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Sample records for test meals rich

  1. A PUFA-rich diet improves fat oxidation following saturated fat-rich meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jada L; Miller, Mary K; Skillman, Hannah E; Paton, Chad M; Cooper, Jamie A

    2017-08-01

    To determine substrate oxidation responses to saturated fatty acid (SFA)-rich meals before and after a 7-day polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich diet versus control diet. Twenty-six, normal-weight, adults were randomly assigned to either PUFA or control diet. Following a 3-day lead-in diet, participants completed the pre-diet visit where anthropometrics and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were measured, and two SFA-rich HF meals (breakfast and lunch) were consumed. Indirect calorimetry was used to determine fat oxidation (Fox) and energy expenditure (EE) for 4 h after each meal. Participants then consumed a PUFA-rich diet (50 % carbohydrate, 15 % protein, 35 % fat, of which 21 % of total energy was PUFA) or control diet (50 % carbohydrate, 15 % protein, 35 % fat, of which 7 % of total energy was PUFA) for the next 7 days. Following the 7-day diet, participants completed the post-diet visit. From pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet, there was no change in RMR (16.3 ± 0.8 vs. 16.4 ± 0.8 kcal/20 min) or in incremental area under the curve for EE (118.9 ± 20.6-126.9 ± 14.1 kcal/8h, ns). Fasting respiratory exchange ratio increased from pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet only (0.83 ± 0.1-0.86 ± 0.1, p diet (0.03 ± 0.1-0.23 ± 0.1 g/15 min for cumulative Fox; p diet initiates greater fat oxidation after eating occasional high SFA meals compared to a control diet, an effect achieved in 7 days.

  2. C-Peptide, Baseline and Postprandial Insulin Resistance after a Carbohydrate-Rich Test Meal - Evidence for an Increased Insulin Clearance in PCOS Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stassek, J; Erdmann, J; Ohnolz, F; Berg, F D; Kiechle, M; Seifert-Klauss, V

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Known characteristics of patients with PCOS include infertility, menstrual disorders, hirsutism and also often insulin resistance. These symptoms increase with increasing body weight. In the LIPCOS study ( L ifestyle I ntervention for Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome [ PCOS ]) long-term changes of the PCOS in dependence on pregnancy and parenthood were systematically assessed. In the framework of the LIPCOS study, PCOS patients were given a standardised carbohydrate-rich test meal in order to examine glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The results were compared with those of a eumenorrhoeic control group who all had corresponding BMI values and corresponding ages. Methods and Patients 41 PCOS patients (without diabetes) and 68 controls received a standardised carbohydrate-rich test meal (260 kcal, 62 % carbohydrates, 32 % fat, 6 % proteins) in order to generate a submaximal insulin and glucose stimulation. The values were determined at baseline and postprandial after 60, 120 and 180 minutes. In addition, the corresponding C-peptide levels were recorded. Results In the PCOS patients (n = 41), the insulin secretion test after a standardised test meal showed almost identical baseline and postprandial insulin levels when compared with those of the age- and BMI-matched eumenorrhoeic controls (n = 68). In the PCOS patients, the baseline and postprandial glucose levels were significantly elevated (92.88 ± 10.28 [PCOS] vs. 85.07 ± 9.42 mg/dL [controls]; p PCOS patients formally exhibit a higher fasting insulin resistance than controls. In spite of the higher stimulated C-peptide levels, the insulin levels did not increase more strongly with increasing glucose levels than in controls which may be indicative of a higher insulin clearance in PCOS patients.

  3. Effects of a nitrate-rich meal on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Alex H; Bondonno, Catherine P; Croft, Kevin D; Puddey, Ian B; Woodman, Richard J; Rich, Lisa; Ward, Natalie C; Vita, Joseph A; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2013-11-30

    An increase in nitrate intake can augment circulating nitrite and nitric oxide. This may lead to lower blood pressure and improved vascular function. Green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, are rich sources of nitrate. We aimed to assess the acute effects of a nitrate-rich meal containing spinach on arterial stiffness and blood pressure in healthy men and women. Twenty-six participants aged 38-69years were recruited to a randomized controlled cross-over trial. The acute effects of two energy-matched (2000kJ) meals, administered in random order, were compared. The meals were either high nitrate (220mg of nitrate derived from spinach [spinach]) or low nitrate [control]. Outcome measurements were performed pre-meal and at specific time points up to 210min post meal. Spinach resulted in an eightfold increase in salivary nitrite and a sevenfold increase in salivary nitrate concentrations from pre-meal (Pnitrate-rich meal can lower systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure and increase large artery compliance acutely in healthy men and women. If sustained, these effects could contribute to better cardiovascular health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Factor VIIa response to a fat-rich meal does not depend on fatty acid composition: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mennen, L.; Maat, M. de; Meijer, G.; Zock, P.; Grobbee, D.; Kok, F.; Kluft, C.; Schouten, E.

    1998-01-01

    A fat-rich meal increases activated factor VII (FVIIa), but it is not clear whether this increase depends on the fatty acid composition of the meal. Therefore, we studied the FVIIa response to fat-rich meals with different fatty acid composition in a randomized controlled crossover trial and

  5. The effect of a home delivery meal service of energy- and protein-rich meals on quality of life in malnourished outpatients suffering from lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leedo, Eva; Gade, Josephine; Granov, Sabrina

    2017-01-01

    Undernutrition is prevalent in cancer patients and associated with increased incidence of complications and mortality. We investigated the effects of a home delivery meal service, providing a selection of energy-dense, protein-rich meals, on quality of life (QoL) in malnourished lung cancer....... Intervention exerted a significant positive effect on performance score after 12 wk (P = 0.047). Increased energy and protein intakes were strongly associated with improved QoL, functional score, hand grip strength, symptom and performance scores. Food delivery service with energy- and protein-rich main meals...

  6. [Response of pancreatic polypeptide to a protein rich meal in insulin non dependent diabetes melitus and autonomic neuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, N; Zamaklar, M; Novaković, R; Stajić, S

    1994-01-01

    Parasympathetic function and plasma hPP response to a protein rich meal were evaluated in 105 insulin non-dependent diabetic patients: 20 with autonomic neuropathy (group A), diagnosed by Clonidin test; 35 patients with neurophysiological evidence of polyneuropath (group B); 30 patients with autonomic neuropathy and polineuropathy (group C), and 20 patients without any sign of neuropathy (group D). Plasma hPP levels were determined by RIA using an anti-hPP antiserum, kindly provided by Prof. S. R. Bloom (Hammersmith Hospital, London). Blood was taken at 0. 45 and 60 minutes after the beginning of the meal. In groups A and C, the meal induced hPP increase was significantly lower than in group D (p 0.001). All group B patients had a marked increase in the peptide, similar to that in diabetics without neuropathy. These result ssuggest that diabetic autonomic neuropathy is associated with dysfunction of hPP secretion, and that the evaluation of hPP response to test meal may be a sensitive and simple method for the assessment of paraympathetic impairment in diabetes.

  7. Comparison of two consecutive fat-rich and carbohydrate-rich meals on postprandial myeloperoxidase response in women with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindhelm, Roger K; Alssema, Marjan; Diamant, Michaela; Teerlink, Tom; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Kok, Astrid; Kostense, Piet J; Nijpels, Giel; Heine, Robert J; Scheffer, Peter G

    2008-02-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Myeloperoxidase (MPO), expressed in leukocytes and released upon activation, is associated with CVD and endothelial dysfunction. Postprandial leukocyte recruitment and activation with subsequent MPO release may contribute to atherosclerosis and CVD. We hypothesized that MPO may increase in the postprandial state because of postprandial leukocyte recruitment and/or activation, especially in subjects with DM2. One hundred postmenopausal women, aged 50 to 65 years (66 with normal glucose metabolism [NGM] and 34 with DM2), received 2 consecutive fat-rich meals and 2 consecutive carbohydrate-rich meals on separate occasions. Blood samples were taken before (t = 0) and at 2, 4, and 8 hours after breakfast; lunch was given at t = 4. Plasma MPO concentration was measured by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The number of leukocytes in fasting blood samples was higher in DM2 compared with NGM (6.1 +/- 1.4 and 5.4 +/- 1.2 x 10(9)/L, respectively; P DM2 (51.4 +/- 12.9 and 54.5 +/- 18.4 mug/L, respectively; P = .39). Baseline MPO was positively associated with leukocytes (r = 0.20, P DM2, respectively (both P DM2 (fat-rich meals only). Our findings provide no support to our initial hypothesis that meal-induced release of MPO might be a mechanism that contributes to CVD risk.

  8. Normal endothelial function after meals rich in olive or safflower oil previously used for deep frying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M J; Sutherland, W H; McCormick, M P; Yeoman, D; de Jong, S A; Walker, R J

    2001-06-01

    Polyunsaturated fats are more susceptible to oxidation during heating than monounsaturated fats but their effects on endothelial function when heated are unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of meals rich in heat-modified safflower and olive oils on postprandial flow-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) in healthy men. Flow-mediated EDD and glyceryltrinitrate-induced endothelium-independent dilation of the brachial artery were investigated in 14 subjects before and 4 hours after meals rich in olive oil and safflower oil used hourly for deep-frying for 8 hours in a double-blind crossover study design. There were high levels of lipid oxidation products (peroxides and carbonyls) in both heated oils. Plasma triglycerides were markedly increased at 4 hours after heated olive oil (1.26 +/- 0.43 vs 2.06 +/- 0.97 mmol/L) and heated safflower oil (1.44 +/- 0.63 vs 1.99 +/- 0.88 mmol/L). There was no change in EDD between fasting and postprandial studies and the response during the postprandial period was not significantly (p = 0.51) different between the meals (heated olive oil: 4.9 +/- 2.2% vs 4.9 +/- 2.5%; heated safflower oil: 5.1 +/- 3.1% vs 5.6 +/- 3.4%). Meals rich in olive and safflower oils previously used for deep frying and containing high levels of lipid oxidation products increase postprandial serum triglycerides without affecting endothelial function. These findings suggest that relatively short-term use of these vegetable oils for frying may not adversely affect postprandial endothelial function when foods containing the heat-modified oils are consumed.

  9. Fructose intervention for 12 weeks does not impair glycemic control or incretin hormone responses during oral glucose or mixed meal tests in obese men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matikainen, N; Söderlund, S; Björnson, E

    2017-01-01

    were measured during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and triglycerides (TG), GLP-1, GIP and PYY during a mixed meal test before and after fructose intervention. Fructose intervention did not worsen glucose and insulin responses during OGTT, and GLP-1 and GIP responses during OGTT and fat-rich meal...... responses during OGTT or GLP-1, GIP or PYY responses during a mixed meal. Therefore, fructose intake, even accompanied with mild weight gain, increases in liver fat and worsening of postprandial TG profile, does not impair glucose tolerance or gut incretin response to oral glucose or mixed meal challenge....

  10. A cereal-based evening meal rich in indigestible carbohydrates increases plasma butyrate the next morning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Östman, Elin M; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2010-01-01

    , mean ± SD: 25.9 ± 3.2 y, BMI meals (50 g available starch) varying in content of indigestible carbohydrates. Each participant consumed all test meals in a random order on separate evenings. At a standardized breakfast following evening test meals......, the postprandial glucose response (incremental area under the curve, 0-120 min) was inversely related to plasma butyrate (r = -0.26; P meals composed of high-amylose barley kernels or high-ß-glucan barley kernels resulted in higher plasma butyrate...... concentrations the following morning compared with an evening meal with white wheat bread (P

  11. A simple labeled test meal for the evaluation of gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Keita; Tanabe, Satoshi; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Saigenji, Katsunori [Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine

    1994-10-01

    We developed a simple test meal for the evaluation of gastric emptying. Preparation of a test meal for routine clinical use in institutions should be as simple as possible. The newly developed test meal consists of instant noodles labeled with 37 MBq (1 mCi) technetium-99m and does not require the use of cooking utensils. The test meal was given with drinking water (180 ml) to healthy adult volunteers (6 men, 34.5[+-]2.2 years old) and gastric emptying was measured at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 80, 100, 120 minutes after the end of the meal, and results were compared with those derived without drinking water. The emptying pattern of the test meal with water exhibited an exponential pattern typical of a liquid meal, and that without water formed a linear pattern after an initial lag phase in keeping with gastric emptying of a solid meal. In addition, the test meal was given to 11 patients of diabetic gastroparesis (5 men, 6 women, 50.4[+-]4.5 years old), and gastric emptying was measured. At each period evaluated, emptying was significantly slower in diabetic gastroparesis than in healthy controls (6 men, 1 woman, 32.1[+-]3.0 years old). These results show that the test meal is reliable and applicable to the clinical assessment of gastric emptying, while fulfilling the need for simplicity. (author).

  12. A simple labeled test meal for the evaluation of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keita; Tanabe, Satoshi; Mitsuhashi, Toshiharu; Saigenji, Katsunori

    1994-01-01

    We developed a simple test meal for the evaluation of gastric emptying. Preparation of a test meal for routine clinical use in institutions should be as simple as possible. The newly developed test meal consists of instant noodles labeled with 37 MBq (1 mCi) technetium-99m and does not require the use of cooking utensils. The test meal was given with drinking water (180 ml) to healthy adult volunteers (6 men, 34.5±2.2 years old) and gastric emptying was measured at 0, 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 80, 100, 120 minutes after the end of the meal, and results were compared with those derived without drinking water. The emptying pattern of the test meal with water exhibited an exponential pattern typical of a liquid meal, and that without water formed a linear pattern after an initial lag phase in keeping with gastric emptying of a solid meal. In addition, the test meal was given to 11 patients of diabetic gastroparesis (5 men, 6 women, 50.4±4.5 years old), and gastric emptying was measured. At each period evaluated, emptying was significantly slower in diabetic gastroparesis than in healthy controls (6 men, 1 woman, 32.1±3.0 years old). These results show that the test meal is reliable and applicable to the clinical assessment of gastric emptying, while fulfilling the need for simplicity. (author)

  13. Influence of a subsequent meal on the oro-cecal transit time of a solid test meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, MG; Wachters-Hagedoorn, RE; Landman, K; Heimweg, J; Elzinga, H; Vonk, RJ

    Oro-cecal transit time (OCTT) is determined for clinical diagnostics of intestinal complaints and research purposes. Ingestion of a subsequent meal during the test period shortens the OCTT of a liquid test meal (glucose solution), as previously reported. This study was conducted to determine whether

  14. High-fat meals rich in EPA plus DHA compared with DHA only have differential effects on postprandial lipemia and plasma 8-isoprostane F2α concentrations relative to a control high-oleic acid meal: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcell, Robert; Latham, Sally H; Botham, Kathleen M; Hall, Wendy L; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline P D

    2014-10-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) plus docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation has beneficial cardiovascular effects, but postprandial influences of these individual fatty acids are unclear. The primary objective was to determine the vascular effects of EPA + DHA compared with DHA only during postprandial lipemia relative to control high-oleic acid meals; the secondary objective was to characterize the effects of linoleic acid-enriched high-fat meals relative to the control meal. We conducted a randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover trial of 4 high-fat (75-g) meals containing 1) high-oleic acid sunflower oil (HOS; control), 2) HOS + fish oil (FO; 5 g EPA and DHA), 3) HOS + algal oil (AO; 5 g DHA), and 4) high-linoleic acid sunflower oil (HLS) in 16 healthy men (aged 35-70 y) with higher than optimal fasting triacylglycerol concentrations (mean ± SD triacylglycerol, 1.9 ± 0.5 mmol/L). Elevations in triacylglycerol concentration relative to baseline were slightly reduced after FO and HLS compared with the HOS control (P acids after a mixed meal was inhibited after AO (Δ 0-3 h, P DHA-rich fish oil compared with DHA-rich AO, but these differences were not associated with consistent effects on postprandial vascular function or lipemia. More detailed analyses of polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived lipid mediators are required to determine possible divergent functional effects of single meals rich in either DHA or EPA. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01618071.

  15. Impulsivity and test meal intake among women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sysko, Robyn; Ojserkis, Rachel; Schebendach, Janet; Evans, Suzette M; Hildebrandt, Tom; Walsh, B Timothy

    2017-05-01

    Many patients with bulimia nervosa (BN) also meet criteria for a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD). In order to understand possible mechanisms contributing to the co-occurrence and perpetuation of these disorders, this study investigated the importance of impulsivity and test meal intake among patients with BN by comparing women with BN only (n = 18), BN and current/past AUDs (n = 13), and healthy controls (n = 12). All participants completed assessments of eating disorder symptoms, frequency of alcohol use, binge eating, and purging via questionnaires and semi-structured interviews over two sessions. Measures of impulsivity consisted of computerized and self-report measures, and laboratory test meals. Significant differences between individuals with BN with/without comorbid AUDs were not found for test meal intake, impulsivity measures, or self-reported psychological symptoms. As hypothesized, compared to healthy controls, individuals with BN had significantly higher scores on two subscales and the total score of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale, a trait measure of impulsivity, and consumed significantly more calories in the binge instruction meal. Total Barratt Impulsiveness Scale scores were also significantly related to kcal consumed during the laboratory test meal when individuals were instructed to binge eat (BN groups). Data from this study add to the existing literature implicating impulsivity in the psychopathology of disorders of binge eating, including BN, and also support the use of laboratory meals as a symptom-specific measure of this trait in eating disorder populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of a meal rich in medium-chain saturated fat on postprandial lipemia in relatives of type 2 diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietraszek, Anna; Hermansen, Kjeld; Pedersen, Steen B.

    2013-01-01

    tissue in REL and CON. METHODS: Seventeen REL and 17 CON received a fat-rich meal (79 energy percent from fat) based on medium-chain SFA (coconut oil). Plasma concentrations of triglycerides (TG), free-fatty acids, insulin, glucose, glucagon-like peptide-1, glucose-dependent insulintropic peptide...

  17. Differential effects of high-fat and high-carbohydrate isoenergetic meals on cardiac autonomic nervous system activity in lean and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentolouris, N; Tsigos, C; Perea, D; Koukou, E; Kyriaki, D; Kitsou, E; Daskas, S; Daifotis, Z; Makrilakis, K; Raptis, S A; Katsilambros, N

    2003-11-01

    Food ingestion can influence autonomic nervous system activity. This study compares the effects of 2 different isoenergetic meals on sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) and plasma norepinephrine (NE) levels, in lean and obese women. Fifteen lean and 15 obese healthy women were examined on 2 occasions: after a carbohydrate (CHO)-rich and after a fat-rich test meal. Measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, resting energy expenditure, plasma glucose, lipids, insulin, leptin, and NE, as well as spectral analysis of the HRV, were performed at baseline and every 1 hour for 3 hours after meals. At baseline, obese women had higher SNS activity than lean controls (higher values of low-to-high frequency ratio [LF/HF], 1.52 +/- 0.31 v 0.78 +/- 0.13, P=.04; and plasma NE levels, 405.6 +/- 197.9 v 240.5 +/- 95.8 pg/mL, Pmeal a greater increase in LF/HF and in plasma NE levels was observed in lean, compared to obese women (1.21 +/- 0.6 v 0.32 +/- 0.06, P=.04; and 102.9 +/- 35.4 v 38.7 +/- 12.3 pg/mL, P=.01, respectively), while no differences were observed after the fat-rich meal. Meal-induced thermogenesis was higher after the CHO-rich as compared to the fat-rich meal and was comparable between lean and obese women. Changes in HRV were not associated with the thermogenic response to the test meals. In conclusion, consumption of a CHO-rich meal causes greater cardiac SNS activation in lean than in obese women, while fat ingestion does not result in any appreciable change in either group. SNS activation does not appear to influence the thermic effect of the food in either lean or obese women.

  18. Preparation and testing of plant seed meal-based wood adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhongqi; Chapital, Dorselyn C

    2015-03-05

    Recently, the interest in plant seed meal-based products as wood adhesives has steadily increased, as these plant raw materials are considered renewable and environment-friendly. These natural products may serve as alternatives to petroleum-based adhesives to ease environmental and sustainability concerns. This work demonstrates the preparation and testing of the plant seed-based wood adhesives using cottonseed and soy meal as raw materials. In addition to untreated meals, water washed meals and protein isolates are prepared and tested. Adhesive slurries are prepared by mixing a freeze-dried meal product with deionized water (3:25 w/w) for 2 hr. Each adhesive preparation is applied to one end of 2 wood veneer strips using a brush. The tacky adhesive coated areas of the wood veneer strips are lapped and glued by hot-pressing. Adhesive strength is reported as the shear strength of the bonded wood specimen at break. Water resistance of the adhesives is measured by the change in shear strength of the bonded wood specimens at break after water soaking. This protocol allows one to assess plant seed-based agricultural products as suitable candidates for substitution of synthetic-based wood adhesives. Adjustments to the adhesive formulation with or without additives and bonding conditions could optimize their adhesive properties for various practical applications.

  19. An interesterified palm olein test meal decreases early-phase postprandial lipemia compared to palm olein:a Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Wendy; Fiuza Brito, Marcela; Huang, Junlan; Wood, Lucy; Filippou, Androulla; Sanders, Thomas A. B.; Berry, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil that has been interesterified to produce a higher proportion of palmitic acid (16:0) in the sn-2 position reduces postprandial lipemia in young, normolipidemic men and women, but effects in older subjects with higher fasting triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high-fat meals rich in interesterified palm olein (IPO) decrease lipemia and alter plasma lipoprotein fraction composition compared to native palm olein (NPO) in men aged 40–70 years ...

  20. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas) are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork) – a randomized cross-over meal test study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Marlene D.; Bendsen, Nathalie T.; Christensen, Sheena M.; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. Objective To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. Design In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, cross-over meal test. The meals (all 3.5 MJ, 28 energy-% (E%) fat) were either high protein based on veal and pork meat, HP-Meat (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 6 g fiber/100 g); high protein based on legumes (beans and peas), HP-Legume (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 25 g fiber/100 g); or low-protein based on legumes, LP-Legume (9 E% protein, 62 E% carbohydrate, 10 g fiber/100 g). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour using visual analog scales until the ad libitum meal 3 h after the test meal. Repeated measurements analyses and summary analyses were performed using ANCOVA (SAS). Results HP-Legume induced lower composite appetite score, hunger, prospective food consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat and LP-Legume (ppeas) influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals (pork/veal) with similar energy and protein content, but lower fiber content. Interestingly, a vegetable-based meal with low protein content was as satiating and palatable as an animal-based meal with high protein content. PMID:27765144

  1. Effect of soy protein isolate in the diet on retention by the rat of iron from radiolabeled test meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.B.; Erdman, J.W. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of soy protein isolate (SPI) in the diet on whole-body retention of extrinsically radiolabeled iron from test meals containing or not containing SPI was evaluated in marginally iron-deficient weanling rats. In experiment 1 SPI was compared with casein in a 2 X 2 factorial design: diets and test meals were either SPI-based or casein-based. Diets were fed for 13 days prior to the test meal and for 7 days subsequent to the test meal. Rats fed the SPI-based diet retained less iron from test meals than did rats fed the casein-based diet (66.1 vs. 74.8%, P less than 0.01). Experiment 2 showed that an SPI-based diet fed during the final 4 days of a 14-day pre-test meal period and subsequent to the test meal led to less iron retention compared to a casein-based diet. In addition to the observed diet effect, experiment 1 showed that iron retention was less from an SPI-based test meal than from a casein-based test meal, confirming previous reports of adverse effects of SPI on iron retention. The present experiments show that SPI can adversely affect from retention in two ways: by its presence in the diet before and after a test meal, and by its presence in a test meal

  2. Intraindividual comparison of gastric peristalsis after ingestion of a semiliquid and solid test meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.; Tatsch, K.; Muenzing, W.; Vorderholzer, W.; Schindlbeck, N.; Hahn, K.

    1997-01-01

    Aim: Patients with various disorders of gastric function were studied with radiolabeled test meals of different consistency to elaborate the effect of ingested media on gastric peristalsis and emptying. Methods: In 12 patients parameters of gastric function were intraindividually compared after ingestion of a semiliquid and a solid test meal. In addition to the standard evaluation derived from time activity curves condensed images were established from two fixed time intervals (early and late period). These images were used to evaluate the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions using Fourier analysis. Results: As expected gastric emptying was influenced by the consistency of the test meal. Mean emptying rates for the solid meal were significant lower than those for the semiliquid one (p [de

  3. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was performed to analyse the carbohydrate quantity of the non-standardised breakfast meal test consumed as part of a screening test for gestational diabetes. Design: A prospective descriptive design was utilised. Setting: Screening for gestational diabetes was performed in the High-Risk Antenatal ...

  4. Monosodium glutamate delivered in a protein-rich soup improves subsequent energy compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Una; Yeomans, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that monosodium glutamate (MSG) may have a biphasic effect on appetite, increasing appetite within a meal with its flavour-enhancing effect, but enhancing subsequent satiety due to its proposed role as a predictor of protein content. The present study explored this by assessing the impact of a 450 g soup preload differing in MSG concentration (1 % MSG added (MSG+) or no MSG (MSG-)) and nutrient content (low-energy control or high-energy carbohydrate or high-energy protein) on rated appetite and ad libitum intake of a test meal in thirty-five low-restraint male volunteers using a within-participant design. Protein-rich preloads significantly reduced intake at the test meal and resulted in more accurate energy compensation than did carbohydrate-rich preloads. This energy compensation was stronger in the MSG+ protein conditions when compared with MSG+ carbohydrate conditions. No clear differences in rated appetite were seen in MSG or the macronutrient conditions alone during preload ingestion or 45 min after intake. Overall, these findings indicate that MSG may act to further improve energy compensation when provided in a protein-rich context.

  5. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork – a randomized cross-over meal test study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene D. Kristensen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. Objective: To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. Design: In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, cross-over meal test. The meals (all 3.5 MJ, 28 energy-% (E% fat were either high protein based on veal and pork meat, HP-Meat (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 6 g fiber/100 g; high protein based on legumes (beans and peas, HP-Legume (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 25 g fiber/100 g; or low-protein based on legumes, LP-Legume (9 E% protein, 62 E% carbohydrate, 10 g fiber/100 g. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour using visual analog scales until the ad libitum meal 3 h after the test meal. Repeated measurements analyses and summary analyses were performed using ANCOVA (SAS. Results: HP-Legume induced lower composite appetite score, hunger, prospective food consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat and LP-Legume (p<0.05. Furthermore, satiety was higher after HP-Legume than HP-Meat (p<0.05. When adjusting for palatability, HP-Legume still resulted in lower composite appetite scores, hunger, prospective consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat (p<0.05. Furthermore, HP-Legume induced higher fullness than LP-Legume (p<0.05. A 12% and 13% lower energy intake, respectively, was seen after HP-Legume compared to HP-Meat or LP-Legume (p<0.01. Conclusion: Vegetable-based meals (beans/peas influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals

  6. s-ICAM-1 and s-VCAM-1 in healthy men are strongly associated with traits of the metabolic syndrome, becoming evident in the postprandial response to a lipid-rich meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothnagel Michael

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of the postprandial state for the early stages of atherogenesis is increasingly acknowledged. We conducted assessment of association between postprandial triglycerides, insulin and glucose after ingestion of a standardized lipid-rich test meal, and soluble cellular adhesion molecules (sCAM in young healthy subjects. Methods Metabolic parameters and sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and E-selectin were measured before and hourly until 6 hours after ingestion of a lipid-rich meal in 30 healthy young men with fasting triglycerides 260 mg/dl. Levels of CAM were compared in HR and NR, and correlation with postprandial triglyceride, insulin and glucose response was assessed. Results Fasting sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 levels were significantly higher in HR as compared to NR (p = 0.046, p = 0.03. For sE-selectin there was such a trend (p = 0.05. There was a strong positive and independent correlation between sICAM-1 and postprandial insulin maxima (r = 0.70, p Conclusion This independent association of postprandial triglycerides with sICAM-1 may indicate a particular impact of postprandial lipid metabolism on endothelial reaction.

  7. Benfotiamine prevents macro- and microvascular endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress following a meal rich in advanced glycation end products in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirban, Alin; Negrean, Monica; Stratmann, Bernd; Gawlowski, Thomas; Horstmann, Tina; Götting, Christian; Kleesiek, Knut; Mueller-Roesel, Michaela; Koschinsky, Theodor; Uribarri, Jaime; Vlassara, Helen; Tschoepe, Diethelm

    2006-09-01

    Diabetes is characterized by marked postprandial endothelial dysfunction induced by hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and dicarbonyls (e.g., methylglyoxal [MG]). In vitro hyperglycemia-induced MG formation and endothelial dysfunction could be blocked by benfotiamine, but in vivo effects of benfotiamine on postprandial endothelial dysfunction and MG synthesis have not been investigated in humans until now. Thirteen people with type 2 diabetes were given a heat-processed test meal with a high AGE content (HAGE; 15.100 AGE kU, 580 kcal, 54 g protein, 17 g lipids, and 48 g carbohydrates) before and after a 3-day therapy with benfotiamine (1,050 mg/day). Macrovascular flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and microvascular reactive hyperemia, along with serum markers of endothelial disfunction (E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and intracellular adhesion molecule-1), oxidative stress, AGE, and MG were measured during both test meal days after an overnight fast and then at 2, 4, and 6 h postprandially. The HAGE induced a maximum reactive hyperemia decrease of -60.0% after 2 h and a maximum FMD impairment of -35.1% after 4 h, without affecting endothelium-independent vasodilatation. The effects of HAGE on both FMD and reactive hyperemia were completely prevented by benfotiamine. Serum markers of endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress, as well as AGE, increased after HAGE. These effects were significantly reduced by benfotiamine. Our study confirms micro- and macrovascular endothelial dysfunction accompanied by increased oxidative stress following a real-life, heat-processed, AGE-rich meal in individuals with type 2 diabetes and suggests benfotiamine as a potential treatment.

  8. The effect of lipids, a lipid-rich ready-to-use therapeutic food, or a phytase on iron absorption from maize-based meals fortified with micronutrient powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnard, Arnaud; Moretti, Diego; Zeder, Christophe; Steingötter, Andreas; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2017-06-01

    Background: Ready-to-use-therapeutic foods (RUTFs) high in lipid, protein, and iron are used to treat malnutrition. Lipids increase gastric residence time, which could increase iron absorption, particularly from poorly soluble iron compounds and in combination with phytase. Objectives: The objectives were to 1 ) assess the effect on iron absorption of a lipid emulsion given 20 min before or together with an iron-fortified maize meal and 2 ) assess iron absorption from a micronutrient powder (MNP) given with a nutrient-dense RUTF and/or a microbial phytase. Design: A total of 41 women participated in 3 studies. They consumed a maize meal fortified with isotopically labeled ferrous sulfate (FeSO 4 ; study 1) or ferric pyrophosphate (FePP; study 2). In studies 1 and 2, a lipid emulsion was given with or 20 min before the meal. In study 3, with the use of a 2 × 2 factorial design, subjects consumed a maize meal fortified with an MNP containing labeled FeSO 4 (MNP) given with an RUTF (MNP+RUTF), with a phytase (MNP+phytase), or both (MNP+RUTF+phytase). Iron absorption was assessed by isotope incorporation in erythrocytes 14 d after the test meals. Results: The lipid emulsion given either before or with the meal significantly increased iron absorption from FePP by 2.55-fold (95% CI: 1.48-, 4.37-fold; P = 0.001) but not from FeSO 4 There was a trend to increase iron absorption with the MNP+RUTF meal, which did not reach significance (1.21-fold; 95% CI: 0.92-, 1.61-fold; P = 0.060). The addition of phytase to MNP and MNP+RUTF significantly increased iron absorption by 1.85-fold (95% CI: 1.49-, 2.29-fold; P phytase and RUTF. Conclusions: In iron-fortified maize-based meals, the addition of lipids more than doubles iron absorption from FePP. Our results suggest the possibility of an enhancing effect on iron absorption of lipid-rich RUTFs, but more research is needed to determine this. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01991626. © 2017 American Society

  9. Family Meal Frequency and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Adolescence: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James; Halliwell, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the direction of associations between family meals and alcohol and tobacco consumption during early adolescence. We examined family meal frequency, family connectedness, alcohol (binge drinking, drunkenness), and tobacco consumption (past year, daily frequency) in 671 adolescents (51% women; mean age, Wave 1 = 14.05…

  10. A coconut oil-rich meal does not enhance thermogenesis compared to corn oil in a randomized trial in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBarrie, Janna; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Consumption of medium chain triglycerides (MCT) in overweight adults increases thermogenesis and improves weight management. Coconut oil is a rich natural source of MCT, but its thermogenic effect is unknown. Our study evaluated the effects of a test oil enriched in coconut oil, on energy expenditure, satiety, and metabolic markers in a randomized, double blind, cross-over study. Fifteen children, age 13-18 years, body mass index >85th percentile for age and sex, were enrolled. Two test meals, containing 20 g of fat from either corn oil or a coconut oil-enriched baking fat (1.1 g of fatty acids with chain lengths ≤ 10C), were administered. A fasting blood sample was taken before breakfast and at 30, 45, 60, 120, and 180 min post-meal for measurement of metabolites. Thermic effect of food (TEF) was assessed over 6 h using indirect calorimetry. Satiety was measured using visual analog scales (VAS). There was no significant effect of fat type, time, or fat type × time interaction on TEF, appetite/satiety, glucose, and insulin area under the curve. There was a significant effect of fat type on leptin (P=0.027), triglycerides (P=0.020) and peptide YY (P=0.0085); leptin and triglyceride concentrations were lower and peptide YY concentrations were higher with corn oil consumption. A coconut oil-enriched baking fat does not enhance thermogenesis and satiety in children. Given that this is the only current study of its kind, more research is needed into the use of coconut oil as a tool in weight management in overweight and obese children.

  11. Protein from meat or vegetable sources in meals matched for fiber content has similar effects on subjective appetite sensations and energy intake - A randomized acute cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lone Vestergaard; Kristensen, Marlene D; Klingenberg, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy......-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations....... intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19...

  12. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean M. Allerton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI: 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2 completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ was consumed with (CHO + WP or without (CHO 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ, or breakfast was omitted (NB. At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0––180 min: 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L, compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p < 0.05, with no difference in post-breakfast (0–180 min glycemia (CHO + WP, 3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; CHO, 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L; NB, 4.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L; p = 0.247. There were no post-lunch (0–180 min effects of condition on glycemia (p = 0.492, insulinemia (p = 0.338 or subjective appetite (p > 0.05. Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal.

  13. Protein from Meat or Vegetable Sources in Meals Matched for Fiber Content has Similar Effects on Subjective Appetite Sensations and Energy Intake—A Randomized Acute Cross-Over Meal Test Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lone V. Nielsen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs. Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ 19% of energy from protein, based on fava beans/split peas (28.5 g fiber, pork/veal or eggs supplemented with pea fiber to control for fiber content (28.5 g fiber, or eggs without supplementation of fiber (6.0 g fiber. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour until the ad libitum meal three hours later. There were no differences in ad libitum energy intake across test meals (p > 0.05. Further, no differences were found across meals for hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, or composite appetite score (all p > 0.05. Iso-caloric, macronutrient-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations.

  14. Protein from Meat or Vegetable Sources in Meals Matched for Fiber Content has Similar Effects on Subjective Appetite Sensations and Energy Intake-A Randomized Acute Cross-Over Meal Test Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lone V; Kristensen, Marlene D; Klingenberg, Lars; Ritz, Christian; Belza, Anita; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2018-01-16

    Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19% of energy from protein), based on fava beans/split peas (28.5 g fiber), pork/veal or eggs supplemented with pea fiber to control for fiber content (28.5 g fiber), or eggs without supplementation of fiber (6.0 g fiber). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour until the ad libitum meal three hours later. There were no differences in ad libitum energy intake across test meals ( p > 0.05). Further, no differences were found across meals for hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, or composite appetite score (all p > 0.05). Iso-caloric, macronutrient-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations.

  15. Protein from Meat or Vegetable Sources in Meals Matched for Fiber Content has Similar Effects on Subjective Appetite Sensations and Energy Intake—A Randomized Acute Cross-Over Meal Test Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lone V.; Kristensen, Marlene D.; Klingenberg, Lars; Belza, Anita

    2018-01-01

    Higher-protein meals decrease hunger and increase satiety compared to lower-protein meals. However, no consensus exists about the different effects of animal and vegetable proteins on appetite. We investigated how a meal based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) affected ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations, compared to macronutrient-balanced, iso-caloric meals based on animal protein (veal/pork or eggs). Thirty-five healthy men were enrolled in this acute cross-over study. On each test day, participants were presented with one of four test meals (~3550 kilojoules (kJ) 19% of energy from protein), based on fava beans/split peas (28.5 g fiber), pork/veal or eggs supplemented with pea fiber to control for fiber content (28.5 g fiber), or eggs without supplementation of fiber (6.0 g fiber). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour until the ad libitum meal three hours later. There were no differences in ad libitum energy intake across test meals (p > 0.05). Further, no differences were found across meals for hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, or composite appetite score (all p > 0.05). Iso-caloric, macronutrient-balanced, fiber-matched meals based on vegetable protein (fava beans/split peas) or animal protein (veal/pork or eggs) had similar effects on ad libitum energy intake and appetite sensations. PMID:29337861

  16. Whole-grain pasta reduces appetite and meal-induced thermogenesis acutely

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cioffi, Iolanda; Santarpia, Lidia; Vaccaro, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, the intake of foods rich in dietary fiber is associated with a reduced risk of developing overweight and type 2 diabetes. This work aims to identify acute strategies to regulate appetite and improve glucose control by using different pasta meals. Hence, 4 different...... isocaloric lunch meals, consisting of (i) refined-grain pasta (RG+T), (ii) whole-grain pasta (WG+T), (iii) lemon juice-supplemented refined-grain pasta (LRG+T), and (iv) refined-grain pasta with legumes (RG+L), were administered to 8 healthy participants in a crossover design. On the test days, participants...... glucose (p = 0.001) was lower for RG+T, and triacylglycerols (p = 0.02) increased for LRG+T; however, insulin, C-peptide, and ghrelin were comparable in all other meals. In conclusion, our study indicates that acute consumption of whole-grain pasta may promote fullness and reduce hunger, lowering...

  17. Meal Fatty Acids Have Differential Effects on Postprandial Blood Pressure and Biomarkers of Endothelial Function but Not Vascular Reactivity in Postmenopausal Women in the Randomized Controlled Dietary Intervention and VAScular function (DIVAS)-2 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathnayake, Kumari M; Weech, Michelle; Jackson, Kim G; Lovegrove, Julie A

    2018-03-01

    Elevated postprandial triacylglycerol concentrations, impaired vascular function, and hypertension are important independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in women. However, the effects of meal fat composition on postprandial lipemia and vascular function in postmenopausal women are unknown. This study investigated the impact of sequential meals rich in saturated fatty acids (SFAs), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), or n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on postprandial flow-mediated dilatation (FMD; primary outcome measure), vascular function, and associated CVD risk biomarkers (secondary outcomes) in postmenopausal women. A double-blind, randomized, crossover, postprandial study was conducted in 32 postmenopausal women [mean ± SEM ages: 58 ± 1 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (in kg/m2): 25.9 ± 0.7]. After fasting overnight, participants consumed high-fat meals at breakfast (0 min; 50 g fat, containing 33-36 g SFAs, MUFAs, or n-6 PUFAs) and lunch (330 min; 30 g fat, containing 19-20 g SFAs, MUFAs, or n-6 PUFAs), on separate occasions. Blood samples were collected before breakfast and regularly after the meals for 480 min, with specific time points selected for measuring vascular function and blood pressure. Postprandial FMD, laser Doppler imaging, and digital volume pulse responses were not different after consuming the test fats. The incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for diastolic blood pressure was lower after the MUFA-rich meals than after the SFA-rich meals (mean ± SEM: -2.3 ± 0.3 compared with -1.5 ± 0.3 mm Hg × 450 min × 103; P = 0.009), with a similar trend for systolic blood pressure (P = 0.012). This corresponded to a lower iAUC for the plasma nitrite response after the SFA-rich meals than after the MUFA-rich meals (-1.23 ± 0.7 compared with -0.17 ± 0.4 μmol/L × 420 min P = 0.010). The soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1) time-course profile, AUC, and iAUC were lower after the n-6 PUFA-rich meals

  18. Impaired Enterohormone Response Following a Liquid Test Meal in Gastrectomized Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santarpia, Lidia; Pagano, Maria Carmen; Cioffi, Iolanda; Alfonsi, Lucia; Cuomo, Rosario; Labruna, Giuseppe; Sacchetti, Lucia; Contaldo, Franco; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    Total gastrectomy (TG) is responsible for symptoms or disturbance of alimentary status (changes in body weight, food intake per meal and frequency of meal per day) which, in turn are responsible for weight loss and malnutrition. The study evaluates the gut hormone responses in totally gastrectomized (TG) patients after a liquid meal test. Twenty total gastrectomized cancer-free patients (12 M, 8 F, 56.4 ± 10.2 years, BMI 21.4 ± 2.2 kg/m2) and 10 healthy volunteers (4 M, 6 F, 48.0 ± 12.7 years, BMI 26.7 ± 3.0 kg/m2 ) drank a liquid meal (1.25 kcal/mL) at the rate of 50 mL/5' min for a maximum of 30 min. Satiety score was assessed and blood sample was taken at different time points. The time response course, particularly for insulin, glucose-like pepetide-1, and cholecystokinin, significantly differed between TG patients and controls. Our results may help to better understand hormone responses triggered by the faster arrival of nutrients in the small bowel and to explain some post-TG symptoms. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Meal composition affects insulin secretion in women with type 2 diabetes: a comparison with healthy controls. The Hoorn prandial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alssema, M; Schindhelm, R K; Rijkelijkhuizen, J M; Kostense, P J; Teerlink, T; Nijpels, G; Heine, R J; Dekker, J M

    2009-03-01

    Early insulin secretion following a meal is representative for normal physiology and may depend on meal composition. To compare the effects of a fat-rich and a carbohydrate-rich mixed meal on insulinogenic index as a measure of early insulin secretion in normoglycemic women (NGM) and in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and to assess the relationship of anthropometric and metabolic factors with insulinogenic index. Postmenopausal women, 76 with NGM and 64 with DM2, received a fat-rich meal and a carbohydrate-rich meal on separate occasions. Early insulin response was estimated as insulinogenic index ( big up tri, Deltainsulin(0-30 min)/ big up tri, Deltaglucose(0-30 min)) for each meal. Associations of fasting and postprandial triglycerides, body mass index, waist and hip circumference and alanine aminotransferase with insulinogenic indices were determined. Women with NGM present with higher insulinogenic index than women with DM2. The insulinogenic index following the fat-rich meal ( big up tri, DeltaI(30)/ big up tri, DeltaG(30) (fat)) was higher than the index following the carbohydrate-rich meal (big up tri, DeltaI(30)/ big up tri, DeltaG(30) (CH)) (Pwomen with DM2, and not significant in women with NGM). In women with DM2, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance was positively associated with big up tri, DeltaI(30)/ big up tri, DeltaG(30) (CH). In women with NGM, waist circumference was independently and inversely associated with big up tri, DeltaI(30)/ big up tri, DeltaG(30) (fat) and with big up tri, DeltaI(30)/ big up tri, DeltaG(30) (CH); hip circumference was positively associated with big up tri, DeltaI(30)/ big up tri, DeltaG(30) (fat). The insulinogenic index following the fat-rich meal was higher than following the isocaloric carbohydrate-rich meal, which might favorably affect postprandial glucose excursions, especially in women with DM2. The association between a larger waist circumference and a lower meal-induced insulinogenic

  20. Differential effects of protein quality on postprandial lipemia in response to a fat-rich meal in type 2 diabetes: comparison of whey, casein, gluten, and cod protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Lene S; Hartvigsen, Merete L; Brader, Lea J

    2009-01-01

    ingestion of a test meal containing 100 g butter and 45 g carbohydrate in combination with 45 g casein (Cas-meal), whey (Whe-meal), cod (Cod-meal), or gluten (Glu-meal). We measured plasma concentrations of triglycerides, retinyl palmitate (RP), free fatty acids, insulin, glucose, glucagon, glucagon...... and higher after the Whe-meal than after Cod- and Glu-meals in the chylomicron-poor fraction. Free fatty acids were most pronouncedly suppressed after the Whe-meal. The glucose response was lower after the Whe-meal than after the other meals, whereas no significant differences were found in insulin, glucagon...

  1. Intake at a single, palatable buffet test meal is associated with total body fat and regional fat distribution in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnbach, S Nicole; Thivel, David; Meyermann, Karol; Keller, Kathleen L

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies testing the relationship between short-term, ad libitum test-meal intake and body composition in children have shown inconsistent relationships. The objective of this study was to determine whether children's intake at a palatable, buffet meal was associated with body composition, assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 71 children (4-6 years) participated in 4 sessions where ad libitum food intake was measured. Children's intake at two of the test-meals was retained for the present analysis: a baseline meal consisting of moderately palatable foods and a highly palatable buffet including sweets, sweet-fats, and savory-fats. On the last visit, anthropometrics and DXA were assessed to determine child body composition. Children consumed significantly more calories at the palatable buffet compared to the baseline test-meal. Children's total fat-free mass was positively associated with intake at both the baseline meal and the palatable buffet meal. Total energy intake at both meals and intake of savory-fats at the palatable buffet were positively associated with children's total fat mass, total percent body fat, and percent android fat. Intake of sweet-fats was associated with child fat-free mass index. Intake of sweets was not correlated with body composition. Children's intake at a palatable test-meal, particularly of savory-fat foods, was associated with measures of total and regional body fat. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Carcass and cut yields of broiler chickens fed diet containing purslane meal rich in omega-3 fats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartikasari, LR; Hertanto, B. S.; Nuhriawangsa, A. MP

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of diets containing Portulaca oleraceae (purslane) as a source of omega-3 fats on carcass and cut yields of broiler chickens. One-day old unsexed Lohmann broiler chickens (n = 180) were used and randomly allocated into 30 pens (each pen contained 6 birds). The pens were randomly assigned to five experimental diets with 6 replicates (36 birds per treatment). The diets were formulated by supplementing a basal diet with purslane meal at a level of 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0%. For a period of 42 days, water and diets were provided ad libitum. Feed intake and body weight gain were collected weekly to determine feed conversion ratio. The collected data were analysed using analysis of variance. If there were significant differences between treatment means, the analysis was continued by Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Findings showed that diets enriched with omega-3 fats, alpha-linolenic acid did not change body weight and carcass percentage of broilers. In terms of cuts yield, there was no significant different on the percentage of breast, back and wings by feeding diets supplemented with purslane meal. However, the inclusion levels of dietary purslane meal significantly affected the percentage of thighs (P<0.05) with the highest weight achieved for diets supplemented with 3% purslane meal. Drumsticks tended to increase (P = 0.056) by feeding the experimental diets. It was concluded that the inclusion level of 6% purslane meal didn’t have negative effect on carcass and cut yields of broiler chickens.

  3. Organoleptic, physical, and chemical tests of artificial feed for milk fish substituted by earthworm meal (Lumbricus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Aslamyah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Earthworms meal (Lumbricus sp. is very prospective as milkfish feed raw materials to substitute fish meal. Type of raw material and the exact composition will generate artificial feed quality with high levels of water stability, desirable, and safe for the fish. The purpose of this study to evaluate the quality of milkfish feed at different levels of fish meal substitution with earthworms (Lumbricus sp. based on organoleptic, physical, and chemical tests. The treatments tested levels of substitution of fish meal with earthworms meal in artificial feed milkfish, namely: feed A (0%; feed B (34,62%; feed C (65,38% and feed D (100%. The organoleptic and physical test showed that all the feed has a smooth texture, pungent aroma, and brown in color, with good water stability (rupture velocity ranged from 91,25±1,47 up to 92,87±1,67 minutes and dispersion of solids 11,14±1,55 up to 11,87±1,3%, hardness 84±0,18 up to 84,71±1,24%, sinking velocity 5,07±0,68 up to 5,64±0,17 cm/sec, the level of homogeneity of 81,34±0,17 up to 85,68±1,85%, the allure of 0,62±0,58 up to 0,65±0,12 cm/sec and delicious power of 0,059±0,024 up to 0,067±0,032 g/fish weight/day. The quality of feed is chemically with moisture content ranging from 8,4–9,1%, 16,7–19,46% ash, 31,07–32,37%, protein, 6,67–7,58% fat, crude fiber 7,45–7,87%, NFE (nitrogen free extracts 35,35–35,48%. Results show that different levels of substitution of fish meal with earthworms meal (Lumbricus sp. produces the same feed quality and contains nutrients in a range requirement milkfish. Accordingly, earthworms meal (Lumbricus sp. can be substituted for fish meal in fish milk feed artificial up to 100%.Keywords: substitution, fish meal, earthworms meal (Lumbricus sp., artificial feed, milkfish

  4. Effect of a test meal on meal responses of satiation hormones and their association to insulin resistance in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beglinger, Svetlana; Meyer-Gerspach, Anne Christin; Graf, Steffi; Zumsteg, Urs; Drewe, Jürgen; Beglinger, Christoph; Gutzwiller, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-01

    The role of gastrointestinal (GI) hormones in the pathophysiology of obesity is unclear, although they are involved in the regulation of satiation and glucose metabolism. To (i) examine glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), amylin, ghrelin, and glucagon responses to a meal in obese adolescents and to (ii) test which GI peptides are associated with insulin resistance are presented. A total of 16 obese (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 97th percentile for age and gender) and 14 control (BMI between 25th and 75th percentiles) adolescents were included. Subjects were instructed to eat a test meal (490 kcal). Plasma samples were collected for hormone and glucose analysis. Obese adolescents were insulin resistant as expressed by the Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) index and had significantly increased fasting glucagon and amylin levels compared to the control group (P = 0.003 and 0.044, respectively). In response to the meal, the increase in GLP-1 levels was reduced in obese adolescents (P < 0.001). In contrast, amylin secretion was significantly increased in the obese population compared to the control group (P < 0.005). Obese adolescents have increased fasting glucagon and amylin levels and attenuated post-prandial GLP-1 concentrations compared with the control group. These factors could contribute to the metabolic syndrome. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  5. The link between high-fat meals and postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII possibly involves kallikrein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L F; Marckmann, P; Bladbjerg, Else-Marie

    2000-01-01

    Contrary to low-fat meals, high-fat meals are known to cause postprandial factor VII (FVII) activation, but the mechanism is unknown. To study the postprandial FVII activation in detail, 18 young men consumed in randomized order high-fat or low-fat test meals. Fasting and non-fasting blood samples...... that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins may activate prokallikrein. Neither plasma triglycerides nor kallikrein and activated FVII were statistically associated. This may suggest that additional factors are involved in the postprandial FVII activation. No clear evidence for a role of tissue factor expression...... by monocytes, factor XII or insulin in postprandial FVII activation was observed. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor and prothrombin fragment 1+2, a marker of thrombin generation, were not affected postprandially after either the high-fat or the low-fat meals. Our findings indicate that triglyceride...

  6. Variety within a cooked meal increases meal energy intake in older women with a poor appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnhoven, Hanneke Ah; van der Meij, Barbara S; Visser, Marjolein

    2015-12-01

    Effective strategies to increase dietary intake in older persons with a poor appetite are needed. Previous studies have shown that increasing diet variety may increase dietary intake. This has not been tested in older adults with a poor appetite. We investigated if an increased variety of foods within a cooked meal results in a higher meal energy intake in older women with a poor appetite. This study was a randomized, controlled, cross-over trial among 19 older (>65 years) women with a poor appetite. Two cooked meals of similar weight and energy density (except starch) were served under standardized conditions on two weekdays: a test meal consisting of three different varieties of vegetables, meat or fish, and starch components, and a control meal without variety. Participants ate ad libitum and the actual consumed amounts and their nutritional content were calculated. Data were analyzed by mixed linear models. Average intake in energy was 427 kcal (SD 119) for the test meal with variety and 341 kcal (SD 115) for the control meal without variety. This resulted in a statistically significant (for period effects adjusted) mean difference of 79 kcal (95% CI = 25-134). Total meal intake in grams was also higher for the test meal with variety (48 g, 95% CI = 1-97) but protein intake (g) was not (3.7 g, 95% CI = -1.4 to 8.8). This was consistent for all meal components except starch and within each component three varieties were consumed equally. The results of the present study suggest that increasing meal variety may be an effective strategy to increase energy intake in older adults with a poor appetite. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of a meal rich in 1,3-diacylglycerol on postprandial cardiovascular risk factors and the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide in subjects with high fasting triacylglycerol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Kentaro; Mizuno, Tomohito; Shiiba, Daisuke; Kawagoe, Tadanobu; Mitsui, Yuuki

    2012-03-14

    It was previously reported that compared to triacylglycerol (TAG) oil, diacylglycerol (DAG) oil improves postprandial lipid response. However, the effects of DAG oil on postprandial hyperglycemia and incretin response have not yet been determined. In this study, the effects of DAG oil on both postprandial hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia and the response to the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) were studied. This randomized, double-blind, crossover study analyzed data for 41 individuals with high fasting triacylglycerol concentrations. The subjects ingested test meals (30.3 g of protein, 18.6 g of fat, and 50.1 g of carbohydrate) containing 10 g of DAG oil (DAG meal) or TAG oil (TAG meal) after fasting for at least 12 h. Blood samples were collected prior to and 0.5, 2, 3, 4, and 6 h after ingestion of the test meal. Postprandial TAG concentrations were significantly lower after the DAG meal compared with the TAG meal. Postprandial TAG, insulin, and GIP concentrations were significantly lower after the DAG meal compared with the TAG meal in 26 subjects with fasting serum TAG levels between 1.36 and 2.83 mmol/L. DAG-oil-based meals, as a replacement for TAG oil, may provide cardiovascular benefits in high-risk individuals by limiting lipid and insulin excursions.

  8. Change in postprandial substrate oxidation after a high fructose meal is related to Body Mass Index (BMI) in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeraglio, Anne C.; Kennedy, Emily K.; Horgan, Angela; Purnell, Jonathan Q.; Gillingham, Melanie B.

    2013-01-01

    Oral fructose decreases fat oxidation and increases carbohydrate (CHO) oxidation in obese subjects, but the metabolic response to fructose in lean individuals is less well understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a single fructose-rich mixed meal on substrate oxidation in young healthy non-obese males. We hypothesized that a decrease in fat oxidation and an increase in carbohydrate oxidation would be observed following a fructose-rich mixed meal compared to a glucose-rich mixed meal. Twelve healthy males, normal to overweight and age 23–31 years old, participated in a double-blind, cross-over study. Each participant completed two study visits, eating a mixed meal containing 30% of the calories from either fructose or glucose. Blood samples for glucose, insulin, triglycerides, and leptin as well as gas exchange by indirect calorimetry were measured intermittently for 7 hours. Serum insulin was higher after a fructose mixed meal but plasma glucose, plasma leptin and serum triglycerides were not different. Mean postprandial respiratory quotient and estimated fat oxidation did not differ between the fructose and glucose meals. The change in fat oxidation between the fructose and glucose rich meals negatively correlated with BMI (r=−0.59, P=0.04 and r=−0.59, P=0.04 at the 4 and 7 hour time points, respectively). In healthy non-obese males, BMI correlates with altered postprandial fat oxidation after a high-fructose mixed meal. The metabolic response to a high fructose meal may be modulated by BMI. PMID:23746558

  9. Incorporating freeze-dried strawberry powder into a high-fat meal does not alter postprandial vascular function or blood markers of cardiovascular disease risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Gaugler, Trent L; Lambert, Joshua D; Proctor, David N; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-02-01

    Postprandial dysmetabolism-an exaggerated spike in triglycerides, glucose, and insulin-increases cardiovascular disease risk by inducing oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Polyphenol-rich foods may blunt these effects when they are incorporated into a high-fat, calorie-dense meal. Strawberries are a rich source of polyphenols, but there is little research on their postprandial effects. This study was designed to investigate the effect of adding 40 g freeze-dried strawberry powder (∼1 lb. or 0.45 kg fresh strawberries) to a high-fat (50 g total fat) meal on postprandial vascular function, as well as triglyceride, glucose, and insulin responses. Healthy, overweight or obese [mean ± SEM body mass index (in kg/m 2 ): 31 ± 0.5] adults (mean ± SEM age: 28 ± 2 y; 17 men and 13 women) consumed a control meal and a strawberry meal in a randomized crossover design. Testing sessions were separated by ≥1 wk for men and ∼1 mo for women to control for hormonal variations. Blood samples were obtained before the meal and 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h after the meal. Central blood pressure and arterial stiffness indexes were measured at baseline and 2 and 4 h postmeal with the use of pulse waveform analysis. There were no significant differences between the strawberry and control meals for any outcomes. Consumption of either meal significantly decreased the augmentation index at 2 and 4 h (P triglycerides, insulin, and glucose at all time points (P triglycerides, glucose, or insulin relative to the control meal. Additional research is needed to clarify whether strawberries or other polyphenol-rich interventions improve postprandial responses, and future studies should take into account the acute meal-induced improvements in measures of vascular function. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01989637. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Circadian Clocks for All Meal-Times: Anticipation of 2 Daily Meals in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistlberger, Ralph E.; Kent, Brianne A.; Chan, Sofina; Patton, Danica F.; Weinberg, Alexander; Parfyonov, Maksim

    2012-01-01

    Anticipation of a daily meal in rats has been conceptualized as a rest-activity rhythm driven by a food-entrained circadian oscillator separate from the pacemaker generating light-dark (LD) entrained rhythms. Rats can also anticipate two daily mealtimes, but whether this involves independently entrained oscillators, one ‘continuously consulted’ clock, cue-dependent non-circadian interval timing or a combination of processes, is unclear. Rats received two daily meals, beginning 3-h (meal 1) and 13-h (meal 2) after lights-on (LD 14∶10). Anticipatory wheel running began 68±8 min prior to meal 1 and 101±9 min prior to meal 2 but neither the duration nor the variability of anticipation bout lengths exhibited the scalar property, a hallmark of interval timing. Meal omission tests in LD and constant dark (DD) did not alter the timing of either bout of anticipation, and anticipation of meal 2 was not altered by a 3-h advance of meal 1. Food anticipatory running in this 2-meal protocol thus does not exhibit properties of interval timing despite the availability of external time cues in LD. Across all days, the two bouts of anticipation were uncorrelated, a result more consistent with two independently entrained oscillators than a single consulted clock. Similar results were obtained for meals scheduled 3-h and 10-h after lights-on, and for a food-bin measure of anticipation. Most rats that showed weak or no anticipation to one or both meals exhibited elevated activity at mealtime during 1 or 2 day food deprivation tests in DD, suggesting covert operation of circadian timing in the absence of anticipatory behavior. A control experiment confirmed that daytime feeding did not shift LD-entrained rhythms, ruling out displaced nocturnal activity as an explanation for daytime activity. The results favor a multiple oscillator basis for 2-meal anticipatory rhythms and provide no evidence for involvement of cue-dependent interval timing. PMID:22355393

  11. Death Row Confessions and the Last Meal Test of Innocence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Kniffin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Post hoc analyses of Rector v. Arkansas have regularly highlighted that the defendant requested that part of his last meal be saved so that he could it eat later. While the observation is typically raised as part of arguments that Rector was incompetent and unfit for execution, the more basic fact is that commentators have drawn important inferences about Rector’s mental state from how he treated his last meal. In this essay, we draw upon multiple disciplines in order to apply the same inferential logic to a much broader sample and explore the question of whether traditionally customized last meals might offer signals of defendants’ guilt or innocence. To investigate this, the content of last-meal requests and last words reported for people executed in the United States during a recent five-year period were examined. Consistent with the idea that declination of the last meal is equivalent to a signal of (self-perceived innocence, those who denied guilt were 2.7 times as likely to decline a last meal than people who admitted guilt (29% versus 8%. Consistent with the complementary theory that people who admit guilt are relatively more “at peace” with their sentence, these individuals requested 34% more calories of food than the rest of the sample (2786 versus 2085 calories. A third finding is that those who denied guilt also tended to eat significantly fewer brand-name food items. Previous discussions of last meals have often lacked quantitative measurements; however, this systematic analysis shows that last meal requests offer windows into self-perceived or self-proclaimed innocence. Knowing one’s last meal request and one’s last words can provide valuable new variables for retrospectively assessing the processes that led to past executions.

  12. Evaluation of skate meal and sablefish viscera meal as fish meal replacement in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus saxfilis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the nutritional value of skate meal (SM) and black cod viscera meal (BCVM) from Alaska and to ascertain their suitability as replacements for commercial pollock fishmeal in diets for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis). Test diets were made by r...

  13. Addition of Rye Bran and Pea Fiber to Pork Meatballs Enhances Subjective Satiety in Healthy Men, but Does Not Change Glycemic or Hormonal Responses: A Randomized Crossover Meal Test Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehlet, Ursula; Kofod, Josephine; Holst, Jens J; Ritz, Christian; Aaslyng, Margit D; Raben, Anne

    2017-09-01

    Background: The development of high-protein, fiber-rich foods targeting appetite control could be an efficient tool in obesity prevention. Objectives: We investigated whether ad libitum energy intake (EI), appetite, and metabolic markers in a meal context were affected by 1 ) fiber addition (rye bran and pea fiber) to pork meatballs, 2 ) the food matrix of the fiber (fiber meatballs compared with fiber bread), or 3 ) the protein source (animal compared with vegetable protein patties). Methods: In a crossover design, 40 healthy men [mean ± SD: body mass index (BMI; in kg/m 2 ), 22.2 ± 1.9; age, 23.3 ± 2.9 y] consumed 4 test meals: a low-fiber meal consisting of pork meatballs plus wheat bread (LF meal); pork meatballs plus fiber bread; fiber meatballs plus wheat bread, and vegetable patties with a natural fiber content plus wheat bread (∼3000 kJ; protein ∼18% of energy, carbohydrate ∼50% of energy, fat ∼30% of energy; 13 g fiber in the fiber meals). Ad libitum EI after 4 h was the primary endpoint. Moreover, appetite sensations and postprandial responses of glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY 3-36, and plasma amino acids were measured. Results: Ad libitum EI did not differ significantly between the meals. Satiety and fullness increased 11% and 13%, respectively, and hunger and prospective intake decreased 17% and 15%, respectively, after the meal of fiber meatballs plus wheat bread compared with the LF meal ( P protein source had similar effects on ad libitum EI in healthy men. However, fiber addition to pork meatballs favorably affected appetite sensations but without changes in hormonal and metabolic responses. Moreover, animal- and vegetable-protein-based, fiber-matched meals had similar effects on appetite regulation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02521805. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. First and second meal effects of pulses on blood glucose, appetite, and food intake at a later meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, Rebecca C; Wong, Christina L; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2011-10-01

    Pulses are low-glycemic appetite-suppressing foods, but it is not known whether these properties persist after being consumed as part of a meal and after a second meal. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a fixed-size pulse meal on appetite and blood glucose (BG) before and after an ad libitum test meal (pizza) and on food intake (FI) at the test meal. Males (n = 25; 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 21.6 ± 0.3 kg·m(-2)) randomly consumed 4 isocaloric meals: chickpea; lentil; yellow split pea; and macaroni and cheese (control). Commercially available canned pulses provided 250 kcal, and were consumed with macaroni and tomato sauce. FI was measured at a pizza meal 260 min after consumption of the isocaloric meal. BG and appetite were measured from 0 to 340 min. The lentil and yellow pea, but not chickpea, treatments led to lower appetite ratings during the 260 min prepizza meal period, and less FI at the pizza meal, compared with macaroni and cheese (p effect of treatment on prepizza meal BG AUC (p = 0.07). Immediately after the pizza meal, BG was lower following the chickpea and lentil treatments, but not the yellow pea treatment (p effects of consuming a pulse meal on appetite, FI at a later meal, and the BG response to a later meal are dependent on pulse type.

