dense fine sand using the 2D-DEM numerical simulation software. A new CNS servo was added to the horizontal boundary while maintaining the vertical stress constant. This should simulate the soil in a similar manner to that of a CNS pile-soil interface shear test, but allowing the vertical stress to remain constant which is more realistic to the field situation. Shear behaviours observed in these simulations were very similar to the results from previous researchers’ lab shearing tests. With the normal stress and shear stress obtained from the virtual models, the friction angle and the shaft friction factor β mentioned in the API-2007 offshore pile design guideline were calculated and compared with the API recommended values.

  9. Influence of Installation Effects on Pile Bearing Capacity in Cohesive Soils – Large Deformation Analysis Via Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konkol Jakub

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the whole process of pile construction and performance during loading is modelled via large deformation finite element methods such as Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL and Updated Lagrangian (UL. Numerical study consists of installation process, consolidation phase and following pile static load test (SLT. The Poznań site is chosen as the reference location for the numerical analysis, where series of pile SLTs have been performed in highly overconsolidated clay (OCR ≈ 12. The results of numerical analysis are compared with corresponding field tests and with so-called “wish-in-place” numerical model of pile, where no installation effects are taken into account. The advantages of using large deformation numerical analysis are presented and its application to the pile designing is shown.

  10. Nonlinear Seismic Response Of Single Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairo, R.; Conte, E.; Dente, G.

    2008-07-01

    In this paper, a method is proposed to analyse the seismic response of single piles under nonlinear soil condition. It is based on the Winkler foundation model formulated in the time domain, which makes use of p-y curves described by the Ramberg-Osgood relationship. The analyses are performed referring to a pile embedded in two-layer soil profiles with different sharp stiffness contrast. Italian seismic records are used as input motion. The calculated bending moments in the pile are compared to those obtained using other theoretical solutions.

  11. 30 CFR 77.214 - Refuse piles; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; general. 77.214 Section 77.214... Installations § 77.214 Refuse piles; general. (a) Refuse piles constructed on or after July 1, 1971, shall be..., tipples, or other surface installations and such piles shall not be located over abandoned openings or...

  12. 30 CFR 77.215-4 - Refuse piles; abandonment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; abandonment. 77.215-4 Section 77... MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-4 Refuse piles; abandonment. When a refuse pile is to be abandoned... refuse pile shall be abandoned in accordance with a plan submitted by the operator and approved by the...

  13. 30 CFR 816.83 - Coal mine waste: Refuse piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. 816.83 Section... ACTIVITIES § 816.83 Coal mine waste: Refuse piles. Refuse piles shall meet the requirements of § 816.81, the... drainage may not be diverted over the outslope of the refuse piles. Runoff from the areas above the refuse...

  14. Reliability-Based Design and Quality Control of Bored Piles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, D.

    2014-01-01

    Bored piles are a type of deep foundations which have been and are being widely used in construction engineering such as high-rise buildings, bridges, jetties, and so on. Although bored piles have remarkable advantages over driven piles, the quality of bored piles is frequently affected by many

  15. NEET In-Pile Ultrasonic Sensor Enablement-Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Daw; J. Rempe; J. Palmer; P. Ramuhalli; R. Montgomery; H.T. Chien; B. Tittmann; B. Reinhardt; P. Keller

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential to measure a range of parameters during irradiation of fuels and materials, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes under harsh irradiation test conditions. There are two primary issues that currently limit in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors. The first is transducer survivability. The ability of ultrasonic transducer materials to maintain their useful properties during an irradiation must be demonstrated. The second issue is signal processing. Ultrasonic testing is typically performed in a lab or field environment, where the sensor and sample are accessible. The harsh nature of in-pile testing and the variety of desired measurements demand that an enhanced signal processing capability be developed to make in-pile ultrasonic sensors viable. To address these issues, the NEET ASI program funded a three year Ultrasonic Transducer Irradiation and Signal Processing Enhancements project, which is a collaborative effort between the Idaho National Laboratory, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the Argonne National Laboratory, and the Pennsylvania State University. The objective of this report is to document the objectives and accomplishments from this three year project. As summarized within this document, significant work has been accomplished during this three year project.

  16. Study on Load-Bearing Characteristics of a New Pile Group Foundation for an Offshore Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiqing Lang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Because offshore wind turbines are high-rise structures, they transfer large horizontal loads and moments to their foundations. One of the keys to designing a foundation is determining the sensitivities and laws affecting its load-bearing capacity. In this study, this procedure was carried out for a new high-rise cap pile group foundation adapted to the loading characteristics of offshore wind turbines. The sensitivities of influential factors affecting the bearing properties were determined using an orthogonal test. Through a combination of numerical simulations and model tests, the effects of the inclination angle, length, diameter, and number of side piles on the vertical bearing capacity, horizontal bearing capacity, and bending bearing capacity were determined. The results indicate that an increase in the inclination angle of the side piles will increase the vertical bearing capacity, horizontal bearing capacity, and bending bearing capacity. An increase in the length of the side piles will increase the vertical bearing capacity and bending bearing capacity. When the length of the side piles is close to the central pile, the increase is more apparent. Finally, increasing the number of piles will increase the horizontal bearing capacity; however, the growth rate is small because of the pile group effect.

  17. Study on load-bearing characteristics of a new pile group foundation for an offshore wind turbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ruiqing; Liu, Run; Lian, Jijian; Ding, Hongyan

    2014-01-01

    Because offshore wind turbines are high-rise structures, they transfer large horizontal loads and moments to their foundations. One of the keys to designing a foundation is determining the sensitivities and laws affecting its load-bearing capacity. In this study, this procedure was carried out for a new high-rise cap pile group foundation adapted to the loading characteristics of offshore wind turbines. The sensitivities of influential factors affecting the bearing properties were determined using an orthogonal test. Through a combination of numerical simulations and model tests, the effects of the inclination angle, length, diameter, and number of side piles on the vertical bearing capacity, horizontal bearing capacity, and bending bearing capacity were determined. The results indicate that an increase in the inclination angle of the side piles will increase the vertical bearing capacity, horizontal bearing capacity, and bending bearing capacity. An increase in the length of the side piles will increase the vertical bearing capacity and bending bearing capacity. When the length of the side piles is close to the central pile, the increase is more apparent. Finally, increasing the number of piles will increase the horizontal bearing capacity; however, the growth rate is small because of the pile group effect.

  18. Evaluation of the Load-Displacement Relationships for Large-Diameter Piles in Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Brodbaek, K. T.; Moller, M.

    2009-01-01

    For laterally loaded piles in sand with diameters up to 6 m, e.g. monopiles used as foundations for offshore wind turbines, there is no approved design procedure. The p-y curve method, given in offshore design regulations, is usually employed for the design of monopiles. However, this method...... was developed for slender piles with diameters much less than 6 m and it is based on a limited number of tests. The aim of the present work is to extend the p-y curve method to large-diameter non-slender piles by considering the effects of the pile diameter on the soil response. The main focus is the initial...

  19. Numerical analysis of energy piles under different boundary conditions and thermal loading cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermo- mechanical behavior of energy piles has been studied extensively in recent years. In the present study, a numerical model was adapted to study the effect of various parameters (e.g. heating/cooling temperature, head loading condition and soil stiffness on the thermo-mechanical behavior of an energy pile installed in unsaturated sandstone. The results from the simulations were compared with measurements from a thermal response test on a prototype energy pile installed beneath a 1-story building at the US Air Force Academy (USAFA in Colorado Springs, CO. A good agreement was achieved between the results obtained from the prototype and the numerical models. A parametric evaluation were also carried out which indicated the significance of the stiffness of the unsaturated sandstone and pile’s head loading condition on stress-strain response of the energy pile during heating/cooling cycles.

  20. Centrifuge modelling of large diameter pile in sand subject to lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    regulations are developed for long flexible piles with diameters up to approximately 2.0 m and are based on a very limited number of tests. Hence, the method has not been validated for rigid piles with diameters of 4 to 6 m. The primary issues concerning the validity of the standard p-y curves for large...... diameter rigid piles are:  The initial stiffness of the curves and description of the static behaviour, including ultimate bearing capacity.  The behaviour with respect to cyclic loading both stiffness degradation and ultimate bearing capacity. The aim of the present research is to investigate the static...... and cyclic behaviour of large diameter rigid piles in dry sand by use of physical modelling. The physical modelling has been carried out at Department of Civil Engineering at the Danish Technical University (DTU.BYG), in the period from 2005 to 2009. The main centrifuge facilities, and especially...

  1. Soil heating during burning of forest slash piles and wood piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt D. Busse; Carol J. Shestak; Ken R. Hubbert

    2013-01-01

    Pile burning of conifer slash is a common fuel reduction practice in forests of the western United States that has a direct, yet poorly quantified effect on soil heating. To address this knowledge gap, we measured the heat pulse beneath hand-built piles ranging widely in fuel composition and pile size in sandy-textured soils of the Lake Tahoe Basin. The soil heat pulse...

  2. Laboratory and field study of the performance of helical piles in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Nabizadeh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing different method in construction of deep footing plays a major role in optimized and economized performing of civil projects especially in problematic soils. One of the common types of deep footing is helical piles which have several advantages such as fast procedure, useful in different soil types, performing without noise and vibration, effective in pressure and tension and etc. In this paper, the performance of 1-helix & 2-helixes and 3-helixes in an un-grouted and grouted with the field and laboratory studies are discussed. Field studies include of helical piles behavior in sand. Laboratory tests with physical FCV modeling is also carried out on the soil of the site. Grouting effect on helical piles resistance is evaluated. Comparison load test results with analytical method were compared. Results show that performance cylindrical in sandy soils in helical piles is not suitable and increasing helical number pile capacity is decreases. Also, after grouting helical pile with three helixes increases more resistant compare to one helix and double helixes.

  3. Displacement pile installation effects in sand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijer-Lundberg, A.

    2015-01-01

    Installation effects govern the post-installation behaviour of displacement piles in sand. These effects are currently not completely understood. Suitable experimental techniques to model these installation effects include field, laboratory and experimental models. In the current thesis a

  4. Performance of pile supported sign structures : [brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Sign structures in Wisconsin are typically supported by drilled shaft foundations or spread : footing foundations. However, when the soil conditions are not suitable to be supported on : drilled shafts or spread footings, a group of piles could suppo...

  5. ATLAS Pile-up and Overlay Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Novak, Tadej; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The high luminosity of the LHC results in a significant background to interesting physics events known as pile-up. ATLAS uses several methods for simulating the effects of pile-up. The mostly used method is a direct simulation of background events where multiple simulated background events are combined for each physics event. For some physics processes, a more accurate simulation can be achieved by overlaying real proton-proton collisions on a simulated hard-scatter process. Overlay is also being investigated for a premixed pile-up background to reduce CPU usage and I/O stress during the simulation. Embedding replaces the muons found in Z→mumu decays in data with simulated taus at the same 4-momenta, thus preserving the underlying event and pileup from the original data event. This talk compares the pile-up simulation methods used at the ATLAS experiment pointing their benefits and drawbacks.

  6. Physical Modelling of Large Diameter Piles in Coarse-Grained Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødbæk, K. T.; Augustesen, Anders Hust; Møller, M.

    2011-01-01

    modelling (large- or small-scale). This paper investigates the effects of diameter on the initial part of the p-y curves by small-scale testing. A new and innovative test setup is presented. In order to minimize scale effects the tests are successfully carried out in a pressure tank enabling the possibility...... of increasing the effective stresses. The test setup is thoroughly described in the paper. Two non-slender aluminium pipe piles subjected to lateral loads have been tested in the laboratory. The piles are heavily instrumented with strain gauges in order to obtain p-y curves, displacement and bending moment...

  7. Design and Preparation of Carbon Based Composite Phase Change Material for Energy Piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haibin; Memon, Shazim Ali; Bao, Xiaohua; Cui, Hongzhi; Li, Dongxu

    2017-04-07

    Energy piles-A fairly new renewable energy concept-Use a ground heat exchanger (GHE) in the foundation piles to supply heating and cooling loads to the supported building. Applying phase change materials (PCMs) to piles can help in maintaining a stable temperature within the piles and can then influence the axial load acting on the piles. In this study, two kinds of carbon-based composite PCMs (expanded graphite-based PCM and graphite nanoplatelet-based PCM) were prepared by vacuum impregnation for potential application in energy piles. Thereafter, a systematic study was performed and different characterization tests were carried out on two composite PCMs. The composite PCMs retained up to 93.1% of paraffin and were chemically compatible, thermally stable and reliable. The latent heat of the composite PCM was up to 152.8 J/g while the compressive strength of cement paste containing 10 wt % GNP-PCM was found to be 37 MPa. Hence, the developed composite PCM has potential for thermal energy storage applications.

  8. Failure behavior of concrete pile and super-structure dynamic response as a result of soil liquefaction during earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneda, Shogo; Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Hachimori, Wataru; Tamura, Shuji; Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    In past earthquake disasters, numerous building structure piles were damaged by soil liquefaction occurring during the earthquake. Damage to these piles, because they are underground, is difficult to find. The authors aim to develop a monitoring method of pile damage based on superstructure dynamic response. This paper investigated the relationship between the damage of large cross section cementitious piles and the dynamic response of the super structure using a centrifuge test apparatus. A dynamic specimen used simple cross section pile models consisting of aluminum rod and mortar, a saturated soil (Toyoura sand) of a relative density of 40% and a super structure model of a natural period of 0.63sec. In the shaking table test under a 50G field (length scale of 1/50), excitation was a total of 3 motions scaled from the Rinkai wave at different amplitudes. The maximum acceleration of each of the excitations was 602gal, 336gal and 299gal. The centrifuge test demonstrated the liquefaction of saturated soil and the failure behavior of piles. In the test result, the damage of piles affected the predominant period of acceleration response spectrum on the footing of the superstructure.

  9. STABILIZATION OF A FAILED SLOPE WITH PILED STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rifat KAHYAOĞLU

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Neogene aged units of a densely populated region of Western Turkey along the Aegean Sea coastline is susceptible to landslides causing frequent economic loss especially following raining seasons. Several landslides took place in the area covering a narrow band of the coastline between Izmir and Söke (Aydın. Countermeasures against these relatively small-scale slope failures in the region often involve construction of either reinforced concrete retaining walls or stabilizing piles, which can be easily constructed by local contractors. In this study borings, in-situ and laboratory soil mechanics tests, geophysical and geological investigations have been performed in order to investigate the landslide occurred in the yard of an elementary school in Söke township. The analysis of two rows of piled retaining system constructed to reuse the school building against a potential slides are presented. Three inclinometer measurements have been performed after completion of the bored pile system. It has been concluded that the measured and the calculated displacement values are both small. There is no problem of the built project by means of moments and displacements.

  10. Construction Technology and Mechanical Properties of a Cement-Soil Mixing Pile Reinforced by Basalt Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingwei Hong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new type of cement-soil mixing pile reinforced by basalt fibre is proposed for increasing the bearing capacity of cement-soil mixing piles. This work primarily consists of three parts. First, the process of construction technology is proposed, which could allow uniform mixing of the basalt fibre in cement-soil. Second, the optimal proportions of the compound mixtures and the mechanical properties of the pile material are obtained from unconfined compression strength test, tensile splitting strength test, and triaxial shear test under different conditions. Third, the reliability of the construction technology, optimal proportions, and mechanical properties are verified by testing the mechanical properties of the drilling core sample on site.

  11. Analytical Model for the End-Bearing Capacity of Tapered Piles Using Cavity Expansion Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Manandhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of evidence from model tests on increasing the end-bearing behavior of tapered piles at the load-settlement curve, this paper proposes an analytical spherical cavity expansion theory to evaluate the end-bearing capacity. The angle of tapering is inserted in the proposed model to evaluate the end-bearing capacity. The test results of the proposed model in different types of sands and different relative densities show good effects compared to conventional straight piles. The end-bearing capacity increases with increases in the tapering angle. The paper then propounds a model for prototypes and real-type pile tests which predicts and validates to evaluate the end-bearing capacity.

  12. Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil. On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through red, green and blue filters that have been combined into this approximately true-color image. This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench. Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches. For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench. The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed

  13. Design, driving, and evaluation of long offshore piling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, T.J.

    1975-11-15

    Texas A and M University's one-dimensional wave equation method of pile analysis is a powerful tool for the design of piles, selection of hammers and other accessories for installation, and evaluation of the load capacity of the piling as it is being driven in hostile environments. A good soil profile and data on the strength properties of the various formations are necessary input for the wave equation technique of determining the pile size and thickness that can be driven to the desired penetration without drilling or jetting. The wave equation to determine the soil resistance acting on a pile from the pile-driving record of blows/foot was successfully used during the installation of platforms in the North Sea Forties field. Evaluation of the load capacity of each pile from the soil-resistance data permitted the use of only nine piles/leg, resulting in considerable construction savings.

  14. Synthesis of concrete bridge piles prestressed with CFRP systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The Texas Department of Transportation frequently constructs prestressed concrete piles for use in bridge : foundations. Such prestressed concrete piles are typically built with steel strands that are highly susceptible to : environmental degradation...

  15. Performance-based design factors for pile foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The seismic design of pile foundations is currently performed in a relatively simple, deterministic manner. This : report describes the development of a performance-based framework to create seismic designs of pile group : foundations that consider a...

  16. Experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles, task 1 - mechanical properties of FRP piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The overall goal of this project is the experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP : composite piles for load-bearing in bridges. This report covers Task 1, Mechanical Properties of FRP Piles. : Mechanical and geotechnic...

  17. Construction of Steel Pipe Sheet Piles with Newly Developed Joint ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H-joint in steel pipe sheet piles (SPSP) is introduced and developed, the joint is made by welding a cylindrical steel pile on either side of an H steel section, welding is continuous along their lengths therefore it is completely waterproof with high strength; the two connected piles are installed simultaneously hence short ...

  18. 30 CFR 77.215-3 - Refuse piles: certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles: certification. 77.215-3 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-3 Refuse piles: certification. (a) Within 180 days following written notification by the District Manager that a refuse pile can present a hazard, the person owning...

  19. Design Optimization of Piles for Offshore Wind Turbine Jacket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Kasper; Zania, Varvara

    Numerical methods can optimize the pile design. The aim of this study is to automatically design optimal piles for offshore wind turbine jacket foundations (Figure 1). Pile mass is minimized with constraints on axial and lateral capacity. Results indicate that accurate knowledge about soil...

  20. 30 CFR 77.215-2 - Refuse piles; reporting requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; reporting requirements. 77.215-2... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-2 Refuse piles; reporting requirements. (a) The proposed location of a new refuse pile shall be reported to and acknowledged in writing by the District Manager...

  1. 30 CFR 77.215 - Refuse piles; construction requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; construction requirements. 77.215... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215 Refuse piles; construction requirements. (a) Refuse deposited on a pile shall be spread in layers and compacted in such a manner so as to minimize the flow of air...

  2. 30 CFR 77.215-1 - Refuse piles; identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Refuse piles; identification. 77.215-1 Section... COAL MINES Surface Installations § 77.215-1 Refuse piles; identification. A permanent identification marker, at least six feet high and showing the refuse pile identification number as assigned by the...

  3. 30 CFR 77.209 - Surge and storage piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Surge and storage piles. 77.209 Section 77.209... Installations § 77.209 Surge and storage piles. No person shall be permitted to walk or stand immediately above a reclaiming area or in any other area at or near a surge or storage pile where the reclaiming...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.603 - Pile driving equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pile driving equipment. 1926.603 Section 1926.603 Labor... Operations § 1926.603 Pile driving equipment. (a) General requirements. (1) Boilers and piping systems which are a part of, or used with, pile driving equipment shall meet the applicable requirements of the...

  5. Temperature changes in an initially frozen wood chip pile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R. Sampson; Jenifer H. McBeath

    1987-01-01

    White spruce trees and tops were chipped and placed in a pile near Fairbanks, Alaska, in February 1983. The pile was 6 meters in diameter and 6 meters high in a cylindrical shape. Thermocouples were placed at 25 locations within the pile so that temperatures could be tracked over time. Gypsum blocks were placed at 10 locations to determine changes in moisture content....

  6. Pile group program for full material modeling and progressive failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Strain wedge (SW) model formulation has been used, in previous work, to evaluate the response of a single pile or a group of piles (including its : pile cap) in layered soils to lateral loading. The SW model approach provides appropriate prediction f...

  7. Behavior of Skin Friction of Piles subjected to Top-downward and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In situ results of Osterberg cell load test and the conventional static compression load test are compared. Finite Element Method (FEM) is used to study the effects of changes in boundary conditions, mechanism of pile-soil interaction and the accompanying change in soil stress, which are responsible for the difference in skin ...

  8. Load capacity of hollowed timber piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a reliable load-rating methodology for timber piles based on the level of documented damage. Louisiana currently has over 4,000 timber bridges in its inventory of over 13,800 bridges. A quarter of these 4,000 tim...

  9. Underwater noise generated by offshore pile driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsouvalas, A.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise emission in the marine environment has always been an environmental issue of serious concern. In particular, the noise generated during the installation of foundation piles is considered to be one of the most significant sources of underwater noise pollution. This is mainly

  10. Piling aids gravity in ice resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bea, R.G.; Nour-Omid, S.; Coull, T.B.; Potter, R.E.; Bivens, H.R.

    1984-08-01

    The design and construction of foundations for offshore drilling platforms are described. To allow the base contact areas and ballast requirements to be minimized, thus allowing minimization of ice forces, a combined shallow mat and pile or spud founded system is proposed.

  11. Modelling Pile Installation Effects : A Numerical Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engin, H.K.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most traditional methods for supporting structures resting on soft soils is the use of piles. They generally work by transferring the loads to deeper soil layers, which can provide sufficient bearing capacity when mobilised. This type of foundations has been commonly used throughout the

  12. 50 ksi steel h-pile capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to re-evaluate the adoption, with the objective of potentially extending the utilization of Fy = 50 ksi for : the structural capacity of steel H-piles (AISC HP sections) for bridge foundations. Specific consideration is...

  13. Design and Preparation of Carbon Based Composite Phase Change Material for Energy Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibin Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy piles—A fairly new renewable energy concept—Use a ground heat exchanger (GHE in the foundation piles to supply heating and cooling loads to the supported building. Applying phase change materials (PCMs to piles can help in maintaining a stable temperature within the piles and can then influence the axial load acting on the piles. In this study, two kinds of carbon-based composite PCMs (expanded graphite-based PCM and graphite nanoplatelet-based PCM were prepared by vacuum impregnation for potential application in energy piles. Thereafter, a systematic study was performed and different characterization tests were carried out on two composite PCMs. The composite PCMs retained up to 93.1% of paraffin and were chemically compatible, thermally stable and reliable. The latent heat of the composite PCM was up to 152.8 J/g while the compressive strength of cement paste containing 10 wt % GNP-PCM was found to be 37 MPa. Hence, the developed composite PCM has potential for thermal energy storage applications.

  14. Design and Preparation of Carbon Based Composite Phase Change Material for Energy Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haibin; Memon, Shazim Ali; Bao, Xiaohua; Cui, Hongzhi; Li, Dongxu

    2017-01-01

    Energy piles—A fairly new renewable energy concept—Use a ground heat exchanger (GHE) in the foundation piles to supply heating and cooling loads to the supported building. Applying phase change materials (PCMs) to piles can help in maintaining a stable temperature within the piles and can then influence the axial load acting on the piles. In this study, two kinds of carbon-based composite PCMs (expanded graphite-based PCM and graphite nanoplatelet-based PCM) were prepared by vacuum impregnation for potential application in energy piles. Thereafter, a systematic study was performed and different characterization tests were carried out on two composite PCMs. The composite PCMs retained up to 93.1% of paraffin and were chemically compatible, thermally stable and reliable. The latent heat of the composite PCM was up to 152.8 J/g while the compressive strength of cement paste containing 10 wt % GNP-PCM was found to be 37 MPa. Hence, the developed composite PCM has potential for thermal energy storage applications. PMID:28772752

  15. Simulation of the pile loop for terry woven fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oner, E.; Durur, G.; Sirin, B.

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a method to simulate the yarn loop formation for terry woven towels taking into account the movements in the weaving process. In accordance with this purpose, the structural properties of 27 type systematically produced terry woven fabrics, which had three different pile warp count, three different weft setting and three different pile ratio, were analyzed before and after pile formation. The changing of pile form was observed on the jaw moving platform, and pile formation steps in the terry weaving process were simulated.

  16. The Settlement Behavior of Piled Raft Interaction in Undrained Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghalesari, Abbasali Taghavi; Barari, Amin; Amini, Pedram Fardad

    2013-01-01

    Offshore piled raft foundations are one of the most commonly used foundations in offshore structures. When a raft foundation alone does not satisfy the design requirements, the addition of piles may improve both the ultimate load capacity and the settlement performance of the raft. In this paper......, the behavior of a piled raft on undrained soil is studied based on a series of parametric studies on the average and differential settlement of piled raft using three-dimensional finite element analysis. The settlement behavior is found to be dependent on the number of piles and raft thickness....

