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Sample records for test inhalent allergens

  1. Understanding Allergic Asthma from Allergen Inhalation Tests

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    Donald W Cockcroft

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The allergen challenge has evolved, in less than 150 years, from a crude tool used to document the etiology of allergen-induced disease to a well-controlled tool used today to investigate the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy of asthma. Highlights of the authors’ involvement with the allergen challenge include confirmation of the immunoglobulin E-dependence of the late asthmatic response, importance of (nonallergic airway hyper-responsiveness as a determinant of the airway response to allergen, identification of allergen-induced increase in airway hyper-responsiveness, documentation of beta2-agonist-induced increase in airway response to allergen (including eosinophilic inflammation, advances in understanding the pathophysiology and kinetics of allergen-induced airway responses, and development of a muticentre clinical trial group devoted to using the allergen challenge for investigating promising new therapeutic strategies for asthma.

  2. Diagnostic performance of the atopy patch test with inhalant allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuiano, N; Diddi, G; Delvecchio, M; Incorvaia, C

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of the atopy patch test (APT) compared with skin prick testing (SPT) and in vitro IgE measurement in a large group of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) with or without respiratory symptoms (RS). The study included 521 patients (292 males, 229 females; age, 0.5-18 years; median age, 6 years) with AD and RS with different clinical presentations: current AD, 47 patients (Group A); current AD and RS, 72 patients (Group B), past AD and RS, 69 patients (Group C); and RS only, 280 patients (Group D). Fifty-three healthy individuals served as controls. All participants underwent the APT, SPT, and CAP/RAST with the most common inhalant allergens. The presence of a control group allowed calculation of specificity and positive and negative predictive values. A significant difference was found for a positive APT versus both SPT and CAP/RAST (P RAST. The differences for APT were significant in all group comparisons except group B vs C and group C vs D. In the control group, the APT was positive in 2% of cases (specificity of 96.2%), SPT was positive in 6% of cases (specificity of 88.4%), and CAP/RAST was positive in 4% of cases (specificity of 92.5%). In young patients sensitized to inhalant allergens with AD in addition to RS, the APT has a superior diagnostic performance to SPT and in vitro IgE measurement.

  3. Two screening methods for detection of specific IgE to inhalant allergens. Comparison with skin prick test and RAST.

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    Scordamaglia, A; Passalacqua, G; Ruffoni, S; Parodi, M N; Ciprandi, G; Canonica, G W

    1991-10-01

    We analyzed the technical features of two new screening methods for detection of specific IgE to inhalant allergens. Moreover, their diagnostic accuracy was evaluated comparing the results obtained from the procedures with those from RAST and skin prick test (SPT) in a group of 30 symptomatic allergic patients. The procedures employ a classic ELISA method, where the presence of IgE is revealed by a colored reaction. These two assays appeared to be quick, inexpensive and easy to use. The results obtained showed significant correlations with both RAST and SPT, in particular for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Parietaria officinalis and grasses, which are the allergens chiefly responsible for respiratory atopy in our area.

  4. GALEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, P.-J.; Burbach, G.; Heinzerling, L. M.; Edenharter, G.; Bachert, C.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bonini, S.; Bousquet-Rouanet, L.; Demoly, P.; Bresciani, M.; Bruno, A.; Gjomarkaj, M.; Canonica, G. W.; Darsow, U.; Durham, S.; Fokkens, W. J.; Giavi, S.; Gramiccioni, C.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Haahtela, T.; Kowalski, M. L.; Magyar, P.; Muraközi, G.; Orosz, M.; Röhnelt, C.; Stingl, G.; Todo-Bom, A.; von Mutius, E.; Wiesner, A.; Wöhrl, S.; Bousquet, J.; Zuberbier, T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The number of allergens to be tested in order to identify sensitized patients is important in order to have the most cost-effective approach in epidemiological studies. Objective: To define the minimal number and the type of skin prick test (SPT) allergens required to identify a patient

  5. GA(2)LEN skin test study I: GA(2)LEN harmonization of skin prick testing: novel sensitization patterns for inhalant allergens in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinzerling, L M; Burbach, G J; Edenharter, G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. However, different allergen extracts and different testing procedures have been applied by European allergy centres. Thus, it has been difficult to compare results from different centres or studies across Europe....... It was, therefore, crucial to standardize and harmonize procedures in allergy diagnosis and treatment within Europe. AIMS: The Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN), with partners and collaborating centres across Europe, was in a unique position to take on this task. The current study...... is the first approach to implement a standardized procedure for skin prick testing in allergies against inhalant allergens with a standardized pan-European allergen panel. METHODS: The study population consisted of patients who were referred to one of the 17 participating centres in 14 European countries (n...

  6. Serum specific IgE responses to inhalant allergens sensitization

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    Iris Rengganis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Serum specific immunoglobulin E (ssIgE sensitization to common inhalant allergens has not been studied in Indonesia. This study aimed to evaluate specific IgE production of common inhalant allergens in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis in Jakarta, Indonesia.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study in adult patients with respiratory allergy from September to December 2016 at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta. Patients were included if they showed at least one positive skin prick test (SPT to environmental allergens. Serum specific IgE was assayed by using multiple allergosorbent methods. Inhalant allergens tested were dust mites, pollen, cockroach, animal dander, and mould. Serum IgE level more than 0.35 kU/L was considered positive.Results: One hundred subjects were enrolled (76% women. Dust mites made up 75% of sensitization, followed by cat/dog (31%, cockroach (27%, pollen (24%, and mould (6%. Almost all patients sensitized to cockroach, pollen, cat/dog epithelia and mould were also co-sensitized with dust mites. Twenty two percent of patients were negative to all tested allergens.Conclusion: IgE-sensitization to inhalant allergens varies widely in respiratory allergic patients. House dust and storage mites are the most common allergens. About one-fifth of the subjects did not show specific-IgE sensitization. Thus, this test should always be combined with SPT to diagnose allergy.