  15. Factors Related to the Number of Fast Food Meals Obtained by College Meal Plan Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingman, Deirdre A.; Schulz, Mark R.; Wyrick, David L.; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Gupta, Sat N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study tested whether days on campus, financial access through a meal plan, and health consciousness were associated with number of meals that college students obtained from fast food restaurants. Participants and Methods: In April 2013, all students currently enrolled in a meal plan were invited to participate in an online survey…

  16. Pre-Meal Effect of Whey Proteins on Metabolic Parameters in Subjects with and without Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Crossover Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Bjørnshave

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic dyslipidemia with elevated postprandial triglyceride (TG responses is characteristic in type 2 diabetes (T2D. Diet and meal timing can modify postprandial lipemia (PPL. The impact of a pre-meal of whey proteins (WP on lipid metabolism is unidentified. We determined whether a WP pre-meal prior to a fat-rich meal influences TG and apolipoprotein B-48 (ApoB-48 responses differentially in patients with and without T2D. Two matched groups of 12 subjects with and without T2D accomplished an acute, randomized, cross-over trial. A pre-meal of WP (20 g or water (control was consumed 15 min before a fat-rich meal (supplemented with 20 g WP in case of water pre-meal. Postprandial responses were examined during a 360-min period. A WP pre-meal significantly increased postprandial concentrations of insulin (P < 0.0001, glucagon (P < 0.0001 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP (P < 0.0001 in subjects with and without T2D. We detected no effects of the WP pre-meal on TG, ApoB-48, or non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA responses to the fat-rich meal in either group. Paracetamol absorption i.e. gastric emptying was delayed by the WP pre-meal (P = 0.039. In conclusion, the WP pre-meal induced similar hormone and lipid responses in subjects with and without T2D. Thus, the WP pre-meal enhanced insulin, glucagon and GIP responses but did not influence lipid or glucose responses. In addition, we demonstrated that a WP pre-meal reduced gastric emptying in both groups.

  17. The impact of induced positive mood on symptomatic behaviour in eating disorders. An experimental, AB/BA crossover design testing a multimodal presentation during a test-meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardi, Valentina; Esposito, Mirko; Clarke, Ariana; Schifano, Sylvia; Treasure, Janet

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the impact of a multimodal positive mood vodcast including pleasant images, background uplifting music and a script designed to elicit positive mood on eating disorders-related symptoms in participants suffering from an Eating Disorder (ED) and healthy controls (HCs). Forty-two women with an ED (Anorexia Nervosa [AN]: N = 19; Bulimia Nervosa [BN]: N = 23) and 36 HCs were included in an AB/BA cross-over design which compared the use of a positive mood induction procedure ("positive mood vodcast") with a control condition (i.e. blue static background, neutral music, and script describing objective facts) during a test-meal. Self-report measures and behavioural tasks were completed before and after the test-meal. The positive mood vodcast was associated with greater consumption of the test meal in the AN group; reduced vigilance to food stimuli and lower anxiety in the BN sample; and no significant changes in the HC group. The use of a positive mood vodcast was associated with some beneficial effects in the context of an experimental test-meal in participants with an ED. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fermentation of rapeseed meal, sunflower meal and faba beans in combination with wheat bran increases solubility of protein and phosphorus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Blaabjerg, Karoline

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND To increase self-supply of protein and phosphorus (P) in European pig and poultry diets and reduce nitrogen (N) and P excretion, attention is directed to approaches increasing protein and P digestibility of rapeseed, sunflower and faba beans. Wheat bran is rich in enzymes degrading...... and solubilizing protein and phytate. Herein, solubilization of protein, N and P was investigated when increasing ratios of wheat bran were fermented with rapeseed meal (RSM), sunflower meal (SFM), faba beans (FB) or a combination of these (RSM/SFM/FB). RESULTS Protein, N and P solubility was greater, for all...

  19. Cocombustion of animal meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roggen, M.

    2001-01-01

    The electricity production companies are prepared to co-fire animal meal in their coal-fired power stations. Tests conducted at the Maasvlakte power station, Netherlands, demonstrate that adding animal meal to the coal has no negative influence on human beings, the environment, the plant or the fly ash quality

  20. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas) are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork) - a randomized cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Marlene Dahlwad; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Christensen, Sheena M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources...... on appetite regulation. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. DESIGN: In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double......-Legume compared to HP-Meat or LP-Legume (pVegetable-based meals (beans/peas) influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals (pork/veal) with similar energy and protein content, but lower fiber content. Interestingly, a vegetable-based meal with low protein content...

  1. Calculating meal glycemic index by using measured and published food values compared with directly measured meal glycemic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Hayley; Williams, Sheila; Brown, Rachel; Venn, Bernard

    2011-10-01

    Glycemic index (GI) testing is normally based on individual foods, whereas GIs for meals or diets are based on a formula using a weighted sum of the constituents. The accuracy with which the formula can predict a meal or diet GI is questionable. Our objective was to compare the GI of meals, obtained by using the formula and by using both measured food GI and published values, with directly measured meal GIs. The GIs of 7 foods were tested in 30 healthy people. The foods were combined into 3 meals, each of which provided 50 g available carbohydrate, including a staple (potato, rice, or spaghetti), vegetables, sauce, and pan-fried chicken. The mean (95% CI) meal GIs determined from individual food GI values and by direct measurement were as follows: potato meal [predicted, 63 (56, 70); measured, 53 (46, 62)], rice meal [predicted, 51 (45, 56); measured, 38 (33, 45)], and spaghetti meal [predicted, 54 (49, 60); measured, 38 (33, 44)]. The predicted meal GIs were all higher than the measured GIs (P < 0.001). The extent of the overestimation depended on the particular food, ie, 12, 15, and 19 GI units (or 22%, 40%, and 50%) for the potato, rice, and spaghetti meals, respectively. The formula overestimated the GI of the meals by between 22% and 50%. The use of published food values also overestimated the measured meal GIs. Investigators using the formula to calculate a meal or diet GI should be aware of limitations in the method. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry as ACTRN12611000210976.

  2. Determination of glycaemic index; some methodological aspects related to the analysis of carbohydrate load and characteristics of the previous evening meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granfeldt, Y; Wu, X; Björck, I

    2006-01-01

    To determine the possible differences in glycaemic index (GI) depending on (1) the analytical method used to calculate the 'available carbohydrate' load, that is, using carbohydrates by difference (total carbohydrate by difference, minus dietary fibre (DF)) as available carbohydrates vs available starch basis (total starch minus resistant starch (RS)) of a food rich in intrinsic RS and (2) the effect of GI characteristics and/or the content of indigestible carbohydrates (RS and DF) of the evening meal prior to GI testing the following morning. Blood glucose and serum insulin responses were studied after subjects consuming (1) two levels of barley kernels rich in intrinsic RS (15.2%, total starch basis) and (2) after a standard breakfast following three different evening meals varying in GI and/or indigestible carbohydrates: pasta, barley kernels and white wheat bread, respectively. Healthy adults with normal body mass index. (1) Increasing the portion size of barley kernels from 79.6 g (50 g 'available carbohydrates') to 93.9 g (50 g available starch) to adjust for its RS content did not significantly affect the GI or insulin index (11). (2) The low GI barley evening meal, as opposed to white wheat bread and pasta evening meals, reduced the postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic (23 and 29%, respectively, P base carbohydrate load on specific analyses of the available carbohydrate content. (2) A low GI barley evening meal containing high levels of indigestible carbohydrates (RS and DF) substantially reduced the GI and II of white wheat bread determined at a subsequent breakfast meal.

  3. Associations between school meal-induced dietary changes and metabolic syndrome markers in 8–11-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Ritz, Christian; Dalskov, Stine Mathilde

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We recently showed that provision of Nordic school meals rich in fish, vegetables and potatoes and with reduced intakes of fat improved blood pressure, insulin resistance assessed by the homeostatic model (HOMA-IR), and plasma triacylglycerol despite increasing waist circumference....... Results: After adjustment for multiple testing, whole-blood DHA was negatively associated with HOMA-IR (P

  4. Whole-grain pasta reduces appetite and meal-induced thermogenesis acutely: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Iolanda; Santarpia, Lidia; Vaccaro, Andrea; Iacone, Roberto; Labruna, Giuseppe; Marra, Maurizio; Contaldo, Franco; Kristensen, Mette; Pasanisi, Fabrizio

    2016-03-01

    In epidemiological studies, the intake of foods rich in dietary fiber is associated with a reduced risk of developing overweight and type 2 diabetes. This work aims to identify acute strategies to regulate appetite and improve glucose control by using different pasta meals. Hence, 4 different isocaloric lunch meals, consisting of (i) refined-grain pasta (RG+T), (ii) whole-grain pasta (WG+T), (iii) lemon juice-supplemented refined-grain pasta (LRG+T), and (iv) refined-grain pasta with legumes (RG+L), were administered to 8 healthy participants in a crossover design. On the test days, participants underwent baseline measurements, including appetite sensation, blood sample, and resting energy expenditure (EE), after which the test lunch was served. Subjective appetite was assessed and a blood sample was taken each hour for 240 min, and postprandial EE was measured for 3 h. In repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), postprandial fullness (p = 0.001) increased and hunger (p = 0.038) decreased. WG+T had a lower EE than did both LGR+T (p = 0.02) and RG+L (p pasta may promote fullness and reduce hunger, lowering postprandial thermogenesis, and adding lemon juice to the pasta or legumes does not appear to affect appetite. However, none of pasta meal alterations improved the postprandial metabolic profile.

  5. Fructose intervention for 12 weeks does not impair glycemic control or incretin hormone responses during oral glucose or mixed meal tests in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matikainen, N; Söderlund, S; Björnson, E; Bogl, L H; Pietiläinen, K H; Hakkarainen, A; Lundbom, N; Eliasson, B; Räsänen, S M; Rivellese, A; Patti, L; Prinster, A; Riccardi, G; Després, J-P; Alméras, N; Holst, J J; Deacon, C F; Borén, J; Taskinen, M-R

    2017-06-01

    Incretin hormones glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are affected early on in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Epidemiologic studies consistently link high fructose consumption to insulin resistance but whether fructose consumption impairs the incretin response remains unknown. As many as 66 obese (BMI 26-40 kg/m 2 ) male subjects consumed fructose-sweetened beverages containing 75 g fructose/day for 12 weeks while continuing their usual lifestyle. Glucose, insulin, GLP-1 and GIP were measured during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and triglycerides (TG), GLP-1, GIP and PYY during a mixed meal test before and after fructose intervention. Fructose intervention did not worsen glucose and insulin responses during OGTT, and GLP-1 and GIP responses during OGTT and fat-rich meal were unchanged. Postprandial TG response increased significantly, p = 0.004, and we observed small but significant increases in weight and liver fat content, but not in visceral or subcutaneous fat depots. However, even the subgroups who gained weight or liver fat during fructose intervention did not worsen their glucose, insulin, GLP-1 or PYY responses. A minor increase in GIP response during OGTT occurred in subjects who gained liver fat (p = 0.049). In obese males with features of metabolic syndrome, 12 weeks fructose intervention 75 g/day did not change glucose, insulin, GLP-1 or GIP responses during OGTT or GLP-1, GIP or PYY responses during a mixed meal. Therefore, fructose intake, even accompanied with mild weight gain, increases in liver fat and worsening of postprandial TG profile, does not impair glucose tolerance or gut incretin response to oral glucose or mixed meal challenge. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University

  6. Is testing for postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia after gastric bypass necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Michèle; Meier, Claudia; Herren, Sylvia; Aubry, Emilie; Steffen, Rudolf; Stanga, Zeno

    2017-11-23

    Postprandial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (pHH) is an increasingly reported complication after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). As pHH can cause life-threatening emergencies if occurring without warning symptoms, challenge testing may detect patients at risk. The study objective was to determine the frequency of occurrence of pHH with or without symptoms of hypoglycemia after RYGB. We undertook an observational cohort study of consecutive, unselected patients approximately one year after uncomplicated RYGB. To simulate normal habits, all patients received a standardized carbohydrate-rich solid mixed meal. Plasma glucose and insulin were measured at 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 min thereafter. Symptoms were classified as autonomous or neuroglycopenic. Patients with hypoglycemia (plasma glucose meal. 113 patients were included. Total weight loss at the first follow-up check (14 ± 0.4 months) was 33.97 ± 9.3%. After the carbohydrate-rich meal, glucose dropped to meal. The pHH occurred in 11.5% (n = 13) of patients. Asymptomatic patients (5.3%, n = 6) carried an increased risk (p = 0.008) for pHH. One patient needed emergency treatment after sudden loss of consciousness after the carbohydrate-rich meal. The occurrence of pHH was quite high in our study population with 11.5% thereof 5.3% asymptomatic. We therefore suggest that detection of these patients warrants a screening of patients after RYGB. At-risk patients should than be adequately advised to avoid carbohydrate-rich meals in order to optimize risk management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of soy products in the diet on retention of non-heme iron from radiolabeled test meals fed to marginally iron-deficient young rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    Diets based either on casein or soy products and containing about 25 ppm iron were fed to weanling rats for 13 days. Rats were fasted overnight and fed a 59 Fe-radiolabeled casein test meal the morning of day 14. On day 21 less 59 Fe was retained by rats fed various diets based on selected soy products than by rats fed the casein-based diet. A similar adverse effect of diet components on 59 Fe retention from a casein test meal was observed for lactalbumin and for psyllium husk. No adverse effect of diet on 59 Fe retention was observed for the fiber of soy cotyledons or for rapeseed protein concentrate. For a commercial soy protein isolated (SPI) fed throughout the 21-day experiment, the adverse effect of diet on 59 Fe retention was observed to the sum of the effect of dietary SPI previous to the 59 Fe-radiolabeled casein test meal fed on day 14 and the effect of dietary SPI subsequent to the casein test meal. An effect of dietary soy products on 59 Fe retention from a casein test meal was not observed with diets containing higher iron levels (83 ppm) or when diets were fed for a longer period prior to the test meal (56 days). The present work shows that in some circumstances the concept of iron bioavailability must be expanded to include not only the influence of meal composition, but also the influence of diet previous to and subsequent to a meal

  8. Meal pattern among Norwegian primary-school children and longitudinal associations between meal skipping and weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Tonje H; Vik, Frøydis N; Bere, Elling; Svendsen, Martin V; Oellingrath, Inger M

    2015-02-01

    To investigate meal pattern longitudinally and explore whether meal skipping was associated with overweight among Norwegian children and adolescents. Longitudinal study. Children's meal frequencies were reported by their parents using a retrospective FFQ. Weight and height were measured by public health nurses. Descriptive data comparing 4th and 7th grade were analysed by paired-sample t tests for continuous variables and χ 2 tests for categorical variables. Odds ratio estimates, including confidence intervals, with BMI category (normal/overweight) as the dependent variable, were determined through logistic regression analyses. Primary schools, Telemark County, Norway. A cohort of 428 Norwegian boys and girls; 4th graders in 2007, 7th graders in 2010. The number of children eating four main meals per day (regular meal frequency) decreased from 4th grade (47 %) to 7th grade (38 %; P = 0·001). Those who ate regular meals in 4th grade but not in 7th grade had higher odds (OR = 3·1; 95 % CI 1·1, 9·0) of being overweight in 7th grade after adjusting for gender, maternal education and physical activity, but the odds ratio was not statistically significant after adjusting for overweight in 4th grade (OR = 2·8; 95 % CI 0·7, 11·6). The present study showed significant increases in overall meal skipping among children between 4th and 7th grade. The results indicate an association between overweight and meal skipping, but additional prospective and longitudinal analyses and intervention trials are warranted to confirm this relationship.

  9. The Healthy Meal Index: A tool for measuring the healthfulness of meals served to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Nicole; Mandell, Cami; Ball, Sarah; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie; Peterson, Karen E

    2016-08-01

    Family meals have been associated with higher diet quality and reduced risk of obesity in children. Observational studies of the family meal have been employed with increasing frequency, yet there is currently no tool available for measuring the healthfulness of food served during the meal. Here we present the development and validation of the Healthy Meal Index (HMI), a novel tool for scoring the healthfulness of foods served to children during a meal, as well as sociodemographic predictors of meal scores. Parents of 233 children, aged 4-8 years, self-recorded three home dinners. A research assistant obtained a list of foods available during the meal (meal report) via phone call on the night of each video-recorded meal. This meal report was coded into component food groups. Subsequently, meals were scored based on the availability of more healthy "Adequacy foods" and the absence of "Moderation foods", (of which reduced consumption is recommended, according to pediatric dietary guidelines). Adjusted linear regression tested the association of sociodemographic characteristics with HMI scores. A validation study was conducted in a separate sample of 133 children with detailed meal data. In adjusted models, female children had higher HMI Moderation scores (p = 0.02), but did not differ in HMI Adequacy or Total scores. Parents with more education served meals with higher HMI Adequacy (p = 0.001) and Total scores (p = 0.001), though no significant difference was seen in HMI Moderation score (p = 0.21). The validation study demonstrated that the HMI was highly correlated with servings of foods and nutrients estimated from observations conducted by research staff. The HMI is a valuable tool for measuring the quality of meals served to children. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The Development of the Mealings, Demuth, Dillon, and Buchholz Classroom Speech Perception Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealings, Kiri T.; Demuth, Katherine; Buchholz, Jörg; Dillon, Harvey

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Open-plan classroom styles are increasingly being adopted in Australia despite evidence that their high intrusive noise levels adversely affect learning. The aim of this study was to develop a new Australian speech perception task (the Mealings, Demuth, Dillon, and Buchholz Classroom Speech Perception Test) and use it in an open-plan…

  11. Rye-Based Evening Meals Favorably Affected Glucose Regulation and Appetite Variables at the Following Breakfast; A Randomized Controlled Study in Healthy Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Jonna C; Björck, Inger M E; Nilsson, Anne C

    2016-01-01

    Whole grain has shown potential to prevent obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Possible mechanism could be related to colonic fermentation of specific indigestible carbohydrates, i.e. dietary fiber (DF). The aim of this study was to investigate effects on cardiometabolic risk factors and appetite regulation the next day when ingesting rye kernel bread rich in DF as an evening meal. Whole grain rye kernel test bread (RKB) or a white wheat flour based bread (reference product, WWB) was provided as late evening meals to healthy young adults in a randomized cross-over design. The test products RKB and WWB were provided in two priming settings: as a single evening meal or as three consecutive evening meals prior to the experimental days. Test variables were measured in the morning, 10.5-13.5 hours after ingestion of RKB or WWB. The postprandial phase was analyzed for measures of glucose metabolism, inflammatory markers, appetite regulating hormones and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in blood, hydrogen excretion in breath and subjective appetite ratings. With the exception of serum CRP, no significant differences in test variables were observed depending on length of priming (P>0.05). The RKB evening meal increased plasma concentrations of PYY (0-120 min, Pappetite ratings during the whole experimental period (Pappetite sensation could be beneficial in preventing obesity. These effects could possibly be mediated through colonic fermentation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02093481.

  12. Knowledge and Consumption pattern of Vitamin A rich-foods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to lack of knowledge, some of the household subject some foods rich in vitamin A to traditional medicine use rather than using them to enrich their meals. Conclusion: Knowledge of the technologies for storage and preservation of vitamin A rich foods is very important in stabilizing price and making the foods available ...

  13. Performance characteristics of broilers fed graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal

    OpenAIRE

    Ayo-Ajasa, O.Y.; Abiona, J.A.; Fafiolu, A.O.; Egbeyale, L.T.; Njoku1, C.P.; Omotayo1, I.G.; Odeyemi1, A.Y.; Abel, F.A.S.

    2016-01-01

    Cost of conventional protein sources is on the increase recently; hence, there is the need for cheaper alternative sources that will not compromise the performance characteristics of broiler birds taking into consideration the cost of production. Moringa leaf meal has been reported to increase the performance of broiler birds due to its rich protein content. Two hundred day-old broiler chicks were used to assess the effects of partial replacement of soya bean meal with Moringa (Moringa oleife...

  14. Soup preloads in a variety of forms reduce meal energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Julie E; Rolls, Barbara J

    2007-11-01

    Consuming soup can enhance satiety and reduce energy intake. Little is known about the influence on energy intake and satiety of varying the form of soup by altering the blending of ingredients. We tested the effects on meal intake of consuming different forms of soup as a preload: broth and vegetables served separately, chunky vegetable soup, chunky-pureed vegetable soup, or pureed vegetable soup. Normal-weight men and women (n = 60) came to the laboratory for lunch once a week for 5 weeks. Each week, one of four compulsory preloads, or no preload, was consumed prior to lunch. A test meal was consumed ad libitum 15 min after the soup was served. Results showed that consuming soup significantly reduced test meal intake and total meal energy intake (preload + test meal) compared to having no soup. When soup was consumed, subjects reduced meal energy intake by 20% (134+/-25 kcal; 561+/-105 kJ). The type of soup had no significant effect on test meal intake or total meal energy intake. Consuming a preload of low-energy-dense soup, in a variety of forms, is one strategy for moderating energy intake in adults.

  15. Amino acids digestibility of pelleted microparticle protein of fish meal and soybean meal in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Suthama

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Commom protein sources for poultry, fish meal and soybean meal, were ground to obtain reduced particle size. The particle was then dissolved in distilled water (1 : 4 w/v, and added with 2 mL virgin coconut oil for every 500 mL solution prior to ultrasound transducer (ultrasonic bath treatment to obtain protein microparticle. Reducing particle size is one possible way to increase protein utilization.180 birds were used for forced feeding and 10 other birds were plotted for endogenous correction, when they were one month and a half old. Microparticle protein of both ingredients were tested separately in either mash or pelleted forms and compared to intact protein. Completely randomized design with 3 treatments (intact, mash, and pellet and 6 replications (10 bidrs each was arranged for the respective ingredient. Protein and essential amino acid digestibilities, and calcium retention were the parameters measured. Analysis of variance continued to Duncan test were applied to statistically evaluate the data. Pelleted microparticle protein of fish meal and soybean meal, respectively, resulted in significantly (P<0.05 highest protein and amino acids digestibilities, and Ca retention although lower disgestibility of fewer amino acids was found in mash form. In conclusion, pelleted form of microparticle protein of either fish meal or soybean meal improve protein and mostly amino acids digestibilities, and calcium retention in broiler.

  16. Hermetia illucens meal as fish meal replacement for rainbow trout on farm

    OpenAIRE

    Stadtlander, Timo; Stamer, Andreas; Buser, Andrea; Wohlfahrt, Jens; Leiber, Florian; Sandrock, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    In a 7-week on-farm feeding trial rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were provided with a diet containing 28% mechanically de-fatted insect meal prepared from larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (HIM) and compared to a control that received a certified organic and fishmeal based diet. In the test diet insect meal replaced almost 50% of the fishmeal. The whole experiment was conducted under practical conditions on an organically certified rainbow trout farm in Switzerland. Fish...

  17. Shelf stable meals for public sector uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt, J. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Meal System was developed with three simple concepts in mind: (1) nutritious, conventional foods are packaged in single-serving units and assembled into complete meals; (2) the meals have an extended shelf-life and can be transported and stored without need for refrigeration or freezing; (3) preparation of the meal by the consumer is an easy task which is accomplished in ten minutes or less. The meal system was tested in 1975 and 1976 by different groups of elderly individuals. NASA and the LBJ School of Public Affairs sponsored a national conference to report on the demonstration of the meal system for the elderly and to explore potential uses of the system for social services, institutional feeding programs, disaster relief, and international aid. The proceedings of the conference and how different groups assessed the potential of the meal system are reported.

  18. Depressive Symptoms Are Negatively Associated with Glucose Testing and Eating Meals on Time among Individuals with Diabetes in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hapunda, Given; Abubakar, Amina; Pouwer, Frans

    2017-01-01

    and adult patients. Regression analysis indicated that there was no association between total diabetes self-care and the depression total score. However, depression was associated with poor glucose testing and not eating meals on time by patients with diabetes. CONCLUSION: Some variance on poor self......-care was explained by demographic characteristics, specifically age, body mass index, and to some extent, socioeconomic status. Recognition and successful treatment of depression in patients with diabetes might help to optimize self-care behaviors, especially glucose testing and eating meals on time. However...

  19. Reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal energy intake in overweight and obese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Katy M; Byrne, Nuala M; King, Neil A

    2014-10-01

    To determine whether changes in appetite and energy intake (EI) can be detected and play a role in the effectiveness of interventions, it is necessary to identify their variability under normal conditions. We assessed the reproducibility of subjective appetite ratings and ad libitum test meal EI after a standardised pre-load in overweight and obese males. Fifteen overweight and obese males (BMI 30.3 ± 4.9 kg/m(2), aged 34.9 ± 10.6 years) completed two identical test days, 7 days apart. Participants were provided with a standardised fixed breakfast (1676 kJ) and 5 h later an ad libitum pasta lunch. An electronic appetite rating system was used to assess subjective ratings before and after the fixed breakfast, and periodically during the postprandial period. EI was assessed at the ad libitum lunch meal. Sample size estimates for paired design studies were calculated. Appetite ratings demonstrated a consistent oscillating pattern between test days, and were more reproducible for mean postprandial than fasting ratings. The correlation between ad libitum EI on the two test days was r = 0.78 (P appetite and ad libitum test meal EI in overweight and obese males is comparable to previous reports in normal weight adults. Sample size requirements for studies vary depending on the parameter of interest and sensitivity needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Postprandial gallbladder emptying is related to intestinal motility at the time of meal ingestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oster-Jørgensen, E; Qvist, N; Pedersen, S A

    1992-01-01

    The characteristics of meal-induced gallbladder emptying in healthy individuals are subject to wide variation. We hypothesized that some of the observed variation might relate to ingestion of the meal during different phases of the migrating motor complex (MMC). Recording of gastrointestinal...... pressure was combined with scintigraphic recording of bile kinetics during infusion of 99mTc-HIDA. The material consisted of 12 healthy men. Group 1 (n = 6) had a fat-rich meal in phase I, and group 2 (n = 6) had the meal in a phase II. With the end of the meal ingestion as zero, the following results...... emerged. The subjects in group 1 had a median (range) lag period before beginning of gallbladder emptying of 13.5 (9.0-22.5) min. In group 2 gallbladder emptying began during the meal ingestion in four subjects, and the median lag period was 0 min (minimum, -9.0; maximum, 13.5 (p = 0.02)). The median...

  1. Postprandial lipid responses to an alpha-linolenic acid-rich oil, olive oil and butter in women: A randomized crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenquist Anna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postprandial lipaemia varies with gender and the composition of dietary fat due to the partitioning of fatty acids between beta-oxidation and incorporation into triacylglycerols (TAGs. Increasing evidence highlights the importance of postprandial measurements to evaluate atherogenic risk. Postprandial effects of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA in women are poorly characterized. We therefore studied the postprandial lipid response of women to an ALA-rich oil in comparison with olive oil and butter, and characterized the fatty acid composition of total lipids, TAGs, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs in plasma. Methods A randomized crossover design (n = 19 was used to compare the postprandial effects of 3 meals containing 35 g fat. Blood samples were collected at regular intervals for 7 h. Statistical analysis was carried out with ANOVA (significant difference = P Results No significant difference was seen in incremental area under the curve (iAUC plasma-TAG between the meals. ALA and oleic acid levels were significantly increased in plasma after ALA-rich oil and olive oil meals, respectively. Palmitic acid was significantly increased in plasma-TAG after the butter meal. The ratios of 18:2 n-6 to18:3 n-3 in plasma-TAGs, three and seven hours after the ALA-rich oil meal, were 1.5 and 2.4, respectively. The corresponding values after the olive oil meal were: 13.8 and 16.9; and after the butter meal: 9.0 and 11.6. Conclusions The postprandial p-TAG and NEFA response in healthy pre-menopausal women was not significantly different after the intake of an ALA-rich oil, olive oil and butter. The ALA-rich oil significantly affected different plasma lipid fractions and improved the ratio of n-6 to n-3 fatty acids several hours postprandially.

  2. Consumption of a high-fat meal containing cheese compared with a vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomised controlled cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Elieke; Van Loan, Marta D; Rivera, Nancy; Rogers, Tara S; Gertz, Erik R; German, J Bruce; Zivkovic, Angela M; Smilowitz, Jennifer T

    2016-01-01

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimise CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomised controlled cross-over trial was conducted in twenty overweight or obese adults with metabolic abnormalities. Individuals consumed two isoenergetic high-fat mixed meals separated by a 1- to 2-week washout period. Serum was collected at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 6 h postprandially and analysed for inflammatory markers (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, TNFα, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1)), acute-phase proteins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid-A (SAA), cellular adhesion molecules and blood lipids, glucose and insulin. Following both high-fat test meals, postprandial TAG concentrations rose steadily (P vegan-alternative test meal. A treatment effect was not observed for any other inflammatory markers; however, for both test meals, multiple markers significantly changed from baseline over the 6 h postprandial period (IL-6, IL-8, IL-18, TNFα, MCP-1, SAA). Saturated fat in the form of a cheese matrix reduced the iAUC for CRP compared with a vegan-alternative test meal during the postprandial 6 h period. The study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov under NCT01803633.

  3. Toxicity studies of detoxified Jatropha meal (Jatropha curcas) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, K D; Darukeshwara, J; Rathina Raj, K; Narasimhamurthy, K; Saibaba, P; Bhagya, S

    2008-12-01

    Jatropha curcas, a tropical plant introduced in many Asian and African countries is presently used as a source of biodiesel. The cake after oil extraction is rich in protein and is a potential source of livestock feed. In view of the high toxic nature of whole as well as dehulled seed meal due to the presence of toxic phorbol esters and lectin, the meal was subjected to alkali and heat treatments to deactivate the phorbol ester as well as lectin content. After treatment, the phorbol ester content was reduced up to 89% in whole and dehulled seed meal. Toxicity studies were conducted on male growing rats by feeding treated as well as untreated meal through dietary source. All rats irrespective of treatment had reduced appetite and diet intake was low accompanied by diarrhoea. The rats also exhibited reduced motor activity. The rats fed with treated meals exhibited delayed mortality compared to untreated meal fed rats (p0.02). There were significant changes both in terms of food intake and gain in body weight. Gross examination of vital organs indicated atrophy compared to control casein fed rats. However, histopathological examination of various vital organs did not reveal any treatment related microscopic changes suggesting that the mortality of rats occurred due to lack of food intake, diarrhoea and emaciation. Further studies are in progress for complete detoxification of J. curcas meal for use in livestock feed.

  4. Regular meal frequency creates more appropriate insulin sensitivity and lipid profiles compared with irregular meal frequency in healthy lean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, H R; Taylor, M A; Macdonald, I A

    2004-07-01

    To investigate the impact of irregular meal frequency on circulating lipids, insulin, glucose and uric acid concentrations which are known cardiovascular risk factors. A randomised crossover dietary intervention study. Nottingham, UK--Healthy free-living women. A total of nine lean healthy women aged 18-42 y recruited via advertisement. A randomised crossover trial with two phases of 14 days each. In Phase 1, subjects consumed their normal diet on either 6 occasions per day (regular) or by following a variable meal frequency (3-9 meals/day, irregular). In Phase 2, subjects followed the alternative meal pattern to that followed in Phase 1, after a 2-week (wash-out) period. Subjects were asked to come to the laboratory after an overnight fast at the start and end of each phase. Blood samples were taken for measurement of circulating glucose, lipids, insulin and uric acid concentrations before and for 3 h after consumption of a high-carbohydrate test meal. Fasting glucose and insulin values were not affected by meal frequency, but peak insulin and AUC of insulin responses to the test meal were higher after the irregular compared to the regular eating patterns (P meal frequency was associated with higher fasting total (P meal frequency appears to produce a degree of insulin resistance and higher fasting lipid profiles, which may indicate a deleterious effect on these cardiovascular risk factors. : The Ministry of Health and Medical Education, IR Iran.

  5. Evaluation of small-bowel transit for solid and liquid test meal in healthy men and women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennink, R.; Maegdenbergh, V. van den; De Roo, M.; Mortelmans, L. [Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Peeters, M.; Geypens, B.; Rutgeerts, P. [Katholieke Univ. Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Gastroenterology

    1999-12-01

    Evaluation of severe functional gastrointestinal motility disorders requires an investigation of the entire gastrointestinal tract. This should be possible with a single radionuclide imaging study. The purpose of this study was (1) to define normal values of small-bowel transit in men and women and (2) to assess a possible difference between gender or test meal, since it has been shown that women have slower gastric emptying than men, and gastric emptying of solids is slower than liquids. A standard gastric-emptying test for a solid (technetium-99m sulphur colloids, 230 Kcal) and liquid (indium-111 DTPA water) test meal was performed in 12 healthy male and 12 healthy female volunteers. After 135 min, the volunteer was place in the supine position for static imaging of the abdomen every 15 min for 6 h. Decay and crossover-corrected geometric mean gastric-emptying data were fit to a modified power exponential function to determine the 10% stomach emptying time for solids and liquids separately. An ROI was drawn around the caecum and ascending colon to determine the arrival time of at least 10% of the solid and liquid test meal. Ten percent small-bowel transit time (10% SBTT) and orocaecal transit time (OCTT) were calculated. The OCTT for males and females, respectively for solids and liquids, are 294.6{+-}18.8; 301.3{+-}24.5; 294.6{+-}18.8 and 301.3{+-}24.5 min. The 10% SBTT for males and females, respectively for solids and liquids, are 280.3{+-}18.4; 280.6{+-}24.0; 288.2{+-}18.9 and 297.4{+-}24.4 (means{+-}SEM) min. We observed a simultaneous transfer of solids and liquids from the terminal ileum to caecum (correlation coefficient 0.90). There is no statistically significant difference in SBTT between gender or solids and liquids. In contrast to the gastric-emptying time, the SBTT of solids and liquids were not significantly different nor was a gender difference found. Determination of the OCTT seems to be the simplest and most accurate approach to measure SBTT

  6. Hunger and satiety responses to high-fat meals after a high-polyunsaturated fat diet: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Jada L; Paton, Chad M; Cooper, Jamie A

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) elicit a greater response in satiety after a single-meal challenge compared with other types of fats. The long-term effects of PUFAs on satiety, however, remain unknown. The aim of this study was to determine subjective and physiological hunger and satiety responses to high-fat (HF) meals before and after a 7-d PUFA-rich diet. Twenty-six, healthy weight (body mass index 18-24.9 kg/m 2 ), sedentary adults were randomly assigned to either a 7-d PUFA-rich diet (n = 8 men and n = 8 women) or a 7-d control diet (n = 5 men and n = 5 women). After a 3-d lead-in diet, participants reported for the baseline visit where anthropometrics, fasting visual analog scale (VAS) measurements, and a fasting blood sample were collected. Then, two HF meals (breakfast and lunch) were consumed. Postprandial blood draws and VAS measures were collected approximately every 30 min for 4 h after each meal, for a total of 8 h. From pre- to post-PUFA-rich diet, there was a decrease in fasting ghrelin (P hunger and satiety; yet, did not alter subjective ratings of hunger or fullness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Increasing the cooking temperature of meat does not affect nonheme iron absorption from a phytate-rich meal in women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baech, S.B.; Hansen, M.; Bukhave, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    The effect of increasing cooking temperatures of meat on nonheme iron absorption from a composite meal was investigated. Cysteine-containing peptides may have a role in the iron absorption enhancing effect of muscle proteins. Heat treatment can change the content of sulfhydryl groups produced from...... cysteine and thereby affect iron absorption. Twenty-one women (25 +/- 3 y) were served a basic meal without meat and two other meals consisting of the basic meal plus 75 g of pork meat cooked at 70, 95 or 120degreesC. The meals were extrinsically labeled with Fe-55 or Fe-59. Iron absorption was determined...... from measurements of wholebody Fe-59 retention and the activity of Fe-55 and Fe-59 in blood samples. Nonheme iron absorptions were 0.9 (0.5-4.0)% (P = 0.06), 0.7 (0.4-3.9)% (P = 0.1) and 2.0 (1.3-3.1)% (P cooked at 70, 95 or 120degreesC, respectively, was added to the basic...

  8. Change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Hou, Yiran; Wen, Bin

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the change of digestive physiology in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) induced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Four experimental diets were tested, in which Sargassum thunbergii was proportionally replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal. The growth performance, body composition and intestinal digestive enzyme activities in A. japonicus fed these 4 diets were examined. Results showed that the sea cucumber exhibited the maximum growth rate when 20% of S. thunbergii in the diet was replaced by corn kernels meal and soybean meal, while 40% of S. thunbergii in the diet can be replaced by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal without adversely affecting growth performance of A. japonicus. The activities of intestinal trypsin and amylase in A. japonicus can be significantly altered by corn kernels meal and soybean meal in diets. Trypsin activity in the intestine of A. japonicus significantly increased in the treatment groups compared to the control, suggesting that the supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might increase the intestinal trypsin activity of A. japonicus. However, amylase activity in the intestine of A. japonicus remarkably decreased with the increasing replacement level of S. thunbergii by the mixture of corn kernels meal and soybean meal, suggesting that supplement of corn kernels meal and soybean meal in the diets might decrease the intestinal amylase activity of A. japonicus.

  9. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for soybean meal, canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal among 3 different bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine amino acid digestibility of 4 feedstuffs [soybean meal (SBM), canola meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal (MBM)] using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal b...

  10. Differential acute postprandial effects of processed meat and isocaloric vegan meals on the gastrointestinal hormone response in subjects suffering from type 2 diabetes and healthy controls: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belinova, Lenka; Kahleova, Hana; Malinska, Hana; Topolcan, Ondrej; Vrzalova, Jindra; Oliyarnyk, Olena; Kazdova, Ludmila; Hill, Martin; Pelikanova, Terezie

    2014-01-01

    The intake of meat, particularly processed meat, is a dietary risk factor for diabetes. Meat intake impairs insulin sensitivity and leads to increased oxidative stress. However, its effect on postprandial gastrointestinal hormone (GIH) secretion is unclear. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of two standardized isocaloric meals: a processed hamburger meat meal rich in protein and saturated fat (M-meal) and a vegan meal rich in carbohydrates (V-meal). We hypothesized that the meat meal would lead to abnormal postprandial increases in plasma lipids and oxidative stress markers and impaired GIH responses. In a randomized crossover study, 50 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 50 healthy subjects underwent two 3-h meal tolerance tests. For statistical analyses, repeated-measures ANOVA was performed. The M-meal resulted in a higher postprandial increase in lipids in both groups (p<0.001) and persistent postprandial hyperinsulinemia in patients with diabetes (p<0.001). The plasma glucose levels were significantly higher after the V-meal only at the peak level. The plasma concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) were higher (p<0.05, p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively) and the ghrelin concentration was lower (p<0.001) after the M-meal in healthy subjects. In contrast, the concentrations of GIP, PYY and PP were significantly lower after the M-meal in T2D patients (p<0.001). Compared with the V-meal, the M-meal was associated with a larger increase in lipoperoxidation in T2D patients (p<0.05). Our results suggest that the diet composition and the energy content, rather than the carbohydrate count, should be important considerations for dietary management and demonstrate that processed meat consumption is accompanied by impaired GIH responses and increased oxidative stress marker levels in diabetic patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01572402.

  11. Differential acute postprandial effects of processed meat and isocaloric vegan meals on the gastrointestinal hormone response in subjects suffering from type 2 diabetes and healthy controls: a randomized crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Belinova

    Full Text Available The intake of meat, particularly processed meat, is a dietary risk factor for diabetes. Meat intake impairs insulin sensitivity and leads to increased oxidative stress. However, its effect on postprandial gastrointestinal hormone (GIH secretion is unclear. We aimed to investigate the acute effects of two standardized isocaloric meals: a processed hamburger meat meal rich in protein and saturated fat (M-meal and a vegan meal rich in carbohydrates (V-meal. We hypothesized that the meat meal would lead to abnormal postprandial increases in plasma lipids and oxidative stress markers and impaired GIH responses.In a randomized crossover study, 50 patients suffering from type 2 diabetes (T2D and 50 healthy subjects underwent two 3-h meal tolerance tests. For statistical analyses, repeated-measures ANOVA was performed.The M-meal resulted in a higher postprandial increase in lipids in both groups (p<0.001 and persistent postprandial hyperinsulinemia in patients with diabetes (p<0.001. The plasma glucose levels were significantly higher after the V-meal only at the peak level. The plasma concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY and pancreatic polypeptide (PP were higher (p<0.05, p<0.001, p<0.001, respectively and the ghrelin concentration was lower (p<0.001 after the M-meal in healthy subjects. In contrast, the concentrations of GIP, PYY and PP were significantly lower after the M-meal in T2D patients (p<0.001. Compared with the V-meal, the M-meal was associated with a larger increase in lipoperoxidation in T2D patients (p<0.05.Our results suggest that the diet composition and the energy content, rather than the carbohydrate count, should be important considerations for dietary management and demonstrate that processed meat consumption is accompanied by impaired GIH responses and increased oxidative stress marker levels in diabetic patients.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01572402.

  12. Pre-Meal Effect of Whey Proteins on Metabolic Parameters in Subjects with and without Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnshave, Ann; Holst, Jens Juul; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2018-01-01

    Diabetic dyslipidemia with elevated postprandial triglyceride (TG) responses is characteristic in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Diet and meal timing can modify postprandial lipemia (PPL). The impact of a pre-meal of whey proteins (WP) on lipid metabolism is unidentified. We determined whether a WP pre......-meal prior to a fat-rich meal influences TG and apolipoprotein B-48 (ApoB-48) responses differentially in patients with and without T2D. Two matched groups of 12 subjects with and without T2D accomplished an acute, randomized, cross-over trial. A pre-meal of WP (20 g) or water (control) was consumed 15 min......-meal induced similar hormone and lipid responses in subjects with and without T2D. Thus, the WP pre-meal enhanced insulin, glucagon and GIP responses but did not influence lipid or glucose responses. In addition, we demonstrated that a WP pre-meal reduced gastric emptying in both groups....

  13. Nutritional evaluation of canola meals produced from new varieties of canola seeds for poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X; Parr, C; Utterback, P; Parsons, C M

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the nutritional value of 14 canola meals from new varieties of canola and compared them to conventional canola meal samples and soybean meals in chickens. Five experiments that included different sources of canola meals or soybean meals were conducted. For each experiment, a precision-fed rooster assay with conventional or cecectomized roosters was conducted to determine TMEn or amino acid digestibility. Analyzed nutritional composition of the canola meal samples indicated increases in crude protein and amino acids for all test canola meals (49.41 to 50.58% crude protein on a dry matter basis) compared to conventional canola meals (40.73 to 43.01%). All test canola meals also contained lower amounts of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. Most test canola meals had significantly higher TMEn values than the conventional canola meals (P nutritional value of the canola meal from new varieties of canola was greater than conventional canola meal for poultry. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Comparative evaluation of different soybean meal and the replacement using peanut, rapeseed and fish meal for broilers .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Tangendjaja

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available Two feeding experiments have been conducted to test the different sources of soybean meal (local, India, USA and the partial substitution with peanut meal (10%, rapeseed meal (5% and fish meal (5% in the diet for broiler. The first feeding experiment was carried out on broiler starter for 4 weeks in wire cages . Twelve rations in factorial design (3 x 4 were conducted using 6 birds/cage and replicated 6 times . Birds fed India soybean meal had significantly less body weight (1,000 g than those fed local or USA soybean meals (1,037 and 1,023 g, respectively . Partial substitution with peanut, rapeseed or fish meal did not affect body weight, feed consumption or feed/gain ratio . The average consumption and feed/gain were 1,535 g and 1,569, respectively . In second experiment, one thousand five hundred broiler chicks were allocated in 6 dietary treatments in factorial design (3 x 2 . Factor one was different sources of soybean meal (local, India and USA and factor two was the inclusion of peanut meal at 0 and 10%. Birds were kept on litter system for 6 weeks . Each treatment used 5 replicates and 50 birds/replicate . The results show no effect of the treatment to any parameter measured . Body weight of bird fed local, India and USA soybean meal were 1,662, 1,641 and 1,669 g and feed/gain were 2 .043, 2 .051 and 2.035, respectively . Cost analysis indicates that ration uses local soybean meal gives a higher cost than those of India and USA soybean meals.

  15. The effects of specified chemical meals on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopmans, H S; Maggio, C A

    1978-10-01

    Rats received intragastric infusions of various specified chemical meals and were subsequently tested for a reduction in food intake. A second experiment, using a novel technique, tested for conditioned aversion to the meal infusions. The nonnutritive substances, kaolin clay and emulsified fluorocarbon, had no significant effect on food intake. Infusions of 1 M glucose and 1 M sorbitol reduced feeding behavior, but the 1 M sorbitol infusion also produced a conditioned aversion to flavored pellets paired with the sorbitol infusion, showing that the reduced feeding could have been caused by discomfort. Infusion of a high-fat meal consisting of emulsified triolein mixed with small amounts of sugar and protein or the rat's normal liquid diet, Nutrament, also reduced food intake, and both infusions failed to produce a conditioned aversion. The use of specified meals to understand the chemical basis of satiety requires a sensitive behavioral test to establish that the meal does not cause discomfort or other nonspecific effects.

  16. Frequency of Hospital Use Before and After Home-Delivery Meal by Meals On Wheels, of Tarrant County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, J; Thorud, J L; Marishak-Simon, S; Hammack, L; Stevens, A B

    2018-01-01

    Patients recently discharged from the hospital are vulnerable and are at high risk for readmission. Home-delivered meals may be beneficial in improving their health and facilitating independent living in the community. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between home-delivered meals and use of hospital services. This study includes 120 clients recently discharged from an inpatient hospital stay or from an emergency department (ED) visit who received meal services from Meals On Wheels, Inc., of Tarrant County. Healthcare utilization data was extracted from the Dallas-Fort Worth Hospital Council Foundation, a regional all claims database used by over 90% of hospitals in Dallas-Fort Worth area. Signed tests and generalized linear models (GLM) were performed. A total of 16,959 meals were delivered from March 2013 through March 2014. Each client received an average of 6.19 meals per week. The average number of ED visits decreased from 5.03 before receipt of meals to 1.45 after receipt of meals, z = -5.23, p meals were less likely to experience ED visits and hospitalizations after controlling for demographic characteristics and levels of physical functioning. The findings of this study indicate that home-delivered meals services may contribute to a reduction in hospital based care services among frail and vulnerable adults. Additional studies should consider the short and long-term effects of home-delivered meals services on healthcare utilization and the potential to decrease healthcare costs.

  17. Effects of blood meal, chicken offal meal and fish meal as sources of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects were studied of using combinations or plant protein sources, GNC, Palm Kernel cake, and cotton and seed cake diets, supplementeil with 4 sources of methionine (M) and Lysine (L), synthetic M + L, blood meal + M, fish meal, or chicken offal meal (COM) in 8-Week 3 x 4 factorial experiment with sta11er cockerels ...

  18. Testing the Relationships between Diversification, Species Richness, and Trait Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Kenneth H; Wiens, John J

    2016-11-01

    Understanding which traits drive species diversification is essential for macroevolutionary studies and to understand patterns of species richness among clades. An important tool for testing if traits influence diversification is to estimate rates of net diversification for each clade, and then test for a relationship between traits and diversification rates among clades. However, this general approach has become very controversial. Numerous papers have now stated that it is inappropriate to analyze net diversification rates in groups in which clade richness is not positively correlated with clade age. Similarly, some have stated that variation in net diversification rates does not explain variation in species richness patterns among clades across the Tree of Life. Some authors have also suggested that strong correlations between richness and diversification rates are a statistical artifact and effectively inevitable. If this latter point is true, then correlations between richness and diversification rates would be uninformative (or even misleading) for identifying how much variation in species richness among clades is explained by variation in net diversification rates. Here, we use simulations (based on empirical data for plethodontid salamanders) to address three main questions. First, how is variation in net diversification rates among clades related to the relationship between clade age and species richness? Second, how accurate are these net diversification rate estimators, and does the age-richness relationship have any relevance to their accuracy? Third, is a relationship between species richness and diversification rates an inevitable, statistical artifact? Our simulations show that strong, positive age-richness relationships arise when diversification rates are invariant among clades, whereas realistic variation in diversification rates among clades frequently disrupts this relationship. Thus, a significant age-richness relationship should not be a

  19. Effects of alfalfa meal on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J F; Song, X M; Wu, J L; Jiang, Y Q

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of alfalfa meal diets on the intestinal microbial diversity and immunity of growing egg-type ducks. A total of 128 healthy 7-week-old female egg-type Shaoxing ducks were selected and randomly assigned into four dietary treatments: 0%, 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal for 8 weeks. Each treatment consisted of four replicates of eight ducks each. Polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to characterize the microbiota. The results showed that the DGGE fingerprints of the V6-V8 fragments of the 16S rRNA from the caeca and faeces of ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal had significantly higher microbiota species richness than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p ducks fed 3%, 6% and 9% alfalfa meal was significantly higher than those fed 0% alfalfa meal (p 0.05), and the 3-9% alfalfa meal did not affect the growth performance of the growing egg-type ducks. The proliferation of T and B lymphocytes was significantly greater (p ducks. Dietary alfalfa meal supplementation increases intestinal microbial community diversity and improves of the immune response growing egg-type ducks. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Characterization of four Paenibacillus species isolated from pasteurized, chilled ready-to-eat meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmond, Mariette; Nierop Groot, Masja N; van Bokhorst-van de Veen, Hermien

    2017-07-03

    Food spoilage is often caused by microorganisms. The predominant spoilage microorganisms of pasteurized, chilled ready-to-eat (RTE) mixed rice-vegetable meals stored at 7°C were isolated and determined as Paenibacillus species. These sporeforming psychrotrophic bacteria are well adapted to grow in the starch-rich environment of pasteurized and chilled meals. Growth of the Paenibacillus isolates appeared to be delayed by decreased (5.5%, corresponding with an a w meal on spore inactivation, heat-inactivation kinetics were determined and D-values were calculated. According to these kinetics, pasteurization up to 90°C, necessary for inactivation of vegetative spoilage microorganisms and pathogens, does not significantly contribute to the inactivation of Paenibacillus spores in the meals. Furthermore, outgrowth of pasteurized spores was determined in the mixed rice-vegetable meal at several temperatures; P. terrae FBR-61 and P. pabuli FBR-75 isolates did not substantially increase in numbers during storage at 2°C, but had a significant increase within a month of storage at 4°C or within several days at 22°C. Overall, this work shows the importance of Paenibacillus species as spoilage microorganisms of pasteurized, chilled RTE meals and that the meals' matrix, processing conditions, and storage temperature are important hurdles to control microbial meal spoilage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Meals consumption among thirteen years olds and selected family socio-economic correlates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzycka-Stalmach, Magdalena; Mikiel-Kostyra, Krystyna; Oblacińska, Anna; Jodkowska, Maria; Wojdan-Godek, Elzbieta

    2010-01-01

    To analyse the influence of selected family socioeconomic factors on the regularity of meals consumption among 13-years aged adolescents. Group of 605 13-years olds identified in the prospective cohort study in 2008 was analysed. Data was gathered with use of posted questionnaires. On the basis of information given by children the regularity (4-5 times a week) of meals consumption on school days and eating meals with parents were correlated with parents' educational level, occupational status and perceived family wealth. The study also recognised the distinction between urban and rural residents. Most questionnaires were filled out by mothers (95%), only 5% by fathers. In urban area, the mother's occupation and the perceived family wealth, correlate with children meals consumption and eating meals with parents. Children whose mothers have a job eat breakfast 1.5 times and supper 3 times less regularly, than children whose mothers don't work. Children from poor families eat breakfast 14 times less regularly than children from rich families as well as eat supper 3 times less regularly than children from average wealthy families. In the rural area, the regularity of meals consumption significantly influence the mother's education. Children whose mothers have a secondary education, compared with children of mothers with basic education, are 4 times more likely to eat dinner and supper regularly. The family socioeconomic factors significantly correlate with regularity of 13-years olds meals consumption and regularity of family meals. The place of residence involve the different factors influencing meals consumption habits. It was shown that children and fathers were too little engaged in family life, including family meals preparation and consumption.

  2. Plasma cortisol levels in response to a cold pressor test did not predict appetite or ad libitum test meal intake in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geliebter, Allan; Gibson, Charlisa D; Hernandez, Dominica B; Atalayer, Deniz; Kwon, Anne; Lee, Michelle I; Mehta, Nandini; Phair, Donna; Gluck, Marci E

    2012-12-01

    Heightened cortisol response to stress due to hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may stimulate appetite and food intake. In this study, we assessed cortisol responsivity to a cold pressor test (CPT) as well as appetite ratings and subsequent test meal intake (TMI) in obese women. Following an overnight fast on two counterbalanced days, 20 obese women immersed their non-dominant hand for 2min in ice water (CPT) or warm water (WW) as a control. Plasma cortisol (ng/ml), heart rate, and blood pressure, as well as ratings of stress, pain, and appetite, were serially acquired. An ad libitum liquid meal was offered at 45min and intake measured covertly. Fasting cortisol was higher at 15min (mean peak cortisol) following the CPT compared to WW. Higher stress was reported at 2 and 15min for the CPT compared to WW. Pain, an indirect marker of the acute stress, systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased following the CPT at 2min compared to WW. Hunger decreased after the CPT at 2 and 15min, and desire to eat ratings were lower following CPT compared to WW. Subjects did not have greater test meal intake (TMI) following CPT compared to WW. There was also no significant relationship between cortisol levels following stress and TMI, indicating that cortisol did not predict subsequent intake in obese women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Consumer attitudes, barriers, and meal satisfaction associated with sodium-reduced meal intake at worksite cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghee; Park, Sohyun

    2015-12-01

    Targeting consumers who consume lunches at their worksite cafeterias would be a valuable approach to reduce sodium intake in South Korea. To assess the relationships between socio-demographic factors, consumer satisfaction, attitudes, barriers and the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. We implemented a cross-sectional research, analyzing data from 738 consumers aged 18 years or older (327 males and 411 females) at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We used the ordinary least squares regression analysis to determine the factors related to overall satisfaction with sodium-reduced meal. General linear models with LSD tests were employed to examine the variables that differed by the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. Most subjects always or usually consumed the sodium-reduced meal (49%), followed by sometimes (34%) and rarely or never (18%). Diverse menus, taste and belief in the helpfulness of the sodium-reduced meal significantly increased overall satisfaction with the sodium-reduced diet (P < 0.05). We found importance of needs in the following order: 1) 'menu diversity' (4.01 points), 2) 'active promotion' (3.97 points), 3) 'display of nutrition labels in a visible location' (3.96 points), 4) 'improvement of taste' (3.88 points), and 5) 'education of sodium-reduction self-care behaviors' (3.82 points). Dietitians could lead consumers to choose sodium-reduced meals by improving their taste and providing diverse menus for the sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias.

  4. Evaluation of small-bowel transit for solid and liquid test meal in healthy men and women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennink, R.; Maegdenbergh, V. van den; De Roo, M.; Mortelmans, L.; Peeters, M.; Geypens, B.; Rutgeerts, P.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of severe functional gastrointestinal motility disorders requires an investigation of the entire gastrointestinal tract. This should be possible with a single radionuclide imaging study. The purpose of this study was (1) to define normal values of small-bowel transit in men and women and (2) to assess a possible difference between gender or test meal, since it has been shown that women have slower gastric emptying than men, and gastric emptying of solids is slower than liquids. A standard gastric-emptying test for a solid (technetium-99m sulphur colloids, 230 Kcal) and liquid (indium-111 DTPA water) test meal was performed in 12 healthy male and 12 healthy female volunteers. After 135 min, the volunteer was place in the supine position for static imaging of the abdomen every 15 min for 6 h. Decay and crossover-corrected geometric mean gastric-emptying data were fit to a modified power exponential function to determine the 10% stomach emptying time for solids and liquids separately. An ROI was drawn around the caecum and ascending colon to determine the arrival time of at least 10% of the solid and liquid test meal. Ten percent small-bowel transit time (10% SBTT) and orocaecal transit time (OCTT) were calculated. The OCTT for males and females, respectively for solids and liquids, are 294.6±18.8; 301.3±24.5; 294.6±18.8 and 301.3±24.5 min. The 10% SBTT for males and females, respectively for solids and liquids, are 280.3±18.4; 280.6±24.0; 288.2±18.9 and 297.4±24.4 (means±SEM) min. We observed a simultaneous transfer of solids and liquids from the terminal ileum to caecum (correlation coefficient 0.90). There is no statistically significant difference in SBTT between gender or solids and liquids. In contrast to the gastric-emptying time, the SBTT of solids and liquids were not significantly different nor was a gender difference found. Determination of the OCTT seems to be the simplest and most accurate approach to measure SBTT. Since ileocaecal

  5. Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Rats Fed Detoxified Jojoba Meal Through Radiation Processing and Other Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, M.; Diaa El-Din, H.; El-Shennawy, H. M.

    2004-01-01

    The present of toxic cyano glucosides makes the jojoba meal, rich in protein, unacceptable for animal's feed. Irradiation jojoba meal at 25, 50, and 75 kGy, heat, microwave, fermented raw and fermented irradiated jojoba meal at 75 kGy were investigated for inactivation of glucosinolates. Raw jojoba meal contains 0.702%. Proceeding jojoba meal by above mentioned methods reducing the activity of glucosinolates by 8.26, 13.96, 20.66, 11.97, 5.27, 10.26 and 24.79%, respectively. The present study has investigated the effect of supplementation of 38.5% of raw jojoba meal and processed meals in the food of growing male Albino rats for four weeks on mortality rate, body and organs weight evaluation as well as the effect on blood chemistry. The present work concluded that the combination between the irradiation of jojoba meal at 75 kGy and the fermentation process by using Fusarium moniliforme reduced the bioactive antinutrional factors, glucosinolate compounds, present naturally in the meal under investigation. Also, the results confirm that the glucosinolates content of jojoba meal after irradiation process at 75 kGy is still high and has considerable biological effects on the animals fed such meals, during the experimental period (four weeks). Therefore, it seems that higher radiation dose is required to minimize glucosinolates in jojoba meal. (authors)

  6. Family Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Family Meals KidsHealth / For Parents / Family Meals What's in ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  7. Consumption of high-fat meal containing cheese compared with vegan alternative lowers postprandial C-reactive protein in overweight and obese individuals with metabolic abnormalities: a randomized controlled cross-over study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary recommendations suggest decreased consumption of SFA to minimize CVD risk; however, not all foods rich in SFA are equivalent. To evaluate the effects of SFA in a dairy food matrix, as Cheddar cheese, v. SFA from a vegan-alternative test meal on postprandial inflammatory markers, a randomized...

  8. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open......-ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored...

  9. Performance characteristics of broilers fed graded levels of Moringa oleifera leaf meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayo-Ajasa, O.Y.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cost of conventional protein sources is on the increase recently; hence, there is the need for cheaper alternative sources that will not compromise the performance characteristics of broiler birds taking into consideration the cost of production. Moringa leaf meal has been reported to increase the performance of broiler birds due to its rich protein content. Two hundred day-old broiler chicks were used to assess the effects of partial replacement of soya bean meal with Moringa (Moringa oleifera leaf meal on broiler chickens in an 8-wk feeding trial. The birds were randomly assigned in equal numbers into five dietary treatments: 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 % Moringa leaf meal (MOLM. Each treatment was replicated four times with 10 birds per replicate. The results showed that final weight, weight gain, daily weight gain, total feed intake, daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio were significantly (p0.05 effect on primal cut parts and relative organ weight. From the results of this study, replacement of soybean meal with MOLM up to 20% did not have any adverse effect on growth performance and carcass traits of broiler chickens.

  10. Dairy meals of hospitalized children as a source of energy, calcium and phosphorus in satisfying their daily needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vukman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A dairy meal is defined as a specific food serving composed from milk and dairy products. Because of its nutritional value and complex chemical composition, milk and dairy products play an important role in the diet of children and represent a rich source of calcium, phosphorus, as well as valuable proteins, B vitamins and minerals. Healthy children should consume at least three servings of dairy products daily, which contributes to the total energy and nutrients that children need. The needs of an unhealthy child are often higher than those who are healthy and depend on the state of the body. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of consumption of dairy meals in hospitalized children and to find out if their energy needs, as well as their need for calcium and phosphorus through the consumption of the same were met. Significant differences were found between recommended energy intake from dairy products and actual energy intake from consumed milk and dairy products in three Croatian regions (P=0.021 tested. The highest values were recorded in central Croatia (253 Kcal or 34.4 % and the lowest in the northern Croatian coastal region (17.05 Kcal or 20.1 %, which indicates a greater representation of milk and dairy meals in children’s daily menu. Furthermore, hospitalized children meet almost half of their recommended daily intake of calcium and phosphorus from dairy meals for all three regions. The highest rate was found in central Croatia, 48.7 % or 400 mg of calcium, respectively 42.9 % or 322.69 mg phosphorus, while the remaining portion of calcium and phosphorus originates from different rich non-dairy food sources. In all regions the most common forms of dairy foods consumed were milk and dairy desserts.

  11. Haemolytic and Antimicrobial Activites of Saponin-Rich Extracts from Guar Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponin-rich GM extract was prepared by refluxing 25 g of GM with 250 ml of EtOH/H2O (1:1, v/v) for 3 h then filtering and distilling EtOH at 50oC. The refluxed extract was partitioned with equal volume of BuOH obtaining crude saponin-rich GM extract with 4.8 ± 0.6% DM of GM that was purified by RP...

  12. Iron absorption from adequate Filipinos meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1989-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 +- 1.26%. Central Visayas, 6.3 +- 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 +- 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P>0.01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry; and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid, did not give significant results. The overall average of 6.4 +- 1.20% may be used as the iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976. (Auth.). 21 refs.; 3 tabs.; 3 annexes

  13. Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinidad, T.P.; Madriaga, J.R.; Valdez, D.H.; Cruz, E.M.; Mallillin, A.C.; Sison, C.C.; Kuizon, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Iron absorption from adequate Filipino meals representing the three major island groups of the Philippines (Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao) was studied using double isotope extrinsic tag method. Mean iron absorption of the one-day meal for Metro Manila was 6.6 ± 1.26%, Central Visayas, 6.3 ± 1.15% and Southern Mindanao, 6.4 ± 1.19%. Comparison between meals (breakfast, lunch, dinner) for each region as well as one-day meal for the three regions showed no significant differences (P > .01). Correlation tests done between iron absorption and the following iron enhancers: ascorbic acid, amount of fish, meat or poultry and inhibitors: phytic acid and tannic acid did not give significant results. The overall bar x of 6.4 ± 1.20% may be used as the non-heme iron absorption level from an adequate Filipino meal. This value can be considered as one of the bases for arriving at recommended dietary allowances for iron among Filipinos instead of the 10% iron absorption assumed in 1976

  14. Development of a Quality of Meals and Meal Service Set of Indicators for Residential Facilities for Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, N; Buijck, B; Van Hecke, A; Verhaeghe, S; Goossens, E; Beeckman, D

    2016-01-01

    To develop a content validated set of indicators to evaluate the quality of meals and meal service in residential facilities for elderly. Inadequate food intake is an important risk factor for malnutrition in residential facilities for elderly. Through better meeting the needs and preferences of residents and optimization of meals and meal service, residents' food intake can improve. No indicators were available which could help to guide strategies to improve the quality of meals and meal service. The indicator set was developed according to the Indicator Development Manual of the Dutch Institute for Health Care Improvement (CBO). The working group consisted of three nurse researchers and one expert in gastrology and had expertise in elderly care, malnutrition, indicator development, and food quality. A preliminary list of potential indicators was compiled using the literature and the working group's expertise. Criteria necessary to measure the indicator in practice were developed for each potential indicator. In a double Delphi procedure, the list of potential indicators and respective criteria were analyzed for content validity, using a multidisciplinary expert panel of 11 experts in elderly meal care. A preliminary list of 20 quality indicators, including 45 criteria, was submitted to the expert panel in a double Delphi procedure. After the second Delphi round, 13 indicators and 25 criteria were accepted as having content validity. The content validity index (CVI) ranged from 0.83 to 1. The indicator set consisted of six structural, four result, and three outcome indicators covering the quality domains food, service and choice, as well as nutritional screening. The criteria measure diverse aspects of meal care which are part of the responsibility of kitchen staff and health care professionals. The 'quality of meals and meal service' set of indicators is a resource to map meal quality in residential facilities for elderly. As soon as feasibility tests in practice

  15. Mixed-meal tolerance test versus glucagon stimulation test for the assessment of beta-cell function in therapeutic trials in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greenbaum, Carla J; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; McGee, Paula Friedenberg

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Beta-cell function in type 1 diabetes clinical trials is commonly measured by C-peptide response to a secretagogue in either a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) or a glucagon stimulation test (GST). The Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Research Group and the European C-peptide Trial (ECPT) Study...... Group conducted parallel randomized studies to compare the sensitivity, reproducibility, and tolerability of these procedures. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In randomized sequences, 148 TrialNet subjects completed 549 tests with up to 2 MMTT and 2 GST tests on separate days, and 118 ECPT subjects...