  17. Spinning Induced Compression Strength of Precast Hollow Concrete Piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogot Setyo Budi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prefabricated precast-hollow concrete pile is widely used as deep foundations due to its several benefits such as the uniformity in concrete quality and its durability. It is also called spun pile since the spinning method is utilized to compact the fresh concrete. During spinning, the fresh concrete is propelled outward due to centrifugal force, which generates a compaction process and develops a hollow in the center of the pile. Several factors, such as the rate of spinning, frequency, and duration of spinning, are affecting the quality of the pile. This paper presents the study of density and compressive strength of spun piles. The specimens were cored from the spun piles with diameter of 800 mm. The results show that the density and the compressive strength of the concrete at outer region of the spun pile are bigger than those at the inner side.

  18. Friction effects on lateral loading behavior of rigid piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara; Hededal, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The adequacy of the p -y curves used in the current practice for the design of rigid pile foundations with large diameter, like in the case of monopile foundations of offshore wind turbines, has been widely questioned. The current study aims at analyzing the lateral behavior of rigid piles, while...... taking into account the shear frictional resistance along the pile. For this purpose efficient three dimensional finite element models of different diameter have been developed. The increase of the side friction and of the diameter of the pile is shown to alter the failure pattern and increase...... the lateral capacity of the pile. The obtained p - y curves demonstrate the importance of the aforementioned parameters in the design of rigid piles, as the reduction of friction along the interface reduces not only the ultimate load but also the stiffness of the soil-pile response. Read More: http...

  19. The characterization of Vicker`s microhardness indentations and pile-up profiles as a strain-hardening microprobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, C. Jr. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Engineering Technology; Odette, G.R.; Lucas, G.E.; Schroeter, B.; Klinginsmith, D. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Yamamoto, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan)

    1998-04-01

    Microhardness measurements have long been used to examine strength properties and changes in strength properties in metals, for example, as induced by irradiation. Microhardness affords a relatively simple test that can be applied to very small volumes of material. Microhardness is nominally related to the flow stress of the material at a fixed level of plastic strain. Further, the geometry of the pile-up of material around the indentation is related to the strain-hardening behavior of a material; steeper pile-ups correspond to smaller strain-hardening rates. In this study the relationship between pile-up profiles and strain hardening is examined using both experimental and analytical methods. Vickers microhardness tests have been performed on a variety of metal alloys including low alloy, high Cr and austenitic stainless steels. The pile-up topology around the indentations has been quantified using confocal microscopy techniques. In addition, the indentation and pile-up geometry has been simulated using finite element method techniques. These results have been used to develop an improved quantification of the relationship between the pile-up geometry and the strain-hardening constitutive behavior of the test material.

  20. Physical scale modeling of single free head piles under lateral loading in cohesive soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Leonardo Salamanca-Medina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the small scale modeling of free head wood piles under horizontal loading in cohesive soils, tested in order to compare the results with analytical models proposed by various authors. Characteristic Load (CLM and P-Y Curves methods were used for the prediction of lateral deflections at the head of the piles and the method proposed by Broms for estimating the ultimate lateral load. These predictions were compared with the results of the physical modeling, obtaining a good approximation between them.

  1. Response of stiff piles to random two-way lateral loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakmar, Christian LeBlanc; Byrne, B.W.; Houlsby, G. T.

    2010-01-01

    A model for predicting the accumulated rotation of stiff piles under random two-way loading is presented. The model is based on a strain superposition rule similar to Miner's rule and uses rainflow-counting to decompose a random time-series of varying loads into a set of simple load reversals....... The method is consistent with the work of LeBlanc et al. (2010) and is supported by 1g laboratory tests. An example is given for an offshore wind turbine indicating that accumulated pile rotation during the life of the turbine is dominated by the worst expected load....

  2. Noise Mitigation During Pile Driving Efficiently Reduces Disturbance of Marine Mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, Georg; Rose, Armin; Diederichs, Ansgar; Bellmann, Michael; Pehlke, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Acoustic monitoring of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena L., 1758) indicated a strongly reduced disturbance by noise emitted by pile driving for offshore wind turbine foundations insulated by a big bubble curtain (BBC). This newly developed noise mitigation system was tested during construction of the offshore wind farm Borkum West II (North Sea). Because porpoise activity strongly corresponded to the sound level, operation of the new system under its most suitable configuration reduced the porpoise disturbance area by ~90%. Hence, for the first time, a positive effect of a noise mitigation system during offshore pile driving on an affected marine mammal species could be demonstrated.

  3. Progress In Developing An In-Pile Acoustically Telemetered Sensor Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, James A.; Garrett, Steven L.; Heibel, Michael D.; Agarwal, Vivek; Heidrich, Brenden J.

    2016-09-01

    A salient grand challenge for a number of Department of Energy programs such as Fuels Cycle Research and Development ( includes Accident Tolerant Fuel research and the Transient Reactor Test Facility Restart experiments), Light Water Sustainability, and Advanced Reactor Technologies is to enhance our fundamental understanding of fuel and materials behavior under irradiation. Robust and accurate in-pile measurements will be instrumental to develop and validate a computationally predictive multi-scale understanding of nuclear fuel and materials. This sensing technology will enable the linking of fundamental micro-structural evolution mechanisms to the macroscopic degradation of fuels and materials. The in situ sensors and measurement systems will monitor local environmental parameters as well as characterize microstructure evolution during irradiation. One of the major road blocks in developing practical robust, and cost effective in-pile sensor systems, are instrument leads. If a wireless telemetry infrastructure can be developed for in-pile use, in-core measurements would become more attractive and effective. Thus to be successful in accomplishing effective in-pile sensing and microstructure characterization an interdisciplinary measurement infrastructure needs to be developed in parallel with key sensing technology. For the discussion in this research, infrastructure is defined as systems, technology, techniques, and algorithms that may be necessary in the delivery of beneficial and robust data from in-pile devices. The architecture of a system’s infrastructure determines how well it operates and how flexible it is to meet future requirements. The limiting path for the effective deployment of the salient sensing technology will not be the sensors themselves but the infrastructure that is necessary to communicate data from in-pile to the outside world in a non-intrusive and reliable manner. This article gives a high level overview of a promising telemetry

  4. 3D FEM Analysis of a Pile-Supported Riverine Platform under Environmental Loads Incorporating Soil-Pile Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise-Penelope N. Kontoni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An existing riverine platform in Egypt, together with its pile group foundation, is analyzed under environmental loads using 3D FEM structural analysis software incorporating soil-pile interaction. The interaction between the transfer plate and the piles supporting the platform is investigated. Two connection conditions were studied assuming fixed or hinged connection between the piles and the reinforced concrete platform for the purpose of comparison of the structural behavior. The analysis showed that the fixed or hinged connection condition between the piles and the platform altered the values and distribution of displacements, normal force, bending moments, and shear forces along the length of each pile. The distribution of piles in the pile group affects the stress distribution on both the soil and platform. The piles were found to suffer from displacement failure rather than force failure. Moreover, the resulting bending stresses on the reinforced concrete plate in the case of a fixed connection between the piles and the platform were almost doubled and much higher than the allowable reinforced concrete stress and even exceeded the ultimate design strength and thus the environmental loads acting on a pile-supported riverine offshore platform may cause collapse if they are not properly considered in the structural analysis and design.

  5. Utilization of Screw Piles in High Seismicity Areas of Cold and Warm Permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This work was performed in support of the AUTC project Utilization of Screw Piles in : High Seismicity Areas of Cold and Warm Permafrost under the direction of PI Dr. Kenan : Hazirbaba. Surface wave testing was performed at 30 sites in the City...

  6. NEET In-Pile Ultrasonic Sensor Enablement-FY 2012 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JE Daw; JL Rempe; BR Tittmann; B Reinhardt; P Ramuhalli; R Montgomery; HT Chien

    2012-09-01

    Several Department Of Energy-Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) programs, such as the Fuel Cycle Research and Development, Advanced Reactor Concepts, Light Water Reactor Sustainability, and Next Generation Nuclear Plant programs, are investigating new fuels and materials for advanced and existing reactors. A key objective of such programs is to understand the performance of these fuels and materials when irradiated. The Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology (NEET) Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation (ASI) in-pile instrumentation development activities are focused upon addressing cross-cutting needs for DOE-NE irradiation testing by providing higher fidelity, real-time data, with increased accuracy and resolution from smaller, compact sensors that are less intrusive. Ultrasonic technologies offer the potential to measure a range of parameters, including geometry changes, temperature, crack initiation and growth, gas pressure and composition, and microstructural changes, under harsh irradiation test conditions. There are two primary issues associated with in-pile deployment of ultrasonic sensors. The first is transducer survivability. The ability of ultrasonic transducer materials to maintain their useful properties during an irradiation must be demonstrated. The second issue is signal processing. Ultrasonic testing is typically performed in a lab or field environment, where the sensor and sample are accessible. Due to the harsh nature of in-pile testing, and the range of measurements that are desired, an enhanced signal processing capability is needed to make in-pile ultrasonic sensors viable. This project addresses these technology deployment issues.

  7. In Vitro Evaluation and Mechanism Analysis of the Fiber Shedding Property of Textile Pile Debridement Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yijun; Xie, Qixue; Lao, Jihong; Wang, Lu

    2016-01-01

    Fiber shedding is a critical problem in biomedical textile debridement materials, which leads to infection and impairs wound healing. In this work, single fiber pull-out test was proposed as an in vitro evaluation for the fiber shedding property of a textile pile debridement material. Samples with different structural design (pile densities, numbers of ground yarns and coating times) were prepared and estimated under this testing method. Results show that single fiber pull-out test offers an appropriate in vitro evaluation for the fiber shedding property of textile pile debridement materials. Pull-out force for samples without back-coating exhibited a slight escalating trend with the supplement in pile density and number of ground yarn plies, while back-coating process significantly raised the single fiber pull-out force. For fiber shedding mechanism analysis, typical pull-out behavior and failure modes of the single fiber pull-out test were analyzed in detail. Three failure modes were found in this study, i.e., fiber slippage, coating point rupture and fiber breakage. In summary, to obtain samples with desirable fiber shedding property, fabric structural design, preparation process and raw materials selection should be taken into full consideration. PMID:28773428

  8. Are cometary nuclei primordial rubble piles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissman, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    Whipple's icy conglomerate model for the cometary nucleus has had considerable sucess in explaining a variety of cometary phenomena such as gas production rates and nongravitational forces. However, as discussed here, both observational evidence and theoretical considerations suggest that the cometary nucleus may not be a well-consolidated single body, but may instead be a loosely bound agglomeration of smaller fragments, weakly bonded and subject to occasional or even frequent disruptive events. The proposed model is analogous to the 'rubble pile' model suggested for the larger main-belt asteroids, although the larger cometary fragments are expected to be primordial condensations rather than collisionally derived debris as in the asteroid case. The concept of cometary nuclei as primordial rubble piles is proposed as a modification of the basic Whipple model, not as a replacement for it.

  9. Uplift Capacity of Inclined Underreamed Piles Subjected to Vertical Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Akilur; Sengupta, Siddhartha

    2017-12-01

    Many offshore structures are subjected to overturning moments due to wind load, wave pressure, and ship impacts. Inclined (batter) piles are used to support such structures, and to carry the horizontal and vertical loads resulted from the overturning moments. Though studies have been done with inclined piles having no underream bulb, little information is available in the literature about estimating the uplift capacity of inclined underreamed piles. In the present study laboratory experiments have been done with vertically loaded model piles having no underream as well as with one and two underreams. The piles were positioned at angle of inclination of θ = 0°, 10°, 20°, 30° (with vertical); and placed in locally available sand under vertical uplift load. Three different pile stem diameters (D = 20, 25, and 35 mm) were used. The corresponding pile length to stem diameter (l/D) ratio were 18, 14, and 10 respectively. Experiments had been conducted with two relative different densities (45 and 70%) of sand. The failure uplift loads were obtained in each case. It had been found that for inclined piles increase in number of underream bulbs from 0 to 2 was quite effective in resisting uplift loads corresponding to piles having l/D equals to 10. The percentage decreases in uplift capacity corresponding to increase in inclination angle were more pronounced for piles with double underreams.

  10. Review of vibration effect during piling installation to adjacent structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Nurul Aishah Abd; Musir, Adhilla Ainun; Dahalan, Nurol Huda; Ghani, Abdul Naser Abdul; Khalil, Muhamad Kasimi Abd

    2017-12-01

    Basically, many major structures across the world such as towers, high rise building, houses and bridges utilize pile as a support material. The use of pile is important to strengthen the structures. However, this has led to another problem to the nearest surrounding structures resulted from pile driving. As part of a construction work, unavoidable pile driving activity generates a vibration towards the surrounding structures if uncontrolled may cause damage to the adjacent structure. As the current construction works are frequently located in urban areas where the distance between the nearest building structures is not far, vibration may cause damage to nearby structures. Knowing which part of the building that is mostly affected by various vibration patterns from the impact of pile driving is crucial. Thus, it is very important to predict the impact of vibration during piling installation work. This paper reviews the vibrations generated by piling activity toward surrounding structures in terms sources of vibration, impact of piling installation, pile-soil interaction, and factors affecting the vibration impact of building as well as to study the parameters involved in vibration generation during piling works.

  11. FORECASTING PILE SETTLEMENT ON CLAYSTONE USING NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponomarev Andrey Budimirovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the problem of designing pile foundations on claystones is reviewed. The purpose of this paper is comparative analysis of the analytical and numerical methods for forecasting the settlement of piles on claystones. The following tasks were solved during the study: 1 The existing researches of pile settlement are analyzed; 2 The characteristics of experimental studies and the parameters for numerical modeling are presented, methods of field research of single piles’ operation are described; 3 Calculation of single pile settlement is performed using numerical methods in the software package Plaxis 2D and analytical method according to the requirements SP 24.13330.2011; 4 Experimental data is compared with the results of analytical and numerical calculations; 5 Basing on these results recommendations for forecasting pile settlement on claystone are presented. Much attention is paid to the calculation of pile settlement considering the impacted areas in ground space beside pile and the comparison with the results of field experiments. Basing on the obtained results, for the prediction of settlement of single pile on claystone the authors recommend using the analytical method considered in SP 24.13330.2011 with account for the impacted areas in ground space beside driven pile. In the case of forecasting the settlement of single pile on claystone by numerical methods in Plaxis 2D the authors recommend using the Hardening Soil model considering the impacted areas in ground space beside the driven pile. The analyses of the results and calculations are presented for examination and verification; therefore it is necessary to continue the research work of deep foundation at another experimental sites to improve the reliability of the calculation of pile foundation settlement. The work is of great interest for geotechnical engineers engaged in research, design and construction of pile foundations.

  12. Acoustic emission intensity analysis of corrosion in prestressed concrete piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez, William; Matta, Fabio; Ziehl, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Corrosion of steel strands in prestressed concrete (PC) bridges may lead to substantial damage or collapse well before the end of the design life. Acoustic Emission (AE) is a suitable nondestructive technique to detect and locate corrosion in reinforced and prestressed concrete, which is key to prioritize inspection and maintenance. An effective tool to analyze damage-related AE data is intensity analysis (IA), which is based on two data trends, namely Severity (average signal strength of high amplitude hits) and Historic Index (ratio of the average signal strength of the most recent hits to the average of all hits). IA criteria for corrosion assessment in PC were recently proposed based on empirical evidence from accelerated corrosion tests. In this paper, AE data from prestressed and non-prestressed concrete pile specimens exposed to salt water wet-dry cycling for over 600 days are used to analyze the relation between Severity and Historic Index and actual corrosion. Evidence of corrosion is gained from the inspection of decommissioned specimens. The selection of suitable J and K parameters for IA is discussed, and an IA chart with updated corrosion criteria for PC piles is presented.

  13. Development of the monitoring technique on the damage of piles using the biggest shaking table "E-defense"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kazuhiro; Hachimori, Wataru; Kaneda, Shogo; Tamura, Shuji; Saito, Taiki

    2017-10-01

    In case of earthquake damage to buildings, the damage to a superstructure is visible, but the damage to a foundation structure, e.g. the underground pile, is difficult to detect. In this study, the authors aim to develop a monitoring technique for pile damage due to earthquakes. The world's biggest shaking table, E-Defense, was used to reproduce damage to RC pile models embedded in the soil inside a large scale shear box (8m in diameter and 6.5m in height). The diameter of the RC pile model was 154mm. It consisted of mortar (27.2N/mm2 in compressive strength), 6 main reinforcements (6.35mm in diameter) and shear reinforcement hard steel wire (2mm in diameter at intervals of 20mm). The natural period of the superstructure above the pile models is around 0.12sec. The soil consisted of 2 layers. The lower layer is Albany sand of 80% relative density while the upper layer is only 2m from the surface ground and is Kaketsu sand of 60% relative density. Primary four excitations were scaled from JMA Kobe waves in notification at different amplitudes. The maximum acceleration of each wave is 31gal, 67gal, 304gal, and 458gal, respectively. In the test result, reinforcing steels at the pile head of the RC model yielded when the maximum acceleration was 304gal. After that, mortar of the pile head peeled off and a bending shear failure occurred when the maximum acceleration was 458gal. The peak frequency of rotational spectrum on the foundation did not change in elastic range in the piles. However, the peak frequency fell after the plastic hinge occurred.

  14. 3D numerical simulation of flow field around twin piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Ata; Parto, Akram Asadi

    2017-12-01

    In this study to identify the flow pattern and local scour mechanism around pile groups, the flow field was simulated using FLOW-3D software. A pair of pile on a flat-bed channel with side by side and tandem arrangements was investigated. To establish Navier-Stokes equations, the RNG k- ɛ turbulence model was used and the results were verified using experimental data. In case of FLOW-3D capability, it was found that the software was able to properly simulate the expected interaction between the pile groups. The results of flow field simulation showed that Reynolds number and the pile spacing are the most influential variables in forming vortices. The flow around tandem pile and the downward flow around wake vortices were more intense and complicate in comparison with side by side arrangements and single pile.

  15. Contiguous Pile Wall as a Deep Excavation Supporting System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Ramasubbarao GODAVARTHI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Providing space for parking, public amenities, etc in multi-storey buildings at town centres has created a need to go deep excavations into ground. Deep excavations are supported by systems like conventional retaining walls, sheet pile walls, braced walls, diaphragm walls and pile walls. This article describes various excavation supporting systems that are in vogue essentially contiguous pile wall and its advantages. A detailed design methodology of an excavation supporting system is furnished in this study. A case study on the Contiguous pile wall retaining system for supporting a deep excavation at a town centre is presented.

  16. Analysis on the best position and the pile distance of anti-slide pile of reinforced soil slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jinqiu; Wang, Zhiyong; Dong, Tianxiong; Liang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Regarding numerical calculation convergence and plastic zone through the slope as the criterion of slope instability, strength reduction method as calculating principle, the stability of soil slope was analyzed by using finite element software ABAQUS, and on the basis of analysis, the best position and pile distance of anti-slide pile of reinforced soil slope were studied. The numerical results showed that with the increasing of distance between anti-slide pile and toe position, safety coefficient raised firstly and then decreased, when the ratio between the horizontal distance of anti-slide to slope toe and horizontal distance of slope is around 0.6, which is the largest safety factor; The pile spacing had certain influence on the soil slope safety factor, with the different pile spacing, the safety factor was different. With the increase of the pile spacing, the safety factor decreased gradually.

  17. A Snapshot of Present Research at AAU and DTU on Large-Diameter Piles in Coarse-Grained Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, C. T.; Sørensen, Søren Peder Hyldal; Klinkvort, Rasmus Tofte

    2012-01-01

    are developed for piles with diameters up to approximately 2.0 m and are based on a very limited number of tests. Hence, the method has not been validated for piles with diameters of 4 to 6 m. During the last six years extensive studies on non-slender large-diameter piles in coarse-grained material have been...... conducted at Aalborg University (AAU) and at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The piles have been investigated by means of physical and numerical modelling. The former consists of both centrifuge tests and tests in a so-called pressure tank (1G tests but with an applied overburden pressure......). The goal of the work has been to investigate the general behaviour of monopiles for nowadays offshore wind turbines and to revise the p-y curves for piles in sand in order to account for diameter on the response of monopiles subjected to both static and cyclic loads. The paper summarizes and compares...

  18. Characterizing Axial Stiffness of Individual Batter Piles with Emphasis on Elevated, Laterally Loaded, Clustered Pile Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Technology Conference, OTC 3405, Houston, TX, May 1979, 427–431. Coyle, H. M., and L. C. Reese. 1966. Load transfer for axially loaded piles in Clay . Journal ...10 Table 1.2. Correlation of kh1 [in units of force/length3] to the strength of clays and rock (after... clay layers

  19. INFLUENCE OF A ROUND CAP ON THE BEARING CAPACITY OF A LATERALLY LOADED PILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buslov Anatoliy Semenovich

    2012-07-01

    The data has proven that cap-covered piles are substantially more economical (over 40 % in terms of materials consumption rate if compared to constant cross-section piles (cap-free or broadening piles, all other factors being equal.

  20. Prediction of pile set-up for Ohio soils : executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ODOT typically uses small diameter driven pipe piles for bridge foundations. When a pile is driven into the subsurface, it disturbs and displaces the soil. As the soil surrounding the pile recovers from the installation disturbance, a time dependant ...

  1. Pulse pile-up in hard X-ray detector systems. [for solar X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datlowe, D. W.

    1975-01-01

    When pulse-height spectra are measured by a nuclear detection system at high counting rates, the probability that two or more pulses will arrive within the resolving time of the system is significant. This phenomenon, pulse pile-up, distorts the pulse-height spectrum and must be considered in the interpretation of spectra taken at high counting rates. A computational technique for the simulation of pile-up is developed. The model is examined in the three regimes where (1) the time between pulses is long compared to the detector-system resolving time, (2) the time between pulses is comparable to the resolving time, and (3) many pulses occur within the resolving time. The technique is used to model the solar hard X-ray experiment on the OSO-7 satellite; comparison of the model with data taken during three large flares shows excellent agreement. The paper also describes rule-of-thumb tests for pile-up and identifies the important detector design factors for minimizing pile-up, i.e., thick entrance windows and short resolving times in the system electronics.

  2. Geotechnical maps for recommendation on bored pile capacity in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suksun Horpibulsuk

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of geotechnical maps in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Thailand based on the boring logs and in situ test results collected from public and private sector sources. The standard penetration number, N was used to identify the soil type. The soil deposits in Nakhon Ratchasima municipality are divided into three layers: medium-to-stiff silty clay with N 50. The medium-to-stiff silty clay layer has a thickness varying from 1.8 to 7.5 metres and an average N value of 14 with a relatively low standard deviation of 1.08. The first hard silty clay layer has a thickness varying from 1.2 to 3.0 metres and an average N value of 42 with a standard deviation of 1.37. For a practical application in foundation engineering in which the pile tips of the bored piles are located in the second hard stratum with N > 50, eight pile tip zones with approximated load capacity are recommended for pile lengths of 3-10 metres.

  3. Load and Resistance Factor Design of Bridge Foundations Accounting for Pile Group–Soil Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Fei; Lim, Jeehee; Salgado, Rodrigo; Prezzi, Monica; Zaheer, Mir

    2015-01-01

    Pile group foundations are used in most foundation solutions for transportation structures. Rigorous and reliable pile design methods are required to produce designs whose level of safety (probability of failure) is known. By utilizing recently developed, advanced, two-surface plasticity constitutive models, rigorous finite element analyses are conducted. These analyses are for axially loaded single piles and pile groups with several pile-to-pile distances in various group configurations inst...

  4. Static behaviour of 3x3 pile group in sand under lateral loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    SureshKumar, R.; BharathKumar, R.; MohanKumar, L.; Visuvasam, J.; Sairam, V.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the static lateral load behaviour of single pile in comparison with 3x3 pile group in sand. The piled raft system is modelled using PLAXIS3D. Parametric studies of varying length to diameter (L/D) and spacing of piles in a group and diameter of piles (S/D) have been performed. The behaviour of group piles in terms of static lateral load capacity and group efficiency has been discussed.