  7. Basophil activation test for inhalant allergens in pediatric patients with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogulur, Ismail; Kiykim, Ayca; Baris, Safa; Ozen, Ahmet; Yuce, Ezgi Gizem; Karakoc-Aydiner, Elif

    2017-06-01

    Flow cytometric quantification of in vitro basophil activation can be quite performant and reliable tool to measure IgE-dependent allergen-specific responses in allergic patients. Current study aimed to evaluate the clinical relevance of basophil activation test (BAT) for the diagnosis of pediatric grass pollen and house dust mite (HDM) allergies. Forty-seven patients suffering from allergic rhinitis with HDM and grass pollen co-sensitization with clinical history of allergic rhinitis and/or asthma and 15 non-allergic healthy subjects were enrolled. BAT was determined by flow cytometry upon double staining with anti-IgE/anti-CD63 mAb. Regarding HDM with cut-off point greater than 12.5% for CD63 + basophils sensitivity and specificity of the BAT were 90% and 73%, with positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) as 0.70 and 0.91, respectively. The analysis of concordance of being either allergic or healthy in comparison to BAT results for HDM revealed a substantial concordance (κ index = 0.61, p allergic or healthy in comparison to BAT results for grass pollen revealed an almost perfect concordance (κ index = 0.87, p allergic children was found to be remarkably higher in our cohort compared to other studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. GALEN skin test study III: Minimum battery of test inhalent allergens needed in epidemiological studies in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, P-J; Burbach, G; Heinzerling, L M

    2009-01-01

    the allergens selection. Result: Among the 3034 patients involved, 1996 (68.2%) were sensitized to at least one allergen. Overall, eight allergens (grass pollen, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, birch pollen, cat dander, Artemisia, olive pollen, Blatella and Alternaria) allowed to identified more than 95...... or Alternaria]). According to country, up to 13 allergens were needed to identify all sensitized subjects. Conclusion: Eight to ten allergens allowed the identification of the majority of sensitized subjects. For clinical care of individual patients, the whole battery of 18 allergens is needed to appropriately...

  9. GA(2)LEN skin test study II: clinical relevance of inhalant allergen sensitizations in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burbach, G J; Heinzerling, L M; Edenharter, G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. A positive skin prick reaction, however, does not always correlate with clinical symptoms. A large database from a Global Asthma and Allergy European Network (GA(2)LEN) study with data on clinical relevance was ...

  10. Standard skin prick testing and sensitization to inhalant allergens across Europe--a survey from the GALEN network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinzerling, L.; Frew, A. J.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bonini, S.; Bousquet, J.; Bresciani, M.; Carlsen, K.-H.; van Cauwenberge, P.; Darsow, U.; Fokkens, W. J.; Haahtela, T.; van Hoecke, H.; Jessberger, B.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kopp, T.; Lahoz, C. N.; Lodrup Carlsen, K. C.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Ring, J.; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P.; Vignola, A. M.; Wöhrl, S.; Zuberbier, T.

    2005-01-01

    Skin prick testing (SPT) is the standard method for diagnosing allergic sensitization but is to some extent performed differently in clinical centres across Europe. There would be advantages in harmonizing the standard panels of allergens used in different European countries, both for clinical

  11. [Analysis of inhaled and food allergen spectrum of patient with allergic rhinitis in north of Zhejiang].

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    Weng, Yongcai; Gu, Dongsheng; Ceng, Dongqian; Chen, Yuwu; Zhang, Li

    2014-07-01

    To explore the inhaled and food allergen distribution of patient with allergic rhinitis in north of Zhejiang and to analyze the difference of allergen distribution among different age groups. One thousand and forty eight patients in north of Zhejiang diagnosed with allergic rhinitis in our outpatient department were tested with skin prick test (SPT). The positive rate of inhaled and food allergens were calculated. To analysis the difference of positive rate between children and adult. Nine hundred and eighty-eight cases (94.3%) had the positive reaction. Dermato phagoides farinae and Dermatophagodies pteronyssinus had the highest positive ratio (72.1%, 71.8%) in inhalation group, followed cockroach (14.1%). In food group, Shrimp and peanuts had the highest positive ratio (18.3%,14.2%). Between children group and adults group, positive rate of food allergen was significantly different (P < 0.05), but of inhaled allergen was not significantly different. The distribution of some allergens in children group and adults group was variable. The study shows that Dust mite was the mostly responsible common allergen in north of Zhejiang.

  12. GA(2)LEN skin test study I: GA(2)LEN harmonization of skin prick testing: novel sensitization patterns for inhalant allergens in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinzerling, L. M.; Burbach, G. J.; Edenharter, G.; Bachert, C.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bonini, S.; Bousquet, J.; Bousquet-Rouanet, L.; Bousquet, P. J.; Bresciani, M.; Bruno, A.; Burney, P.; Canonica, G. W.; Darsow, U.; Demoly, P.; Durham, S.; Fokkens, W. J.; Giavi, S.; Gjomarkaj, M.; Gramiccioni, C.; Haahtela, T.; Kowalski, M. L.; Magyar, P.; Muraközi, G.; Orosz, M.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Röhnelt, C.; Stingl, G.; Todo-Bom, A.; von Mutius, E.; Wiesner, A.; Wöhrl, S.; Zuberbier, T.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Skin prick testing is the standard for diagnosing IgE-mediated allergies. However, different allergen extracts and different testing procedures have been applied by European allergy centres. Thus, it has been difficult to compare results from different centres or studies across Europe.

  13. [Changing analysis of allergic rhinitis inhalant allergen spectrum in Xinjiang region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y P; Maimaiti, Yimin; Wang, Y; Wang, L L; Tan, G P; Zhang, H

    2017-05-07

    Objective: To investigate the aeroallergen spectrum in allergic rhinitis in Xinjiang area and analyze its relating factors. Methods: Skin prick test was carried out in 480 cases with allergic rhinitis using 20 inhaled allergens. The major change in recent years with allergic rhinitis and allergen distribution was compared.SPSS 17.0 software was used to analyze the data. Results: Among 480 cases, 406 showed positive reaction. The most common allergens found in patients were chenopodium (61.6%) and mugwort (44.1%), followed by willow(37.7%), maple(37.7%), poplar(30.3%), house dust mite(30.3%), plantain(29.8%), acacia(25.9%), dust mite maple(25.4%), and so on. The rate of positive reaction to only one allergen was 9.6%, of which 21 were mite allergens. The positiverate to allergensin male and female were 84.2% and 85.1%, the distribution of allergens in both sexes did not differ(χ(2)=0.001, P=0.978). The positiverate to allergens in patients aged 21 to 35 years old was 88.6%, in patients aged 36 to 54 years old was 78.4%, the difference was statistically significant(χ(2)=0.258, Pallergic rhinitis is chenopodium. Among them, Kazakh allergic positive rate is higher than other ethnic groups.

  14. Micro-regional hypersensitivity variations to inhalant allergens in the city of Zagreb and Zagreb County.

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    Toth, Ivan; Peternel, Renata; Gajnik, Davorin; Vojniković, Bozo

    2011-09-01

    Depending on the geographic and climatic region and vegetation, allergenic plants are characteristic for certain areas and the pollen concentrations of various plant species depend on the fenophase of each single species and most of all on the climatic and meteorological conditions of a certain area. It is precisely because of these specific characteristics that the hypersensitivity of patients to various types of pollen allergens differs according to the geographic regions. The aim of this paper is to determine the frequency of inhalation allergies in adult population (> 19 years of age) caused by single types of allergens according to the defined space units (micro-regions) with special emphasis on the rural and urban areas. A number of 2,192 patients have been tested for allergy skin prick tests over a period of four years. Every patient was asked to fill in the questionnaire which contained 29 questions. The results of skin prick testing show that out of a total of 2,192 patients 86.72% were sensitized to pollen, 36.45% to mites, 2.46% to spores of fungi and mould and 5.1% of patients to other allergens which include the allergens of cockroaches, feathers and animal hair (p ambrosia which is statistically much more than the share of patients with the place of residence in the northern and western part of the city and the county.