  16. Effect of feeding guar meal on nutrient utilization and growth performance in Mahbubnagar local kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janampet, Razia Sultana; Malavath, Kishan Kumar; Neeradi, Rajanna; Chedurupalli, Satyanarayana; Thirunahari, Raghunandan

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of guar meal, an unconventional protein-rich feed ingredient in kids in comparison to conventional groundnut cake. A total of 18 kids were randomly allotted to three groups, and T1 group was fed on basal diet, T2 and T3 groups were offered diet replacing groundnut cake at 50% and 100% with guar meal, respectively, for a period of 120-day. At the end of the growth trial, a digestibility trial was conducted to evaluate the nutrient utilization. There was no significant difference in dry matter intake among three groups. Nutrient digestibilities were significantly higher (preplacement of groundnut cake with guar meal. It can be concluded that guar meal can be incorporated at 50% level in the concentrate mixture of goats replacing groundnut cake without any adverse effects.

  17. The effect of heightened awareness of observation on consumption of a multi-item laboratory test meal in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; Proctor, Michael; Oldham, Melissa; Masic, Una

    2016-09-01

    Human eating behaviour is often studied in the laboratory, but whether the extent to which a participant believes that their food intake is being measured influences consumption of different meal items is unclear. Our main objective was to examine whether heightened awareness of observation of food intake affects consumption of different food items during a lunchtime meal. One hundred and fourteen female participants were randomly assigned to an experimental condition designed to heighten participant awareness of observation or a condition in which awareness of observation was lower, before consuming an ad libitum multi-item lunchtime meal in a single session study. Under conditions of heightened awareness, participants tended to eat less of an energy dense snack food (cookies) in comparison to the less aware condition. Consumption of other meal items and total energy intake were similar in the heightened awareness vs. less aware condition. Exploratory secondary analyses suggested that the effect heightened awareness had on reduced cookie consumption was dependent on weight status, as well as trait measures of dietary restraint and disinhibition, whereby only participants with overweight/obesity, high disinhibition or low restraint reduced their cookie consumption. Heightened awareness of observation may cause females to reduce their consumption of an energy dense snack food during a test meal in the laboratory and this effect may be moderated by participant individual differences. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the glycemic indices of three commonly eaten mixed meals in Okada, Edo State

    OpenAIRE

    Omage, Kingsley; Omage, Sylvia O.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract People do not generally eat single or individual meals; rather they eat mixed meals, consisting of two or more individual meals. These mixed meals usually have glycemic indices which differ from that of the individual food type. This study was aimed at evaluating the glycemic indices of three commonly consumed mixed meals eaten in Okada; rice and beans (test food 1), rice and plantain (test food 2), beans and plantain (test food 3). Two hundred and forty healthy subjects aged between...

  19. Norepinephrine turnover in brown adipose tissue is stimulated by a single meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glick, Z.; Raum, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    A single meal stimulates brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis in rats. In the present study the role of norepinephrine in this thermogenic response was assessed from the rate of its turnover in BAT after a single test meal. For comparison, norepinephrine turnover was determined in the heart and spleen. A total of 48 male Wistar rats (200 g) were trained to eat during two feeding sessions per day. On the experimental day, one group (n = 24) was meal deprived and the other (n = 24) was given a low-protein high-carbohydrate test meal for 2 h. The synthesis inhibition method with α-methyl-p-tyrosine was employed to determine norepinephrine turnover from its concentration at four hourly time points after the meal. Tissue concentrations of norepinephrine were determined by radioimmunoassay. Norepinephrine concentration and turnover rate were increased more than threefold in BAT of the meal-fed compared with the meal-deprived rats. Neither were significantly altered by the meal in the heart or spleen. The data suggest that norepinephrine mediates a portion of the thermic effect of meals that originate in BAT

  20. Aqueous ethanol extraction of dietary soy protein isolate improves 59Fe absorption by the rat from a casein-based test meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    A commercial soy protein isolate (SPI) was further processed in an attempt to understand how a diet based on SPI can cause decreased iron retention by the rat from a separately administered casein-based test meal. Groups of eight rats were fed either a casein-based diet or a diet based on SPI. The acid-precipitated SPI was incorporated into diets as such, after neutralization, after 60% (v/v) ethanol extraction and neutralization, or after 60% ethanol exposure and neutralization. All dietary SPI was heat-treated by exposure to steam at 108 degrees C for 30 min. Rats were fed their respective diets, each containing 25 mg Fe/kg, for 13 d, and then all rats were fed a 59 Fe-radiolabeled 2.5-g casein test meal containing 64 micrograms of iron. Ingested radioactivity was determined following the meal, and retained radioactivity over the subsequent 10-d period. Absorption was not distinguishable for groups fed the casein-based (78.3 ± 3.6%) and the ethanol-extracted, SPI-based diet (80.2 ± 5.4%). Absorption was lower (P less than 0.01) for groups fed each of the other SPI-based diets: SPI as such (68.3 ± 8.9%), neutralized SPI (69.8 ± 5.0%) and ethanol-exposed SPI (67.6 ± 4.8%). An ethanol-extractable component of SPI may be responsible for decreased iron absorption by animals fed SPI prior to a radiolabeled test meal

  1. Meals in nursing homes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Jens Erik; Birkemose, A.

    2004-01-01

    Undernutrition is present among 33% of nursing home residents in Denmark. Hence, it is relevant to examine the meal situation at nursing homes to single out factors that may increase or reduce the residents' food intake. in the ongoing Danish nursing home debate it is claimed that a new type...... of nursing home improves the residents' meal situation with a positive effect on nutrition. The aim of this work is to test the general hypothesis that (i) residents appreciate the meal situation in these nursing homes and (ii) nutritional status of the residents is improved in this type of nursing home....... This study was carried out in four Danish nursing homes at various locations in Denmark. The methods used are qualitative interviews and observations at four nursing homes in combination with measurement of body mass index (BMI) at two of the four nursing homes. Undernutrition is defined as a BMI below 20...

  2. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  3. The impact of meal attributes and nudging on healthy meal consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas

    2013-01-01

    We use a field experiment in a lunch restaurant to analyze how meal attributes and a “nudge” impact healthy labeled meal consumption. The nudge consists of increasing the salience of healthy labeled meals by placing them at the top of the menu. We find that certain meal attributes (e.g. poultry...

  4. Second meal effect on appetite and fermentation of wholegrain rye foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrügger, Sabine; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    the effect of wholegrain rye consumption on appetite and colonic fermentation after a subsequent meal. Methods: In a randomized, controlled, three-arm cross-over study, twelve healthy male subjects consumed three iso-caloric evening test meals. The test meals were based on white wheat bread (WBB), wholegrain...... rye kernel bread (RKB), or boiled rye kernels (RK). Breath hydrogen excretion and subjective appetite sensation were measured before and at 30 min intervals for 3 h after a standardized breakfast in the subsequent morning. After the 3 h, an ad libitum lunch meal was served to assess energy intake....... In an in vitro study, RKB and RK were subjected to digestion and 24 h-fermentation in order to study SCFA production and growth of selected saccharolytic bacteria. Results: The test meals did not differ in their effect on parameters of subjective appetite sensation the following day. Ad libitum energy intake...

  5. Nonheme-iron absorption from a phytate-rich meal is increased by the addition of small amounts of pork meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boech, S.B.; Hansen, M.; Bukhave, Klaus

    2003-01-01

    of small amounts of meat on nonheme-iron absorption from a meal presumed to have low iron bioavailability. Design: Forty-five healthy women with a mean (+/-SD) age of 24 +/- 3 y were randomly assigned to I of 3 groups, each of which was served (A) a basic meal (rice, tomato sauce, pea puree, and a wheat...

  6. Solid Test Meal to Measure the Gastric Emptying with Magnetogastrography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynaga-Ornelas, M. G.; Roca-Chiapas, J. M. de ls; Cordova-Fraga, T.; Bernal, J. J.; Sosa, M.

    2008-01-01

    The gastric emptying is the time of evacuating the food ingested from the stomach to the duodenum in a controlled rate. Diverse studies express the results of the gastric emptying in form of half-time (t 1/2 ). The Magnetogastrography (MGG) is a biomagnetic technique that has the advantage of not being invasive, radiation free and does not interfere with the privacy of the subject. The objective was to analyze the magnetic signal of magnetic tracers mixed in a solid food to measure gastric emptying using Magnetogastrography. The ingested test meal displayed a magnetic signal, which served to obtain the signal registered by the fluxgate and the peristaltic contractions could be calculated while the stomach was emptying. The solid food product developed results to work satisfactorily in magnetogastrography

  7. Maggot meal as a substitute for fish meal in laying chicken diet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 56-day experiment was conducted to determine thereplacement value of maggot meal for fish meal in diet of laying chicken. Fish meal was included at 30 g kg-1 of the control diet. Maggot meal incrementally replaced fish meal at 250, 500, 750, and 1000 g kg-1 on crude protein basis. The five diets were fed to a total of ...

  8. The associations of meals and snacks on family meals among a sample of grade 7 students from Southwestern Ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Campbell, Katherine; Campbell, Ty; Cole, Mary

    2014-11-01

    Research has shown the positive associations of family meals and diet quality. However, little is known about how other meals/snacks may be associated with family meals. The purpose was to determine the associations among the frequency and calorie consumption of meals/snacks and family dinners. Cross-sectional. Data were collected using Web-based Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (WEB-Q), including a 24-h diet recall for breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, dinner, and evening snack. Measured height and weight were used to determine body weight status (BMI). Participants included 1068 grade 7 students (52% males) from 26 schools in Windsor Essex County, Ontario, Canada. Meal, snack, and total daily caloric intake; meal and snack frequency; with whom dinner was consumed, and weekly family dinner frequency. Exploratory one-way ANOVAs and chi-square tests; nominal and ordinal logistic regression. Ninety-three percent of participants consumed dinner with family members on the night prior to the survey and 77% reported usually consuming dinner/supper with at least one parent on six to seven nights/week. Those who had dinner with family members consumed 4.88 (SD 1.1) meals/snacks per day compared with 4.40 (SD 1.3) and 4.40 (SD 1.3) times/day for consuming dinner alone or with friends, respectively (p=0.006). On the day prior to the survey, participants were less likely to consume a family meal if they consumed a lower number of meals and snacks per day (OR=0.69 (95% CI: 0.55, 0.87), psnacks per day (OR=0.84 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.96), p=0.009). While specific meals and snacks were not associated with family dinner, overall eating frequency was positively associated with family meals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparing childhood meal frequency to current meal frequency, routines, and expectations among parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Sarah; Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Garwick, Ann; Flattum, Colleen Freeh; Draxten, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    Little is known about the continuation of family meals from childhood to parenthood. This study aims to examine associations between parents' report of eating family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations. Baseline data were used from the Healthy Home Offerings via the Mealtime Environment (HOME) Plus study, a randomized controlled trial with a program to promote healthful behaviors and family meals at home. Participants (160 parent/child dyads) completed data collection in 2011-2012 in the Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN metropolitan area. Parents were predominately female (95%) and white (77%) with a mean age of 41.3 years. General linear modeling examined relationships between parents' report of how often they ate family meals while growing up and their current family meal frequency, routines, and expectations as parents, controlling for parent age, education level, and race. Parental report of eating frequent family meals while growing up was positively and significantly associated with age, education, and self-identification as white (all p meals less than three times/week or four to five times/week, parents who ate six to seven family meals/week while growing up reported significantly more frequent family meals with their current family (4.0, 4.2 vs. 5.3 family meals/week, p = .001). Eating frequent family meals while growing up was also significantly and positively associated with having current regular meal routines and meal expectations about family members eating together (both p meals with children may have long-term benefits over generations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Involvement of endogenous opiates in regulation of gastric emptying of fat test meals in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fioramonti, J.; Fargeas, M.J.; Bueno, L.

    1988-01-01

    The role of endogenous opioids and cholecystokinin (CCK) in gastric emptying was investigated in mice killed 30 min after gavage with 51 Cr-radiolabeled liquid meals. The meals consisted of 0.5 ml of milk or one of five synthetic meals containing arabic gum, glucose and/or arachis oil and/or casein. Naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc) significantly (P less than 0.01) accelerated gastric emptying of milk and meals containing fat but did not modify gastric emptying of nonfat meals. The CCK antagonist asperlicin (0.1 mg/kg ip) increased by 25% gastric emptying of milk. The gastric emptying of meals containing glucose and casein but not fat was reduced after administration of the COOH-terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (CCK-8, 4 micrograms/kg ip). This decrease was antagonized by both asperlicin (10 mg/kg ip) and naloxone (0.1 mg/kg sc). Intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of an opiate antagonist that poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier, methyl levallorphan (10 micrograms/kg), did not modify gastric emptying of milk but accelerated it when peripherally administered (0.1 mg/kg sc). Similarly, asperlicin (icv) administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg did not affect milk emptying. These results indicate that endogenous opiates are involved at peripheral levels in the regulation of gastric emptying of fat meals only and that such regulation involves release of CCK

  11. Design of the OPUS School Meal Study: A randomised controlled trial assessing the impact of serving school meals based on the New Nordic Diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Petersen, Rikke A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Danish children consume too much sugar and not enough whole grain, fish, fruit, and vegetables. The Nordic region is rich in such foods with a strong health-promoting potential. We lack randomised controlled trials that investigate the developmental and health impact of serving school...... meals based on Nordic foods. Aim: This paper describes the rationale, design, study population, and potential implications of the Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet (OPUS) School Meal Study. Methods: In a cluster-randomised cross-over design...... activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, sleep, growth, body composition, early metabolic and cardiovascular risk markers, illness, absence from school, wellbeing, cognitive function, social and cultural features, food acceptance, waste, and cost were assessed. Results: In total, 834 children (82% of those...

  12. Failure of sucrose replacement with the non-nutritive sweetener erythritol to alter GLP-1 or PYY release or test meal size in lean or obese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, Joost; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Medic, Nenad; Henning, Elana; Keogh, Julia M; Forsyth, Faye; Stephenson, Cheryl; Kanning, Marja W; Ruijschop, Rianne M A J; Farooqi, I Sadaf; van der Klaauw, Agatha A

    2016-12-01

    There is considerable interest in the effect of foods containing high intensity sweeteners on satiation. However, less is known about low-calorie bulk sweeteners such as erythritol. In this randomized three-way crossover study, we studied 10 lean and 10 obese volunteers who consumed three test meals on separate occasions: (a) control sucrose meal; (b) isovolumic meal with partial replacement of sucrose by erythritol; (c) isocaloric meal which contained more erythritol but equivalent calories to the control meal. We measured gut hormone levels, hunger and satiety scores, ad libitum food intake, sucrose preference and intake after the manipulations. There was a greater post-prandial excursion in glucose and insulin levels after sucrose than after the erythritol meals. There was no difference in GLP-1/PYY levels or subsequent energy intake and sucrose preference between sucrose control and isovolumic erythritol meals. In lean (but not obese) participants, hunger decreased to a greater extent after the isocaloric erythritol meal compared to the control meal (p = 0.003) reflecting the larger volume of this meal. Replacing sucrose with erythritol leads to comparable hunger and satiety scores, GLP-1 and PYY levels, and subsequent sucrose preference and intake. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of the barium test meal and the gamma camera scanning technic in measuring gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkel, M.S.; Fajman, W.A.; Hersh, T.

    1981-09-01

    In 21 patients with nonresected stomachs and symptoms of delayed gastric emptying, obstruction was excluded by upper gastrointestinal series and upper endoscopy; all had abnormal results of barium test meal (BTM) study. Each had repeat BTM after the administration of 10 mg of metoclopramide. Each patient also had two gamma camera studies after a technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid labeled meal; normal saline or metoclopramide was administered before each test in a blinded and random manner. Half-time (T 1/2) and percentage of isotope remaining at six hours (GC6) were recorded. Ten asymptomatic controls had a gamma camera scanning study, and seven of these had a BTM. Nine of 19 patients had a T 1/2 in the normal range, and in 12 of 19 patients the GC6 was in the normal range. The magnitude of retention of barium at six hours on the BTM did not correlate with the T 1/2 (r = 0.076) or the GC6 (r = 0.296). Thus, these tests were not comparable in this study. By regression analysis, a significant reduction was shown in the amount of retained food and barium (P < .01), the T 1/2 (P < .01), and the GC6 (P < .01) after intramuscular administration of metoclopramide, indicating that both tests were able to evaluate the effects of this drug.

  14. Comparison of the barium test meal and the gamma camera scanning technic in measuring gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkel, M.S.; Fajman, W.A.; Hersh, T.; Moore, C.; Davidson, E.D.; Haun, C.

    1981-09-01

    In 21 patients with nonresected stomachs and symptoms of delayed gastric emptying, obstruction was excluded by upper gastrointestinal series and upper endoscopy; all had abnormal results of barium test meal (BTM) study. Each had repeat BTM after the administration of 10 mg of metoclopramide. Each patient also had two gamma camera studies after a technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid labeled meal; normal saline or metoclopramide was administered before each test in a blinded and random manner. Half-time (T1/2) and percentage of isotope remaining at six hours (GC6) were recorded. Ten asymptomatic controls had a gamma camera scanning study, and seven of these had a BTM. Nine of 19 patients had a T1/2 in the normal range, and in 12 of 19 patients the GC6 was in the normal range. The magnitude of retention of barium at six hours on the BTM did not correlate with the T1/2 (r . 0.076) or the GC6 (r. 0.296). Thus, these tests were not comparable in this study. By regression analysis, a significant reduction was shown in the amount of retained food and barium (P less than .01), the T1/2 (P less than .01), and the GC6 (P less than .01) after intramuscular administration of metoclopramide, indicating that both tests were able to evaluate the effects of this drug.

  15. quality of broiler fed diet supplemented by garlic meal and white turmeric meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanung Danar Dono

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was done within 42 days to investigate the effect of diet supplemented by garlic (Allium sativum and white turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb meals on physical and chemical quality of broiler meat. The number of 90 broiler DOC were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into 18 unit of cages. During the study, the chicken were given 6 feeding treatments, i.e.: R-0 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% filler; as control diet, RB-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% filler, RB-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% garlic meal, RT-1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% white turmeric meal + 1.0% filler, RT-2 (98.0% base diet + 2.0% white turmeric meal, and RB1T1 (98.0% base diet + 1.0% garlic meal + 1.0% white turmeric meal. The base diet was composed of: yellow corn, soybean meal, fish meal, rice polishing meal, sorghum, poultry meat meal, mineral mix, and was design to contain 17.5% crude protein and metabolizable energy 2,900 kcal/kg. Variables observed were: physical appearance (slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, physical quality (pH, water holding capacity, cooking lose, tenderness, and cholesterol content (breast meat and blood cholesterol. All data were statistically analyzed by the Oneway of ANOVA and followed by the DMRT for significant results. Results showed that 1.0 - 2.0% garlic meal and 1.0 - 2.0% white turmeric meal supplementation reduced: breast meat cholesterol (P < 0.05, cooking lose (P < 0.05, and increased: pH (P < 0.01, and water holding capacity (P < 0.01 and improved tenderness (P < 0.05. Supplementation of 2% garlic meal and white turmeric meal didn’t affect slaughter weight, non-feather weight, carcass weight, nor blood cholesterol.

  16. Relation between cognitive and hedonic responses to a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccantelli, B; Pribic, T; Malagelada, C; Accarino, A; Azpiroz, F

    2017-05-01

    Ingestion of a meal induces cognitive and hedonic sensations and our aim was to determine the relation between both dimensions. In three groups of healthy non-obese men (n=10 per group) three types of meals with equivalent levels of palatability were tested: a liquid meal, a solid-liquid low-calorie meal, and a solid-liquid high-calorie meal. The cognitive and hedonic responses were measured on 10-cm scales before and during the 30-minute postprandial period. The liquid meal induced a relatively strong cognitive response with satiation (4.7±0.7 score increment), fullness (3.3±0.7 score increment), and inhibition of desire of eating a food of choice; in contrast, its impact on sensation of digestive well-being and satisfaction was not significant (0.7±0.7 score increment). The high-calorie solid-liquid meal, with larger volume load and caloric content, induced much lower satiation (2.4±0.8 score increment; P=.041 vs liquid meal) and fullness sensation (1.3±0.6 score increment; P=.031 vs liquid meal), but a markedly higher level of satisfaction (2.7±0.4 score increment; P=.021 vs liquid meal); the low-calorie mixed meal had less prominent effects with significantly lower satisfaction (1.0±0.4 score increment; P=.039 vs high-calorie meal). The cognitive (satiation, fullness) and hedonic responses (satisfaction) to meals with equivalent levels of palatability, that is, equally likable, are dissociable. The characteristics of meals in terms of satiation and rewarding power could be adapted to specific clinical targets, whether nutritional supplementation or restriction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Dielectric properties of wheat flour mixed with oat meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczycka, D.; Czubaszek, A.; Fujarczuk, M.; Pruski, K.

    2013-03-01

    Possibilities of using electric methods for determining admixtures of oat meal to wheat flour, type 650 are presented. In wheat flour, oat meal and mixtures containing 10, 20 and 30% of the oat meal, moisture, protein, starch and ash content, sedimentation value, yield and softening of wet gluten were determined. In samples containing 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 100% of oat meal, the dielectric loss factor and conductivity were determined using an impedance analyzer for electromagnetic field frequency ranging from 0.1-20 kHz. It was found that the dielectric loss factor varied for tested material. The best distinguishing between tested mixtures was obtained at the measuring electromagnetic field frequency of 20 kHz. The loss factor was significantly correlated with the yield of wet gluten and the sedimentation value, parameters indicating the amount and quality of gluten proteins in flour.

  18. GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND FEED CONVERSION RATIO (FCR OF HYBRID FINGERLINGS (CATLA CATLA X LABEO ROHITA FED ON COTTONSEED MEAL, SUNFLOWER MEAL AND BONE MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SAHZADI, M. SALIM, UM-E-KALSOOM AND K. SHAHZAD

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in six glass aquaria to study the growth performance and feed conversion ratio (FCR of hybrid fingerlings (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fed on sunflower meal, cottonseed meal and bone meal. Two replicates for each ingredient were followed. The feed was supplied at the rate of 4% of wet body weight of fingerlings twice a day. The hybrid (Catla catla x Labeo rohita fingerlings gained highest body weight (1.62 ± 0.0 g on sunflower meal, followed by cottonseed meal (1.61 ± 0.01 g and bone meal (1.52 ± 0.0 g. The total length obtained by hybrid fish was 6.35 ± 0.05 cm on sunflower meal, 6.12 ± 0.05 cm on cottonseed meal and 5.85 ± 0.05 cm on bone meal. The overall mean values of FCR were lower (better on sunflower meal (1.78 ± 0.05, followed by cottonseed meal (2.17 ± 0.01 and bone meal (2.46 ± 0.01. Thus, The sunflower meal and cottonseed meal, on the basis of growth performance and better FCR, can be included in the feed formulation for hybrid fingerlings.

  19. Sustainable production of housefly (Musca domestica) larvae as a protein-rich feed ingredient by utilizing cattle manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Mahmoud; Pillai, Viju V.; Goddard, Joshua M.; Park, Hui G.; Kothapalli, Kumar S.; Ross, Deborah A.; Ketterings, Quirine M.; Brenna, J. Thomas; Milstein, Mark B.; Marquis, Helene; Johnson, Patricia A.; Nyrop, Jan P.

    2017-01-01

    The common housefly, Musca domestica, is a considerable component of nutrient recycling in the environment. Use of housefly larvae to biodegrade manure presents an opportunity to reduce waste disposal while the rapidly assimilated insect biomass can also be used as a protein rich animal feed. In this study, we examine the biodegradation of dairy cattle manure using housefly larvae, and the nutritional value of the resulting larva meal as a feed ingredient. Our results demonstrated that dairy cattle manure presents a balanced substrate for larval growth, and the spent manure showed reductions in concentration of total nitrogen (24.9%) and phosphorus (6.2%) with an overall reduction in mass. Larva yield at an optimum density was approximately 2% of manure weight. Nutritional analysis of M. domestica larva meal showed values comparable to most high protein feed ingredients. Larva meal was 60% protein with a well-balanced amino acid profile, and 20% fat with 57% monounsaturated fatty acids, and 39% saturated fatty acids. Larva meal lacked any significant amount of omega-3 fatty acids. Evaluation of micronutrients in larva meal suggested that it is a good source of calcium and phosphorus (0.5% and 1.1% respectively). The nutritional value of larva meal closely matches that of fishmeal, making it a potentially attractive alternative for use as a protein-rich feed ingredient for livestock and aquaculture operations. PMID:28170420

  20. Effect of meal frequency on the thermic effect of food in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinabo, J L; Durnin, J V

    1990-05-01

    The effect of meal frequency on the thermic effect of food (TEF), also referred to as dietary induced thermogenesis (DIT), was investigated in eighteen non-obese female subjects. Their metabolic rate before and after consuming the test meal was measured by open circuit indirect calorimetry using the Douglas bag technique, while the subjects were in the resting state (lying down). Eight subjects consumed a high carbohydrate-low fat (HCLF) meal providing 70, 19 and 11 per cent of the energy content from carbohydrate, fat and protein, respectively, and ten other subjects consumed a low carbohydrate-high fat (LCHF) meal providing 24, 65 and 11 per cent of the energy from carbohydrate, fat and protein, respectively. On two separate occasions, each subject consumed the appropriate diet either as one large meal containing 5040 kJ (1200 kcal) or as two smaller meals each containing 2520 kJ (600 kcal). TEF values were calculated for 6 h after the test meal and the mean values after consuming the HCLF meal were 377.0 +/- 30.0 kJ (90 +/- 7.2 kcal) and 381.0 +/- 26.5 kJ (91.0 +/- 6.3 kcal) for the one meal and the two meals, respectively. The mean TEF values for the subjects who consumed the LCHF meal wre 356.0 +/- 23.0 kJ (85.0 +/- 5.5 kcal) and 340 +/- 15.9 kJ (81.0 +/- 3.8 kcal) for the one meal and the two meals, respectively. No significant differences were found between the two feeding regimens (HCLF, P = 0.94; LCHF, P = 0.64) as well as between the compositions (P = 0.57). Thus, meal frequency and meal composition did not seem to influence the TEF.

  1. Effect of feeding guar meal on nutrient utilization and growth performance in Mahbubnagar local kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razia Sultana Janampet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance and nutrient digestibility of guar meal, an unconventional protein-rich feed ingredient in kids in comparison to conventional groundnut cake. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 kids were randomly allotted to three groups, and T1 group was fed on basal diet, T2 and T3 groups were offered diet replacing groundnut cake at 50% and 100% with guar meal, respectively, for a period of 120-day. At the end of the growth trial, a digestibility trial was conducted to evaluate the nutrient utilization. Results: There was no significant difference in dry matter intake among three groups. Nutrient digestibilities were significantly higher (p<0.05 in kids fed T2 ration with 50% replacement of groundnut cake with guar meal. Conclusion: It can be concluded that guar meal can be incorporated at 50% level in the concentrate mixture of goats replacing groundnut cake without any adverse effects.

  2. A lactic acid-fermented oat gruel increases non-haem iron absorption from a phytate-rich meal in healthy women of childbearing age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bering, S.; Suchdev, S.; Sjoltov, L.

    2006-01-01

    Lactic acid-fermented foods have been shown to increase Fe absorption in human subjects, possibly by lowering pH, activation of phytases, and formation of soluble complexes of Fe and organic acids. We tested the effect of an oat gruel fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on non-haem Fe...... absorption from a low-Fe bioavailability meal compared with a pasteurised, fermented oat gruel and non-fermented oat gruels. In a cross-over trial twenty-four healthy women with a mean age of 25 (sd 4) years were served (A) fermented gruel, (B) pasteurised fermented gruel, (C) pH-adjusted non-fermented gruel......, and (D) non-fermented gruel with added organic acids. The meals were extrinsically labelled with Fe-55 or Fe-59 and consumed on 4 consecutive days, for example, in the order ABBA or BAAB followed by CDDC or DCCD in a second period. Fe absorption was determined from isotope activities in blood samples...

  3. Postprandial oxidative stress is increased after a phytonutrient-poor food but not after a kilojoule-matched phytonutrient-rich food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khor, Amanda; Grant, Ross; Tung, Chin; Guest, Jade; Pope, Belinda; Morris, Margaret; Bilgin, Ayse

    2014-05-01

    Research indicates that energy-dense foods increase inflammation and oxidative activity, thereby contributing to the development of vascular disease. However, it is not clear whether the high kilojoule load alone, irrespective of the nutritional content of the ingested food, produces the postprandial oxidative and inflammatory activity. This study investigated the hypothesis that ingestion of a high-fat, high-sugar, phytonutrient-reduced food (ice cream) would increase oxidative and inflammatory activity greater than a kilojoule-equivalent meal of a phytonutrient-rich whole food (avocado). The individual contributions of the fat/protein and sugar components of the ice cream meal to postprandial inflammation and oxidative stress were also quantified. Using a randomized, crossover design, 11 healthy participants ingested 4 test meals: ice cream, avocado, the fat/protein component in ice cream, and the sugar equivalent component in ice cream. Plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and inflammatory and oxidative stress markers were measured at baseline and 1, 2, and 4 hours (t1, t2, t4) after ingestion. Lipid peroxidation was increased at 2 hours after eating fat/protein (t0-t2, P stress markers. These data indicate that the ingestion of a phytonutrient-poor food and its individual fat/protein or sugar components increase plasma oxidative activity. This is not observed after ingestion of a kilojoule-equivalent phytonutrient-rich food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Satiation deficits and binge eating: Probing differences between bulimia nervosa and purging disorder using an ad lib test meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Pamela K; Haedt-Matt, Alissa A; Hildebrandt, Britny; Bodell, Lindsay P; Wolfe, Barbara E; Jimerson, David C

    2018-04-11

    Purging disorder (PD) has been included as a named condition within the DSM-5 category of Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorder and differs from bulimia nervosa (BN) in the absence of binge-eating episodes. The current study evaluated satiation through behavioral and self-report measures to understand how this construct may explain distinct symptom presentations for bulimia nervosa (BN) and purging disorder (PD). Women (N = 119) were recruited from the community if they met DSM-5 criteria for BN (n = 57), PD (n = 31), or were free of eating pathology (n = 31 controls). Participants completed structured clinical interviews and questionnaires and an ad lib test meal during which they provided reports of subjective states. Significant group differences were found on self-reported symptoms, ad lib test meal intake, and subjective responses to food intake between individuals with eating disorders and controls and between BN and PD. Further, ad lib intake was associated with self-reported frequency and size of binge episodes. In a multivariable model, the amount of food consumed during binges as reported during clinical interviews predicted amount of food consumed during the ad lib test meal, controlling for other binge-related variables. Satiation deficits distinguish BN from PD and appear to be specifically linked to the size of binge episodes. Future work should expand exploration of physiological bases of these differences to contribute to novel interventions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Intraindividual comparison of gastric peristalsis after ingestion of a semiliquid and solid test meal; Intraindividueller Vergleich der Magenperistaltik nach Gabe von semiliquiden und festen Testmahlzeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, R. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Tatsch, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Muenzing, W. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Vorderholzer, W. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Klinik Innenstadt; Schindlbeck, N. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Medizinische Klinik Innenstadt; Hahn, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    1997-06-01

    Aim: Patients with various disorders of gastric function were studied with radiolabeled test meals of different consistency to elaborate the effect of ingested media on gastric peristalsis and emptying. Methods: In 12 patients parameters of gastric function were intraindividually compared after ingestion of a semiliquid and a solid test meal. In addition to the standard evaluation derived from time activity curves condensed images were established from two fixed time intervals (early and late period). These images were used to evaluate the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions using Fourier analysis. Results: As expected gastric emptying was influenced by the consistency of the test meal. Mean emptying rates for the solid meal were significant lower than those for the semiliquid one (p<0,01). The amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions, however, did not depend on the consistency of the test meal. Within the course of the examination contraction amplitudes significantly increased (p<0,05) from the early to the late period using both, solid as well as semiliquid test meals. The frequency of gastric contractions remained unchanged. Conclusion: As shown by an intraindividual data comparison amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions seem to be independent of the consistency of ingested test meals whereas gastric emptying is significantly influenced by the administered media. Semiliquid meals offer advantages with respect to the shorter examination time and simpler preparation and therefore may be preferred for routine use. Since amplitudes seem to vary within the observation period standardized acquisition protocols are recommended for the evaluation of this parameter. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: An einem heterogenen Kollektiv von Patienten mit gastrointestinalen Beschwerden wurde der Einfluss von Testspeisen unterschiedlicher Konsistenz auf Peristaltik und Entleerungsrate des Magens untersucht. Methodik: Bei 12 Patienten wurde nach Gabe von

  6. Caloric beverages consumed freely at meal-time add calories to an ad libitum meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahi, Shirin; El Khoury, Dalia; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Goff, H Douglas; Anderson, G Harvey

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare the effects of ad libitum consumption of commonly consumed meal-time beverages on energy and fluid intakes and post-meal average subjective appetite and blood glucose in healthy adults. In a randomized controlled design, 29 males and females consumed to satiation an ad libitum pizza meal with one of five beverages in unlimited amount including water (0 kcal), 1% milk (44 kcal/100 ml), regular cola (44 kcal/100 ml), orange juice (44 kcal/100 ml) and diet cola (0 kcal). Food and fluid intakes were measured at the meal. Average subjective appetite and blood glucose were measured before and for 2h after the meal. Although energy intake from pizza was similar among all beverage treatments, the amount of fluid consumed (g) varied among the beverages with intake of orange juice higher than regular and diet cola, but not different from water or milk. Meal-time ingestion of caloric beverages, milk, orange juice and regular cola, led to higher total meal-time energy intakes compared to either water or diet cola. Post-meal blood glucose area under the curve (AUC) was lower after milk than after meals with water, orange juice and regular cola and post-meal average subjective appetite AUC was lower after milk than after meals with water. Meal intakes of nutrients including protein, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, vitamins B12, A and D were higher at the meal with milk compared to the other beverages. Thus, caloric beverages consumed ad libitum during a meal add to total meal-time energy intake, but 1% milk favors a lower post-meal blood glucose and average subjective appetite score and adds to nutrient intake. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypercaloric diets with increased meal frequency, but not meal size, increase intrahepatic triglycerides: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Karin E; Caan, Matthan W A; Nederveen, Aart J; Pels, Anouk; Ackermans, Mariette T; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E; Serlie, Mireille J

    2014-08-01

    American children consume up to 27% of calories from high-fat and high-sugar snacks. Both sugar and fat consumption have been implicated as a cause of hepatic steatosis and obesity but the effect of meal pattern is largely understudied. We hypothesized that a high meal frequency, compared to consuming large meals, is detrimental in the accumulation of intrahepatic and abdominal fat. To test this hypothesis, we randomized 36 lean, healthy men to a 40% hypercaloric diet for 6 weeks or a eucaloric control diet and measured intrahepatic triglyceride content (IHTG) using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS), abdominal fat using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and insulin sensitivity using a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp with a glucose isotope tracer before and after the diet intervention. The caloric surplus consisted of fat and sugar (high-fat-high-sugar; HFHS) or sugar only (high-sugar; HS) and was consumed together with, or between, the three main meals, thereby increasing meal size or meal frequency. All hypercaloric diets similarly increased body mass index (BMI). Increasing meal frequency significantly increased IHTG (HFHS mean relative increase of 45%; P = 0.016 and HS mean relative increase of 110%; P = 0.047), whereas increasing meal size did not (2-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] size versus frequency P = 0.03). Abdominal fat increased in the HFHS-frequency group (+63.3 ± 42.8 mL; P = 0.004) and tended to increase in the HS-frequency group (+46.5 ± 50.7 mL; P = 0.08). Hepatic insulin sensitivity tended to decrease in the HFHS-frequency group while peripheral insulin sensitivity was not affected. A hypercaloric diet with high meal frequency increased IHTG and abdominal fat independent of caloric content and body weight gain, whereas increasing meal size did not. This study suggests that snacking, a common feature in the Western diet, independently contributes to hepatic steatosis and obesity. ( www

  8. Does prior acute exercise affect postexercise substrate oxidation in response to a high carbohydrate meal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickey Matthew S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of a mixed meal increases postprandial carbohydrate utilization and decreases fat oxidation. On the other hand, acute endurance exercise increases fat oxidation and decreases carbohydrate utilization during the post-exercise recovery period. It is possible that the resulting post-exercise increase in circulating nonesterified fatty acids could attenuate the ability of ingested carbohydrate to inhibit lipid oxidation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior exercise attenuates the usual meal-induced decline in lipid oxidation. Methods Six healthy, physically active young subjects (x age = 26.3 years, 4 males, 2 females completed three treatments in random order after a ~10 h fast: (a Exercise/Carbohydrate (Ex/CHO – subjects completed a bout of exercise at 70% VO2peak (targeted net energy cost of 400 kcals, followed by consumption of a carbohydrate-rich meal; (b Exercise/Placebo (Ex/Placebo – subjects completed an identical bout of exercise followed by consumption of a placebo; and (c No Exercise/Carbohydrate (NoEx/CHO – subjects sat quietly rather than exercising and then consumed the carbohydrate-rich meal. Blood samples were obtained before and during the postprandial period to determine plasma glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA. Respiratory gas exchange measures were used to estimate rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Results Plasma NEFA were approximately two-fold higher immediately following the two exercise conditions compared to the no-exercise condition, while meal consumption significantly increased insulin and glucose in both Ex/CHO and NoEx/CHO. NEFA concentrations fell rapidly during the 2-h postprandial period, but remained higher compared to the NoEx/CHO treatment. Carbohydrate oxidation increased rapidly and fat oxidation decreased in response to the meal, with no differences in the rates of carbohydrate and fat oxidation during recovery between the Ex

  9. Short-Term Effects of Lupin vs. Whey Supplementation on Glucose and Insulin Responses to a Standardized Meal in a Randomized Cross-Over Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopen, Kathrin; Ewald, Ann C; Johannes, Bernd W; Bloch, Wilhelm; Rittweger, Jörn; Frings-Meuthen, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Whey protein is known to reduce postprandial glycaemia in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Lupin as a vegetable source of protein could be considered as an alternative, as the percentage of vegetarian and vegan consumers is raising. The present study compares the acute glycemic effects of whey and lupin in healthy volunteers following a carbohydrate-rich reference meal. Methods In cross-over design, three standardized meals (reference meal; reference meal + whey; reference meal + lupin) were provided to 12 healthy male and female volunteers, aged between 23 and 33, in a balanced, randomized order. Volunteers' blood glucose and insulin concentrations were analyzed at baseline and at seven time points following the ingestion of the meals. Results: The supplementation of whey or lupin significantly blunted the postprandial increase in blood glucose concentrations compared to the reference meal ( p AUC whey-lupin = 8%, 0-60 min area under the curve (0-60 min AUC), p = 0.937], with a blunting effect of -46% by whey ( p = 0.005, 0-60 min AUC) and of -54% by lupin ( p AUC). When comparing whey and lupin data only, the insulin increase was found to be more pronounced for whey protein than for lupin supplementation (Δ AUC whey-lupin = 39%, 0-60 min AUC, p = 0.022). However, when comparing the insulin response of each supplementation to the one of the reference meal, no differences could be detected (whey p = 0.259, 0-60 min AUC; lupin p = 0.275, 0-60 min AUC). Conclusions: Results suggest that lupin and whey can both lower the increase of postprandial blood glucose concentrations to a comparable extent, implying the usability of lupin to reduce postprandial glycaemia. However, the insulin response following the supplementations to a carbohydrate-rich meal seems to differ for these two protein sources.

  10. Planning Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Take the guess work out of what to eat using our tips, recipes and sample meals. Featured Book: Ultimate Diabetes Meal Planner includes weekly plans for breakfast, lunch, dinner, and snacks, along with detailed recipes that make ...

  11. Solid state fermentation of carinata (Brassica carinata) meal using various fungal strains to produce a protein-rich product for feed application

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the efficacy of several fungal strains to reduce GLS (GLS) content and enhance protein content during solid state fermentation (SSF) of carinata meal was evaluated. Solid state fermentation of hexane extracted (HE) and cold pressed (CP) carinata meals were performed at 50% moisture co...

  12. Food intake, postprandial glucose, insulin and subjective satiety responses to three different bread-based test meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Jennifer; Atkinson, Fiona; Eisenhauer, Bronwyn; Inamdar, Amar; Brand-Miller, Jennie

    2011-12-01

    The effect of bread consumption on overall food intake is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to measure postprandial food intake after a set breakfast containing three different breads. Ten males and 10 females aged 20.1-44.8 years, BMI 18.4-24.8 kg/m(2), consumed two slices of White Bread, Bürgen Wholemeal and Seeds Bread or Lupin Bread (all 1300 kJ) with 10 g margarine and 30 g strawberry jam. Fullness and hunger responses and were measured before and during the test breakfasts. Glucose and insulin responses (incremental area under each two-hour curve (iAUC)) were calculated. Food intake was measured and energy and nutrient intake determined at a buffet meal two hours later. Subjects consumed significantly less energy after the Bürgen Bread meal compared to the White Bread meal (2548 ± 218 vs. 3040±328kJ, Bürgen Bread vs. White Bread, PBread (PBread (PBread. Lupin Bread and Bürgen Bread produced smaller postprandial glucose responses (79 ± 7, 74 ± 4, 120 ± 10 mmol/L min iAUC, Lupin, Bürgen and White Bread respectively, PBread respectively, Pbreads differed in their short-term satiation capacity. Further studies are needed to demonstrate any potential benefit for weight management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement......This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at ealuating the effects of free school meal intervention on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment i schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offereing free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school...... individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...

  14. Television, Home-Cooked Meals, and Family Meal Frequency: Associations with Adult Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Rachel; Anderson, Sarah E

    2017-06-01

    Adults, regardless of whether they are parents, regularly eat meals with family at home, but few studies have analyzed large, population-based samples to examine how mealtime practices or family meal frequency are associated with health. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between the frequency of family meals eaten at home, watching television or videos during family meals, and consumption of meals that were cooked and eaten at home and the odds of being obese in adults. This was an analysis of the cross-sectional 2012 Ohio Medicaid Assessment Survey (OMAS), a telephone survey of Ohio's population. The study sample was adult Ohio residents responding to the 2012 OMAS who ate at least one family meal in the past week (n=12,842). Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30), calculated from self-reported height and weight, was the outcome. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between obesity and family meal practices, adjusted for respondents' employment status, marital status, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and age. Family meal frequency was not associated with odds of obesity: those who ate family meals most (6-7) days were as likely as those who ate family meals few (1-2) days to be obese (adjusted odds ratio [OR adj ]=1.01, 95% CI=0.86, 1.18). Thirty-six percent of adults never watched television or videos while eating family meals, and 62% ate family meals that were all home-cooked. Adults who never watched television or videos during family meals had 37% lower odds of obesity compared with those who always did (95% CI=0.54, 0.73), regardless of family meal frequency. Adults whose family meals were all home-cooked had 26% lower odds of obesity than those who ate some or no home-cooked family meals (95% CI=0.62, 0.88). This association was more pronounced among adults who ate few family meals. Family meal practices may be associated with obesity in adults, even if they eat few family meals per week. Future research

  15. Appetite influences the responses to meal ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribic, T; Nieto, A; Hernandez, L; Malagelada, C; Accarino, A; Azpiroz, F

    2017-08-01

    We have previously shown that the postprandial experience includes cognitive sensations, such as satiety and fullness, with a hedonic dimension involving digestive well-being and mood. Preload conditioning has been shown to modulate appetite and food consumption under certain conditions, but its effects on the responses to meal ingestion are not clear. We hypothesized that appetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and the emotive responses to meal ingestion. The effects of preload conditioning (ingestion of a low- vs a high-calorie breakfast) on appetite and on the cognitive and emotive responses to a comfort probe meal ingested 2 hours later (ham and cheese sandwich with orange juice; 300 mL, 425 Kcal) was tested in healthy subjects (n=12) in a cross-over design. Sensations were measured at regular intervals 15 minutes before and 60 minutes after the probe meal. As compared to the low-calorie breakfast, the high-calorie breakfast reduced basal hunger sensation and influenced the responses to the subsequent probe meal: it increased satiety (4.3±0.2 score vs 2.7±0.2 score; PAppetite modulation by preload conditioning has differential effects on the cognitive and emotive responses to a meal. Preload conditioning of the postprandial experience may be applicable to dietary planning and prevention of postprandial symptoms. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Group Work Tests for Context-Rich Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Chris

    2016-05-01

    The group work test is an assessment strategy that promotes higher-order thinking skills for solving context-rich problems. With this format, teachers are able to pose challenging, nuanced questions on a test, while providing the support weaker students need to get started and show their understanding. The test begins with a group discussion phase, when students are given a "number-free" version of the problem. This phase allows students to digest the story-like problem, explore solution ideas, and alleviate some test anxiety. After 10-15 minutes of discussion, students inform the instructor of their readiness for the individual part of the test. What follows next is a pedagogical phase change from lively group discussion to quiet individual work. The group work test is a natural continuation of the group work in our daily physics classes and helps reinforce the importance of collaboration. This method has met with success at York Mills Collegiate Institute, in Toronto, Ontario, where it has been used consistently for unit tests and the final exam of the grade 12 university preparation physics course.

  17. Evaluation of the glycemic indices of three commonly eaten mixed meals in Okada, Edo State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omage, Kingsley; Omage, Sylvia O

    2018-01-01

    People do not generally eat single or individual meals; rather they eat mixed meals, consisting of two or more individual meals. These mixed meals usually have glycemic indices which differ from that of the individual food type. This study was aimed at evaluating the glycemic indices of three commonly consumed mixed meals eaten in Okada; rice and beans (test food 1), rice and plantain (test food 2), beans and plantain (test food 3). Two hundred and forty healthy subjects aged between 18 and 30 participated in this study. They were randomized into three groups of eighty persons each, and fed with the standard food (50 g glucose) on day one and one of the test foods on day two, after an overnight fast. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the food had been eaten. The results showed that the Glycemic Index (GI) values for the test foods were high: 86.60 (test food 1), 89.74 (test food 2), 86.93(test food 3). The incremental increase in blood glucose was monitored and calculated for each food and when compared with that of the standard food (glucose), there was significant differences ( p   .05). The results from this study indicated that the GI of the mixed meals was affected by the constituent nutrient and the response is also affected by the proportion of each nutrient. Our findings show that the selected test foods (mixed meals) consumed in Okada have high GI values.

  18. Hot-Fire Test Results of Liquid Oxygen/RP-2 Multi-Element Oxidizer-Rich Preburners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protz, C. S.; Garcia, C. P.; Casiano, M. J.; Parton, J. A.; Hulka, J. R.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Combustion Stability Tool Development project funded by the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was contracted to assemble and hot-fire test a multi-element integrated test article demonstrating combustion characteristics of an oxygen/hydrocarbon propellant oxidizer-rich staged-combustion engine thrust chamber. Such a test article simulates flow through the main injectors of oxygen/kerosene oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines such as the Russian RD-180 or NK-33 engines, or future U.S.-built engine systems such as the Aerojet-Rocketdyne AR-1 engine or the Hydrocarbon Boost program demonstration engine. To supply the oxidizer-rich combustion products to the main injector of the integrated test article, existing subscale preburner injectors from a previous NASA-funded oxidizer-rich staged combustion engine development program were utilized. For the integrated test article, existing and newly designed and fabricated inter-connecting hot gas duct hardware were used to supply the oxidizer-rich combustion products to the oxidizer circuit of the main injector of the thrust chamber. However, before one of the preburners was used in the integrated test article, it was first hot-fire tested at length to prove it could provide the hot exhaust gas mean temperature, thermal uniformity and combustion stability necessary to perform in the integrated test article experiment. This paper presents results from hot-fire testing of several preburner injectors in a representative combustion chamber with a sonic throat. Hydraulic, combustion performance, exhaust gas thermal uniformity, and combustion stability data are presented. Results from combustion stability modeling of these test results are described in a companion paper at this JANNAF conference, while hot-fire test results of the preburner injector in the integrated test article are described in another companion paper.

  19. Effect of a walnut meal on postprandial oxidative stress and antioxidants in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Ella H; Gaban-Chong, Natasha; Oda, Keiji; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-01-10

    In vitro studies rank walnuts (Juglans regia) among the plant foods high in antioxidant capacity, but whether the active constituents of walnuts are bioavailable to humans remains to be determined. The intention of this study was to examine the acute effects of consuming walnuts compared to refined fat on meal induced oxidative stress. At issue is whether the ellagitannins and tocopherols in walnuts are bioavailable and provide postprandial antioxidant protection. A randomized, crossover, and controlled-feeding study was conducted to evaluate a walnut test meal compared to one composed of refined ingredients on postprandial serum antioxidants and biomarkers of oxidative status in healthy adults (n = 16) with at least 1 week between testing sessions. Following consumption of a low phenolic diet for one day and an overnight fast, blood was sampled prior to the test meals and at intervals up to 24 hours post ingestion and analyzed for total phenols, malondiadehyde (MDA), oxidized LDL, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydrophilic and lipophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), uric acid, catechins and urinary excretion of phenylacetate metabolites and of urolithin A. Mixed linear models demonstrated a diet effect (P < 0.001) for plasma γ-tocopherol but not for α-tocopherol with the walnut meal. Following the walnut test meal, the incremental 5 hour area under the curve (AUC(0-5h)) was reduced 7.4% for MDA, increased 7.5% for hydrophilic and 8.5% for lipophilic ORAC and comparable for total phenols, FRAP and uric acid. Oxidized LDL was reduced at 2 hours after the walnut meal. Plasma concentrations of gallocatechin gallate (GCG), epicatechin gallate (ECG) and epicallocatechin gallate (EGCG) increased significantly at 1 hour after the walnut test meal. Quantities of urolithin-A excreted in the urine were significantly higher following the walnut meal. Compared to the refined control meal, the walnut meal acutely increased postprandial

  20. Meal support using mobile technology in Anorexia Nervosa. Contextual differences between inpatient and outpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardi, Valentina; Lounes, Naima; Kan, Carol; Treasure, Janet

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a "supported eating" intervention using mobile technology in patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN). Twenty Inpatients and 18 Outpatients with AN underwent a test meal on two occasions, whilst listening to either a short video-clip ('vodcast'), or music delivered on an MP4 player. Self-report and behavioural measures were collected before and after each test meal. Differences were found between the inpatient and outpatient settings. Inpatients drank more of the test meal and had increased levels of vigilance to food after the test meal, in both conditions. When the support conditions (Vodcast vs. Music) were compared, inpatients seemed to benefit more from listening to music (reduced distress and more smoothie drunk), whereas outpatients benefitted more from using the vodcast (reduced distress, more smoothie drunk, and reduced vigilance to food). The context in which the intervention was delivered had an impact on self-report and behavioural measures collected during the test meal. This suggests that the form of meal support in AN needs to match the context. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount

  2. Influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of meals in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Brown, J.A.; Brophy, C.; Datz, F.; Taylor, A.; Alazraki, N.

    1984-06-01

    This study was designed to assess the relative influence of meal weight and caloric content on gastric emptying of liquid and solid meals in man. A dual radioisotopic method which permits noninvasive and simultaneous measurement of liquid- and solid-phase emptying by external gamma camera techniques was employed. Nine healthy volunteer subjects ingested 50-, 300-, and 900-g lettuce and water meals adjusted to either 68, 208, or 633 kcal with added salad oil. The following observations were made: (1) absolute emptying rates (grams of solid food emptied from the stomach per minute) increased directly and significantly with meal weight; (2) increasing meal total caloric content significantly slowed solid food gastric emptying but did not overcome the enhancing effect of meal weight; and (3) liquid emptying rates were uninfluenced by meal total kcal amount.

  3. Analysis of salt content in meals in kindergarten facilities in Novi Sad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajković-Pavlović, Ljiljana; Martinov-Cvejin, Mirjana; Novaković, Budimka; Bijelović, Sanja; Torović, Ljilja

    2010-01-01

    Investigations have brought evidence that salt intake is positively related to systolic blood pressure and that children with higher blood pressure are more susceptible to hypertension in adulthood. In developed countries the main source of salt is processed food. The aim of this paper was to determine total sodium chloride (NaCl) in average daily meal (breakfast, snack and dinner) and in each of three meals children receive in kindergarten. From kindergarten, in the meal time, 88 samples of daily meals (breakfast, snacks and dinner) offered to children aged 4-6 years were taken. Standardized laboratory methods were applied to determine proteins, fats, ash and water in order to calculate energy value of meal. The titrimetric method with AgNO3, and K2CrO4 as indicator, was applied in order to determine chloride ion. Content of NaCl was calculated as %NaCl = mlAgNO3 x 0.05844 x 5 x 100/g tested portion. NaCl content in total daily meal and each meal and in 100 kcal of each meal was calculated using descriptive statistical method. Student's t-test was applied to determine statistical differences of NaCl amount among meals. NaCl content in average daily meal was 5.2 +/- 1.7 g (CV 31.7%), in breakfast 1.5 +/- 0.6 g (CV 37.5%), in dinner 3.5 +/- 1.6 g (CV 46.1%) and in snack 0.3 +/- 0.4 g (CV 163.3%). NaCl content per 100 kcal of breakfast was 0.4 +/- 0.1 g (CV 29.5%), dinner 0.7 +/- 0.2 g (CV 27.8%) and snack 0.13 +/- 0.19 g (CV 145.8%). The difference of NaCl content among meals was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Children in kindergarten, through three meals, received NaCl in a quantity that exceeded internationally established population nutrient goal for daily salt intake. The main source of NaCl was dinner, a meal that is cooked at place.

  4. THE PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF MEALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOODS, SC; STRUBBE, JH; Woods, Stephen C.

    Meals are considered as bouts of behavior that, although necessary for supplying nutrients to the body, result in undesirable perturbations of homeostatically controlled parameters. If the environment dictates that an animal mainly eat very large meals, these meal-associated perturbations become

  5. Effect of test meals of varying dietary fiber content on plasma insulin and glucose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, J G; Coffman, K P; Reid, R L; Krall, J M; Albrink, M J

    1981-03-01

    To assess the effect of dietary fiber on glucose tolerance four different meals of varying fiber content but identical protein fat and carbohydrate content were fed to eight healthy men aged 22 to 45. Each meal provided 75 g of carbohydrate as liquid glucose formula, as brown rice, pinto beans, or All Bran. The mean plasma glucose and insulin responses were highest following the formula, and least for All Bran and pinto beans. Rice produced nearly as great a rise in insulin and glucose as did the formula. The rank of each meal by content of neutral detergent fiber was nearly the inverse of the rank by magnitude of the insulin response evoked, fiber content being greatest in All Bran (18 g) and pinto beans (16.2 g), low in rice (2.8 g) and absent from the formula. It was concluded that dietary fiber dampened the insulin response to a high carbohydrate meal.

  6. Growth, nonspecific immune characteristics, and survival upon challenge with Vibrio harveyi in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) raised on diets containing algal meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonwachai, Thasanee; Purivirojkul, Watchariya; Limsuwan, Chalor; Chuchird, Niti; Velasco, Mario; Dhar, Arun K

    2010-08-01

    A 70-day growth trial was conducted with postlarvae 12 (PL12) Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) to study the suitability of soybean meal and oil originating from a single-celled microorganism (thraustochytrid) as fishmeal and fish oil substitutes in practical diets for L. vannamei. The growth, survival rate and immune characteristics were evaluated. Seven experimental diets were designed with soybean meal used as the primary protein source; each formulation contained 33% crude protein and 8% lipid. Fish oil was completely substituted with 3% soybean oil and meals originating from single-celled heterotrophs rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) were added at different concentrations. A commercial shrimp feed was used as the control diet. The final weights and survival rates of the shrimp were not significantly different among all treatments. However, shrimp raised on diets supplemented with marine algal meals rich in DHA and ARA showed significant improvement in immune parameters, such as total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, superoxide dismutase activity, and bactericidal activity. Additionally, the survival rate after challenge with Vibrio harveyi was increased. These findings demonstrated that substitution of thraustochytrid-derived meals as an alternative to fish-based ingredients in shrimp diets provided similar growth rates while increasing the immune parameters and providing vibriosis resistance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dehydration-Anorexia Derives From A Reduction In Meal Size, But Not Meal Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Christina N.; Lorenzen, Sarah M.; Compton, Douglas; Watts, Alan G.

    2011-01-01

    The anorexia that results from extended periods of cellular dehydration is an important physiological adaptation that limits the intake of osmolytes from food and helps maintain the integrity of fluid compartments. The ability to experimentally control both the development and reversal of anorexia, together with the understanding of underlying hormonal and neuropeptidergic signals, make dehydration (DE)-anorexia a powerful model for exploring the interactions of neural networks that stimulate and inhibit food intake. However, it is not known which meal parameters are affected by cellular dehydration to generate anorexia. Here we use continuous and high temporal resolution recording of food and fluid intake, together with a drinking-explicit method of meal pattern analysis to explore which meal parameters are modified during DE-anorexia. We find that the most important factor responsible for DE-anorexia is the failure to maintain feeding behavior once a meal has started, rather than the ability to initiate a meal, which remains virtually intact. This outcome is consistent with increased sensitivity to satiation signals and post-prandial satiety mechanisms. We also find that DE-anorexia significantly disrupts the temporal distribution of meals across the day so that the number of nocturnal meals gradually decreases while diurnal meal number increases. Surprisingly, once DE-anorexia is reversed this temporal redistribution is maintained for at least 4 days after normal food intake has resumed, which may allow increased daily food intake even after normal satiety mechanisms are reinstated. Therefore, DE-anorexia apparently develops from a selective targeting of those neural networks that control meal termination, whereas meal initiation mechanisms remain viable. PMID:21854794

  8. Complete replacement of fish meal by other animal protein sources on growth performance of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnauld S. M. Djissou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To completely replace the fish meal by a mixture of earthworm and maggot meals, experimental diets were tested during 42 days on Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Five isoproteic and isoenergetic diets (40 % crude protein and 17.9 ± 0.3 kJ g−1 including the control diet (D1 based on fish meal, were formulated. All these diets satisfied the essential amino acids requirements of C. gariepinus fingerlings. These diets were tested on triplicate groups of 50 fishes (initial body weight: 3 ± 0.1 g bred in tank (0.5 m3. The approximate ratios 2:5; 1:4; 1:12 and 0:1 between the earthworm meal and the maggot meal were used, respectively, to formulate four diets D2, D3, D4 and D5 without fish meal. After the feeding period, significant differences (P < 0.05 were observed on growth, feed utilization between control diet (D1 and test diets (D2–D5. Fish fed earthworm- and maggot-based diets were grown better than those fed the control diet. Survival and feed utilization were not significantly affected by the ratio between earthworm meal and maggot meal in the test diets. Lipid content was higher in carcass and fillet of fishes fed earthworm- and maggot meals-based diets than that of those fed fish meal-based diet. This study indicates that when the ratio 2:5 between the earthworm meal and the maggot meal is used to entirely replace fish meal and the ratio lysine/arginine of the diet is inferior to 1, the growth performances and feed utilization of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings are improved.

  9. Circadian and ultradian components of hunger in human non-homeostatic meal-to-meal eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuorinen, Elizabeth C; Borer, Katarina T

    2013-10-02

    A unifying physiological explanation of the urge to initiate eating is still not available as human hunger in meal-to-meal eating may not be under homeostatic control. We hypothesized that a central circadian and a gastrointestinal ultradian timing mechanism coordinate non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating. We examined hunger as a function of time of day, inter-meal (IM) energy expenditure (EE), and concentrations of proposed hunger-controlling hormones ghrelin, leptin, and insulin. In two crossover studies, 10 postmenopausal women, BMI 23-26 kg/m(2) engaged in exercise (EX) and sedentary (SED) trials. Weight maintenance meals were provided at 6h intervals with an ad libitum meal at 13 h in study 1 and 21 h snack in study 2. EE during IM intervals was measured by indirect calorimetry and included EX EE of 801 kcal in study 1, and 766-1,051 kcal in study 2. Hunger was assessed with a visual analog scale and blood was collected for hormonal determination. Hunger displayed a circadian variation with acrophase at 13 and 19 h and was unrelated to preceding EE. Hunger was suppressed by EX between 10 and 16 h and bore no relationship to either EE during preceding IM intervals or changes in leptin, insulin, and ghrelin; however leptin reflected IM energy changes and ghrelin and insulin, prandial events. During non-deprivation meal-to-meal eating, hunger appears to be under non-homeostatic central circadian control as it is unrelated to EE preceding meals or concentrations of proposed appetite-controlling hormones. Gastrointestinal meal processing appears to intermittently suppress this control and entrain an ultradian hunger pattern. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Beneficial metabolic effects of regular meal frequency on dietary thermogenesis, insulin sensitivity, and fasting lipid profiles in healthy obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshchi, Hamid R; Taylor, Moira A; Macdonald, Ian A

    2005-01-01

    Although a regular meal pattern is recommended for obese people, its effects on energy metabolism have not been examined. We investigated whether a regular meal frequency affects energy intake (EI), energy expenditure, or circulating insulin, glucose, and lipid concentrations in healthy obese women. Ten women [x +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 37.1 +/- 4.8] participated in a randomized crossover trial. In phase 1 (14 d), the subjects consumed their normal diet on 6 occasions/d (regular meal pattern) or followed a variable meal frequency (3-9 meals/d, irregular meal pattern). In phase 2 (14 d), the subjects followed the alternative pattern. At the start and end of each phase, a test meal was fed, and blood glucose, lipid, and insulin concentrations were determined before and for 3 h after (glucose and insulin only) the test meal. Subjects recorded their food intake on 3 d during each phase. The thermogenic response to the test meal was ascertained by indirect calorimetry. Regular eating was associated with lower EI (P thermogenesis (P meal pattern, but peak insulin concentrations and area under the curve of insulin responses to the test meal were lower after the regular than after the irregular meal pattern (P thermogenesis.