  5. The role of bulking agent in pile methane and carbon dioxide concentration during wastewater sludge windrow composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgaki, I; Tsamoukas, A; Sakkas, N; Ververidis, F; Trantas, E; Kyriacou, A; Lasaridi, K E; Manios, T

    2009-01-01

    Wastewater sludge and wood chips were used as feedstock for the construction of two piles, Pile I ("PI") and Pile II ("PII"), at a ratio of 1:1 and 1:2 v/v, respectively. Each pile was originally 1.3-m high, 2.0-m wide, and approximately 9.0-m long. A mechanical turner was used to turn the two windrows every 1 to 2 weeks. Three 500-mL-volume glass funnels were inverted and introduced into each pile: one in the core (named, respectively, "PIC" and "PIIC"), one at the top ("PIT" and "PIIT"), and one at the side ("PIS" and "PIIS"). Every 2 to 3 days, gas samples were collected using gas-tight syringes and analyzed in a gas chromatograph determining carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) concentrations. An average gas concentration value between turnings was calculated and a two-way analysis of variance test was used to determine the significance of the differences between piles and pile location, followed by a Post Hoc Tukey test. During the thermophilic period, the mean CO2 concentration in PIC was 103 mL/L, 65 mL/L in PIT, and 24 mL/L in PIS, whereas, for PII, these values were 102mL/L, 59 mL/L, and 24 mL/L, respectively. The mean CH4 concentration between turnings in PIC was 9.2 mL/L, 1.9 mL/L in PIT, and 0.9 mL/L in PIS, whereas, for PII, the corresponding values were 6.4 mL/L, 0.4 mL/L, and 0.1 mL/L. For methane, there were no significant differences between these mean values, not only between the same placement in different piles, but also between different placements and different piles. This is probably due to the relatively frequent turnings (10 turnings during a period of 100 days), which did not allow the development of more anaerobic pockets in PI than in PII, indicating that both piles had similar greenhouse gas impacts. Results for carbon dioxide were similar in both piles, with some differentiation appearing between the core and top placements compared to the side placement. Reduction of the decomposition rate further from the core and a typical windrow

  6. Load rating and FRP retrofitting of bridge abutment timber piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This report details Phase II of the study titled Strengthening of Bridge Wood Piling Retrofits for Moment Resistance. Phase I of the research (project : R27-082) was focused on developing a load rating method for timber piles under eccentric load and...

  7. The homogenisation of bulk material in blending piles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerstel, A.W.

    1979-01-01

    In this thesis the homogenisation of bulk material in three types of piles is dealt with. The homogenisation implies that the fluctuations of a material proprety in the input flow of the pile are transformed into output fluctuations, whereby the latter ones are evened out. Analyses are presented

  8. Visualization of soil arching in flexible piled embankments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Visual inspection of the soil settlement and soil-reinforcement interaction is important to explain the mechanism of arching. In this study, X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) method was used as a non-destructive technique. The arching of soil between the piles was observed in the case of rigid piles and in the case of flexible ...

  9. The Metal Hoard from Pile in Scania, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandkilde, Helle

    The metal hoard from Pile has branded the onset of the rich Nordic Bronze Age since its discovery in 1864 at the coast of Scania in southwestern Sweden. Yet, this book provides the first detailed documentation, scientific examination and historical interpretation. Indeed, Pile emerges as the earl...

  10. Research notes : calibrating pile driving for ODOT practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ODOT has used a commercial program, GRLWEAP, very successfully in the field over the last fifteen years to estimate the load bearing capacity of piles during driving and to finalize pile depth. Starting in 2007, states were required to use a new desi...

  11. Effect of piles on the seismic response of mosques minarets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ahmed Abdel-Motaal

    2014-03-01

    Minaret (60.0-m height was studied to investigate the effects of soil stiffness, pile length, diameter, and arrangement, on the minaret and pile dynamic behavior. Comparison between study results and conventional analysis method is illustrated. Study results, discussion, and conclusion are given.

  12. Optimization of pile design for offshore wind turbine jacket foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, Kasper; Zania, Varvara

    The aim of this study is to use numerical methods of structural design optimization to design piles for offshore wind turbine jacket foundations. Pile mass is minimized with constraints on axial and lateral capacity. Results indicate that accurate knowledge about soil characteristics can translate...

  13. Theoretical study of short pile effect in tunnel excavation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiao-yan; Liu, Jing; Gao, Xiao-mei; Li, Yuan

    2017-09-01

    The Misaki Sato Go ideal elastoplastic model is adopted and the two stage analysis theory is used to study the effect of tunnel excavation on short pile effect in this paper. In the first stage, the free field vertical displacement of the soil at the corresponding pile location is obtained by using empirical formula. In the second stage, the displacement is applied to the corresponding pile location. The equilibrium condition of micro physical differential equation settlement of piles. Then through logical deduction and the boundary condition expressions of the settlement calculation, obtain the pile side friction resistance and axial force of the week. Finally, an engineering example is used to analyze the influence of the change of main parameters on their effects.

  14. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  15. Environmental Geochemistry and Acid Mine Drainage Evaluation of an Abandoned Coal Waste Pile at the Alborz-Sharghi Coal Washing Plant, NE Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jodeiri Shokri, Behshad, E-mail: b.jodeiri@hut.ac.ir [Hamedan University of Technology (HUT), Department of Mining Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz [University of Tehran, School of Mining, College of Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ramazi, Hamidreza [Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In this paper, an abandoned waste coal pile, which is resulted from Alborz-Sharghi coal washing plant, NE of Iran was mineralogically and geochemically characterized to evaluate pyrite oxidation, acid mine drainage (AMD) generation, and trace element mobility. After digging ten trenches and vertical sampling, a quantitative method including the atomic absorption test, and the quality-based methods including optical study were carried out for determination of pyrite fractions in the waste pile. The geochemical results revealed that the fraction of remaining pyrite increased with depth, indicating that pyrite oxidation is limited to the shallower depths of the pile which were confirmed by variations of sulfate, pH, EC, and carbonate with depth of the pile. To evaluate the trend of trace elements and mineralogical constituents of the waste particles, the samples were analyzed by using XRD, ICP-MS, and ICP-OES methods. The results showed the secondary and neutralizing minerals comprising gypsum have been formed below the oxidation zone. Besides, positive values of net neutralization potential indicated that AMD generation has not taken in the waste pile. In addition, variations of trace elements with depth reveal that Pb and Zn exhibited increasing trends from pile surface toward the bottom sampling trenches while another of them such as Cu and Ni had decreasing trends with increasing depth of the waste pile.

  16. Neural networks and principle component analysis approaches to predict pile capacity in sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benali A

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of pile bearing capacity from the in-situ tests has developed considerably due to the significant development of their technology. The project presented in this paper is a combination of two approaches, artificial neural networks and main component analyses that allow the development of a neural network model that provides a more accurate prediction of axial load bearing capacity based on the SPT test data. The retropropagation multi-layer perceptron with Bayesian regularization (RB was used in this model. This was established by the incorporation of about 260 data, obtained from the published literature, of experimental programs for large displacement driven piles. The PCA method is proposed for compression and suppression of the correlation between these data. This will improve the performance of generalization of the model.

  17. Analysis of Wave Fields induced by Offshore Pile Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhnau, M.; Heitmann, K.; Lippert, T.; Lippert, S.; von Estorff, O.

    2015-12-01

    Impact pile driving is the common technique to install foundations for offshore wind turbines. With each hammer strike the steel pile - often exceeding 6 m in diameter and 80 m in length - radiates energy into the surrounding water and soil, until reaching its targeted penetration depth. Several European authorities introduced limitations regarding hydroacoustic emissions during the construction process to protect marine wildlife. Satisfying these regulations made the development and application of sound mitigation systems (e.g. bubble curtains or insulation screens) inevitable, which are commonly installed within the water column surrounding the pile or even the complete construction site. Last years' advances have led to a point, where the seismic energy tunneling the sound mitigation systems through the soil and radiating back towards the water column gains importance, as it confines the maximum achievable sound mitigation. From an engineering point of view, the challenge of deciding on an effective noise mitigation layout arises, which especially requires a good understanding of the soil-dependent wave field. From a geophysical point of view, the pile acts like a very unique line source, generating a characteristic wave field dominated by inclined wave fronts, diving as well as head waves. Monitoring the seismic arrivals while the pile penetration steadily increases enables to perform quasi-vertical seismic profiling. This work is based on datasets that have been collected within the frame of three comprehensive offshore measurement campaigns during pile driving and demonstrates the potential of seismic arrivals induced by pile driving for further soil characterization.

  18. Formation of pebble-pile planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlberg Jansson, Karl; Johansen, Anders

    2014-10-01

    Asteroids and Kuiper belt objects are remnant planetesimals from the epoch of planet formation. The first stage of planet formation is the accumulation of dust and ice grains into mm- and cm-sized pebbles. These pebbles can clump together through the streaming instability and form gravitationally bound pebble clouds. Pebbles inside such a cloud will undergo mutual collisions, dissipating energy into heat. As the cloud loses energy, it gradually contracts towards solid density. We model this process and investigate two important properties of the collapse: (i) the collapse timescale and (ii) the temporal evolution of the pebble size distribution. Our numerical model of the pebble cloud is zero-dimensional and treats collisions with a statistical method. We find that planetesimals with radii larger than ~100 km collapse on the free-fall timescale of ~25 years. Lower-mass clouds have longer pebble collision timescales and collapse much more slowly, with collapse times of a few hundred years for 10 km scale planetesimals and a few thousand years for 1 km scale planetesimals. The mass of the pebble cloud also determines the interior structure of the resulting planetesimal. The pebble collision speeds in low-mass clouds are below the threshold for fragmentation, forming pebble-pile planetesimals consisting of the primordial pebbles from the protoplanetary disk. Planetesimals above 100 km in radius, on the other hand, consist of mixtures of dust (pebble fragments) and pebbles which have undergone substantial collisions with dust and other pebbles. The Rosetta mission to the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and the New Horizons mission to Pluto will provide valuable information about the structure of planetesimals in the solar system. Our model predicts that 67P is a pebble-pile planetesimal consisting of primordial pebbles from the solar nebula, while the pebbles in the cloud which contracted to form Pluto must have been ground down substantially during the collapse.

  19. Evolution of temperature and gas composition in coal piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, J.L.; Romero, C.; Andres, J.M.; Schmal, D. [CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain). Instituto de Carboquimica

    1995-12-31

    The evolution of temperature and gas composition in coal piles was followed for eleven months at three different depths using special probes. For all the piles studied the slope exposed to the wind showed the most severe weathering. The kind of coal in the piles has a strong effect on the extent of the oxidation which can reach 300{degree}C. The analysis of gas evolution showed a strong correlation between oxygen and carbon monoxide concentrations, pointing to a combined pyrolysis-combustion process. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Optimizing the use of the thermal integrity system for evaluating auger-cast piles : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Auger-cast piles (sometimes called auger-cast-in-place, or ACIP, piles) are a subset of the larger : category of deep foundation elements known as bored piles. Although similar to drilled shafts at first : glance, ACIP piles differ in the constructio...

  1. Optimizing the use of the thermal integrity system for evaluating auger-cast piles [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Auger-cast-in-place (ACIP) piles offer an efficient method of constructing and installing piles, : but because the ACIP process is essentially blind and the configuration of the final pile cannot be : assured, applications for ACIP piles have been li...

  2. Monitoring moisture content, temperature, and humidity in whole-tree pine chip piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Klepac; Dana Mitchell; Jason Thompson

    2015-01-01

    Two whole-tree chip piles were monitored for moisture content, temperature, and relative humidity from October 8th, 2010 to March 16th, 2011 at a location in south Alabama. Initial moisture content samples were collected immediately after chips were delivered to the study location on October 8th for Pile 1 and October 22nd for Pile 2. During pile construction, Lascar...

  3. Estimating volume, biomass, and potential emissions of hand-piled fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton S. Wright; Cameron S. Balog; Jeffrey W. Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Dimensions, volume, and biomass were measured for 121 hand-constructed piles composed primarily of coniferous (n = 63) and shrub/hardwood (n = 58) material at sites in Washington and California. Equations using pile dimensions, shape, and type allow users to accurately estimate the biomass of hand piles. Equations for estimating true pile volume from simple geometric...

  4. 40 CFR 761.347 - First level sampling-waste from existing piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... existing piles. 761.347 Section 761.347 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... from existing piles. (a) General. Sample piles that are either specifically configured for sampling... alternate sampling plan in accordance with § 761.62(c). (b) Specifically configured piles. A specifically...

  5. Pile mixing increases greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from stored dairy manure was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover pilot-scale manure piles. GHG emissions from piles that were mixed four times during the 80 day trial were about 20% higher than unmixed piles. ...

  6. Nanoindentation-Induced Pile-Up in the Residual Impression of Crystalline Cu with Different Grain Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangjiang Hu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoindentation morphologies of crystalline copper have been probed at the grain scale. Experimental tests have been conducted on nanocrystalline (NC, ultrafine-grained (UFG, and coarse-grained (CG copper samples with a new Berkvoich indenter at the strain rate of 0.04/s without holding time at an indentation depth of 2000 nm at room temperature. As the grain size increases, the height of the pile-up around the residual indentation increases and then exhibits a slightly decrease in the CG Cu. The maximum of the pile-up in the CG Cu obviously deviates from the center of the indenter sides. Our analysis has revealed that the dislocation motion and GB activities in the NC Cu, some cross- and multiple-slip dislocations inside the larger grain in the UFG Cu, and forest dislocations from the intragranular Frank-Read sources in the CG Cu would directly induce this distinct pile-up effect.

  7. Effect of Rigidity of Plinth Beam on Soil Interaction of Modeled Building Frame Supported on Pile Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Reddy, C.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the effect of rigidity of plinth beam on a model building frame supported by pile groups embedded in cohesionless soil (sand through the results of static vertical load tests. The effect of rigidity of plinth beam on displacements and rotation at the column base and also shears and bending moments in the building frame were investigated. In the analytical model, soil nonlinearity in the axial direction is characterized by nonlinear vertical springs along the length of the pile (t-z curves and at the tip of the pile (Q-z curves while in the lateral direction by the p-y curves. Results revealed that, shear force and bending moment values which were back calculated from the experimental results, showed considerable reduction with the reduction of the rigidity of the plinth beam. The response of the frame from the experimental results is in good agreement with that obtained by the nonlinear finite element analysis.

  8. A Simple Algorithm for Analyzing a Piled Raft by Considering Stress Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Saeedi Azizkandi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous techniques have been presented by different researchers to analyze piled raft. In order to analyze pile foundation, soil can be modeled as spring, continuous medium, or porous media. Pile can also be modeled as spring or continuous medium. This study includes three main stages: a short description of different types of analysis methods of pile foundation, writing a computer program based on the finite element method (FEM for analyzing piled raft foundation (in this program, foundation is modeled as a flexible plate, soil and pile are modeled by Winkler springs, and comparison of different concepts of pile group design.

  9. Numerical Simulation for the Soil-Pile-Structure Interaction under Seismic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Luan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Piles are widely used as reinforcement structures in geotechnical engineering designs. If the settlement of the soil is greater than the pile, the pile is pulled down by the soil, and negative friction force is produced. Previous studies have mainly focused on the interaction of pile-soil under static condition. However, many pile projects are located in earthquake-prone areas, which indicate the importance of determining the response of the pile-soil structure under seismic load. In this paper, the nonlinear, explicit, and finite difference program FLAC3D, which considers the mechanical behavior of soil-pile interaction, is used to establish an underconsolidated soil-pile mode. The response processes of the pile side friction force, the pile axial force, and the soil response under seismic load are also analyzed.

  10. Finite Element Investigations on the Interaction between a Pile and Swelling Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaufmann, Kristine Lee; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    This paper aims to investigate the interaction between a pile and a swelling soil modelled as a cohesive soil subjected to unloading. The investigations include analyses of the heave of the excavation level, shear stresses at the soil–pile interface and internal pile forces based on a case study...... of Little Belt Clay. The case study involves a circular concrete pile installed in clay immediately after an excavation. The influence of the swelling soil on the soil–pile interaction and the internal pile forces are analysed by solely observing the upper pile part positioned in the swelling zone....... For the investigated case study, the influence of the pile is observed in a radius of approximately 3 pile diameters from the pile centre creating a weak zone inside this radius. The maximum heave of the excavation level inside this radius decreases polynomially with increasing interface strength. The swelling...

  11. Numerical analysis of negative skin friction on piles in soft clay

    OpenAIRE

    El-Mossallamy, Yasser M.; Ashraf M. Hefny; Magdy A. Demerdash; Mohamed S. Morsy

    2013-01-01

    Negative skin friction is considered one of the problems in the design of piled foundations in soft soil. The negative skin friction induces an additional compressive force on the pile called the dragload as well as, an additional pile movement called the downdrag. Ignoring the effect of negative skin friction in the design of piles leads to structural, and serviceability problems. The dragload depends on various factors such as, pile characteristics (method of installation, material, and sur...

  12. Sealable joint steel sheet piling for groundwater control and remediation: Case histories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, D. [Univ. of Waterloo (Canada); Jowett, R. [Waterloo Barrier Inc., Rockwood, Ontario (Canada); Gamble, M. [C3 Environmental, Breslau, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The Waterloo Barrier{trademark} steel sheet piling (patents pending) incorporates a cavity at each interlocking joint that is flushed clean and injected with sealant after the piles have been driven into the ground to form a vertical cutoff wall. The installation and sealing procedures allow for a high degree of quality assurance and control. Bulk wall hydraulic conductivities of 10{sup -8} to 10{sup -10} cm/sec have been demonstrated at field installations. Recent case histories are presented in which Waterloo Barrier{trademark} cutoff walls are used to prevent off-site migration of contaminated groundwater or soil gases to adjacent property and waterways. Full enclosures to isolate DNAPL source zones or portions of contaminated aquifers for pilot-scale remediation testing will also be described. Monitoring data will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the Waterloo Barrier{trademark} in these applications.

  13. Comparison of Structural Behaviour of Laterally Loaded Pile using Pi Terms and Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, P. E.; Beena, K. S.; Narayanan, K. P.

    2017-08-01

    A set of dimensionless parameters called Pi terms are derived from a set of variables influencing the behaviour of a structural system to represent the behaviour of the system using the principle of similitude. It can be done using Buckingham’s π-theorem or using Rayleigh method. Both the methods derive a set of pi terms which can be used to predict the behaviour of the system under consideration. A structural system of a laterally loaded pile was tested innumerical software, PLAXIS-3D and the results are compared with the predictions using the pi terms. The results are found to be comparable and hence the derived pi terms and the scale factor can be considered represent the laterally loaded pile soil system with a reasonable accuracy.

  14. 20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders

    This document is the second of four notes concerning the effects of time (in this case ageing) on the vertical capacity of piles. It includes a critical review of the relevant publications described in note a....

  15. The Influence of Time on Bearing Capacity of Driven Piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J. Lysebjerg; Augustesen, A.; Sørensen, Carsten S.

    2004-01-01

    In Danish engineering practice, one of the ways to determine the ultimate bearing capacity of an axially loaded pile is by means of geostatic formulas. In the equation describing the contribution from the shaft friction to the total bearing capacity for piles located entirely or partly in clay......, a regeneration factor appears. The regeneration factor accounts for effects of dissipation of pore pressure due to pile driving and true time effects such as ageing on the ultimate bearing capacity. Normally the factor is 0.4 but in this paper, the influence of the undrained shear strength and time...... on the regeneration factor is investigated. A relation between the quantities is proposed, which in the end may imply an economical benefit in the design of pile foundations....

  16. Airborne thermography of temperature patterns in sugar beet piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D. G.; Bichsel, S.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to evaluate the use of thermography for locating spoilage areas (chimneys) within storage piles and to subsequently use the information for the scheduling of their processing. Thermal-infrared quantitative scanner data were acquired initially on January 16, 1975, over the storage piles at Moorhead, Minnesota, both during the day and predawn. Photographic data were acquired during the day mission to evaluate the effect of uneven snow cover on the thermal emittance, and the predawn thermography was used to locate potential chimneys. The piles were examined the day prior for indications of spoilage areas, and the ground crew indicated that no spoilage areas were located using their existing methods. Nine spoilage areas were interpreted from the thermography. The piles were rechecked by ground methods three days following the flights. Six of the nine areas delineated by thermography were actual spoilage areas.

  17. Maintenance and design of steel abutment piles in Iowa bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Soil consolidation and erosion caused by roadway runoff have exposed the upper portions of steel piles at the abutments of : numerous bridges, leaving them susceptible to accelerated corrosion rates due to the abundance of moisture, oxygen, and : chl...

  18. Performance assessment of deteriorated and retrofitted steel HP piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Steel piles are known to deteriorate at high rates in Nebraska, partially as a result of exposure to weathering, and partially due to corrosive soils. The Nebraska Department of Roads (NDOR) employs a reinforced concrete jacket to slow the progressio...

  19. Repair systems for deteriorated bridge piles : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop a durable repair system for deteriorated steel bridge piles that : can be implemented without the need for dewatering. A rigorous survey of the relevant practice nationwide was : conducted to infor...

  20. Computerised analysis of sulphate action on model concrete piles

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukh, A.M.; Balasubramanian, S.; Venugopal, C.

    the influence of magnesium sulphate on model reinforced concrete piles. The sulphate action on the corrosion rate of rebar in concrete has been distinctly studied through sophisticated computerised potentiodynamic technique. The corrosion of rebar has been...

  1. Update LADOTD policy on pile driving vibration management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    The main objective of this project was to update the current Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (LADOTD) policy on pile driving vibration risk management with a focus on how to determine an appropriate vibration monitoring area. T...

  2. Update LADOTD policy on pile driving vibration management : tech summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Piles have often been used to transfer heavy loads to stronger soil strata or temporarily retain earth or water in highway and bridge : construction. The Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (LADOTD) spends millions of dollars annua...

  3. Minimizing the effects of pile driving vibrations : research spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Engineers must take care that the vibrations from pile driving : operations during bridge construction do not damage underground : utilities or cause settlement in the foundations of nearby structures. : In this project, researchers developed a simpl...

  4. Piles, tabs and overlaps in navigation among documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mikkel Rønne; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    Navigation among documents is a frequent, but ill supported activity. Overlapping or tabbed documents are widespread, but they offer limited visibility of their content. We explore variations on navigation support: arranging documents with tabs, as overlapping windows, and in piles. In an experim......Navigation among documents is a frequent, but ill supported activity. Overlapping or tabbed documents are widespread, but they offer limited visibility of their content. We explore variations on navigation support: arranging documents with tabs, as overlapping windows, and in piles....... In an experiment we compared 11 participants’ navigation with these variations and found strong task effects. Overall, overlapping windows were preferred and their structured layout worked well with some tasks. Surprisingly, tabbed documents were efficient in tasks requiring simply finding a document. Piled...... on document navigation and its support by piling....

  5. Hydroacoustic pile driving noise study - comprehensive report : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-28

    Alaska DOT&PF and JASCO Applied Sciences partnered to characterize underwater noise from pile driving activities to inform the assessment of the potential impact of such noise on marine mammals. JASCO measured underwater sounds at the Kake, Auke Bay,...

  6. Dynamic passive pressure on abutments and pile caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the lateral load response of a full-scale pile cap with nine different backfill conditions, more specifically being: 1) no backfill present (baseline response), 2) densely compacted clean sand, 3) loosely compacted clean sand,...

  7. An investigation of underwater sound propagation from pile driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The underwater noise from impact pile driving was studied by using a finite element model for the sound generation and a parabolic equation model for propagation. Results were compared with measurements taken with a vertical line array deployed durin...

  8. Influence of cantilevered sheet pile deflection on adjacent roadways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Cantilevered sheet pile walls are often used adjacent roadways as temporary support during construction. Excess movement of these walls has led to excessive roadway distress causing additional repairs to be necessary. This study assessed the effects ...

  9. Assessment of Soil Arching Factor for Retaining Wall Pile Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Despite the prevalence of the soldier piles retaining wall systems as temporary and even permanent shoring systems along state highways, relatively little is known on the effect of the foreslope bench width and the slope inclination on the arching ca...

  10. Processing Satellite Imagery To Detect Waste Tire Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Joseph; Schmidt, Cynthia; Wuinlan, Becky; Huybrechts, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    A methodology for processing commercially available satellite spectral imagery has been developed to enable identification and mapping of waste tire piles in California. The California Integrated Waste Management Board initiated the project and provided funding for the method s development. The methodology includes the use of a combination of previously commercially available image-processing and georeferencing software used to develop a model that specifically distinguishes between tire piles and other objects. The methodology reduces the time that must be spent to initially survey a region for tire sites, thereby increasing inspectors and managers time available for remediation of the sites. Remediation is needed because millions of used tires are discarded every year, waste tire piles pose fire hazards, and mosquitoes often breed in water trapped in tires. It should be possible to adapt the methodology to regions outside California by modifying some of the algorithms implemented in the software to account for geographic differences in spectral characteristics associated with terrain and climate. The task of identifying tire piles in satellite imagery is uniquely challenging because of their low reflectance levels: Tires tend to be spectrally confused with shadows and deep water, both of which reflect little light to satellite-borne imaging systems. In this methodology, the challenge is met, in part, by use of software that implements the Tire Identification from Reflectance (TIRe) model. The development of the TIRe model included incorporation of lessons learned in previous research on the detection and mapping of tire piles by use of manual/ visual and/or computational analysis of aerial and satellite imagery. The TIRe model is a computational model for identifying tire piles and discriminating between tire piles and other objects. The input to the TIRe model is the georeferenced but otherwise raw satellite spectral images of a geographic region to be surveyed

  11. The stiffness change and the increase in the ultimate capacity for a stiff pile resulting from a cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lada, Aleksandra; Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nicolai, Giulio

    In the paper the experimental results of small-scale tests on a stiff monopile are presented to outline the change in stiffness during the cyclic loading and the change in the ultimate pile capacity. The results confirm the increase of stiffness and the increase in bearing capacity resulting from...