  15. Identification of two metallothioneins as novel inhalative coffee allergens cof a 2 and cof a 3.

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    Ulrike Peters

    Full Text Available Dust of green coffee beans is known to be a relevant cause for occupational allergic disorders in coffee industry workers. Recently, we described the first coffee allergen (Cof a 1 establishing an allergenic potential of green coffee dust.Our aim was to identify allergenic components of green coffee in order to enhance inhalative coffee allergy diagnosis.A Coffea arabica pJuFo cDNA phage display library was created and screened for IgE binding with sera from allergic coffee workers. Two further coffee allergens were identified by sequence analysis, expressed in E. coli, and evaluated by Western blots. The prevalence of sensitization to recombinant Cof a 1, Cof a 2, and Cof a 3 and to commercially available extract was investigated by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay respectively CAP (capacity test screening in 18 sera of symptomatic coffee workers.In addition to the previously described chitinase Cof a 1, two Coffea arabica cysteine-rich metallothioneins of 9 and 7 kDa were identified and included in the IUIS Allergen Nomenclature as Cof a 2 and Cof a 3. Serum IgE antibodies to at least one of the recombinant allergens were found in 8 out of 18 symptomatic coffee workers (44%. Only 2 of the analysed sera (11% had reacted previously to the commercial allergy test.In addition to the previously described Cof a 1 we have identified two further coffee proteins to be type I coffee allergens (Cof a 2 and Cof a 3 which may have a relevant potential for the specific diagnosis and/or therapy of coffee allergy.

  16. [Ficus benjamina, a perennial inhalation allergen of increasing importance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, A J; Wüthrich, B; Langauer, S; Schmid, P

    1993-06-05

    12 patients are described with perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or asthma, 3 had additionally urticarial eruptions and one edema of the eyelids. In all of them sensitization to Ficus benjamina was identified by skin prick tests, in 7 cases by the additional presence of specific IgE in vitro, and in 2 it was verified by a conjunctival provocation test. 10 patients were atopic with sensitization to other respiratory allergens such as pollen, house dust mite or animal dander. 2 patients, however, with a massive exposure to Ficus benjamina at home, were non-atopic with monovalent sensitization to this plant. Ficus benjamina is a tropical tree of the genus Ficus which belongs to the Moraceae family. The allergen is located in the plant sap, the so called latex, which after evaporation binds to dust particles on the leaf surface. Upon contact they are emanated from the leaves, thus imitating allergy to house dust components. Since Ficus benjamina is a very popular decorative plant, an increasing number of sensitized individuals is to be expected. The identification of a preventable respiratory allergen is of considerable importance for the patients.

  17. Stability of specific IgE antibodies to common food and inhalant allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Capote, Karina; Schnabl, Kareena L; Maries, Oana R; Janzen, Peggy; Higgins, Trefor N

    2016-12-01

    To determine the optimum storage temperature for serum allergen specific IgE antibodies (sIgE) to common food and inhalant allergens. Patient sera with sIgE concentrations ≥0.7kIUA/l were pooled accordingly: pool 1-peanut and hazelnut, pool 2-egg white, cow's milk and cod fish, pool 3-soy, wheat and shrimp and pool 4-dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae, dog dander, cat dander, Timothy grass pollen, and silver birch pollen. Aliquots stored frozen, refrigerated and at room temperature were tested in duplicate (Phadia ImmunoCAP® 250) over two weeks. The relative difference was calculated for each sIgE as a percentage of the initial value and compared to the analytical reference change value. Minimal effects on specimen stability were noted for all sIgE analyzed under the three storage conditions tested in this study. All changes observed in sIgE concentrations were related to the assay variability and not to sample deterioration. Serum allergen specific IgE concentrations are stable at all temperatures studied for up to 17days. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Position paper of the EAACI : Food allergy due to immunological cross-reactions with common inhalant allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werfel, T.; Asero, R.; Ballmer-Weber, B. K.; Beyer, K.; Enrique, E.; Knulst, A. C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/101112017; Mari, A.; Muraro, A.; Ollert, M.; Poulsen, L. K.; Vieths, S.; Worm, M.; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K.

    2015-01-01

    In older children, adolescents, and adults, a substantial part of all IgE-mediated food allergies is caused by cross-reacting allergenic structures shared by inhalants and foods. IgE stimulated by a cross-reactive inhalant allergen can result in diverse patterns of allergic reactions to various

  19. Co-sensitization to silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) and 9 inhalant allergens among allergic patients in Guangzhou, Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Baoqing; Zheng, Peiyan; Wei, Nili; Huang, Huimin; Zeng, Guangqiao

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the profile of sensitization to silkworm moth (Bombyx mori) and other 9 common inhalant allergens among patients with allergic diseases in southern China. A total of 175 patients were tested for serum sIgE against silkworm moth in addition to combinations of other allergens: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Blomia tropicalis, Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, cat dander, dog dander, Aspergillus fumigatus and Artemisia vulgaris by using the ImmunoCAP system. Correlation between sensitization to silkworm moth and to the other allergens was analyzed. Of the 175 serum samples tested, 86 (49.14%) were positive for silkworm moth sIgE. With high concordance rates, these silkworm moth sensitized patients were concomitantly sensitized to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (94.34%), Dermatophagoides farinae (86.57%), Blomia tropicalis (93.33%), Blattella germanica (96.08%), and Periplaneta americana (79.41%). Moreover, there was a correlation in serum sIgE level between silkworm moth and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (r = 0.518), Dermatophagoides farinae (r = 0.702), Blomia tropicalis (r = 0.701), Blattella germanica (r = 0.878), and Periplaneta americana (r = 0.531) among patients co-sensitized to silkworm moth and each of these five allergens. In southern Chinese patients with allergic diseases, we showed a high prevalence of sensitization to silkworm moth, and a co-sensitization between silkworm moth and other five common inhalant allergens. Further serum inhibition studies are warranted to verify whether cross-reactivity exists among these allergens.