  11. IDegLira Improves Both Fasting and Postprandial Glucose Control as Demonstrated Using Continuous Glucose Monitoring and a Standardized Meal Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Jens J; Buse, John B; Rodbard, Helena W; Linjawi, Sultan; Woo, Vincent C; Boesgaard, Trine Welløv; Kvist, Kajsa; Gough, Stephen C

    2015-10-06

    IDegLira is a novel, fixed-ratio combination of the long-acting basal insulin, insulin degludec, and the long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 analog liraglutide. We studied the effect of IDegLira versus its components on postprandial glucose (PPG) in type 2 diabetes. In this substudy, 260 (15.6%) of the original 1663 patients with inadequate glycemic control participating in a 26-week, open-label trial (DUAL I) were randomized 2:1:1 to once-daily IDegLira, insulin degludec or liraglutide. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) for 72 hours and a meal test were performed. At week 26, IDegLira produced a significantly greater decrease from baseline in mean PPG increment (normalized iAUC0-4h) than insulin degludec (estimated treatment difference [ETD] -12.79 mg/dl [95% CI: -21.08; -4.68], P = .0023) and a similar magnitude of decrease as liraglutide (ETD -1.62 mg/dl [95% CI: -10.09; 6.67], P = .70). CGM indicated a greater reduction in change from baseline in PPG increment (iAUC0-4h) for IDegLira versus insulin degludec over all 3 main meals (ETD -6.13 mg/dl [95% CI: -10.27, -1.98], P = .0047) and similar reductions versus liraglutide (ETD -1.80 mg/dl [95% CI: -2.52, 5.95], P = .4122). Insulin secretion ratio and static index were greater for IDegLira versus insulin degludec (P = .048 and P = .006, respectively) and similar to liraglutide (P = .45 and P = .895, respectively). Once-daily IDegLira provides significantly better PPG control following a mixed meal test than insulin degludec. The improvement is at least partially explained by higher endogenous insulin secretion and improved beta cell function with IDegLira. The benefits of liraglutide on PPG control are maintained across all main meals in the combination. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  12. Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by 'Meals on Wheels' South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjuna, Tony; Miller, Michelle; Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian; Visvanathan, Renuka; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D

    2018-02-20

    An audit of 'standard' (STD) and 'energy and protein fortified' (HEHP) meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW) South Australia's summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia's kitchen and delivered to three 'sham(dummy)-clients' over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia). On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs) for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21-39% for energy and 42-63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29-55% for energy and 46-69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein.

  13. Multiplexed Quantification of Proglucagon-Derived Peptides by Immunoaffinity Enrichment and Tandem Mass Spectrometry after a Meal Tolerance Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Anita Y H; Chappell, Derek L; Bak, Monika J

    2016-01-01

    . Participants fasted overnight and were either given a meal (n = 8) or continued to fast (n = 4), with multiple blood collections over the course of 3 h. Plasma samples were analyzed by microflow immunoaffinity (IA)-LC-MS/MS with an isotope dilution strategy. RESULTS: Assay performance characteristics were...... examined and established during analytical validation for all peptides. Intra- and interassay imprecision were found to be 2.2%-10.7% and 6.8%-22.5%, respectively. Spike recovery was >76%, and dilution linearity was established up to a 16-fold dilution. Immediately after the meal tolerance test, GLP-1...... and oxyntomodulin concentrations increased and had an almost identical temporal relationship, and glucagon concentrations increased with a slight delay. CONCLUSIONS: IA-LC-MS/MS was used for the simultaneous and selective measurement of PGDPs. This work includes the first indication of the physiological...

  14. Effect of aging on oral and swallowing function after meal consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiramatsu T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetsuya Hiramatsu,1,2 Hideyuki Kataoka,3 Mari Osaki,4 Hiroshi Hagino3,4 1Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Matsue Co-medical College, Matsue, Japan; 2Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 3School of Health Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 4Rehabilitation Division, Tottori University Hospital, Yonago, Japan Background/purpose: Dysphagia may worsen due to fatigue of the infrahyoid and suprahyoid muscle groups as a result of repetitive swallowing during a meal. We investigated the hypothesis that meal consumption may reduce tongue strength and endurance in older adults (OAs.Methods: Tongue–palate pressure, oral diadochokinesis, repetitive saliva swallowing, and surface electromyography activity before and after a meal were measured in 23 young adults (YAs and 23 OA volunteers.Results: There was a statistically significant difference in both tongue pressure and the number of voluntary swallows between YAs and OAs. Peak tongue pressure was significantly lower in OAs than YAs both before and after meal consumption. The most notable finding was that the first time interval (the time from test initiation to the beginning of the first swallow was prolonged after meal consumption only in OAs, whereas the first time interval showed no difference between YAs and OAs before meal consumption with reference to the repetitive saliva swallowing test. The initiation of swallowing was prolonged by both meal consumption and aging; there was a significant interaction between these two factors. The number of repetitions of the monosyllable/pa/was statistically similar between YAs and OAs before meal consumption, but it was significantly lower in OAs after meal consumption.Conclusion: Aging leads to declining tongue pressure and motor function of the lips. It is possible that swallowing function declines in older individuals when meal consumption is prolonged, especially at the end of mealtime, as a result of their

  15. Do healthy school meals affect illness, allergies and school attendance in 8- to 11-year-old children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Rikke Pilmann; Lauritzen, Lotte; Ritz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives:A nutritionally adequate diet in childhood is important for health and resistance of allergies and infections. This study explored the effects of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on school attendance, asthma, allergies and illness in 797 Danish 8- to 11-year-o...

  16. Associations between eating meals, watching TV while eating meals and weight status among children, ages 10-12 years in eight European countries: the ENERGY cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Frøydis N; Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Overby, Nina C; Lien, Nanna; Androutsos, Odysseas; Maes, Lea; Jan, Natasa; Kovacs, Eva; Moreno, Luis A; Dössegger, Alain; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes; Bere, Elling

    2013-05-15

    To assess the association of eating meals, and never watching TV while eating meals, with weight status among children, ages 10-12 years across Europe. 7915 children (mean age: 11.5 years) in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Switzerland) completed a questionnaire at school. Data on meals eaten the day before questionnaire administration and the frequency of eating meals while watching TV were collected. Height and weight of the children were objectively assessed. Multinomial and binary regression analyses were conducted to test associations of eating meals (adjusted for gender and ethnicity) and never watching TV while eating meals (adjusted for gender, ethnicity and total TV time) with overweight/obesity, and to test for country- and socio-demographic differences. The proportions of children reporting eating breakfast, lunch and dinner were 85%, 96%, and 93% respectively, and 55%, 46% and 32% reported to never watch TV at breakfast, lunch and dinner respectively. The children who ate breakfast (OR = 0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.7)) and dinner (OR = 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.5)), had lower odds of being overweight compared to those who did not. The children who never watched TV at lunch (OR = 0.7 (95% CI 0.7-0.8)) and dinner (OR = 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-0.9)) had lower odds of being overweight compared to those who watched TV at the respective meals. The odds of being overweight was lower for children who ate breakfast and dinner compared to those who did not eat the respective meals. The odds of being overweight was lower for children who reported to never watch TV at lunch and dinner compared to those who did. A focus towards meal frequency and watching TV during meals in longitudinal and interventions studies in prevention of overweight and obesity, may contribute to a better understanding of causality.

  17. System tests of the LHCb RICH detectors in a charged particle beam

    CERN Document Server

    Skottowe, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    The RICH detectors of the LHCb experiment will provide efficient particle identification over the momentum range 1-100 GeV=c. Results are presented from a beam test of the LHCb RICH system using final production pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors, the final readout electronics and an adapted version of LHCb RICH reconstruction software. Measurements of the photon yields and Cherenkov angle resolutions for both nitrogen and C4F10 radiators agree well with full simulations. The quality of the data and the results obtained demonstrate that all aspects meet the stringent physics requirements of the experiment are now ready for first data.

  18. Dietary variety is associated with larger meals in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Carla J; Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Johnson, Zachary P; Toufexis, Donna; Wilson, Mark E

    2013-07-02

    The complex, interacting influences on eating behavior and energy expenditure prevent elucidation of the causal role of any single factor in the current obesity epidemic. However, greater variety in the food supply, particularly in the form of highly palatable, energy-dense foods, has likely made a contribution. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that greater dietary variety is associated with greater caloric intake within individual meals consumed by free-feeding, socially-housed female rhesus monkeys. Meal patterns were assessed during two, two-week dietary phases. One phase consisted of a choice between a standard chow diet and a highly palatable diet (HPD). The other phase consisted of access to the chow only. Food intake for each subject was recorded continuously using previously validated, automated feeders, and a meal was defined based on a minimum kilocalorie requirement and a minimum inter-meal interval. During the choice condition, animals electively consumed mixed meals that incorporated both diets as well as other meals that consisted exclusively of a single diet - chow-only or HPD-only. Animals consumed the most calories per meal when the meal was comprised of both the chow and HPD, which differed in caloric density, flavor, and texture. Interestingly, however, there was no significant difference in the amount of calories consumed as HPD-only meals in the choice condition compared to meals in the chow-only, no choice condition, suggesting consumption of a single food during a meal, regardless of palatability, provides a constant sensory experience that may lead to more rapid habituation and subsequent meal cessation. Additionally, during the dietary choice condition, animals consumed fewer calories in the form of chow-only meals. Thus, the present results suggest that limiting dietary variety, regardless of palatability, may be a useful strategy for weight loss in overweight and obese individuals by reducing caloric intake within

  19. Analysis of salt content in meals in kindergarten facilities in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijelović Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Investigations have brought evidence that salt intake is positively related to systolic blood pressure and that children with higher blood pressure are more susceptible to hypertension in adulthood. In developed countries the main source of salt is processed food. Objective The aim of this paper was to determine total sodium chloride (NaCl in average daily meal (breakfast, snack and dinner and in each of three meals children receive in kindergarten. Methods. From kindergarten, in the meal time, 88 samples of daily meals ( breakfast, snacks and dinner offered to children aged 4-6 years were taken. Standardized laboratory methods were applied to determine proteins, fats, ash and water in order to calculate energy value of meal. The titrimetric method with AgNO3, and K2CrO4 as indicator, was applied in order to determine chloride ion. Content of NaCl was calculated as %NaCl = mlAgNO3 × 0.05844 × 5 × 100/g tested portion. NaCl content in total daily meal and each meal and in 100 kcal of each meal was calculated using descriptive statistical method. Student’s t-test was applied to determine statistical differences of NaCl amount among meals. Results. NaCl content in average daily meal was 5.2±1.7 g (CV 31.7%, in breakfast 1.5±0.6 g (CV 37.5%, in dinner 3.5±1.6 g (CV 46.1% and in snack 0.3±0.4 g (CV 163.3%. NaCl content per 100 kcal of breakfast was 0.4±0.1 g (CV 29.5%, dinner 0.7±0.2 g (CV 27.8% and snack 0.13±0.19 g (CV 145.8%. The difference of NaCl content among meals was statistically significant (p<0.01. Conclusion. Children in kindergarten, through three meals, received NaCl in a quantity that exceeded internationally established population nutrient goal for daily salt intake. The main source of NaCl was dinner, a meal that is cooked at place.

  20. Decontamination of salmonella from the coastal fish meals by 60Co γ ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saheki, Kazuaki; Konno, Kenjiro; Sato, Takae; Kawabata, Toshiharu.

    1988-01-01

    The decontamination fo salmonellae from fish meal samples by irradiation which 60 Co γ ray was examined. Sixteen strains of Salmonella were used. A composite fish meal sample was prepared by mixing with different coastal meals, and after radiation sterilization at a dose of 20 kGy 60 Co γ ray, which was employed as the salmonella-free meal sample. D 10 values of test strains determined in buffered saline were found to range from 0.08 to 0.36 kGy, and inactivation factors at a dose of 1 kGy ranged from 10 2.8 to 10 13 . D 10 values of test strains determined in the salmonella-free meal sample ranged from 0.59 to 1.64 kGy, and the inactivation factors at a dose of 10 kGy were found to range from 10 6.1 to 10 17 . Interestingly the D 10 values of salmonellae determined in fish meal samples were 10 times as much compared with those determined in buffered saline. From the commercial aspects of coastal fish meal production, destruction of salmonellae in fish meals by 60 Co γ ray irradiation was found to be much more practical than other methods such as dry heating and ethylene oxide fumigation. (author)

  1. Postprandial effects of consuming a staggered meal on gut peptide and glycemic responses in obese women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Lisa; Haddad, Ella H; Tonstad, Serena

    2016-01-01

    Eating slowly by staggering a meal may reduce energy intake. Our aim was to examine the effect of eating a portion of beans 15min before the rest of the meal, on gastrointestinal (GI) peptides, glucose and insulin concentrations and subsequent energy intake in obese adults. This was a randomised crossover design study with 28 obese subjects. Participants consumed a standardised breakfast on test days followed by test meals: (1) control meal containing 86g (0.5 cup) of beans, and (2) staggered meal in which 86g (0.5 cup) of beans were consumed 15min before the rest of the meal. Blood obtained prior to and at 30, 60, and 120min following the meals was analysed for acylated ghrelin, unacylated ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY, oxyntomodulin, glucose and insulin. Feelings of hunger and satiety were assessed using analog visual scales. Energy intake following the test meal was obtained by computer assisted dietary recalls. Mixed model statistical analysis of data showed time effects for unacylated ghrelin, GLP-1, glucose, insulin, hunger and fullness, however, meal effects were not shown for any of the parameters. GLP-1 area under the curve from baseline to 120min (AUC0-120) decreased by 19% (P=0.024) and that of glucose increased by 7% (P=0.046) following the staggered compared to the control bean meal. Energy intake subsequent to the test meals did not differ between treatments. In conclusion, lengthening meal times by staggering eating did not benefit hormonal, metabolic or appetite control in obese individuals. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Talinum triangulare Whole wheat meal fortified with soy flour consumed with Talinum triangulare (gbure) soup glycemic index and the test human subjects' lipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emaleku, Sunday Adeola; Omueti, Olusola D; Emaleku, Godsent Oluwakemi

    2017-08-24

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are some of the leading causes of death in the world, and diet has roles in their etiology. This research study therefore investigates the glycemic index (GI) of soy flour fortified whole wheat meal (SFFWWM) consumed with Talinum triangulare (gbure) soup and the effects of the meal on the lipid profiles of the test human subjects. The control human subjects and test human subjects were fed D-glucose (DG) and whole wheat meal (WWM) with Talinum triangulare soup respectively on the first day of the experiment, and SFFWWM with the same soup the next day (for test subjects only) after 10-12h overnight fasting. Blood glucose levels of the subjects were taken before and 2h after meals' consumption at 30min interval and blood samples collected for lipid profiles evaluations. The result of the study showed that; SFFWWM consumed with Talinum trianguilare soup has a non-significant lower GI than WWM consumed with the same soup, but a significant lower GI than DG at (P<0.05). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in lipid profiles of the test human subjects between when they consumed WWM and SFFWWM with the soup however, SFFWWM reduced TC, TG, LDL-C and VDL-C and increased HDL-C and TP than WMM at (P<0.05). In addition, GI is positively correlated with TC, TG, LDL-C and VLDL-C, but is negatively correlated with TP and HDL-C. It can therefore be concluded that; fortifying WWM with soy flour would reduce the risk factors of CVDs and DM, the diseases recently claiming thousands of today. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2013-01-01

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies...

  4. Enzymatic detoxification of jojoba meal and effect of the resulting meal on food intake in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouali, Abderrahime; Bellirou, Ahmed; Boukhatem, Noureddin; Hamal, Abdellah; Bouammali, Boufelja

    2008-05-10

    When defatted jojoba meal is used as animal food, it causes food-intake reduction and growth retardation. Detoxification procedures by chemical, microbiological, and solvent extraction methods are reported by several authors. Here we report a successful detoxification of jojoba meal using enzymes. We establish reaction conditions that yield new meal which has the same nutritional qualities in proteins as the original meal. The enzymatic reaction gives rise to one major compound to which the structure of an amide is assigned on the basis of IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectra. The effect of the resulting jojoba meal on the food intake in rats is checked. In contrast, the detoxified meal containing the amide derivatives shows no toxicological activity since rats receiving oral administration of the obtained meal show normal growth. Thus, it is expected that this meal could be used as an animal feed ingredient.

  5. Reproducibility of gallbladder ejection fraction measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Muqbel, Kusai M.; Hani, M. N. Hani; Elheis, M. A.; Al-Omari, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    There are conflicting data in the literature regarding the reproducibility of the gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy (CS). We aimed to test the reproducibility of GBEF measured by fatty meal CS. Thirty-five subjects (25 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with chronic abdominal pain) underwent fatty meal CS twice in order to measure GBEF1 and GBEF2. The healthy volunteers underwent a repeat scan within 1-13 months from the first scan. The patients underwent a repeat scan within 1-4 years from the first scan and were not found to have chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC). Our standard fatty meal was composed of a 60-g Snickers chocolate bar and 200 ml full-fat yogurt. The mean ± SD values for GBEF1 and GBEF2 were 52±17% and 52±16%, respectively. There was a direct linear correlation between the values of GBEF1 and GBEF2 for the subjects, with a correlation coefficient of 0.509 (p=0.002). Subgroup data analysis of the volunteer group showed that there was significant linear correlation between volunteer values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, with a correlation coefficient of 0.473 (p=0.017). Subgroup data analysis of the non-CAC patient group showed no significant correlation between patient values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, likely due to limited sample size. This study showed that fatty meal CS is a reliable test in gallbladder motility evaluation and that GBEF measured by fatty meal CS is reproducible

  6. Reproducibility of gallbladder ejection fraction measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Muqbel, Kusai M.; Hani, M. N. Hani; Elheis, M. A.; Al-Omari, M. H. [School of Medicine, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan)

    2010-12-15

    There are conflicting data in the literature regarding the reproducibility of the gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF) measured by fatty meal cholescintigraphy (CS). We aimed to test the reproducibility of GBEF measured by fatty meal CS. Thirty-five subjects (25 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with chronic abdominal pain) underwent fatty meal CS twice in order to measure GBEF1 and GBEF2. The healthy volunteers underwent a repeat scan within 1-13 months from the first scan. The patients underwent a repeat scan within 1-4 years from the first scan and were not found to have chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC). Our standard fatty meal was composed of a 60-g Snickers chocolate bar and 200 ml full-fat yogurt. The mean {+-} SD values for GBEF1 and GBEF2 were 52{+-}17% and 52{+-}16%, respectively. There was a direct linear correlation between the values of GBEF1 and GBEF2 for the subjects, with a correlation coefficient of 0.509 (p=0.002). Subgroup data analysis of the volunteer group showed that there was significant linear correlation between volunteer values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, with a correlation coefficient of 0.473 (p=0.017). Subgroup data analysis of the non-CAC patient group showed no significant correlation between patient values of GBEF1 and GBEF2, likely due to limited sample size. This study showed that fatty meal CS is a reliable test in gallbladder motility evaluation and that GBEF measured by fatty meal CS is reproducible

  7. Meal Elements - a Way of optimising ready to eat Meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Eva Høy; Friis, Alan; Jacobsen, Peter

    The aim of this project is to develop a concept for improvement of the quality of food produced in large-scale kitchens. Using meal elements in large-scale kitchens in combination with production planning and over-all structuring of activities generally improves the quality of the meal prepared....

  8. Proprietary tomato extract improves metabolic response to high-fat meal in healthy normal weight subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Deplanque

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation is a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Lycopene and tomato-based products have been described as potent inhibitors of LDL oxidation. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of a 2-week supplementation with a carotenoid-rich tomato extract (CRTE standardized for a 1:1 ratio of lycopene and phytosterols, on post-prandial LDL oxidation after a high-fat meal. Design: In a randomized, double-blind, parallel-groups, placebo-controlled study, 146 healthy normal weight individuals were randomly assigned to a daily dose of CRTE standardized for tomato phytonutrients or placebo during 2 weeks. Oxidized LDL (OxLDL, glucose, insulin, and triglyceride (TG responses were measured for 8 h after ingestion of a high-fat meal before and at the end of intervention. Results: Plasma lycopene, phytofluene, and phytoene were increased throughout the study period in the CRTE group compared to placebo. CRTE ingestion significantly improved changes in OxLDL response to high-fat meal compared to placebo after 2 weeks (p<0.0001. Changes observed in glucose, insulin, and TG responses were not statistically significant after 2 weeks of supplementation, although together they may suggest a trend of favorable effect on metabolic outcomes after a high-fat meal. Conclusions: Two-week supplementation with CRTE increased carotenoids levels in plasma and improved oxidized LDL response to a high-fat meal in healthy normal weight individuals.

  9. Meal frequency and childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschke, André M; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Koletzko, Berthold; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an inverse association between meal frequency and the prevalence of obesity in adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between meal frequency and childhood obesity. Stature and weight of 4,370 German children ages 5 to 6 years were determined in six Bavarian (Germany) public health offices during the obligatory school entry health examination in 2001/2002. An extensive questionnaire on risk factors for obesity was answered by their parents. Obesity was defined according to sex- and age-specific BMI cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The main exposure was daily meal frequency. The prevalence of obesity decreased by number of daily meals: three or fewer meals, 4.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.8 to 6.1]; four meals, 2.8% (95% CI, 2.1 to 3.7); and 5 or more meals, 1.7% (95% CI, 1.2 to 2.4). These effects could not be explained by confounding due to a wide range of constitutional, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors. The adjusted odds ratios for obesity were 0.73 (95% CI, 0.44 to 1.21) for four meals and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.89) for five or more meals. Additional analyses pointed to a higher energy intake in nibblers compared with gorgers. A protective effect of an increased daily meal frequency on obesity in children was observed and appeared to be independent of other risk factors for childhood obesity. A modulation of the response of hormones such as insulin might be instrumental.

  10. Metabolic response to different glycemic indexes of pre-exercise meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cristina de Faria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To ensure performance and health, the type of food and the time of pre-exercise ingestion should be considered by practitioners of morning physical activity. Objective: This study assessed the metabolic response after pre-exercise meals with different glycemic indexes (GI and in the fasting state adopting different types of hydration.METHODS: Twelve men performed four experimental tests; two with pre-exercise meals of high GI (HGI and low GI (LGI, and two were performed in the fasting state with hydration: water (H2O and carbohydrate drink (CHO. Each test consisted of a pre-exercise rest period of 30 minutes followed by 60 minutes of cycle ergometer with continuous load equivalent to 60% of the extrapolated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2MaxExt. During the exercise, participants were hydrated every 15 minutes with 3mL per kg body weight. During each experimental test, venous blood samples were obtained for fasting and at 15-minute intervals during rest, and every 20 minutes during exercise. The gas analysis was carried out in periods of 5 minutes every 20 minutes of exercise.RESULTS: There was no difference in substrate oxidation. After 20 minutes of exercise, pre-exercise food intake procedures showed similar behavior, having only reduced blood glucose levels compared to fasting procedures (p<0.01. There was maintenance of blood glucose at stable and higher levels during exercise in relation to the other tests in the fast procedure with CHO.CONCLUSION: The data suggest that despite the similar metabolic behavior between LGI and HGI meals, the adoption of a LGI meal before the morning exercise seems to be a more suitable feeding practice due to higher tendency of rebound hypoglycemia after HGI meal and when morning exercise is performed on fasting, hydration with CHO seems to minimize the hypoglycemic risk arising from that state.

  11. Associations between eating meals, watching TV while eating meals and weight status among children, ages 10–12 years in eight European countries: the ENERGY cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To assess the association of eating meals, and never watching TV while eating meals, with weight status among children, ages 10–12 years across Europe. Methods 7915 children (mean age: 11.5 years) in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Switzerland) completed a questionnaire at school. Data on meals eaten the day before questionnaire administration and the frequency of eating meals while watching TV were collected. Height and weight of the children were objectively assessed. Multinomial and binary regression analyses were conducted to test associations of eating meals (adjusted for gender and ethnicity) and never watching TV while eating meals (adjusted for gender, ethnicity and total TV time) with overweight/obesity, and to test for country- and socio-demographic differences. Results The proportions of children reporting eating breakfast, lunch and dinner were 85%, 96%, and 93% respectively, and 55%, 46% and 32% reported to never watch TV at breakfast, lunch and dinner respectively. The children who ate breakfast (OR = 0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.7)) and dinner (OR = 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.5)), had lower odds of being overweight compared to those who did not. The children who never watched TV at lunch (OR = 0.7 (95% CI 0.7-0.8)) and dinner (OR = 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-0.9)) had lower odds of being overweight compared to those who watched TV at the respective meals. Conclusions The odds of being overweight was lower for children who ate breakfast and dinner compared to those who did not eat the respective meals. The odds of being overweight was lower for children who reported to never watch TV at lunch and dinner compared to those who did. A focus towards meal frequency and watching TV during meals in longitudinal and interventions studies in prevention of overweight and obesity, may contribute to a better understanding of causality. PMID:23675988

  12. Food marketing with movie character toys: Effects on young children's preferences for unhealthy and healthier fast food meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Helen; Niven, Philippa; Scully, Maree; Wakefield, Melanie

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to test whether movie tie-in premiums (MTIPs) accompanying unhealthy and healthier fast food meals influenced children's meal preferences and their perceptions of these meals. Nine hundred and four Grade 1 and 2 students (aged 5-9 years) from Melbourne, Australia participated in a between-subjects online experiment comprising the following conditions: (A) unhealthy and healthier meals with no MTIP (control); (B) unhealthy and healthier meals with MTIP (current situation in Australia); (C) unhealthy meals with MTIP and healthier meals without MTIP; (D) unhealthy meals without MTIP and healthier meals with MTIP. The latter condition tested a potential regulatory model restricting premiums to healthier meals. Participants were shown a trailer for a current children's movie followed by an advertisement for an associated McDonald's Happy Meal ® (conditions B-D) or an advertisement for a children's leisure activity (condition A). They were then shown four McDonald's Happy Meal ® options on screen and asked to select their preferred meal before completing detailed meal ratings. Overall, children showed a preference for unhealthy meals over healthier ones. Children were significantly more likely to select a healthier meal over an unhealthy meal when only the healthier meals were accompanied by a MTIP (condition D) compared to the other three conditions. When healthier meals were accompanied by a MTIP, children reported the meal looked better, would taste better, they would be more likely to ask their parents for this meal, and they would feel happier if their parents bought them this meal, compared to when the healthier meal was not accompanied by a MTIP. Results suggest that modifying the food marketing environment to restrict MTIPs to healthier meals should encourage healthier fast food meal choices by children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by ‘Meals on Wheels’ South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjuna, Tony; Miller, Michelle; Soenen, Stijn; Chapman, Ian; Visvanathan, Renuka; Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D

    2018-01-01

    An audit of ‘standard’ (STD) and ‘energy and protein fortified’ (HEHP) meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW) South Australia’s summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia’s kitchen and delivered to three ‘sham(dummy)-clients’ over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia). On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs) for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21–39% for energy and 42–63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29–55% for energy and 46–69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein. PMID:29461476

  14. Serve Size and Estimated Energy and Protein Contents of Meals Prepared by ‘Meals on Wheels’ South Australia Inc.: Findings from a Meal Audit Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Arjuna

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An audit of ‘standard’ (STD and ‘energy and protein fortified’ (HEHP meals from Meals on Wheels (MOW South Australia’s summer menu was conducted to evaluate the consistency, and serve size and nutrient contents, of their menu items. Twenty soups, 20 mains and 20 desserts from each of the STD and HEHP menus were prepared at the MOW South Australia’s kitchen and delivered to three ‘sham(dummy-clients’ over a 5-week period. Each meal component was weighed in triplicate, to the nearest gram, the variation within the serve weight was calculated, and the overall energy and protein content of each meal was determined using FoodWorks (Xyris Software, Highgate Hill, Queensland, Australia. On average, the variability for soups and mains was ≤6% and for desserts was ≤10% and although the measured serve sizes of the MOW meals were consistently smaller than prescribed serve size, the differences were minor. As a percentage of recommended daily intakes (RDIs for adults aged over 60 years, we calculated that the STD meals contained 21–39% for energy and 42–63% for protein while the HEHP meals contained 29–55% for energy and 46–69% for protein. These findings demonstrate that MOW meals currently meet the voluntary meal guidelines for energy and protein.

  15. Parameters of Alumina Cement and Portland Cement with Addition of Chalcedonite Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwa, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Aluminous cement is a quick binder with special properties. It is used primarily to make non-standard monolithic components exposed to high temperatures, + 1300°C. It is also a component of adhesives and mortars. It has a very short setting time. It is characterized by rapid increase in mechanical strength and resistance to aggressive sulphates. It can be used in reinforced concrete structures. Laying of concrete, construction mortar made of alumina cement can be carried out even at temperatures of -10°C. This article discusses a comparison of the parameters of hardened mortar made of alumina cement GÓRKAL 40 and Portland cement CEM I 42.5R. The mortars contain an addition of chalcedonite meal with pozzolanic properties, with particle size of less than 0.063μm. The meal was added in amounts of 5% and 20% of cement weight. Chalcedonite meal used in the laboratory research is waste material, resulting from chalcedonite aggregate mining. It has the same properties as the rock from which it originates. We have compared the parameters of hardened mortar i.e. compressive strength, water absorption and capillarity. The addition of 20% chalcedonite meal to mortars made from aluminous cement will decrease durability by 6.1% relative to aluminous cement mortar without addition of meal. Considering the results obtained during the absorbency tests, it can be stated that the addition of chalcedonite meal reduces weight gains in mortars made with cement CEM I 42.5 R and alumina cement. Use of alumina cement without addition of meal in mortars causes an increase of mass by 248% compared to Portland cement mortars without additions, in the absorption tests. The addition of chalcedonite meal did not cause increased weight gain in the capillary action tests. For the alumina cement mortars, a lesser weight gains of 24.7% was reported, compared to the Portland cement mortar after 28 days of maturing.

  16. Successes and Challenges in School Meal Reform: Qualitative Insights From Food Service Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Yuka; Ziemann, Margaret; Zatz, Lara; Chriqui, Jamie

    2017-08-01

    The Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010 (HHFKA) directed the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) to revise school meal standards to increase healthy food offerings. A critical stakeholder in the implementation of standards is Food Service Directors (FSDs). We sought to examine FSDs' perspectives on revised school meal standards to gain insight into successful implementation strategies. Semistructured interviews were conducted with FSDs (N = 9) from high schools that had achieved HealthierUS Schools Challenge: Smarter Lunchrooms (HUSSC: SL) status. Qualitative interview data were team coded in Atlas.ti v7 and analyzed with principles of constant comparative analysis. FSDs reported overall positive perceptions of the revised school meal standards and its potential impacts, as well as improved fruit and vegetable consumption, despite initial challenges with plate waste, procurement of whole grain-rich products, and fast paced sodium targets. Implementation was described as complex, ongoing processes; with time and in-service trainings, student acceptance to these changes improved. These findings are directly relevant to future reauthorization of the Child Nutrition Act and to revisions to the implementation time line for the federal school meal standards related to sodium, whole grains, and flavored milk. Insights into FSDs' strategies suggest that more time and targeted technical assistance at federal, state, and local levels is warranted. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  17. Replacement of fish oil with a DHA-rich algal meal derived from Schizochytrium sp. on the fatty acid and persistent organic pollutant levels in diets and flesh of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L.) post-smolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, M; Walton, J; Campbell, P J; Strachan, F; Dick, J R; Bell, J G

    2015-10-15

    The replacement of fish oil (FO) with a DHA-rich Schizochytrium sp. algal meal (AM) at two inclusion levels (11% and 5.5% of diet) was tested in Atlantic salmon post-smolts compared to fish fed a FO diet of northern (NFO) or southern hemisphere (SFO) origin. Fish were preconditioned prior to the 19-week experimental feeding period to reduce long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) and persistent organic pollutant levels (POPs). Dietary POP levels differed significantly between treatments in the order of NFO>SFO>11 AM/5.5 AM and were subsequently reflected in the flesh. Fish fed the 11 AM diet contained similar DHA levels (g 100 g(-1) flesh) to FO-fed fish, despite percentage differences. However, the low levels of EPA in the diets and flesh of algal-fed fish compromised the overall nutritional value to the final consumer. Nevertheless, further developments in microalgae culture offer a promising alternative lipid source of LC-PUFA to FO in salmon feeds that warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Second meal effect on appetite and fermentation of wholegrain rye foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrügger, Sabine; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Blennow, Andreas; Skuflić, Dan; Raben, Anne; Lauritzen, Lotte; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-09-01

    Wholegrain rye has been associated with decreased hunger sensations. This may be partly mediated by colonic fermentation. Sustained consumption of fermentable components is known to change the gut microflora and may increase numbers of saccharolytic bacteria. To investigate the effect of wholegrain rye consumption on appetite and colonic fermentation after a subsequent meal. In a randomized, controlled, three-arm cross-over study, twelve healthy male subjects consumed three iso-caloric evening test meals. The test meals were based on white wheat bread (WBB), wholegrain rye kernel bread (RKB), or boiled rye kernels (RK). Breath hydrogen excretion and subjective appetite sensation were measured before and at 30 min intervals for 3 h after a standardized breakfast in the subsequent morning. After the 3 h, an ad libitum lunch meal was served to assess energy intake. In an in vitro study, RKB and RK were subjected to digestion and 24 h-fermentation in order to study SCFA production and growth of selected saccharolytic bacteria. The test meals did not differ in their effect on parameters of subjective appetite sensation the following day. Ad libitum energy intake at lunch was, however, reduced by 11% (P < 0.01) after RKB and 7% (P < 0.05) after RK compared with after WWB evening meal. Breath hydrogen excretion was significantly increased following RKB and RK evening meals compared with WWB (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Overall, RKB and RK were readily fermented in vitro and exhibited similar fermentation profiles, although total SCFA production was higher for RK compared with RKB (P < 0.001). In vitro fermentation of RKB and RK both increased the relative quantities of Bifidobacterium and decreased Bacteroides compared with inoculum (P < 0.001). The C. coccoides group was reduced after RKB (P < 0.001). Consumption of wholegrain rye products reduced subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy men, possibly mediated by

  19. Effect of Replacing Soybean Meal with Lupin Seed-based Meal in Chicken Diet on Performance, Carcass Value and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this experimental study was to determine how diets containing lupin meal affect the performance indicators, carcass value, and chemical composition of breast and thigh muscles in broiler chickens. The diets tested in experimental groups E1 and E2 differed as follows: in group E1, one third of nitrogen-containing substances (NSs from extracted soybean meal was replaced with NSs from lupin meal; in group E2, two thirds were replaced compared to the control group. The replacement of soybean meal with lupin meal in experimental diets failed to produce any significant effect on the average live weight of chickens on Day 42 of the fattening period compared to the control group. The replacement of soybean meal with lupin meal resulted in decreased average weight of carcass and breast muscles and in decreased yield of breast muscles. Differences between the control group (C and group E2 were significant (P ⪬ 0.01. Chickens in group E2 also showed a significant increase (P ⪬ 0.01 in the yield of the heart and stomach compared to the control group. The differences in weight and yield of thigh muscles between the control group and the experimental groups (E1 and E2 were not significantly affected. As far as chemical composition is concerned, chickens receiving the lupin-containing feed showed a significant (P ⪬ 0.01 increase in the ash content in breast muscles. On the contrary, in thigh muscles in group E2, the ash content decreased significantly (P ⪬ 0.01. The content of calcium showed an increasing trend in both breast and thigh muscles in both experimental groups. In contrast, the content of magnesium in chicken muscles in both experimental groups decreased. These differences were significant (P ⪬ 0.01 only in thigh muscles. Our results show that lupin seed is a suitable substitute for NSs contained in soybean extracted meal. It is considered optimal to replace up to one third of NSs contained in

  20. The Effects of Substituting Soyabean Meal for Breadfruit Meal on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increasing substitutions of soyabean meal for breadfruit meal in diets fed to Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♂) x Clarias gariepinus (♀) hybrid fingerlings led to weight increases in all dietary types with exception of diet G and higher growth induction in catfishes fed all diets with exception of diet B. Diets C had induced better ...

  1. Comparison of Glycomacropeptide with Phenylalanine Free-Synthetic Amino Acids in Test Meals to PKU Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Kirsten K; Lund, Allan M; Jensen, Erik

    2018-01-01

    to food intake. Methods: This study included 8 patients, who had four visits and tested four drink mixtures (DM1-4), consisting of CGMP, FSAA, or a combination. Plasma blood samples were collected at baseline, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 minutes (min) after the meal. AA profiles and ghrelin were determined 6...... times, while surrogate biomarkers were determined at baseline and 240 min. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for evaluation of taste and satiety. Results: The surrogate biomarker concentrations and VAS scores for satiety and taste were nonsignificant between the four DMs, and there were only few...

  2. How about Lunch? Consequences of the Meal Context on Cognition and Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Werner; Stürmer, Birgit; Shmuilovich, Olga; Martin-Loeches, Manuel; Schacht, Annekathrin

    2013-01-01

    Although research addresses the effects of a meal’s context on food preference, the psychological consequences of meal situations are largely unexplored. We compared the cognitive and emotional effects of a restaurant meal eaten in the company of others to a solitary meal consumed in a plain office using pre- and post-tests analysis and controlling for the kind and amount of food consumed. Three tasks were conducted, measuring: (1) semantic memory (2) cognitive control and error monitoring, and (3) processing of emotional facial expressions. Covert processes in these tasks were assessed with event-related brain potentials. A mood rating questionnaire indicated a relaxation effect of the restaurant as compared to the plain meal situation. The restaurant meal increased sensitivity to threatening facial expressions and diminished cognitive control and error monitoring. No effects were observed for semantic memory. These findings provide the first experimental evidence that a restaurant meal with a social component may be more relaxing than a meal eaten alone in a plain setting and may reduce cognitive control. PMID:23936184

  3. Meat and bone meal and biosolids as slow-release phosphorus fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Bøen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biosolids and meat and bone meal (MBM are commonly used as fertilizers in agriculture, often at application rates where total phosphorus (P far exceeds the annual demand. In a pot experiment, three biosolids and two types of MBM were tested at two commonly used application rates. Their contributions to P uptake in ryegrass (second and third season were compared with annual mineral P fertilization. The soil was analysed for extractable P (PAL and POlsen. Only soil amended with digested, limed biosolids provided a P uptake in ryegrass the third season comparable to annual NPK fertilization. Bone-rich MBM had considerable contributions to third season P uptake in soil with pH < 6. The product application rates did not influence P uptake significantly for any of the products. POlsen was found suitable to describe residual effects on soil P solubility, whereas the PAL-method was not applicable for MBM fertilized soils.

  4. Investigation of Dysphagia After Antireflux Surgery by High-resolution Manometry: Impact of Multiple Water Swallows and a Solid Test Meal on Diagnosis, Management, and Clinical Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu Tien; Tai, Ling Fung; Yazaki, Etsuro; Jafari, Jafar; Sweis, Rami; Tucker, Emily; Knowles, Kevin; Wright, Jeff; Ahmad, Saqib; Kasi, Madhavi; Hamlett, Katharine; Fox, Mark R; Sifrim, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    Management of patients with dysphagia, regurgitation, and related symptoms after antireflux surgery is challenging. This prospective, case-control study tested the hypothesis that compared with standard high-resolution manometry (HRM) with single water swallows (SWS), adding multiple water swallows (MWS) and a solid test meal increases diagnostic yield and clinical impact of physiological investigations. Fifty-seven symptomatic and 12 asymptomatic patients underwent HRM with SWS, MWS, and a solid test meal. Dysphagia and reflux were assessed by validated questionnaires. Diagnostic yield of standard and full HRM studies with 24-hour pH-impedance monitoring was compared. Pneumatic dilatation was performed for outlet obstruction on HRM studies. Clinical outcome was assessed by questionnaires and an analogue scale with "satisfactory" defined as at least 40% symptom improvement requiring no further treatment. Postoperative esophagogastric junction pressure was similar in all groups. Abnormal esophagogastric junction morphology (double high pressure band) was more common in symptomatic than in control patients (13 of 57 vs 0 of 12, P = .004). Diagnostic yield of HRM was 11 (19%), 11 (19%), and 33 of 57 (58%), with SWS, MWS, and solids, respectively (P dysphagia (19 of 27, 70%). Outlet obstruction was present in 4 (7%), 11 (19%), and 15 of 57 patients (26%) with SWS, MWS, and solids, respectively (P < .009). No asymptomatic control had clinically relevant dysfunction on solid swallows. Dilatation was performed in 12 of 15 patients with outlet obstruction during the test meal. Symptom response was satisfactory, good, or excellent in 7 of 12 (58%) with no serious complications. The addition of MWS and a solid test meal increases the diagnostic yield of HRM studies in patients with symptoms after fundoplication and identifies additional patients with outlet obstruction who benefit from endoscopic dilatation. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  5. Distributional impacts of meal vouchers

    OpenAIRE

    Röhryová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    The thesis aims to analyze distributional impacts of meal voucher sys- tem in the Czech Republic, especially in the context of income inequality between different income groups. In the first part, we study the features of the Czech meal voucher scheme, relevant legislative framework and offer a comparison of the Czech meal voucher system with other European coun- tries. In the second part, we perform an analysis of the redistributive effects of meal allowances on various income deciles, quant...

  6. Meals on Wheels Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Meals About Meals on Wheels Get Started The Issue The Problem & Our Solution Meals on Wheels Health Facts & Resources Senior Facts Map State Fact Sheets Research More Than a Meal Pilot Research Study Medicare Claims Analyses Policy Myths Hunger in Older Adults Take Action Volunteer Advocate #SAVELUNCH ...

  7. Effect of lime treatment of olive meal on in vitro utilization of total mixed ration containing olive meal as partial maize replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajmal Ashraf

    Full Text Available Aim: Present study pertains to lime treatment of olive meal to improve its digestibility. The objective of the present study was to assess the in vitro dry matter degradability of total mixed ration containing lime treated olive meal at varied levels of maize replacement to know the optimum level of lime and treated olive meal as maize replacement in small ruminant diets. Materials and methods: Study was carried out in two phases. In phase I, A complete diet was formulated and treated with lime at variable concentrations (0-8% at 25% of maize replacement and subjected to in vitro studies as per Tilley and Terry. On the basis of the results of this phase, a concentration of lime for olive treatment was selected and tested at variable levels of maize replacement (0-50% by treated olive cake in phase II. Data was analyzed as per the procedures suggested by Snedecor and Cochran. Results: The in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of composite diet increased from 43.95% at 0% lime treatment to 48.68% on treating with 8% lime with significant (P<0.05 increase at 6% treatment level. Lime treatment beyond 6% had no further significant effect on improving the digestibility. Graded levels of maize replacement by olive meal treated with 6% lime (lime percentage selected from phase I showed that the in vitro digestibility of mixed ration was not compromised up to 40% replacement level of maize by treated olive meal. Improved digestibility with lime treatment may be due to weakening of internal Hydrogen bonding, thereby disrupting the fiber structure in olive meal. Further lime may be saponifying the high level of fat present in olive meal, which may otherwise negatively impact the digestibility values. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the treatment with up to 6% of lime can effectively increase the digestibility of olive meal. Treated olive meal can replace up to 40% of maize from daily ration without affecting the digestibility of composite ration

  8. evaluation of the protein quality of fish meals by means of the npu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUMMARY. Four lish meals were subjected to a Netl hotetn Utilization (NPU) study of which two were then tested in broiler rations. The ... Experiment I - IlPU determin"otions on fish meals ..... for total amino acids. true protein or crude protein.

  9. Acute effects on metabolism and appetite profile of one meal difference in the lower range of meal frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Astrid J; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2008-06-01

    A gorging pattern of food intake has been shown to enhance lipogenesis and increase body weight, which may be due to large fluctuations in storage and mobilisation of nutrients. In a state of energy balance, increasing meal frequency, and thereby decreasing inter-meal interval, may prevent large metabolic fluctuations. Our aim was to study the effect of the inter-meal interval by dividing energy intake over two or three meals on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and 24 h satiety, in healthy, normal-weight women in a state of energy balance. The study was a randomised crossover design with two experimental conditions. During the two experimental conditions subjects (fourteen normal-weight women, aged 24.4 (SD 7.1) years, underwent 36 h sessions in energy balance in a respiration chamber for measurements of energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. The subjects were given two (breakfast, dinner) or three (breakfast, lunch, dinner) meals per d. We chose to omit lunch in the two meals condition, because this resulted in a marked difference in inter-meal-interval after breakfast (8.5 h v. 4 h). Eating three meals compared with two meals had no effects on 24 h energy expenditure, diet-induced thermogenesis, activity-induced energy expenditure and sleeping metabolic rate. Eating three meals compared with two meals increased 24 h fat oxidation, but decreased the amount of fat oxidised from the breakfast. The same amount of energy divided over three meals compared with over two meals increased satiety feelings over 24 h. In healthy, normal-weight women, decreasing the inter-meal interval sustains satiety, particularly during the day, and sustains fat oxidation, particularly during the night.

  10. Energy and nutrient intake and acceptability of nutritionally balanced school meals in Filipino students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Neufingerl, Nicole; Magsadia, Clarita; Hiemstra, Harry; Patalen, Chona; Eilander, Ans

    2014-09-01

    School meals provide an excellent opportunity to improve children's diet. To investigate dietary intakes and acceptance of nutritionally balanced school meals ("nutrimeals") as compared with regular ("baseline") school meals among Filipino students. The study employed a before-after intervention design with one group. Students 13 to 16 years of age from a public school in Metro Manila (n = 112) consumed baseline school meals for 2 weeks followed by consumption of nutri-meals for 7 weeks. Served meals and plate waste were weighed to calculate food and nutrient intakes. Acceptability of meals was assessed daily in a random subsample using a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of covariance corrected for age and sex was conducted to test for differences in nutrient intakes and acceptability between nutri-meals and baseline meals. Feeding nutri-meals resulted in a higher intake of vegetables (95.3 ± 13.8 g), fruit (76.5 ± 6.3 g), and fish (19.1 ± 3.3 g) than baseline meals. Energy and protein intakes significantly increased by 140.7 ± 2.8 kcal and 3.2 ± 0.1 g, respectively. The quality of fat intake improved compared with baseline meals (p 90%) liked both baseline and nutrimeals; however, the mean acceptability score for baseline meals was slightly higher (0.2 ± 0.07 points, p = .004). Nutritionally balanced nutri-meals may be a healthier and acceptable alternative to regular Filipino school meals. Further optimization of nutri-meals is required to meet the nutritional needs of adolescents and reduce sodium content.

  11. Influence on Adiposity and Atherogenic Lipaemia of Fatty Meals and Snacks in Daily Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Laguna-Camacho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work reviewed the connections of changes in consumption of high-fat food with changes in adiposity and lipaemia in adults with overweight or obesity. Hyperlipaemia from higher fat meals and excessive adiposity contributes to atherogenic process. Low-fat diet interventions decrease body fat, lipaemia, and atherosclerosis markers. Inaccuracy of physical estimates of dietary fat intake remains, however, a limit to establishing causal connections. To fill this gap, tracking fat-rich eating episodes at short intervals quantifies the behavioural frequency suggested to measure (by regression of changes in real time direct effects of this eating pattern on adiposity and atherogenic lipaemia. Such evidence will provide the basis for an approach focused on a sustained decrease in frequency of fatty meals or snacks to reduce obesity, hyperlipaemia, and atherosclerosis.

  12. Characterization and Digestibility of Detoxified Castor Oil Meal for Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PA dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT These experiments were performed to determine the chemical composition, coefficients of nutrient and energy metabolizability, amino acid composition, and cytotoxicity of different castor oil meals subjected to different detoxification processes and added to the diet of Japanese quails. In the trial, 180 46-d-old female Japanese quails were distributed according to a completely randomized design into five treatments and with replicates of six bird each. The treatments consisted of following detoxification methods of castor oil meal: Castor oil meal A (CMA - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 20 minutes and drying at 80 °C; castor oil meal B (CMB and C (CMC - recovery in alcohol at 80 °C for 6 minutes, neutralization with 5% NaOH, and drying under direct sunlight sun for two days (CMB or pelleted (CMC; castor oil meal D (CMD - recovery in alcohol at 110 °C for 15 minutes and drying at 110 °C. Castor oil meal was added replacing 20% of the reference diet. There was slight chemical composition variation (1.21% in crude protein, 6% in dry matter, 2.2% in ether extract and 64 kcal/kg in gross energy among the castor oil meals submitted to the different treatments. The castor oil meal submitted to treatment C showed the highest amino acid values. In the cytotoxicity test, treatment D presented lower ricin activity. Castor oil meals A, C, and D may be included in Japanese quail diets; however, castor oil meal D is recommended due to the simplicity its industrial process, its low toxicity, and metabolizability coefficients obtained.

  13. Incretin responses to oral glucose and mixed meal tests and changes in fasting glucose levels during 7 years of follow-up: The Hoorn Meal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutters, F.; Rauh, S. P.; Nijpels, G.; Holst, J. J.; Beulens, J. W.; Alssema, M.; Dekker, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    We conducted the first prospective observational study in which we examined the association between incretin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and mixed meal test (MMT) at baseline and changes in fasting glucose levels 7 years later, in individuals who were non-diabetic at baseline. We used data from the Hoorn Meal Study; a population-based cohort study among 121 subjects, aged 61.0±6.7y. GIP and GLP-1 responses were determined at baseline and expressed as total and incremental area under the curve (tAUC and iAUC). The association between incretin response at baseline and changes in fasting glucose levels was assessed using linear regression. The average change in glucose over 7 years was 0.43 ± 0.5 mmol/l. For GIP, no significant associations were observed with changes in fasting glucose levels. In contrast, participants within the middle and highest tertile of GLP-1 iAUC responses to OGTT had significantly smaller increases (actually decreases) in fasting glucose levels; -0.28 (95% confidence interval: -0.54;-0.01) mmol/l and -0.39 (-0.67;-0.10) mmol/l, respectively, compared to those in the lowest tertile. The same trend was observed for tAUC GLP-1 following OGTT (highest tertile: -0.32 (0.61;-0.04) mmol/l as compared to the lowest tertile). No significant associations were observed for GLP-1 responses following MMT. In conclusion, within our non-diabetic population-based cohort, a low GLP-1 response to OGTT was associated with a steeper increase in fasting glucose levels during 7 years of follow-up. This suggests that a reduced GLP-1 response precedes glucose deterioration and may play a role in the etiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:29324870

  14. Nutrient quality of fast food kids meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure of children to kids’ meals at fast food restaurants is high; however, the nutrient quality of such meals has not been systematically assessed. We assessed the nutrient quality of fast food meals marketed to young children, i.e., "kids meals". The nutrient quality of kids’ meals was assessed...

  15. Light composite mirrors for RICH detectors Production, characterisation and stability tests

    CERN Document Server

    Bellunato, T F; Calvi, M; Chignoli, F; D'Ambrosio, C; Matteuzzi, C; Musy, M; Perego, D L

    2005-01-01

    The production of lightweight composite mirror prototypes suitable for application in Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detectors is described. The goal is the use of such mirrors whenever material budget is a concern. The manufacturing technique is described in detail, together with the achieved results in terms of optical quality. Several ageing tests have been performed on some of the prototypes. The results of these tests are reported.

  16. Hot-Fire Test Results of an Oxygen/RP-2 Multi-Element Oxidizer-Rich Staged-Combustion Integrated Test Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulka, J. R.; Protz, C. S.; Garcia, C. P.; Casiano, M. J.; Parton, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    As part of the Combustion Stability Tool Development project funded by the Air Force Space and Missile Systems Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center was contracted to assemble and hot-fire test a multi-element integrated test article demonstrating combustion characteristics of an oxygen/hydrocarbon propellant oxidizer-rich staged-combustion engine thrust chamber. Such a test article simulates flow through the main injectors of oxygen/kerosene oxidizer-rich staged combustion engines such as the Russian RD-180 or NK-33 engines, or future U.S.-built engine systems such as the Aerojet-Rocketdyne AR-1 engine or the Hydrocarbon Boost program demonstration engine. For the thrust chamber assembly of the test article, several configurations of new main injectors, using relatively conventional gas-centered swirl coaxial injector elements, were designed and fabricated. The design and fabrication of these main injectors are described in a companion paper at this JANNAF meeting. New ablative combustion chambers were fabricated based on hardware previously used at NASA for testing at similar size and pressure. An existing oxygen/RP-1 oxidizer-rich subscale preburner injector from a previous NASA-funded program, along with existing and new inter-connecting hot gas duct hardware, were used to supply the oxidizer-rich combustion products to the oxidizer circuit of the main injector of the thrust chamber. Results from independent hot-fire tests of the preburner injector in a combustion chamber with a sonic throat are described in companion papers at this JANNAF conference. The resulting integrated test article - which includes the preburner, inter-connecting hot gas duct, main injector, and ablative combustion chamber - was assembled at Test Stand 116 at the East Test Area of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The test article was well instrumented with static and dynamic pressure, temperature, and acceleration sensors to allow the collected data to be used for

  17. Replacement of soybean meal with babassu meal in rations for broilers from 22 to 42 days old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Calixto da Silva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective this work was to evaluate the technical and economic viability of the substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal in rations to broiler from 22 to 42 days old. It was used 80 male broiler chicks at one day of age, distributed into complete random designs with four treatments (0, 10, 20 e 30% substituition of soybean meal by babassu meal and five repetitions of four broilers each. Were evaluated the performance (weight dain, feed intake and feed conversion, carcass and cuts, organ biometry, feed cost per kilogram body weight and gross margin. To verify the relationship of cost of replacing soybean meal with pie babassu, inequalities were established. The substitution level of soybean meal by babassu meal had no influence (P>0,05 any of the performance characteristics, wich showed the technical viability of substituting up to 30%. Similarly, there was no affect on carcass yield, cuts weight and organ biometry. The cust less with feed per kg for chicken produced and the higher gross margin were obtained from chickens fed diets with 0% babassu meal. The increased of substitution level soybean meal by babassu meal in ration for broilers from 22 to 42 days old proved unviable economically, however, the inequalities produced can be useful in practical situations.

  18. Bacterial Contamination of Hands Increases Risk of Cross-Contamination among Low-Income Puerto Rican Meal Preparers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharod, Jigna Morarji; Paciello, Stefania; Bermudez-Millan, Angela; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar; Damio, Grace; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association of microbial contamination of the meal preparer's hands with microbial status of food and kitchen/utensil surfaces during home preparation of a "Chicken and Salad" meal. Design and Setting: Observational home food safety assessment. Before starting meal preparation, participants' hands were tested to…

  19. Socioeconomic status, youth's eating patterns and meals consumed away from home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, N; Mazloom, Z

    2009-05-01

    This study was design to determine whether there is a difference in the number of meals consumed away from home (restaurant or fast food) between low socioeconomic status (SES) and high SES adolescents. Additionally, this study sought to determine if the nutrients and food group chosen differs among children who consume meals away from home versus those who do not. Eighty four adolescences (51 boys and 33 girls) ages 12-16 years and their parents from Shiraz, Iran completed the three 24 h diet recalls (one weekend and two week days). The demographics questionnaire was also completed from each participant. Data analyzed using SPSS and hypothesis tested using one way ANOVA. There was no significant difference in the number of meals consumed away from home in low SES adolescents compared to high SES (p = 0.464). However, those who consumed meals away from home reported a higher percentage of calories from fat (p = 0.007) and serving of fried vegetables (p = 0.010) compared to those who consumed no meals away from home. These findings suggest that intervention for adolescents eating patterns should provide information on choosing healthy meals away from home.

  20. Parameters of Concrete Modified with Glass Meal and Chalcedonite Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwa, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Additives used for production of concrete mixtures affect the rheological properties and parameters of hardened concrete, including compressive strength, water resistance, durability and shrinkage of hardened concrete. By their application, the use of cement and production costs may be reduced. The scheduled program of laboratory tests included preparation of six batches of concrete mixtures with addition of glass meal and / or chalcedonite dust. Mineral dust is a waste product obtained from crushed aggregate mining, with grain size below 0,063μm. The main ingredient of chalcedonite dust is silica. Glass meal used in the study is a material with very fine grain size, less than 65μm. This particle size is present in 60% - 90% of the sample. Additives were used to replace cement in concrete mixes in an amount of 15% and 25%. The amount of aggregate was left unchanged. The study used Portland cement CEM I 42.5R. Concrete mixes were prepared with a constant rate w / s = 0.4. The aim of the study was to identify the effect of the addition of chalcedonite dust and / or glass meal on the parameters of hardened concrete, i.e. compressive strength, water absorption and capillarity. Additives used in the laboratory tests significantly affect the compressive strength. The largest decrease in compressive strength of concrete samples was recorded for samples with 50% substitutes of cement additives. This decrease is 34.35%. The smallest decrease in compressive strength was noted in concrete with the addition of 15% of chalcedonite dust or 15% glass meal, it amounts to an average of 15%. The study of absorption shows that all concrete with the addition of chalcedonite dust and glass meal gained a percentage weight increase between 2.7 ÷ 3.1% for the test batches. This is a very good result, which is probably due to grout sealing. In capillary action for the test batches, the percentage weight gains of samples ranges from 4.6% to 5.1%. However, the reference concrete obtained

  1. Teachers' interaction with children in the school meal situation: the example of pedagogic meals in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson Osowski, Christine; Göranzon, Helen; Fjellström, Christina

    2013-01-01

    School meals are also a teaching occasion in which children learn about food and meals, which is referred to as "pedagogic meals" in Sweden. The aim of the present article was to study how the pedagogic meal is practiced in preschool and school settings, with focus on how teachers acted when interacting with the children. Observations, interviews, and focus group interviews. School canteens. Three schools. Teaching in the school meal situation. Social constructionism, new social studies of childhood. The teachers took on 3 different roles. The sociable teacher role entailed turning the school lunch into a social occasion, the educating teacher role involved educating the children, and the evasive teacher role was not associated with the definition of a pedagogic meal. The teacher roles, which ranged from adult-oriented to child-oriented, and which varied in the level of interaction with the children, were summarized in a framework named the Adult- to Child-oriented Teacher Role Framework for School Meals (ACTS). To realize the potential of pedagogic meals, teachers must be educated and become aware of the effects of their behaviors. In this situation, the ACTS framework can constitute a useful tool. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Gastric emptying of a physiologic mixed solid-liquid meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R.S.; Malmud, L.S.; Bandini, P.; Rock, E.

    1982-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to use a noninvasive scintigraphic technique to measure gastric emptying of liquids and solids simultaneously, to study the interactions between emptying of the liquid and solid components of meals in normal subjects, and to employ dual isotope gastric scintigraphy to evaluate gastric emptying of liquids and solids in patients with clinical evidence of gastric outlet obstruction. The solid component of the test meal consisted of chicken liver, labeled in vivo with /sup 99m/Tc sulfur colloid, and the liquid component was water mixed with /sup 111/In DTPA. The rates of emptying were quantitated using a gamma camera on line to a digital computer. Twenty normal subjects were studied using this combined solid-liquid meal. Ten of them also ingested a liquid meal alone and ten a solid meal alone. Liquid emptied from the stomach significantly more rapidly than did solids. The emptying curve for liquids was exponential compared to a linear emptying curve for solids. The gastric emptying rate of the liquid component was slowed significantly by simultaneous ingestion of solids, but the emptying rate of solids was not affected by liquids. Several patients with clinical gastric outlet obstruction were evaluated. Both combined and selective abnormalities for gastric emptying of liquids and solids were demonstrated.

  3. A High-Fat Meal, or Intraperitoneal Administration of a Fat Emulsion, Increases Extracellular Dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartley G. Hoebel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Evidence links dopamine (DA in the nucleus accumbens (NAc shell to the ingestion of palatable diets. Less is known, however, about the specific relation of DA to dietary fat and circulating triglycerides (TG, which are stimulated by fat intake and promote overeating. The present experiments tested in Sprague-Dawley rats whether extracellular levels of NAc DA increase in response to acute access to fat-rich food or peripheral injection of a fat emulsion and, if so, whether this is related to caloric intake or elevated circulating lipids. When rats consumed more calories of a high-fat meal compared with a low-fat meal, there was a significant increase in extracellular accumbens DA (155% vs. 119%. Systemic injection of a fat emulsion, which like a high-fat diet raises circulating TG but eliminates the factor of taste and allows for the control of caloric intake, also significantly increased extracellular levels of DA (127% compared to an equicaloric glucose solution (70% and saline (85%. Together, this suggests that a rise in circulating TG may contribute to the stimulatory effect of a high-fat diet on NAc DA.

  4. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A.C.; Ostman, E.M.; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose...... tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1...... based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P

  5. Management of Sodium-reduced Meals at Worksite Cafeterias: Perceptions, Practices, Barriers, and Needs among Food Service Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jounghee; Park, Sohyun

    2016-04-01

    The sodium content of meals provided at worksite cafeterias is greater than the sodium content of restaurant meals and home meals. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between sodium-reduction practices, barriers, and perceptions among food service personnel. We implemented a cross-sectional study by collecting data on perceptions, practices, barriers, and needs regarding sodium-reduced meals at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We implemented Chi-square tests and analysis of variance for statistical analysis. For post hoc testing, we used Bonferroni tests; when variances were unequal, we used Dunnett T3 tests. This study involved 104 individuals employed at the worksite cafeterias, comprised of 35 men and 69 women. Most of the participants had relatively high levels of perception regarding the importance of sodium reduction (very important, 51.0%; moderately important, 27.9%). Sodium reduction practices were higher, but perceived barriers appeared to be lower in participants with high-level perception of sodium-reduced meal provision. The results of the needs assessment revealed that the participants wanted to have more active education programs targeting the general population. The biggest barriers to providing sodium-reduced meals were use of processed foods and limited methods of sodium-reduced cooking in worksite cafeterias. To make the provision of sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias more successful and sustainable, we suggest implementing more active education programs targeting the general population, developing sodium-reduced cooking methods, and developing sodium-reduced processed foods.

  6. Analisa Meal Experience Dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Minat Beli Ulang Di Restoran Jepang Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Nathania, Clairine; Tjandra, Catherine; Kristanti, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisa perbedaan meal experience yang dialami oleh konsumen dari gender dan kelompok usia yang berbeda, serta apakah meal experience memiliki pengaruh terhadap minat beli ulang di Restoran Jepang di Surabaya. Meal experience terdiri dari aspek makanan, minuman, pelayanan, kebersihan dan higienitas, suasana, serta harga dan nilai uang. Teknik analisa yang digunakan adalah deskriptif kuantitatif, One Way Anova, Independent Sample t-Test, serta regresi linier ...

  7. THE EFFECT OF EXPIRED BREAD MEAL AS CORN SUBSTITUTION IN DIET ON BROILER PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kismiati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the expired bread meal used as corn substitution in thebroiler diets to optimally the product performance. One hundred day old chick (DOC male broilerswere given the same diet until 2 weeks old, and then given the treatment diet until 7 weeks of age. ACompletely Randomized Design was used in this study. Data were analyzed by variance of analysis, andfollowed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test The treatments were : T0 = control feed (without expiredbread meal, T1 = corn substituted with 10% expired bread meal, T2 = corn substituted with 20%expired bread meal, T3 = corn substituted with 30% expired bread meal and T4 = corn substituted with40% expired bread meal. The result indicated that corn substituted with expired bread meal up to 40%has not significantly affected on carcass weight, carcass percentage and feed conversion, but decreasedsignificantly on feed consumption and body weight gain. It can be concluded that the use of expiredbread meal 30% of the proportion of corn produced the most optimal broiler performance. Thesubstitution corn with expired bread meal 40% was decreased body weight gain.

  8. Healthy meals on the menu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thunström, Linda; Nordström, Leif Jonas; Shogren, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Menu labelling of meals prepared away from home is a policy designed to help consumers make healthier food choices. In this paper we use a field experiment in Sweden to examine if a restaurant benefits from introducing a meal labelled as healthy on its menu by experiencing an overall increase...... in sales. We cannot reject the hypothesis that sales are the same before and after the introduction of a meal labelled as healthy on the menu, i.e. our data does not support the idea that restaurants increase their sales from supplying a meal labelled as healthy....