  12. THE NEW STRUCTURE OF A PLATE-PILE FOUNDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAMORODOV О. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. In the construction of high-rise buildings with significant loads on foundations and bedding at the base of not rocky soils tend to use the most common pile foundation to reduce the deformation and correspond to regulations [1] on the maximum permissible deformation. Monitoring of the stress-strain state (SSS pile foundations constructed buildings shows the existing reserves of bearing capacity on the one hand - soil bases of the second group of limit states, on the other - the foundation of the first group of limit states by regulating the SSS foundation during construction and exploitation. Therefore, are increasingly using more progressive structure of foundations consisting of piles and of plate, as well as methods for their construction [2 - 10], however, in their design there are a number of disadvantages associated with the ambiguity of the application of methods for the calculation of such structures, which allows to do only partial conclusions and recommendations. Purpose. Is proposing the new structure of a plate-pile foundation, which overcomes the drawbacks of the existing design solutions and methods of consruction their, as well as is proposing an engineering method of a determination of basic parameters. Conclusion. Is proposes the new structure of a plate-pile foundation and the method of a determination of basic parameters his in the design of a soil base to the maximum permissible deformation Su buildings. Efficiency of application this type plate-pile foundation obtained by rational distribution resistance between a plate and piles, when under load from the building to the first work fully incorporated plate that allows maximum deformed for plate, and then the piles - due to of the hinge connection with the plate. Thus, depending on the maximum permissible deformation for buildings resistance of plate part of a full load of more than 50%, that significantly reduces the consumption of concrete.

  13. Excavating the slush pile at McClelland & Stewart

    OpenAIRE

    White, Trena

    2005-01-01

    Every book publisher in Canada receives unsolicited submissions from writers hoping to be published but who lack an agent or a connection within the house. These submissions are often referred to as the "slush pile." About fifteen years ago, before literary agents rose to such importance in Canadian book publishing, the quality of unsolicited submissions was much higher. In an agented environment, when firms rarely acquire from the slush pile, the quality of slushpile submissions has diminish...

  14. Review of the literature on leachates from coal storage piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, E.C.; Boegly, W.J. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Runoff from coal storage piles associated with coal conversion or combustion facilities may represent a potential source of environmental pollution. This report is an assessment of existing information on coal pile leachate. The assessment indicates that few detailed studies have been conducted to date, and these are limited and the results are highly variable. More detailed long-range studies using various types of coal are recommended. These studies should be carried out both in the laboratory and in field-scale experiments.

  15. Pile Structure Program, Projected Start Date : January 1, 2010 (Implementation).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Chris; Corbett, Catherine [Lower Columbia River Estuary Partnership; Ebberts, Blaine [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    2009-07-27

    The 2008 Federal Columbia River Power System Biological Opinion includes Reasonable and Prudent Alternative 38-Piling and Piling Dike Removal Program. This RPA directs the Action Agencies to work with the Estuary Partnership to develop and implement a piling and pile dike removal program. The program has since evolved to include modifying pile structures to enhance their habitat value and complexity by adding large woody debris. The geographic extent of the Pile Structure Program (PSP) includes all tidally-influenced portions of the lower Columbia River below Bonneville Dam; however, it will focus on the mainstem. The overarching goal of the PSP is to enhance and restore ecosystem structure and function for the recovery of federally listed salmonids through the active management of pile structures. To attain this goal, the program team developed the following objectives: (1) Develop a plan to remove or modify pile structures that have lower value to navigation channel maintenance, and in which removal or modification will present low-risk to adjacent land use, is cost-effective, and would result in increased ecosystem function. (2) Determine program benefits for juvenile salmonids and the ecosystem through a series of intensively monitored pilot projects. (3) Incorporate best available science and pilot project results into an adaptive management framework that will guide future management by prioritizing projects with the highest benefits. The PSP's hypotheses, which form the basis of the pilot project experiments, are organized into five categories: Sediment and Habitat-forming Processes, Habitat Conditions and Food Web, Piscivorous Fish, Piscivorous Birds, and Toxic Contaminant Reduction. These hypotheses are based on the effects listed in the Estuary Module (NOAA Fisheries in press) and others that emerged during literature reviews, discussions with scientists, and field visits. Using pilot project findings, future implementation will be adaptively managed

  16. Golden Herbs used in Piles Treatment: A Concise Report

    OpenAIRE

    Rajani Chauhan; Km. Ruby; Jaya Dwivedi

    2012-01-01

    Herbal medicine is also called phytomedicine. It is refers to using a plant's seeds, berries, roots, leaves, bark, or flowers for disease treatment.Herbs have many golden phytochemicals or secondary metabolites to treat disease. They have a long tradition of use outside of conventional medicine. Hemorrhoids or Piles treatment through Herbs has been effective and a golden treatment without any side-effects. There are some herbs which is useful in piles treatment such as Aesculus hippocastanum,...

  17. Investigation of pile setup (freeze) in Alabama : development of a setup prediction method and implementation into LRFD driven pile design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The Alabama Department of Transportation (ALDOT) often uses deep foundations : consisting of driven piles, particularly in the southern half of the state, to support bridges or other : highway structures. In the fiscal year 2012, a total of 22 bridge...

  18. The Supercritical Pile Model for GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Demos

    2006-01-01

    We present the spectral and temporal radiative signatures expected within the Supercritical Pile model of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB). This model is motivated by the need for a process that provides the dissipation necessary in GRB and presents a well defined scheme for converting the energy stored in the relativistic protons of the Relativistic Blast Waves (RBW) associated with GRB into radiation; at the same time it leads to spectra which exhibit a peak in the burst nuF(sub nu) distribution at an energy E(sub p) approximately equal to 1 MeV in the observer s frame, in agreement with observation and largely independent of the Lorentz factor GAMMA of the associated relativistic outflow. Furthermore, this scheme does not require (but does not preclude) acceleration of particles at the shock other than that provided by the isotropization of the flow bulk kinetic energy on the RBW frame. In the present paper we model in detail the evolution of protons, electrons and photons from a RBW to produce detailed spectra of the prompt GRB phase as a function of time from across a very broad range spanning roughly 4 log10 GAMMA decades in frequency. The model spectra are in general agreement with observations and provide a means for the delineating of the model parameters through direct comparison with trends observed in GRB properties.

  19. Preliminary report on coal pile, coal pile runoff basins, and ash basins at the Savannah River Site: effects on groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, E. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-04-28

    Coal storage piles, their associated coal pile runoff basins and ash basins could potentially have adverse environmental impacts, especially on groundwater. This report presents and summarizes SRS groundwater and soil data that have been compiled. Also, a result of research conducted on the subject topics, discussions from noted experts in the field are cited. Recommendations are made for additional monitor wells to be installed and site assessments to be conducted.

  20. PileLine: a toolbox to handle genome position information in next-generation sequencing studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fdez-Riverola Florentino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genomic position (GP files currently used in next-generation sequencing (NGS studies are always difficult to manipulate due to their huge size and the lack of appropriate tools to properly manage them. The structure of these flat files is based on representing one line per position that has been covered by at least one aligned read, imposing significant restrictions from a computational performance perspective. Results PileLine implements a flexible command-line toolkit providing specific support to the management, filtering, comparison and annotation of GP files produced by NGS experiments. PileLine tools are coded in Java and run on both UNIX (Linux, Mac OS and Windows platforms. The set of tools comprising PileLine are designed to be memory efficient by performing fast seek on-disk operations over sorted GP files. Conclusions Our novel toolbox has been extensively tested taking into consideration performance issues. It is publicly available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/pilelinetools under the GNU LGPL license. Full documentation including common use cases and guided analysis workflows is available at http://sing.ei.uvigo.es/pileline.

  1. Numerical simulation on the seismic absorption effect of the cushion in rigid-pile composite foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaolei; Li, Yaokun; Ji, Jing; Ying, Junhao; Li, Weichen; Dai, Baicheng

    2016-06-01

    In order to quantitatively study the seismic absorption effect of the cushion on a superstructure, a numerical simulation and parametric study are carried out on the overall FEA model of a rigid-pile composite foundation in ABAQUS. A simulation of a shaking table test on a rigid mass block is first completed with ABAQUS and EERA, and the effectiveness of the Drucker-Prager constitutive model and the finite-infinite element coupling method is proved. Dynamic time-history analysis of the overall model under frequent and rare earthquakes is carried out using seismic waves from the El Centro, Kobe, and Bonds earthquakes. The different responses of rigid-pile composite foundations and pile-raft foundations are discussed. Furthermore, the influence of thickness and modulus of cushion, and ground acceleration on the seismic absorption effect of the cushion are analyzed. The results show that: 1) the seismic absorption effect of a cushion is good under rare earthquakes, with an absorption ratio of about 0.85; and 2) the seismic absorption effect is strongly affected by cushion thickness and ground acceleration.

  2. INTERACTION OF A LONG SINGLE PILE THAT HAS A DOUBLE-LAYER BASE WITH ACCOUNT FOR COMPRESSIBILITY OF THE PILE SHAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor'evich

    2012-07-01

    The authors provide their solution to the problem of interaction of a long compressible pile that has a double-layer linear deformable base. The paper demonstrates that taking account of compressible properties of the pile material leads to qualitatively new distribution of shearing stresses over the surface of a cylindrical pile. It is noteworthy that increase of the pile length and stiffness of the upper section of the base raise the share of the load perceived by the surface of the pile. Besides, in particular conditions of the soil environment, the load perceived by the lower section of the base may reach approximately 20-30 % of the total load.

  3. FIELD INVESTIGATIONS OF PILED-RAFT FOUNDATIONS WITH SHORT-LENGTH CONIC PILES IN BUILDING AREAS OF MINSK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sernov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent time piled foundations are extensively applied due to an increase of storeys in buildings constructed in Minsk and load increment on the soil. Preference is given to this approach even in the case when relatively firm soil occurs in the top part of the foundation bed. In this case maximum usage of the foundation bed bearing capacity and reduction of foundation cost are considered as top-priority tasks for designers. One of the ways to increase the bearing capacity of piled foundations is the necessity to take into account resistance of foundation bed soil located under raft bottom. The raft as well as a shallow foundation is capable to transfer a significant part of building load into the soil. Such approach makes it possible to reduce a number of piles in the foundation or shorten their length. Then it results in shortening of the construction period and significant reduction in zero cycle. However up to the present moment reliable calculation methods that permit to take into account soil resistance in the raft base. An analysis of previous investigations on the matter executed by various researchers and a number of field investigations have been carried out with the purpose to develop the proposed methods.The paper presents results of field investigations on foundations consisting of short stamped tapered piles which are joined together with the help of the raft fragment. Strength and deformation characteristics of the bases are increasing while making such foundations in the fill-up soil. In this case the filled-up ground layer becomes a bearing layer both for piles and rafts as well. Improvement of high-plastic clay-bearing soil properties is ensured by ramming dry concrete mix under pile foot. The paper describes an experience on application of the piled-raft foundation in complicated engineering and geological conditions while constructing the Orthodox Church in Minsk.

  4. Behaviour of Load-Bearing Components of a Cushioned Composite Piled Raft Foundation Under Axial Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma V. J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade piled raft foundations have been widely used around the world as intermediate foundation systems between piles and rafts to control the settlement of foundations. However, when those piles are structurally connected to rafts, relatively high axial stresses develop in relatively small numbers of piles, which are often designed to fully mobilize their geotechnical capacities. To avoid a concentration of stress at the head of piles in a traditional piled raft foundation, the raft is disconnected from the piles, and a cushion is introduced between them. Also, to tackle an unfavourable soil profile for a piled raft foundation, the conventional piled raft has been modified into a cushioned composite piled raft foundation, where piles of different materials are used. In the current study the behavior of cushioned foundation components, which transfer the load from the structure to the subsoil, are analyzed in detail, i.e., the thickness of the raft, the length of a long pile and the modulus of a flexible pile.

  5. Ground Vibration Isolation of Multiple Scattering by Using Rows of Tubular Piles as Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-miao Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A new formal solution for the multiple scattering of plane harmonic waves by a group of arbitrary configuration tubular piles in an elastic total space is derived. Each order of scattering satisfies prescribed boundary conditions at the interface of tubular piles, which is delivered as the sum of incident and scattering waves. The first order performs the scattering wave by each scattered pile and the subsequent orders resulted from the excitation of each pile of first order of scattering from the remaining tubular piles. Advanced scattering orders can be regarded as the same manners. Several series of scattering coefficients are figured out with the aids of addition theorem so that the exact steady-state solution for the scattered displacement and stress is obtained. Particularly, when internal diameter of tubular piles tends to be infinitely small, it degenerates to a solid pile problem. By imposing the normalized displacement amplitudes and transmissibility indices, the influences of specific parameters such as scattering orders, internal and external diameter ratio of piles, pile material rigidity, position and distances between tubular pile and pile rows, and pile numbers are discussed. Certain recommended conclusions have been drawn as the guidelines of practical engineering design for discontinuous barrier of tubular piles.

  6. Picture Pile: A citizen-powered tool for rapid post-disaster damage assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylo, Olha; Sturn, Tobias; Giovando, Cristiano; Moorthy, Inian; Fritz, Steffen; See, Linda; Kapur, Ravi; Girardot, Blake; Ajmar, Andrea; Giulio Tonolo, Fabio; Reinicke, Tobias; Mathieu, Pierre Philippe; Duerauer, Martina

    2017-04-01

    According to the World Bank's global risk analysis, around 34% of the total world's population lives in areas of high mortality risk from two or more natural hazards. Therefore, timely and innovative methods to rapidly assess damage to subsequently aid relief and recovery efforts are critical. In this field of post-disaster damage assessment, several crowdsourcing-based technological tools that engage citizens in carrying out various tasks, including data collection, satellite image analysis and online interactive mapping, have recently been developed. One such tool is Picture Pile, a cross-platform application that is designed as a generic and flexible tool for ingesting satellite imagery for rapid classification. As part of the ESA's Crowd4Sat initiative led by Imperative Space, this study develops a workflow for employing Picture Pile for rapid post-disaster damage assessment. We outline how satellite image interpretation tasks within Picture Pile can be crowdsourced using the example of Hurricane Matthew, which affected large regions of Haiti in September 2016. The application provides simple microtasks, where the user is presented with satellite images and is asked a simple yes/no question. A "before" disaster satellite image is displayed next to an "after" disaster image and the user is asked to assess whether there is any visible, detectable damage. The question is formulated precisely to focus the user's attention on a particular aspect of the damage. The user-interface of Picture Pile is also built for users to rapidly classify the images by swiping to indicate their answer, thereby efficiently completing the microstask. The proposed approach will not only help to increase citizen awareness of natural disasters, but also provide them with a unique opportunity to contribute directly to relief efforts. Furthermore, to gain confidence in the crowdsourced results, quality assurance methods were integrated during the testing phase of the application using image

  7. Clinical efficacy of Jalaukawacharana (leech application) in Thrombosed piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Pradnya J; Raut, Subhash Y; Lakhapati, Arun M

    2012-04-01

    'Arsha' (hemorrhoids) is an ailment that affects all economical groups of population. Though the disease is within the limits of management, it has its own complications like severe hemorrhage, inflammation, and thrombosis, by which a patient gets severe pain and is unable to continue his routine work. Prior to surgical treatment of hemorrhoids, associated conditions like inflammation, strangulation, thrombosis, etc. need to be managed. Thrombosed piles possibly occur due to high venous pressure associated with severe anal pain. Leech (Hirudina medicanalis) application is found to be effective in reducing pain. In thrombosed piles, leech application has shown thrombolytic action, which contributes in re-establishment of circulation. It is observed in the study that, pus and mucous discharge have been reduced after leech application; which may be due to antimicrobial and mucolytic properties of leech. This method of treatment is found to be effective and increase the quality of life in patients suffering with thrombosed piles.

  8. ESTIMATION OF AGING EFFECTS OF PILES IN MALAYSIAN OFFSHORE LOCATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JERIN M. GEORGE

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An increasing demand for extending life and subsequently higher loading requirements of offshore jacket platforms are among the key problems faced by the offshore industry. The Aging effect has been proved to increase the axial capacity of piles, but proper methods to estimate and quantify these effects have not been developed. Borehole data from ten different Malaysian offshore locations have been analysed and they were employed to estimate the setup factor for different locations using AAU method. The setup factors found were used in the Skov and Denver equation to calculate capacity ratios of the offshore piles. The study showed that there will be an average improvement in the axial capacity of offshore piles by 42.2% and 34.9% for clayey and mixed soils respectively after a time equal to the normal design life (25 years of a jacket platform.

  9. Dynamic Soil-Pile Interaction for large diameter monopile foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zania, Varvara

    2013-01-01

    so far driven by their dynamic performance. The excitation frequencies are imposed by the rotation of the rotor, hence they are lumped close to the rotation frequency of the rotor (1P) and the lower blade multiples (2P, 3P). The prevailing design concepts originate from an ‘avoidance of resonance...... of the study is to analyse the dynamic interaction of the soil and a single pile embedded in it by accounting for the geometric and stiffness properties of the pile. In doing so, a semi – analytical approach is adopted based on the fundamental solution of horizontal pile vibration by Novak and Nogami (1977......). The dynamic impedance functions of the monopile foundation are obtained for varying soil conditions and it is shown that the first eigenfrequency of the soil layer controls the reduction of the stiffness and the increase of the radiation damping induced by the vibration of the monopile. Higher...

  10. Design of Jetty Piles Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjei Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the complication of jetty pile design process, artificial neural networks (ANN are adopted. To generate the training samples for training ANN, finite element (FE analysis was performed 50 times for 50 different design cases. The trained ANN was verified with another FE analysis case and then used as a structural analyzer. The multilayer neural network (MBPNN with two hidden layers was used for ANN. The framework of MBPNN was defined as the input with the lateral forces on the jetty structure and the type of piles and the output with the stress ratio of the piles. The results from the MBPNN agree well with those from FE analysis. Particularly for more complex modes with hundreds of different design cases, the MBPNN would possibly substitute parametric studies with FE analysis saving design time and cost.

  11. Improved Design Basis for Laterally Loaded Large Diameter Pile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Caspar Thrane

    with a capacity of 3.6 MW and placed at water depths beyond 25 m. Different foundation solutions have over the years been applied for offshore turbines, but monopiles are currently the most applied foundation type and are typically with a pile diameter of 4-6 m and applied up to a water depth of 25 m...... on the structure and the productivity of the turbine. Current design practice for monopiles are based on p-y curves developed for slender piles with a diameter of 0.6 m. The focus on the structure stiffness has entailed a significant research on the soil-structure interaction for large diameter monopiles....... Comparison of the different approaches shows some discrepancy and conflicting statements, but the main findings can be summarized as: • The standard p-y curves are inadequate to describe the behaviour of lateral loaded large diameter rigid piles. • Initial stiffness of the p-y curves is depended...

  12. Cumulative Damage in Strength-Dominated Collisions of Rocky Asteroids: Rubble Piles and Brick Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housen, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Laboratory impact experiments were performed to investigate the conditions that produce large-scale damage in rock targets. Aluminum cylinders (6.3 mm diameter) impacted basalt cylinders (69 mm diameter) at speeds ranging from 0.7 to 2.0 km/s. Diagnostics included measurements of the largest fragment mass, velocities of the largest remnant and large fragments ejected from the periphery of the target, and X-ray computed tomography imaging to inspect some of the impacted targets for internal damage. Significant damage to the target occurred when the kinetic energy per unit target mass exceeded roughly 1/4 of the energy required for catastrophic shattering (where the target is reduced to one-half its original mass). Scaling laws based on a rate-dependent strength were developed that provide a basis for extrapolating the results to larger strength-dominated collisions. The threshold specific energy for widespread damage was found to scale with event size in the same manner as that for catastrophic shattering. Therefore, the factor of four difference between the two thresholds observed in the lab also applies to larger collisions. The scaling laws showed that for a sequence of collisions that are similar in that they produce the same ratio of largest fragment mass to original target mass, the fragment velocities decrease with increasing event size. As a result, rocky asteroids a couple hundred meters in diameter should retain their large ejecta fragments in a jumbled rubble-pile state. For somewhat larger bodies, the ejection velocities are sufficiently low that large fragments are essentially retained in place, possibly forming ordered "brick-pile" structures.

  13. Investigation of carbon fiber composite cables (CFCC) in prestressed concrete piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) commonly uses prestressed concrete piles in : bridge foundations. These piles are prestressed with steel strands that, when installed in aggressive or : marine environments, are subject to corrosion and...

  14. Assessment and evaluation of timber piles used in Nebraska for retrofit and rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The cost of an effective retrofitting and rehabilitation of timber piles is less than cost of replacing the piles. However, some of the retrofit options used in Nebraska failed to result in the expected performance levels. Further, design and detaili...

  15. Production and marketing of wood piling and poles in the Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myron D. Ostrander

    1953-01-01

    Since the earliest colonial settlements along the northeastern seaboard, wood piling has been used for wharves and piers and other waterfront structures. As waterside industries and waterborne commerce grew, the demand for wood piling grew.

  16. Stress Analysis of CFG Pile Composite Foundation in Consolidating Saturated Mine Tailings Dam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jinxing Lai; Houquan Liu; Junling Qiu; Haobo Fan; Qian Zhang; Zhinan Hu; Junbao Wang

    2016-01-01

    ...) models in three dimensions validated through comparison with experimental results were used to discuss the pile-soil stress distribution and pile-soil stress ratio of the CFG composite foundation...

  17. Load and resistance factor design of bridge foundations accounting for pile group-soil interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Pile group foundations are used in most foundation solutions for transportation structures. Rigorous and reliable pile design methods are : required to produce designs whose level of safety (probability of failure) is known. By utilizing recently dev...

  18. Underwater acoustic noise generation and propagation resulting from pile driving for Oregon bridge construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    There is growing concern about noise levels from pile driving activities associated with the : construction of highway bridges and other in-water structures. It has been demonstrated that noise : generated from pile driving with an impact hammer can ...

  19. Behavior of Pile to Bent Cap Connections Subjected to Seismic Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Currently the South Carolina Department of Transportation employs a detail of a plain pile embedment for the : connection between precast prestressed piles and cast-in-place bent caps. This connection has proved beneficial in terms : of time and cost...

  20. The response of pile-guided floats subjected to dynamic loading : volume II annex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Pile-Guided floats can be a desirable alternative to stationary berthing structures. Both floats and guide piles are subjected to dynamic : forces such as wind generated waves and impacts from vessels. This project developed a rational basis for esti...

  1. The response of pile-guided floats subjected to dynamic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Pile-Guided floats can be a desirable alternative to stationary berthing structures. Both floats and guide piles are subjected to dynamic : forces such as wind generated waves and impacts from vessels. This project developed a rational basis for esti...

  2. Numerical Study on Dynamic Response of Pile Group Foundation of Geotechnical Centrifuge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Quansheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on National Engineering Laboratory for Harbor Engineering Structure-Geotechnical Centrifuge Laboratory construction project, the dynamical response of piles foundation under horizontal-rocking vibration was analyzed by using finite element software Abaqus, and the displacement and stress characteristics of piles were discussed with soil between the piles reinforced by high pressure jet piles. The result indicates that in the operation of the centrifuge, foundation changes of vertical load of center pile are very small; the vertical displacement of the pile head is increasing, the vertical displacement of the pile head is no longer changed until the vibration time reaches 3 times period,; the horizontal load of piles varies with sinusoidal, the horizontal displacement amplitude is increasing, , and the vibration amplitude reaches to fixed value at 2 times vibration period.

  3. Thermal response testing of precast pile heat exchangers: fieldwork report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberdi Pagola, Maria; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    Centrum Pæle A/S, Aalborg University, VIA University College and INSERO Horsens are partners in the industrial PhD project: “Experimental and numerical characterisation of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of quadratic cross section energy piles”. This document aims to present the fieldwork...

  4. Thermal response testing of precast pile heat exchangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagola, Maria Alberdi; Poulsen, Søren Erbs; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    Centrum Pæle A/S, Aalborg University, VIA University College and INSERO Horsens are partners in the industrial PhD project: “Experimental and numerical characterisation of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of quadratic cross section energy piles”. This document aims to present the fieldwork...