  20. The respiratory allergen glutaraldehyde in the local lymph node assay: sensitization by skin exposure, but not by inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Triel, Jos J; van Bree, Bianca W J; Roberts, David W; Muijser, Hans; Duistermaat, Evert; Woutersen, Ruud A; Kuper, C Frieke

    2011-01-11

    Previously, a selection of low molecular weight contact and respiratory allergens had tested positive in both a skin and a respiratory local lymph node assay (LLNA), but formaldehyde was negative for sensitization by inhalation. To investigate whether this was due to intrinsic properties of aldehyde sensitizers, the structurally related allergen glutaraldehyde (GA) was tested. BALB/c mice were exposed by inhalation to 6 or 18ppm GA (respiratory LLNA), both generated as a vapor and as an aerosol. Other groups received 0.25% or 2.5% GA on the skin of the ears (skin LLNA). Lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production were measured in the draining lymph nodes. GA was positive in the skin LLNA and its cytokine profile (IL-4/IFN-γ) skewed towards a Th2-type immune response with increasing dose. Inhalation exposure did not result in increased lymphocyte proliferation or increased cytokine levels, despite comparable tissue damage (irritation) in the skin and respiratory tract. We hypothesize that the highly reactive and hydrophilic GA oligomerizes in the protein-rich mucous layer of the respiratory tract, which impedes sensitization but still facilitates local irritation. Within the context of risk assessment in respiratory allergy, our results stress the importance of prevention of skin--besides inhalation-- exposure to aldehydes like GA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The association of sensitization to inhalant allergens with allergy symptoms : the influence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and blood eosinophil count

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, M; Schouten, JP; De Monchy, JGR

    2000-01-01

    Background We investigated whether the association of allergy symptoms with sensitization to inhalant allergens depends on bronchial hyperresponsiveness, blood eosinophil count, or the degree and nature of sensitization. Methods Data on asthma and rhino-conjunctivitis symptoms were obtained from

  2. Clinical relevance is associated with allergen-specific wheal size in skin prick testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahtela, T.; Burbach, G. J.; Bachert, C.

    2014-01-01

    by providing quantitative decision points. MethodsThe GA(2)LEN SPT study with 3068 valid data sets was used to investigate the relationship between SPT results and patient-reported clinical relevance for each of the 18 inhalant allergens as well as SPT wheal size and physician-diagnosed allergy (rhinitis......, asthma, atopic dermatitis, food allergy). The effects of age, gender, and geographical area on SPT results were assessed. For each allergen, the wheal size in mm with an 80% positive predictive value (PPV) for being clinically relevant was calculated. ResultsDepending on the allergen, from 40% (blatella......) to 87-89% (grass, mites) of the positive SPT reactions (wheal size3mm) were associated with patient-reported clinical symptoms when exposed to the respective allergen. The risk of allergic symptoms increased significantly with larger wheal sizes for 17 of the 18 allergens tested. Children with positive...

  3. Exposure to inhalable dust, wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens in industrial and traditional bakeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, Petar; Myny, Katrien; Braeckman, Lutgart; van Sprundel, Marc; Kusters, Edouard; Doekes, Gert; Pössel, Kerstin; Droste, Jos; Vanhoorne, Michel

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to characterize exposure to inhalable dust, wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens in industrial and traditional bakeries. The study included 70 bakeries from the northern part of Belgium. Based on the degree of automation and a clear division of individual job tasks, four bakeries were identified as industrial and the remaining 66 were identified as traditional ones. Personal, as well as stationary, samples of inhalable dust were collected during full shift periods, usually 5-7 h. The portable pumps aspirated 2 l/min through Teflon personal dust samplers (Millipore, pore size 1.0 microm) mounted in PAS-6 sampling heads. In the collected samples the inhalable dust, wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens were determined. Wheat flour allergens were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition and an antiwheat IgG4 serum pool. The alpha-amylase allergens were measured using a sandwich enzyme immunoassay with affinity-purified polyclonal rabbit IgG antibodies. In total, 440 samples (300 personal and 140 stationary) were processed. The highest inhalable dust exposure was observed in traditional bakeries among bread [geometric mean (GM) 2.10 mg/m3] and bread and pastry workers (GM 1.80 mg/m3). In industrial bakeries the highest dust exposure was measured in bread-producing workers (GM 1.06 mg/m3). Similar relations were observed for wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens. Bread baking workers in traditional bakeries had the highest exposure to both allergens (wheat flour GM 22.33 microg/m(3), alpha-amylase GM 0.61 ng/m3). The exposure to wheat flour and alpha-amylase allergens in industrial bakeries was higher in bread baking workers (wheat flour GM 6.15 microg/m3, alpha-amylase GM 0.47 ng/m3) than in bread packing workers (wheat flour GM 2.79 microg/m3, alpha-amylase GM 0.15 ng/m3). The data presented suggest that, on average, exposure in the Belgium bakeries studied-industrial as well as traditional-is lower than or similar to

  4. Induction of Food Allergy in Mice by Allergen Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    whether and how inhaling egg white can sensitize for the development of egg white food allergy. Despite difficulties related to the complicated pregnancy ...finding was complicated by a failure in many experiments to reproduce our original observation that aspiration of EW-sensitized mice to develop food...airway disease or prime for food allergy. The interpretation of this negative result is complicated by the issues discussed under Aim 1, Task 1

  5. Allergens in atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Y-S

    2007-12-01

    Allergens play an essential role in atopic dermatitis, either intrinsic or extrinsic. They provoke cutaneous inflammation via IgE-dependent and cell-mediated immune reactions. Food allergens have a well-known contribution to disease activity of atopic dermatitis, especially in infants and young children. However, the importance of inhaled allergens is still under investigation. For clinical implication, identification of individualized allergens is an ideal strategy for better control of atopic dermatitis and avoidance of atopic march. The aim of this article is to discuss the common allergens in atopic dermatitis (AD), the specificity and sensitivity of laboratory tests for allergens, and the clinical effect of various preventions.

  6. Allergic inflammation in the upper respiratory tract of the rat upon repeated inhalation exposure to the contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triel, J.J. van; Arts, J.H.; Muijser, H.; Kuper, C.F.