  9. Does point-of-purchase nutrition labeling influence meal selections? A test in an Army cafeteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sproul, Allen D; Canter, Deborah D; Schmidt, Jeffrey B

    2003-07-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of nutrition labeling on sales of targeted entrees and measured the perceived influence that factors such as taste, quality, appearance, fat content, calorie content, and price had on meal selection behavior within an Army cafeteria. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare targeted entrée sales between a 1-year baseline period and two 30-day postintervention periods, after the placement of entrée nutrition labels. A brief questionnaire, distributed to 149 patrons, measured the perceived influence of the aforementioned factors on selections. Analysis of variance detected no significant differences in sales between baseline and the two intervention periods; the factors of taste and quality were rated most influential to meal selection (p < 0.000). A marketing campaign focusing on the health attributes of targeted entrée items was not successful in boosting sales. Sensory attributes (i.e., taste, quality, and appearance) appear to be more influential to meal selection.

  10. Impossible meals? The food and meal situation of flight attendants in Scandinavia - A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Maria; Lennernäs Wiklund, Maria

    2017-06-01

    The working conditions of flight attendants (FAs) often involve extended and irregular working hours, short rest periods, difficulties in planning for breaks and high demands of service provision. Moreover, work schedules including early check-in, shifts during circadian low and time-zone transitions imply constant exposure to alterations in circadian systems and related health risks. The aim of this explorative study was to investigate how the organisation of work, time and place influence the food and meal situation of FAs when at work, focusing on patterns, form and social context of meals. The research questions posed were how food and meals at work were characterised and perceived among the FAs, and what strategies were adopted to manage the food and meal situation. Qualitative, semi-structured interviews were conducted with fourteen FAs working in Scandinavia. The results indicated that the organisation of work, time and place have a major influence on the meal situation at work, and how food and meals are perceived and managed by FAs. The work was defined as fragmented and inconsistent regarding time and place resulting in scattered meals and a more snack-based form of eating. The meal situation was characterised by irregularity as well as unpredictability. Eating took place when food was available and when there was enough time to eat, rather than being guided by hunger or social context. Various strategies such as eating in prevention, using emergency food, avoiding certain food and drinks or eating little or nothing at all were used to manage the unpredictability of the meal situation as well as the gap between organisational and individual times. The findings demonstrated the individual responsibility to solve the meal at work, e.g. to solve organisational times. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Pharyngeal swallowing and oesophageal motility during a solid meal test: a prospective study in healthy volunteers and patients with major motility disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenstein, Michael; Thwaites, Philip; Bütikofer, Simon; Heinrich, Henriette; Sauter, Matthias; Ulmer, Irina; Pohl, Daniel; Ang, Daphne; Eberli, Daniel; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael; Distler, Oliver; Fox, Mark; Misselwitz, Benjamin

    2017-09-01

    The factors that determine how people eat when they are healthy or have disease have not been defined. We used high resolution manometry (HRM) to assess pharyngeal swallowing and oesophageal motility during ingestion of a solid test meal (STM) in healthy volunteers and patients with motility disorders. This study was based at University Hospital Zurich (Zürich, Switzerland). Healthy volunteers who responded to an advertisement completed HRM with ten single water swallows (SWS) in recumbent and upright positions followed by a 200 g rice STM in the upright position. Healthy volunteers were stratified for age and sex to ensure a representative population. For comparison, consecutive patients with major motility disorders on SWS and patients with dysphagia but no major motility disorders on SWS (disease controls) were selected from a database that was assembled prospectively; the rice meal data were analysed retrospectively. During STM, pharyngeal swallows were timed and oesophageal contractions were classified as representing normal motility or different types of abnormal motility in accordance with established metrics. Factors that could potentially be associated with eating speed were investigated, including age, sex, body-mass index, and presence of motility disorder. We compared diagnoses based on SWS findings, assessed with the Chicago Classification v3.0, with those based on STM findings, assessed with the Chicago Classification adapted for solids. These studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT02407938 and NCT02397616. Between April 2, 2014, and May 13, 2015, 72 healthy volunteers were recruited and underwent HRM. Additionally, we analysed data from 54 consecutive patients with major motility disorders and 53 with dysphagia but no major motility disorders recruited between April 2, 2013, and Dec 18, 2014. We found important variations in oesophageal motility and eating speed during meal ingestion in healthy volunteers and patients. Increased

  12. Influence on Adiposity and Atherogenic Lipaemia of Fatty Meals and Snacks in Daily Life

    OpenAIRE

    Laguna-Camacho, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The present work reviewed the connections of changes in consumption of high-fat food with changes in adiposity and lipaemia in adults with overweight or obesity. Hyperlipaemia from higher fat meals and excessive adiposity contributes to atherogenic process. Low-fat diet interventions decrease body fat, lipaemia, and atherosclerosis markers. Inaccuracy of physical estimates of dietary fat intake remains, however, a limit to establishing causal connections. To fill this gap, tracking fat-rich e...

  13. Mind over platter: pre-meal planning and the control of meal size in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, J M

    2014-07-01

    It is widely accepted that meal size is governed by psychological and physiological processes that generate fullness towards the end of a meal. However, observations of natural eating behaviour suggest that this preoccupation with within-meal events may be misplaced and that the role of immediate post-ingestive feedback (for example, gastric stretch) has been overstated. This review considers the proposition that the locus of control is more likely to be expressed in decisions about portion size, before a meal begins. Consistent with this idea, we have discovered that people are extremely adept at estimating the 'expected satiety' and 'expected satiation' of different foods. These expectations are learned over time and they are highly correlated with the number of calories that end up on our plate. Indeed, across a range of foods, the large variation in expected satiety/satiation may be a more important determinant of meal size than relatively subtle differences in palatability. Building on related advances, it would also appear that memory for portion size has an important role in generating satiety after a meal has been consumed. Together, these findings expose the importance of planning and episodic memory in the control of appetite and food intake in humans.

  14. Colorimetric determination of alkaline phosphatase as indicator of mammalian feces in corn meal: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, H

    1986-01-01

    In the official method for rodent filth in corn meal, filth and corn meal are separated in organic solvents, and particles are identified by the presence of hair and a mucous coating. The solvents are toxic, poor separation yields low recoveries, and fecal characteristics are rarely present on all fragments, especially on small particles. The official AOAC alkaline phosphatase test for mammalian feces, 44.181-44.184, has therefore been adapted to determine the presence of mammalian feces in corn meal. The enzyme cleaves phosphate radicals from a test indicator/substrate, phenolphthalein diphosphate. As free phenolphthalein accumulates, a pink-to-red color develops in the gelled test agar medium. In a collaborative study conducted to compare the proposed method with the official method for corn meal, 44.049, the proposed method yielded 45.5% higher recoveries than the official method. Repeatability and reproducibility for the official method were roughly 1.8 times more variable than for the proposed method. The method has been adopted official first action.

  15. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutrient flow, and performance in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion-treated canola meal (TCM) was produced in an attempt to increase the rumen undegradable protein (RUP) fraction of canola meal (CM). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with CM or TCM on ruminal digestion, fermentation pattern, omasal nutr...

  16. Differential effects of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammation after a single high fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herzig Karl-Heinz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Chronic low-grade inflammation is associated with the pathophysiology of both type-2 diabetes and atherosclerosis. Prevention or reduction of chronic low-grade inflammation may be advantageous in relation to obesity related co-morbidity. In this study we investigated the acute effect of dietary protein sources on postprandial low-grade inflammatory markers after a high-fat meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Methods We conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study in a crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins - cod protein, whey isolate, gluten or casein. 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, BMI: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2 participated and blood samples were drawn in the 4 h postprandial period. Adiponectin was estimated by ELISA methods and cytokines were analyzed by multiplex assay. Results MCP-1 and CCL5/RANTES displayed significant postprandial dynamics. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals, but overall CCL5/RANTES incremental area under the curve (iAUC was significantly lower after the whey meal compared with the cod and casein meals (P = 0.0053. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all protein meals. However, the iAUC was significantly higher after whey meal compared to the cod and gluten meals (P = 0.04. Conclusion We have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial low grade inflammation of four dietary proteins in obese non-diabetic subjects. CCL5/RANTES initially increased after all meals but the smallest overall postprandial increase was observed after the whey meal. MCP-1 was initially suppressed after all 4 protein meals and the whey meal caused the smallest overall postprandial suppression. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00863564

  17. Gastric emptying, glucose responses, and insulin secretion after a liquid test meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willms, B; Werner, J; Holst, J J

    1996-01-01

    yr; body mass index, 30.0 +/- 5.2 kg/m2; hemoglobin A1c, 10.5 +/- 1.2%) were studied in the fasting state (plasma glucose, 11.1 +/- 1.1 mmol/L). A liquid meal of 400 mL containing 8% amino acids and 50 g sucrose (327 Kcal) was administered at time zero by a nasogastric tube. Gastric volume......The aim of the study was to investigate whether inhibition of gastric emptying of meals plays a role in the mechanism of the blood glucose-lowering action of glucagon-like peptide-1-(7-36) amide [GLP-1-(7-36) amide] in type 2 diabetes. Eight poorly controlled type 2 diabetic patients (age, 58 +/- 6...... to normal fasting values (5.4 +/- 0.7 mmol/L) within 3-4 h, whereas insulin was stimulated in most, but not all, patients, and glucagon remained at the basal level or was slightly suppressed. In conclusion, GLP-1-(7-36) amide inhibits gastric emptying in type 2 diabetic patients. Together...

  18. Lack of effect of high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meal intake on stress-related mood and eating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmens Sofie G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of meals with different macronutrients, especially high in carbohydrates, may influence stress-related eating behavior. We aimed to investigate whether consumption of high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meals influences stress-related mood, food reward, i.e. 'liking' and 'wanting', and post-meal energy intake. Methods Participants (n = 38, 19m/19f, age = 25 ± 9 y, BMI = 25.0 ± 3.3 kg/m2 came to the university four times, fasted, once for a stress session receiving a high-protein meal, once for a rest session receiving a high-protein meal, once for a stress session receiving a high-carbohydrate meal and once for a rest session receiving a high-carbohydrate meal (randomized cross-over design. The high-protein and high-carbohydrate test meals (energy percentage protein/carbohydrate/fat 65/5/30 vs. 6/64/30 matched for energy density (4 kJ/g and daily energy requirements (30%. Stress was induced using an ego-threatening test. Pre- and post-meal 'liking' and 'wanting' (for bread, filling, drinks, dessert, snacks, stationery (non-food alternative as control was measured by means of a computer test. Following the post-meal 'wanting' measurement, participants received and consumed their wanted food items (post-meal energy intake. Appetite profile (visual analogue scales, mood state (Profile Of Mood State and State Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires, and post-meal energy intake were measured. Results Participants showed increased feelings of depression and anxiety during stress (P Conclusions Consumption of a high-protein vs. high-carbohydrate meal appears to have limited impact on stress-related eating behavior. Only participants with high disinhibition showed decreased subsequent 'wanting' and energy intake during rest; this effect disappeared under stress. Acute stress overruled effects of consumption of high-protein foods. Trial registration The study was registered in the Dutch Trial Register (NTR1904. The

  19. Effect of replacing fish meal with maggot meal on growth nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One hundred and twenty (120) 4-week old finisher broilers of Ross breed were used to study the effect of feeding maggot meal replacing fish meal on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass and organ characteristics. The birds were divided into 5 treatment groups identified as T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5 with 24 birds in ...

  20. Next generation sequencing for gut microbiome characterization in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed animal by-product meals as an alternative to fishmeal protein sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Simona; Terova, Genciana; Ascione, Chiara; Giannico, Riccardo; Brambilla, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    Animal by-product meals from the rendering industry could provide a sustainable and commercially viable alternative to fishmeal (FM) in aquaculture, as they are rich in most essential amino acids and contain important amounts of water-soluble proteins that improve feed digestibility and palatability. Among them, poultry by-product meal (PBM) have given encouraging results in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). However, the introduction of new ingredients in the diet needs to be carefully evaluated since diet is one of the main factors affecting the gut microbiota, which is a complex community that contributes to host metabolism, nutrition, growth, and disease resistance. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of partial replacement of dietary FM with a mix of animal by-product meals and plant proteins on intestinal microbiota composition of rainbow trout in relation to growth and feeding efficiency parameters. We used 1540 trout with an initial mean body weight of 94.6 ± 14.2 g. Fish were fed for 12 weeks with 7 different feed formulations. The growth data showed that trout fed on diets rich in animal by-product meals grew as well as fish fed on control diet, which was rich in FM (37.3%) and PBM-free. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (MiSeq platform, Illumina) was utilised to study the gut microbial community profile. After discarding Cyanobacteria (class Chloroplast) and mitochondria reads a total of 2,701,274 of reads taxonomically classified, corresponding to a mean of 96,474 ± 68,056 reads per sample, were obtained. Five thousand three hundred ninety-nine operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, which predominantly mapped to the phyla of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The ratio between vegetable and animal proteins proved to play a central role in determining microbiome profiles and Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla were particularly discriminatory for diet type in trout. Plant ingredients

  1. Next generation sequencing for gut microbiome characterization in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed animal by-product meals as an alternative to fishmeal protein sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimoldi, Simona; Ascione, Chiara; Giannico, Riccardo; Brambilla, Fabio

    2018-01-01

    Animal by-product meals from the rendering industry could provide a sustainable and commercially viable alternative to fishmeal (FM) in aquaculture, as they are rich in most essential amino acids and contain important amounts of water-soluble proteins that improve feed digestibility and palatability. Among them, poultry by-product meal (PBM) have given encouraging results in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). However, the introduction of new ingredients in the diet needs to be carefully evaluated since diet is one of the main factors affecting the gut microbiota, which is a complex community that contributes to host metabolism, nutrition, growth, and disease resistance. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of partial replacement of dietary FM with a mix of animal by-product meals and plant proteins on intestinal microbiota composition of rainbow trout in relation to growth and feeding efficiency parameters. We used 1540 trout with an initial mean body weight of 94.6 ± 14.2 g. Fish were fed for 12 weeks with 7 different feed formulations. The growth data showed that trout fed on diets rich in animal by-product meals grew as well as fish fed on control diet, which was rich in FM (37.3%) and PBM-free. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (MiSeq platform, Illumina) was utilised to study the gut microbial community profile. After discarding Cyanobacteria (class Chloroplast) and mitochondria reads a total of 2,701,274 of reads taxonomically classified, corresponding to a mean of 96,474 ± 68,056 reads per sample, were obtained. Five thousand three hundred ninety-nine operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, which predominantly mapped to the phyla of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The ratio between vegetable and animal proteins proved to play a central role in determining microbiome profiles and Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla were particularly discriminatory for diet type in trout. Plant ingredients

  2. Next generation sequencing for gut microbiome characterization in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss fed animal by-product meals as an alternative to fishmeal protein sources.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Rimoldi

    Full Text Available Animal by-product meals from the rendering industry could provide a sustainable and commercially viable alternative to fishmeal (FM in aquaculture, as they are rich in most essential amino acids and contain important amounts of water-soluble proteins that improve feed digestibility and palatability. Among them, poultry by-product meal (PBM have given encouraging results in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. However, the introduction of new ingredients in the diet needs to be carefully evaluated since diet is one of the main factors affecting the gut microbiota, which is a complex community that contributes to host metabolism, nutrition, growth, and disease resistance. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of partial replacement of dietary FM with a mix of animal by-product meals and plant proteins on intestinal microbiota composition of rainbow trout in relation to growth and feeding efficiency parameters. We used 1540 trout with an initial mean body weight of 94.6 ± 14.2 g. Fish were fed for 12 weeks with 7 different feed formulations. The growth data showed that trout fed on diets rich in animal by-product meals grew as well as fish fed on control diet, which was rich in FM (37.3% and PBM-free. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (MiSeq platform, Illumina was utilised to study the gut microbial community profile. After discarding Cyanobacteria (class Chloroplast and mitochondria reads a total of 2,701,274 of reads taxonomically classified, corresponding to a mean of 96,474 ± 68,056 reads per sample, were obtained. Five thousand three hundred ninety-nine operational taxonomic units (OTUs were identified, which predominantly mapped to the phyla of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria. The ratio between vegetable and animal proteins proved to play a central role in determining microbiome profiles and Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla were particularly discriminatory for diet type in trout. Plant

  3. Irradiation of prepared meals for microbiological safety and shelf life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, K.; Adu-Gyamfi, A.; Apea Bah, F.

    2009-01-01

    Fourteen international ready meals prepared under the approved hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) plan and two Ghanaian ready meals, waakye (co-boiled rice and cowpeas served with gravy, minimally processed vegetable salad, hydrated gari, fried fish and macaroni) and jollof rice (rice cooked in tomato sauce and served with gravy and beef tripe), were investigated with the view to enhancing microbiological safety and extending shelf life under chilled conditions. The microbiological count of the complete waakye meal exceeded the microbiological standard. The microbiological counts on meals prepared under the HACCP plan and the jollof rice meals were within the microbiological standards. The D 10 values for potential pathogens on waakye were 0.271 kGy for Escherichia coli, 0.325 kGy for Salmonella aureus and 0.440 kGy for Salmonella spp. while the D 10 values on jollof rice meal were 0.173 kGy, 0.260 kGy and 0.285 kGy, respectively. Challenge tests with the pathogens on one of the HACCP meals (poached chicken) or jollof rice suggested that the 3 kGy dose was sufficient for the elimination of the pathogens to ensure the microbiological safety of the meals and extended their shelf life under chilled storage for 28 days without significant effects on their sensory quality. Doses of 1 and 2 kGy did not affect the sensory quality of the rice and chicken/gravy but boiled carrots were unable to withstand a dose of more than 1 kGy. (author)

  4. Effects of whole grain rye crisp bread for breakfast on appetite and energy intake in a subsequent meal: two randomised controlled trails with different amounts of test foods and breakfast energy content

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Tina; Åman, Per; Landberg, Rikard

    2014-01-01

    Background Fibre-rich rye products have been shown to have superior effects on self-reported appetite compared to white wheat bread and some studies have shown lower energy intake after subsequent meal. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of whole grain rye crisp bread (RB) versus refined wheat bread (WB) on appetite in two studies using different portion sizes and total energy intakes. Methods Two randomised cross-over pre-load studies were conducted in 20 and 21 subject...

  5. Sildenafil delays the intestinal transit of a liquid meal in awake rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R.V Graça

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sildenafil slows down the gastric emptying of a liquid test meal in awake rats and inhibits the contractility of intestinal tissue strips. We studied the acute effects of sildenafil on in vivo intestinal transit in rats. Fasted, male albino rats (180-220 g, N = 44 were treated (0.2 mL, iv with sildenafil (4 mg/kg or vehicle (0.01 N HCl. Ten minutes later they were fed a liquid test meal (99m technetium-labeled saline injected directly into the duodenum. Twenty, 30 or 40 min after feeding, the rats were killed and transit throughout the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated by progression of the radiotracer using the geometric center method. The effect of sildenafil on mean arterial pressure (MAP was monitored in a separate group of rats (N = 14. Data (medians within interquartile ranges were compared by the Mann-Whitney U-test. The location of the geometric center was significantly more distal in vehicle-treated than in sildenafil-treated rats at 20, 30, and 40 min after test meal instillation (3.3 (3.0-3.6 vs 2.9 (2.7-3.1; 3.8 (3.4-4.0 vs 2.9 (2.5-3.1, and 4.3 (3.9-4.5 vs 3.4 (3.2-3.7, respectively; P < 0.05. MAP was unchanged in vehicle-treated rats but decreased by 25% (P < 0.05 within 10 min after sildenafil injection. In conclusion, besides transiently decreasing MAP, sildenafil delays the intestinal transit of a liquid test meal in awake rats.

  6. Hartmann test of the COMPASS RICH-1 optical telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Polak, J; Alekseev, M; Angerer, H; Apollonio, M; Birsa, R; Bordalo, P; Bradamante, F; Bressan, A; Busso, L; Chiosso, V M; Ciliberti, P; Colantoni, M L; Costa, S; Dibiase, N; Dafni, T; Dalla Torre, S; Diaz, V; Duic, V; Delagnes, E; Deschamps, H; Eyrich, W; Faso, D; Ferrero, A; Finger, M; Finger, M Jr; Fischer, H; Gerassimov, S; Giorgi, M; Gobbo, B; Hagemann, R; von Harrach, D; Heinsius, F H; Joosten, R; Ketzer, B; Königsmann, K; Kolosov, V N; Konorov, I; Kramer, D; Kunne, F; Levorato, S; Maggiora, A; Magnon, A; Mann, A; Martin, A; Rebourgeard, P; Mutter, A; Nähle, O; Neyret, D; Nerling, F; Pagano, P; Paul, S; Panebianco, S; Panzieri, D; Pesaro, G; Pizzolotto, C; Menon, G; Rocco, E; Robinet, F; Schiavon, P; Schill, C; Schoenmeier, P; Silva, L; Slunecka, M; Steiger, L; Sozzi, F; Sulc, M; Svec, M; Tessarotto, F; Teufel, A; Wollny, H

    2008-01-01

    The central region of COMPASS RICH-1 has been equipped with a new photon detection system based on MultiAnode PhotoMultiplier Tubes (MAPMT). The Cherenkov photons are focused by an array of 576 fused silica telescopes onto 576 MAPMTs. The quality and positioning of all optical components have been tested by Hartmann method. The validation procedures are described. The quality of the optical concentrators was checked and alignment corrections were made. The upgraded detector showed excellent performances during 2006 data taking.

  7. Parenting Style and Family Meals: Cross-Sectional and 5-year Longitudinal Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Background Research on family meals in the last decade has shown a positive association between family meal frequency and adolescent healthy dietary intake. However, less is known about factors within the home environment, such as parenting style, which may be associated with family meal patterns. Objective The purpose of this study is to test cross-sectional and five-year longitudinal associations between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, neglectful) and the frequency of family meals among adolescents. Study Design Data were from Project EAT (Eating Among Teens), a population-based study comprised of youth from diverse ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Two cohorts of adolescents (middle school, high school) completed in-class surveys in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean frequency of family meals at Time 1 and Time 2 from adolescent report of parenting style (both mother and father) at Time 1. Cross-sectional analyses included both adolescent cohorts (n = 4,746) and longitudinal analyses included only the younger cohort (n = 806) because family meal frequency was not assessed in the older cohort at Time 2. Results Cross-sectional results for adolescent girls indicated a positive association between maternal and paternal authoritative parenting style and frequency of family meals. For adolescent boys, maternal authoritative parenting style was associated with more frequent family meals. Longitudinal results indicated that authoritative parenting style predicted higher frequency of family meals five years later, but only between opposite sex parent/adolescent dyads. Conclusions Future research should identify additional factors within the home environment that are associated with family meal frequency in order to develop effective interventions that result in increased family meals for youth. Also, future research should investigate the mealtime behaviors

  8. Parenting style and family meals: cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Larson, Nicole; Story, Mary

    2010-07-01

    Research on family meals in the past decade has shown a positive association between family meal frequency and adolescent healthy dietary intake. However, less is known about factors within the home environment, such as parenting style, that may be associated with family meal patterns. The purpose of this study is to test cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations between parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and neglectful) and the frequency of family meals among adolescents. Data were from Project Eating Among Teens, a population-based study comprised of youth from diverse ethnic/racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. Two cohorts of adolescents (middle school and high school) completed in-class surveys in 1999 (Time 1) and mailed surveys in 2004 (Time 2). Multiple linear regression models were used to predict mean frequency of family meals at Time 1 and Time 2 from adolescent report of parenting style (both mother and father) at Time 1. Cross-sectional analyses included both adolescent cohorts (n=4,746) and longitudinal analyses included only the younger cohort (n=806) because family meal frequency was not assessed in the older cohort at Time 2. Cross-sectional results for adolescent girls indicated a positive association between maternal and paternal authoritative parenting style and frequency of family meals. For adolescent boys, maternal authoritative parenting style was associated with more frequent family meals. Longitudinal results indicated that authoritative parenting style predicted higher frequency of family meals 5 years later, but only between opposite sex parent/adolescent dyads. Future research should identify additional factors within the home environment that are associated with family meal frequency to develop effective interventions that result in increased family meals for youth. Also, future research should investigate the mealtime behaviors of authoritative parents and identify specific behaviors that dietetics

  9. Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Sadie B; Wright, Jonathan C

    2010-07-02

    Empirical evidence has shown that rising obesity rates closely parallel the increased consumption of processed foods (PF) consumption in USA. Differences in postprandial thermogenic responses to a whole-food (WF) meal vs. a PF meal may be a key factor in explaining obesity trends, but currently there is limited research exploring this potential link. The goal was to determine if a particular PF meal has a greater thermodynamic efficiency than a comparable WF meal, thereby conferring a greater net-energy intake. Subjective satiation scores and postprandial energy expenditure were measured for 5-6 h after isoenergetic meals were ingested. The meals were either 'whole' or 'processed' cheese sandwiches; multi-grain bread and cheddar cheese were deemed whole, while white bread and processed cheese product were considered processed. Meals were comparable in terms of protein (15-20%), carbohydrate (40-50%), and fat (33-39%) composition. Subjects were healthy women (n=12) and men (n=5) studied in a crossover design. There were no significant differences in satiety ratings after the two meals. Average energy expenditure for the WF meal (137+/-14.1 kcal, 19.9% of meal energy) was significantly larger than for the PF meal (73.1+/-10.2 kcal, 10.7% of meal energy). Ingestion of the particular PF meal tested in this study decreases postprandial energy expenditure by nearly 50% compared with the isoenergetic WF meal. This reduction in daily energy expenditure has potential implications for diets comprised heavily of PFs and their associations with obesity.

  10. Yarrowia lipolytica Lipase 2 Is Stable and Highly Active in Test Meals and Increases Fat Absorption in an Animal Model of Pancreatic Exocrine Insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloulou, Ahmed; Schué, Mathieu; Puccinelli, Delphine; Milano, Stéphane; Delchambre, Chantal; Leblond, Yves; Laugier, René; Carrière, Frédéric

    2015-12-01

    Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) reduces pancreatic secretion of digestive enzymes, including lipases. Oral pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) with pancreatin produces unsatisfactory results. The lipase 2 produced by the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica (YLLIP2; GenBank: AJ012632) might be used in PERT. We investigated its ability to digest triglycerides in a test meal and its efficacy in reducing fecal fat in an animal model of PEI. YLLIP2 was produced by genetically engineered Y lipolytica and purified from culture media. YLLIP2 or other gastric (LIPF) and pancreatic (PNLIPD) lipases were added to a meal paste containing dietary triglycerides, at a range of pH values (pH 2-7), with and without pepsin or human bile and incubated at 37°C. We collected samples at various time points and measured lipase activities and stabilities. To create an animal model of PEI, steatorrhea was induced by embolization of the exocrine pancreas gland and pancreatic duct ligation in minipigs. The animals were given YLLIP2 (1, 4, 8, 40, or 80 mg/d) or pancreatin (100,000 US Pharmacopeia lipase units/d, controls) for 9 days. We then collected stool samples, measured fat levels, and calculated coefficient of fat absorption (CFA) values. YLLIP2 was highly stable and poorly degraded by pepsin, and had the highest activity of all lipases tested on meal triglyceride at pH 4-7 (pH 6 with bile: 94 ± 34 U/mg; pH 4 without bile: 43 ± 13 U/mg). Only gastric lipase was active and stable at pH 3, whereas YLLIP2 was sensitive to pepsin hydrolysis after pH inactivation. From in vitro test meal experiments, the lipase activity of YLLIP2 (10 mg) was estimated to be equivalent to that of pancreatin (1200 mg; 100,000 US Pharmacopeia units) at pH 6. In PEI minipigs, CFA values increased from 60.1% ± 9.3% before surgery to 90.5% ± 3.2% after administration of 1200 mg pancreatin (P meal triglycerides in a large pH range, with and without bile. Oral administration of milligram amounts of

  11. The effects of Nordic school meals on concentration and school performance in 8- to 11-year-old children in the OPUS School Meal Study: a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Louise B; Dyssegaard, Camilla B; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Petersen, Rikke A; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Hjorth, Mads F; Andersen, Rikke; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Astrup, Arne; Lauritzen, Lotte; Michaelsen, Kim F; Egelund, Niels

    2015-04-28

    It is widely assumed that nutrition can improve school performance in children; however, evidence remains limited and inconclusive. In the present study, we investigated whether serving healthy school meals influenced concentration and school performance of 8- to 11-year-old Danish children. The OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised, controlled, cross-over trial comparing a healthy school meal programme with the usual packed lunch from home (control) each for 3 months (NCT 01457794). The d2 test of attention, the Learning Rating Scale (LRS) and standard tests on reading and mathematics proficiency were administered at baseline and at the end of each study period. Intervention effects were evaluated using hierarchical mixed models. The school meal intervention did not influence concentration performance (CP; primary outcome, n 693) or processing speed; however, the decrease in error percentage was 0·18 points smaller (Pschool year. The percentage of correct sentences also improved (Pperformance or outcomes from the LRS. In conclusion, school meals did not affect CP, but improved reading performance, which is a complex cognitive activity that involves inference, and increased errors related to impulsivity and inattention. These findings are worth examining in future trials.

  12. Effect of meal environment on diet quality rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M

    2009-01-01

    Family meals have been associated with improved dietary quality in children and adolescents, and yet very little is known about family meals beyond their frequency. Specific aspects of the breakfast, lunch, and dinner meal environments were described and compared, and the associations with overall diet quality were investigated. Data on food intake and meal environments were obtained in northern Ontario, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia grades six, seven, and eight classrooms over the 2005 to 2006 school year. Specific aspects of the meal environments described were where the meal was consumed, with whom participants consumed each meal, who prepared the meal, and where the food was originally purchased. Diet quality was assessed using the Canadian version of the Healthy Eating Index. Cluster K-means procedures were used to classify into groups observations about the four meal environment variables. Three, eight, and six clusters of meal environments were identified for breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively. Diet quality was negatively associated with consuming/ purchasing meals outside the home, and with skipping breakfast, lunch, and/or dinner. Results have immediate relevance for family-based and/or school programs and policies aimed at educating and feeding children and adolescents.

  13. Effects of Shrimp Meal Fermented with Aspergillus niger On Physical Quality of Broiler Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalal Rosyidi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The research materials were 75 broiler chickens of 1 day old and feeds. The research employed five treatments, namely (P0: feed without addition of fermented shrimp meal, P1: feed with 5 % addition of fermented shrimp meal, P2: feed with 7.5 % addition of fermented shrimp meal, P3: feed with 10 % addition of fermented shrimp meal, P4: feed with 12.5 % addition of fermented shrimp meal. Every treatment was repeated 3 times, with 5 chickens respectively. Variables of this research were Water Holding Capacity (WHC, cooking loss and tenderness of broiler meat. Data were analyzed by completely randomized design, if there was a significant effect, it was followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The result of this research showed that the use of fermented shrimp meal in broiler feed can improve WHC, degrading cooking loss and improving tenderness of broiler meat.   Keywords : Water holding capacity, cooking loss, tenderness

  14. Defatted Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L. Seed Meal and Its Phenolic-Saponin-Rich Extract Protect Hypercholesterolemic Rats against Oxidative Stress and Systemic Inflammation via Transcriptional Modulation of Hepatic Antioxidant Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Wei Chan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM and its phenolic-saponin-rich extract (PSRE in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced using atherogenic diet feeding, and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30% or PSRE (at 2.3% and 4.6%, resp., equivalent to the total content of DKSM-phenolics and saponins in the DKSM groups into the atherogenic diets. After ten weeks of intervention, serum total antioxidant capacities of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly enhanced by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p<0.05. Similarly, DKSM and PSRE supplementation upregulated the hepatic mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, Sod1, Sod2, Gsr, and Gpx1 of hypercholesterolemic rats (p<0.05, except for Gpx1 in the DKSM groups. The levels of circulating oxidized LDL and proinflammatory biomarkers were also markedly suppressed by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p<0.05. In aggregate, DKSM and PSRE attenuated the hypercholesterolemia-associated oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in rats, potentially by enhancement of hepatic endogenous antioxidant defense via activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway, which may be contributed by the rich content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM and PSRE. Hence, DKSM and PSRE are prospective functional food ingredients for the potential mitigation of atherogenic risks in hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  15. Defatted Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Seed Meal and Its Phenolic-Saponin-Rich Extract Protect Hypercholesterolemic Rats against Oxidative Stress and Systemic Inflammation via Transcriptional Modulation of Hepatic Antioxidant Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Ooi, Der Jiun; Khong, Nicholas M. H.

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) and its phenolic-saponin-rich extract (PSRE) in hypercholesterolemic rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced using atherogenic diet feeding, and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30%) or PSRE (at 2.3% and 4.6%, resp., equivalent to the total content of DKSM-phenolics and saponins in the DKSM groups) into the atherogenic diets. After ten weeks of intervention, serum total antioxidant capacities of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly enhanced by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p < 0.05). Similarly, DKSM and PSRE supplementation upregulated the hepatic mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (Nrf2, Sod1, Sod2, Gsr, and Gpx1) of hypercholesterolemic rats (p < 0.05), except for Gpx1 in the DKSM groups. The levels of circulating oxidized LDL and proinflammatory biomarkers were also markedly suppressed by DKSM and PSRE supplementation (p < 0.05). In aggregate, DKSM and PSRE attenuated the hypercholesterolemia-associated oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in rats, potentially by enhancement of hepatic endogenous antioxidant defense via activation of the Nrf2-ARE pathway, which may be contributed by the rich content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM and PSRE. Hence, DKSM and PSRE are prospective functional food ingredients for the potential mitigation of atherogenic risks in hypercholesterolemic individuals. PMID:29849908

  16. A sulfur amino acid-free meal increases plasma lipids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youngja; Le, Ngoc-Anh; Yu, Tianwei; Strobel, Fred; Gletsu-Miller, Nana; Accardi, Carolyn J; Lee, Kichun S; Wu, Shaoxiong; Ziegler, Thomas R; Jones, Dean P

    2011-08-01

    The content of sulfur amino acid (SAA) in a meal affects postprandial plasma cysteine concentrations and the redox potential of cysteine/cystine. Because such changes can affect enzyme, transporter, and receptor activities, meal content of SAA could have unrecognized effects on metabolism during the postprandial period. This pilot study used proton NMR ((1)H-NMR) spectroscopy of human plasma to test the hypothesis that dietary SAA content changes macronutrient metabolism. Healthy participants (18-36 y, 5 males and 3 females) were equilibrated for 3 d to adequate SAA, fed chemically defined meals without SAA for 5 d (depletion), and then fed isoenergetic, isonitrogenous meals containing 56 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1) SAA for 4.5 d (repletion). On the first and last day of consuming the chemically defined meals, a morning meal containing 60% of the daily food intake was given and plasma samples were collected over an 8-h postprandial time course for characterization of metabolic changes by (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. SAA-free food increased peak intensity in the plasma (1)H-NMR spectra in the postprandial period. Orthogonal signal correction/partial least squares-discriminant analysis showed changes in signals associated with lipids, some amino acids, and lactate, with notable increases in plasma lipid signals (TG, unsaturated lipid, cholesterol). Conventional lipid analyses confirmed higher plasma TG and showed an increase in plasma concentration of the lipoprotein lipase inhibitor, apoC-III. The results show that plasma (1)H-NMR spectra can provide useful macronutrient profiling following a meal challenge protocol and that a single meal with imbalanced SAA content alters postprandial lipid metabolism.

  17. Acculturation, meal frequency, eating-out, and body weight in Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Consuming regular meals has been studied in relation to better health, while higher regularity of eating-out has been linked to obesity. This study examined whether acculturation was associated with regularity of meals, eating-out, and overweight in Korean Americans. Pre-tested questionnaires were mailed to a U.S. national sample with Korean American surnames, and 55% of the deliverable sample responded, producing 356 usable questionnaires. Acculturation was measured using a two-culture matrix model and Gordon's theoretical work, and showed there were three distinct groups (acculturated, bicultural, and traditional). Only 36% reported that they regularly ate three meals a day. Breakfast was the least frequent meal of the day with 43% reporting eating breakfast everyday. More than half (58%) reported that they usually eat out or get take-out food at least once a week. After controlling for age, sex, income, education, and working status, higher acculturation was related to greater regularity of eating-out, but not meal regularity. A total of 28% of men and 6% of women were overweight (BMI>25), and there were significant and positive relationships between body weight status and acculturation in men but not women. However, no significant relationships between frequency of meals and eating-out and overweight status were present. This study did not find significant relationships of meal regularity and eating-out with body weight, however, given the positive relationship between acculturation and eating-out among the subjects and the well-established relationship between eating-out and obesity, nutrition education about skipping meals and eating-for Korean Americans may be useful to prevent such relationships from developing.

  18. Differences in the validity of a visual estimation method for determining patients' meal intake between various meal types and supplied food items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Yui; Akamatsu, Rie; Tamaura, Yuki; Sakai, Masashi; Fujiwara, Keiko; Tsutsuura, Satomi

    2018-02-12

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in the validity of a visual estimation method for determining patients' meal intake between various meal types and supplied food items in hospitals and to find factors influencing the validity of a visual estimation method. There are two procedures by which we obtained the information on dietary intake of the patients in these hospitals. These are both by visual assessment from the meal trays at the time of their clearing, by the attending nursing staff and by weighing conducted by researchers. The following criteria are set for the target trays: A) standard or therapeutic meals, which are monitored by a doctor, for energy and/or protein and/or sodium; B) regular, bite-sized, minced and pureed meal texture, and C) half-portion meals. Visual assessment results were tested for their validity by comparing with the corresponding results of weighing. Differences between these two methods indicated the estimated and absolute values of nutrient intake. A total of 255 (76.1%) trays were included in the analysis out of the 335 possible trays and the results indicated that the energy consumption estimates by visual or weighing procedures are not significantly different (412 ± 173 kcal, p = 0.15). However, the mean protein consumption was significantly different (16.3 ± 6.7 g/tray, p food items were significantly misestimated for energy intake (66 ± 58 kcal/tray) compared to trays with no additions (32 ± 39 kcal/tray, p food items were significantly associated with increased odds of a difference between the two methods (OR: 3.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-13.85). There were high correlations between the visual estimation method and the weighing method measuring patients' dietary intake for various meal types and textures, except for meals with added supplied food items. Nursing staff need to be attentive to supplied food items. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical

  19. 21 CFR 137.275 - Yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yellow corn meal. 137.275 Section 137.275 Food and... Related Products § 137.275 Yellow corn meal. Yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.250 for white corn meal except that cleaned yellow corn is used instead of...

  20. Differential effects of saturated and monounsaturated fats on postprandial lipemia and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Claus; Storm, Hanne; Holst, Jens Juul

    2003-01-01

    , insulin, fatty acids, triacylglycerol, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and GLP-1 to saturated- and monounsaturated-rich test meals. DESIGN: Twelve overweight patients with type 2 diabetes ingested 3 meals randomly: an energy-free soup with 50 g carbohydrate (control meal), the control meal plus 100 g...

  1. The effects of McDonalds, Kentucky Fried Chicken and Pizza Hut meals on recommended diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malouf, N M; Colagiuri, S

    1995-06-01

    The objective was to study the effect of three common takeaway meals on recommended healthy diets. New South Wales Department of Health recommended diets of 5020, 6275, 9205 and 12,540 kilojoules were used. An evening meal from each of these diets was substituted with one of three common fast food chain takeaway meals 1, 2, 3 and 5 times per week. The 3 takeaway meals were from McDonalds, Pizza Hut and Kentucky Fried Chicken. The effects of each of these meals on average daily kilojoule, fibre, fat, P/S ratio, protein and carbohydrate intakes were assessed. The takeaway meals were high in fat and kilojoules and low in fibre and therefore contravened the Dietary Guidelines for Australians. Addition of these meals increased average kilojoule consumption and the percentage energy contribution of fat and decreased the P/S ratio and fibre intake. The magnitude of these deleterious effects was directly proportional to the number of times the meals were included each week and inversely proportional to the energy content of the diet. The adverse effects were greatest with the McDonalds and Kentucky Fried Chicken meals. Takeaway meals may be convenient but the meals which were tested were too high in fat and kilojoules and too low in fibre to be a regular part of a balanced diet. Even one takeaway meal per week adversely affects the lower kilojoule recommended healthy diets.

  2. Involving children in meal preparation. Effects on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Ferrage, Aurore; Rytz, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The question of how to promote healthy eating habits in children is relevant because most children do not meet the recommended vegetable intake. Involving children in food preparation could be an opportunity to develop healthy eating behaviors and to increase vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of children's involvement in meal preparation on their food and vegetable intake. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 47 children aged 6 to 10 years. In condition 1 (n = 25), children prepared a lunch meal (pasta, breaded chicken, cauliflower, and salad) with the assistance of a parent. In condition 2 (n = 22), the meal was prepared by the parent alone. Independent samples t-tests were conducted to compare intake in the "child cooks" and "parent cooks" conditions. Children in the child cooks condition ate significantly more salad 41.7 g (76.1%), more chicken 21.8 g (27.0%), and more calories 84.6 kcal (24.4%) than children in the parent cooks condition. Between before cooking and directly after cooking the meal, children in the child cooks condition reported significantly increased feelings of valence (feeling positive) and dominance (feeling in control). This study confirms that involving children in meal preparation can increase vegetable intake. Because of the potential effect on energy intake, parents need to be made aware of appropriate portion sizes for their children. Taking this into account, encouraging parents to involve their children in the preparation of healthy and balanced meals could be a valuable intervention strategy to improve the diets and vegetable intake of children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Green tea or rosemary extract added to foods reduces nonheme- iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samman, S.; Sandstrøm, B.; Toft, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    the effect of phenolic-rich extracts obtained from green tea or rosemary on nonheme-iron absorption. Design: Young women aged 19-39 y consumed test meals on 4 separate occasions. The meals were identical except for the absence (meal A) or presence (meal B) of a phenolic-rich extract from green tea (study 1......-body retention of 59Fe and the ratio of Fe-55 to 59Fe activity in blood samples. Results: The presence of the phenolic-rich extracts resulted in decreased nonheme-iron absorption. Mean (+/-SD) iron absorption decreased from 12.1 +/- 4.5% to 8.9 +/- 5.2% (P tea extract and from 7...

  4. Does children's energy intake at one meal influence their intake at subsequent meals? Or do we just think it does?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, James A; Hutcheon, Jennifer A

    2010-05-01

    It is widely believed that young children are able to adjust their energy intake across successive meals to compensate for higher or lower intakes at a given meal. This conclusion is based on past observations that although children's intake at individual meals is highly variable, total daily intakes are relatively constant. We investigated how much of this reduction in variability could be explained by the statistical phenomenon of the variability of individual components (each meal) always being relatively larger than the variability of their sum (total daily intake), independent of any physiological compensatory mechanism. We calculated, theoretically and by simulation, how variable a child's daily intake would be if there was no correlation between intakes at individual meals. We simulated groups of children with meal/snack intakes and variability in meal/snack intakes based on previously published values. Most importantly, we assumed that there was no correlation between intakes on successive meals. In both approaches, the coefficient of variation of the daily intakes was roughly 15%, considerably less than the 34% for individual meals. Thus, most of the reduction in variability found in past studies was explained without positing strong 'compensation'. Although children's daily energy intakes are indeed considerably less variable than their individual components, this phenomenon was observed even when intakes at each meal were simulated to be totally independent. We conclude that the commonly held belief that young children have a strong physiological compensatory mechanism to adjust intake at one meal based on intake at prior meals is likely to be based on flawed statistical reasoning.

  5. Placement of a take-out container during meal influences energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Kate J; Byker Shanks, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    A growing body of research suggests that increased portion sizes are contributing to the rising rates of obesity. However, studies that focus on environmental cues to promote portion control are relatively limited. Thus, a randomized study was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting to determine if the presence of a take-out container, given at the start of a meal, would prompt experimental group participants to decrease the portion of food consumed and reduce energy intake. Outcomes were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, and analysis of covariance. Results showed that placing a take-out container with the test meal led to a significant difference in energy intake (p=0.000) when compared to the control group. Participants (n=25) who were given a take-out container with their test meal consumed an average of 90 kcal less than participants (n=25) who were not given the condition. These findings suggest that a to-go container may be utilized as an effective environmental cue for guiding consumers to control serving size when faced with over-sized portions at restaurants or other food outlets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 21 CFR 137.260 - Enriched corn meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Enriched corn meals. 137.260 Section 137.260 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.260 Enriched corn meals. (a) Enriched corn meals are the foods, each of which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for a kind of corn meal by §§ 137...

  7. Relationship between family meal frequency and individual dietary intake among diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhee, Divya; Mahomoodally, Fawzi

    2015-01-01

    Notoriously, the island of Mauritius has one of the highest prevalence of diabetes in the world. Management of the disease is very important and family meals are undoubtedly beneficial to patients as they promote the development of healthy eating behaviours and food choices. This study has aimed to probe into potential relationship(s) between family meal frequency and individual dietary intake among diabetic patients and to establish whether family cohesion may be a plausible mediator of this relationship. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with a random sample of 384 diabetic patients. The Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III was used to obtain information on two general aspects of family functioning, that is, cohesiveness and adaptability. Chi-squared (χ (2)) tests, independent sample t-tests and one-way ANOVA were used to determine statistical significance. Pearson correlation was used to examine associations between family meal frequency, individual dietary intake and family cohesion. Hierarchical linear regression models were performed for the mediation analysis. Family meal frequency (breakfast, lunch and dinner) was observed to be positively associated with intake of fish, raw vegetables, dried and fresh fruits, low-fat milk, cheese, yogurt, nuts and light butter and negatively associated with intake of red meat, white rice, white bread, whole egg fried, chocolates, fried cakes, burgers, chips, and fried noodles/rice. Average mediation (52.6 %) was indicated by family cohesion for the association between family meal frequency and individual dietary intake among diabetic patients. Sobel's test further confirmed the trend towards complete mediation (z = 15.4; P relationship between family meal frequency and individual dietary intake among diabetic patients was recorded. The present study is one of the few studies that have examined family cohesion as a mediator of the relationship and to our best knowledge is the first work to

  8. School meal sociality or lunch pack individualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Holm, Lotte; Baarts, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    the social life of a school class, and how these arrangements involve strategies of both inclusion and exclusion. Two types of school meals are compared in the intervention study: a hot meal based on Nordic ingredients and the normal Danish school meal arrangement in which children bring lunch packs...... to school. The study discusses commensality by examining and comparing lunchtime interactions within the same group of children in the two contrasting meal situations. The results fail to confirm the conventional view that shared meals have greater social impacts and benefits than eating individualized...... foods. The article argues that the social entrepreneurship involved in sharing individual lunch packs might even outweigh some of the benefits of shared meals where everyone is served the same food....

  9. Irregular meal-pattern effects on energy expenditure, metabolism, and appetite regulation: a randomized controlled trial in healthy normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhussain, Maha H; Macdonald, Ian A; Taylor, Moira A

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is increasing in parallel with greater all-day food availability. The latter may promote meal irregularity, dysregulation of the energy balance, and poor metabolic health. We investigated the effect of meal irregularity on the thermic effect of food (TEF), lipid concentrations, carbohydrate metabolism, subjective appetite, and gut hormones in healthy women. Eleven normal-weight women (18-40 y of age) were recruited in a randomized crossover trial with two 14-d isoenergetic diet periods (identical foods provided and free living) that were separated by a 14-d habitual diet washout period. In period 1, participants followed a regular meal pattern (6 meals/d) or an irregular meal pattern (3-9 meals/d), and in period 2, the alternative meal pattern was followed. Before and after each period, when participants were fasting and for 3 h after intake of a test drink, measurements were taken of energy expenditure, circulating glucose, lipids (fasting only), insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), and ghrelin. An ad libitum test meal was offered. Subjective appetite ratings were assessed while fasting, after the test drink, after the ad libitum meal, and during the intervention. Continuous interstitial glucose monitoring was undertaken for 3 consecutive days during each intervention, and the ambulatory activity pattern was recorded (ambulatory energy expenditure estimation). Regularity was associated with a greater TEF (P breakfast; day 9: after lunch and dinner). There was no difference between treatments for the test-drink gut hormone response. A time effect was noted for fasting GLP-1, fasting PYY, PYY responses, and hunger-rating responses to the test drink (P < 0.05). Lower hunger and higher fullness ratings were seen premeal and postmeal during the regular period while subjects were free living. Meal regularity appears to be associated with greater TEF and lower glucose responses, which may favor weight management and metabolic health. This

  10. Effect of food service form on eating rate: meal served in a separated form might lower eating rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hyung Joo; Jung, Eun Young

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the association between food form (mixed vs separated) and eating rate. The experiment used a within-subjects design (n=29, young healthy women with normal weight). Test meals (white rice and side dishes) with the same content and volume were served at lunch in a mixed or separated form. The form in which the food was served had significant effects on consumption volume and eating rate; subjects ate significantly more (p<0.05) when a test meal was served as a mixed form (285 g, 575 kcal) compared to a separated form (244 g, 492 kcal). Moreover, subjects also ate significantly faster (p<0.05) when the test meal was served as a mixed form (22.4 g/min) as compared to a separated form (16.2 g/min). Despite consuming more when the test meal was served as a mixed form than when served as a separated form, the subjects did not feel significantly fuller. In conclusion, we confirmed that meals served in a separated form might lower the eating rate and, moreover, slower eating might be associated with less energy intake, without compromising satiety.

  11. Postprandial energy expenditure in whole-food and processed-food meals: implications for daily energy expenditure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadie B. Barr

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical evidence has shown that rising obesity rates closely parallel the increased consumption of processed foods (PF consumption in USA. Differences in postprandial thermogenic responses to a whole-food (WF meal vs. a PF meal may be a key factor in explaining obesity trends, but currently there is limited research exploring this potential link. Objective: The goal was to determine if a particular PF meal has a greater thermodynamic efficiency than a comparable WF meal, thereby conferring a greater net-energy intake. Design: Subjective satiation scores and postprandial energy expenditure were measured for 5–6 h after isoenergetic meals were ingested. The meals were either ‘whole’ or ‘processed’ cheese sandwiches; multi-grain bread and cheddar cheese were deemed whole, while white bread and processed cheese product were considered processed. Meals were comparable in terms of protein (15–20%, carbohydrate (40–50%, and fat (33–39% composition. Subjects were healthy women (n=12 and men (n=5 studied in a crossover design. Results: There were no significant differences in satiety ratings after the two meals. Average energy expenditure for the WF meal (137±14.1 kcal, 19.9% of meal energy was significantly larger than for the PF meal (73.1±10.2 kcal, 10.7% of meal energy. Conclusion: Ingestion of the particular PF meal tested in this study decreases postprandial energy expenditure by nearly 50% compared with the isoenergetic WF meal. This reduction in daily energy expenditure has potential implications for diets comprised heavily of PFs and their associations with obesity.

  12. Everyday meal preparation for people with dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Mette Kathrine Friis; Nejsum, Hanne Lindberg; Bendtsen, Trine Vase

    When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal preparat......When people are diagnosed with dementia everyday activities like meal preparation will gradually become more difficult. A recipe is a support for meal preparation but as dementia develops, it seems that following a recipe can be a challenge. In Denmark health professionals often use meal...... preparation as an activity for people with dementia but they have no combined material to base the planning of the activity on. The thesis of this project is that when persons with dementia is involved in cooking his or her own meal meal preparation it will contribute to the feeling of content and meaning...... preparation. The guide includes ideas for constructing recipes, methods for planning and guiding the process and examples of utensils that can increase the ability to cook in the persons own home or in an institutionalized setting. This supports the person with dementia both nutritionally, cognitively...

  13. Family meals and body mass index among adolescents: effects of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Gary S; Murray, Marisa A; Buchholz, Annick; Henderson, Katherine; Obeid, Nicole; Kukaswadia, Atif; Flament, Martine F

    2011-08-01

    Family meals have been identified as a protective factor against obesity among youth. However, gender specificities with respect to the relationship between the frequency of family meals and body mass index (BMI) have not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the frequency of family meals and BMI in male and female adolescents, while controlling for potential confounding factors associated with BMI, such as parental education, adolescent's age, and snack-food eating. Research participants were 734 male and 1030 female students (mean age, 14.12 years, SD = 1.62) recruited from middle schools and high schools in the capital region of Canada. Participants completed validated, self-report measures to assess the frequency of family meals and the risk factors associated with increased BMI, which was derived from objective measures of height and weight. After controlling for proposed confounding variables, a higher frequency of family meals was associated with lower BMI in females, but not in males. A Z-transformation test of the homogeneity of adjusted correlation coefficients showed a significant trend (p = 0.06), indicating that the relationship between family meals and BMI is stronger in females than males, consistent with our regression analyses. Our findings suggest that eating together as a family may be a protective factor against obesity in female adolescents, but not in male adolescents. Findings from this study have important implications for parents and health care practitioners advocating for more frequent family meals as part of a comprehensive obesity prevention and treatment program for female adolescents.

  14. Consumption of the Soluble Dietary Fibre Complex PolyGlycopleX® Reduces Glycaemia and Increases Satiety of a Standard Meal Postprandially

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky A. Solah

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of consumption of PolyGlycopleX® (PGX® was compared to wheat dextrin (WD in combination with a standard meal, on postprandial satiety and glycaemia in a double-blind, randomised crossover trial, of 14 healthy subjects trained as a satiety panel. At each of six two-hour satiety sessions, subjects consumed one of three different test meals on two separate occasions. The test meals were: a standard meal plus 5 g PGX; a standard meal plus 4.5 g of PGX as softgels; and a standard meal plus 5 g of WD. Subjects recorded fullness using a labelled magnitude scale at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min and the total area under the curve (AUC, mean fullness vs. time was calculated. The meals with PGX (in granular and softgel form gave higher satiety (AUC (477 ± 121 and 454 ± 242 cm·min, than the meal with WD (215 ± 261 cm·min (p < 0.001. Subjects had blood glucose levels measured after the meals with PGX (granules and WD. Glucose response (AUC was significantly lower (p < 0.001 after the PGX meal than for the WD meal.  The high viscosity reported for PGX is a likely mechanism behind the significant satiety and blood glucose modulating effects observed in this study.

  15. [Can family meals protect adolescents from obesity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabak, Izabela; Jodkowska, Maria; Oblacińska, Anna; Mikiel-Kostyra, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    To analyse the relationship between the frequency of family meals and the body weight of 13-year-olds and its selected determinants. The study was conducted in 2008 as the last stage in a prospective cohort study of 605 children. Questionnaires containing questions about the frequency of family meals, the general regularity of meals, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity and the number of hours spent watching television or at the computer were sent to 13-year-olds by mail. School nurses performed anthropometric measurements of the pupils' weight and height. Statistical analyses were performed, i.e. Pearson's correlations, the two-step cluster analysis and the logistic regression analysis. Most of the young people (80-90%) eat each of the main meals in the company of their parents at least once a week, 21% have breakfast with their parents every day, 41% - dinner, and 45% - supper. The frequency of family meals correlated negatively with the girls' BMI and the number of hours they spent watching television or at the computer, while positively with physical activity, regular meals and vegetable consumption in adolescents of both genders. The lowest mean values of BMI were found in a group of adolescents often eating family meals, the highest - in the group of young people who rarely ate family meals (over 20% of young people in this group were overweight), but the differences were statistically significant only for girls (p=0.025). The probability of less than 2 hours of sedentary behaviour daily, physical activity of at least 60 minutes per day and everyday vegetable and fruit consumption is twice as high in adolescents often consuming meals with their parents, and with the daily consumption of all the meals in this way - more than fourfold higher than in other groups. Family meals treated as a predictor of a healthy lifestyle can indirectly protect adolescents from overweight and obesity. Promoting family meals should be an important method of

  16. 29 CFR 553.223 - Meal time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Meal time. 553.223 Section 553.223 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.223 Meal time... personnel in accordance with section 7(a)(1) of the Act, the public agency may exclude meal time from hours...

  17. School meal provision, health, and cognitive function in a Nordic setting - the ProMeal-study: description of methodology and the Nordic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waling, Maria; Olafsdottir, Anna S; Lagström, Hanna; Wergedahl, Hege; Jonsson, Bert; Olsson, Cecilia; Fossgard, Eldbjørg; Holthe, Asle; Talvia, Sanna; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Hörnell, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    School meals, if both nutritious and attractive, provide a unique opportunity to improve health equality and public health. To describe the study rationale, data collection, and background of participants in the study 'Prospects for promoting health and performance by school meals in Nordic countries' (ProMeal). The general aim was to determine whether overall healthiness of the diet and learning conditions in children can be improved by school lunches, and to capture the main concerns regarding school lunches among children in a Nordic context. A cross-sectional, multidisciplinary study was performed in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden on pupils (n=837) born in 2003. In total 3,928 pictures of school lunches were taken to capture pupils' school lunch intake. A mean of 85% of all parents responded to a questionnaire about socioeconomic background, dietary intake, and habitual physical activity at home. Cognitive function was measured on one occasion on 93% of the pupils during optimal conditions with a Stroop and a Child Operation Span test. A mean of 169 pupils also did an Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test after lunch over 3 days. In total, 37,413 10-sec observations of classroom learning behavior were performed. In addition, 753 empathy-based stories were written and 78 focus groups were conducted. The pupils had high socioeconomic status. This study will give new insights into which future interventions are needed to improve pupils' school lunch intake and learning. The study will provide valuable information for policy making, not least in countries where the history of school meals is shorter than in some of the Nordic countries.

  18. The effect of mustard seed meal (Sinapis arvensis on thyroid hormones and liver enzymes in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Mohebali

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the effect of wild black mustard seed meal on thyroid hormones (thyroxine and thyroid-stimulating hormone in Japanese quails and also study the ability of FeSO4 to alleviate the possible negative effect of mustard meal on thyroid hormones in these birds for the first time. Methods: The experimental procedure was undertaken on 28 quails which were randomly assigned to a control and 6 test groups with 4 quails in each group for 28 days, during which the control group received basic diet with no mustard meal whereas the test groups (No. 2, 3 and 4 received mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively and test groups (No. 5, 6 and 7 received FeSO4 (1%-treated mustard meal (5%, 10% and 15%, respectively on the basic of basic diet. Results: The group fed on 15% non-treated mustard seed meal had the least thyroxine level and its level backed to normal in group fed on 15% FeSO4-treated mustard seed meal although this group had the highest alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels. Conclusions: We concluded that up to 10% FeSO4 mustard seed meal could be incorporated in the quail diet successfully with the least damage to thyroids and livers, but further investigations on these birds are still needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  19. The addition of locust bean gum but not water delayed the gastric emptying rate of a nutrient semisolid meal in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björgell Ola

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the previous studies regarding the effects of gel-forming fibres have considered the gastric emptying of liquid or solid meals after the addition of pectin or guar gum. The influence of locust bean gum, on gastric emptying of nutrient semisolid meals in humans has been less well studied, despite its common occurrence in foods. Using a standardised ultrasound method, this study was aimed at investigating if the gastric emptying in healthy subjects could be influenced by adding locust been gum, a widely used thickening agent, or water directly into a nutrient semisolid test meal. Methods The viscosity of a basic test meal (300 g rice pudding, 330 kcal was increased by adding Nestargel (6 g, 2.4 kcal, containing viscous dietary fibres (96.5% provided as seed flour of locust bean gum, and decreased by adding 100 ml of water. Gastric emptying of these three test meals were evaluated in fifteen healthy non-smoking volunteers, using ultrasound measurements of the gastric antral area to estimate the gastric emptying rate (GER. Results The median value of GER with the basic test meal (rice pudding was estimated at 63 %, (range 47 to 84 %, (the first quartile = 61 %, the third quartile = 69 %. Increasing the viscosity of the rice pudding by adding Nestargel, resulted in significantly lower gastric emptying rates (p p = 0.28 compared to the GER of the basic test meal. Conclusions We conclude that the addition of locust bean gum to a nutrient semisolid meal has a major impact on gastric emptying by delaying the emptying rate, but that the addition of water to this test meal has no influence on gastric emptying in healthy subjects.

  20. Carriers of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 TT genotype have elevated levels of plasma glucose, serum proinsulin and plasma gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) during a meal test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesing, A P; Kjems, L L; Vestmar, M A

    2011-01-01

    , proinsulin, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) and gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) among individuals carrying the high-risk rs7903146 TT genotype and low-risk CC genotype following a meal test. Methods A meal challenge was performed in 31......, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120, 135, 150, 180, 210, and 240 min after ingestion of a standardised breakfast meal. Results An elevated incremental AUC for plasma glucose was observed among TT genotype carriers (CC carriers 21.8¿±¿101.9 mmol/l¿×¿min vs TT carriers 97.9¿±¿89.2 mmol/l¿×¿min, p¿=¿0.001). TT...

  1. Beam test results for the upgraded LHCb RICH opto-electronic readout system

    CERN Multimedia

    Carniti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The LHCb experiment is devoted to high-precision measurements of CP violation and search for New Physics by studying the decays of beauty and charmed hadrons produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Two RICH detectors are currently installed and operating successfully, providing a crucial role in the particle identification system of the LHCb experiment. Starting from 2019, the LHCb experiment will be upgraded to operate at higher luminosity, extending its potential for discovery and study of new phenomena. Both the RICH detectors will be upgraded and the entire opto-electronic system has been redesigned in order to cope with the new specifications, namely higher readout rates, and increased occupancies. The new photodetectors, readout electronics, mechanical assembly and cooling system have reached the final phase of development and their performance was thoroughly and successfully validated during several beam test sessions in 2014 and 2015 at the SPS facility at CERN. Details of the test setup and perf...

  2. Eating in the absence of hunger in adolescents: intake after a large-array meal compared with that after a standardized meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shomaker, Lauren B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Zocca, Jaclyn M; Courville, Amber; Kozlosky, Merel; Columbo, Kelli M; Wolkoff, Laura E; Brady, Sheila M; Crocker, Melissa K; Ali, Asem H; Yanovski, Susan Z; Yanovski, Jack A

    2010-10-01

    Eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) is typically assessed by measuring youths' intake of palatable snack foods after a standard meal designed to reduce hunger. Because energy intake required to reach satiety varies among individuals, a standard meal may not ensure the absence of hunger among participants of all weight strata. The objective of this study was to compare adolescents' EAH observed after access to a very large food array with EAH observed after a standardized meal. Seventy-eight adolescents participated in a randomized crossover study during which EAH was measured as intake of palatable snacks after ad libitum access to a very large array of lunch-type foods (>10,000 kcal) and after a lunch meal standardized to provide 50% of the daily estimated energy requirements. The adolescents consumed more energy and reported less hunger after the large-array meal than after the standardized meal (P values kcal less EAH after the large-array meal than after the standardized meal (295 ± 18 compared with 365 ± 20 kcal; P < 0.001), but EAH intakes after the large-array meal and after the standardized meal were positively correlated (P values < 0.001). The body mass index z score and overweight were positively associated with EAH in both paradigms after age, sex, race, pubertal stage, and meal intake were controlled for (P values ≤ 0.05). EAH is observable and positively related to body weight regardless of whether youth eat in the absence of hunger from a very large-array meal or from a standardized meal. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00631644.

  3. Short-Term Effect of Convenience Meal Intake on Glycemic Response and Satiety among Healthy College Students in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eunji; Lee, Jeunghyun; Lee, Sukyeong; Kim, Mi-Hyun

    2017-07-01

    This study examined the effect of convenience meals purchased at convenience stores on glycemic response and satiety in healthy college students. A total of 9 non-obese volunteers (4 males and 5 females) aged 20 to 24 years participated in this study. On 3 separate days, participants consumed a standard diet (cooked rice and side dishes), type 1 convenience meal (kimbap and instant ramen), and type 2 convenience meal (sweet bread and flavored milk). Capillary blood-glucose response and satiety were measured every 30 minutes for 2 hours after consuming the 3 different test meals. Although mean fasting glucose levels were not different, glucose levels at 30 minutes and 120 minutes after the type 1 convenience meal intake were significantly higher than those in the standard meal (p convenience meal, followed by the type 2 convenience meal and standard meal (p convenience meal contained higher calorie than the other meals, satiety of the type 2 convenience meal was lowest at 30 minutes and 60 minutes after consumption (p convenience meals may increase glycemic response or induce higher calorie intake with low satiety compared with nutritionally balanced Korean style meal.