  5. Study on aging of single pile in soft soil foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tiejun; Cao, Haiying

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, the single pile under load is analyzed by using the Biot consolidation equation and the modified method of the coupling of the Komala - Huang model. The consolidation of soil is simulated by Biot consolidation theory, and the whole process of the deformation of single pile is presented in the paper by means of the modified Komala - Huang model. Some useful conclusions are obtained by analyzing the variation of the pore pressure and the settlement of the soil under the action of load.

  6. Constituent-level pile-up mitigation techniques in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Pile-up of simultaneous proton-proton collisions at the LHC has a significant impact on jet reconstruction. In this note the performance of several pile-up mitigation techniques is evaluated in detailed simulations of the ATLAS experiment. Four algorithms that act on the jet-constituent level are evaluated: SoftKiller, the cluster vertex fraction algorithm and Voronoi and constituent subtraction. We find that application of these constituent-level algorithms improves the resolution of low-transverse-momentum jets. The improvement is significant for collisions with 80-200 simultaneous proton-proton collisions envisaged in future runs of the LHC.

  7. Mathematical Model and Analysis of Negative Skin Friction of Pile Group in Consolidating Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Gangqiang Kong; Hanlong Liu; Qing Yang; Robert Y. Liang; Hang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    In order to calculate negative skin friction (NSF) of pile group embedded in a consolidating soil, the dragload calculating formulas of single pile were established by considering Davis one-dimensional nonlinear consolidation soils settlement and hyperbolic load-transfer of pile-soil interface. Based on effective influence area theory, a simple semiempirical mathematical model of analysis for predicting the group effect of pile group under dragload was described. The accuracy and reliability ...

  8. Development of Neutral Plane on a Pile in a Consolidating Ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tek Kei; Yan, W. M.

    2010-05-01

    When a pile is installed in a layer of soft and compressible soil, the pile would be subjected to skin friction as the consequence of the relative settlements between the soil and the pile. Negative skin friction (NSF) is mobilized when soil settles more than the pile while positive skin friction (PSF) occurs vice versa. The location where NSF changes to PSF is called the neutral plane which is also the position where the relative movement is zero. This paper presents the results of a series of axis-symmetric coupled-consolidation finite element modeling of a wish-in-place pile embedded in a consolidating ground. Geometric non-linearity technique is adopted and the pile-soil interface is assumed to follow a bi-linear Coulomb type frictional behavior. Attempts have been made to study the effects of the soil's compressibility, pile head loading and pile end-bearing type on the development of skin friction and neutral plane with time. It is found that NSF is fully mobilized near the ground surface. In the case of floating piles, the neutral plane locates at about 65% of the pile embedment length in long term regardless the soil's compressibility. The plane moves upward when a pile head loading is applied. The amount of dragload can be substantial compared to the pile head loading. 90% of the neutral plane's final position is reached when only 50% average degree of consolidation is complete, regardless the soil's compressibility and the magnitude of pile head load. For fixed-end piles, neutral plane always locates at the pile toe in long term. However, the position is not reached instantly when surcharge is placed in the case of loaded piles.

  9. Analytical Method Used to Calculate Pile Foundations with the Widening Up on a Horizontal Static Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchikova, N. V.; Kurbatskiy, E. N.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the analytical research solutions for the work pile foundations with surface broadening and inclined side faces in the ground array, based on the properties of Fourier transform of finite functions. The comparative analysis of the calculation results using the suggested method for prismatic piles, piles with surface broadening prismatic with precast piles and end walls with precast wedges on the surface is described.

  10. Free vibration of semi-rigid connected Reddy–Bickford piles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The literature on free vibration analysis of Bernoulli–Euler and timoshenko piles embedded in elastic soil is plenty, but that of Reddy–Bickford piles partially embedded in elastic soil with/without axial force effect is fewer. The soil that the pile partially embedded in is idealized by Winkler model and is assumed to be ...

  11. 40 CFR 411.30 - Applicability; description of the materials storage piles runoff subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... materials storage piles runoff subcategory. 411.30 Section 411.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Materials Storage Piles Runoff Subcategory § 411.30 Applicability; description of the materials storage piles runoff subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  12. Nondestructive methods of evaluating quality of wood in preservative-treated piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping. Wang; Robert J. Ross; John R. Erickson; John W. Forsman; Gary D. McGinnis; Rodney C. De Groot

    2000-01-01

    Stress-wave-based nondestructive evaluation methods were used to evaluate the potential quality and modulus of elasticity (MOE) of wood in used preservative-treated Douglas-fir and southern pine piles. Stress wave measurements were conducted on each pile section. Stress wave propagation speeds in the piles were then obtained to estimate their MOE. This was followed by...

  13. 40 CFR 270.18 - Specific part B information requirements for waste piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for waste piles. 270.18 Section 270.18 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Permit Application § 270.18 Specific part B information requirements for waste piles. Except as otherwise provided in § 264.1, owners and operators of facilities that store or treat hazardous waste in waste piles...

  14. 30 CFR 57.16002 - Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles... NONMETAL MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 57.16002 Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles. (a) Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles, where loose unconsolidated materials are stored, handled...

  15. 30 CFR 56.16002 - Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles... MINES Materials Storage and Handling § 56.16002 Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles. (a) Bins, hoppers, silos, tanks, and surge piles, where loose unconsolidated materials are stored, handled or...

  16. Free vibration of semi-rigid connected Reddy–Bickford piles ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    MS received 14 February 2008; revised 28 April 2008. Abstract. The literature on free vibration analysis of Bernoulli–Euler and Tim- oshenko piles embedded in elastic soil is plenty, but that of Reddy–Bickford piles partially embedded in elastic soil with/without axial force effect is fewer. The soil that the pile partially ...

  17. The Underwater Sound Field from Impact Pile Driving and Its Potential Effects on Marine Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dahl, P.H.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Popper, A.N.

    2015-01-01

    Impact pile driving is a method used to install piles for marine and inland water construction projects using high-energy impact hammers. The installation of hollow steel piles in this manner can produce extremely high sound levels in the surrounding waters (as well as in the air). Given the

  18. ANALYSIS OF THE STRESS CHARACTERISTICS OF CFG PILE COMPOSITE FOUNDATION UNDER IRREGULARITY CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chengzhong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available By the excitation load function corresponding to the irregularity management standard the vertical load of the train is simulated. Based on the finite difference software FLAC3D the three-dimensional dynamic coupling finite difference model of track-embankment-pile-soil composite foundation is established. Focuses on the analysis of the dynamic response characteristics of the embankment, pile and soil foundation caused by the change of foundation, pile and cushion elastic modulus and cushion thickness. Results show: by the excitation load, the centre pile dynamic stresses are maximum, piles dynamic stress away from the centre side pile decreases gradually. The dynamic response of the pile and soil caused by subgrade surface elastic modulus variation has a little effect with more obvious by the cushion effect. With the increase of elastic modulus and thickness of cushion, the dynamic interaction between pile and cushion is increased while the dynamic interaction between soil and cushion is weakened. Therefore, the bearing capacity of the pile is fully utilized. With the increase of the elastic modulus of the pile, the dynamic stress of pile top increases correspondingly, but the dynamic stress increases gradually, and the pile bears most of the load, thus effectively reduce the dynamic load of the foundation soil.

  19. Seismic Dynamic Damage Characteristics of Vertical and Batter Pile-supported Wharf Structure Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiren

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Considering a typical steel pipe pile-supported wharf as the research object, finite element analytical models of batter and vertical pile structures were established under the same construction site, service, and geological conditions to investigate the seismic dynamic damage characteristics of vertical and batter pile-supported wharf structures. By the numerical simulation and the nonlinear time history response analysis of structure system and the moment–axial force relation curve, we analyzed the dynamic damage characteristics of the two different structures of batter and vertical piles under different seismic ground motions to provide reasonable basis and reference for designing and selecting a pile-supported wharf structure. Results showed that the axial force of batter piles was dominant in the batter pile structure and that batter piles could effectively bear and share seismic load. Under the seismic ground motion with peak ground acceleration (PGA of 350 Gal and in consideration of the factors of the design requirement of horizontal displacement, the seismic performance of the batter pile structure was better than that of the vertical pile structure. Under the seismic ground motion with a PGA of 1000 Gal, plastic failure occurred in two different structures. The contrastive analysis of the development of plastic damage and the absorption and dissipation for seismic energy indicated that the seismic performance of the vertical pile structure was better than that of the batter pile structure.

  20. Rehabilitating slash pile burn scars in upper montane forests of the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula J. Fornwalt; Charles C. Rhoades

    2011-01-01

    Slash pile burning is widely conducted by land managers to dispose of unwanted woody fuels, yet this practice typically has undesirable ecological impacts. Simple rehabilitation treatments may be effective at ameliorating some of the negative impacts of pile burning on plants and soils. Here, we investigated: (1) the impacts of slash pile burning on soil nitrogen and...

  1. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may be...

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure: Delaying pile mixing does not reduce overall emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of the timing of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed at 2, 3, 4, or 5 weeks after initial c...

  3. Recovery of small pile burn scars in conifer forests of the Colorado Front Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles C. Rhoades; Paula J. Fornwalt; Mark W. Paschke; Amber Shanklin; Jayne L. Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The ecological consequences of slash pile burning are a concern for land managers charged with maintaining forest soil productivity and native plant diversity. Fuel reduction and forest health management projects have created nearly 150,000 slash piles scheduled for burning on US Forest Service land in northern Colorado. The vast majority of these are small piles (

  4. Experimental assessment of the insertion loss of an underwater noise mitigation screen for marine pile driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, H.W.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Jung, B.

    2012-01-01

    Because of the concern about potential effects on marine pile driving, the industry is developing silent marine pile driving concepts. One of the new concepts, which has been engineered by IHC Hydrohammer in the Netherlands, is the application of a steel Noise Mitigation Screen (NMS) around the pile

  5. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may be...

  6. Studies on Relation between Drag Load and Time of Pile Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun-hua, Xiao; Xi-hong, Zhao

    2009-08-01

    The development of negative skin friction experiences two stages. At the first stage, it is mainly controlled by the relative displacement between soil and pile, and at the second stage mainly controlled by the increasing of soil strength caused by consolidation. Based on the re-analysis of data from history cases, relation between drag load and time can be fitted with hyperbolic curve, and the physical meanings of parameters are also preliminarily discussed. The calculated results on history cases indicate that the calculated curves are fitted well with the in-situ tested data, which can verify the feasibility of the method presented in this paper.

  7. Experimental study of geotextile as plinth beam in a pile group-supported modeled building frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar Reddy, C.; Gunneswara Rao, T. D.

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of static vertical load tests on a model building frame with geotextile as plinth beam supported by pile groups embedded in cohesionless soil (sand). The experimental results have been compared with those obtained from the nonlinear FEA and conventional method of analysis. The results revealed that the conventional method of analysis gives a shear force of about 53%, bending moment at the top of the column about 17% and at the base of the column about 50-98% higher than that by the nonlinear FEA for the frame with geotextile as plinth beam.

  8. Experimental study of geotextile as plinth beam in a pile group-supported modeled building frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kumar Reddy, C.; Gunneswara Rao, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of static vertical load tests on a model building frame with geotextile as plinth beam supported by pile groups embedded in cohesionless soil (sand). The experimental results have been compared with those obtained from the nonlinear FEA and conventional method of analysis. The results revealed that the conventional method of analysis gives a shear force of about 53%, bending moment at the top of the column about 17% and at the base of the column about 50-98% higher than that by the nonlinear FEA for the frame with geotextile as plinth beam.

  9. 20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders

    This document is one of four notes concerning the effects of time (in this case ageing) on the vertical capacity of piles. It includes summaries of relevant publications related to the topic. Further, focus has been paid to publications that deal with quantification of setup and not the mechanism...

  10. 20051655 - Petronas, Capacity of Driven Piles Offshore Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augustesen, Anders

    This report presents the results of work carried out by Aalborg Univesity for NGI related to the effects of ageing on the axial capacity of piles in clay and sand. The document is the fourth of four notes regarding the subject and it includes a recommended approach to account for ageing effects f...

  11. Numerical experiments with rubble piles : equilibrium shapes and spins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richardson, Derek C.; Elankumaran, Pradeep; Sanderson, Robyn E.

    2005-01-01

    We present numerical experiments investigating the shape and spin limits of self-gravitating "perfect" rubble piles that consist of identical, smooth, rigid, spherical particles with configurable normal coefficient of restitution and no sliding friction. Such constructs are currently employed in a

  12. Emissions from prescribed burning of timber slash piles in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash (Douglas fir) in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matte...

  13. Calibration of Partial Factors for Basal Reinforced Piled Embankments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Duijnen, P.G.; Schweckendiek, T.; Calle, E.O.F.; Van Eekelen, S.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the design guideline for basal reinforced piled embankments has been revised (CUR226:2015) adopting a new analytical design model (The Concentric Arches (CA) model, Van Eekelen et al., 2013; 2015). The CA model provides geosynthetic reinforcement (GR) strains which were compared

  14. Assessment of Cumulative Sound Exposure Levels for Marine Piling Events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lepper, P.A.; Robinson, S.P.; Ainslie, M.A.; Theobald, P.D.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2012-01-01

    The installation of offshore wind farms in European waters and the scale of the planned activity have led to concern over the generation of noise and its potential impact on marine life. Much of this concern is centered around the noise generated by pile driving, which is used for the installation

  15. Design and construction of precast piles with stainless reinforcing steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The service life of prestressed concrete piles is, in part, dictated by the time required to corrode the steel once : chloride ions are at the surface of the steel. Stainless steel materials, although limited in availability in strand : form, have a ...

  16. Aerial sampling of emissions from biomass pile burns in ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), black carbon, ultraviolet absorbing PM, elemental/organic carbon, semi-volatile organics (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/dibenzofurans), filter-based metals, and volatile organics were sampled for determination of emission factors. The effect on emissions from covering or not covering piles with polyethylene sheets to prevent fuel wetting was determined. Results showed that the uncovered (“wet”) piles burned with lower combustion efficiency and higher emissions of volatile organic compounds. Results for other pollutants will also be discussed. This work determined the emissions from open burning of forest slash wood, with and without plastic sheeting. The foresters advocate the use of plastic to keep the slash wood dry and aid in the controlled combustion of the slash to reduce fuel loading. Concerns about the emissions from the burning plastic prompted this work which conducted an extensive characterization of dry, wet, and dry with plastic slash pile emissions.

  17. ATLAS Muon Performance in the Presence of Pile-up

    CERN Document Server

    Vanadia, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    Muons are a key ingredient for many physics analyses in ATLAS. A measurement of the performance of the muon reconstruction and identification on LHC collision recorded in 2011 is presented, with a particular focus on the effects of pile-up and a comparison with Monte-Carlo simulations.

  18. Aerial sampling of emissions from biomass pile burns in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from burning piles of post-harvest timber slash in Grande Ronde, Oregon were sampled using an instrument platform lofted into the plume using a tether-controlled aerostat or balloon. Emissions of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, particulate matter (PM2.5 µm), ...

  19. Pigeon-Frequented Areas, Garbage Piles and Dog Faeces as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out to establish the presence of Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida species in two pigeon-frequented areas; garbage piles from two separate sites in Nairobi, and dog faeces from Small animal clinic, University of Nairobi, Kabete. The sampling included both solid materials and air. Potato Dextrose ...

  20. Digitalisation in atomic pile control (1962); La digitalisation dans le controle des piles atomiques (1962)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    A brief survey is first given of the general theorems of Boodle's algebra and of sequence systems using D.A. Huffmans theory. Some indications are then given concerning the setting-up and the operation of digital computers and also of the principal codes used in digital techniques. It is then shown how digitalisation in atomic pile control makes it possible to use new techniques having the following advantages in particular: greater working safety, a higher degree of centralisation, and suppression of the linear elements. A few examples are given of the application of these techniques to control, particularly with respect to the measurement of the neutronic power and of the period and also of course, to the treatment of the data and the sequence automatisms. The advantage of using digital techniques in the shutdown channels is also examined. Finally a review is given of the technology and the viability of the control devices used. (author) [French] On rappelle d'abord ici les theoremes generaux de l'algebre de Boole et des systemes a sequences en s'appuyant sur la theorie de D.A. Huffmann. On donne ensuite quelques indications sur l'agencement et le fonctionnement des calculateurs digitaux ainsi que les principaux codes utilises dans les techniques digitales. On montre alors comment la digitalisation dans le controle des piles atomiques permet d'utiliser de nouvelles techniques presentant principalement les avantages suivants: securite de fonctionnement plus grande, centralisation plus elevee et suppression des elements lineaires. Un certain nombre d'exemples sont donnes sur l'application de ces techniques au controle, particulierement en ce qui concerne la mesure de la puissance neutronique, de la periode et aussi bien entendu du traitement des informations et des automatismes a sequences. On analyse aussi l'avantage de l'utilisation des techniques digitales dans les chaines de securite. Enfin, un apercu est donne

  1. Conceptual model suitability for reproducing preferential flow paths in waste rock piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broda, S.; Blessent, D.; Aubertin, M.

    2012-12-01

    Waste rocks are typically deposited on mining sites forming waste rock piles (WRP). Acid mine drainage (AMD) or contaminated neutral drainage (CND) with metal leaching from the sulphidic minerals adversely impact soil and water composition on and beyond the mining sites. The deposition method and the highly heterogeneous hydrogeological and geochemical properties of waste rock have a major impact on water and oxygen movement and pore water pressure distribution in the WRP, controlling AMD/CND production. However, the prediction and interpretation of water distribution in WRP is a challenging problem and many attempted numerical investigations of short and long term forecasts were found unreliable. Various forms of unsaturated localized preferential flow processes have been identified, for instance flow in macropores and fractures, heterogeneity-driven and gravity-driven unstable flow, with local hydraulic conductivities reaching several dozen meters per day. Such phenomena have been entirely neglected in numerical WRP modelling and are unattainable with the classical equivalent porous media conceptual approach typically used in this field. An additional complicating circumstance is the unknown location of macropores and fractures a priori. In this study, modeling techniques originally designed for massive fractured rock aquifers are applied. The properties of the waste rock material, found at the Tio mine at Havre Saint-Pierre, Québec (Canada), used in this modelling study were retrieved from laboratory permeability and water retention tests. These column tests were reproduced with the numerical 3D fully-integrated surface/subsurface flow model HydroGeoSphere, where material heterogeneity is represented by means of i) the dual continuum approach, ii) discrete fractures, and iii) a stochastic facies distribution framework using TPROGS. Comparisons with measured pore water pressures, tracer concentrations and exiting water volumes allowed defining limits and

  2. Condition Assessment of Foundation Piles and Utility Poles Based on Guided Wave Propagation Using a Network of Tactile Transducers and Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Dackermann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel non-destructive testing and health monitoring system using a network of tactile transducers and accelerometers for the condition assessment and damage classification of foundation piles and utility poles. While in traditional pile integrity testing an impact hammer with broadband frequency excitation is typically used, the proposed testing system utilizes an innovative excitation system based on a network of tactile transducers to induce controlled narrow-band frequency stress waves. Thereby, the simultaneous excitation of multiple stress wave types and modes is avoided (or at least reduced, and targeted wave forms can be generated. The new testing system enables the testing and monitoring of foundation piles and utility poles where the top is inaccessible, making the new testing system suitable, for example, for the condition assessment of pile structures with obstructed heads and of poles with live wires. For system validation, the new system was experimentally tested on nine timber and concrete poles that were inflicted with several types of damage. The tactile transducers were excited with continuous sine wave signals of 1 kHz frequency. Support vector machines were employed together with advanced signal processing algorithms to distinguish recorded stress wave signals from pole structures with different types of damage. The results show that using fast Fourier transform signals, combined with principal component analysis as the input feature vector for support vector machine (SVM classifiers with different kernel functions, can achieve damage classification with accuracies of 92.5% ± 7.5%.

  3. Outline of operation and control system and analytical investigation of transient behavior of an out-of-pile hydrogen production system for HTTR heat utilization system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hada, Kazuhiko; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Takeda, Tetsuaki; Haga, Katsuhiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Hino, Ryutaro

    1997-10-01

    The hydrogen production system by steam reforming of natural gas is to be constructed to demonstrate effectiveness of high-temperature nuclear heat utilization systems with the HTTR. Prior to coupling of the steam reforming system with the HTTR, an out-of-pile test system is planned to investigate the system characteristics, to develop high-temperature components such as a reformer, a high-temperature isolation valve and so on, and to verify operation and control technologies and safety technology at accidents. This paper presents outline of operation and control systems and analytical review of transient behavior of the out-of-pile hydrogen production system. Main function of the operation and control systems is made not to give disturbance to the HTTR at transient state under start-up and stop operations. The operation modes are separated into two ones, namely normal and accident operation modes, and operation sequences are made for each operation mode. The normal operation sequence includes start-up, steady operation and stop of the out-of-pile system. The accident one deals with accident conditions at which supply of feed gas is stopped and helium gas is cooled passively by the steam generator. Transient behavior of the out-of-pile system was analyzed numerically according as the operation sequences. As the results, it was confirmed that the designed operation and control systems are adequate to the out-of-pile system. (author)

  4. Reduction of acid rock drainage using steel slag in cover systems over sulfide rock waste piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Rodrigo Pereira; Leite, Adilson do Lago; Borghetti Soares, Anderson

    2015-04-01

    The extraction of gold, coal, nickel, uranium, copper and other earth-moving activities almost always leads to environmental damage. In metal and coal extraction, exposure of sulfide minerals to the atmosphere leads to generation of acid rock drainage (ARD) and in underground mining to acid mine drainage (AMD) due to contamination of infiltrating groundwater. This study proposes to develop a reactive cover system that inhibits infiltration of oxygen and also releases alkalinity to increase the pH of generated ARD and attenuate metal contaminants at the same time. The reactive cover system is constructed using steel slag, a waste product generated from steel industries. This study shows that this type of cover system has the potential to reduce some of the adverse effects of sulfide mine waste disposal on land. Geochemical and geotechnical characterization tests were carried out. Different proportions of sulfide mine waste and steel slag were studied in leachate extraction tests. The best proportion was 33% of steel slag in dry weight. Other tests were conducted as follows: soil consolidation, saturated permeability and soil water characteristic curve. The cover system was numerically modeled through unsaturated flux analysis using Vadose/w. The solution proposed is an oxygen transport barrier that allows rain water percolation to treat the ARD in the waste rock pile. The results showed that the waste pile slope is an important factor and the cover system must have 5 m thickness to achieve an acceptable effectiveness. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. A Numerical Simulation of Base Shear Forces and Moments Exerted by Waves on Large Diameter Pile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-liang Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem of the dynamic variation of wave force diameter of pile foundation for offshore wind turbines, wave force and moment of large diameter pile foundation can be calculated. In this paper, simulation technique is used to calculate the wave force and moment of different large diameter pile foundation, and the base shear force and moment of the interval 20-degree phase angle are obtained by the base line of the pile. Under the action of a certain load, the complete stress variation of the pile foundation is obtained. According to the basic principle of diffraction theory, the process curve of large diameter pile, and analysis of wave force, diffraction force changes in a certain period of time interval. The results show that the wave after the large diameter pile formed around the vortex, large diameter pile base shear, and moment dynamic change is nonlinear in a complete cycle, the diameter of the pile increases by 0.5 m, and the wave force increases by about 5%, the results show that it provides certain reference value for the offshore pile foundation pile with large diameter primary site. Some significant results for practical application are discussed.

  6. Bending Moment Calculations for Piles Based on the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-xin Jie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the finite element analysis program ABAQUS, a series of calculations on a cantilever beam, pile, and sheet pile wall were made to investigate the bending moment computational methods. The analyses demonstrated that the shear locking is not significant for the passive pile embedded in soil. Therefore, higher-order elements are not always necessary in the computation. The number of grids across the pile section is important for bending moment calculated with stress and less significant for that calculated with displacement. Although computing bending moment with displacement requires fewer grid numbers across the pile section, it sometimes results in variation of the results. For displacement calculation, a pile row can be suitably represented by an equivalent sheet pile wall, whereas the resulting bending moments may be different. Calculated results of bending moment may differ greatly with different grid partitions and computational methods. Therefore, a comparison of results is necessary when performing the analysis.