    2010-01-01

    Previously, the contact allergen dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) was identified as a sensitizer by inhalation in BALB/c mice; in addition, DNCB induced a lymphocytic infiltrate in the larynx of dermally sensitized Th1-prone Wistar rats upon a single inhalation challenge. In the present study, repeated

  7. Development of bronchial sensitization to inhalant allergens in occupational asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-sim Park

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In cases of occupational asthma due to reactive chemicals, an appreciable number of patients have persistent asthmatic symptoms and airway inflammation even after several years' avoidance of the cause agents. A case of late respiratory systemic syndrome (LRSS caused by phthalic anhydride is reported. The patient showed a progression of bronchial asthma due to house dust mite and developed a new bronchial sensitization to horse hair during the 5 year follow-up period. The patient was diagnosed in September 1990 as having LRSS due to phthalic anhydride. He was atopic and had worked in a factory preparing materials for paints for 8 years. After leaving his workplace and commencing treatment with anti-asthmatic medications, his asthmatic symptoms and airway hyper-responsiveness were much improved for 1year (PC20 methacholine level was increased from 0.44 to 4.4 mg/mL. For several months before the second admission (October 1992 his asthmatic symptoms were again aggravated and methacholine PC20 decreased to 1.1mg/mL without improvement in the following 3 years. The level of serum specific IgE antibody to phthalic anhydride has been gradually decreasing, while specific IgE to two types of house dust mite and horse hair has been increasing year by year during the last 3 years' follow-up period. These findings suggest that chronic exposure to inhalant allergens can induce the progression of allergen-induced airway inflammation, and result in new bronchial sensitization to inhalant allergens. Careful follow-up study is needed to detect new developments of allergen-induced bronchoconstriction in occupational asthma patients with persistent asthmatic symptoms.

  8. The prevalence and diagnostic value of specific IgE antibodies to inhalant, animal and plant food, and ficus allergens in patients with natural rubber latex allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebo, D G; Bridts, C H; Hagendorens, M M; De Clerck, L S; Stevens, W J

    2003-01-01

    It is well recognised that natural rubber latex allergy can be associated with serological cross-reactivity to plant allergens, especially tropical fruits and Ficus. In contrast, data on the frequency and clinical value of specific IgE antibodies against these allergens remain rare. In addition, little is known about the prevalence and diagnostic value of specific IgE antibodies to classical inhalant and animal allergens in NRL allergic patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence, the sensitivity, and the specificity of these different specific IgE antibodies in patients suffering from NRL allergy. Serum samples of 42 NRL allergic adults were investigated. All had a history of NRL allergy confirmed by a positive skin test for latex and a positive latex-specific IgE. Samples were analysed for IgE antibodies against 9 plant food allergens (avocado, banana, chestnut, fig, kiwi, papaya, peanut, pineapple and tomato) and Ficus benjamina. A specific IgE quantification for 3 animal food allergens (codfish, cow's milk, egg's white) and 8 common inhalant allergens (Dermatophagoïdes pteronyssinus, birch pollen, timothy grass pollen, mugwort pollen, cat and dog epithelium, Aspergillus fumigatus and Cladosporium herbarum) was also performed. Because double blind placebo-controlled challenges could not be considered, for ethical reasons, patient's food allergy or immediate hypersensitivity for Ficus and inhalant allergens was documented by a standardised questionnaire. Diagnosis of atopy was based on a relevant history and the presence of a specific IgE antibody to at least one classical inhalant allergen. For some IgE determinations presence or absence of cross-reactivity was investigated by CAP-inhibition tests. A specific IgE antibody to at least one of the investigated inhalant and animal food allergens was found in respectively 76% and 12% of the serum samples. A plant food-specific IgE antibody was observed in 88% of the serum samples, most

  9. Sputum RNA signature in allergic asthmatics following allergen bronchoprovocation test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob G.J.A. Zuiker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inhaled allergen challenge is a validated disease model of allergic asthma offering useful pharmacodynamic assessment of pharmacotherapeutic effects in a limited number of subjects. Objectives: To evaluate whether an RNA signature can be identified from induced sputum following an inhaled allergen challenge, whether a RNA signature could be modulated by limited doses of inhaled fluticasone, and whether these gene expression profiles would correlate with the clinical endpoints measured in this study. Methods: Thirteen non-smoking, allergic subjects with mild-to-moderate asthma participated in a randomised, placebo-controlled, 2-period cross-over study following a single-blind placebo run-in period. Each period consisted of three consecutive days, separated by a wash-out period of at least 3 weeks. Subjects randomly received inhaled fluticasone ((FP MDI; 500 mcg BID×5 doses in total or placebo. On day 2, house dust mite extract was inhaled and airway response was measured by FEV1 at predefined time points until 7 h post-allergen. Sputum was induced by NaCl 4.5%, processed and analysed at 24 h pre-allergen and 7 and 24 h post-allergen. RNA was isolated from eligible sputum cell pellets (<80% squamous of 500 cells, amplified according to NuGEN technology, and profiled on Affymetrix arrays. Gene expression changes from baseline and fluticasone treatment effects were evaluated using a mixed effects ANCOVA model at 7 and at 24 h post-allergen challenge. Results: Inhaled allergen-induced statistically significant gene expression changes in sputum, which were effectively blunted by fluticasone (adjusted p<0.025. Forty-seven RNA signatures were selected from these responses for correlation analyses and further validation. This included Th2 mRNA levels for cytokines, chemokines, high-affinity IgE receptor FCER1A, histamine receptor HRH4, and enzymes and receptors in the arachidonic pathway. Individual messengers from the 47 RNA signatures

  10. Skin Test Reactivity to Indoor Allergens Correlates with Asthma Severity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshak Emad A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increased emphasis on the role of indoor allergens in asthma. Objective To examine the spectrum of skin test reactivity (sensitization to indoor allergens and its correlation with asthma severity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods Asthmatic patients referred to the allergy clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH in Jeddah were studied. Measures of clinical severity were adopted from national and international asthma guidelines. The degree of sensitization was assessed by the wheal size (positive ≥ 3 mm from standard skin-prick tests for the following common indoor inhalant allergens: house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [Dp] and Dermatophagoides farinae [Df], cat, and cockroach. Results Skin test results from 113 of 151 (74.8% asthmatic patients were positive for one or more allergens. The patients' ages ranged between 9 and 63 years (mean, 30 ± 13 years, and females constituted 65.5%. The predominant asthma severity level was moderate persistent (55.8%, followed by mild persistent (33.6%. The prevalences of sensitization to indoor allergens were as follows: Dp, 87% (3-25 mm [mean, 7 mm]; Df, 84% (3-20 mm [mean, 7 mm]; cat, 44% (3-15 mm [mean, 6 mm]; and cockroach, 33% (3-12 mm [mean, 4 mm]. Higher asthma severity levels were significantly correlated with the number of allergens with positive sensitization (R = 0.3, p Dp [degrees of freedom {df} = 16, p Df [df = 17, p df = 10, p df = 8, p Conclusions Immunoglobulin E-mediated skin test reactivity to indoor allergens, particularly to house dust mites, was common in asthmatic patients from Jeddah at KAUH. Increased sensitization was associated with higher levels of asthma severity, which is compatible with the literature. This emphasizes the importance of identifying sensitization to relevant indoor allergens in the clinical evaluation of asthmatic persons.

  11. Effect of an inhaled adenosine A(2A) agonist on the allergen-induced late asthmatic response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijk, B.; van den Berge, M.; Kerstjens, H. A. M.; Postma, D. S.; Cass, L.; Sabin, A.; Lammers, J. -W. J.