  4. Daily meal frequency and associated variables in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Fabiana A; Candiá, Samara M; Pequeno, Marina S; Sartorelli, Daniela S; Mendes, Larissa L; Oliveira, Renata M S; Netto, Michele P; Cândido, Ana Paula C

    To investigate the frequency distribution of daily meals and its relation to demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, anthropometric and biochemical factors in children and adolescents. This was a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 708 schoolchildren aged 7-14 years. Data on personal information, socioeconomic status, physical activity and number of meals were obtained through semi-structured questionnaire and consumption by 24-h recall and food record. Weight and height measurements were also performed to calculate the body mass index. Finally, blood samples were collected for analysis of total cholesterol, high- and low density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and glucose levels. Descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney test, and Poisson regression were used in statistical analysis. Meal frequency 2 (PR=1.53; 95% CI: 1.11-2.11; p=0.010). Even in the age group of 10-14 years, <4 meals was related to higher prevalence of body mass index (PR=1.33; 95% CI: 1.02-1.74; p=0.032) and low-density lipoprotein (PR=1.39; 95% CI: 1.03-1.87; p=0.030) higher after adjustments. Lower frequency of meals was related to lower income in children and adolescents, larger number of sons in the family, and increased values of body mass index and low-density lipoprotein. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Daily meal frequency and associated variables in children and adolescents,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana A. Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To investigate the frequency distribution of daily meals and its relation to demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, anthropometric and biochemical factors in children and adolescents. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a representative sample of 708 schoolchildren aged 7-14 years. Data on personal information, socioeconomic status, physical activity and number of meals were obtained through semi-structured questionnaire and consumption by 24-h recall and food record. Weight and height measurements were also performed to calculate the body mass index. Finally, blood samples were collected for analysis of total cholesterol, high- and low density lipoprotein, triglyceride, and glucose levels. Descriptive statistics, the Mann-Whitney test, and Poisson regression were used in statistical analysis. Results: Meal frequency 2 (PR = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.11-2.11; p = 0.010. Even in the age group of 10-14 years, <4 meals was related to higher prevalence of body mass index (PR = 1.33; 95% CI: 1.02-1.74; p = 0.032 and low-density lipoprotein (PR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.03-1.87; p = 0.030 higher after adjustments. Conclusion: Lower frequency of meals was related to lower income in children and adolescents, larger number of sons in the family, and increased values of body mass index and low-density lipoprotein.

  6. CO2 Capture by Cement Raw Meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2013-01-01

    The cement industry is one of the major sources of CO2 emissions and is likely to contribute to further increases in the near future. The carbonate looping process has the potential to capture CO2 emissions from the cement industry, in which raw meal for cement production could be used...... as the sorbent. Cyclic experiments were carried out in a TGA apparatus using industrial cement raw meal and synthetic raw meal as sorbents, with limestone as the reference. The results show that the CO2 capture capacities of the cement raw meal and the synthetic raw meal are comparable to those of pure limestone...... that raw meal could be used as a sorbent for the easy integration of the carbonate looping process into the cement pyro process for reducing CO2 emissions from the cement production process....

  7. The meal as a performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NYBERG, MARIA; Olsson, Viktoria; ÖRTMAN, GERD

    2018-01-01

    carried out with 11 of these people. Participants were found to manage food and meal practices by continuously adjusting and adapting to the new conditions arising as a result of eating difficulties. This was displayed by conscious planning of what to eat and when, avoiding certain foods and beverages......The proportion of elderly people in the population is increasing, presenting a number of new challenges in society. The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate how elderly persons with motoric eating difficulties perceive and perform their food and meal practices in everyday life....... By using Goffman's concept of performance as a theoretical framework together with Bourdieu's thinking on habitus, a deeper understanding of food and meal practices is obtained. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 elderly people (aged between 67 and 87 years) and meal observations were...

  8. Effects of replacing soybean meal with canola meal or treated canola meal on nitrogen metabolism and total tract digestibility in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary canola meal (CM) has been shown to improve N efficiency in dairy cows when compared with soybean meal (SBM). Treating CM may increase amino acid (AA) supply from the rumen undegradable protein fraction and improve absorbable AA in the metabolizable protein. The objective of this study was to...

  9. /sup 99m/Tc-labeled solid-phase meal: a quantitative clinical measurement of human gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.L.; Beck, W.J.; McDonald, A.P.; Carlson, G.M.; Mathias, J.R.

    1983-08-01

    A solid-phase meal labeled with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid provides an improved clinical test for the quantitative evaluation of human gastric emptying. We studied 12 healthy male controls and five male patients with known gastric stasis secondary to a vagotomy and drainage procedure. All subjects were fasted for 8 hours before the study, and each consumed an unbuttered biscuit and a poached egg white containing 1 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid. For 2 hours, 60-second counts were measured every 10 minutes by a Pho Gamma III scintillation camera. The t/sup 1///sup 2/ for control subjects was 60 minutes, at which time patients with gastric stasis had retained 98% of the test meal. At 120 minutes, control subjects and patients with gastric stasis had 4.7% and 89%, respectively, of the meal remaining in the stomach. The solid-phase test meal labeled with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid is easy to perform and can be used clinically to quantitatively measure gastric emptying in humans. This test can discriminate between control subjects and patients with known gastric stasis.

  10. /sup 99m/Tc-labeled solid-phase meal: a quantitative clinical measurement of human gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.L.; Beck, W.J.; McDonald, A.P.; Carlson, G.M.; Mathias, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A solid-phase meal labeled with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid provides an improved clinical test for the quantitative evaluation of human gastric emptying. We studied 12 healthy male controls and five male patients with known gastric stasis secondary to a vagotomy and drainage procedure. All subjects were fasted for 8 hours before the study, and each consumed an unbuttered biscuit and a poached egg white containing 1 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid. For 2 hours, 60-second counts were measured every 10 minutes by a Pho Gamma III scintillation camera. The t 1 / 2 for control subjects was 60 minutes, at which time patients with gastric stasis had retained 98% of the test meal. At 120 minutes, control subjects and patients with gastric stasis had 4.7% and 89%, respectively, of the meal remaining in the stomach. The solid-phase test meal labeled with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid is easy to perform and can be used clinically to quantitatively measure gastric emptying in humans. This test can discriminate between control subjects and patients with known gastric stasis

  11. Outpatient versus inpatient mixed meal tolerance and arginine stimulation testing yields comparable measures of variability for assessment of beta cell function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha S. Shankar

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Standard practice to minimize variability in beta cell function (BCF measurement is to test in inpatient (IP settings. IP testing strains trial subjects, investigators, and budgets. Outpatient (OP testing may be a solution although there are few reports on OP BCF testing variability. We compared variability metrics between OP and IP from a standardized mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT and arginine stimulation test (AST in two separate type 2 diabetes (T2DM cohorts (OP, n = 20; IP n = 22 in test-retest design. MMTT variables included: insulin sensitivity (Si; beta cell responsivity (Φtot; and disposition index (DItot = Si* Φtot following 470 kCal meal. AST variables included: acute insulin response to arginine (AIRarg and during hyperglycemia (AIRargMAX. Results: Baseline characteristics were well-matched. Between and within subject variance for each parameter across cohorts, and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC-a measure of reproducibility across parameters were generally comparable for OP to IP. Table summarizes the ICC results for each key parameter and cohort.Test/ParameterOutpatient (95% CIInpatient (95% CIMMTT: Si0.49(0,0.690.28(0,0.60MMTT: Φtot0.65(0.16,0.890.81(0.44,0.93MMTT: DI0.67(0,0.830.36(0,0.69AST: AIR Arg0.96(0.88,0.980.84(0.59,0.94AST: AIR Arg Max0.97(0.90,0.990.95(0.86,0.97AST: ISR0.93(0.77,0.970.93(0.82,0.96In conclusion, the variability (reproducibility of BCF measures from standardized MMTT and AST is comparable between OP and IP settings. These observations have significant implications for complexity and cost of metabolic studies.

  12. Effects of the partial substitution of fish meal by soy bean meal with or without mannanoligosaccharide and fructooligosaccharide on the growth and feed utilization of sharpsnout seabream, Diplodus puntazzo (Cetti, 1777: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Nizza

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out in order to investigate the effects of the mannanoligosaccharide (MOS and fructooligosaccharide (FOS on sharpsnout seabream, Diplodus puntazzo in the context of partial fish meal substitution by soybean meal. One-hundred-forty-four sharpsnout seabream of about 100 g initial body weight were randomly divided in 12 experimental tanks (180 litre each. Testing conditions included 12 fish per tank, with triplicate tanks for treatment. The experimental period lasted 114 days. Average water temperature was 21.9±1.6°C, salinity was 30.0‰ and pH ranged from 7 to 8. Four isonitrogenous-isolipidic diets were tested: a control diet (FM with fish meal as the sole protein source; a second diet (SBM with approximately 40% of the protein supplied by soybean meal. The remaining two diets were formulated adding 8 g of MOS and FOS per kg of the SBM diet respectively. Average final weight, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio remained unaffected by partial fish meal substitution and by MOS or FOS supplementation. Also apparent digestibility coefficients values for organic matter, protein, lipid and energy were not significantly affected by dietary treatment.

  13. A generic coding approach for the examination of meal patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolhead, Clara; Gibney, Michael J; Walsh, Marianne C; Brennan, Lorraine; Gibney, Eileen R

    2015-08-01

    Meal pattern analysis can be complex because of the large variability in meal consumption. The use of aggregated, generic meal data may address some of these issues. The objective was to develop a meal coding system and use it to explore meal patterns. Dietary data were used from the National Adult Nutrition Survey (2008-2010), which collected 4-d food diary information from 1500 healthy adults. Self-recorded meal types were listed for each food item. Common food group combinations were identified to generate a number of generic meals for each meal type: breakfast, light meals, main meals, snacks, and beverages. Mean nutritional compositions of the generic meals were determined and substituted into the data set to produce a generic meal data set. Statistical comparisons were performed against the original National Adult Nutrition Survey data. Principal component analysis was carried out by using these generic meals to identify meal patterns. A total of 21,948 individual meals were reduced to 63 generic meals. Good agreement was seen for nutritional comparisons (original compared with generic data sets mean ± SD), such as fat (75.7 ± 29.4 and 71.7 ± 12.9 g, respectively, P = 0.243) and protein (83.3 ± 26.9 and 80.1 ± 13.4 g, respectively, P = 0.525). Similarly, Bland-Altman plots demonstrated good agreement (<5% outside limits of agreement) for many nutrients, including protein, saturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat. Twelve meal types were identified from the principal component analysis ranging in meal-type inclusion/exclusion, varying in energy-dense meals, and differing in the constituents of the meals. A novel meal coding system was developed; dietary intake data were recoded by using generic meal consumption data. Analysis revealed that the generic meal coding system may be appropriate when examining nutrient intakes in the population. Furthermore, such a coding system was shown to be suitable for use in determining meal-based dietary patterns. © 2015

  14. On the Importance of Processing Conditions for the Nutritional Characteristics of Homogenized Composite Meals Intended for Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östman, Elin; Forslund, Anna; Tareke, Eden; Björck, Inger

    2016-06-03

    The nutritional quality of infant food is an important consideration in the effort to prevent a further increase in the rate of childhood obesity. We hypothesized that the canning of composite infant meals would lead to elevated contents of carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and favor high glycemic and insulinemic responses compared with milder heat treatment conditions. We have compared composite infant pasta Bolognese meals that were either conventionally canned (CANPBol), or prepared by microwave cooking (MWPBol). A meal where the pasta and Bolognese sauce were separate during microwave cooking (MWP_CANBol) was also included. The infant meals were tested at breakfast in healthy adults using white wheat bread (WWB) as reference. A standardized lunch meal was served at 240 min and blood was collected from fasting to 360 min after breakfast. The 2-h glucose response (iAUC) was lower following the test meals than with WWB. The insulin response was lower after the MWP_CANBol (-47%, p = 0.0000) but markedly higher after CANPBol (+40%, p = 0.0019), compared with WWB. A combined measure of the glucose and insulin responses (ISIcomposite) revealed that MWP_CANBol resulted in 94% better insulin sensitivity than CANPBol. Additionally, the separate processing of the meal components in MWP_CANBol resulted in 39% lower CML levels than the CANPBol. It was therefore concluded that intake of commercially canned composite infant meals leads to reduced postprandial insulin sensitivity and increased exposure to oxidative stress promoting agents.

  15. On the Importance of Processing Conditions for the Nutritional Characteristics of Homogenized Composite Meals Intended for Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Östman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional quality of infant food is an important consideration in the effort to prevent a further increase in the rate of childhood obesity. We hypothesized that the canning of composite infant meals would lead to elevated contents of carboxymethyl-lysine (CML and favor high glycemic and insulinemic responses compared with milder heat treatment conditions. We have compared composite infant pasta Bolognese meals that were either conventionally canned (CANPBol, or prepared by microwave cooking (MWPBol. A meal where the pasta and Bolognese sauce were separate during microwave cooking (MWP_CANBol was also included. The infant meals were tested at breakfast in healthy adults using white wheat bread (WWB as reference. A standardized lunch meal was served at 240 min and blood was collected from fasting to 360 min after breakfast. The 2-h glucose response (iAUC was lower following the test meals than with WWB. The insulin response was lower after the MWP_CANBol (−47%, p = 0.0000 but markedly higher after CANPBol (+40%, p = 0.0019, compared with WWB. A combined measure of the glucose and insulin responses (ISIcomposite revealed that MWP_CANBol resulted in 94% better insulin sensitivity than CANPBol. Additionally, the separate processing of the meal components in MWP_CANBol resulted in 39% lower CML levels than the CANPBol. It was therefore concluded that intake of commercially canned composite infant meals leads to reduced postprandial insulin sensitivity and increased exposure to oxidative stress promoting agents.

  16. Shared meals among young adults are associated with better diet quality and predicted by family meal patterns during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Fulkerson, Jayne; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-05-01

    To describe shared meal patterns and examine associations with dietary intake among young adults. Population-based, longitudinal cohort study (Project EAT: Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults). Participants completed surveys and FFQ in high-school classrooms in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN, USA in 1998-1999 (mean age = 15·0 years, 'adolescence') and follow-up measures online or by mail in 2008-2009 (mean age = 25·3 years, 'young adulthood'). There were 2052 participants who responded to the 10-year follow-up survey and reported on frequency of having shared meals. Among young adults, the frequency of shared meals during the past week was as follows: never (9·9 %), one or two times (24·7 %), three to six times (39·1 %) and seven or more times (26·3 %). Having more frequent family meals during adolescence predicted a higher frequency of shared meals in young adulthood above and beyond other relevant sociodemographic factors such as household composition and parental status. Compared with young adults who never had family meals during adolescence, those young adults who reported seven or more family meals per week during adolescence had an average of one additional shared meal per week. Having more frequent shared meals in young adulthood was associated with greater intake of fruit among males and females, and with higher intakes of vegetables, milk products and some key nutrients among females. Nutrition professionals should encourage families of adolescents to share meals often and establish the tradition of eating together, and work with young adults to ensure that healthy food and beverage choices are offered at mealtimes.

  17. Meal Replacement Mass Reduction Integration and Acceptability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmons, T.; Douglas, G.; Schneiderman, J.; Slack, K.; Whitmire, A.; Williams, T.; Young, M.

    2018-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and future exploration missions are mass constrained; therefore we are challenged to reduce the mass of the food system by 10% while maintaining safety, nutrition, and acceptability to support crew health and performance for exploration missions. Meal replacement with nutritionally balanced, 700-900 calorie bars was identified as a method to reduce mass. However, commercially available products do not meet the requirements for a meal replacement in the spaceflight food system. The purpose of this task was to develop a variety of nutritionally balanced, high quality, breakfast replacement bars, which enable a 10% food mass savings. To date, six nutrient-dense meal replacement bars have been developed, all of which meet spaceflight nutritional, microbiological, sensory, and shelf-life requirements. The four highest scoring bars were evaluated based on final product sensory acceptability, nutritional stability, qualitative stability of analytical measurements (i.e. color and texture), and microbiological compliance over a period of two years to predict long-term acceptability. All bars maintained overall acceptability throughout the first year of storage, despite minor changes in color and texture. However, added vitamins C, B1, and B9 degraded rapidly in fortified samples of Banana Nut bars, indicating the need for additional development. In addition to shelf-life testing, four bar varieties were evaluated in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA), campaign 3, to assess the frequency with which actual meal replacement options may be implemented, based on impact to satiety and psychosocial measurements. Crewmembers (n=16) were asked to consume meal replacement bars every day for the first fifteen days of the mission and every three days for the second half of the mission. Daily surveys assessed the crew's responses to bar acceptability, mood, food fatigue and perceived stress. Preliminary results indicate that the

  18. Predicting consumers' intention to consume ready-to-eat meals. The role of moral attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Nina Veflen; Sijtsema, Siet J; Hall, Gunnar

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the usefulness of integrating moral attitude into the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) model when predicting intention to consume ready-to-eat (RTE) meals. Questionnaire data were gathered in three countries: Norway (N = 112), The Netherlands (N = 99), and Finland (N = 134) in spring 2009. A stepwise hierarchical regression was conducted, and the analyses showed that moral attitude is an important predictor of RTE-meal consumption. The feeling of moral obligation, operationalised as a negative feeling of guilt, had a negative effect on peoples' intention to consume ready meals in all the three countries tested, and the explained variance (R²) for TPB increased when moral was added as an explanatory factor. However, although the test showed significant results for the effect of attitude towards behavior and moral in all countries, non-significant results were observed for the effect of subjective norm in both The Netherlands and Norway when moral attitude was included to the TPB-model, indicating cultural differences in the social pressure towards ready meal consumption. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Guangzhou’s Baozai Meal a Popular Fast Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    IN Guangzhou, where restaurants are plentiful and food from many places is served, the baozai meal, a kind of traditional Chinese fast food, has retained its place in the hearts of Guangzhou’s caterers. The history of the baozai meal starts at least from the beginning of this century. By the end of the Qing Dynasty, Guangzhou was the largest trading port in south China with a developed, commodities-based economy. There were many dockworkers and porters living in the city at the time. They worked very hard and were often too busy to eat their meals at home. As a result, different kinds of meals were invented to meet their needs, such as the botou meal (bo is kind of earthen bowl), the dietou meal (die is small plate) and the baozai meal

  20. Mixed-meal tolerance test versus glucagon stimulation test for the assessment of beta-cell function in therapeutic trials in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Carla J; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; McGee, Paula Friedenberg; Battelino, Tadej; Haastert, Burkhard; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Pozzilli, Paolo; Lachin, John M; Kolb, Hubert

    2008-10-01

    Beta-cell function in type 1 diabetes clinical trials is commonly measured by C-peptide response to a secretagogue in either a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) or a glucagon stimulation test (GST). The Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Research Group and the European C-peptide Trial (ECPT) Study Group conducted parallel randomized studies to compare the sensitivity, reproducibility, and tolerability of these procedures. In randomized sequences, 148 TrialNet subjects completed 549 tests with up to 2 MMTT and 2 GST tests on separate days, and 118 ECPT subjects completed 348 tests (up to 3 each) with either two MMTTs or two GSTs. Among individuals with up to 4 years' duration of type 1 diabetes, >85% had measurable stimulated C-peptide values. The MMTT stimulus produced significantly higher concentrations of C-peptide than the GST. Whereas both tests were highly reproducible, the MMTT was significantly more so (R(2) = 0.96 for peak C-peptide response). Overall, the majority of subjects preferred the MMTT, and there were few adverse events. Some older subjects preferred the shorter duration of the GST. Nausea was reported in the majority of GST studies, particularly in the young age-group. The MMTT is preferred for the assessment of beta-cell function in therapeutic trials in type 1 diabetes.

  1. Nutritional assessment of a jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2011-06-01

    The mature jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is consumed in Sri Lanka either as a main meal or a meal accompaniment. However, there is no scientific data on the nutrient compositions of cooked jackfruit meals. Thus, the objective of the study was to carry out a nutritional assessment of a composite jackfruit breakfast meal comprising seeds and flesh. A jackfruit meal comprising of flesh (80% available carbohydrate) and seeds (20% available carbohydrate) was included in the study. The study was carried out in a random cross over design. Setting University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Study participants Healthy individuals (n=10, age: 20-30 yrs). The macronutrient contents, rapidly and slowly available glucose (SAG) contents, water solubility index of the jackfruit meal were determined according to standard methods. The GI of the meal was calculated according to FAO/WHO guidelines. The moisture content of the boiled jackfruit flesh was high (82% FW). Jack seeds contained 4.7% protein (FW), 11.1% total dietary fibre (FW) and 8% resistant starch (FW). Jackfruit meal elicited a GI of 75. The Glycaemic Load (GL) of the normal serving size of the meal is medium. The slowly available glucose (SAG) percentage of jackfruit meal (30%) was twice that of the standard. The boiled jackfruit flesh contained disintegrated starch granules while seeds contained intact swollen and disintegrated granules. The jackfruit seeds are a good source of starch (22%) and dietary fibre. The meal is categorized as a low GI meal. The low GI could be dueto the collective contributions from dietary fibre, slowly available glucose and un-gelatinised (intact) starch granules in the seeds.

  2. Gastronomic nostalgia: Salvadoran immigrants' cravings for their ideal meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowers, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    Immigrants typically express cravings for the food of their homeland, but for undocumented and temporarily documented Salvadoran immigrants living in the United States, the hunger for their traditional cuisine is particularly poignant. To cope with a history of food scarcity in El Salvador and their documentation liminality in the United States, Salvadoran immigrants in this study crave symbolically rich foods. Salvadoran women provide these foods by recreating for their families an ideal Salvadoran meal into which they "groom" meanings of an imagined past and a hoped for present and future. Salvadoran immigrants' cravings, more cultural than physiological, are not readily satisfied, thus contributing to the overconsumption of food and the high rate of overweight among first-generation Salvadoran-American children.

  3. Canola meal on starting pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Peñuela-Sierra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional values and evaluate the performance of piglets fed on canola meal. In experiment I, a digestibility assay was conducted using fourteen barrow pigs, with an initial body weight of 20.62±3.30 kg. The evaluated feedstuff was canola meal, with a level of 250 g/kg in the basal diet (corn + soybean meal-based. The experimental unit consisted of one pig, with a total of seven experimental units per diet. The values as (fed basis of digestible (DE and metabolizable (ME energy of canola meal were 2,995 kcal/kg and 2,796 kcal/kg, respectively. In experiment II, ileal digestibility assays were carried out to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility coefficient and digestible amino acids. Three crossbred pigs were used, with a BW of 38.6±1.98 kg. The treatments consisted of two diets, with a single source of protein (canola meal and one protein-free diet (OFD. The values of digestible amino acids in canola meal were as follows: lysine: 11.8 g/kg; methionine+cystine: 9.1 g/kg; threonine: 7.9 g/kg; tryptophan: 2.4 g/kg; leucine: 15.7 g/kg; and isoleucine: 8.7 g/kg. In experiment III, 60 piglets (BW= 15.08±0.72 kg to 30.26±2.78 kg were allotted in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four diets with increasing levels of canola meal (50, 100, 150 and 200 g/kg, six replicates and experimental unit consisted of two pigs. Additionally, a control diet was formulated containing 0.0 g/kg CM. Regression analysis indicates that there was no effect (P?0.05 of the level of canola meal inclusion on pigs performance. The performance results suggest that it is feasible to use up to 200 g/kg of canola meal in starting pigs diet, without impairing performance and the feeding cost.

  4. Novel test of modified Newtonian dynamics with gas rich galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, Stacy S

    2011-03-25

    The current cosmological paradigm, the cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant, requires that the mass-energy of the Universe be dominated by invisible components: dark matter and dark energy. An alternative to these dark components is that the law of gravity be modified on the relevant scales. A test of these ideas is provided by the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation (BTFR), an empirical relation between the observed mass of a galaxy and its rotation velocity. Here, I report a test using gas rich galaxies for which both axes of the BTFR can be measured independently of the theories being tested and without the systematic uncertainty in stellar mass that affects the same test with star dominated spirals. The data fall precisely where predicted a priori by the modified Newtonian dynamics. The scatter in the BTFR is attributable entirely to observational uncertainty, consistent with a single effective force law.

  5. Dietary supplementation of defatted kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed meal and its phenolics-saponins rich extract effectively attenuates diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kim Wei; Ismail, Maznah; Mohd Esa, Norhaizan; Imam, Mustapha Umar; Ooi, Der Jiun; Khong, Nicholas M H

    2018-02-21

    Kenaf is one of the important commercial fiber crops worldwide and defatted kenaf seed meal (DKSM) is a secondary by-product from the kenaf industry. Thus, efforts to turn this low-cost agricultural waste into value-added functional food ingredients will definitely bring advantageous impacts to the community health, environment and economy. The present study was aimed to investigate the cardioprotective properties of DKSM and its phenolics-saponins rich extract (PSRE) in diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rat model. Hypercholesterolemia was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats via atherogenic diet feeding and dietary interventions were conducted by incorporating DKSM (15% and 30%) and equivalent levels of PSRE (2.3% and 4.6%, respectively, equivalent to the total content of phenolics and saponins in DKSM groups) into the atherogenic diets. After 10 weeks of DKSM and PSRE supplementation, the hepatosomatic index, hepatosteatosis, serum lipid profile, Castelli risk indexes as well as hepatic and renal functions of hypercholesterolemic rats were significantly improved (p 0.05), but superiorly upregulated by PSRE (p < 0.05). The combined results showed that hypercholesterolemia and the atherogenic risk in rats were effectively attenuated by DKSM and PSRE supplementation, possibly via modulations of multiple vital processes in hepatic cholesterol metabolism. Furthermore, phenolics and saponins may be the bioactives conferring DKSM and PSRE with their anti-hypercholesterolemic properties. In conclusion, DKSM and PSRE are prospective cardioprotective functional food ingredients for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  6. A Sulfur Amino Acid–Free Meal Increases Plasma Lipids in Humans123

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Youngja; Le, Ngoc-Anh; Yu, Tianwei; Strobel, Fred; Gletsu-Miller, Nana; Accardi, Carolyn J.; Lee, Kichun S.; Wu, Shaoxiong; Ziegler, Thomas R.; Jones, Dean P.

    2011-01-01

    The content of sulfur amino acid (SAA) in a meal affects postprandial plasma cysteine concentrations and the redox potential of cysteine/cystine. Because such changes can affect enzyme, transporter, and receptor activities, meal content of SAA could have unrecognized effects on metabolism during the postprandial period. This pilot study used proton NMR (1H-NMR) spectroscopy of human plasma to test the hypothesis that dietary SAA content changes macronutrient metabolism. Healthy participants (...

  7. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  8. Use of Sunflower Meal as a Substitute for Cottonseed Meal in Rations of Growing Lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, S.A.; EI-Fouly, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Eighteen growing male lambs with an average of 3 months old were randomly divided into three equal groups. Animals of each group were kept in separate shaded pen and fed one of the three tested rations as follows: 1st group fed ration one (RI): (CFM) concentrate feed mixture contained 30% cottonseed meal (CSM) + 0.00 sunflower meal (SFM). 2nd group fed ration two (RII): CFM contained 15% CSM + 15% SFM. 3rd group fed ration three (RIll): CFM contained 00.0% CSM + 30% SFM. Wheat straw was offered to the 3 experiment groups ad libitum. Lambs were weighed at the beginning of the experimental period then at two weeks intervals. At the end of the experimental period, four animals from each group were used to evaluate the nutrients digestibility and nutritive value of the experimental rations. Blood samples were taken each three weeks before feeding animals. The present study showed that lambs fed RII and RIll had significantly higher CP and EE digestibility values compared to those fed RI. % Nitrogen balance was currently higher for RIll than RI and RII. No significant differences among the tested blood serum parameters for the experimental lambs except for total protein, AST, triglycerides and cholesterol values. Average daily weight gain (ADG) and feed efficiency were better for RII and RIll than RI

  9. Standard Test Methods for Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Corrosion in Wrought, Nickel-Rich, Chromium-Bearing Alloys

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover two tests as follows: 1.1.1 Method A, Ferric Sulfate-Sulfuric Acid Test (Sections 3-10, inclusive)—This test method describes the procedure for conducting the boiling ferric sulfate—50 % sulfuric acid test which measures the susceptibility of certain nickel-rich, chromium-bearing alloys to intergranular corrosion (see Terminology G 15), which may be encountered in certain service environments. The uniform corrosion rate obtained by this test method, which is a function of minor variations in alloy composition, may easily mask the intergranular corrosion components of the overall corrosion rate on alloys N10276, N06022, N06059, and N06455. 1.1.2 Method B, Mixed Acid-Oxidizing Salt Test (Sections 11-18, inclusive)—This test method describes the procedure for conducting a boiling 23 % sulfuric + 1.2 % hydrochloric + 1 % ferric chloride + 1 % cupric chloride test which measures the susceptibility of certain nickel-rich, chromium-bearing alloys to display a step function increa...

  10. The large-area hybrid-optics CLAS12 RICH detector: Tests of innovative components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contalbrigo, M.; Baltzell, N.; Benmokhtar, F.; Barion, L.; Cisbani, E.; El Alaoui, A.; Hafidi, K.; Hoek, M.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lagamba, L.; Lucherini, V.; Malaguti, R.; Mirazita, M.; Montgomery, R.; Movsisyan, A.; Musico, P.; Orecchini, D.; Orlandi, A.; Pappalardo, L.L.; Pereira, S.

    2014-01-01

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Lab to study the 3D nucleon structure in the yet poorly explored valence region by deep-inelastic scattering, and to perform precision measurements in hadronization and hadron spectroscopy. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on an aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and densely packed and highly segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). The preliminary results of individual detector component tests and of the prototype performance at test-beams are reported here. - Highlights: • A novel hybrid-optics configuration was proven to work with a large RICH prototype. • Innovative RICH components were studied both in laboratory tests and test-beams. • Aerogel of large Rayleigh scattering length at n=1.05 was characterized. • Novel vs commercially available multi-anode photomultipliers were compared. • The response of SiPM matrices to Cherenkov light was tested at various temperatures

  11. The large-area hybrid-optics CLAS12 RICH detector: Tests of innovative components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contalbrigo, M., E-mail: contalbrigo@fe.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Baltzell, N. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Benmokhtar, F. [Christopher Newport University, VA (United States); Duquesne University, PA (United States); Barion, L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Cisbani, E. [INFN Sezione di Roma – Gruppo Collega to Sanità (Italy); Italian National Institute of Health (Italy); El Alaoui, A. [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile); Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Hafidi, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Hoek, M. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); J. Gutenberg Universität, Mainz (Germany); Kubarovsky, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, VA (United States); Lagamba, L. [INFN Sezione di Bari, University of Bari (Italy); Lucherini, V. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Malaguti, R. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Mirazita, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Montgomery, R. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Movsisyan, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Musico, P. [INFN Sezione di Genova (Italy); Orecchini, D.; Orlandi, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Pappalardo, L.L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Pereira, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); and others

    2014-12-01

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Lab to study the 3D nucleon structure in the yet poorly explored valence region by deep-inelastic scattering, and to perform precision measurements in hadronization and hadron spectroscopy. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on an aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and densely packed and highly segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). The preliminary results of individual detector component tests and of the prototype performance at test-beams are reported here. - Highlights: • A novel hybrid-optics configuration was proven to work with a large RICH prototype. • Innovative RICH components were studied both in laboratory tests and test-beams. • Aerogel of large Rayleigh scattering length at n=1.05 was characterized. • Novel vs commercially available multi-anode photomultipliers were compared. • The response of SiPM matrices to Cherenkov light was tested at various temperatures.

  12. Substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers in the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Maza Ortega

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements on the nutritional characteristics and performance of beef heifers in their postweaning phase on Brachiaria decumbens pastures during the dry season. Twenty-four Nellore beef heifers (average initial age and weight of 8 mo and 210±6 kg, respectively were used. The design was completely randomized, with four treatments and six replicates. Supplements contained approximately 30% crude protein (CP and a progressive substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal (0, 50 and 100%. The control animals received only a mineral mixture ad libitum, and those on the other treatments received supplementation at 1.0 kg/animal/day. No differences were found in ADG between supplemented and control animals (P>0.10. Supplementation increased crude protein (CP intake only (P<0.10. The level of substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal did not affect (P>0.10 the intake of supplemented animals. Supplementation elevated the apparent digestibility coefficients (P<0.10 of OM, CP, NFC and TDN, but not EE or NDFap (P>0.10. A positive linear effect (P<0.10 of the level of substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed cake was observed on the digestibility of OM, NFC and TDN. Supplementation and the level of substitution had an effect (P<0.10 on the serum urea nitrogen and urine urea nitrogen contents. Supplementation or substitution level had no effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen to the intestine (MICN or efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS (P>0.10. Substitution caused a decreasing linear effect (P<0.10 on microbial nitrogen/nitrogen intake ratio (MICNR. In conclusion, substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements during the dry season does not impair the productive performance of beef heifers.

  13. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  14. Digestibility and pricing of Chlorella sorokiniana meal for use in tilapia feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Simões Coelho Barone

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Several microalgae contain in excess of 50 % crude protein with amino acid profile comparable to that of fish meal. In addition, high polyunsaturated fatty acid contents encourage their use in animal feeding and nutrition, particularly in the formulation and processing of aquafeeds. This study aims at estimating the feasibility of Chlorella meal as feed ingredient for the feeding and nutrition of farmed tilapia based upon digestibility data. Juvenile tilapia were stocked in conical-bottomed tanks (200 L with superficial, continuous water flow, and fed to apparent satiation in three daily meals with a reference diet and a test diet containing 30 % lyophilized Chlorella sorokiniana added of an inert marker. Feces were collected overnight by sedimentation in refrigerated, plastic containers coupled to the tanks and analyzed for determination of chemical composition and inert marker contents to estimate apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs of protein and energy of Chlorella meal; registered ADCs of Chlorella meal were 90.5 and 84.22, respectively. A pricing model considering the quantity of digestible nutrient was proposed based on ADCs of Chlorella and compared with the price of fishmeal (FM and soybean meal (SBM. The indicative prices to elicit the use of Chlorella as a protein source rather than FM or SBM for the feed and nutrition of tilapia were 2.65 USD kg−1 and 0.66 USD kg−1, respectively.

  15. Combustion characterization of rape seed meal and suggestions for optimal use in combustion appliances; Foerbraenningskarakterisering av rapsmjoel och foerslag till optimalt nyttjande i olika foerbraenningsanlaeggningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Gunnar; Hedman, Henry; Oehman, Marcus; Bostroem, Dan; Pettersson, Esbjoern; Pommer, Linda; Lindstroem, Erica; Backman, Rainer; Oehman, Rikard

    2007-12-15

    When rape oil is chemically extracted, rape seed meal, a solid residue remains. Currently, it is used as animal feed. Several plants for the production of rape methyl ester (RME, biodiesel) are in operation or under construction. Combustion properties have been studied for rape seed meal produced as a by product to rape-methyl esther (RME, biodiesel). Composition of the material has been measured, using proximate and ultimate analysis. The lower heating value was 18.2 +- 0.3 MJ/kg d.w. and the ash content was 7-8 percent d.w. The material is rich in nitrogen and sulphur. Concentrations of K, P, Ca and Mg are high in the fuel. Rape seed meal was mixed with bark and pelletised. Bark pellets were also used as a reference fuel. Pellets with 10 and 30 percent rape seed meal were produced. Material with 80 percent rape seed meal and 20 percent planer shavings was also pelletised. Wood had to be added to provide enough friction in the pelletising process, with adapted equipment rape seed meal could probably be easily pelletised). The material was studied using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), and compared with data from tests with wood powder. The pyrolysis of the rape seed meal has a characteristic temperature of 320 deg C. Devolatilisation starts at 150 deg C (at a lower temperature than for wood powder), and proceeds within a rather wide temperature range. The probable cause is the difference in organic content, in particular protein content. The result does not suggest that the material will be difficult to ignite. Experiments in a bench-scale fluidised bed (5 kW) showed that pellets containing only bark, and the mixture rape seed meal/wood had a bed agglomeration temperature well over the normal operational bed temperature. For the fuel mixtures rape seed meal and bark, the agglomeration temperature was slightly over the operational temperature. Particle emissions from fluidised bed combustion and grate combustion were, the latter simulated using a commercial

  16. Effects of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mofleh S. Awawdeh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with xylose-treated soybean meal (soypass meal; SPM on performance of nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs. In Experiment 1, lasting for eight weeks, 39 Awassi ewes and their lambs were randomly assigned to three diets. Diets were formulated by replacing soybean meal from the basal diet (CON-SBM; n=13 with 50% (50% SPM; n=13 and 100% (100% SPM; n=13 SPM. Initial and final weights of the ewes were not different (P>0.55 among diets. Total gain and average daily gain (ADG of lambs were similar (P=0.44 among diets. Ewes fed the CON-SBM diet tended (P0.38 in milk component percentages among diets were observed. In Experiment 2, lasting for 63 days, twenty weaned lambs were used to determine the effects of replacing soybean meal with SPM on growth performance. Diets were either soybean meal (SBM; n=10 or SPM (SPM; n=10. Nutrient intake and digestibility were not different between diets. However, rumen undegradable protein intake was greater (P0.05 between the diets. Results suggest that replacement of soybean meal with soypass meal is not likely to produce any production benefits in nursing Awassi ewes and fattening lambs except for the slight improvement of milk yield.

  17. Replacement of Soybean Meal with Animal Origin Protein Meals Improved Ramoplanin A2 Production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, Deniz; Kayali, Hulya Ayar

    2016-09-01

    Ramoplanin A2 is the last resort antibiotic for treatment of many high morbidity- and mortality-rated hospital infections, and it is expected to be marketed in the forthcoming years. Therefore, high-yield production of ramoplanin A2 gains importance. In this study, meat-bone meal, poultry meal, and fish meal were used instead of soybean meal for ramoplanin A2 production by Actinoplanes sp. ATCC 33076. All animal origin nitrogen sources stimulated specific productivity. Ramoplanin A2 levels were determined as 406.805 mg L(-1) in fish meal medium and 374.218 mg L(-1) in poultry meal medium. These levels were 4.25- and 4.09-fold of basal medium, respectively. However, the total yield of poultry meal was higher than that of fish meal, which is also low-priced. In addition, the variations in pH levels, protein levels, reducing sugar levels, extracellular protease, amylase and lipase activities, and intracellular free amino acid levels were monitored during the incubation period. The correlations between ramoplanin production and these variables with respect to the incubation period were determined. The intracellular levels of L-Phe, D-Orn, and L-Leu were found critical for ramoplanin A2 production. The strategy of using animal origin nitrogen sources can be applied for large-scale ramoplanin A2 production.

  18. 21 CFR 137.280 - Bolted yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted yellow corn meal. 137.280 Section 137.280... Flours and Related Products § 137.280 Bolted yellow corn meal. Bolted yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.255 for bolted white corn meal except that cleaned...

  19. Effect of solid-meal caloric content on gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, J L; Siegel, J A; Mortelmans, L; van Cutsem, E; van den Maegdenbergh, V; de Roo, M

    1989-08-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the effect of the caloric content of a physiological test meal on the gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids. 22 healthy male volunteers were studied in two groups matched for age. After an overnight fast, each volunteer underwent the same test procedure; in the first group (G I), 10 volunteers received a meal consisting of bread, 111In-DTPA water and 1 scrambled egg labeled with 99mTc-labelled sulphur colloid; in the second group (G II) 12 volunteers were given the same meal but with 2 labeled eggs in order to increase the caloric content of the solid phase meal. Simultaneous anterior and posterior images were recorded using a dual-headed gamma camera. Solid and liquid geometric mean data were analyzed to determine the lag phase, the emptying rate and the half-emptying time for both solids and liquids. Solid and liquid gastric half-emptying times were significantly prolonged in G II compared to G I volunteers. For the solid phased, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and a decrease in the equilibrium emptying rate. The emptying rate of the liquid phase was significantly decreased in G II compared to G I. Within each group, no statistically significant difference was observed between solid and liquid emptying rates. We conclude that the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only alters the emptying of the solid phase but also affects the emptying of the liquid component of the meal.

  20. Effect of solid-meal caloric content on gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.; Mortelmans, L.; Cutsem, E. van; Maegdenbergh, V. van den; Roo, M. de

    1989-01-01

    In this study, we have evaluated the effect of the caloric content of a physiological test meal on the gastric emptying kinetics of solids and liquids. 22 healthy male volunteers were studied in two groups matched for age. After an overnight fast, each volunteer underwent the same test procedure; in the first group (G I), 10 volunteers received a meal consisting of bread, 111 In-DTPA water and 1 scrambled egg labeled with 99m Tc-labelled sulphur colloid; in the second group (G II) 12 volunteers were given the same meal but with 2 labeled eggs in order to increase the caloric content of the solid phase meal. Simultaneous anterior and posterior images were recorded using a dual-headed gamma camera. Solid and liquid geometric mean data were analyzed to determine the lag phase, the emptying rate and the half-emptying time for both solids and liquids. Solid and liquid gastric half-emptying times were significantly prolonged in G II compared to G I volunteers. For the solid phased, the delay was accounted for by a longer lag phase and a decrease in the equilibrium emptying rate. The emptying rate of the liquid phase was significantly decreased in G II compared to G I. Within each group, no statistically significant difference was observed between solid and liquid emptying rates. We conclude that the caloric content of the solid portion of a meal not only alters the emptying of the solid phase but also affects the emptying of the liquid component of the meal. (orig.) [de

  1. The Protective Role of Family Meals for Youth Obesity: 10-year Longitudinal Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M.; Wall, Melanie; Hsueh, Tsun-Fang; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine whether having family meals as an adolescent protects against becoming overweight or obese 10 years later as a young adult. Study design Data from Project EAT-III, a longitudinal cohort study with emerging young adults, were used. At baseline (1998-1999) adolescents completed surveys in middle or high schools and at 10-year follow-up (2008-2009) surveys were completed online or via mailed surveys. Young adult participants (n=2117) were racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse (52% minority; 38% low income) between the ages of 19-31 (mean age=25.3; 55% female). Logistic regression was used to associate weight status at follow-up with family meal frequency 10-years earlier during adolescence, controlling and testing for interactions with demographic characteristics. Results All levels of baseline family meal frequency (i.e., 1-2, 3-4, ≥5 family meals/week) during adolescence were significantly associated with reduced odds of overweight or obesity ten years later in young adulthood as compared with never having family meals as an adolescent. Interactions by race indicated that family meals had a stronger protective effect for obesity in black versus white young adults. Conclusions Family meals during adolescence were protective against the development of overweight and obesity in young adulthood. Professionals who work with adolescents and parents may want to strategize with them how to successfully carry out at least one to two family meals per week in order to protect adolescents from overweight or obesity in young adulthood. PMID:25266343

  2. Deep hydraulic tests in a large earth-slide rich in clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchetti, Francesco; Piccinini, Leonardo; Deiana, Manuela; Corsini, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Different hydraulic tests have been conducted and replicated in a large earth slide characterized by a landslide body that is rich in clay, has a mean thickness of 30 meters, and is located in the Northern Apennines, Italy. All the tests were performed to estimate the hydrogeological properties of the landslide and to design future mitigation measures. To define the geometry of the sliding mass, the stratigraphy in more than 15 boreholes was analyzed. The boreholes were subsequently equipped with inclinometers and open standpipe piezometers. According to the stratigraphy, the landslide body is characterized by the presence of gravel layers in a clay-rich matrix. This study compares the results from the different techniques applied to 2 boreholes, 5 open standpipe piezometers and 1 well. The number of tests performed for each test type were 31 slug tests (ST), 4 falling head tests (FT), 5 low-flow pumping tests (PT), 1 point dilution (PD) test, and 2 aquifer tests (AT). Moreover, the test data was evaluated with different solutions. The ST data was evaluated with the Hvorslev and KGS solutions; the FT data was evaluated with the AGI and Hvorslev solutions; the PT data was evaluated with the Muskat solutions; the AT data was evaluated with the Theis, Cooper-Jacob, Neuman, Moench and Tartakosky-Neuman solutions; and the PD test data was evaluated with the classical solution where Darcy velocity is calculated as a function of the rate of dilution. The results show that hydraulic conductivity (K), storage (S) and specific storage (Ss) vary in the horizontal plane and with the depth (K ranges between 1.0E-5 and 1.0E-8 m/s; S ranges between 4.0E-3 and 5E-5; and Ss ranges between 1.0E-3 and 3.0E-3 1/m). The horizontal and vertical variability is correlated with the lithologic heterogeneity highlighted by the borehole stratigraphy. Moreover, all the hydraulic tests conducted on the landslide body give highly consistent results. Comparison of results derived from different

  3. Stearic acid-rich interesterified fat and trans-rich fat raise the LDL/HDL ratio and plasma glucose relative to palm olein in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karupaiah Tilakavati

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary trans-rich and interesterified fats were compared to an unmodified saturated fat for their relative impact on blood lipids and plasma glucose. Each fat had melting characteristics, plasticity and solids fat content suitable for use as hardstock in margarine and other solid fat formulations. Methods Thirty human volunteers were fed complete, whole food diets during 4 wk periods, where total fat (~31% daily energy, >70% from the test fats and fatty acid composition were tightly controlled. A crossover design was used with 3 randomly-assigned diet rotations and repeated-measures analysis. One test fat rotation was based on palm olein (POL and provided 12.0 percent of energy (%en as palmitic acid (16:0; a second contained trans-rich partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO and provided 3.2 %en as trans fatty acids plus 6.5 %en as 16:0, while the third used an interesterified fat (IE and provided 12.5 %en as stearic acid (18:0. After 4 wk the plasma lipoproteins, fatty acid profile, as well as fasting glucose and insulin were assessed. In addition, after 2 wk into each period an 8 h postprandial challenge was initiated in a subset of 19 subjects who consumed a meal containing 53 g of test fat. Results After 4 wk, both PHSO and IE fats significantly elevated both the LDL/HDL ratio and fasting blood glucose, the latter almost 20% in the IE group relative to POL. Fasting 4 wk insulin was 10% lower after PHSO (p > 0.05 and 22% lower after IE (p Conclusion Both PHSO and IE fats altered the metabolism of lipoproteins and glucose relative to an unmodified saturated fat when fed to humans under identical circumstances.

  4. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal or ...

  5. Preventing gastric sieving by blending a solid/water meal enhances satiation in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciani, Luca; Hall, Nicholas; Pritchard, Susan E; Cox, Eleanor F; Totman, John J; Lad, Mita; Hoad, Caroline L; Foster, Tim J; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C

    2012-07-01

    Separation of solids and liquids within the stomach allows faster gastric emptying of liquids compared with solids, a phenomenon known as sieving. We tested the hypothesis that blending a solid and water meal would abolish sieving, preventing the early rapid decrease in gastric volume and thereby enhancing satiety. We carried out 2 separate studies. Study 1 was a 2-way, crossover, satiety study of 22 healthy volunteers who consumed roasted chicken and vegetables with a glass of water (1008 kJ) or the same blended to a soup. They completed satiety visual analogue scales at intervals for 3 h. Study 2 was a 2-way, crossover, mechanistic study of 18 volunteers who consumed the same meals and underwent an MRI to assess gastric emptying, gallbladder contraction, and small bowel water content (SBWC) at intervals for 3 h. In Study 1, the soup meal was associated with reduced hunger (P = 0.02). In Study 2, the volume of the gastric contents after the soup meal decreased more slowly than after the solid/liquid meal (P = 0.0003). The soup meal caused greater gallbladder contraction (P < 0.04). SBWC showed a biphasic response with an initial "gastric" phase during which SBWC was greater when the solid/liquid meal was consumed (P < 0.001) and a later "small bowel" phase when SBWC was greater when the soup meal was consumed (P < 0.01). Blending the solid/liquid meal to a soup delayed gastric emptying and increased the hormonal response to feeding, which may contribute to enhanced postprandial satiety.

  6. Effect of particle size distribution of maize and soybean meal on the precaecal amino acid digestibility in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegert, W; Ganzer, C; Kluth, H; Rodehutscord, M

    2018-02-01

    1. Herein, it was investigated whether different particle size distributions of feed ingredients achieved by grinding through a 2- or 3-mm grid would have an effect on precaecal (pc) amino acid (AA) digestibility. Maize and soybean meal were used as the test ingredients. 2. Maize and soybean meal was ground with grid sizes of 2 or 3 mm. Nine diets were prepared. The basal diet contained 500 g/kg of maize starch. The other experimental diets contained maize or soybean meal samples at concentrations of 250 and 500, and 150 and 300 g/kg, respectively, instead of maize starch. Each diet was tested using 6 replicate groups of 10 birds each. The regression approach was applied to calculate the pc AA digestibility of the test ingredients. 3. The reduction of the grid size from 3 to 2 mm reduced the average particle size of both maize and soybean meal, mainly by reducing the proportion of coarse particles. Reducing the grid size significantly (P digestibility of all AA in the soybean meal. In maize, reducing the grid size decreased the pc digestibility of all AA numerically, but not significantly (P > 0.050). The mean numerical differences in pc AA digestibility between the grid sizes were 0.045 and 0.055 in maize and soybean meal, respectively. 4. Future studies investigating the pc AA digestibility should specify the particle size distribution and should investigate the test ingredients ground similarly for practical applications.

  7. Preparing meals under time stress. The experience of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshara, Monica; Hutchinson, Amanda; Wilson, Carlene

    2010-12-01

    The present study quantitatively explored the effects of mothers' perceived time pressure, as well as meal-related variables including mothers' convenience orientation and meal preparation confidence, on the healthiness of evening meals served to school-aged children (5-18 years old) over a 7-day period. A sample of 120 employed mothers, who identified themselves as the chief meal-preparers in their households, completed a brief, self-report, meal-related questionnaire. Results revealed that mothers' perceived time pressure did not significantly predict meal healthiness. Mothers' confidence in their ability to prepare a healthy meal was the only unique, significant predictor of a healthy evening meal. Mothers who were more confident in their ability to prepare a healthy meal served healthier evening meals than those who were less confident. In addition, mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation were negatively related to healthy meal preparation confidence. Results suggest that mothers' perceived time pressure and convenience orientation, may indirectly compromise meal healthiness, by decreasing mothers' meal preparation confidence. Practical and theoretical implications of the study's findings are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of meals rich in either monounsaturated or saturated fat on lipid concentrations and on insulin secretion and action in subjects with high fasting triglyceride concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Ortega, Almudena; Varela, Lourdes M; Pacheco, Yolanda M; Villar, Jose; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco J G

    2011-03-01

    The nature of dietary fats and fasting concentrations of triglycerides affect postprandial hypertriglyceridemia and glucose homeostasis. The objectives were to examine the effects of meals enriched in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) or saturated fatty acids (SFAs) on postprandial lipid, glucose, and insulin concentrations and to examine the extent of β cell function and insulin sensitivity in subjects with high fasting triglyceride concentrations. Fourteen men with fasting hypertriglyceridemia and normal glucose tolerance were given meals (≈10 kcal/kg body weight) containing MUFAs, SFAs, or no fat. Blood samples were collected at baseline and hourly over 8 h for analysis. The high-fat meals significantly increased postprandial concentrations of triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids, and insulin and postprandial indexes of β cell function. However, postprandial indexes of insulin sensitivity decreased significantly. These effects were significantly attenuated with MUFAs relative to SFAs. MUFAs postprandially buffered β cell hyperactivity and insulin intolerance relative to SFAs in subjects with high fasting triglyceride concentrations. These data suggest that, in contrast with SFAs, MUFA-based strategies may provide cardiovascular benefits to persons at risk by limiting lipid and insulin excursions and may contribute to optimal glycemic control after meal challenges.

  9. The role of music therapy in reducing post meal related anxiety for patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibb, Jennifer; Castle, David; Newton, Richard

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that mealtime is anxiety provoking for patients with Anorexia Nervosa. However, there is little research into effective interventions for reducing meal related anxiety in an inpatient setting. This study compared the levels of distress and anxiety of patients with Anorexia Nervosa pre and post music therapy, in comparison to standard post meal support therapy. Data was collected using the Subjective Units of Distress (SUDS) scale which was administered pre and post each condition. A total of 89 intervention and 84 control sessions were recorded. Results from an unpaired t-test analysis indicated statistically significant differences between the music therapy and supported meal conditions. Results indicated that participation in music therapy significantly decreases post meal related anxiety and distress in comparison to standard post meal support therapy. This research provides support for the use of music therapy in this setting as an effective clinical intervention in reducing meal related anxiety.

  10. [School meals: planning, production, distribution, and adequacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Raquel Carvalho; Moraes, Letícia Freitas; Francisco, Raquel Rocha Jabour; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; dos Anjos, Adriana Fernandez Versiani; Pereira, Simone Cardoso Lisboa

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the planning, production, distribution, and nutritional adequacy of meals served at city schools. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2011 and April 2012 and included a representative sample (n = 42 schools) of extended shift city schools from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Five meals from each school were randomly selected and analyzed by direct weighing. Production indicators and nutritional adequacy were evaluated in contrast to the recommendations of the city food security bureau and the Brazilian National Program of School Meals (PNAE). Seventy-nine percent of the analyzed meals did not meet the recommendations of the city food security bureau. The rate of waste (food left on plates) was acceptable at 4,90%, but the rates of cooked and not served food (7,06%) and counter leftovers (5,30%) were high. Both the city planned meals and the meals served in the schools were nutritionally inadequate in terms of the PNAE, particularly for children aged 11-15 years. There was a relationship between consumption by school staff and the amount of food that was cooked (r = 0.353; P planning, production, and distribution of school meals and of food and nutrition education in order to improve the quality of food and to reduce waste in schools.

  11. 7 CFR 226.20 - Requirements for meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., respectively) for the meal pattern requirements contained in this section. (p) Family-style meal service. Meals may be served in a family-style setting. (q) Offer versus serve. (1) Each adult day care center shall..., 1983] Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 226.20, see the List of CFR Sections...

  12. Meal frequency and timing: impact on metabolic disease risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varady, Krista A

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the most recent human intervention trials that have examined the impact of meal frequency or meal timing on metabolic disease risk factors. Findings from intervention studies published over the past 12 months indicate that weight loss may be more pronounced with decreased meal frequency (two meals per day) versus increased meal frequency (six meals per day) under hypocaloric conditions. However, under isocaloric conditions, no effect on body weight was noted. Plasma lipid concentrations and glucoregulatory factors (fasting glucose, insulin, and insulin sensitivity) were not affected by alterations in meal frequency. As for meal timing, delaying the lunchtime meal by 3.5 h (from 1.30 p.m. to 4.30 p.m.) has no impact on body weight, but may impair glucose tolerance in young healthy adults. In sum, altering meal frequency has little impact on body weight, plasma lipids, or glucoregulatory factors, whereas eating the majority of calories later in the day may be detrimental for glycemic control. These preliminary findings, however, still require confirmation by longer term, larger scale controlled trials.

  13. Oro-cecal transit time : influence of a subsequent meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, MG; Wachters-Hagedoorn, RE; Stellaard, F; Heiner, AM; Elzinga, H; Vonk, RJ

    Background Small intestinal and oro-cecal transit time (OCTT) is determined for clinical diagnostics and research purposes. Experimental protocols used vary with respect to the inclusion of a subsequent meal during the test period. This study was conducted to elucidate whether the ingestion of a

  14. Growth performance of sea bass fed increasing levels of pea-wheat protein in diets varying in fish meal quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tibaldi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A 11-week trial was carried out to compare the growth performance of sea bass (D. labrax fed six isonitrogenous isocaloric diets where protein from two fish meals of different nutritive value was replaced with graded levels (0, 50 or 75% of a mixture made up by a pea protein concentrate and wheat gluten. Fish meal quality did not affect (P>0.05 weight gain or feed efficiency in fish fed graded levels of plant protein in the diet. Feed intake decreased (P<0.05 as the level of plant protein was increased in the diet but this did not led to impaired growth or feed conversion rate. Protein efficiency and retention were equally improved (P<0.05 only with diets where a poor quality fish meal was substituted by protein rich-plant ingredients. Calculations based on the mass balance of nutrients of sea bass proven the inclusion of a mixture of highly purified plant-protein derivatives in complete diets for the sea bass, to be beneficial in reducing pollution load.

  15. The epidemiology of family meals among Ohio's adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumin, Rachel; Anderson, Sarah E

    2015-06-01

    The epidemiology of family meals among adults at a population level is poorly characterized and whether living with children impacts this health behaviour is uncertain. We determined the prevalence of family meals among US adults in a mid-western state whose families did and did not include minor children and described how it varied by sociodemographic characteristics. The cross-sectional 2012 Ohio Medicaid Assessment Survey is representative of Ohio adults and included questions on their sociodemographic characteristics and the frequency with which they eat family meals at home. Trained interviewers administered landline and cell phone surveys to adults sampled from Ohio's non-institutionalized population. We analysed data from 5766 adults living with minor children and 8291 adults not living alone or with children. The prevalence of family meals was similar for adults who did and did not live with minor children: 47 % (95 % CI 46, 49 %) of adults living with and 51 % (95 % CI 50, 53 %) of adults living without children reported eating family meals on most (six or seven) days of the week. Family meal frequency varied by race/ethnicity, marital and employment status in both groups. Non-Hispanic African-American adults, those who were not married and those who were employed ate family meals less often. Adults in Ohio frequently shared meals with their family and family meal frequency was not strongly related to living with children. Broadening the scope of future studies to include adults who are not parents could enhance our understanding of the potential health benefits of sharing meals.

  16. Enhancing Linkages Between Healthy Diets, Local Agriculture, and Sustainable Food Systems: The School Meals Planner Package in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Meenakshi; Galloway, Rae; Gelli, Aulo; Mumuni, Daniel; Hamdani, Salha; Kiamba, Josephine; Quarshie, Kate; Bhatia, Rita; Aurino, Elisabetta; Peel, Francis; Drake, Lesley

    2016-12-01

    Interventions that enhance linkages between healthy diets and local agriculture can promote sustainable food systems. Home-grown school feeding programs present a promising entry point for such interventions, through the delivery of nutritious menus and meals. To describe the adaptation of the School Meals Planner Package to the programmatic and environmental reality in Ghana during the 2014 to 2015 school year. Guided by a conceptual framework highlighting key considerations and trade-offs in menu design, an open-source software was developed that could be easily understood by program implementers. Readily available containers from markets were calibrated into "handy measures" to support the provision of adequate quantities of food indicated by menus. Schools and communities were sensitized to the benefits of locally sourced, nutrient-rich diets. A behavior change communication campaign including posters and songs promoting healthy diets was designed and disseminated in schools and communities. The School Meals Planner Package was introduced in 42 districts in Ghana, reaching more than 320 000 children. Monitoring reports and feedback on its use were positive, demonstrating how the tool can be used by planners and implementers alike to deliver nutritious, locally-sourced meals to schoolchildren. The value of the tool has been recognized at the highest levels by Ghana's government who have adopted it as official policy. The School Meals Planner Package supported the design of nutritious, locally sourced menus for the school feeding program in Ghana. The tool can be similarly adapted for other countries to meet context-specific needs. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. High rate tests of the LHCb RICH Upgrade system

    CERN Multimedia

    Blago, Michele Piero

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenges for the upgrade of the LHCb RICH detectors from 2020 is to readout the photon detectors at the full 40 MHz rate of the LHC proton-proton collisions. A test facility has been setup at CERN with the purpose to investigate the behaviour of the Multi Anode PMTs, which have been proposed for the upgrade, and their readout electronics at high trigger rates. The MaPMTs are illuminated with a monochromatic laser that can be triggered independently of the readout electronics. A first series of tests, including threshold scans, is performed at low trigger rates (20 kHz) for both the readout and the laser with the purpose to characterise the behaviour of the system under test. Then the trigger rate is increased in two separate steps. First the MaPMTs are exposed to high illumination by triggering the pulsed laser at a high (20 MHz) repetition rate while the DAQ is readout at the same low rate as before. In this way the performance of the MaPMTs and the attached electronics can be evaluated ...

  18. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried algae meal. 73.275 Section 73.275 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.275 Dried algae meal. (a) Identity. The color additive dried algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture broth...

  19. 'Snack' versus 'meal': The impact of label and place on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Jane; Wood, Chloe; Payne, Elise; Fouracre, Hollie; Lammyman, Frances

    2018-01-01

    Eating behaviour is influenced by both cognitions and triggers in the environment. The potential difference between a 'snack' and a 'meal' illustrates these factors and the way in which they interact, particularly in terms of the label used to describe food and the way it is presented. To date no research has specifically explored the independent and combined impact of label and presentation on eating behaviour. Using a preload/taste test design this experimental study evaluated the impact of label ('snack' vs. 'meal') and place ('snack' vs. 'meal') of a preload on changes in desire to eat and subsequent food intake. Eighty female participants consumed a pasta preload which labelled as either a 'snack' or a 'meal' and presented as either a 'snack' (standing and eating from a container) or a 'meal' (eating at a table from a plate), generating four conditions. The results showed main effects of label and place with participants consuming significantly more sweet mass (specifically chocolate) at the taste test when the preload had been labelled a 'snack' and more total mass and calories when the preload had been presented as a 'snack'. No label by place interactions were found. The results also showed a combined effect of both label and place with those who had eaten the preload both labelled and presented as a 'snack' consuming significantly more in terms of nearly all measures of food intake than those in the other conditions. To conclude, label and presentation influence subsequent food intake both independently and combined which is pertinent given the increase in 'snacking' in contemporary culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Design and test results of the AMS RICH detector

    CERN Document Server

    Casadei, D.

    2002-01-01

    The AMS-02 detector will operate for at least 3 years on the International Space Station, measuring cosmic ray spectra at about 400 km above sea level over a wide range of geomagnetic latitude. The proximity focusing ring imaging \\v{C}erenkov counter of AMS-02 will measure the particle velocity $\\beta$ with $\\approx 0.1%$ uncertainty, making possible to discriminate Beryllium isotopes up to about 15 GeV/nucl. In addition its charge measurement will allow to study the elemental composition of cosmic rays up to Iron. A prototype of the RICH detector was tested with cosmic rays and on a ion beam accelerated by SPS, at CERN (October 2002).

  1. Mixed-Meal Tolerance Test Versus Glucagon Stimulation Test for the Assessment of β-Cell Function in Therapeutic Trials in Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Carla J.; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; McGee, Paula Friedenberg; Battelino, Tadej; Haastert, Burkhard; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Pozzilli, Paolo; Lachin, John M.; Kolb, Hubert

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—β-Cell function in type 1 diabetes clinical trials is commonly measured by C-peptide response to a secretagogue in either a mixed-meal tolerance test (MMTT) or a glucagon stimulation test (GST). The Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Research Group and the European C-peptide Trial (ECPT) Study Group conducted parallel randomized studies to compare the sensitivity, reproducibility, and tolerability of these procedures. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—In randomized sequences, 148 TrialNet subjects completed 549 tests with up to 2 MMTT and 2 GST tests on separate days, and 118 ECPT subjects completed 348 tests (up to 3 each) with either two MMTTs or two GSTs. RESULTS—Among individuals with up to 4 years’ duration of type 1 diabetes, >85% had measurable stimulated C-peptide values. The MMTT stimulus produced significantly higher concentrations of C-peptide than the GST. Whereas both tests were highly reproducible, the MMTT was significantly more so (R2 = 0.96 for peak C-peptide response). Overall, the majority of subjects preferred the MMTT, and there were few adverse events. Some older subjects preferred the shorter duration of the GST. Nausea was reported in the majority of GST studies, particularly in the young age-group. CONCLUSIONS—The MMTT is preferred for the assessment of β-cell function in therapeutic trials in type 1 diabetes. PMID:18628574

  2. Food Safety When Preparing Holiday Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Health Current: Remember Food Safety when Preparing Holiday Meals Services and Programs Regulation & Licensure Vital Records ... food safety is especially important as they prepare holiday meals. Many holiday dinners include meat and poultry, ...