  7. In-pile critical heat flux and post-dryout heat transfer measurements – A historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeneveld, D.C., E-mail: degroeneveld@gmail.com

    2017-06-15

    In the 1960s’ and 1970s’ Canada was a world leader in performing in-reactor heat transfer experiments on fuel bundles instrumented with miniature sheath thermocouples. Several Critical Heat Flux (CHF) and Post-CHF experiments were performed in Chalk River’s NRU and NRX reactors on water-cooled 3-, 18-, 19-, 21-, and 36-element fuel bundles. Most experiments were obtained at steady-state conditions, where the power was raised gradually from single-phase conditions up to the CHF and beyond. Occasionally, post-dryout temperatures up to 600 °C were maintained for several hours. In some tests, the fuel behaviour during loss-of-flow and blowdown transients was investigated – during these transients sheath temperatures could exceed 2000 °C. Because of the increasingly more stringent licensing requirements for in-pile heat transfer tests on instrumented fuel bundles, no in-pile CHF and post-dryout tests on fuel bundles have been performed anywhere in the world for the past 40 years. This paper provides details of these unique in-pile experiments and describes some of their heat transfer results.

  8. Picking up Clues from the Discard Pile (Stereo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    As NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander excavates trenches, it also builds piles with most of the material scooped from the holes. The piles, like this one called 'Caterpillar,' provide researchers some information about the soil. On Aug. 24, 2008, during the late afternoon of the 88th Martian day after landing, Phoenix's Surface Stereo Imager took separate exposures through its left eye and right eye that have been combined into this stereo view. The image appears three dimensional when seen through red-blue glasses. This conical pile of soil is about 10 centimeters (4 inches) tall. The sources of material that the robotic arm has dropped onto the Caterpillar pile have included the 'Dodo' and ''Upper Cupboard' trenches and, more recently, the deeper 'Stone Soup' trench. Observations of the pile provide information, such as the slope of the cone and the textures of the soil, that helps scientists understand properties of material excavated from the trenches. For the Stone Soup trench in particular, which is about 18 centimeters (7 inches) deep, the bottom of the trench is in shadow and more difficult to observe than other trenches that Phoenix has dug. The Phoenix team obtained spectral clues about the composition of material from the bottom of Stone Soup by photographing Caterpillar through 15 different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager when the pile was covered in freshly excavated material from the trench. The spectral observation did not produce any sign of water-ice, just typical soil for the site. However, the bigger clumps do show a platy texture that could be consistent with elevated concentration of salts in the soil from deep in Stone Soup. The team chose that location as the source for a soil sample to be analyzed in the lander's wet chemistry laboratory, which can identify soluble salts in the soil. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory

  9. Réparation des pieux battus dans les sables carbonatés Repair of Driven Piles in Calcareous Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nauroy J. F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les formations carbonatées rencontrées en de nombreuses zones d'activités pétrolières en mer posent de difficiles problèmes de dimensionnement et de mise en place des pieux. Sur plusieurs sites de sable carbonaté, la capacité portante des pieux battus se révèle beaucoup plus faible que prévu et des techniques de réparation doivent être étudiées. Dans ce contexte, l'ARGEMA (Association de Recherche en Géotechnique Marine, groupement français d'organismes de recherche, de compagnies pétrolières et de contracteurs offshore, a expérimenté une réparation d'un pieu expérimental de 30 cm de diamètre et 23 m de long battu dans un sable carbonaté. Le frottement latéral de ce pieu mobilisé juste après battage était très faible. La réparation a consisté à injecter du coulis de ciment à partir d'un forage situé à 40 cm du pieu. Cet article décrit les procédures et les caractéristiques des injections réalisées et leurs conséquences sur la capacité portante du pieu. Le frottement entre le pieu et le terrain s'accroît avec le volume de ciment injecté; les valeurs maximales obtenues sont du même ordre de grandeur que celles observées avec un pieu foré-cimenté. The calcareous formations encountered in many zones of offshore petroleum activity raise difficult problems for designing and installing foundation piles. On several sites with calcareous sands, the bearing capacity of driven piles proves to be much less than had been planned, and repair techniques have to be examined. Within this context, ARGEMA (Association de Recherche en Géotechnique Marine, a french group of research organizations, oil companies and offshore contractors, has tested a repair of an experimental pile 30 cm in diameter and 23 m long driven into a calcareous sand. The skin friction of this pile, mobilized just after driving, was found to be very low. The repair-job consisted in injecting grout from a drilled borehole located at some tens

  10. Seismic Material Properties of Reinforced Concrete and Steel Casing Composite Concrete in Elevated Pile-Group Foundation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Mi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the material mechanics properties of reinforced concrete and steel casing composite concrete under pseudo-static loads and their application in structure. Although elevated pile-group foundation is widely used in bridge, port and ocean engineering, the seismic performance of this type of foundation still need further study. Four scale-specimens of the elevated pile-group foundation were manufactured by these two kinds of concrete and seismic performance characteristic of each specimen were compared. Meanwhile, the special soil box was designed and built to consider soil-pile-superstructure interaction. According to the test result, the peak strength of strengthening specimens is about 1.77 times of the others and the ultimate displacement is 1.66 times of the RC specimens. Additionally, the dissipated hysteric energy capability of strengthening specimens is more than 2.15 times of the others as the equivalent viscous damping ratio is reduced by 50%. The pinching effect of first two specimens is more obvious than latter two specimens and the hysteretic loops of reinforced specimens are more plumpness. The pseudo-static tests also provided the data to quantitatively assessment the positive effect of steel casing composite concrete in aseismatic design of bridge.

  11. From the pile of Volta to fuel cells

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Volta designed his pile by associating two different metals and liquid conducting electricity. He recognized the possibility of increasing the "voltage" by placing cells in series (a pile). This invention led to a wonderful development of science and technology, including the concept of fuel cell in 1839 by GROVE. But efficient research began only in the 20th century after the development of electrochemical thermodynamics by Nemst. His assistants conducted research on fuel cell designed by Bacon before world warII, developed NASA for the Apollo space flights. Research for effecient and clean electricity generation has led to the defferent kinds of fuel cells now under development (APC, PAPC, PAMPC, MCPC and SOPC) which will be briefly described with their applications.

  12. The Supercritical Pile Model: Prompt Emission Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, Demos; Mastichiadis, A.

    2008-01-01

    The "Supercritical Pile" GRB model is an economical model that provides the dissipation necessary to convert explosively the energy stored in relativistic protons in the blast wave of a GRB into radiation; at the same time it produces spectra whose luminosity peaks at 1 MeV in the lab frame, the result of the kinematics of the proton-photon - pair production reaction that effects the conversion of proton energy to radiation. We outline the fundamental notions behind the "Supercritical Pile" model and discuss the resulting spectra of the prompt emission from optical to gamma-ray energies of order Gamma^2 m_ec^2, (Gamma is the Lorentz factor of the blast wave) present even in the absence of an accelerated particle distribution and compare our results to bursts that cover this entire energy range. Particular emphasis is given on the emission at the GLAST energy range both in the prompt and the afterglow stages of the burst.

  13. Placement of mass concrete for cast-in-place concrete piling : the effects of heat of hydration of mass concrete for cast-in-place piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    This report describes models, ABAQUS and Schmidt, to predict the peak temperature in the center of cast-in-place concrete piling. Five concrete piles with varying diameters and made up of concrete mixes with different percentage of fly ash are used. ...

  14. Passive treatment of acid drainage waters from coal piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groudev, S.N. [University of Mining and Geology, Sofia (Bulgaria). Dept. of Engineering Geoecology

    1997-12-31

    Acid drainage water from rich-in-pyrite coal piles were treated under pilot-scale conditions by means of a unit consisting of two-alkalinity producing and sulphate-reducing anoxic cells arranged in series. The cells contained organic substrate mixed with ground limestone and a consortium of interdependent microorganisms. The bacterial dissimilatory sulphate reduction was the main water clean-up process in the cells. (orig.)

  15. Analytical Constraints on Rubble Pile Fission, Dynamics and End States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeres, Daniel Jay; Gabriel, Travis

    2015-08-01

    Recent progress in the study and analysis of rubble pile asteroids has focused on the numerical simulation of self-gravitating collections of rigid components that can rest on each other. These simulations are complex and can model thousands of grains interacting with each other, but due to this can sometimes present barriers to the understanding of their behavior in terms of fundamental physical principles.To address this we have embarked on an analytical study of the energetics and stability of few-body granular mechanics systems, comprised of gravitationally attracting elements that can rest on each other and transmit surface forces through friction or cohesion. These studies have primarily focused on simple shapes such as spheres and ellipsoids in contact. We have found that rigorous results can be placed on the stability of these resting and orbiting configurations as a function of their total angular momentum. These results shed direct light into the manner in which rubble pile asteroids can fail and what stable configurations they can settle in, accounting only for internal forces and dynamics. We note that these studies are also applicable for the accumulation stage of a rubble pile formation, following the catastrophic disruption of its parent body.There are several fundamental results from these analyses that have physical implications. A notable result provides conditions for when fissioned rubble piles can escape from each other, or conversely remain bound. It is significant that recent observations of asteroid pairs are consistent with these limits. Another result is that when a given configuration becomes unstable due to an increase in its total angular momentum (for example due to YORP), that it may sometimes settle into one of several stable configurations depending on how its energy is dissipated. This introduces a level of indeterminacy into the physical evolution of gravitational aggregates, and motivates the development of statistical approaches

  16. Evaluation of the potential for carbonaceous dust explosibility in the decommissioning of the Windscale piles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G E Andrews; H Phylaktou [Energy and Resources Research Institute, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9TJ, (United Kingdom); M T Cross; W Ingamells [UKAEA, Windscale, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria CA201PP, (United Kingdom); A J Wickham [Consultant, P.O. Box 50, Builth Wells, Powys LD2 3PW, (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Concerns have been expressed by nuclear regulatory bodies, and others, about the possibility of initiating an dust explosion during the decommissioning activities in graphite-moderated reactors. The graphite and carbonaceous dusts which may be present inside the reactor vessel are regarded as a potential explosion risk, particularly in the situation where cutting activities such as the flame-cutting of adjacent steel components is taking place. In the Windscale Piles, which were air-cooled, the only carbonaceous dust which should be present is that arising from nuclear-grade graphite, and high-purity graphite has historically been classified as 'non-explosible'. However, more recent work, and particularly the application of modern standards to the classification of dusts, has somewhat changed the perspective. The standard ISO test uses a chemical igniter of 10 kJ in a spherical vessel of approximately 1 m{sup 3}, and the chemical energy added is sufficient to result in a weak explosion in nuclear graphite when the dust concentration and particle size range are favourable. It is more than ever desirable therefore to understand in more details the characteristics of graphite dust likely to be encountered in the Windscale Piles, and in particular the effects of possible impurities and potential catalysts which might be present particularly in Pile 1 which was the scene of the core fire in 1957. In addition, it was considered prudent to investigate the propagation of pressure waves and the possibility of secondary explosions using the 'connected-enclosure' facilities at The University of Leeds which can be configured to represent approximately the relative volumes of parts of the Windscale Piles gas circuits. This work utilised Pile Grade 'A' graphite characteristic of Calder Hall reactors, the nearest currently available equivalent to that used in the Piles. The work has revealed an unexpected influence

  17. Pile monitoring of two South China Sea platforms, Xijiang Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somehsa, P.; Doyle, E.H.; Ming, C.; Pua, C.P.; Miner, R.F.; Thomas, R.L.

    1996-12-31

    Pile monitoring, using strain and acceleration gages mounted near the pile top during driving, was carried out during the installation of two offshore platforms in the xijiang Field, in about 325 ft water depth off the southern coast of China. The soils in the area are generally normally consolidated clays intersected by dense sand strata. The measurements assisted the contractor to identify hammer problems and improve hammer performance, and assisted the owner in checking pile adequacy and wave equation analyses. Post installation analysis of the data using signal matching techniques resulted in insights about damping and quake factors appropriate to the software, as well as soil resistances to driving (SRD) during continuous driving and after delays in the mixed sand and clay profiles encountered in this area. The findings should aid future installation planning in this area. This monitoring effort reflects a growing recognition of the value of dynamic monitoring to engineers and installation contractors involved with construction control or assessment of foundation adequacy, and for supplemental information in the event of unexpected conditions.

  18. Simulating Acid Mine Drainage Through Unsaturated Waste Rock Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molson, J. W.; Aubertin, M.; Bussiere, B.

    2004-05-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) through unsaturated waste rock piles is numerically simulated to gain insight into the governing physical and chemical processes. The simulations include unsaturated flow, oxygen diffusion, sulphide mineral oxidation, advective-dispersive transport of the oxidation products and pH-dependent geochemical reactions including mineral precipitation and dissolution. The waste pile models are considered as 2D structured porous systems under steady-state flow conditions. The simulations highlight the influence of grain size and moisture content on reaction rates and AMD. Fine-grained sulphide-bearing zones, proposed as internal capillary barriers for example, have a high specific surface area which tends to increase the local sulphide oxidation rate. On the other hand, these zones preferentially retain moisture which reduces the oxygen diffusion coefficient thereby decreasing the reaction rate. The results suggest that where these layers are not fully saturated, sulphide oxidation may continue at a high rate. A sensitivity analysis shows the effect of increasing the background quantity of buffering minerals, and the effect of moisture-dependent diffusion rates and sulphide mineral fractions. Issues related to flow instability and development of preferential flow zones are discussed. These types of simulations can be used to help design waste pile geometries and internal structures (e.g. capillary barriers) which will minimize or control discharge of acidic effluent.

  19. Applications of Legionella pneumophila protein FLA and PILE in serological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiyu; Liu, Yang; Yang, Zhiwei; Cao, Xiuqin

    2014-01-01

    Serological testing for antibody against Legionella pneumophila (LP) is often the primary method of screening for possible Lp infections. This study is an attempt to use the Lp protein FLA and PILE as coating antigen for ELISA. First, the coding sequences of the two proteins were cloned into the pET32a(+) vectors. Then the two proteins were produced and purified. The best working concentration of the two proteins as coating antigen was screened separately by criss-cross serial-dilution analysis. Then an ELISA method was developed for Lp antibody detection. The Lp antibody level of 120 serums was detected by both this new ELISA method and the DRG ELISA kit. The results suggest that protein FLA and PILE as coating antigen of ELISA to detect Lp antibody in serum shows better specificity and positive rate (5%, 3.4%) than the DRG ELISA kit. The new ELISA has a high referential value for Legionnaires' disease (LD) diagnosis and provided valuable information for the development of a serodiagnosis Kit for LD.

  20. Survival of coliform bacteria in static compost piles of dairy waste solids intended for freestall bedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mote, C R; Emerton, B L; Allison, J S; Dowlen, H H; Oliver, S P

    1988-06-01

    Dairy waste solids separated from a slurry by a centrifugal separator were composted in 12 static piles. Seven of the compost piles were naturally aerated, and five were aerated by a fan that forced air through the piles of solids. The natural aeration process aged the manure solids in an unconfined pile. The fan in the forced aeration process forced air into a perforated plenum beneath the compost piles. Dairy waste solids in each compost pile were heated into the thermophilic temperature range and generally composted well. At most sampling points, coliform bacteria declined to low or undetectable numbers early in the composting period. However, as the composting process proceeded, bacterial numbers increased to approximately those present in raw dairy waste solids. Findings of this study suggest that composting offers little benefit toward net reduction in coliform bacterial numbers in dairy waste solids.

  1. BORED PILES WITH THE BROADENING IN THE CONTEXT OF A LARGE DEPTH OF FREEZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олег Михайлович Преснов

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the climatic conditions of Siberia pile foundations are working under the influence of forces of frost heave. Therefore, the length of piles accepted to take into account anchoring. However, in the construction of light buildings, bearing capacity of foundations used for no more than 30 to 40 % and most of the funds being spent inefficiently. In this work we consider the design of piles, resulting in lower costs for construction in these conditions is bored piles with the widening. From calculations it is seen that a variant of the bored piles with the broadening in comparison with the conventional reduces the volume of concrete production piles (and therefore cost 44% (almost 2 times.

  2. Construction technology of high-rise pile cap foundation of offshore wind power in Taiwan Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C. Y.; Chi, Y.; Sun, X. Q.; Han, Y. P.; Chen, X.; Zhao, L. C.; Zhang, H.

    2017-11-01

    Offshore wind farms promise to become an important source of energy in the near future. The high-rise pile cap foundation is one of the typical foundation types for offshore wind turbine. This paper introduces the structural characteristics and construction technology of high-rise pile cap foundation, aiming at the characteristics of the sea area of Taiwan Strait and combining with engineering examples. The construction technology of high-rise pile cap foundation is expounded emphatically from the manufacture and transportation of steel pipe piles, pile foundation construction and bearing platform construction. Compared with the traditional construction technology, the construction technologies used in this project are safer and more reliable. The construction period of piles cap foundation is shortened by 10 ∼ 48 days. The construction technology provides reference for offshore wind power foundation construction.

  3. Nuclear heating measurements by in-pile calorimetry: prospective works for a microsensor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynard-Carette, C.; Carette, M.; Aguir, K.; Bendahan, M.; Fiorido, T. [Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, Universite de Toulon, IM2NP UMR 7334, 13397, Marseille (France); Lyoussi, A.; Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J.F. [CEA, DEN, DER, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 (France); Barthes, M.; Lanzetta, F.; Layes, G.; Vives, S. [FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174, Departement ENERGIE, Universite de Franche-Comte, 90000, Belfort (France)

    2015-07-01

    Since 2009 works have been performed in the framework of joint research programs between CEA and Aix-Marseille University. The main aim of these programs is to design and develop in-pile instrumentations, advanced calibration procedure and accurate measurement methods in particular for the new Material Testing Reactor (MTR) under construction in the South of France: Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). One major sensor is a specific radiometric calorimeter, which was studied out-of-pile from a thermal point of view and in-pile during irradiation campaigns. This sensor type is dedicated to measurements of nuclear heating (energy deposition rate per mass unit induced by interactions between nuclear rays and matter) inside experimental channels of MTRs. This kind of in-pile calorimeter corresponds to heat flux calorimeter exchanging with the external cooling fluid. This thermal running mode allows the establishment of steady thermal conditions inside the sensor to carry out online continuous measurements inside the reactor (core or reflector). Two main types of calorimeters exist. The first type consists of a single cell calorimeter. It is divided into a sample of material to be tested and a jacket instrumented with two thermocouples or a single thermocouple (Gamma Thermometer). The second, called a differential calorimeter, is composed of two superposed twin cells (a measurement cell containing a sample of material, and a reference cell to remove the heating of the cell body) instrumented with four thermocouples and two electrical heaters. Contrary to a single-cell calorimeter, a differential calorimeter allows the compensation of the parasite nuclear heating of the sensor body or jacket. Moreover, it possesses interesting advantages: thanks to the heaters embedded in the cells, three different measurement methods can be applied during irradiations to quantify nuclear heating. The first one is based on the use of out-of-pile calibration curves obtained by generating a heat

  4. Ultrasonic Thermometry for In-Pile Temperature Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.E. Daw; J.L. Rempe; S.C. Wilkins

    2002-11-01

    example, signal processing can be very complicated, as multiple echoes may overlap. Contact between the sensor and solid materials can cause extraneous echoes. If a sheath is required, contact bonding at high temperatures may cause extraneous echoes or attenuation of primary echoes. The most successful materials used in previous studies, tungsten and rhenium, are unattractive for nuclear applications due to material transmutation. Clearly, in order for ultrasonic thermometers to be viable for an in-pile sensor, these issues must be resolved through the use of modern signal processing and materials technologies. As part of the INL feasibility study, all of the issues associated with UT use and proposed resolution options will be identified and evaluated. Once most promising options are proven, it is planned to produce one or more prototype ultrasonic temperature sensors for evaluation. Ultimately, a full test should include a long term installation in a high temperature test assembly installed in a high neutron flux environment, such as that found in the Idaho National Laboratory’s Advanced Test Reactor.

  5. Viscoelastic Behaviour of Composite Piles Used in the Construction of Quays

    OpenAIRE

    ACAR, M. Hilmi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the viscoelastic behaviour of a concrete-filled steel tube pile with circular section used in quay constructions under long-term steady load. Deformations that depend on time are important for designing this type of pile. In order to determine these deformations, an experimental study was done on a real size pile. Variations in deformations were observed over seven months. The observed deformations were compared with the calculated deformations ...

  6. In-pile Hydrothermal Corrosion Evaluation of Coated SiC Ceramics and Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, David [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Ang, Caen [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Katoh, Yutai [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linton, Kory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Hydrothermal corrosion accelerated by water radiolysis during normal operation is among the most critical technical feasibility issues remaining for silicon carbide (SiC) composite-based cladding that could provide enhanced accident-tolerance fuel technology for light water reactors. An integrated in-pile test was developed and performed to determine the synergistic effects of neutron irradiation, radiolysis, and pressurized water flow, all of which are relevant to a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR). The test specimens were chosen to cover a range of SiC materials and a variety of potential options for environmental barrier coatings. This document provides a summary of the irradiation vehicle design, operations of the experiment, and the specimen loading into the irradiation vehicle.

  7. Numerical Estimation of the Pile Toe and Shaft Unit Resistances During the Installation Process in Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konkol Jakub

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of a pile jacking were carried out. A Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL formulation was used to treat with large deformation problems. An Abaqus, a commercial Finite Element Method software suit, was used as a computing environment. The Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model was applied and the Coulomb model of friction was used to describe pile-soil interaction. Calculations were made for three different pile diameters. Toe and shaft unit resistances versus depth for each pile were investigated and plotted. CPT-based solutions were compared with the results of numerical simulations.

  8. Application of CFG Piles to Soft Soil Treatment of Municipal Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingli; Song, Yan; Han, Xinzhan

    With rapid development of constructional engineering, methods used for soft soil foundation treatment become increasingly diversified. Because composite foundation has the peculiar advantage that that it makes full use of earth among piles and piles and is featured by short construction period, large treatment depth and relatively good effect, it has been applied more and more widely. The engineering applies CFG pipes, utilizes high bearing capacity of piles and gives full play to carrying capacity of earth among piles by establishing a mattress layer.

  9. Numerical analysis of negative skin friction on piles in soft clay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser M. El-Mossallamy

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, an axisymmetric finite element model was used to simulate, and analyze the pile–soil interaction problem of negative skin friction. The soft soil was simulated by the double hardening soil model, and the pile was described by a linear elastic model. A field case study for two instrumented end bearing driven pipe precast concrete piles in Bangkok soft clay was back analyzed. The various approaches to model the pile element, and load configurations were analyzed, and compared. An extensive parametric study was carried out to investigate the effect of different factors on the dragload value, neutral plane location, slip length, and pile movement.

  10. Optimal Pile Arrangement for Minimizing Excess Pore Water Pressure Build-Up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Saadati, Meysam; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    Numerical analysis of pile group in a liquefiable soil was considered to investigate the influence of pile spacing on excess pore pressure distribution and liquefaction potential. The analysis is conducted using a two-dimensional plain strain finite difference program considering a nonlinear...... constitutive model for sandy soil, strength and stiffness reduction, and pile-soil interaction. The Mohr-Coulomb constitutive model coupled with Byrne pore pressure build-up model have been employed in the analysis. Numerical analysis results show that pile groups have significant influence on the dynamic...

  11. Simplified Model for the Hybrid Method to Design Stabilising Piles Placed at the Toe of Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dib M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stabilizing precarious slopes by installing piles has become a widespread technique for landslides prevention. The design of slope-stabilizing piles by the finite element method is more accurate comparing to the conventional methods. This accuracy is because of the ability of this method to simulate complex configurations, and to analyze the soil-pile interaction effect. However, engineers prefer to use the simplified analytical techniques to design slope stabilizing piles, this is due to the high computational resources required by the finite element method. Aiming to combine the accuracy of the finite element method with simplicity of the analytical approaches, a hybrid methodology to design slope stabilizing piles was proposed in 2012. It consists of two steps; (1: an analytical estimation of the resisting force needed to stabilize the precarious slope, and (2: a numerical analysis to define the adequate pile configuration that offers the required resisting force. The hybrid method is applicable only for the analysis and the design of stabilizing piles placed in the middle of the slope, however, in certain cases like road constructions, piles are needed to be placed at the toe of the slope. Therefore, in this paper a simplified model for the hybrid method is dimensioned to analyze and design stabilizing piles placed at the toe of a precarious slope. The validation of the simplified model is presented by a comparative analysis with the full coupled finite element model.

  12. Vertical Equilibrium of Sheet Pile Walls with Emphasis on Toe Capacity and Plugging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Augustesen, Anders Hust; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl

    at the pile toe to fulfil vertical equilibrium. The paper describes a case study of sheet pile walls in Aalborg Clay, and the amount of loads transferred as point loads at the pile toe for free and anchored walls is estimated. A parametric study is made for the free wall with regards to the height...... and the roughness of the wall. Due to limitations of the calculation method, the study of the anchored wall only includes variation of the roughness. For the case study, it is found that the vertical equilibrium is fulfilled for the considered free wall. An anchored wall needs a plug forming at the pile toe...