    Background: Adenosine receptor activation is suggested to play a role in asthmatic airway inflammation. Inhibition of adenosine receptors may have an effect on the late asthmatic response (LAR) after allergen inhalation and this mechanism could offer a potential new treatment in asthma. Methods: We

  12. [Sensitization to inhalant and food allergens in Brazilian atopic children by in vitro total and specific IgE assay. Allergy Project--PROAL].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naspitz, Charles K; Solé, Dirceu; Jacob, Cristina A; Sarinho, Emanuel; Soares, Francisco J P; Dantas, Vera; Mallozi, Márcia C; Wandalsen, Neusa F; Borges, Wellington; Rocha Filho, Wilson

    2004-01-01

    To determine the frequency of sensitization to inhalant and food allergens in children seen at Brazilian allergy services. Total and specific IgE serum levels to inhalant and food allergens (RAST, UniCAP - Pharmacia) were measured in 457 children accompanied in pediatric allergy services and in 62 control children age matched. RAST equal or higher than class 1 was considered as positive (R+). Frequency of R+ was significantly higher among atopics (361/457, 79%) when compared to controls (16/62, 25.8%). There were no differences according to gender. The frequency of R+ to all allergens evaluated was higher among atopics when compared to controls. Significantly higher total IgE serum levels were observed among the atopics with R+ in comparison to those with R-. The frequency of R+ to main inhalant allergens were: D. pteronyssinus = 66.7% x 14.5% (p allergens we observed: fish = 29.5% x 11.3% (p soy = 11.8% x 4.8% (p allergen sensitization predominates in young children whereas the inverse occurs with inhalant allergens. There was a predominant frequency of sensitization to inhalant allergens, mainly house dust mites in the evaluated patients. Food allergens were also responsible for a significant proportion of sensitization, mainly in infants.

  13. A mouse model for in vivo tracking of the major dust mite allergen Der p 2 after inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Linda; Svensson, Linda; Bergström, Ulrika; Jacobsson-Ekman, Gunilla; Arnér, Elias S J; van Hage, Marianne; Bucht, Anders; Gafvelin, Guro

    2005-07-01

    Inhaled environmental antigens, i.e. allergens, cause allergic symptoms in millions of patients worldwide. As little is known about the fate of an allergen upon inhalation, we addressed this issue for a major dust mite allergen, Der p 2. First, a model for Der p 2-sensitization was established in C57BL/6 J mice, in which sensitized mice mounted a Der p 2-specific IgE-response with eosinophilic lung inflammation after allergen challenge in the airways. In this model, we applied recombinant Der p 2 carrying a novel C-terminal tetrapeptide Sel-tag enabling labelling with the gamma-emitting radionuclide 75Se at a single selenocysteine residue ([75Se]Der p 2). In vivo tracking of intratracheally administered [75Se]Der p 2 using whole-body autoradiography revealed that [75Se]Der p 2-derived radioactivity persisted in the lungs of sensitized mice as long as 48 h. Radioactivity was also detected in kidneys, liver and in enlarged lung-associated lymph nodes. Interestingly, a larger proportion of radioactivity was found in the lungs of sensitized compared with nonsensitized mice 24 h after intratracheal instillation of [75Se]Der p 2. A radioactive protein corresponding to intact Der p 2 could only be detected in the lungs, whereas [75Se]Der p 2-derived radioactivity was recovered in known selenoproteins both in lung and other organs. Hence, using the recently developed Sel-tag method in a mouse model for Der p 2-sensitization, we could track the fate of an inhaled allergen in vivo. Based upon our findings, we conclude that the inflammatory state of the lung influences the rate of metabolism and clearance of Der p 2. Thus, an allergic response to the inhaled allergen may lead to prolonged retention of Der p 2 in the lung.

  14. Predictive animal testing for photocontact allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, T; Weirich, E G; Hess, R

    1980-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to establish a standardized animal model to predict the photoallergenic potential of new chemical compounds. In a first series of experiments the main factors influencing the induction of photoallergenicity were evaluated (induction concentration, pH of the test solution, pretreatment of the irradiation site with sodium lauryl sulphate, additional use of adjuvant injections and routes of administration). Osram Ultravitalux lamps were utilized for these studies. In a second series of experiments a Xenon 6000 W radiation source was used. Positive results were obtained with well known photosensitizers, as, for instance, the halogenated salicylanilides, as well as with so-called weak photoallergens (e.g. bithionol, sulphanilamide) by stimulating the animals' immune system with Freund's complete adjuvant. The photoallergenic compounds were at the same time tested for their contact allergenic potential in the optimization test. A standard procedure for the predictive photoallergenicity assay in guinea-pigs is proposed.

  15. Prediction of allergenicity of gene-modified foods by serum-based testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of applying the IFBC/ILSI decision tree in a number of cases, a refinement of the scheme is suggested. Large differences in allergenic potential may be obtained by altering the route of administration of an allergen. Because an inhalation allergen can induce symptoms at different...

  16. Long-term repeatability of the skin prick test is high when supported by history or allergen-sensitivity tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Jacobsen, C R; Poulsen, L K

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term reproducibility of the skin-prick test (SPT) has been questioned. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical relevance of SPT changes. METHODS: SPT to 10 common inhalation allergens was performed annually from 1999 to 2001 in 25 nonsensitized and 21 sensitized subj....... CONCLUSION: SPT changes are clinically relevant. Further studies using other allergens are needed. Long-term repeatability of SPT is high in the presence of a supportive history.......BACKGROUND: Long-term reproducibility of the skin-prick test (SPT) has been questioned. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical relevance of SPT changes. METHODS: SPT to 10 common inhalation allergens was performed annually from 1999 to 2001 in 25 nonsensitized and 21 sensitized...... subjects. An SPT was positive when > or =3 mm, and repeatable if either persistently positive or negative. Clinical sensitivity to birch pollen was used as model for inhalation allergy, and was investigated at inclusion and at study termination by challenge tests, intradermal test, titrated SPT and Ig...