  3. Meal-induced compositional changes in blood and saliva in persons with bulimia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe; Jensen, Allan Bardow; Astrup, Arne

    2008-01-01

    in controls before and after intake of a meal and whether these changes may be reflected in saliva. Design: Twenty women with bulimia nervosa and 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls participated. After an overnight fast, the subjects ate a standardized carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Whole saliva and blood...... were collected, and visual analogue scales for hunger and satiety were completed once before and continuously for 5 h after the breakfast. Results: A lower pre- and postprandial whole saliva flow rate was found in subjects with bulimia nervosa, which might have been attributable to a concomitant intake...

  4. School meals in children’s social life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye

    This dissertation explores the role of different school meal arrangements in children’s social life from a child’s perspective. The dissertation utilizes a school meal intervention carried out in Denmark in 2011-12 to compare the same group of children in different school meal arrangements, thereby...... overcoming typical challenges of comparison across school meal arrangements, such as differences across children, schools or countries. The dissertation builds on data from a four month field work in 4th grade, 26 semi-structured interviews with children, chefs, and teachers, and 834 children’s self...... in children’s evaluation of new food initiatives in school; that children meet conflicting approaches to food education depending on the context; and that the social powers of sharing and exchanging individual lunch packs could outweigh some of the benefits of a collective meal system. Overall...

  5. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriday, Danielle; Bosworth, Matthew L; Godinot, Nicolas; Martin, Nathalie; Forde, Ciarán G; Van Den Heuvel, Emmy; Appleton, Sarah L; Mercer Moss, Felix J; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2016-05-21

    Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12) attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i) video-recordings of the mouth and (ii) real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density) from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24) consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the "fast" or "slow" meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert). When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations) might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight.

  6. Variation in the Oral Processing of Everyday Meals Is Associated with Fullness and Meal Size; A Potential Nudge to Reduce Energy Intake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Ferriday

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory studies have demonstrated that experimental manipulations of oral processing can have a marked effect on energy intake. Here, we explored whether variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals could affect post-meal fullness and meal size. In Study 1, female participants (N = 12 attended the laboratory over 20 lunchtime sessions to consume a 400-kcal portion of a different commercially available pre-packaged meal. Prior to consumption, expected satiation was assessed. During each meal, oral processing was characterised using: (i video-recordings of the mouth and (ii real-time measures of plate weight. Hunger and fullness ratings were elicited pre- and post-consumption, and for a further three hours. Foods that were eaten slowly had higher expected satiation and delivered more satiation and satiety. Building on these findings, in Study 2 we selected two meals (identical energy density from Study 1 that were equally liked but maximised differences in oral processing. On separate days, male and female participants (N = 24 consumed a 400-kcal portion of either the “fast” or “slow” meal followed by an ad libitum meal (either the same food or a dessert. When continuing with the same food, participants consumed less of the slow meal. Further, differences in food intake during the ad libitum meal were not compensated at a subsequent snacking opportunity an hour later. Together, these findings suggest that variations in oral processing across a range of unmodified everyday meals can affect fullness after consuming a fixed portion and can also impact meal size. Modifying food form to encourage increased oral processing (albeit to a lesser extent than in experimental manipulations might represent a viable target for food manufacturers to help to nudge consumers to manage their weight.

  7. Television viewing, computer game play and book reading during meals are predictors of meal skipping in a cross-sectional sample of 12-, 14- and 16-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, Kathleen; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2010-04-01

    To examine whether television viewing, computer game playing or book reading during meals predicts meal skipping with the aim of watching television, playing computer games or reading books (media meal skipping). A cross-sectional study was conducted using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Analyses were controlled for age, gender and BMI. Data were obtained from a random sample of adolescents in Flanders, Belgium. Seven hundred and ten participants aged 12, 14 and 16 years. Of the participants, 11.8 % skipped meals to watch television, 10.5 % skipped meals to play computer games and 8.2 % skipped meals to read books. Compared with those who did not use these media during meals, the risk of skipping meals in order to watch television was significantly higher for those children who watched television during meals (2.9 times higher in those who watched television during at least one meal a day). The risk of skipping meals for computer game playing was 9.5 times higher in those who played computer games weekly or more while eating, and the risk of meal skipping in order to read books was 22.9 times higher in those who read books during meals less than weekly. The more meals the respondents ate with the entire family, the less likely they were to skip meals to watch television. The use of media during meals predicts meal skipping for using that same medium. Family meals appear to be inversely related to meal skipping for television viewing.

  8. Postprandial phase time influences the uptake of TAG from postprandial TAG-rich lipoproteins by THP-1 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello-Moruno, Rosana; Sinausia, Laura; Botham, Kathleen M; Montero, Emilio; Avella, Michael; Perona, Javier S

    2014-11-14

    Postprandial TAG-rich lipoproteins (TRL) can be taken up by macrophages, leading to the formation of foam cells, probably via receptor-mediated pathways. The present study was conducted to investigate whether the postprandial time point at which TRL are collected modulates this process. A meal containing refined olive oil was given to nine healthy young men and TRL were isolated from their serum at 2, 4 and 6 h postprandially. The lipid class and apoB compositions of TRL were determined by HPLC and SDS-PAGE, respectively. The accumulation of lipids in macrophages was determined after the incubation of THP-1 macrophages with TRL. The gene expression of candidate receptors was measured by real-time PCR. The highest concentrations of TAG, apoB48 and apoB100 in TRL were observed at 2 h after the consumption of the test meal. However, excessive intracellular TAG accumulation in THP-1 macrophages was observed in response to incubation with TRL isolated at 4 h, when their particle size (estimated as the TAG:apoB ratio) was intermediate. The abundance of mRNA transcripts in macrophages in response to incubation with TRL was down-regulated for LDL receptor (LDLR), slightly up-regulated for VLDL receptor and remained unaltered for LDLR-related protein, but no effect of the postprandial time point was observed. In contrast, the mRNA expression of scavenger receptors SRB1, SRA2 and CD36 was higher when cells were incubated with TRL isolated at 4 h after the consumption of the test meal. In conclusion, TRL led to excessive intracellular TAG accumulation in THP-1 macrophages, which was greater when cells were incubated with intermediate-sized postprandial TRL isolated at 4 h and was associated with a significant increase in the mRNA expression of scavenger receptors.

  9. A novel tool to predict food intake: the Visual Meal Creator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Adrian; Batey, Chris; Eves, Frank F; Blannin, Andrew K

    2014-08-01

    Subjective appetite is commonly measured using an abstract visual analogue scale (VAS) technique, that provides no direct information about desired portion size or food choice. The purpose of this investigation was to develop and validate a user-friendly tool - the Visual Meal Creator (VIMEC) - that would allow for independent, repeated measures of subjective appetite and provide a prediction of food intake. Twelve participants experienced dietary control over a 5-hour period to manipulate hunger state on three occasions (small breakfast (SB) vs. large breakfast (LB) vs. large breakfast + snacks (LB+S)). Appetite measures were obtained every 60 minutes using the VIMEC and VAS. At 4.5 hours, participants were presented with an ad libitum test meal, from which energy intake (EI) was measured. The efficacy of the VIMEC was assessed by its ability to detect expected patterns of appetite and its strength as a predictor of energy intake. Day-to-day reproducibility and test-retest repeatability were assessed. Between- and within-condition differences in VAS and VIMEC scores (represented as mm and kcal of the "created" meal, respectively) were significantly correlated with one another throughout. Between- and within-condition changes in appetite scores obtained with the VIMEC exhibited a stronger correlation with EI at the test meal than those obtained with VAS. Pearson correlation coefficients for within-condition comparisons were 0.951, 0.914 and 0.875 (all p < 0.001) for SB, LB and LB+S respectively. Correlation coefficients for between-condition differences in VIMEC and EI were 0.273, 0.940 (p < 0.001) and 0.525 (p < 0.05) for SB - LB+S, SB - LB and LB - LB+S respectively. The VIMEC exhibited a similar degree of reproducibility to VAS. These findings suggest that the VIMEC appears to be a stronger predictor of energy intake than VAS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of dietary fatty acids on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins in healthy male subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Anette; Holmer, G.; Lund, Pia

    2005-01-01

    interesterified test fats with equal amounts of palmitic acid ( P fat), stearic acid (S fat), trans-18: 1 isomers (T fat), oleic acid (O fat), or linoleic acid (L fat) were tested. Subjects: A total of 16 healthy, normolipidaemic males ( age 23 +/- 2 y) were recruited. Interventions: The participants ingested fat......Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of trans-18: 1 isomers compared to other fatty acids, especially saturates, on the postprandial fatty acid composition of triacylglycerols ( TAG) in chylomicrons and VLDL. Design: A randomised crossover experiment where five......-rich test meals ( 1 g fat per kg body weight) and the fatty acid profiles of chylomicron and VLDL TAG were followed for 8 h. Results: The postprandial fatty acid composition of chylomicron TAG resembled that of the ingested fats. The fatty acids in chylomicron TAG were randomly distributed among the three...

  11. The effect of meal size on gastric evacuation in whiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner

    1998-01-01

    Gastric evacuation experiments were performed on whiting Merlangius merlangus fed discrete meals of different sizes. Herring Clupea harengus, sandeel Ammodytes tobianus, common goby Pomatoschistus microps, and brown shrimp Crangon crangon were tested as prey. A simple power model to describe...

  12. Do healthy school meals affect illness, allergies and school attendance in 8- to 11-year-old children? A cluster-randomised controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, R P; Lauritzen, L; Ritz, C; Dyssegaard, C B; Astrup, A; Michaelsen, K F; Damsgaard, C T

    2015-05-01

    A nutritionally adequate diet in childhood is important for health and resistance of allergies and infections. This study explored the effects of school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre on school attendance, asthma, allergies and illness in 797 Danish 8- to 11-year-old children. No comparable studies conducted in high-income settings have been identified. The OPUS School Meal Study was a cluster-randomised cross-over trial. Children from third and fourth grades at nine Danish schools received school meals or usual packed lunch (control) for two 3-month periods. Occurrence and duration of illnesses, asthma and allergies during the last 14 days were recorded by parental questionnaires at baseline and after each 3-month period. Self-reported well-being was assessed by visual analogue scales. The school meals did not affect school attendance, parent-reported occurrence or duration of asthma and allergies or self-reported well-being. The most common symptoms of illness were stomach pain (24%), headache (28%) and cold (24%). A slightly higher number of children experienced headaches in the school meal (27%) compared with the control period (22%) (P=0.02). However, subgroup analyses showed that this effect was only seen in children eating school meals in the classroom (P=0.007), and not in common dining areas (P=0.2). No effect was found on other symptoms of illness. Provision of nutritionally balanced school meals did not affect school attendance, asthma, allergies, illness or well-being in 8- to 11-year-old children. The slight increase in occurrence of headaches seems to be related to the physical eating environment.

  13. Effects of whole grain rye crisp bread for breakfast on appetite and energy intake in a subsequent meal: two randomised controlled trails with different amounts of test foods and breakfast energy content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Tina; Åman, Per; Landberg, Rikard

    2014-03-25

    Fibre-rich rye products have been shown to have superior effects on self-reported appetite compared to white wheat bread and some studies have shown lower energy intake after subsequent meal. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of whole grain rye crisp bread (RB) versus refined wheat bread (WB) on appetite in two studies using different portion sizes and total energy intakes. Two randomised cross-over pre-load studies were conducted in 20 and 21 subjects, respectively. Appetite was rated by visual analogue scale (VAS) for 4 h. In both studies, participants were 39 ± 14 years old and had BMI 23 ± 3. The studies differed in terms of energy content of the breakfasts and proportion of energy from the treatment product as well as amount of test products. Differences between treatments within the two studies were evaluated using mixed models with repeated measures appropriate for cross-over designs. In Study one, hunger and desire to eat were significantly lower (P portion size was lower than in Study one and the test product constituted a larger proportion of the breakfast. Fullness was significantly higher after RB compared with WB (P portion was smaller and accounted for a larger proportion of the total energy intake of the breakfast.

  14. Prevalence and Correlates of Missing Meals Among High School Students-United States, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Zewditu; Eaton, Danice K; Lowry, Richard; Nihiser, Allison J; Foltz, Jennifer L

    2018-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates of missing meals among adolescents. The 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a cross-sectional study. School based. A nationally representative sample of 11 429 high school students. Breakfast, lunch, and dinner consumption; demographics; measured and perceived weight status; physical activity and sedentary behaviors; and fruit, vegetable, milk, sugar-sweetened beverage, and fast-food intake. Prevalence estimates for missing breakfast, lunch, or dinner on ≥1 day during the past 7 days were calculated. Associations between demographics and missing meals were tested. Associations of lifestyle and dietary behaviors with missing meals were examined using logistic regression controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, and grade. In 2010, 63.1% of students missed breakfast, 38.2% missed lunch, and 23.3% missed dinner; the prevalence was highest among female and non-Hispanic black students. Being overweight/obese, perceiving oneself to be overweight, and video game/computer use were associated with increased risk of missing meals. Physical activity behaviors were associated with reduced risk of missing meals. Students who missed breakfast were less likely to eat fruits and vegetables and more likely to consume sugar-sweetened beverages and fast food. Breakfast was the most frequently missed meal, and missing breakfast was associated with the greatest number of less healthy dietary practices. Intervention and education efforts might prioritize breakfast consumption.

  15. 固体发酵豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的复合菌筛选%Choose Complex Bacterium and Fungus as Fermentation Microform on Soybean Meal, Rapeseed Meal and Cottonseed Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓露芳; 范学珊; 王加启

    2012-01-01

    试验根据豆粕、菜粕和棉粕作为植物性蛋白饲料的营养特性,选择中性蛋白酶活较高的细菌和真菌作为发酵豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的菌种以改善豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的蛋白质品质.通过细菌和真菌的两两组合生长试验,分别筛选出适合发酵豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的最佳复合菌各一组.试验结果表明,发酵豆粕、菜粕和棉粕的最佳菌株组合为BS-2和Ao、BS-natto和Ao、BS-natto和Ao.%Based on nutrition characters on soybean meal, rapeseed meal and cotton seed meal, high neutral enzyme production of bacteria and fungus were chose to inoculate in them to improve their protein quality as animal feed. Compounded one bacterium strain and one fungus strain cultured together, chose the best group to ferment the soybean meal, rapeseed meal and cotton seed meal. The results showed the best groups were BS-2 and Ao for soybean meal, BS-natto and Ao for rapeseed meal, and BS-natto and Ao for cotton seed meal.

  16. Irradiation of ready made meals -Lasagne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkia, Ines

    2007-01-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on the microbiological, nutritional, chemical and sensory quality of chilled ready-made meals was assessed. The ready meals used for this experimental work are lasagne. Following arrival at the semi-industrial Cobalt 60 irradiation facility, the meals were either left unirradiated or irradiated with doses of 2 or 4 kGy after which they were stored for up to 23 days at 3C. Results showed that 2 or 4 kGy doses of gamma irradiation decreased the total counts of mesophilic aerobic bacteria and increased the shelf-life of lasagne. In terms of nutritional quality, it was found that losses of vitamin A and E due to irradiation treatment were considerable at 4 kGy. Total acidity, and p H, were all well within the acceptable limit for up to one week for ready meals treated with 2 and 4 kGy whereas peroxide index showed high values at 4 kGy. Sensory results showed no significant differences between the non-irradiated and irradiated meals at 2 kGy. However, the results were less promising at 4 kGy since differences were significant. (Author). 60 refs

  17. Meals and snacks from the child's perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husby, Ida; Heitmann, Berit L; O'Doherty Jensen, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the everyday consumption of meals and snacks from the child's perspective, among those with healthier v. less healthy dietary habits. DESIGN: The sample in this qualitative study comprised two groups of Danish schoolchildren aged 10 to 11 years, one with a healthier diet (n 9......) and the other with a less healthy diet (n 8). Both groups were recruited from respondents to a dietary survey. Semi-structured interviews took their starting point in photographs of their meals and snacks taken by the children themselves. RESULTS: Both subgroups of children had a meal pattern with three main...... meals and two to four snacks. We found a connection between the nutritional quality of the diet and the social contexts of consumption, especially with regard to snacks. Among children with healthier eating habits, both snacks and meals tended to be shared social events and items of poor nutritional...

  18. Haematology, Blood Chemistry and Carcass Characteristics of Growing Rabbits Fed Grasshopper Meal as a Substitute for Fish Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Njidda* and C. E. Isidahomen1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with grasshopper meal on haematology, blood chemistry and carcass characteristics of growing rabbits. Forty rabbits of mixed breeds, aged 6-10 weeks, were randomly assigned to the dietary treatments in a complete randomized design with eight rabbits per treatment. The rabbits were fed with diets containing 0, 1.25, 2.50, 3.75 and 5% grasshopper meal in diets designated as T1 (control, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period of nine weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, three rabbits per treatment were slaughtered for carcass evaluation, while blood samples were collected for analysis. The result of the experiment showed significant differences (P0.05 on haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC. The results also revealed significant differences (P0.05 on serum albumin and total protein. The results of carcass characteristics showed significant differences among treatments (P<0.05 for slaughter weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, skin pelt, tail, feet and abdominal fat. The slaughter weight and carcass weight were better in groups receiving 2.5% grass hopper meal (50% fish meal replacement. From the results, it can be concluded that inclusion of 2.50% grasshopper meal as a replacement for fish meal (50% replacement has no adverse effects on the haematological parameters, serum biochemistry and carcass characteristics of rabbits.

  19. Meal portion sizes and their potential impacts on food waste: case study of school meals in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Castrica

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available School catering services are characterized by a significant level of inefficiency regarding the food processed but not consumed during meals. This work analyses the meal supply in primary schools in Italy in order to highlight new areas of inefficiency upstream of the food chain. A lack of conformity of food portions with nutritional guidelines can potentially lead to a double negative externality: overweight children and food waste. Data were collected between April and June 2017 from the municipality website of each regional capital (RC of the 20 Italian regions. From the tendering process for primary school meal provision, data on the portions (in grams of the most representative food categories were extracted and classified. To evaluate the degree of homogeneity amongst different regions, the average, minimum and maximum values, standard deviations and relative standard deviations of each individual food category were estimated. To verify the adherence to nutritional recommendations, ANOVA was performed for multiple comparisons combined with Duncan's multiple range test, with significance set at a p value < 0.05. The specific benchmarks for the evaluation of meal portion sizes were calculated based on the National Recommended Energy and Nutrient Intake Levels. The results (table 1 show a great variability of food portions amongst the RCs analyzed. Food categories with highest relative standard deviations values were cooked and raw vegetables (0.29 and 0.35 respectively that indicate great levels of heterogeneity in food portions amongst Italian regions. Conversely, pasta and rice portions were more uniform (0.10 and 0.13, although on average above than the recommended portion. The only food categories characterized by a smaller mean portion than recommended are fish, raw vegetables and cooked vegetables. The educational role of eating at school can contribute to raising children's awareness about one of the most urgent environmental

  20. Fish, shellfish, and meat meals of the public in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, Joanna; Fleischer, Jennifer; Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component of the assessment of risk from contaminants in fish. While there have been extensive studies of fish consumption in Western cultures, less attention has been devoted to the role of fish and meat in the diets of people in other cultures. A survey of 212 people living in Singapore was conducted to examine the relative importance of fish, shellfish, and other meat in their diets and to ascertain whether there were differences as a function of age, income, education or gender. As expected, fish and shellfish played an important role in their daily diets. On average, people ate fish in about 10 meals a week, chicken for eight meals, and shrimp and pork for about six meals each. While nearly 8% never ate fish, 18% ate fish at all 21 meals a week and over 20% ate shellfish for all 21 meals. Income explained about 14% of the variation in the number of fish meals consumed, and age explained about 8% of the variation in number of chicken meals per week. There were no gender differences in the number of meals of each type. People less than 26 years old ate significantly more pork, chicken, and other meat meals and fewer shellfish meals than older people. People with higher incomes ate significantly more fish meals than those with lower incomes. Chinese individuals ate significantly more meals of pork, chicken, and other meat than other ethnic groups, and they ate only 26% of their meals at home, while others ate 33% of their meals at home. The data indicate a great deal of variation in the number of meals of fish, shellfish, and other meats eaten by the people interviewed, making dietary and risk assessments challenging

  1. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallberg, L.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.; Ekenved, G.; Garby, L.; Rossander, L.; Pleehachinda, R.; Suwanik, R.; Arvidsson, B.

    1978-01-01

    The absorption from iron tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given. (author)

  2. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, L; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E; Ekenved, G; Garby, L; Rossander, L; Pleehachinda, R; Suwanik, R; Arvidsson, B

    1978-01-01

    The absorption from iron tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables, and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given.

  3. Absorption from iron tablets given with different types of meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, L; Björn-Rasmussen, E; Ekenved, G; Garby, L; Rossander, L; Pleehachinda, R; Suwanik, R; Arvidsson, B

    1978-09-01

    The absorption of iron from tablets given with 5 types of meals was studied in 153 subjects. The meals were: a hamburger meal with beans and potatoes, a simple breakfast meal, a Latin American meal composed of black beans, rice and maize and two Southeast Asian meals composed of rice, vegetables and spices served with and without fish. The groups were directly compared by relating the absorption from the iron tablets to the absorption from a standardized reference dose of iron given on an empty stomach. The composition of meals with respect to content of meat or fish or the presence of large amounts of phytates seemed to have no influence on the absorption of iron from tablets. The absorption from iron tablets was about 40% higher when they were given with rice meals than when they were given with the other meals studied. The average decrease in absorption by meals was about 50-60% based on a comparison when tablets were given on an empty stomach. When tablets from which the iron was released more slowly were used, the absorption increased by about 30% except when they were given with rice meals, where the absorption was unchanged. The differences among the meals in their effect on the absorption of iron from tablets thus disappeared when the slow-release tablets were given.

  4. Dependence of F1 values for ingestion of strontium on the type of test meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, E.; Roth, P.; Hoellriegl, V.; Schramel, P.; Wendler, I.; Greim, H.; Zilker, T.; Felgenhauer, N.; Romanov, S.; Suslova, K.; Dudchenko, N.; McAughey, J.; Hear, R.

    2001-01-01

    The ingestion of radionuclides, released into the environment after a nuclear accident, with foodstuffs results in an internal radiation exposure of members of the public. For radionuclides with a long effective half live e.g. 90 Sr, the committed radiation dose is significantly dependent on the fraction of the ingested activity that crossed the gut wall (f 1 value). The directive 96/29/Euratom gives f 1 values for children of less than 1 year of age of 0.6, for children between 1 and 15 years of 0.4 and for subjects above 15 years of 0.3. This study was aimed to investigate how far these values correspond to the actual uptake from contaminated foodstuffs. The fractional intestinal absorption of strontium was determined in 8 healthy volunteers by means of a double isotope technique in which the orally administered test substance is labelled by one stable strontium isotope as tracer and simultaneously another stable strontium isotope is injected intravenously as sterile isotonic solution. The f 1 values are derived from the ratio of the tracers in blood samples drawn more than 4 hours after administration and from aliquots of 24 hours urine collections. The tracer isotopes 84 Sr and 86 Sr applied were detected by ICP-MS or TI-MS. Aqueous solutions, milk, extrinsically and intrinsically labelled cress, salad and onions as well as a homogenized composite meal were used as test materials. For aqueous solutions, f 1 values of 1.0 were obtained applying 0.1 mg Sr and 0.6 ± 0.12 for 1 to 2 mg Sr. Vegetables given separately on an empty stomach show similar f 1 values as aqueous solutions. In comparison with aqueous solutions, the uptake from milk and from the composite meal of 0.27 ± 0.13 is reduced by about a factor of two. The data obtained show partly significant deviations from the tabulated values given in the EU-directive, i.e. that the resulting radiation exposure is considerably dependent on individual dietary habits. More investigations are required when from

  5. Meal Replacement Mass Reduction and Integration Acceptability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmons, T.; Barrett, A.; Richardson, M.; Arias, D.; Schneiderman, J.; Slack, K.; Williams, T.; Douglas, G.

    2017-01-01

    NASA, in planning for long-duration missions, has an imperative to provide a food system with the necessary nutrition, acceptability, and safety to ensure sustainment of crew health and performance. The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) and future exploration missions are mass constrained; therefore the team is challenged to reduce the mass of the food system by 10% while maintaining product safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Commercially available products do not meet the nutritional requirements for a full meal replacement in the spaceflight food system, and it is currently unknown if daily meal replacements will impact crew food intake and psychosocial health over time. The purpose of this study was to develop a variety of nutritionally balanced breakfast replacement bars that meet spaceflight nutritional, microbiological, sensorial, and shelf-life requirements, while enabling a 10% savings in food mass. To date, six nutrient-dense meal replacement bars (approximately 700 calories per bar) have been developed, using traditional methods of compression as well as novel ultrasonic compression technologies developed by Creative Resonance Inc. (Phoenix, AZ). The four highest rated bars were evaluated in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) to assess the frequency with which actual meal replacement options may be implemented. Specifically, overall impact of bars on mood, satiety, digestive discomfort, and satisfaction with food. These factors are currently being analyzed to inform successful implementation strategies where crew maintain adequate food intake. In addition, these bars are currently undergoing shelf-life testing to determine long-term sensory acceptability, nutritional stability, qualitative stability of analytical measurements (i.e. water activity and texture), and microbiological compliance over two years of storage at room temperature and potential temperature abuse conditions to predict long-term acceptability. It is expected that

  6. Effect of a Nutrient Rich Foods consumer education program: results from the nutrition advice study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Karen; Hersey, James; Cates, Sheryl; Muth, Mary; Creel, Darryl; Nicholls, Jill; Fulgoni, Victor; Zaripheh, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The Nutrient Rich Foods (NRF) approach to eating uses the NRF Index, a nutrient profiling metric to help consumers choose foods that contain more vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients per kilocalorie. Research is needed to test the efficacy of dietary guidance using nutrient profiling systems to rank foods. To examine whether nutrition education and supporting materials would increase understanding of the NRF approach and improve food shopping, meal planning, consumption of nutrient-rich foods, and diet quality. Unbalanced randomized controlled trial conducted in February to May 2009 with participants assigned to NRF education group (n=128) or control group receiving standard nutrition education (n=61). Adult primary food shoppers and preparers with at least one child in the household aged 3 to 17 years. Group education session and support tools (pocket guide, shopping list, refrigerator magnet, weekly e-mail messages, and biweekly mailings). Surveys of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and two 24-hour telephone dietary recalls at baseline and after an 8-week intervention period. Examined time-by-treatment interactions in outcome measures. Compared to controls, NRF participants increased meal planning (+24.2% vs ?4.9%; Pfoods (+60.2% vs +24.6%; Ptrend), and consumed more vegetables and fruits (Ptrend). Significant improvements were observed in Healthy Eating Index component scores for total fruit; whole fruit; whole grains; saturated fat; and energy from solid fats, alcohol, and added sugars. Findings of this study showed that a consumer education program increased participants' use of the NRF approach and improved diet quality. Larger and longer-term studies are needed to confirm the findings and better understand processes of change. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Meals for Good: An innovative community project to provide healthy meals to children in early care and education programs through food bank catering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Leah R; Smith, Teresa M; Stern, Katherine; Boyd, Lisa Weissenburger-Moser; Rasmussen, Cristy Geno; Schaffer, Kelly; Shuell, Julie; Broussard, Karen; Yaroch, Amy L

    2017-12-01

    Innovative approaches to childhood obesity prevention are warranted in early care and education (ECE) settings, since intervening early among youth is recommended to promote and maintain healthy behaviors. The objective of the Meals for Good pilot was to explore feasibility of implementing a food bank-based catering model to ECE programs to provide more nutritious meals, compared to meals brought from home (a parent-prepared model). In 2014-2015, a 12-month project was implemented by a food bank in central Florida in four privately-owned ECE programs. An explanatory sequential design of a mixed-methods evaluation approach was utilized, including a pre-post menu analysis comparing parent-prepared meals to the catered meals, and stakeholder interviews to determine benefits and barriers. The menu analysis of lunches showed daily reductions in calories, fat, and saturated fat, but an increase in sodium in catered meals when compared to parent-prepared meals. Interviews with ECE directors, teachers, parents, and food bank project staff, identified several benefits of the catered meals, including healthfulness of meals, convenience to parents, and the ECE program's ability to market this meal service. Barriers of the catered meals included the increased cost to parents, transportation and delivery logistics, and change from a 5 to a 2-week menu cycle during summer food service. This pilot demonstrated potential feasibility of a food bank-ECE program partnership, by capitalizing on the food bank's existing facilities and culinary programming, and interest in implementing strategies focused on younger children. The food bank has since leveraged lessons learned and expanded to additional ECE programs.

  8. 21 CFR 137.290 - Self-rising yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising yellow corn meal. 137.290 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.290 Self-rising yellow corn meal. Self-rising yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.270 for self-rising white corn meal...

  9. 21 CFR 137.270 - Self-rising white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising white corn meal. 137.270 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.270 Self-rising white corn meal. (a) Self-rising white corn meal is an intimate mixture of white corn meal, sodium bicarbonate, and one or both of the acid-reacting...

  10. Pasteurization of fish meal by irradiation. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reusse, U.; Bischoff, J.; Fleischhauer, G.; Geister, R.

    1976-01-01

    Studies were made on a number of samples of fish meal heavily contaminated (several foci of infection per sample, corresponding 'more than 100% contamination') with salmonella. A dose of 0.7 Mrad proved to be sufficient to inactivate all salmonellaes in all samples. The apparently reduced effect of radiation after artificial contamination of the meal was due to the extreme super-infection. Inactivation curves showed that the salmonella strains used for artificial contamination were more susceptible than those in naturally infected fish meal. Calculation of the slope parameter for a single salmonella type enables the dose of radiation needed to ensure freedom of the meal from salmonella to be determined for each level of infection. With two naturally infected fish meals which contained a total of 18 different serotypes a mean slope parameter of b = -1.99 was calculated which met the requirements posed by the problem of freeing meal from salmonella. (orig.) [de

  11. Family meals and the well-being of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Jennifer; Denny, Simon; Robinson, Elizabeth; Fleming, Theresa; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Grant, Sue

    2013-11-01

    The current study describes the relationships between family meals and family connectedness, parental monitoring and parent-child communication and determines if frequent family meals are associated with better mental well-being and fewer risk-taking behaviours among adolescents. Data were collected as part of Youth'07, a nationally representative survey of the health and well-being of secondary school students in New Zealand (n = 9107). Frequent family meals were positively associated with better indicators of family relationships (P family meals were significantly associated with higher well-being scores (P family connectedness, parental monitoring and parental communication. Our findings suggest that family meals may provide a unique opportunity for building stronger families and young people. Creating environments where frequent family meals are normative, valued and feasible for families may result in benefits for young people that extend beyond good nutrition. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  12. Effectiveness of differing levels of support for family meals on obesity prevention among head start preschoolers: the simply dinner study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly E. Brophy-Herb

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite slight decreases in obesity prevalence in children, nearly 25% of preschool-aged children are overweight or obese. Most interventions focused on promoting family meals as an obesity-prevention strategy target meal planning skills, knowledge and modeling of healthy eating without addressing the practical resources that enable implementation of family meals. There is a striking lack of evidence about what level of resources low-income parents need to implement family meals. This study will identify resources most effective in promoting family meals and, subsequently, test associations among the frequency of family meals, dietary quality and children’s adiposity indices among children enrolled in Head Start. Methods The Multiphase Optimization Strategy, employed in this study, is a cutting-edge approach to maximizing resources in behavioral interventions by identifying the most effective intervention components. We are currently testing the main, additive and interactive effects of 6 intervention components, thought to support family meals, on family meal frequency and dietary quality (Primary Outcomes as compared to Usual Head Start Exposure in a Screening Phase (N = 512 low-income families. Components yielding the most robust effects will be bundled and evaluated in a two-group randomized controlled trial (intervention and Usual Head Start Exposure in the Confirming Phase (N = 250, testing the effects of the bundled intervention on children’s adiposity indices (Primary Outcomes; body mass index and skinfolds. The current intervention components include: (1 home delivery of pre-made healthy family meals; (2 home delivery of healthy meal ingredients; (3 community kitchens in which parents make healthy meals to cook at home; (4 healthy eating classes; (5 cooking demonstrations; and (6 cookware/flatware delivery. Secondary outcomes include cooking self-efficacy and family mealtime barriers. Moderators of the

  13. Effectiveness of differing levels of support for family meals on obesity prevention among head start preschoolers: the simply dinner study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brophy-Herb, Holly E; Horodynski, Mildred; Contreras, Dawn; Kerver, Jean; Kaciroti, Niko; Stein, Mara; Lee, Hannah Jong; Motz, Brittany; Hebert, Sheilah; Prine, Erika; Gardiner, Candace; Van Egeren, Laurie A; Lumeng, Julie C

    2017-02-10

    Despite slight decreases in obesity prevalence in children, nearly 25% of preschool-aged children are overweight or obese. Most interventions focused on promoting family meals as an obesity-prevention strategy target meal planning skills, knowledge and modeling of healthy eating without addressing the practical resources that enable implementation of family meals. There is a striking lack of evidence about what level of resources low-income parents need to implement family meals. This study will identify resources most effective in promoting family meals and, subsequently, test associations among the frequency of family meals, dietary quality and children's adiposity indices among children enrolled in Head Start. The Multiphase Optimization Strategy, employed in this study, is a cutting-edge approach to maximizing resources in behavioral interventions by identifying the most effective intervention components. We are currently testing the main, additive and interactive effects of 6 intervention components, thought to support family meals, on family meal frequency and dietary quality (Primary Outcomes) as compared to Usual Head Start Exposure in a Screening Phase (N = 512 low-income families). Components yielding the most robust effects will be bundled and evaluated in a two-group randomized controlled trial (intervention and Usual Head Start Exposure) in the Confirming Phase (N = 250), testing the effects of the bundled intervention on children's adiposity indices (Primary Outcomes; body mass index and skinfolds). The current intervention components include: (1) home delivery of pre-made healthy family meals; (2) home delivery of healthy meal ingredients; (3) community kitchens in which parents make healthy meals to cook at home; (4) healthy eating classes; (5) cooking demonstrations; and (6) cookware/flatware delivery. Secondary outcomes include cooking self-efficacy and family mealtime barriers. Moderators of the intervention include family functioning and

  14. Development of a Single High Fat Meal Challenge to Unmask ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress tests are used clinically to determine the presence of underlying disease and predict future cardiovascular risk. In previous studies, we used treadmill exercise stress in rats to unmask the priming effects of air pollution inhalation. Other day-to-day activities stress the cardiovascular system, and when modeled experimentally, may be useful in identifying latent effects of air pollution exposure. For example, a single high fat (HF) meal can cause transient vascular endothelial dysfunction and increases in LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG), oxidative stress, and inflammation. Given the prevalence of HF meals in western diets, the goal of this study was to develop a HF meal challenge in rats to see if air pollution primes the body for a subsequent stress-induced adverse response. Healthy male Wistar Kyoto rats were fasted for six hours and then administered a single oral gavage of isocaloric lard-based HF or low fat (LF) suspensions, or a water vehicle control. We hypothesized that rats given a HF load would elicit postprandial changes in cardiopulmonary function that were distinct from LF and vehicle controls. One to four hours after gavage, rats underwent whole body plethysmography to assess breathing patterns, cardiovascular ultrasounds, blood draws for measurements of systemic lipids and hormones and a test for sensitivity to aconitine-induced arrhythmia. HF gavage caused an increase in circulating TG relative to LF and vehicle controls and an incre

  15. Effects of a randomized intervention promoting healthy children's meals on children's ordering and dietary intake in a quick-service restaurant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Braun, Abbey C; Ehrenberg, Sarah; Epstein, Leonard H; Gampp, April; Leone, Lucia A; Singh, Anita; Tauriello, Sara

    2018-08-01

    Children's consumption of restaurant foods is associated with higher energy intake and lower nutritional quality compared to foods prepared at home. The aim of this pilot study was to test whether an in-restaurant intervention promoting healthy children's meals (i.e. two meals that met nutrition recommendations and were thus healthier than typical children's meal offerings across leading restaurants) affected children's meal selection and intake. Families with 4-to-8-year-old children were recruited from one location of Anderson's Frozen Custard, a regional quick-service restaurant chain. Families were randomly assigned to return to the restaurant during an intervention or control period and were blinded to group assignment. All families received free meals. During the intervention period families also received placemats featuring two healthy "Kids' Meals of the Day" upon restaurant entry. After families finished dining, researchers recorded children's orders and collected leftovers for quantifying dietary intake via weighed plate waste. Poisson regression and chi-square tests were used to compare children's orders between study groups, and t-tests were used to test for differences in dietary intake among children ordering a promoted healthy entrée (main dish) versus those who did not. Fifty-eight families participated. Children who were exposed to the study placemats prior to ordering ordered a significantly greater number of healthy food components compared to controls (p = 0.03). Overall, in the intervention group, 21% of children ordered a healthy entrée or side dish, versus 7% of controls. Children who ordered one of the promoted healthy entrées consumed less saturated fat across the total meal compared to those who did not (p = 0.04). Manipulating the prominence of healthy choices in restaurants may shift children's meal selections. Future research should build on these initial promising results, aiming to increase the potency of the intervention

  16. [Nutritional information of meals supplied by companies participating in the Workers' Meal Program in São Paulo, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraldo, Ana Paula Gines; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique; Jaime, Patrícia Constante

    2008-01-01

    To compare the nutritional value of meals provided by companies participating in the Workers' Meal Program in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, to the nutritional recommendations and guidelines established by the Ministry of Health for the Brazilian population. The 72 companies studied were grouped according to economic sector (industrial, services, or commerce), size (micro, small, medium, or large), meal preparation modality (prepared on-site by the company itself, on-site by a hired caterer, or off-site by a hired caterer), and supervision by a dietitian (yes or no). The per capita amount of food was determined based on the lunch, dinner, and supper menus for three days. The nutritional value of the meals was defined by the amount of calories, carbohydrates, protein, total fat, polyunsaturated fat, saturated fat, trans fat, sugars, cholesterol, and fruits and vegetables. Most of the menus were deficient in the number of fruits and vegetables (63.9%) and amount of polyunsaturated fat (83.3%), but high in total fat (47.2%) and cholesterol (62.5%). Group 2, composed of mostly medium and large companies, supervised by a dietician, belonging to the industrial and/or service sectors, and using a hired caterer, on averaged served meals with higher calorie content (P<0.001), higher percentage of polyunsaturated fat (P<0.001), more cholesterol (P=0.015), and more fruits and vegetables (P<0.001) than Group 1, which was composed of micro and small companies from the commercial sector, that prepare the meals themselves on-site, and are not supervised by a dietitian. Regarding the nutrition guidelines set for the Brazilian population, Group 2 meals were better in terms of fruit and vegetable servings (P<0.001). Group 1 meals were better in terms of cholesterol content (P=0.05). More specific action is required targeting company officers and managers in charge of food and nutrition services, especially in companies without dietitian supervision.

  17. Company and meal choices considered by Nordic adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janhonen, Kristiina; Benn, Jette; Fjellström, Christina

    2013-01-01

    an effect on the frequency of family meals. Meals echoing or fully meeting the structural definition of a ‘proper meal’ were most common when describing meals for the family. The difference between the two social situations was most apparent for those who mentioned ‘Fast food dishes’ for themselves. Gender...

  18. Extruded snacks with the addition of different fish meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Souza dos Reis GOES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals were prepared to develop and analyze extruded snacks with residue meal from fish processing. Residue meals were included in five types of corn snacks: control (0% fish meal and four with 9% tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals. Although moisture, lipids and carbohydrates rates did not differ among the snacks, protein rates increased with the increment of fish meal, reaching 11.85% in the tuna snack. Tuna and sardine snacks had the highest iron levels. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, linolenic and stearic acids, with sardine, salmon and tuna snacks presenting the highest values of n-3 series fatty acids. Greater luminosity rate was reported for salmon snack, followed by tilapia, tuna and sardine snacks. The highest sensory acceptance index was verified in tilapia (78.07% and salmon (72.40%. A 9% addition of residue meals of tilapia, salmon and tuna improved the nutritional value of the snacks.

  19. Class and eating: Family meals in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Ewa

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines social differentiation in eating patterns in Britain. It focuses on family meals among individuals with under-age children. Eating with family members has been associated with improvement in wellbeing, nutritional status, and school performance of the children. Modern lifestyles may pose a challenge to commensal eating for all groups, but the scale of the impact varies between social classes, with some groups at higher risk of shortening or skipping family meal time. Eating patterns are differentiated by individual's social class; they have also been associated with educational attainment, work schedules, and household composition. The objective of this study is to disaggregate the effect of these variables. Using data from the 2014/2015 UK Time Use Survey I analyse the net effect of social class, education, income, work and family characteristics on the frequency and duration of family meals. Individuals in the highest occupational class dedicate more time overall to family meals. However, class effect becomes insignificant when other variables, such as education or income, are controlled for. This study finds that higher educated individuals have more frequent family meals, and more affluent individuals spend more time at the table with their household members. Work characteristics are associated with frequency of meals, but not with their duration. Finally, household composition matters for how people eat. Parents of younger children eat with their family members more frequently than parents of teenagers. Single parents, a notoriously time-poor category, spend the least amount of time eating with their families and have fewer commensal meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Components of postprandial thermogenesis in relation to meal frequency in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, J; Mercier, I; Nadeau, A

    1993-12-01

    Experiments on dogs have shown that the size of the meal has no effect on the early cephalic postprandial thermogenesis, and that four small meals are more thermogenic than a larger meal with the same total caloric content as the four meals. A study was repeated on human subjects who were fed during alternating weeks either one large meal (653 kcal (1 kcal = 4.1855 kJ)) or four small meals (163 kcal) at 40-min intervals. Oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange ratio determinations indicated (i) larger overall increase in postprandial thermogenesis with the four meals than with one meal and (ii) an enhancement of glucose utilization with the large meal compared with greater lipid utilization with the four meals. On the basis of indirect evidence from previous investigations it is suggested that the enhanced thermogenesis observed in the four-meal experiment is due to lipid mobilization caused by repeated stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system with palatable food. Blood analysis indicated a reduced elevation of plasma glucose in the four-meal experiment. The variations of insulin and C-peptide exactly paralleled those observed for glucose. It is concluded that the increased frequency of feeding significantly reduces insulin secretion in subjects fed a relatively high carbohydrate meal. In addition to this beneficial effect, increasing the number of meals increased thermogenesis and fat utilization.

  1. The Effects of 6 Isocaloric Meals on Body Weight, Lipid Profiles, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Overweight Subjects (BMI > 25).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami Zargaran, Zeynab; Salehi, Moosa; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Babajafari, Siavash

    2014-04-01

    It seems that meal frequency is negatively related to body weight, but the relationship between meal frequency and weight loss is not clearly known yet. The present study aimed to investigate whether 6 isocaloric meals affected body weight, lipid profiles, leptin, and adiponectin in overweight subjects. The present randomized controlled trial was conducted on 90 overweight subjects in 3 months. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The control group continued their normal diet, while the intervention group was required to follow a 6 isocaloric meal diet instead of their previous meal pattern (3 meals and 2 snacks). The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identical, except for meal pattern. Blood samples were analyzed prior to and at the end of the study for total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, leptin, and adiponectinn concentrations. Paired t-test was used for comparison of the measurements before and after the study in each group. Besides, independent t-test was used for comparison of the measurements between the groups. P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The mean age of the participants was 36.38 ± 9.7 in the intervention group and 37.6 ± 10.9 in the control group. In comparison to the control group, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol (P meal pattern led to a reduction in BMI, lipid profiles (total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride), and leptin concentrations and an increase in HDL and adiponectin compared to the normal diet.

  2. Closed-Loop Control Without Meal Announcement in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Faye M; Ly, Trang T; Buckingham, Bruce A; Maahs, David M; Forlenza, Gregory P; Levy, Carol J; Lam, David; Clinton, Paula; Messer, Laurel H; Westfall, Emily; Levister, Camilla; Xie, Yan Yan; Baysal, Nihat; Howsmon, Daniel; Patek, Stephen D; Bequette, B Wayne

    2017-09-01

    A fully closed-loop insulin-only system was developed to provide glucose control in patients with type 1 diabetes without requiring announcement of meals or activity. Our goal was to assess initial safety and efficacy of this system. The multiple model probabilistic controller (MMPPC) anticipates meals when the patient is awake. The controller used the subject's basal rates and total daily insulin dose for initialization. The system was tested at two sites on 10 patients in a 30-h inpatient study, followed by 15 subjects at three sites in a 54-h supervised hotel study, where the controller was challenged by exercise and unannounced meals. The system was implemented on the UVA DiAs system using a Roche Spirit Combo Insulin Pump and a Dexcom G4 Continuous Glucose Monitor. The mean overall (24-h basis) and nighttime (11 PM-7 AM) continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) values were 142 and 125 mg/dL during the inpatient study. The hotel study used a different daytime tuning and manual announcement, instead of automatic detection, of sleep and wake periods. This resulted in mean overall (24-h basis) and nighttime CGM values of 152 and 139 mg/dL for the hotel study and there was also a reduction in hypoglycemia events from 1.6 to 0.91 events/patient/day. The MMPPC system achieved a mean glucose that would be particularly helpful for people with an elevated A1c as a result of frequent missed meal boluses. Current full closed loop has a higher risk for hypoglycemia when compared with algorithms using meal announcement.

  3. [Factors associated with the consumption of school meals by Brazilian adolescents: results of the PeNSE survey 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Nathália Tarossi; Canella, Daniela Silva; Bandoni, Daniel Henrique

    2017-05-18

    The aim was to study the association between socio-demographic and routine dietary variables and consumption of school meals by adolescents enrolled in public schools in Brazil. The study used data used from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE) 2012. To assess differences between schoolchildren based on whether or not they ate school meals, the study used Pearson's chi-square test, and associations were analyzed with univariate and multivariate Poisson regression models. Of the 86,660 students included in the study, 22.8% eat school meals. Higher consumption of school meals is associated with male gender, brown skin color, residence outside state capitals, working, and low maternal schooling, for those that ate breakfast and lunch with their parents. The findings are relevant for planning strategies to encourage consumption of school meals.

  4. Effect of iron status on iron absorption in different habitual meals in young south Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneeta Kalasuramath

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Iron deficiency (ID affects a large number of women in India. An inverse relationship exists between iron (Fe status and Fe absorption. Dietary inhibitory and enhancing factors exert a profound influence on bioavailability of Fe. Although the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA for Fe is based on 8 per cent bioavailability, it is not clear if this holds good for the usual highly inhibitory Indian diet matrix. This study was aimed to determine Fe absorption from several habitually consumed south Indian food and to evaluate the interaction of Fe status with absorption. Methods: Four Fe absorption studies were performed on 60 apparently healthy young women, aged 18-35 years. Based on blood biochemistry, 45 of them were ID and 15 were iron replete (IR. The habitual meals assessed were rice, millet and wheat based meals in the ID subjects and rice based meal alone in the IR subjects. Each subject received the test meal labelled with 3 mg of [57] Fe and Fe absorption was measured based on erythrocyte incorporation of isotope label 14 days following administration. Results: Mean fractional Fe absorption from the rice, wheat and millet based meals in the ID subjects were 8.3, 11.2 and 4.6 per cent, respectively. Fe absorption from the rice-based meals was 2.5 per cent in IR subjects. Interpretation & conclusions: Fe absorption is dictated by Fe status from low bioavailability meals. Millet based meals have the lowest bioavailability, while the rice and wheat based meals had moderate to good bioavailability. In millet based meals, it is prudent to consider ways to improve Fe absorption.

  5. Nutritional Status of Irish Older People in Receipt of Meals-on-Wheels and the Nutritional Content of Meals Provided

    OpenAIRE

    O'DWYER, CIARA MARY; TIMONEN, VIRPI

    2009-01-01

    PUBLISHED BACKGROUND: Research has suggested that meals-on-wheels recipients can be at risk for poor nutritional status. Despite this, few countries have statutory minimum requirements for the nutrient content of meals-on-wheels. This study examined both the nutritional status of a sample of Irish recipients and the nutrient content of a sample of meals provided to determine whether Irish recipients would benefit from statutory minimum nutritional standards. METHODS: The study had two phas...

  6. Postprandial glucose and insulin levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients after consumption of ready-to-eat mixed meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manios, Yannis; Moschonis, George; Mavrogianni, Christina; Tsoutsoulopoulou, Konstantina; Kogkas, Stergios; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Efstathopoulou, Eirini

    2017-04-01

    To compare the effects of three ready-to-eat mixed meals, with a high fiber content and low glycemic index, on postprandial glycemic and insulinemic response in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The current study followed a prospective, three-way, cross-over design. Twenty-four patients with T2DM consumed three ready-to-eat mixed meals, i.e., "wild greens pie" (meal 1), "chicken burgers with boiled vegetables" (meal 2) and "vegetable moussaka" (meal 3) and an oral glucose load, all providing 50 g of carbohydrates. Venous blood was collected at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min postprandial. Statistical analyses included repeated measures analysis of variance and calculations of the area under the glucose and insulin curves (AUC) for each one of the test meals and the oral glucose load. Patients consuming each one of the three mixed meals showed better postprandial glycemic responses compared to the oral glucose load (P meal 3 showed a better insulinemic response compared to the oral glucose load and meal 1, after 60 and 120 min postprandial, respectively (P meal 3, compared to the oral glucose load (P eat mixed meals examined in the present study were found to elicit significantly lower glycemic responses compared to the oral glucose load in diabetic patients. The mixed meals examined in the present study could be proposed as effective, palatable and practical solutions for diabetics for glucose control.

  7. Conditioned insulin secretion and meal feeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, S C; Vasselli, J R; Kaestner, E; Szakmary, G A; Milburn, P; Vitiello, M V

    1977-02-01

    Previous researchers have reported that rats placed upon a feeding regimen such that they receive only 2 hr of food per day (meal-fed rats) develop hyperinsulinemia at the time of the day associated with feeding, even in the absence of food. Controls fed ad lib had no such response. In a series of several experiments, meal-fed rats had elevated insulin levels at only the specific time of the day associated with feeding, and the increment of insulin at that time could be eliminated with atropine. Free-feeding controls, on the other hand, always had higher insulin levels than the meal-fed rats, did not have an elevation of insulin at the time of the day that the meal-fed rats normally ate, and had insulin values that were unaffected by atropine. Further experimentation showed that hyperinsulinemia could become associated with arbitrary stimuli always associated with eating for meal-fed rats. It is concluded that the hyperinsulinemia of meal-fed rats associated with their feeding time is a learned response.

  8. Serotoninergic manipulation, meal-induced satiety and eating pattern: effect of fluoxetine in obese female subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, C L; Wales, J K; Hill, A J; Blundell, J E

    1995-07-01

    Twelve nondepressed healthy female obese subjects (BMI > 30 kg/m2) took part in a study which conformed to a double-blind randomized crossover design. Each subject acted as her own control across 2 weeks of treatment with either 60 mg of the 5-HT reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine or matching placebo. On days 7 and 14 of both treatment phases subjects were provided with fixed energy lunch meals high in either CHO or fat. The effect of these meals on satiety during the fluoxetine and placebo phases was assessed by a battery of procedures. Subjects felt less hungry after consuming the high CHO meal than after consuming the high-fat meal. They also felt less hungry when taking fluoxetine than when taking the placebo. Analysis of energy intake from the test meal revealed a main effect of prior lunch meal type (high CHO or high fat) and a main effect of drug treatment. Subjects consumed an average of 574 kcal following the high CHO meal compared to 689 kcal following the high-fat meal. Subjects also consumed an average of 532 kcal when taking fluoxetine compared to 730 kcal when taking the placebo. Fluoxetine did not exert any significant effects on macronutrient selection. Mean daily energy intake, calculated from food diary records, was 1881 kcal when subjects were taking the placebo compared to 1460 kcal when taking fluoxetine (a reduction of 22.4%). Fluoxetine treatment produced a significant weight loss of 1.97 kg over the two weeks of treatment compared to a weight loss of only 0.04 kg on placebo.

  9. Effect of phytase supplementation to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on phosphorus and calcium balance in growing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sauer, W.C.; Cervantes, M.; He, J.M.M.; Schulze, H.

    2003-01-01

    Two metabolism experiments were carried out, to determine the effect of microbial phytase addition to barley-canola meal and barley-soybean meal diets on P and Ca balance in growing. pigs; In experiment 1, six barrows (29.6kg: initial LW) were fed a barley-canola meal diet, without or. with phytase

  10. Adolescent and parent views of family meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Story, Mary

    2006-04-01

    To examine and compare the family mealtime environment from the perspectives of both adolescents and parents. Adolescents completed a school-based survey and parents participated in a telephone interview as part of Project EAT (Eating Among Teens). Participants were 902 adolescent females (n=424) and males (n=478) and one of their guardians/parents. Frequencies, chi(2) analyses, and Spearman correlations were used to assess relationships. Parents were more likely than adolescents to report eating five or more family meals per week, the importance of eating together, and scheduling difficulties (Ptogether, and more rule expectations at mealtime (PGirls reported more family meals per week and more scheduling conflicts than boys did; boys reported more rules at mealtime than girls did (Ptogetherness, and for role modeling behaviors that parents would like their children to emulate. Dietetics professionals can capitalize on positive attitudes toward family meals to help promote their frequency. Helping families learn to cook healthful, quick meals may reduce dependency on less healthful meal options, reduce the frequency of eating outside of the home, and promote greater nutritional intake.

  11. Biotin/avidin sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Culicidae mosquito blood meal identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Marassá

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of mosquitoes Culicidae host feeding patterns is basic to understand the roles of different species and to indicate their importance in the epidemiology of arthropod-borne diseases. A laboratory assay was developed aiming at standardizing the biotin-avidin sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which was unprecedented for mosquito blood meal identification. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA activity was evaluated by the detection of titers on each sample of the 28 blood-fed Culex quinquefasciatus. In light of the high sensitivity that the technique permits, by means of small quantities of specific antibodies commercially provided and phosphatase substrate which reinforces additional dilutions, human and rat blood meals were readily identified in all laboratory-raised Culex quinquefasciatus tested. The assay was effective to detect human blood meal dilutions up to 1:4,096, which enables the technique to be applied in field studies. Additionally, the present results indicate a significant difference between the detection patterns recorded from human blood meal which corroborate the results of host feeding patterns.

  12. Development and validation of a new simple Healthy Meal Index for canteen meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Anne Dahl; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; L Hansen, Gitte

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nutrition evaluation tools should be developed both for scientific purposes and to encourage and facilitate healthy nutritional practices. The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate a simple food-based Healthy Meal Index (HMI) reflecting the nutritional profile...... and potatoes. The development was built on the principles embodied by the Plate Model, but providing more specificity in some areas. The simple HMI was validated against weighed and chemically analysed food and nutrient content of a representative sample of canteen meals. The sample was split into four...

  13. Just how convenient is convenience? An empirical study of the associations between perceived convenience, meal preparation activities and ready meals' characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Ana I.A.; Ruijschop, R. M. A. J.

    2006-01-01

    Parallel to considerations about settings, selection of the appropriate level of time, effort and care to be put into meal preparation is an important determinant of food choice. Nevertheless, significant relations between the time/energy consumers are willing to devote to food preparation...... and the types of meals they eat are surprisingly hard to find. One explanation for this could be that perceived convenience finds little support on the technological attributes of products like ready meals. This study's aim was to uncover significant relations between perceived convenience, meal preparation...... activities and technological attributes of frozen pizzas. Ninety-eight Dutch meal preparers, 18-29 years old, were asked to rate expected convenience attributes of frozen pizzas; (2) prepare and consume these pizzas in a home-like setting; (3) rate experienced convenience after consumption. Pizzas were also...

  14. Utilisation of cassava products-copra meal based diets supplemented with or without Allzyme SSF by growing pullets

    OpenAIRE

    Diarra, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    The utilisation of cassava root-leaf meal (CRLM) and copra meal with or without enzyme by growing pullets was investigated. A total of 180 six week-old Shaver 579 pullets (549.79 ? 0.39 g/bird) were allotted to 12 floor pens containing 15 birds each. A commercial grower diet (control) and 2 diets based on CRLM and copra meal with or without added Allzyme? SSF (test diets) were fed each to 4 replicate pens in a completely randomized design. Growth performance, age at first egg, feed cost of re...

  15. Jojoba seed meal proteins associated with proteolytic and protease inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Madan K; Peri, Irena; Smirnoff, Patricia; Birk, Yehudith; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi

    2002-09-25

    The jojoba, Simmondsia chinensis, is a characteristic desert plant native to the Sonoran desert. The jojoba meal after oil extraction is rich in protein. The major jojoba proteins were albumins (79%) and globulins (21%), which have similar amino acid compositions and also showed a labile thrombin-inhibitory activity. SDS-PAGE showed two major proteins at 50 kDa and 25 kDa both in the albumins and in the globulins. The 25 kDa protein has trypsin- and chymotrypsin-inhibitory activities. In vitro digestibility of the globulins and albumins resembled that of casein and soybean protein concentrates and was increased after heat treatment. The increased digestibility achieved by boiling may be attributed to inactivation of the protease inhibitors and denaturation of proteins.

  16. Postprandial lipid responses of butter blend containing fish oil in a single-meal study in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Julie; Porsgaard, Trine; Guo, Zheng

    2008-01-01

    blend with fish oil (352 mg n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA)) or the commercial butter blend. Blood samples were collected after the meals and in the fasting condition on the test day and the following morning, and were analysed for cholesterol absorption, plasma lipid profile and fatty acid composition....... No significant difference in the postprandial plasma fatty acid composition was observed between the groups, neither difference in cholesterol absorption, plasma cholesterol or the cholesterol contents of plasma lipoproteins. The incorporation of fish oil in the butter resulted in a significant lower......The postprandial effects of a butter product containing fish oil were investigated in a single-meal, randomized crossover study with a commercial butter product as the control. Twelve healthy males consumed two test meals with (13)C-labelled cholesterol (45 mg) and either an interesterified butter...

  17. Disturbances to metal partitioning during toxicity testing of iron(II)-rich estuarine pore waters and whole sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Stuart L; Batley, Graeme E

    2003-02-01

    Metal partitioning is altered when suboxic estuarine sediments containing Fe(II)-rich pore waters are disturbed during collection, preparation, and toxicity testing. Experiments with model Fe(II)-rich pore waters demonstrated the rates at which adsorptive losses of Cd, Cu, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Zn occur upon exposure to air. Experiments with Zn-contaminated estuarine sediments demonstrated large and often unpredictable changes to metal partitioning during sediment storage, removal of organisms, and homogenization before testing. Small modifications to conditions, such as aeration of overlying waters, caused large changes to the metal partitioning. Disturbances caused by sediment collection required many weeks for reestablishment of equilibrium. Bioturbation by benthic organisms led to oxidation of pore-water Fe(II) and lower Zn fluxes because of the formation of Fe hydroxide precipitates that adsorb pore-water Zn. For five weeks after the addition of organisms to sediments, Zn fluxes increased slowly as the organisms established themselves in the sediments, indicating that the establishment of equilibrium was not rapid. The results are discussed in terms of the dynamic nature of suboxic, Fe(II)-rich estuarine sediments, how organisms perturb their environment, and the importance of understanding chemistry in toxicity testing with whole sediments or pore water. Recommendations are provided for the handling of sediments for toxicity testing.

  18. Hypercaloric diets with increased meal frequency, but not meal size, increase intrahepatic triglycerides: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Karin E.; Caan, Matthan W. A.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Pels, Anouk; Ackermans, Mariette T.; Fliers, Eric; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Serlie, Mireille J.

    2014-01-01

    American children consume up to 27% of calories from high-fat and high-sugar snacks. Both sugar and fat consumption have been implicated as a cause of hepatic steatosis and obesity but the effect of meal pattern is largely understudied. We hypothesized that a high meal frequency, compared to

  19. Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    2012-01-01

    Beverages are consumed at almost every meal occasion, but knowledge about the factors that influence beverage choice is less than for food choice. The aim of this research was to characterize and quantify factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. Insights into what beverages are chosen...... consumers. Participants (n=164) described 8356 meal occasions in terms of foods and beverages consumed, and the contextual characteristics of the occasion. Beverage choice was explored with random-parameter logit regressions to reveal influences linked to food items eaten, context factors and person factors....... Thereby this study contributed to the food choice kaleidoscope research approach by expressing the degree of context dependency in form of odds ratios and according significance levels. The exploration of co-occurrence of beverages with food items suggests that beverage-meal item combinations can be meal...

  20. Description of chewing and food intake over the course of a meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioakimidis, Ioannis; Zandian, Modjtaba; Eriksson-Marklund, Lisa; Bergh, Cecilia; Grigoriadis, Anastasios; Södersten, Per

    2011-10-24

    While the average frequency of chewing and food intake have been reported before, a detailed description of the pattern of chewing and the cumulative intake of food over the course of a meal have not. In order to achieve this goal, video recording of the maxillary-mandibular region of women eating food from a plate was synchronized with video recording of the plate and computer recording of the weight-loss of the plate. Video recording of chewing correlated strongly with chewing identified by magnetic tracking of jaw displacement in a test with chewing gum at three different frequencies, thus ensuring the validity of video recording of chewing. Weight-loss data were corrected by convolution algorithms, validated against human correction, using sliding window filtering to correct errors with video events as reference points. By use of this method, women ate on average 264 g of food over 114 min, they took an average of 51 mouthfuls during the meal and displayed on average 794 chews with 15 chews per chewing sequence. The number of mouthfuls decreased and the duration of the pauses after each mouthful increased in the middle of the meal and these measures were then restored. The ratio between chewing sequences and subsequent pauses remained stable although the weight of each mouthful decreased by the end of the meal, a measure that is hypothesized to be reflected in a decelerated speed of eating. The method allows this hypothesis to be tested and its implication for clinical intervention to be examined. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Verteerbaarheid (ileaal en faecaal) van biologisch geteelde eiwitrijke voedergrondstoffen bij varkens = Digestibility (ileal and faecal) of organically-grown protein-rich raw materials in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongbloed, A.W.; Diepen, van J.T.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this research the ileal digestibility of nitrogen and amino acids and the faecal digestibility of organic matter, nitrogen, fat, non-starch polysaccharides, energy and phosphorus of protein-rich organicallygrown feed raw materials were evaluated in pigs. The products were rapeseed meal expeller,

  2. 21 CFR 137.255 - Bolted white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bolted white corn meal. 137.255 Section 137.255... Flours and Related Products § 137.255 Bolted white corn meal. (a) Bolted white corn meal is the food prepared by so grinding and sifting cleaned white corn that: (1) Its crude fiber content is less than 1.2...

  3. Use of Sunflower Meal with Enzyme Mixture Substituted for Soybean Meal in Broiler Diets

    OpenAIRE

    KIRKPINAR, Figen; BASMACIOĞLU, Hatice

    2001-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the effects of sunflower meal with an enzyme mixture containing a-amylase, ß-glucanase, cellulase, lipase and protease substituted for soybean meal in broiler diets on performance, intestinal weight, viscosity and pH, as well as the frequency of sticky droppings and abdominal fat. In the trial, a total of 960 one-day-old Avian broiler chicks were used. The trial lasted 6 weeks. A total of 12 experimental diets were supplied ad libitum. Dietary treatme...