  13. Retrofitting Of RCC Piles By Using Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer BFRP Composite Part 1 Review Papers On RCC Structures And Piles Retrofitting Works.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ananda Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Retrofitting works are immensely essential for deteriorated and damaged structures in Engineering and Medical fields in order to keep or return to the originality for safe guarding the structures and consumers. In this paper different types of methods of retrofitting review notes are given based on the experimental numerical and analytical methods results on strengthening the Reinforced cement concrete RCC structures including RCC piles. Soil-pile interaction on axial load lateral load reviews are also presented. This review paper is prepared to find out the performance of basalt fibre reinforced polymer BFRP composite retrofitted reinforced cement concrete single end bearing piles.

  14. Steel Sheet Piles – Applications and Elementary Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobala, Dariusz; Rybak, Jarosław

    2017-10-01

    High-intensity housing having been carried out in town’s centres causes that many complex issues related to earthworks and foundations must be resolved. Project owners are required to ensure respective number of parking bays, which in turn demands 2-3 storeys of underground car parks. It is especially difficult to fulfil in dense buildings of old town areas where apart from engineering problems, very stringent requirements of heritage conservator supervision are also raised. The problems with ensuring stability of excavation sidewalls need to be, at the same time, dealt with analysis of foundations of neighbouring structures, and possible strengthening them at the stages of installing the excavation protection walls, progressing the excavations and constructing basement storeys. A separate problem refers to necessity of constructing underground storeys below the level of local groundwater. This requires long-term lowering of water table inside excavation while at possibly limited intervention in hydrological regime beyond the project in progress. In river valleys such “hoarding off” the excavation and cutting off groundwater leads to temporary or permanent disturbances of groundwater run-off and local swellings. Traditional way to protect vertical fault and simultaneously to cut-off groundwater inflow consists in application of steel sheet pilings. They enable to construct monolithic reinforced concrete structures of underground storeys thus ensuring both their tightness and high rigidity of foundation. Depending on situation, steel sheet pilings can be in retrieving or staying-in-place versions. This study deals with some selected aspects of engineering design and fabrication of sheet piling for deep excavations and underground parts of buildings.

  15. Investigation of the bio pile treatment for oily sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, He; Wang, Xinxin; Chen, Yu; Cao, Xingtao; Ma, Zhengzhao; Guo, Bing; Zhao, Guangyu; Li, Chen

    2017-05-01

    With the rapid development of petro-chemical industry as well as the stricter requirement of environmental protection, the treatment of oily sludge is around the corner for the petroleum companies. A pilot experiment had been carried out in this study to investigate the changes of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and total petroleum hydrocarbons in the oily sludge. Results show that the oil content in the sludge decreased to 5023 mg/kg within 90 days, which provide technical support for the engineering application of bio pile treatment

  16. Centrifuge modelling of rigid piles in soft clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinkvort, R.T.; Poder, M.; Truong, P.

    2016-01-01

    of this study is to employ centrifuge modelling in order to derive experimental p-y curves for rigid piles embedded in over-consolidated soft clay. A kaolin clay sample was prepared and pre-consolidated by applying a constant pressure at the soil surface, while different over-consolidation ratios were achieved...... within the clay sample by carrying out the experiments at different g fields. The findings suggest that the normalised shape of the p-y curves can be predicted within a sufficient accuracy using the current methodology but that the ultimate lat-eral resistance is underestimated at shallow depths...

  17. Pile volume measurement by range imaging camera in indoor environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Altuntas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Range imaging (RIM camera is recent technology in 3D location measurement. The new study areas have been emerged in measurement and data processing together with RIM camera. It has low-cost and fast measurement technique compared to the current measurement techniques. However its measurement accuracy varies according to effects resulting from the device and the environment. The direct sunlight is affect measurement accuracy of the camera. Thus, RIM camera should be used for indoor measurement. In this study gravel pile volume was measured by SwissRanger SR4000 camera. The measured volume is acquired as different 8.13% from the known.

  18. Method and apparatus for analog pulse pile-up rejection

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2013-12-31

    A method and apparatus for pulse pile-up rejection are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a delay value application constituent configured to receive a threshold-crossing time value, and provide an adjustable value according to a delay value and the threshold-crossing time value; and a comparison constituent configured to receive a peak-occurrence time value and the adjustable value, compare the peak-occurrence time value with the adjustable value, indicate pulse acceptance if the peak-occurrence time value is less than or equal to the adjustable value, and indicate pulse rejection if the peak-occurrence time value is greater than the adjustable value.

  19. Symptomatic pile tailored procedure. A new perspective for hemorrhoidal disease treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbetti, Claudio; Giani, Iacopo; Novelli, Eugenio; Martellucci, Jacopo; Feroci, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the present paper was to evaluate the role of tailored different single pile treatment in the clinical outcome of hemorrhoids. The surgical strategy considered to treat only pathological piles with different procedure according to each pathological Goligher's degree, presence of fibrous, inelastic redundant internal pile(F) and presence of external pathological pile (external pile congestion or subversion of dental line (E) and skin tag not tolerated from the patient (S)). We treated with Hemorrhoidopexy second and third degree pile without F or ES; with Hemorrhoidopexy and excision of external component every second and third degree pile with E or S and with complete semi-closed pile excision all third degree with F and IV degree piles. The number of post operative days of self administered analgesics was the primary end point and short/long term post operative complications, hospital stay, re-admission and recurrence were secondary end points. 157 patients were treated. No differences were noted in term of time of discharge between hemorrhoidopexy and complete or external excision. The painkiller assumption increases with the number of treated pile (r= 0.227, p=0.006). We observed 10.2% early complications (48h) all secondary to urinary retention and 7% late complications (2-15days) within only one reoperation for bleeding. After mean follow up of 16 months no patients required further treatments for hemorrhoids. A tailored approach showed to be effective in terms of short and long term complications and moreover to relapse. Single pile tailored treatment showed good results. Excision, Hemorrhoids, Hemorrhoidectomy, Hemorrhoidopexy, Pain, Tailored.

  20. Preliminary Report on the Effect of Pre-Boring on the Mobilized Friction Capacity of Pile Foundation Hydraulically Jacked into Expansive Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi G.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pre-drilling was performed to reduce lateral earth pressure generated by pile foundation hydraulically jacked into expansive soil. Nineteen prestressed-precast spun concrete pile with diameter of 800 mm were penetrated into expansive soil up the depth of 40 m. Pre-drilling with diameter of 700 mm was carried out up to the depth of 12.5 m. Penetration loads required to install the piles, which was displayed on the built-in pressure panel, were recorded every 1 m interval. The load that was consisted of merely shaft friction was then used to find out the mobilized skin friction between pile shaft and its surrounding soils. The calculated mobilized skin friction was correlated to the value of Standard Penetration Test (NSPT and compared to Decourt formula. The result shows that skin friction calculated using Decourt formula relatively conservative compared to those determined from the records of field penetration. The upper bound of mobilized skin friction can be defined by modifying Decourt formula.

  1. Spoil pile instabilities with reference to a strip coal mine in Turkey: mechanisms and assessment of deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmer, Ozgu; Ulusay, Resat; Gokceoglu, Candan

    2006-02-01

    With the increasing adoption of the surface mining of coal, problems associated with spoil pile instability, which affects resource recovery, mining cost, and safety and presents environmental hazards, have become a matter of prime concern to mine planners and operators. The study of geotechnical aspects is thus very important in the rational planning for the disposal, reclamation, treatment and utilization of spoil material. A strip coal mine, one of the largest open pit mines in Turkey, is located in Central Anatolia and provides coal to a thermal power station. Coal production is carried out in two adjacent open pits, the Central Pit and South Pit. A large-scale spoil pile instability over an area of 0.3 km2 occurred within the dumping area of the Central pit. In addition, small-scale movement occurred in the outside dumping area. This paper outlines the results of field and laboratory investigations to describe the mechanisms of the spoil pile instabilities and to assess deformations monitored over a long period following the failure. Shear test results indicate that the interface between the floor and spoil material dumped by dragline has a negligible cohesion and is the most critical plane of weakness for spoil pile instability. Back analyses based on the method of limit equilibrium and the numerical modelling technique, and observations in the pit revealed that failure occurred along a combined sliding surface consisting of a circular surface through the spoil material itself and a planar surface passing along the interface between the spoil piles and floor. The analyses also indicated that pore water pressure ratios of about 0.25 satisfy limiting equilibrium condition and that rainfall about one month before the failure may be a contributing factor to the instability. Movement monitoring data obtained following the failure over a 1.5-year period suggested that the ongoing deformations were mainly due to compaction of the spoil material. Based on the

  2. Scour at Vertical Piles in Sand-Clay Mixtures under Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dey, Subhasish; Helkjær, Anders; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2011-01-01

    Marine sediments often contain sand-clay mixtures in widely varying proportions. This study presents the results of equilibrium scour and time variation of scour depths at circular piles embedded vertically in clay alone and sand-clay mixed beds under waves. Experiments were conducted in a wave...... flume with different proportions of sand-clay mixtures as bed sediments. Test results for the cases of steady current and sand alone under waves are used as references. The equilibrium scour depth reduces with an increase in clay proportion n (by weight) in a sand-clay mixture. Interestingly, the scour...... depth reductions for n=0.3 and 1 are almost equal, suggesting that when the clay proportion in a sand-clay mixture becomes 0.3, the sand-clay mixture behaves as if it were a clay-alone mixture, in relation to scour depths. The dependency of equilibrium scour depth on the Keulegan-Carpenter number...

  3. Improving agreement between static method and dynamic formula for driven cast-in-place piles : [technical brief].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Many transportation facility structures in Wisconsin are founded on driven round, closed-end, steel, pipe piles. The piles are driven to capacity and then filled with concrete. The Wisconsin Department of Transportation (WisDOT) has designed and driv...

  4. Simulation of a Casimir-like effect in a granular pile with avalanches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denisov, D.V.; Villanueva, Y. Y.; Wijngaarden, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Using a modified Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model for sand piles, we simulate a Casimir-like effect in a granular pile with avalanches. Results obtained in the simulation are in good agreement with results previously acquired experimentally: two parallel walls are attracted to each other at small

  5. Investigation and development of an effective, economical and efficient concrete pile splice : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Large structures like bridges or tall buildings are often built on deep foundations either precast concrete piles or cast-in-place drilled shafts. The pile or shaft must be long enough to reach : a rock layer or to provide sufficient resistance t...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC PROSPECTS FOR USAGE OF PULTRUDED COMPOSITE SHEET PILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURYA Alexander I.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the description of pultruded composite sheet piles. The article covers the production technology, advantages over other traditional materials, as well as environmental and economic prospects for expanding of the usage of composite sheet piling.

  7. Thermal integrity profiling for augered cast-in-place piles – implementation plan : summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Auger-cast-in-place (ACIP) piles are created when an auger the diameter and length of the desired pile is drilled into the ground. Concrete is pumped through the central axis of the auger as it is withdrawn, pulling up excavated soil as concrete fill...

  8. Axial compressive bearing capacity of piles in oil-contaminated sandy soil using FCV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, Amirhossein; Ebadi, Taghi; Eslami, Abolfazl; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2018-01-01

    Oil and its derivatives contaminate many soils and not only affect their chemical and biological properties but also their geotechnical properties. As oil contamination may deteriorate the functioning of piles, this paper addresses the effects of oil contamination on soil–pile interactions. Axial

  9. Effect of incipient decay on compressive strength and stiffness of timber piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop guidelines for bench marking strength and stiffness properties of deteriorated in-service timber piles as a function of the age of the pile and the in-service environment. A parallel research project undertaken t...

  10. Estimating Setup of Piles Driven into Louisiana Clayey Soils : Tech Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Geotechnical engineers and researchers (Seed and Reese 1955, Long et al. 1999, and Bullock et al. 2005) have reported for many years that the axial capacity of a driven pile may increase over time, which is usually referred to as pile setup or freeze...

  11. Improving agreement between static method and dynamic formula for driven cast-in-place piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This study focuses on comparing the capacities and lengths of piling necessary as determined with a static method and with a dynamic formula. Pile capacities and their required lengths are determined two ways: 1) using a design and computed method, s...

  12. Estimating setup of driven piles into Louisiana clayey soils : tech summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    Geotechnical engineers and researchers (Seed and Reese 1955, Long et al. 1999, and Bullock et al. 2005) have reported for many years : that the axial capacity of a driven pile may increase over time, which is usually referred to as pile setup or free...

  13. 77 FR 2701 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Placement for ORPC Maine's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... stock(s) for subsistence uses (where relevant), and if the permissible methods of taking and... sources, including: Small explosives, impact pile driving, and airgun arrays. Quantitative data on... seafloor geology in the proposed action area is predominantly gravel and cobbles. Pile driving (resulting...

  14. Assessment of the potential quality of preservative-treated pilings removed from service : [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; John W. Forsman; John R. Erickson; Robert J. Ross; Douglas J. Gardner; Gary D. McGinnis; Rodney C. DeGroot

    1999-01-01

    Preservative-treated wood products are important construction materials. Preservative-treated wood pilings, after removal from service, constitute a major disposal problem for managers of waterfront facilities. For example, approximately 7,000 to 8,000 tons of mechanically or biologically deteriorated wood pilings are currently removed from U.S. naval facilities...

  15. 76 FR 67419 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Piling and Structure Removal in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... minutes of hammer vibration over an 8-hour period. After vibration, a choker is used to lift the pile out... minimize the risk of direct injury from the equipment or from a piling or structure breaking free; The DNR... a maximum of 80 dB. The soft start method involves a reduced energy vibration from the hammer for...

  16. Pile mixing increases greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H K; Mulbry, W; White, J W; Kondrad, S L

    2011-02-01

    The effect of pile mixing on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during dairy manure composting was determined using large flux chambers designed to completely cover replicate pilot-scale compost piles. GHG emissions from compost piles that were mixed four times during the 80 day trial were approximately 20% higher than emissions from unmixed (static) piles. For both treatments, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) accounted for 75-80%, 18-21%, and 2-4% of GHG emissions, respectively. Seventy percent of CO(2) emissions and 95% of CH(4) emissions from all piles occurred within first 23 days. By contrast, 80-95% of N(2)O emissions occurred after this period. Mixed and static piles released 2 and 1.6 kg GHG (CO(2)-Eq.) for each kg of degraded volatile solids (VS), respectively. Our results suggest that to minimize GHG emissions, farmers should store manure in undisturbed piles or delay the first mixing of compost piles for approximately 4 weeks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Main issues of pile foundation at waterfront development and its prevention method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manap, N.; Tan, K. Y.; Syahrom, N.

    2017-12-01

    Pile foundation is widely used in construction and building marine structures. This is because pile foundation is an important structure and should have long-term durability. However, in waterfront development, a lot of issues from the seawater should be considered distinctively because it consists of many problems that can affect the building structure especially the foundation of the building. Thus, a research should be conducted to identify issues of pile foundation at waterfront development and determine its prevention methods. The research was carried out through interviews with the developers and contractors from the projects of Lexis Hibiscus at Port Dickson, Negeri Sembilan and Redevelopment for Deep-Water Facilities at Quay 6 in Pasir Gudang, Johor, Malaysia. The objectives of this research are to identify issues of pile foundation and to determine the prevention methods of pile foundation issues at waterfront development. All respondents agreed that the main issues of pile foundations at waterfront development are the wave and tide condition. The prevention methods of the issue faced at waterfront development that are most frequently used for the pile foundation are coating system and concrete cover. This research is beneficial to all developers and contractors to ensure pile foundations at waterfront development can be protected by using the prevention methods.

  18. Effect of heat build-up on carbon emissions in chimato compost piles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine impacts of heat build-up of chimato compost piles TD0, TD20, TD40, TD50, TD60, TD80 and TD100, made by blending maize stalks with 0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100% Tithonia diversifolia, respectively, on carbon losses and emissions during composting. Compost piles temperatures ...

  19. An efficient model for prediction of underwater noise due to pile driving at large ranges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, M.J.J.; Binnerts, B.; Jong, C.A.F. de; Ainslie, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Modelling the sound levels in the water column due to pile driving operations nearby and out to large distances from the pile is crucial in assessing the likely impact on marine life. Standard numerical techniques for modelling the sound radiation from mechanical structures such as the finite

  20. Vegetation recovery in slash-pile scars following conifer removal in a grassland-restoration experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles B. Halpern; Joseph A. Antos; Liam M. Beckman

    2014-01-01

    A principal challenge to restoring tree-invaded grasslands is the removal of woody biomass. Burning of slash piles to reduce woody residues from forest restoration practices generates intense, prolonged heating, with adverse effects on soils and vegetation. In this study, we examined vegetation responses to pile burning following tree removal from conifer-invaded...

  1. Mineralogical and micromorphological modifications in soil affected by slash pile burn

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. M. Nobles; W. J. Massman; M. Mbila; G. Butters

    2010-01-01

    Silvicultural practices, such as slash pile burning, are commonly used for fire and ecosystem management. This management technique can drastically alter chemical, physical and biological soil properties due to the high temperatures achieved during the prolonged severe burn. Little is known, however, about the impact of high-temperature slash pile burning on soil...

  2. Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for playbacks of multiple pile driving strike sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Hoek, L.; Gransier, R.; Jong, C.A.F. de

    2013-01-01

    Pile driving is presently the most common method used to attach wind turbines to the sea bed. To assess the impact of pile driving sounds on harbor porpoises, it is important to know at what distance these sounds can be detected. Using a psychophysical technique, a male porpoise’s hearing thresholds

  3. Development of LRFD procedures for bridge pile foundations in Iowa - volume I : an electronic database for PIle LOad Tests (PILOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    For well over 100 years, the Working Stress Design (WSD) approach has been the traditional basis for geotechnical design with regard to settlements or failure conditions. However, considerable effort has been put forth over the past couple of decades...

  4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Use for Wood Chips Pile Volume Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokroš, M.; Tabačák, M.; Lieskovský, M.; Fabrika, M.

    2016-06-01

    The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles is a challenge for applied research. Many technologies are developed and then researcher are looking up for their application in different sectors. Therefore, we decided to verify the use of the unmanned aerial vehicle for wood chips pile monitoring. We compared the use of GNSS device and unmanned aerial vehicle for volume estimation of four wood chips piles. We used DJI Phantom 3 Professional with the built-in camera and GNSS device (geoexplorer 6000). We used Agisoft photoscan for processing photos and ArcGIS for processing points. Volumes calculated from pictures were not statistically significantly different from amounts calculated from GNSS data and high correlation between them was found (p = 0.9993). We conclude that the use of unmanned aerial vehicle instead of the GNSS device does not lead to significantly different results. Tthe data collection consumed from almost 12 to 20 times less time with the use of UAV. Additionally, UAV provides documentation trough orthomosaic.

  5. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE USE FOR WOOD CHIPS PILE VOLUME ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokroš

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of unmanned aerial vehicles is a challenge for applied research. Many technologies are developed and then researcher are looking up for their application in different sectors. Therefore, we decided to verify the use of the unmanned aerial vehicle for wood chips pile monitoring. We compared the use of GNSS device and unmanned aerial vehicle for volume estimation of four wood chips piles. We used DJI Phantom 3 Professional with the built-in camera and GNSS device (geoexplorer 6000. We used Agisoft photoscan for processing photos and ArcGIS for processing points. Volumes calculated from pictures were not statistically significantly different from amounts calculated from GNSS data and high correlation between them was found (p = 0.9993. We conclude that the use of unmanned aerial vehicle instead of the GNSS device does not lead to significantly different results. Tthe data collection consumed from almost 12 to 20 times less time with the use of UAV. Additionally, UAV provides documentation trough orthomosaic.

  6. Study on Dynamic Characteristics of Heavy Machine Tool-Composite Pile Foundation-Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Li-Gang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy duty computer numerical control machine tools have characteristics of large self-weight, load and. The insufficiency of foundation bearing capacity leads to deformation of lathe bed, which effects machining accuracy. A combined-layer foundation model is created to describe the pile group foundation of multi-soil layer in this paper. Considering piles and soil in pile group as transversely isotropic material, equivalent constitutive relationship of composite foundation is constructed. A mathematical model is established by the introduction of boundary conditions, which is based on heavy duty computer numerical control machine tools-composite pile foundation-soil interaction system. And then, the response of different soil and pile depth is studied by a case. The model improves motion accuracy of machine tools.

  7. Probabilistic pseudostatic analysis of pile in laterally spreading ground: Two layer soil profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda Farag

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Coupling the finite element model of pile under lateral spread with the Monte Carlo Simulation is frequently prohibited by excessive lengthily computations. In the present paper, a simplified pseudostatic method is integrated with an improved response surface scheme to evaluate the reliability of pile subjected to lateral spread. The pseudostatic model takes both geometric and soil nonlinearities into account, while, the response surface formulation takes; load, geometry, material and model uncertainties into consideration. First; the improved response surface scheme is suggested and validated with the help of a simple example. Then, the pseudostatic model of a full size pile under lateral spread is integrated with the improved response surface scheme in order to assess the pile reliability. In the considered example, for both operational and structural possible modes of failure, it has been found that the most influential random variables are lateral displacement, and pile radius, respectively.

  8. Simplified calculation methods for all-vertical-piled wharf in offshore deep water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-zhan; He, Lin-lin

    2017-04-01

    All-vertical-piled wharf is a kind of high-piled wharf, but it is extremely different from the traditional ones in some aspects, such as the structural property, bearing characteristics, failure mechanism, and static or dynamic calculation methods. In this paper, the finite element method (FEM) and theoretical analysis method are combined to analyze the structural property, bearing behavior and failure mode of the all-vertical-piled wharf in offshore deep water, and to establish simplified calculation methods determining the horizontal static ultimate bearing capacity and the dynamic response for the all-vertical-piled wharf. Firstly, the bearing capability and failure mechanism for all-vertical-piled wharf are studied by use of FEM, and the failure criterion is put forward for all-vertical-piled wharf based on the `plastic hinge'. According to the failure criterion and P-Y curve method, the simplified calculation method of the horizontal static ultimate bearing capacity for all-vertical-piled wharf is proposed, and it is verified that the simplified method is reasonable by comparison with the FEM. Secondly, the displacement dynamic magnification factor for the all-vertical-piled wharf under wave cyclic loads and ship impact loads is calculated by the FEM and the theory formula based on the single degree of freedom (SDOF) system. The results obtained by the two methods are in good agreement with each other, and the simplified calculation method of the displacement dynamic magnification factor for all-vertical-piled wharf under dynamic loads is proposed. Then the simplified calculation method determining the dynamic response for the all-vertical-piled wharf is proposed in combination with P-Y curve method. That is, the dynamic response of the structure can be obtained through the static calculation results of P-Y curve method multiplied by the displacement dynamic magnification factor. The feasibility of the simplified dynamic response method is verified by

  9. A three-dimensional vibroacoustic model for the prediction of underwater noise from offshore pile driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouvalas, A.; Metrikine, A. V.

    2014-04-01

    Steel monopiles are nowadays widely used as foundations for a large number of offshore structures. The installation procedure commonly involves a pile driving process which can last up to several hours depending upon pile dimensions, soil conditions and input energy of the hydraulic hammer. In impact pile driving, a hydraulic hammer delivers a series of hammer blows at the head of the pile that drive the pile into the sediment. Each hammer strike results in pile vibrations that emit strong impulsive sounds into the water column which can be harmful for the marine ecosystem. With today's increasing concern regarding the environmental impact of such operations, engineering tools which will be able to provide reliable predictions of the underwater noise levels are required. In this study, a linear semi-analytical formulation of the coupled vibroacoustics of a complete pile-water-soil interaction model is addressed. The pile is described by a high order thin shell theory whereas both water and soil are modelled as three-dimensional continua. Results obtained with the developed model indicate that the near-field response in the water column consists mainly of pressure conical waves generated by the supersonic compressional waves in the pile excited by the impact hammer. The soil response is dominated by shear waves with almost vertical polarization. The Scholte waves are also generated at the water-seabed interface which can produce pressure fluctuations in the water column that are particularly significant close to the sea floor. The effects of soil elasticity and pile size are thoroughly investigated and their influence on the generated pressure levels is highlighted. The results are also compared with those ones of a similar model in which the soil is treated as an equivalent acoustic fluid. It is shown that the latter approximation can yield inaccurate results at low frequencies especially for harder soil sediments.

  10. Optimal Pulse Processing, Pile-Up Decomposition, and Applications of Silicon Drift Detectors at LCLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaj, G.; Kenney, C. J.; Dragone, A.; Carini, G.; Herrmann, S.; Hart, P.; Tomada, A.; Koglin, J.; Haller, G.; Boutet, S.; Messerschmidt, M.; Williams, G.; Chollet, M.; Dakovski, G.; Nelson, S.; Pines, J.; Song, S.; Thayer, J.