  17. Skin testing versus radioallergosorbent testing for indoor allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinoy, Birjis; Yee, Edgar; Bahna, Sami L

    2005-04-15

    BACKGROUND: Skin testing (ST) is the most common screening method for allergy evaluation. Measurement of serum specific IgE is also commonly used, but less so by allergists than by other practitioners. The sensitivity and specificity of these testing methods may vary by type of causative allergen and type of allergic manifestation. We compared ST reactivity with serum specific IgE antibodies to common indoor allergens in patients with respiratory allergies. METHODS: 118 patients (3 mo-58 yr, mean 12 yr) with allergic rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma had percutaneous skin testing (PST) supplemented by intradermal testing (ID) with those allergens suspected by history but showed negative PST. The sera were tested blindly for specific IgE antibodies by the radioallergosorbent test (Phadebas RAST). The allergens were D. farinae (118), cockroach (60), cat epithelium (90), and dog epidermal (90). Test results were scored 0-4; ST >/= 2 + and RAST >/= 1 + were considered positive. RESULTS: The two tests were in agreement (i.e., either both positive or both negative) in 52.2% (dog epidermal) to 62.2% (cat epithelium). When RAST was positive, ST was positive in 80% (dog epidermal) to 100% (cockroach mix). When ST was positive, RAST was positive in 16.3% (dog epidermal) to 50.0% (D. farinae). When RAST was negative, ST was positive in 48.5% (cat epithelium) to 69.6% (D. farinae). When ST was negative, RAST was positive in 0% (cockroach) to 5.6% (cat epithelium). The scores of ST and RAST showed weak to moderate correlation (r = 0.24 to 0.54). Regardless of history of symptoms on exposure, ST was superior to RAST in detecting sensitization to cat epithelium and dog epidermal. CONCLUSION: For all four indoor allergens tested, ST was more sensitive than RAST. When both tests were positive, their scores showed poor correlation. Sensitizations to cat epithelium and dog epidermal are common, even in subjects who claimed no direct exposure.

  18. Skin testing versus radioallergosorbent testing for indoor allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahna Sami L

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Skin testing (ST is the most common screening method for allergy evaluation. Measurement of serum specific IgE is also commonly used, but less so by allergists than by other practitioners. The sensitivity and specificity of these testing methods may vary by type of causative allergen and type of allergic manifestation. We compared ST reactivity with serum specific IgE antibodies to common indoor allergens in patients with respiratory allergies. Methods 118 patients (3 mo-58 yr, mean 12 yr with allergic rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma had percutaneous skin testing (PST supplemented by intradermal testing (ID with those allergens suspected by history but showed negative PST. The sera were tested blindly for specific IgE antibodies by the radioallergosorbent test (Phadebas RAST. The allergens were D. farinae (118, cockroach (60, cat epithelium (90, and dog epidermal (90. Test results were scored 0–4; ST ≥ 2 + and RAST ≥ 1 + were considered positive. Results The two tests were in agreement (i.e., either both positive or both negative in 52.2% (dog epidermal to 62.2% (cat epithelium. When RAST was positive, ST was positive in 80% (dog epidermal to 100% (cockroach mix. When ST was positive, RAST was positive in 16.3% (dog epidermal to 50.0% (D. farinae. When RAST was negative, ST was positive in 48.5% (cat epithelium to 69.6% (D. farinae. When ST was negative, RAST was positive in 0% (cockroach to 5.6% (cat epithelium. The scores of ST and RAST showed weak to moderate correlation (r = 0.24 to 0.54. Regardless of history of symptoms on exposure, ST was superior to RAST in detecting sensitization to cat epithelium and dog epidermal. Conclusion For all four indoor allergens tested, ST was more sensitive than RAST. When both tests were positive, their scores showed poor correlation. Sensitizations to cat epithelium and dog epidermal are common, even in subjects who claimed no direct exposure.

  19. Comparison and clinical utility evaluation of four multiple allergen simultaneous tests including two newly introduced fully automated analyzers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hoon Rim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: We compared the diagnostic performances of two newly introduced fully automated multiple allergen simultaneous tests (MAST analyzers with two conventional MAST assays. Methods: The serum samples from a total of 53 and 104 patients were tested for food panels and inhalant panels, respectively, in four analyzers including AdvanSure AlloScreen (LG Life Science, Korea, AdvanSure Allostation Smart II (LG Life Science, PROTIA Allergy-Q (ProteomeTech, Korea, and RIDA Allergy Screen (R-Biopharm, Germany. We compared not only the total agreement percentages but also positive propensities among four analyzers. Results: Evaluation of AdvanSure Allostation Smart II as upgraded version of AdvanSure AlloScreen revealed good concordance with total agreement percentages of 93.0% and 92.2% in food and inhalant panel, respectively. Comparisons of AdvanSure Allostation Smart II or PROTIA Allergy-Q with RIDA Allergy Screen also showed good concordance performance with positive propensities of two new analyzers for common allergens (Dermatophagoides farina and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. The changes of cut-off level resulted in various total agreement percentage fluctuations among allergens by different analyzers, although current cut-off level of class 2 appeared to be generally suitable. Conclusions: AdvanSure Allostation Smart II and PROTIA Allergy-Q presented favorable agreement performances with RIDA Allergy Screen, although positive propensities were noticed in common allergens. Keywords: Multiple allergen simultaneous test, Automated analyzer

  20. A personalized food allergen testing platform on a cellphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ahmet F; Wong, Justin; Khodadadi, Delaram; Nagi, Richie; Tey, Andrew; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-02-21

    We demonstrate a personalized food allergen testing platform, termed iTube, running on a cellphone that images and automatically analyses colorimetric assays performed in test tubes toward sensitive and specific detection of allergens in food samples. This cost-effective and compact iTube attachment, weighing approximately 40 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a cellphone, where the test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are vertically illuminated by two separate light-emitting-diodes. The illumination light is absorbed by the allergen assay, which is activated within the tubes, causing an intensity change in the acquired images by the cellphone camera. These transmission images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within 1 s using a smart application running on the same cellphone for detection and quantification of allergen contamination in food products. We evaluated the performance of this cellphone-based iTube platform using different types of commercially available cookies, where the existence of peanuts was accurately quantified after a sample preparation and incubation time of ~20 min per test. This automated and cost-effective personalized food allergen testing tool running on cellphones can also permit uploading of test results to secure servers to create personal and/or public spatio-temporal allergen maps, which can be useful for public health in various settings.

  1. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Science Adolescent Brain Comorbidity College-Age & Young Adults Criminal Justice Drugged Driving Drug Testing Drugs and the ... of Inhalants Statistics and Trends Swipe left or right to scroll. Monitoring the Future Study: Trends in ...

  2. Specific IgE positivity against inhalant allergens and development of autoimmune disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergic and autoimmune diseases have been suggested to be inversely associated. We investigated the association between atopy and development of any and specific types of autoimmune disease. METHODS: We included a total of 14,849 individuals from five population-based studies....... RESULTS: The risk for atopics versus non-atopics was: for any autoimmune disease (HR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.18), thyrotoxicosis (HR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.34, 1.37), type 1 diabetes (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.60), multiple sclerosis (HR = 1.97, 95% CI: 0.95, 4.11), iridocyclitis (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.38, 1...... with measurements of atopy defined as specific IgE positivity against inhalant allergens. We followed the participants by linkage to the Danish National Patient Register (median follow-up time 11.2 years). Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of autoimmune disease were estimated by Cox regression...