  4. Metabolic and hormonal consequences of two different meals after a moderate intensity exercise bout in obese prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, C; Bonadonna, R; Maschio, M; Aiello, G; Tommasi, M; Marigliano, M; Fornari, E; Morandi, A

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between postprandial nutrient balance, satiety and hormone changes induced by two different meals taken after a moderate intensity exercise bout. Ten prepubertal obese children participated in the study. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study for repeated measures. Each test period lasted five consecutive hours during which the children were under medical supervision. The effects of two isocaloric meals were compared after a moderate intensity exercise (4 multiples of resting metabolic rate, 30 min, cycling): a low-fat/high-carbohydrate meal (meal A) and a high-fat/low-carbohydrate meal (meal B). Pre and postprandial (3 h) substrate oxidation, biochemical parameters, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and appetite were measured. The main results were: (i) higher fat balance (5.1±5.0 vs -5.0±6.6 g, P=0.001) and lower carbohydrate balance after meal B than A (-9.7±13.3 vs 11.3±18.3 g, Pvs -13.9±20.2 kcal, Pvs -169.5±1633.7 mg*180 min/dl, Pvs 478.8±638.3 pmol*180 min/l, Plow-carbohydrate ratio had a less favorable metabolic impact than an isoenergetic, isoproteic low-fat/high-carbohydrate meal.

  5. Effects of feeding high protein or conventional canola meal on dry cured and conventionally cured bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, K L; Bohrer, B M; Stein, H H; Boler, D D

    2015-05-01

    Objectives were to compare belly, bacon processing, bacon slice, and sensory characteristics from pigs fed high protein canola meal (CM-HP) or conventional canola meal (CM-CV). Soybean meal was replaced with 0 (control), 33, 66, or 100% of both types of canola meal. Left side bellies from 70 carcasses were randomly assigned to conventional or dry cure treatment and matching right side bellies were assigned the opposite treatment. Secondary objectives were to test the existence of bilateral symmetry on fresh belly characteristics and fatty acid profiles of right and left side bellies originating from the same carcass. Bellies from pigs fed CM-HP were slightly lighter and thinner than bellies from pigs fed CM-CV, yet bacon processing, bacon slice, and sensory characteristics were unaffected by dietary treatment and did not differ from the control. Furthermore, testing the existence of bilateral symmetry on fresh belly characteristics revealed that bellies originating from the right side of the carcasses were slightly (P≤0.05) wider, thicker, heavier and firmer than bellies from the left side of the carcass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Differential outcomes of Zika virus infection in Aedes aegypti orally challenged with infectious blood meals and infectious protein meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Lyons, Amy C; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Park, So Lee; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2017-01-01

    Infection of mosquitoes is an essential step for the transmission of mosquito-borne arboviruses in nature. Engorgement of infectious blood meals from viremic infected vertebrate hosts allows the entry of viruses and initiates infection of midgut epithelial cells. Historically, the infection process of arboviruses in mosquitoes has been studied through the engorgement of mosquitoes from viremic laboratory animals or from artificial feeders containing blood mixed with viruses harvested from cell cultures. The latter approach using so-called artificial blood meals is more frequently used since it is readily optimized to maximize viral titer, negates the use of animals and can be used with viruses for which there are no small animal models. Use of artificial blood meals has enabled numerous studies on mosquito infections with a wide variety of viruses; however, as described here, with suitable modification it can also be used to study the interplay between infection, specific blood components, and physiological consequences associated with blood engorgement. For hematophagous female mosquitoes, blood is the primary nutritional source supporting all physiological process including egg development, and also influences neurological processes and behaviors such as host-seeking. Interactions between these blood-driven vector biological processes and arbovirus infection that is mediated via blood engorgement have not yet been specifically studied. This is in part because presentation of virus in whole blood inevitably induces enzymatic digestion processes, hormone driven oogenesis, and other biological changes. In this study, the infection process of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Aedes aegypti was characterized by oral exposure via viral suspension meals within minimally bovine serum albumin complemented medium or within whole blood. The use of bovine serum albumin in infectious meals provides an opportunity to evaluate the role of serum albumin during the process of flavivirus

  7. Addition of different tuna meal levels to pizza dough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abreu Vasconcelos Campelo

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to develop pizza dough with different levels of tuna meal (Tunnus spp.. In order to produce tuna meal, tuna torsos without fins were used, cooked for 1 hour, pressed, milled and dehydrated for 24 hours at 60 °C. Pizza dough was produced without (0% or with the addition of 5, 10, 15 and 20% of tuna meal, calculated based on the quantity of wheat flour. The tuna meal and different pizza pastries were analyzed for moisture content, crude protein, total lipids, ash, carbohydrates, caloric value and fatty acid profiles. Microbiological and sensory analyses were also carried out on the pizza pastries. The increasing addition of tuna meal resulted in gains in the crude protein (10.89 to 18.94%, total lipid (4.63 to 5.89% and ash (2.54 to 3.54% contents of the pizza pastries, not influencing the moisture content or caloric value. The inclusion of tuna meal linearly increased the quantity of n-3 series fatty acids in the pizza pastry, from 1.56 to 5.93 g/kg with the addition of 20% tuna meal. The ratio between the polyunsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the tuna meal and pizza pastries varied from 1.21 to 1.85. The microbiological analyses showed that the pizza pastries were produced under proper hygiene conditions. It was also observed that the addition of 5 to 20% of tuna meal to the pizza pastry did not significantly (p>0.05 alter the parameters of aroma, flavor, overall impression and purchase intention. It was therefore concluded that the addition of 5 to 20% tuna meal is effective in improving the nutritional value and fatty acid profile of pizza pastry.

  8. Aversion learning can reduce meal size without taste avoidance in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, Andrea L; Schurdak, Jennifer D; Chambers, James B; Benoit, Stephen C

    2016-03-01

    Nausea and aversive food responses are commonly reported following bariatric surgery, along with post-surgical reduction in meal size. This study investigates whether a meal size limit can be conditioned by associating large meals with aversive outcomes. In rats, the intake of meals exceeding a pre-defined size threshold was paired with lithium chloride-induced gastric illness, and the effects on self-determined food intakes and body weight were measured. Rats given LiCl contingent on the intake of a large meal learned to reliably reduce intake below this meal size threshold, while post-meal saline or LiCl before meals did not change meal size. It was further demonstrated that this is not a conditioned taste aversion and that this effect transferred to foods not explicitly trained. Finally, when rats received LiCl following all large meals, the number of small meals increased, but total food intake and body weight decreased. While further work is needed, this is the first demonstration that meal size may be conditioned, using an aversion procedure, to remain under a target threshold and that this effect is distinct from taste avoidance. Corresponding reduction in food intake and body weight suggests that this phenomenon may have implications for developing weight loss strategies and understanding the efficacy of bariatric surgery. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  9. Added sugars in kids' meals from chain restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scourboutakos, Mary J; Semnani-Azad, Zhila; L'Abbé, Mary R

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the added sugars in kids' meals from Canadian chain restaurants in relation to the World Health Organization's proposed sugar recommendation (less than 5% of total daily calories should come from added sugars) and current recommendation (less than 10% of total daily calories should come from added sugars). Total sugar levels were retrieved from the websites of 10 fast-food and 7 sit-down restaurants in 2010. The added sugar levels in 3178 kids' meals from Canadian chain restaurants were calculated in 2014 (in Toronto, Canada) by subtracting all naturally occurring sugars from the total sugar level. The average amount of added sugars in restaurant kids' meals (25 ± 0.36 g) exceeded the WHO's proposed daily recommendation for sugar intake. There was a wide range of added sugar levels in kids' meals ranging from 0 g to 114 g. 50% of meals exceeded the WHO's proposed daily sugar recommendation, and 19% exceeded the WHO's current daily sugar recommendation. There is a wide range of sugar levels in kids' meals from restaurants, and many contain more than a day's worth of sugar.

  10. Main meal quality in Brazil and United Kingdom: Similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgulho, Bartira Mendes; Pot, Gerda Karolien; Sarti, Flavia Mori; Marchioni, Dirce Maria

    2017-04-01

    Consumption of fast food and ready-to-eat meals has been positively associated with obesity. In the UK, ready-made meals are more often consumed than in Brazil, a country in which nutrition transition is relatively low. This study aimed to compare the nutritional quality of the main meal consumed by adults in Brazil and UK. Food record data was obtained from representative samples from UK and Brazil databases. The Main Meal Quality Index (MMQI) was applied to estimate the quality of the main meal consumed in Brazil and UK. Differences in food groups consumed in the main meal in Brazil and UK were observed using classification decision tree. Meals with higher average energy content were lunch for Brazil, and dinner for the UK. On average, the Brazilian main meal had better nutritional quality (4.42 times higher), independently of sex, age, family income, nutritional status and energy consumed, with higher scores of fiber, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat and energy density. However, UK's main meal included more fruits and vegetables. Food preparations combined with rice and beans were classified as Brazilian main meal, while combinations with fast food items, as fried potatoes, sandwiches and sugary beverages, were classified as UK main meals. In Brazil, the main meal quality was lower among women and obese individuals, presenting significant positive association with age, and negative association with energy intake and family income; while in UK, only age was positively associated with MMQI. Although main meals in Brazil had higher nutritional quality compared to the UK, main meals consumed in both countries need nutritional improvement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Acute Active Video Games on Endothelial Function Following a High-Fat Meal in Overweight Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo Hyun; Yoon, Eun Sun; Lee, Yong Hee; Kim, Chul-Ho; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Heffernan, Kevin S; Fernall, Bo; Jae, Sae Young

    2015-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an active video game following a high-fat meal would partially prevent the unfavorable effect of a high-fat meal on vascular function in overweight adolescents. Twenty-four overweight adolescents were randomized to either a 60-minute active video game (AVG) group (n = 12) or seated rest (SR) as a control group (n = 12) after a high-fat meal. Blood parameters were measured, and vascular function was measured using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) at baseline and 3 hours after a high-fat meal. No significant interaction was found in any blood parameter. A high-fat meal significantly increased blood triglyceride and glucose concentrations in both groups in a similar manner. Brachial artery FMD significantly decreased in the SR group (13.8 ± 3.2% to 11.8 ± 2.5), but increased in the AVG group (11.4 ± 4.0% to 13.3 ± 3.5), with a significant interaction (P = .034). These findings show that an active video game attenuated high-fat meal-induced endothelial dysfunction. This suggests that an active video game may have a cardioprotective effect on endothelial function in overweight adolescents when exposed to a high-fat meal.

  12. Crambe meal : evaluation, improvement and comparison with rapeseed meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.G.

    1994-01-01

    Crambe abyssinica has gradually been introduced in agriculture as a new oil-bearing crop. Its oil contains 55 to 60% erucic acid (C22:1, Δ13), desirable as lubricants, plastic additives or as a raw material for chemical synthesis. The defatted meal has high protein

  13. Sociodemographic characteristics and frequency of consuming home-cooked meals and meals from out-of-home sources: cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Susanna; Adams, Jean; Wrieden, Wendy; White, Martin; Brown, Heather

    2018-04-11

    To identify sociodemographic characteristics associated with frequency of consuming home-cooked meals and meals from out-of-home sources. Cross-sectional analysis of a population-based cohort study. Frequency of consuming home-cooked meals, ready meals, takeaways and meals out were derived from a participant questionnaire. Sociodemographic characteristics regarding sex, age, ethnicity, working overtime and socio-economic status (SES; measured by household income, educational attainment, occupational status and employment status) were self-reported. Sociodemographic differences in higher v. lower meal consumption frequency were explored using logistic regression, adjusted for other key sociodemographic variables. Cambridgeshire, UK. Fenland Study participants (n 11 326), aged 29-64 years at baseline. Eating home-cooked meals more frequently was associated with being female, older, of higher SES (measured by greater educational attainment and household income) and not working overtime. Being male was associated with a higher frequency of consumption for all out-of-home meal types. Consuming takeaways more frequently was associated with lower SES (measured by lower educational attainment and household income), whereas eating out more frequently was associated with higher SES (measured by greater educational attainment and household income) and working overtime. Sociodemographic characteristics associated with frequency of eating meals from different out-of-home sources varied according to meal source. Findings may be used to target public health policies and interventions for promoting healthier diets and dietary-related health towards people consuming home-cooked meals less frequently, such as men, those with lower educational attainment and household income, and overtime workers.

  14. Effects of gamma irradiation on rapeseed meal with special reference to the quantitative changes in oxazolidinethione and other constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaya, Tetsuro

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to confirm whether the irradiation treatment of rapeseed meal with gamma rays was effective in reducing the goitrogenic effect of meal, and to obtain the information on the reasonable dose level to reduce the above effect. The rapeseed meals from two ordinary and one non-commercial low glucosinolate (Brassica napus L. cv. Bronowski) seeds were exposed to gamma rays of 5, 10, 50 and 100 Mrad respectively. And the changes in oxazolidinethone (OZT) content of these meals by the irradiation were investigated compared with those by the autoclaving treatment under the reasonable condition. The influences of irradiation treatment on the content of the several constituents of meal were also examined. Furthermore, with chicks, the influences of irradiation treatment on the palatability of meal and on the apparent digestibility of its crude protein or crude fiber were investigated. When two ordinary meals were irradiated at the level of 50 Mrad or above, their OZT content reduced to the level of that in a low glucosinolate meal (Bronowski meal) and such irradiation dosages also resulted in a loss of the available lysine (AL) of meals. The extent of the above changes in the contents of OZT and AL was similar to that in rapeseed meal which was autoclaved under the reasonable condition. Treatment at irradiation dosage of either 50 or 100 Mrad resulted in lower crude fiber and higher reducing sugar content than those of non-irradiated meal respectively. Tests with chicks revealed that an irradiation treatment tended to improve the palatability and the crude fiber digestibility of meal but had no appreciable effect on the digestibility of its crude protein. In summary, these findings indicate that the gamma irradiation at dosage of 50 Mrad or above as well as the autoclaving treatment under the reasonable condition is effective in reducing the goitrogenic effect of rapeseed meal. (auth.)

  15. Effects of protein supplements consumed with meals, versus between meals, on resistance training-induced body composition changes in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Joshua L; Bergia, Robert E; Campbell, Wayne W

    2018-06-01

    The impact of timing the consumption of protein supplements in relation to meals on resistance training-induced changes in body composition has not been evaluated systematically. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of consuming protein supplements with meals, vs between meals, on resistance training-induced body composition changes in adults. Studies published up to 2017 were identified with the PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, and CINAHL databases. Two researchers independently screened 2077 abstracts for eligible randomized controlled trials of parallel design that prescribed a protein supplement and measured changes in body composition for a period of 6 weeks or more. In total, 34 randomized controlled trials with 59 intervention groups were included and qualitatively assessed. Of the intervention groups designated as consuming protein supplements with meals (n = 16) vs between meals (n = 43), 56% vs 72% showed an increase in body mass, 94% vs 90% showed an increase in lean mass, 87% vs 59% showed a reduction in fat mass, and 100% vs 84% showed an increase in the ratio of lean mass to fat mass over time, respectively. Concurrently with resistance training, consuming protein supplements with meals, rather than between meals, may more effectively promote weight control and reduce fat mass without influencing improvements in lean mass.

  16. Holiday Meal Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & Type 1 Diabetes Get Started Safely ... plan ahead. Fitting in Sweets Learn about eating desserts on special occasions. In this section Planning Meals ...

  17. International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: meal frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stout Jeffrey R

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Position Statement: Admittedly, research to date examining the physiological effects of meal frequency in humans is somewhat limited. More specifically, data that has specifically examined the impact of meal frequency on body composition, training adaptations, and performance in physically active individuals and athletes is scant. Until more research is available in the physically active and athletic populations, definitive conclusions cannot be made. However, within the confines of the current scientific literature, we assert that: 1. Increasing meal frequency does not appear to favorably change body composition in sedentary populations. 2. If protein levels are adequate, increasing meal frequency during periods of hypoenergetic dieting may preserve lean body mass in athletic populations. 3. Increased meal frequency appears to have a positive effect on various blood markers of health, particularly LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and insulin. 4. Increased meal frequency does not appear to significantly enhance diet induced thermogenesis, total energy expenditure or resting metabolic rate. 5. Increasing meal frequency appears to help decrease hunger and improve appetite control. The following literature review has been prepared by the authors in support of the aforementioned position statement.

  18. Eating slowly led to decreases in energy intake within meals in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Ana M; Greene, Geoffrey W; Melanson, Kathleen J

    2008-07-01

    Although reducing eating rate is frequently advocated for control of food intake and thus body weight, empirical evidence is extremely limited and inconsistent. We sought to compare the impact of slow and quick eating rates on development of satiation in healthy women. In a randomized design, 30 healthy women (22.9+/-7.1 years; body mass index [calculated as kg/m(2)] 22.1+/-2.9) were studied on two test visits to compare slow and quick eating rates. Satiation was examined as the main outcome, using the objective measure of energy intake during ad libitum meals. At designated times, subjects also rated perceived hunger, satiety, desire to eat, thirst and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Slow rates of ingestion led to significant decreases in energy intake (quick: 645.7+/-155.9 kcal; slow: 579.0+/-154.7 kcal; Pmeal completion under the quick condition, satiety was significantly lower than the slow condition (PIndex (quick: 0.1; slow: 0.2; Pmeal completion, pleasantness ratings tended to be higher under the slow condition (P=0.04; but not significant after Bonferroni adjustment). Ad libitum energy intake was lower when the meal was eaten slowly, and satiety was higher at meal completion. Although more study is needed, these data suggest that eating slowly may help to maximize satiation and reduce energy intake within meals.

  19. Losing weight without dieting. Use of commercial foods as meal replacements for lunch produces an extended energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly

    2011-10-01

    High-protein liquid meal replacements have proven to be effective in reducing caloric intake and body weight. Recently, substituting high fiber breakfast cereals for the more expensive high-protein drinks has been found to be equally effective to reduce weight. The following study tested the hypothesis that the mechanism responsible for the reduced intake was not the dietary composition of the meal replacement, but the controlled portion sized meals. Seventeen volunteers ate all of their meals and snacks from foods provided by the research unit from Monday to Friday for five consecutive weeks. For the first week, all participants selected their food from a buffet where each food was weighed before and after eating. For the next two weeks, half of the group selected their lunch by choosing one food from a selection of six commercially available portion controlled foods. They could eat as much as they wished at other meals or snacks. For final weeks four and five, the conditions were reversed for the two groups. Consuming the portion controlled lunches resulted in about a 250 kcal reduction in energy intake. More importantly, no sign of caloric compensation was evident across the 10 days of testing, an observation substantiated by a significant loss of body weight. The results suggest that the mere substitution of one smaller portioned meal each day is sufficient to cause reduction in daily energy intake and a significant amount of weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Substitution of Soybean Meal with Indigofera zollingeriana Top Leaf Meal on Egg Quality of Cortunix cortunix japonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Faradillah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to study the substitution of soybean meal (SBM with Indigofera zollingeriana top leaf meal (ILM in the diet on egg quality of Japanese quails. The experiment used a completely randomized design with five treatments and four replications (ten quails of each replication. The dietary treatment contained five combination of SBM and ILM, R0= diets contained 18% SBM without ILM, R1= diet contained 16.2% SBM and 2.66% ILM, R2= diet contained 14.4% SBM and 5.32% ILM, R3= diet contained 12.6% SBM and 7.98% ILM, R4= diet contained 9% SBM and 13.3% ILM. The results showed that the use of 13.3% ILM (R4 significantly (P<0.05 increased feed consumption, egg weight, yolk colour score, egg cholesterol, and reduced malondialdehyde level. The conclusion of this study was I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could be used as much as 13.3% in the diets. The use of I. zollingeriana top leaf meal could improve the quality of eggs physically and chemically.

  1. Summer Meal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Information pertaining to Summer Meal Sites, as collected by Citiparks in the City of Pittsburgh Department of Parks and Recreation. This dataset includes the...

  2. Evaluation of sampling plans to detect Cry9C protein in corn flour and meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Thomas B; Trucksess, Mary W; Giesbrecht, Francis G; Slate, Andrew B; Thomas, Francis S

    2004-01-01

    StarLink is a genetically modified corn that produces an insecticidal protein, Cry9C. Studies were conducted to determine the variability and Cry9C distribution among sample test results when Cry9C protein was estimated in a bulk lot of corn flour and meal. Emphasis was placed on measuring sampling and analytical variances associated with each step of the test procedure used to measure Cry9C in corn flour and meal. Two commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits were used: one for the determination of Cry9C protein concentration and the other for % StarLink seed. The sampling and analytical variances associated with each step of the Cry9C test procedures were determined for flour and meal. Variances were found to be functions of Cry9C concentration, and regression equations were developed to describe the relationships. Because of the larger particle size, sampling variability associated with cornmeal was about double that for corn flour. For cornmeal, the sampling variance accounted for 92.6% of the total testing variability. The observed sampling and analytical distributions were compared with the Normal distribution. In almost all comparisons, the null hypothesis that the Cry9C protein values were sampled from a Normal distribution could not be rejected at 95% confidence limits. The Normal distribution and the variance estimates were used to evaluate the performance of several Cry9C protein sampling plans for corn flour and meal. Operating characteristic curves were developed and used to demonstrate the effect of increasing sample size on reducing false positives (seller's risk) and false negatives (buyer's risk).

  3. No Time for Family Meals? Parenting Practices Associated with Adolescent Fruit and Vegetable Intake When Family Meals Are Not an Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Allison W; Loth, Katie; Berge, Jerica M; Larson, Nicole; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2017-05-01

    Despite research linking family meals to healthier diets, some families are unable to have regular meals together. These families need guidance about other ways to promote healthy eating among adolescents. Our aim was to examine the association between various parenting practices and adolescent fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake at different levels of family meal frequency. We conducted a cross-sectional, population-based survey of influences on adolescent weight-related behaviors using Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens) 2010. Participants were 2,491 adolescents recruited from middle/high schools in Minneapolis/St Paul, MN. Adolescent F/V intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire. Survey items assessed frequency of family meals and F/V parenting practices (availability, accessibility, parent modeling, parent encouragement, and family communication). Linear regression models were used to examine associations with and interactions among family meals and parenting practices. Models were adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, and energy intake (kilocalories per day). Family meals, F/V availability, F/V accessibility, F/V modeling, and encouragement to eat healthy foods were independently associated with higher F/V intake. Of the 949 (34%) adolescents who reported infrequent family meals (≤2 days/wk), mean F/V intake was 3.6 servings/day for those with high home F/V availability vs 3.0 servings/day for those with low home F/V availability. Similar differences in mean F/V intake (0.3 to 0.6 servings/day) were found for high vs low F/V accessibility, parental modeling, and parent encouragement for healthy eating. Frequent family meals in addition to more favorable parenting practices were associated with the highest F/V intakes. Food parenting practices and family meals are associated with greater adolescent F/V intake. Longitudinal and intervention studies are needed to determine which combination of parenting practices

  4. Children's body mass index, participation in school meals, and observed energy intake at school meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mackelprang Alyssa J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from a dietary-reporting validation study with fourth-grade children were analyzed to investigate a possible relationship of body mass index (BMI with daily participation in school meals and observed energy intake at school meals, and whether the relationships differed by breakfast location (classroom; cafeteria. Methods Data were collected in 17, 17, and 8 schools during three school years. For the three years, six, six, and seven of the schools had breakfast in the classroom; all other schools had breakfast in the cafeteria. Information about 180 days of school breakfast and school lunch participation during fourth grade for each of 1,571 children (90% Black; 53% girls was available in electronic administrative records from the school district. Children were weighed and measured, and BMI was calculated. Each of a subset of 465 children (95% Black; 49% girls was observed eating school breakfast and school lunch on the same day. Mixed-effects regression was conducted with BMI as the dependent variable and school as the random effect; independent variables were breakfast participation, lunch participation, combined participation (breakfast and lunch on the same day, average observed energy intake for breakfast, average observed energy intake for lunch, sex, age, breakfast location, and school year. Analyses were repeated for BMI category (underweight/healthy weight; overweight; obese; severely obese using pooled ordered logistic regression models that excluded sex and age. Results Breakfast participation, lunch participation, and combined participation were not significantly associated with BMI or BMI category irrespective of whether the model included observed energy intake at school meals. Observed energy intake at school meals was significantly and positively associated with BMI and BMI category. For the total sample and subset, breakfast location was significantly associated with BMI; average BMI was larger for

  5. Sea buckthorn decreases and delays insulin response and improves glycaemic profile following a sucrose-containing berry meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Maria Wichmann; Spagner, Camilla; Cuparencu, Cătălina

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE: Berries and mixed berry products exert acute effects on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia, but very few berries have been studied, and primarily in normal weight subjects. Sea buckthorn and strawberry are compositionally widely different berries and may likely produce different...... responses. The effects of strawberry and sea buckthorn on postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia were examined in overweight or obese male subjects. Subjective appetite sensations and ad libitum intake were also examined. METHODS: The study was conducted as a randomised, controlled, single-blinded, three......-way crossover study. Eighteen subjects were studied in three 2-h meal tests followed by a subsequent ad libitum meal. Test meals contained added sucrose and either sea buckthorn, strawberry or no berries with added fructose (control). Blood samples were collected at t = 0, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 min. Subjective...

  6. Irradiation of ready meals for microbial safety and shelf-life extension: 1. microbial quality of waakye and other other ready-to-eat meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nketsia-Tabiri, J.; Adu-Gyamfi, A.; Owusu-Biney, A.

    2006-01-01

    Waakye bought from the open market and 14 meals prepared under the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) plan were microbiologically investigated. The aerobic mesophilic count (AMC) (10 7 - 10 8 CFU g 1 ) and coliform count (10 6 - 10 7 CFU g -1 ) for complete waakye meals, including macaroni, fried fish, sauce and vegetable salad, exceeded the microbiological standards for such ready-to-eat meals. The AMC (10 1 - 10 4 CFU g 1 ) and coliform count (10 1 - 10 2 CFU g -1 ) for all the ready meals prepared under HACCP and stored (-5 to 0 0 C) for up to 5 days were within the standards. Potential pathogens isolated from waakye and the meals prepared under HACCP plan included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp., Serratia spp., and Enterobacter spp. Subsequent studies will exploit the potential of irradiation to eliminate pathogens and ensure the microbiological safety of ready-to-eat meals. (au)

  7. Meals served in Danish nursing homes and to meals-on-wheels clients may not offer nutritionally adequate choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Hansen, Kirsten S.

    2010-01-01

    Underweight is a significant problem among older Danish nursing home residents and home-care clients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional composition of the meals prepared for older adults in nursing homes and receiving Meals-on-Wheels deliveries, focusing on the menus most comm...

  8. Oral regurgitation after reflux provoking meals: a possible cause of dental erosion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, D W; Evans, D F; Smith, B G

    1997-02-01

    Certain foods and drinks such as alcohol, heavily spiced or fatty meals are known to provoke gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). This may give rise to symptoms of heartburn, epigastric pain and occasionally oral regurgitation of the gastric contents. Oral regurgitation of gastric juice is important in dentistry because of its association with dental erosion. This study measured oesophageal and oral reflux in 12 healthy subjects after a curry meal taken with alcohol 2 h before sleep. Each subject repeated the test with a bland non-reflux provoking control meal. GOR was measured by recording distal and proximal oesophageal pH on a dual channel, portable pH monitor. Oral pH was measured with a pH sensitive radio-telemetry capsule (RTC) held on the palate in a vacuum formed splint. Signals from the RTC were received by an aerial worn around the head. The pH change produced by GOR was estimated as the percentage time that pH (PTpH) was less than 4 in the distal oesophagus. Similarly, the PTpH was estimated reflux in only two subjects. In one of these subjects the bland meal provoked oral regurgitation with a PTpH < 5.5 of 13.5%. In the remaining subjects little oral regurgitation occurred.

  9. [Factors associated with adherence to school meals by adolescents in State public schools in Colombo, Paraná State, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentim, Emanuele de Araujo; Almeida, Claudia Choma Bettega de; Taconeli, César Augusto; Osório, Mônica Maria; Schmidt, Suely Teresinha

    2017-10-26

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of adherence to school meals and associated factors among adolescent schoolchildren (N = 1,569). The adolescents completed an on-line questionnaire on adherence to school meals, and their parents answered another questionnaire on socioeconomic data. The chi-square test was used to assess the association between adherence to school meals and gender, nutritional status, per capita family income, maternal schooling, adolescents' opinions on the dining hall layout, whether they considered school meals healthy, and consumption of other foods. Variables with statistical significance for adherence to school meals were included in the multilevel proportional odds logistic regression model. The covariates for comprising the final model were defined by backward selection methods. The results of the adjusted model were presented as odds ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Prevalence of adherence to school meals was low, especially effective adherence (19.8%). Adherence was associated with per capita family income less than one minimum wage, lower consumption of foods outside of school meals, the fact that adolescents considered the dining hall space adequate, and believing that school meals are healthy. Adherence to school meals in this study falls short of universal coverage for the program. Different factors contribute to incomplete program implementation, which may hinder achieving the food and nutritional security policy under the Brazilian National School Feeding Program (PNAE).

  10. Associations between postprandial insulin and blood glucose responses, appetite sensations and energy intake in normal weight and overweight individuals: a meta-analysis of test meal studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flint, Anne; Gregersen, Nikolaj T.; Gluud, Lise L.

    2007-01-01

    is unclear whether postprandial blood glucose or insulin exerts a regulatory function in short-term appetite regulation in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate, by use of meta-analysis, the role of blood glucose and insulin in short-term appetite sensation and energy intake (EI......) in normal weight and overweight participants. Data from seven test meal studies were used, including 136 healthy participants (ALL) (92 normal weight (NW) and 44 overweight or obese (OW)). All meals were served as breakfasts after an overnight fast, and appetite sensations and blood samples were obtained...... frequently in the postprandial period. Finally, an ad libitum lunch was served. Data were analysed by fixed effects study level (SL) meta-regression analysis and individual participant data (IPD) regression analysis, using STATA software. In SL analysis, postprandial insulin response was associated...

  11. The Effects of 6 Isocaloric Meals on Body Weight, Lipid Profiles, Leptin, and Adiponectin in Overweight Subjects (BMI > 25

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynab Hatami Zargaran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: It seems that meal frequency is negatively related to body weight, but the relationship between meal frequency and weight loss is not clearly known yet. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate whether 6 isocaloric meals affected body weight, lipid profiles, leptin, and adiponectin in overweight subjects. Methods: The present randomized controlled trial was conducted on 90 overweight subjects in 3 months. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups. The control group continued their normal diet, while the intervention group was required to follow a 6 isocaloric meal diet instead of their previous meal pattern (3 meals and 2 snacks. The planned reduced calorie diets for both groups were identical, except for meal pattern. Blood samples were analyzed prior to and at the end of the study for total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, leptin, and adiponectinn concentrations. Paired t-test was used for comparison of the measurements before and after the study in each group. Besides, independent t-test was used for comparison of the measurements between the groups. P value less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The mean age of the participants was 36.38 ± 9.7 in the intervention group and 37.6 ± 10.9 in the control group. In comparison to the control group, the intervention group showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol (P < 0.001, LDL-C (P < 0.001, BMI (P < 0.001, triglyceride (P < 0.001, and leptin (P = 0.002 and a significant increase in HDL (P < 0.001 and adiponectin (P = 0.031. Conclusions: The 6 isocaloric meal pattern led to a reduction in BMI, lipid profiles (total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglyceride, and leptin concentrations and an increase in HDL and adiponectin compared to the normal diet.

  12. Supplementation by thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal decreases feelings of hunger, elevates CCK levels and prevents postprandial hypoglycaemia in overweight women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenblom, Eva-Lena; Montelius, Caroline; Östbring, Karolina

    2013-01-01

    Thylakoids are chlorophyll-containing membranes in chloroplasts that have been isolated from green leaves. It has been previously shown that thylakoids supplemented with a high-fat meal can affect cholecystokinin (CCK), ghrelin, insulin and blood lipids in humans, and can act to suppress food...... intake and prevent body weight gain in rodents. This study investigates the addition of thylakoids to a high carbohydrate meal and its effects upon hunger motivation and fullness, and the levels of glucose, insulin, CCK, ghrelin and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in overweight women. Twenty...... moderately overweight female subjects received test meals on three different occasions; two thylakoid enriched and one control, separated by 1 week. The test meals consisted of a high carbohydrate Swedish breakfast, with or without addition of thylakoids. Blood samples and VAS-questionnaires were evaluated...

  13. Per meal dose and frequency of protein consumption is associated with lean mass and muscle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loenneke, Jeremy P; Loprinzi, Paul D; Murphy, Caoileann H; Phillips, Stuart M

    2016-12-01

    It has been hypothesized that for older adults evenly distributing consumption of protein at 30-40 g per meal throughout the day may result in more favorable retention of lean mass and muscular strength. Such a thesis has not, to our knowledge, been tested outside of short-term studies or acute measures of muscle protein synthesis. To examine whether the number of times an individual consumed a minimum of 30 g of protein at a meal is associated with leg lean mass and knee extensor strength. Data from the 1999-2002 NHANES were used, with 1081 adults (50-85 y) constituting the analytic sample. A "multiple pass" 24-h dietary interview format was used to collect detailed information about the participants' dietary intake. Knee extensor strength was assessed objectively using the Kin Com MP dynamometer. Leg lean mass was estimated from whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans. Participants with 1 vs. 0 (β adjusted  = 23.6, p = 0.002) and 2 vs. 0 (β adjusted  = 51.1, p = 0.001) meals of ≥30 g protein/meal had greater strength and leg lean mass (1 vs. 0, β adjusted  = 1160, p frequency with leg lean mass and strength plateaued at ∼45 g protein/meal for those consuming 2 vs. 0 meals above the evaluated protein/meal threshold. However, for those with only 1 meal at or above the evaluated threshold, the response plateaued at 30 g/meal. Leg lean mass mediated the relationship between protein frequency and strength, with the proportion of the total effect mediated being 64%. We found that more frequent consumption of meals containing between 30 and 45 g protein/meal produced the greatest association with leg lean mass and strength. Thus, the consumption of 1-2 daily meals with protein content from 30 to 45 g may be an important strategy for increasing and/or maintaining lean body mass and muscle strength with aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  14. School meals and educational outcomes in rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Poppe, Robert; Frölich, Markus; Haile, Getinet

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between providing school meals programme and educational outcomes in Ethiopia. Using data from school catchment areas across rural Ethiopia, the paper examines the role played by programme modalities and their implementation. The results indicate that supplementing on-site school meals with take-home rations can be beneficial for concentration, reading, writing and arithmetic skills. The timing of the distribution of school meals is also found to play an import...

  15. Planning for meals-on-wheels: algorithms and application

    OpenAIRE

    H Yildiz; M P Johnson; S Roehrig

    2013-01-01

    Home-delivered meals provision, also known as meals-on-wheels, is a volunteer-staffed activity for which little strategic planning is performed. We develop a Memetic Algorithm to solve the Home Delivered Meals Location-Routing Problem. This planning model addresses facility location, allocation of demand to facilities, and design of delivery routes, while balancing efficiency and effectiveness considerations. The case study presented on a large data set shows how trade-off curves, which are v...

  16. Earthworm and maggots meals as potential fishmeal replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqub, H.B.

    1997-01-01

    Three meals were formulated from the earthworm (Endrilus eugineae) and maggot (Musca domestica) and fish (Engraulis encrosicolus). These meals were evaluated as a potential replacement for fishmeal. This is because fishmeal could be very expensive at times. The three meals were used in feeding the catfish (Heterobranchus isopterus) fry for 30 days. The study was conducted in 1991 at the Institute of Renewable Natural Resources Farm, University of Science and Technology. Two replicate...

  17. The effect of consuming low- versus high-glycemic index meals after exercise on postprandial blood lipid response following a next-day high-fat meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, M; Chilibeck, P D; Yee, P; Zello, G A

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Exercise performed shortly before (that is, within half a day of) a high-fat meal is beneficial for stimulating fat oxidation after the meal and reducing postprandial triglycerides (TG). This benefit of exercise is unfortunately negated if the after-exercise food choice to replace the calories expended during exercise is one containing high-glycemic index (HGI) carbohydrates. We determined the effect of consuming low-glycemic index (LGI) carbohydrates after an exercise session on fat oxidation and TG after a subsequent high-fat meal. Subjects/Methods: Using a randomized, counterbalanced crossover design, 23 overweight or obese individuals (body mass index ⩾25 kg m−2) performed: walking exercise (90 min) at 1800 h followed by no meal (EX); exercise followed by a meal with LGI carbohydrates (that is, lentils, EX-LGI); exercise followed by a meal with HGI carbohydrates (that is, instant potatoes, white bread, EX-HGI); and a control condition with no exercise or meal. After a 10-h overnight fast, participants were given a standardized high-fat meal. Fat oxidation was estimated before and for 6 h after this meal from respiratory gas measures and TG determined from blood samples. Results: Fat oxidation (mean±s.d.) was higher with EX (6.9±1.7 g h−1) than EX-HGI (6.3±1.6 g h−1; P=0.007) and Control (5.9±1.7 g h−1; P=0.00002), and EX-LGI (6.6±1.7 g h−1) was higher than Control (P=0.002). TG total area under the curve was 18–32% lower with EX and EX-LGI compared with control (P=0.0005 and P=0.0001, respectively) and EX-HGI (P=0.05 and P=0.021, respectively). Conclusions: A meal containing HGI carbohydrates consumed after an evening exercise session cancels the beneficial effect of exercise for stimulating fat oxidation and lowering TG after a subsequent high-fat meal, whereas consuming a post-exercise meal with LGI carbohydrates retains the positive effect of exercise. PMID:27376698

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological and organoleptic quality of ready prepared chilled meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, M F; Stevenson, M H; Grant, I R; McAteer, N J; Stewart, E M [Department of Food Science, Queen` s University of Belfast, Belfast (Ireland)

    1999-12-31

    The sensitivity of five food borne pathogens (Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens) to irradiation in the components of a roast beef meal (beef, gravy, cauliflower with white sauce, roast potatoes and mashed potatoes) was compared. The D{sub 10} values ranged from 0.17 to 0.65 kGy, depending on the organism and plating medium. When irradiated in gravy, the pathogens generally had lower D{sub 10} values than in any of the other four components. In a subsequent study, the effect of irradiation (2 and 3 kGy) on the microbiological and sensory quality of the roast beef meals was assessed at intervals during 15 days of storage at 2-3 deg. C. A dose of 2 kGy was beneficial in improving the microbial quality of the meals, but sensory profiling techniques, using a trained panel of assessors, showed that there were significant differences between the non-irradiated and irradiated meal components during storage. The changes were most apparent in the cauliflower and potato components, and most often occurred in the colour, appearance and textural attributes tested. As these changes could have a limiting effect on the shelf-life of the meals, the suitability of other vegetables for inclusion in such irradiated meals was investigated. Irradiation and chilled storage of carrots and broccoli did not significantly affect the sensory quality when compared with the non-irradiated controls. A consumer trial of the roast beef meal (beef, gravy, roast potatoes, broccoli and carrots) found that irradiation (2 kGy) did not significantly affect the sensory quality. It was concluded that irradiation could be used to improve the microbiological safety and shelf-life of certain chilled meals without significantly affecting the organoleptic quality. (author) 16 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  19. Effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological and organoleptic quality of ready prepared chilled meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, M.F.; Stevenson, M.H.; Grant, I.R.; McAteer, N.J.; Stewart, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    The sensitivity of five food borne pathogens (Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium perfringens) to irradiation in the components of a roast beef meal (beef, gravy, cauliflower with white sauce, roast potatoes and mashed potatoes) was compared. The D 10 values ranged from 0.17 to 0.65 kGy, depending on the organism and plating medium. When irradiated in gravy, the pathogens generally had lower D 10 values than in any of the other four components. In a subsequent study, the effect of irradiation (2 and 3 kGy) on the microbiological and sensory quality of the roast beef meals was assessed at intervals during 15 days of storage at 2-3 deg. C. A dose of 2 kGy was beneficial in improving the microbial quality of the meals, but sensory profiling techniques, using a trained panel of assessors, showed that there were significant differences between the non-irradiated and irradiated meal components during storage. The changes were most apparent in the cauliflower and potato components, and most often occurred in the colour, appearance and textural attributes tested. As these changes could have a limiting effect on the shelf-life of the meals, the suitability of other vegetables for inclusion in such irradiated meals was investigated. Irradiation and chilled storage of carrots and broccoli did not significantly affect the sensory quality when compared with the non-irradiated controls. A consumer trial of the roast beef meal (beef, gravy, roast potatoes, broccoli and carrots) found that irradiation (2 kGy) did not significantly affect the sensory quality. It was concluded that irradiation could be used to improve the microbiological safety and shelf-life of certain chilled meals without significantly affecting the organoleptic quality. (author)

  20. Meal Frequency and Nutrient Distribution: What is Ideal for Body Composition?

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan P Lowery

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effects of meal frequency on protein synthesis, muscle mass and fat mass. Current research appears to indicate that manipulating meal frequency increases net protein balance and body composition when each meal provides an adequate supply of the amino acid leucine to optimize skeletal muscle anabolism. In contrast, research demonstrating no benefits to increased meal frequency generally employed small, inadequate boluses of protein per meal. The purpose of this paper ...

  1. Adolescents' unhealthy eating habits are associated with meal skipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Monteiro, Luana Silva; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2017-10-01

    Meal consumption and diet quality are important for healthy development during adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine the association between meal habits and diet quality in Brazilian adolescents. A school-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 with a probabilistic sample of adolescents ages 14 to 19 y (N = 1139) from high schools in central-western Brazil. Consumption of breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner was assessed to evaluate adolescents' meal profile. The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) was calculated to evaluate diet quality. The association between meal profile and BHEI-R (global estimates and components) was assessed using multivariate linear regression models. Diet was characterized by unhealthy eating: a low consumption of fruits, vegetables, and milk/dairy, and a high consumption of fats and sodium. An unsatisfactory meal profile was observed in 14% of adolescents, whereas daily consumption of breakfast, lunch, and dinner was reported by 47%, 78%, and 52% of adolescents, respectively. Meal profile was positively associated with diet quality. Daily consumption of breakfast was associated with higher BHEI-R scores, lower sodium intake, and greater consumption of fruits and milk/dairy. Daily consumption of lunch was associated with greater consumption of vegetables and "meats, eggs, and legumes," whereas consumption of dinner was associated with an increased consumption of "whole fruits." This study showed a parallelism between daily consumption of meals with healthier eating and greater adherence to traditional Brazilian food habits. Skipping meals was associated with a low-quality diet, especially concerning to the low consumption of fruits and vegetables and a high intake of sodium and calories from solid fats, added sugars, and alcoholic beverages. Therefore, the adoption of regular meal habits may help adolescents improve their diet quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  2. The nutritional content and cost of supermarket ready-meals. Cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remnant, Jennifer; Adams, Jean

    2015-09-01

    Over-reliance on convenience foods, including ready-meals, has been suggested as one contributor to obesity. Little research has systematically explored the nutritional content of supermarket ready-meals. We described the nutritional content and cost of UK supermarket ready-meals. We conducted a survey of supermarket own-brand chilled and frozen ready-meals available in branches of ten national supermarket chains in one city in northern England. Data on price, weight and nutritional content of meals in four ranges ('healthier', luxury, economy and standard) and of six types (macaroni cheese, meat lasagne, cottage pie, chicken tikka masala, fish pie, and sweet and sour chicken) were collected. Nutritional content was compared to ranges used to identify low, medium and high fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt in nationally recommended front-of-pack labelling. 166 ready-meals were included from 41 stores. Overall, ready-meals were high in saturated fat and salt, and low in sugar. One-fifth of meals were low in fat, saturated fat, salt and sugar, including two-thirds of 'healthier' meals. Meals that were low for three out of the four front-of-pack nutrients were the cheapest. Supermarket ready-meals do not have a healthful nutritional profile overall. However, a number of healthier meals were available - particularly amongst meals specifically marked as 'healthier'. There was little evidence that healthier meals necessarily cost more. Further effort is required to encourage producers to improve the nutritional profile of the full range of ready-meals, and not just those specifically labelled as 'healthier'. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. The nutritional content and cost of supermarket ready-meals. Cross-sectional analysis☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remnant, Jennifer; Adams, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over-reliance on convenience foods, including ready-meals, has been suggested as one contributor to obesity. Little research has systematically explored the nutritional content of supermarket ready-meals. We described the nutritional content and cost of UK supermarket ready-meals. Methods: We conducted a survey of supermarket own-brand chilled and frozen ready-meals available in branches of ten national supermarket chains in one city in northern England. Data on price, weight and nutritional content of meals in four ranges (‘healthier’, luxury, economy and standard) and of six types (macaroni cheese, meat lasagne, cottage pie, chicken tikka masala, fish pie, and sweet and sour chicken) were collected. Nutritional content was compared to ranges used to identify low, medium and high fat, saturated fat, sugar and salt in nationally recommended front-of-pack labelling. Results: 166 ready-meals were included from 41 stores. Overall, ready-meals were high in saturated fat and salt, and low in sugar. One-fifth of meals were low in fat, saturated fat, salt and sugar, including two-thirds of ‘healthier’ meals. Meals that were low for three out of the four front-of-pack nutrients were the cheapest. Conclusions: Supermarket ready-meals do not have a healthful nutritional profile overall. However, a number of healthier meals were available – particularly amongst meals specifically marked as ‘healthier’. There was little evidence that healthier meals necessarily cost more. Further effort is required to encourage producers to improve the nutritional profile of the full range of ready-meals, and not just those specifically labelled as ‘healthier’. PMID:25963106

  4. The School Meals Initiative Implementation Study. First Year Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Sameer; Chattopadhyay, Manas; Sullivan, Colleen; Mallory, Larry; Steiger, Darby Miller; Daft, Lynn; Arcos, Alyssa; Wilbraham, Brooke

    This report, authorized by the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, contains information on the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children (SMI), a reform of school-meals programs aimed at upgrading the nutritional content of school meals. The purpose of the study was to describe and evaluate: (1) overall…

  5. FERMENTED BLOOD MEAL USE FOR TIGER GROUPER, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus GROW-OUT DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Usman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The experiment aimed to evaluate the optimal level of fermented blood meal used in grow-out diets for tiger grouper, as an alternative protein source to fish meal. Juvenile tiger grouper, initial weight 31.1 ± 2.1 g, were stocked into 1 m x 1 m x 2 m floating net cages at 20 fish cage-1. The treatment applied was isoprotein and isocaloric diets formulated to contain fermented blood meal (FBM of 0%, 7.5%, 15.0%, 22.5%, and 30.0% replacement of fish meal protein. The diets were fed to the fish twice a day to satiation for 20 weeks. Based on the Tukey test, the fish fed 0%–15.0% FBM demonstrated similar performance (P>0.05 to those fed the control diet (FBM0 in terms of specific growth rate, weight gain, and feed and protein efficiency. Specific growth rate, weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency of the fish fed 22.5%–30.5% FBM were significantly lower (P<0.05 than those of the fish fed control diet (FBM0. However, there was a significant culvilinier decliner in overall fish performance with increasing inclusion of FPM and most notable for weight gain, feed efficiency and feed consumption. Based on regression analysis, the asymptote where fish growth deteriorates as a function of FBM inclusion was determined to be 8.9%. Tiger grouper diets incorporating up to 9% FBM as fish meal replacement had no adverse affects on fish growth and survival.

  6. Parental Characteristics and Reasons Associated With Purchasing Kids' Meals for Their Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Park, Sohyun; Maynard, Leah M; Blanck, Heidi M; McGuire, Lisa C; Collins, Janet L

    2018-02-01

    Characteristics of parents who purchased kids' meals, reasons for the purchase, and desire for healthy options were examined. Quantitative, cross-sectional study. National. The SummerStyles survey data of 1147 parents (≥18 years). Self-reported outcome variables were purchase of kids' meals (yes/no), reasons for the purchase (13 choices), and desire for healthy options (yes/no). We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for purchasing kids' meals based on parental sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics. Over half (51%) of parents reported purchasing kids' meals in the past month. The adjusted OR of purchasing kids' meals were significantly higher among younger parents (OR = 3.44 vs ≥50 years) and among parents who consumed sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) daily (OR = 2.70 vs none). No differences were found for race/ethnicity, income, and education. Parents who purchased kids' meals reported that the top 3 reasons for purchase were (1) because their children asked for kids' meals, (2) habit, and (3) offering of healthier sides such as fruits or fruit cups. Thirty-seven percent of parents who did not purchase kids' meals expressed willingness to purchase kids' meals if healthy options were available; this willingness was highest among younger parents (47%; P Kids' meal purchases were somewhat common. Our findings on characteristics of parents who frequently bought kids' meals (ie, younger parents and SSB consumers), common reasons for purchasing kids' meals, and willingness to buy healthier kids' meal can be used to inform intervention efforts to improve quality of kids' meals.

  7. Possible effects of the intake of a free, healthy school meal on overall meal frequency and watching TV while eating among 10-12-year-olds in Norway : The School Meal Project in Aust-Agder

    OpenAIRE

    Næss, Ida Kile

    2017-01-01

    Master's Thesis Public Health Science ME516 - University of Agder 2017 Background: Irregular meal frequencies and watching TV while eating is associated with poorer diet quality in children/adolescents. Preventive public health measures organized in school will reach children regardless of socioeconomic position. Today, there is no arrangement of school meals in Norwegian schools. The aim of this study was to assess possible effects of the intake of a free, healthy school meal ...

  8. Productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens fed Hermetia illucens larvae meal as total replacement of soybean meal from 24 to 45 weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marono, S; Loponte, R; Lombardi, P; Vassalotti, G; Pero, M E; Russo, F; Gasco, L; Parisi, G; Piccolo, G; Nizza, S; Di Meo, C; Attia, Y A; Bovera, F

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the research was to study the effects of an insect meal from Hermetia illucens larvae (HILM) as complete replacement of soybean meal (SBM) on productive performance and blood profiles of laying hens, from 24 to 45 wk of age. A total of 108 24-week-old Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens was equally divided into 2 groups (54 hens/group, 9 replicates of 6 hens/group). From 24 to 45 wk of age, the groups were fed 2 different isoproteic and isoenergetic diets: the control group (SBM) was fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, while in the HILM group the soybean meal was completely replaced by Hermetia illucens larvae meal. Feed intake, number of eggs produced, and egg weight were recorded weekly along the trial. At 45 wk of age, blood samples were collected from 2 hens per replicate. The use of HIML led to a more favorable (P meal produced a higher percentage of eggs from small (S), medium (M), and extra-large (XL) classes (P meal, while creatinine was higher (P meal can be a suitable alternative protein source for laying hens even if the complete replacement of soybean meal needs further investigation to avoid the negative effects on feed intake. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Emotions associated to mealtimes: Memorable meals and typical evening meals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Jaeger, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    This research contributes to the current interest in food-related emotions in eating occasions. Previous research has studied contextual influences on food-related emotions, but the food products used as stimuli were single food items (i.e., chocolate brownie, fruit, potato crisps) and not meals. In

  10. Serving large portions of vegetable soup at the start of a meal affected children’s energy and vegetable intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spill, Maureen K.; Birch, Leann L.; Roe, Liane S.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    This study tested whether varying the portion of low-energy-dense vegetable soup served at the start of a meal affects meal energy and vegetable intakes in children. Subjects were 3- to 5-year-olds (31 boys and 41 girls) in daycare facilities. Using a crossover design, children were served lunch once a week for four weeks. On three occasions, different portions of tomato soup (150, 225, and 300 g) were served at the start of the meal, and on one occasion no soup was served. Children had 10 minutes to consume the soup before being served the main course. All foods were consumed ad libitum. The primary outcomes were soup intake as well as energy and vegetable intake at the main course. A mixed linear model tested the effect of soup portion size on intake. Serving any portion of soup reduced entrée energy intake compared with serving no soup, but total meal energy intake was only reduced when 150 g of soup was served. Increasing the portion size increased soup and vegetable intake. Serving low-energy-dense, vegetable soup as a first course is an effective strategy to reduce children’s intake of a more energy-dense main entrée and increase vegetable consumption at the meal. PMID:21596073

  11. Who Is Eligible for Free School Meals? Characterising Free School Meals as a Measure of Disadvantage in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the background characteristics and attainment profile of pupils eligible for free school meals (FSM) in England, and of those missing a value for this variable. Free school meal eligibility is a measure of low parental income, widely used in social policy research as an individual indicator of potential…

  12. Use of Copra Meal in Poultry and Ruminant Nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugay Ayasan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Copra meal (CM is an important feed ingredient and the by-product of the oil extraction from dried coconut kernels. This product, although copra meal has a moderate protein content (15-25%; because of a high cellulose content (11.63-16.00% and some limiting amino acids (particularly lysine and methionine, limits its use as a basic source of protein in poultry due to insufficient. Copra meals are more suitable common supplements as both an energy and protein source for ruminants. In this paper, nutritional researches performed with the copra meal usage on poultry and ruminant species have been reviewed.

  13. Eating meals before wheel-running exercise attenuate high fat diet-driven obesity in mice under two meals per day schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Yuta; Ikeda, Yuko; Kamagata, Mayo; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-06-01

    Mice that exercise after meals gain less body weight and visceral fat compared to those that exercised before meals under a one meal/exercise time per day schedule. Humans generally eat two or three meals per day, and rarely have only one meal. To extend our previous observations, we examined here whether a "two meals, two exercise sessions per day" schedule was optimal in terms of maintaining a healthy body weight. In this experiment, "morning" refers to the beginning of the active phase (the "morning" for nocturnal animals). We found that 2-h feeding before 2-h exercise in the morning and evening (F-Ex/F-Ex) resulted in greater attenuation of high fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain compared to other combinations of feeding and exercise under two daily meals and two daily exercise periods. There were no significant differences in total food intake and total wheel counts, but feeding before exercise in the morning groups (F-Ex/F-Ex and F-Ex/Ex-F) increased the morning wheel counts. These results suggest that habitual exercise after feeding in the morning and evening is more effective for preventing HFD-induced weight gain. We also determined whether there were any correlations between food intake, wheel rotation, visceral fat volume and skeletal muscle volumes. We found positive associations between gastrocnemius muscle volumes and morning wheel counts, as well as negative associations between morning food intake volumes/body weight and morning wheel counts. These results suggest that morning exercise-induced increase of muscle volume may refer to anti-obesity. Evening exercise is negatively associated with fat volume increases, suggesting that this practice may counteract fat deposition. Our multifactorial analysis revealed that morning food intake helps to increase exercise, and that evening exercise reduced fat volumes. Thus, exercise in the morning or evening is important for preventing the onset of obesity.

  14. Consumer acceptance and appropriateness of meat substitutes in a meal context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzerman, J.E.; Hoek, A.C.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    The replacement of meat by meat substitutes could help to reduce the environmental burden of our food production systems. However, the acceptance of most meat substitutes is still low. This study investigated the role of meal context on the acceptance of meat substitutes. In a central location test

  15. Cod and rainbow trout as freeze-chilled meal elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Louise Helene Søgaard; Nielsen, Jette; Jørgensen, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Meal elements' are elements of a meal, e.g. portions of pre-fried meat, sauces, frozen fish or pre-processed vegetables typically prepared industrially. The meal elements are distributed to professional satellite kitchens, where the staff can combine them into complete meals. Freeze......-chilling is a process consisting of freezing and frozen storage followed by thawing and chilled storage. Combining the two would enable the manufacturer to produce large quantities of frozen meal elements to be released into the chill chain according to demand. We have studied the influence of freeze...... days of chilled storage, and the corresponding time for rainbow trout was 10 days. After this period the sensory quality decreased and chemical indicators of spoilage were seen to increase. CONCLUSION: The consistent quality during storage and the high-quality shelf life are practically applicable...

  16. Relationships between use of television during meals and children's food consumption patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, K A; Goldberg, J; Rogers, B L; Tucker, K L

    2001-01-01

    We examined relationships between the presence of television during meals and children's food consumption patterns to test whether children's overall food consumption patterns, including foods not normally advertised, vary systematically with the extent to which television is part of normal mealtime routines. Ninety-one parent-child pairs from suburbs adjacent to Washington, DC, recruited via advertisements and word of mouth, participated. Children were in the fourth, fifth, or sixth grades. Socioeconomic data and information on television use were collected during survey interviews. Three nonconsecutive 24-hour dietary recalls, conducted with each child, were used to construct nutrient and food intake outcome variables. Independent sample t tests were used to compare mean food and nutrient intakes of children from families in which the television was usually on during 2 or more meals (n = 41) to those of children from families in which the television was either never on or only on during one meal (n = 50). Multiple linear regression models, controlling for socioeconomic factors and other covariates, were used to test strength of associations between television and children's consumption of food groups and nutrients. Children from families with high television use derived, on average, 6% more of their total daily energy intake from meats; 5% more from pizza, salty snacks, and soda; and nearly 5% less of their energy intake from fruits, vegetables, and juices than did children from families with low television use. Associations between television and children's consumption of food groups remained statistically significant in multiple linear regression models that controlled for socioeconomic factors and other covariates. Children from high television families derived less of their total energy from carbohydrate and consumed twice as much caffeine as children from low television families. There continued to be a significant association between television and children

  17. Development and validation of a Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) to assess the dietary quality of school lunches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Marianne; Toft, Ulla; Andersen, Klaus K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective School lunch programmes are one strategy to promote healthier dietary habits in children, but better evaluation tools for assessing the dietary quality of such programmes are needed. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a simple index to assess the dietary quality...... of school lunches for children aged 7–13 years. Design A Meal Index of dietary Quality (Meal IQ) was developed to consist of seven components (nutrients and food groups) based on dietary issues for children aged 7–13 years, which were identified in a national dietary survey. The Meal IQ was validated......, higher contents of fibre, various vitamins and minerals, and more fruits, vegetables and fish. Conclusions The Meal IQ is a valid and useful evaluation tool for assessing the dietary quality of lunches provided by schools or brought to school from home....

  18. Serving large portions of vegetable soup at the start of a meal affected children's energy and vegetable intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spill, Maureen K; Birch, Leann L; Roe, Liane S; Rolls, Barbara J

    2011-08-01

    This study tested whether varying the portion of low-energy-dense vegetable soup served at the start of a meal affects meal energy and vegetable intakes in children. Subjects were 3- to 5-year-olds (31 boys and 41 girls) in daycare facilities. Using a crossover design, children were served lunch once a week for four weeks. On three occasions, different portions of tomato soup (150, 225, and 300 g) were served at the start of the meal, and on one occasion no soup was served. Children had 10 min to consume the soup before being served the main course. All foods were consumed ad libitum. The primary outcomes were soup intake as well as energy and vegetable intake at the main course. A mixed linear model tested the effect of soup portion size on intake. Serving any portion of soup reduced entrée energy intake compared with serving no soup, but total meal energy intake was only reduced when 150 g of soup was served. Increasing the portion size increased soup and vegetable intake. Serving low-energy-dense, vegetable soup as a first course is an effective strategy to reduce children's intake of a more energy-dense main entrée and increase vegetable consumption at the meal. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of meal size and frequency on postprandial thermogenesis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, J; Diamond, P

    1986-02-01

    The influence of meal size and frequency on postprandial thermogenesis was studied in nine mongrel dogs (congruent to 18 kg). Oxygen uptake (VO2) and respiratory quotient (R) were continuously monitored by indirect calorimetry during the following experiments. In expt 1, four dogs were fed on alternated days either a large (3.1 MJ) or small meal (0.77 MJ). In expt 2, five different dogs were fed on alternated days either one large meal (3.1 MJ) or four consecutive small meals (0.77 MJ) spaced at 1.5-h intervals. In expt 3, the four dogs of expt 1 after being sham fed 3 times at 1.5-h intervals were given one large meal (3.1 MJ). The VO2 increase during the initial or cephalic phase (congruent to 50 min) was independent of the meal size but it was directly proportional to the amount of food ingested during the digestive phase. The total thermogenic response to four small meals (125 g) fed at 1.5-h intervals was twice as large as that of one large meal (500 g). One large meal (500 g) preceded by three periods of sham feeding was also found to be more thermogenic than a large meal only. For all experiments the changes in R were seen to parallel the postprandial fluctuations in VO2. These findings indicate that the enhanced heat production obtained when meal frequency is increased is caused by the repeated sensory stimulation produced by palatable food.

  20. Number of meals eaten in relation to weight status among Norwegian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Frøydis N; Overby, Nina C; Lien, Nanna; Bere, Elling

    2010-11-01

    To assess the relationship between number of meals eaten and weight status, and to assess potential confounders of this relationship. A total of 2870 (participation rate: 85%) 9th and 10th graders (mean age: 15.5 years) at 33 schools completed questionnaires in May 2005. Number of meals was measured with questions asking whether they ate breakfast, lunch, dinner, and supper the day before, giving a scale ranging from zero to four meals/day. Data on gender, height, weight, education plans, intake of fruits and vegetables, consumption of unhealthy snacks, TV/computer time, physical activity level, and dieting were also collected. The proportions of overweight adolescents related to the number of meals eaten were: 10% (0-1 meals, n = 107), 18% (2 meals, n = 399), 14% (3 meals, n = 925), and 10% (4 meals, n = 1402), p ≤ 0.001. Low education plans, high TV/computer time, low physical activity level, and dieting were all positively associated with both being overweight and not having four meals. Being a boy was positively associated with being overweight but negatively associated with not having four meals. High intake of unhealthy snacks was negatively associated with being overweight, but positively associated with not having four meals. In a logistic regression analysis, adjusting for all variables mentioned, odds ratio for being overweight were 0.8 (95% CI 0.3-1.9), 1.8 (95% CI 1.2-2.7) and 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.3), respectively, for eating one or zero, two, and three meals compared to four meals. Eating four meals/day was significantly negatively related to being overweight, also when controlling for potential confounding factors.

  1. A Pilot Survey of Food Frequencies, Meal Frequencies and Meal Patterns of Preschool Children in East Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Jane S.; And Others

    The food frequency, meal frequency, and meal patterns of a group of Mexican American children attending Head Start in East Los Angeles and their siblings were studied. Fifty dietary questionnaires in English and in Spanish with written instructions were distributed to parents. Parents were asked to record for a 3 day period the eating time, type…

  2. 49 CFR 173.218 - Fish meal or fish scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fish meal or fish scrap. 173.218 Section 173.218... Fish meal or fish scrap. (a) Except as provided in Column (7) of the HMT in § 172.101 of this subchapter, fish meal or fish scrap, containing at least 6%, but not more than 12% water, is authorized for...

  3. Partial substitution of cumin seed meal by Jatropha meal as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. NJ TONUKARI

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... mixture (40% yellow corn grains; 20% cumin seed meal; 17% wheat bran; 20% bean straw, 2.0% ... The seeds contain 30 to 32% protein and 60 to 66% oil ... strong cation exchange chromatography followed by the ninhydrin.

  4. Contrasting approaches to food education and school meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sidse Schoubye; Baarts, Charlotte; Holm, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    This study builds on a fieldwork in a Danish school class, where pupils were observed while preparing and eating school meals. It shows that the children encounter conflicting approaches to food education depending on the context. While eating, an authoritarian approach to food education dominates...... and food is ascribed instrumental value. While preparing the school meal, a democratic approach dominates and food is ascribed intrinsic value. The aim is to show how these conflicting approaches reflect not only different social and cultural expectations to eating and preparing meals, respectively......, but also a conflict between food educational ideals and actual school meal practices. To illustrate this an analytic model is introduced, the Integrated Food Pedagogy Model, and the ways in which this model could help promote better food education among schoolchildren are discussed....

  5. Determinants of meal satisfaction in a workplace environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Stancu, Catalin M.; Brockhoff, Per B.

    2016-01-01

    before lunch. Time available, mindful eating and eating with close colleagues were positively associated with perceived ambience. The results indicate that consumers' satisfaction with workplace meals can be increased by putting emphasis on