    2017-11-01

    Silicon drift detectors (SDDs) revolutionized spectroscopy in fields as diverse as geology and dentistry. For a subset of experiments at ultra-fast, x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs), SDDs can make substantial contributions. Often the unknown spectrum is interesting, carrying science data, or the background measurement is useful to identify unexpected signals. Many measurements involve only several discrete photon energies known a priori. We designed a pulse function (a combination of gradual step and exponential decay function) and demonstrated that for individual pulses the signal amplitude, peaking time, and pulse amplitude are interrelated and the signal amplitude and peaking time are obtained for each pulse by fitting. Avoiding pulse shaping reduced peaking times to tens of nanoseconds, resulting in reduced pulse pile-up and allowing decomposition of remaining pulse pile-up at photon separation times down to 100~ns while yielding time-of-arrival information with precision of 10~nanoseconds. At pulsed sources or high photon rates, photon pile-up still occurs. We showed that the area of one photon peaks is not suitable for estimating high photon rates while pile-up spectrum fitting is relatively simple and preferable to pile-up spectrum deconvolution. We developed a photon pile-up model for constant intensity sources, extended it to variable intensity sources (typical for FELs) and used it to fit a complex pile-up spectrum, demonstrating its accuracy. Based on the pile-up model, we developed a Bayesian pile-up decomposition method that allows decomposing pile-up of single events with up to 6 photons from 6 monochromatic lines with 99% accuracy. The usefulness of SDDs will continue into the x-ray FEL era of science. Their successors, the ePixS hybrid pixel detectors, already offer hundreds of pixels, each with similar performance to an SDD, in a compact, robust and affordable package.

  11. Production Test No. 305-9-P, poisoning effectiveness and uniformity of myrnalloy slugs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wende, C.W.J.

    1946-04-02

    This report discusses the poisoning effectiveness and uniformity of the first production batch of 33 myrnalloy slugs which was tested in the 305 Test Pile on February 26, 1946, prior to charging into the D Pile in accordance with Production Test No. 105-49-P, supplement A.

  12. 77 FR 69797 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Driving in Port Townsend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Specified Activities; Pile Driving in Port Townsend Bay, WA AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) and Steller sea lions (Eumatopius jubatus) incidental to pile... transfer span, bridge seat, and lift cylinder shafts. During the project, up to 56 piles will be removed...

  13. 76 FR 51947 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Driving in the Columbia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... Specified Activities; Pile Driving in the Columbia River, WA AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to pile driving during construction of the Terminal 5 Bulk...), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and Steller sea lions (Eumatopius jubatus) incidental to pile...

  14. 77 FR 39471 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Driving in Port Townsend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Specified Activities; Pile Driving in Port Townsend Bay, WA AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to pile driving during... elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) and Steller sea lions (Eumatopius jubatus) incidental to pile...

  15. 77 FR 32943 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Pile Driving in the Columbia River, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Specified Activities; Pile Driving in the Columbia River, WA AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS..., incidental to pile driving during construction of the Terminal 5 Bulk Potash Handling Facility. DATES... (Eumatopius jubatus) ] incidental to pile driving activities conducted during the construction of the Terminal...

  16. Quantification of sodium pentobarbital residues from equine mortality compost piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J; Farris, R; Parker, G; Bonhotal, J; Schwarz, M

    2015-04-01

    Sodium pentobarbital, a euthanasia drug, can persist in animal carcasses following euthanasia and can cause secondary toxicosis to animals that consume the remains. This experiment was conducted to observe the effects of composting on euthanized horse carcass degradation and sodium pentobarbital residues in compost material up to 367 d. Six separate compost bins were constructed on pastureland. Three bins served as the control while 3 served as the treatment. The carbonaceous material, or bulking agent, consisted of hardwood chips mixed with yard waste wetted to approximately 50% moisture content. Bulking agent was added to each bin at a depth of 0.46 m, creating the pad. A licensed veterinarian provided 6 horse carcasses for use in the experiment. These horses had required euthanasia for health reasons. All horses were weighed and then sedated with an intravenous injection of 8 mL of xylazine. After sedation the 3 horses in the treatment group were euthanized by intravenous injection of 60 mL of sodium pentobarbital. The 3 control group horses were anesthetized by intravenous injection of 15 mL of ketamine hydrochloride and then humanely euthanized by precise gunshot to the temporal lobe. Following euthanasia, each carcass was placed on the center of the pad and surrounded with 0.6 m of additional bulking agent. Serum and liver samples were obtained immediately following death. Compost samples were obtained on d 7, 14, 28, 56, 84, 129, 233, and 367 while soil samples were obtained on d -1 and 367. Each sample was analyzed for sodium pentobarbital concentration. Compost pile and ambient temperatures were also recorded. Composting successfully degraded soft tissue with only large bones remaining. Data illustrate that sodium pentobarbital was detectable up to 367 d in compost piles with no clear trend of concentration reduction. Drug residues were detected in soil samples indicating that sodium pentobarbital leached from the carcass and through the pad. These

  17. Prehistoric Packrats Piled Up Clues to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kenneth L.

    2008-01-01

    Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey and Northern Arizona University studying climate change in the Southwestern United States are getting a helping hand?or would that be paw??from prehistoric packrats. By hoarding parts of animals and plants, including seeds and leaves, in garbage piles or ?middens,? these bushy-tailed rodents preserved crucial ecological and environmental information about the past. From these middens, scientists are able to reconstruct plant communities and natural systems from as long ago as 50,000 years. The contents of middens allow scientists to understand how ecosystems responded to rapid, large-scale climate changes of the past. The insights gained from midden research could offer clues to future changes driven by rapid climate shifts.

  18. A prospective study of outcome from rubber band ligation of piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, R J; Thomson, W H F

    2006-02-01

    With the recent introduction of stapled anopexy it is timely to review the benefits of existing treatment options for piles. This study investigates the effectiveness and safety of rubber band ligation (RBL) of piles in the outpatient setting. Two hundred and fifty-two consecutive patients referred with piles in an 18-month period were studied prospectively. In those patients deemed suitable for banding of piles, data were collected on symptoms, proctoscopic appearance and degree of piles. Short and long-term outcome data were recorded for success of treatment and complications. Of 203 patients considered suitable and who attended for RBL, 176 kept their follow-up appointment. One hundred and forty-eight (84%) had been rendered symptom-free. A third of patients, however, had proctoscopic evidence of persistent piles, whilst in half of those patients with continuing symptoms the anal cushions appeared normal. Six (3%) patients had suffered a complication. Long-term follow-up by questionnaire found that 44% of respondents remained asymptomatic at a median of 46 months from banding. Six (5%) of 117 responders to the questionnaire had, though previously normal, suffered a postbanding impairment of continence. Most patients with piles of any degree can be safely managed by rubber band ligation, but return of symptoms in the long term affects more than half of patients treated.

  19. THE RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF EXISTING REINFORCED CONCRETE PILES IN PERMAFROST REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir S. Utkin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the general problem of safe operation of buildings and structures with the dynamics of permafrost in Russia and other countries. The global warming on Earth will lead to global disasters such as failures of buildings and structures. The main reason of these failures will be a reduction of bearing capacity and the reliability of foundations. It is necessary to organize the observations (monitoring for the process of reducing the bearing capacity of foundations to prevent such accidents and reduce negative consequences, to development of preventive measures and operational methods for the piles reliability analysis. The main load-bearing elements of the foundation are reinforced concrete piles and frozen ground. Reinforced concrete piles have a tendency to decrease the bearing capacity and reliability of the upper (aerial part and the part in the soil. The article discusses the problem of reliability analysis of existing reinforced concrete piles in upper part in permafrost regions by the reason of pile degradation in the contact zone of seasonal thawing and freezing soil. The evaluation of the probability of failure is important in itself, but also it important for the reliability of foundation: consisting of piles and frozen soil. Authors offers the methods for reliability analysis of upper part of reinforced concrete piles in the contact zone with seasonally thawed soil under different number of random variables (fuzzy variables in the design mathematical model of a limit state by the strength criterion.

  20. Modeling Global-Scale Craters in Rubble Piles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Travis; Korycansky, D. G.; Asphaug, E.

    2012-10-01

    We model large craters in rubble piles by initiating a velocity field according to the Maxwell Z-Model in a simulated rubble pile. Open Dynamics Engine (ODE, www.ode.org), as used in similar studies (Korycansky and Asphaug 2009, Korycansky and Plesko 2011), is used here to simulate icosahedra of varied dimensions bound by self-gravity and friction. ODE employs sophisticated collision detection and constraint-force solvers in addition to solving equations of rigid body motion. The engine has been benchmarked in situations where the solutions are readily available through laboratory studies or analytical calculation such as the angle of repose of polyhedra in an open-walled box and a rectangular box sliding on an inclined plane (Korycansky and Asphaug 2010 LPSC). Using solutions of the Z-Model as an initial condition for crater excavation greatly reduces the number of parameters to study. Dynamical evolution of the velocity field is followed to several gravitational timescales. Our simple study, a precursor to using explicit SPH-derived flow fields, does not consider the time dependent nature of the radial velocity flow strength term, α(t), nor the Z-Model’s velocity field contribution beyond t=0. A constant value of Z=2.7 is used. The simulation serves as a laboratory for investigating the flow strength term in observed craters such as the Stickney crater on Phobos, and as a testbed for exploring the physical effects of shear bulking and other aspects of granular flow in asteroid and comet collisional evolution.

  1. Rubble-pile Simulations Using The Open Dynamics Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korycansky, Donald; Asphaug, E.

    2008-09-01

    We describe a series of calculations of low-speed collisions of km-scale rubble piles (i.e. asteroids or planetesimals), similar to previous work (Korycansky and Asphaug 2006). The rubble piles are aggregates of polyhedra held together by gravity and friction. Collision velocities are typically of order 1 to 100 m/sec.In this work we make use of a so-called "physics engine" to solve the equations of rigid-body motion and collisions of the polyhedra. Such code libraries have been primarily developed for computer simulations and games. The chief advantage of these libraries is the inclusion of sophisticated algorithms for collision detection, which we have found to be the main computational bottleneck in our calculations. The package we have used is the Open Dynamics Engine, a freely available open-source library (www.ode.org). It solves the equations of motion to first-order accuracy in time and utilizes a fast algorithm for collision detection. We have found a factor of approximately 30 speed-up for our calculations, allowing the exploration of a much larger range of parameter space and the running of multiple calculations in order to sample the stochasticity of the results. For the calculations we report on here, the basic model is the collision of an impactor in the range 0.1--1 km in diameter with a target of 1 km diameter.argets are modeled with 1000 polyhedral elements and impactors modeled with 1 to 1000 elements depending on mass. Collisions of objects with both equal-mass elements, and elements chosen from a power-law distribution, are studied. We concentrate on determining the energy required for catastrophic disruption (Q*D) as a function of impactor/target mass atio and impactor parameter for off-center collisions. This work has been supported by NASA Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program grant NNX07AQ04G.

  2. Multivariate adaptive regression splines and neural network models for prediction of pile drivability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wengang Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Piles are long, slender structural elements used to transfer the loads from the superstructure through weak strata onto stiffer soils or rocks. For driven piles, the impact of the piling hammer induces compression and tension stresses in the piles. Hence, an important design consideration is to check that the strength of the pile is sufficient to resist the stresses caused by the impact of the pile hammer. Due to its complexity, pile drivability lacks a precise analytical solution with regard to the phenomena involved. In situations where measured data or numerical hypothetical results are available, neural networks stand out in mapping the nonlinear interactions and relationships between the system's predictors and dependent responses. In addition, unlike most computational tools, no mathematical relationship assumption between the dependent and independent variables has to be made. Nevertheless, neural networks have been criticized for their long trial-and-error training process since the optimal configuration is not known a priori. This paper investigates the use of a fairly simple nonparametric regression algorithm known as multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS, as an alternative to neural networks, to approximate the relationship between the inputs and dependent response, and to mathematically interpret the relationship between the various parameters. In this paper, the Back propagation neural network (BPNN and MARS models are developed for assessing pile drivability in relation to the prediction of the Maximum compressive stresses (MCS, Maximum tensile stresses (MTS, and Blow per foot (BPF. A database of more than four thousand piles is utilized for model development and comparative performance between BPNN and MARS predictions.

  3. The single pile classification: a new tool for the classification of haemorrhoidal disease and the comparison of treatment results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbetti, C; Giani, I; Novelli, E; Fucini, C; Martellucci, Jacopo

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the paper is to compare Goligher Classification with the Single Pile Hemorrhoid Classification (SPHC) to show the possible bias and limits of Goligher's use and the possible advantage with the employment of the new classification. SPHC considers the number of pathological piles(N), the characteristics of each internal pile and the characteristics of each external pile, reporting the presence of a fibrous inelastic redundant pile(F), the presence of the subversion of dentate line or the congestion of the external pile(E) and the presence of not tolerated skin tags(S). From September 2010 to December 2012, 197 consecutive patients were analysed according to both classifications. Considering pathological piles, I and II Goligher patients showed a complete agreement between pathological pile and grade, III Goligher patients had 80.5 % of pathological piles of III grade while IV Goligher patients had only 44.3 % of IV grade pathological piles (p < 0.001). Regarding the distribution of the other anatomical variables: F, E, S described in SPHC, the results showed that F was present in 18.3 % while ES was present in 46.2 %. Goligher's Classification has showed to be an inadequate tool to overview surgical outcome or to compare surgical procedure, particularly for high grades, while SPHC showed to be a feasible instrument both to describe and to compare patients affected by hemorrhoid disease.

  4. Pull-Out Resistance Capacity of a New Perfobond Shear Connector for Steel Pile Cap Strengthening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a new type of the perfobond shear connector, which can be used to strengthen the steel pile cap embedded into the structure foundation, and evaluates its pull-out resistance capacity by performing a test on ten specimens. Test parameters include the embedment length of the shear connector, existence of transverse rebars passing through holes in the shear connector, and their shape, size, and number. The pull-out load versus slip curve is plotted for all specimens, and their failure modes are identified. The effects of the test parameters on the peak pull-out load are examined in this work. The test results show that the perfobond shear connector proposed in this study can retain the peak pull-out load up to 6 times higher than the one without any holes. This indicates that the existence of holes in the shear connector enables the dowel action of concrete inside the hole, resulting in the improvement of the shear resistance capacity of the connector.

  5. Environment Impact Analysis of Shield Passing Alongside Bridge Pile Platform Using Three Dimensional Numerical Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yanliang; Shi, Wenjun; Han, Tongyin; Qin, Zhichao; Du, Shouji

    2017-10-01

    The shield method has many advantages in the construction of urban subway, and has become the preferred method for the construction of urban subway tunnel. Taking Shijiazhuang metro line 3 (administrative center station - garden park station interval) Passing alongside bridge as the engineering background, double shield crossing the bridge pile foundation model was set up. The deformation and internal force of the pile foundation during the construction of the shield were analyzed. Pile stress caused by shield construction increases, but the maximum stress is less than the design strength; the maximum surface settlement caused by the construction of 10.2 mm, the results meet the requirements of construction.

  6. Comparison of Design Methods for Axially Loaded Driven Piles in Cohesionless Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Kristina; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2012-01-01

    For offshore wind turbines on deeper waters, a jacket sub-structure supported by axially loaded piles is thought to be the most suitable solution. The design method recommended by API and two CPT-based design methods are compared for two uniform sand profiles. The analysis show great difference...... in the predictions of bearing capacities calculated by means of the three methods for piles loaded in both tension and compression. This implies that further analysis of the bearing capacity of axially loaded piles in sand should be conducted....

  7. Methods for Predicting Potential Impacts of Pile-Driving Noise on Endangered Sturgeon During Bridge Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Justin; Jacobs, Fred; Conway, Robert; Popper, Arthur N; Moese, Mark; Rollino, John; Racca, Roberto; Martin, Bruce; MacGillivray, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The potential impacts of pile-driving noise on Hudson River sturgeon during construction of the New NY Bridge were predicted. Abundance data for shortnose and Atlantic sturgeon derived from fisheries sampling were combined with data about the spatial extent of pile-driving noise. This approach was used to calculate the number of sturgeon that could occur within sound level isopleths exceeding peak and cumulative noise criteria used by the National Marine Fisheries Service to determine the incidental take of sturgeon. The number of sturgeon subject to the potential onset of physiological effects during pile driving was predicted to be 35-41 fish for each species.

  8. Flow and bed shear stresses in scour protections around a pile in a current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Wedel; Liu, Xiaofeng; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2013-01-01

    Transport of bed sediment inside and beneath the scour protection may cause deformation and sinking of the scour protection for pile foundations. This may reduce the stability of the mono pile and change the natural frequency of the dynamic response of an offshore wind turbine installed...... on it in an unfavourable manner. Using physical models and 3D computational fluid dynamic (CFD) numerical simulations, the velocity and bed shear stresses are investigated in complex scour protections around mono piles in steady current. In the physical model the scour protections consisted of an upper cover layer...

  9. Backfilling of a Scour Hole around a Pile in Waves and Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Petersen, Thor Ugelvig; Locatelli, Luca

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of the backfilling of scour holes around circular piles. Scour holes around a pile are generated either by a current or a wave. Subsequently, the flow climate is changed from current to wave, combined waves and current, or wave...... around the pile for the same wave (or combined waves and current) climate. The time scale of backfilling has been determined as a function of three parameters, namely, (1) the Keulegan-Carpenter number of the initial wave or current (which generates the initial scour hole); (2) that of the subsequent...

  10. Simulation and Advanced Second Moment Reliability Analyses of Pile Groups Using CPGA-R: Formulation, User’s Guide, and Example Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Skin Friction and Tip Capacities of Piles ..................................................................... 99  Appendix B: CPGA-R Probability...features the summary, conclusions, and future research.  Appendix A summarizes the calculation of skin friction and tip capacities of piles . These...model considers variation of pile displacement, skin friction resistance, and axial force along the pile length (Hartman et al. 1989). The axial

  11. Numerical simulation of the throwing power of cathodic prevention applied to marine reinforced concrete piles by means of sacrificial anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, Luca; Redaelli, Elena [Politecnico di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' G. Natta' , Via Mancinelli, 7, 20131 Milan (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    The paper deals with the determination of current and potential distribution in reinforced concrete elements partially submerged in seawater aimed at predicting the throwing power of cathodic prevention applied by means of sacrificial anodes. Previous laboratory studies carried out on reinforced concrete columns 15 cm x 15 cm x 120 cm showed that the use of sacrificial anodes placed in the solution at the bottom of the column could provide protection of corroding steel bars in the emerged part of the pile up to about 60 cm from the water level. However, if sacrificial anodes were applied when the concrete was chloride free and steel bars were still passive, even the highest bar, placed at 1 m from the level of water, was protected. This is due to the higher polarizability of passive steel, that makes the throwing power of cathodic prevention higher compared to that of cathodic protection. In order to extend the results obtained on small-scale specimens to elements of higher dimensions, numerical simulations of current and potential distribution were carried out. Two-dimensional models were set up of reinforced concrete piles containing steel bars at different heights protected with sacrificial anodes placed in the water in which they were partially submerged. Boundary conditions describing the electrochemical behaviour of bars were obtained from polarisation curves measured on the previously mentioned columns. Values of concrete conductivity at different heights from the water level were also obtained from those tests. Several cases were considered, representative of conditions differing in electrochemical behaviour of steel bars, dimensions of element, position of sacrificial anodes. The paper discusses the results obtained from the models and compares them in terms of the throwing power that can be reached by using sacrificial anodes immersed in the seawater to protect reinforcing steel bars in the emerged part of a pile. (authors)

  12. Mechanical and deformation analyses of pile foundation for supporting structure of off-shore wind turbine at Changhua coast in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. C.; Lin, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the bearing capacities and mechanical behaviors of pile foundation installed on the seabed of wind farm near Chang-Hua coast of western Taiwan for the supporting structure of offshore wind turbine. A series of three-dimensional (3-D) numerical modeling of pile foundation subjected to various types of combined loading were carried out using Plaix-3D finite element program to investigate the interactive behaviors between soil and pile. In the numerical modeling, pile diameter, pile length and pile spacing were selected as design parameters to inspect their effects on the bearing capacities and deformation behaviors of the pile foundation. For a specific design parameter combination, one can obtain the corresponding loading-displacement curve, various ultimate bearing capacities, V-H (Vertical-Horizontal combined loading) ultimate bearing capacity envelope, and p-ycurve of pile foundation. Numerical results indicate that: (1) Large displacement and plastic points at ultimate state mostly distribute and concentrate in the topsoil of seabed and around pile head. (2) The soil resistance on the soil-pile interface is ascending with the increases of depth, pile diameter and pile length. (3) The vertical and horizontal bearing capacities of pile group increase significantly with the increase of pile diameter. (4) The vertical and bending moment capacities of pile group increase greatly with the increase of pile length whereas the horizontal capacity is almost insensitive to pile length. (5) The bending moment of pile is highly influenced by the pile spacing. (6) For different design parameters, the shape of ultimate bearing capacity envelopes of pile group on V-H plane is similar while the envelopes will expand as the design parameters increase. For different loading levels of bending moment, the envelopes on V-H plane will contract gradually as the bending moment loading increasing.

  13. Effects of a large number of cycles on pile shaft resistance analyzed at the grain scale using x-ray tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreau-Malioche, Jeanne; Combe, Gaël; Toni, Jean-Benoît; Viggiani, Gioacchino

    2017-06-01

    This study presents the results of laboratory-scale cyclic loading tests performed on an instrumented pile in sand using x-ray micro tomography and three-dimensional (3D) image analysis techniques. The macroscopic behaviour of sand-pile interface shows a two-phases evolution during cycles with a non negligible increase of shaft friction in the second phase. A discrete version of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) is employed to analyze quantitatively the mechanisms occurring at the grain scale. Using segmented images this method is able to correlate and follow each grain individually between two configurations. Displacement fields are measured and compared for different amounts of cycles. Grain breakage and density evolution are investigated using grey level measurements. The results provide a better understanding of the phenomena observed at the macroscale for a high number of load cycles.

  14. Modelling temperature-dependent heat production over decades in High Arctic coal waste rock piles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollesen, Jørgen; Elberling, Bo; Jansson, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Subsurface heat production from oxidation of pyrite is an important process that may increase subsurface temperatures within coal waste rock piles and increase the release of acid mine drainage, AMD. Waste rock piles in the Arctic are especially vulnerable to changes in subsurface temperatures...... as the release of AMD normally is limited by permafrost. Here we show that temperatures within a 20 year old heat-producing waste rock pile in Svalbard (78°N) can be modelled by the one-dimensional heat and water flow model (CoupModel) with a new temperature-dependent heat-production module that includes both...... biological and chemical oxidation processes and heat source depletion over time. Inputs to the model are meteorological measurements, physical properties of the waste rock material and measured subsurface heat-production rates. Measured mean annual subsurface temperatures within the waste rock pile are up...

  15. The application of dynamic replacement method in deviation rectification of support pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Congwen

    2017-04-01

    The dynamic replacement method is appled widely to the soft soil treatment, but is seldom used in retificating pile deviation. By the ways of dynamic replacement method gravel block can form underground, the gravel block can be treated as reaction-froce base, the magnitude of squeeze force needed for retificating pile deviation is related to the scale of gravel block. Take a sheet pile retaining wall for instance, the treatment scheme and paramters calculating method for deviation rectification of support pile was put forward. The project case demonstrate that this method is effective when the layout of gravel column is reasonable to a certain degree, it is a good reference to similar projects.

  16. Internal force analysis of steel sheet pile cofferdam by considering the construction "path" effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong LIANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the process of installing inner support, the force loaded on the steel sheet pile is continuous, that is, the installation of inner support always happens after the accumulative deformation caused by inside and outside pressure difference of the steel sheet pile cofferdam. Taking the steel sheet pile cofferdam construction of a specially long span bridge as example, the paper puts forwards a spatial model of steel sheet pile cofferdam considering the construction “path” based on ANSYS. The model calculation result and the actual measurement result are compared. The results show that the model based on considering the “path” effects has a more similar calculating result with the measured value.

  17. Effect of calcium nitrite on the properties of concrete used in prestressed piles and beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluates the concretes in steam-cured prestressed piles and beams containing calcium nitrite as protection against chloride-induced corrosion of the steel strands and assesses their field performance over a 3-year period. Concretes contai...

  18. Upgrade of axially loaded pile-soil modeling with the implementation of LRFD design procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This report and the accompanying computer code (Software, WBUZPILE) describe the : characterization and analysis of piles under axial loads. A combination of different formulas : obtained from ALDOT long time experience along with fundamental equatio...

  19. Seismic assessment of WSDOT bridges with prestressed hollow core piles : part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report investigates the seismic performance of a reinforced concrete : bridge with prestressed hollow core piles. Both nonlinear static and nonlinear dynamic : analyses were carried out. A three-dimensional spine model of the bridge was : ...

  20. Optimization of stabilization of highway embankment slopes using driven piles : phase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This study determined the feasibility of using driven piles to stabilize highway embankment slopes. The activities : performed under this study were a detailed literature review, a national survey of state DOTs, a review of inspection and : stabiliza...