  3. Sensitization patterns to food and inhalant allergens in childhood: a comparison of non-sensitized, monosensitized, and polysensitized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Adriana Baatenburg; Dikkeschei, Lambert D; Brand, Paul L P

    2011-03-01

    The clinical interpretation of children sensitized to numerous allergens is challenging. We examined differences between children sensitized to zero, one, or more allergens. This was a retrospective analysis of all specific IgE tests in children 0-18 yrs of age sent to our laboratory by general practitioners and hospital-based specialists for allergy testing between 1990 and 2003. Of all 9044 children tested, 5439 (60.1%) were not sensitized to any of the aeroallergens or food allergens tested. Three thousand six hundred and five children (39.9%) had one or more positive specific IgE tests, 1120 of which (31.1%) were monosensitized (73% to aeroallergens and 27% to food allergens), 1709 (47.4%) were sensitized to two to four allergens, and 776 (21.5%) to five or more allergens (polysensitization). Polysensitization was more common in children 4-11 yrs of age (24.8%) than in younger (18.7%) or older children (18.3%, p allergens (hen's egg 9.7%, peanut 4.6%, wheat 0.8%, soy 0.7%). Between 55.7% (cow's milk) and 87.9% (soy) of children sensitized to food were cosensitized to aeroallergens, while only 25.4% (house dust mite) to 39.5% (dog) of children sensitized to aeroallergens were cosensitized to food. Polysensitization is common in children, in particular in boys. It is most common in school-aged children. The strong association with total serum IgE values and the striking cosensitization between biologically unrelated allergens suggest that polysensitization is the expression of a distinct clinical, more severe, atopic phenotype, and not of biologic cross-reactivity to similar allergens. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Reduction of the Number of Major Representative Allergens: From Clinical Testing to 3-Dimensional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast amounts of allergen sequence data have been accumulated, thus complicating the identification of specific allergenic proteins when performing diagnostic allergy tests and immunotherapy. This study aims to rank the importance/potency of the allergens so as to logically reduce the number of allergens and/or allergenic sources. Meta-analysis of 62 allergenic sources used for intradermal testing on 3,335 allergic patients demonstrated that in southern China, mite, sesame, spiny amaranth, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and house dust account for 88.0% to 100% of the observed positive reactions to the 62 types of allergenic sources tested. The Kolmogorov-Smironov Test results of the website-obtained allergen data and allergen family featured peptides suggested that allergen research in laboratories worldwide has been conducted in parallel on many of the same species. The major allergens were reduced to 21 representative allergens, which were further divided into seven structural classes, each of which contains similar structural components. This study therefore has condensed numerous allergenic sources and major allergens into fewer major representative ones, thus allowing for the use of a smaller number of allergens when conducting comprehensive allergen testing and immunotherapy treatments.

  5. Specific IgE positivity against inhalant allergens and development of autoimmune disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk; Fenger, Runa Vavia; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Allergic and autoimmune diseases have been suggested to be inversely associated. We investigated the association between atopy and development of any and specific types of autoimmune disease. We included a total of 14,849 individuals from five population-based studies with measurements of atopy defined as specific IgE positivity against inhalant allergens. We followed the participants by linkage to the Danish National Patient Register (median follow-up time 11.2 years). Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of autoimmune disease were estimated by Cox regression. The risk for atopics versus non-atopics was: for any autoimmune disease (HR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.18), thyrotoxicosis (HR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.34, 1.37), type 1 diabetes (HR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.84, 1.60), multiple sclerosis (HR = 1.97, 95% CI: 0.95, 4.11), iridocyclitis (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.38, 1.74), Crohn's disease (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.47, 2.25), ulcerative colitis (HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.52, 1.69), psoriasis vulgaris (HR = 1.50, 95% CI: 0.86, 2.62), seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (HR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.48, 1.14) and polymyalgia rheumatica (HR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.44, 1.44). We found no statistically significant associations between atopy and autoimmune disease, but we cannot exclude relatively small to moderate effects - protective or promotive - of atopy on autoimmune disease.

  6. Development and comparative evaluation of a multiple-antigen RAST as a screening test for inhalant allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownby, D R; Anderson, J A; Jacobs, G L; Homburger, H A

    1984-04-01

    We have developed a modified in vitro test for IgE antibodies, the multi-RAST, to detect antibodies of different allergen specificities simultaneously in a single tube. The multi-RAST is as sensitive for detecting low concentrations of individual IgE antibodies as the discrete RAST. We also evaluated the multi-RAST as a screening test for respiratory allergy to inhalant allergens in children by comparing the results of the multi-RAST performed by use of a mixture of SRP, TGP, and DF allergen-immunosorbents with the results of skin tests, discrete RAST tests for the same allergens, serum total IgE concentrations, and nasal smears for eosinophils in 100 children referred for allergic-disease evaluation. The results of the multi-RAST were more sensitive, specific, and efficient than the results of tests for serum IgE concentration and nasal eosinophils in establishing the diagnosis of inhalant allergy; the multi-RAST was the only diagnostic test that yielded results that were significantly associated with the clinician's impression of allergy. We conclude that the multi-RAST is a useful and cost-effective screening test for inhalant allergy in children.

  7. Patch-testing with plastics and glues series allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmidt, Eugenia; Farmer, Sara A; Davis, Mark D P

    2010-01-01

    Few US studies have reported results of patch testing with plastics and glues. To report our institution's results of testing patients suspected of allergy to plastics and glues with a comprehensive plastics and glues series and to compare these results with previously published data. Retrospective review of results of patch-testing with plastics and glues allergens at our institution between 2000 and 2007. In total, 444 patients were patch-tested with up to 56 plastics and glues allergens in the specialized series and up to five plastics and glues allergens in a baseline series. Positive-reaction rates were compared to other patch testing reports. Of patients, 97 (22%) had irritant reactions, and 201 (45%) had at least one allergic reaction. Bis(2-dimethylaminoethyl) ether 1%, benzoyl peroxide 1%, epoxy resin, bisphenol F 0.25%, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate 2%, and 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate 0.1% had the highest allergy reaction rates. Testing with specialized series identified 193 patients with plastics and glues allergy, of whom 162 were not identified by testing with baseline series alone. For patients suspected of allergy to plastics and glues, patch-testing with specialized series of plastics and glues allergens is an important adjunct to patch-testing with baseline series.

  8. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of inhalants, visit http://www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/inhalants . Do people use inhalants for breathing problems? No, they use inhalers, which usually contain a type of steroid that reduces inflammation in the airways. Or they ...

  9. The effect of ozone inhalation on the airway response to inhaled allergens; Die Wirkung der Einatmung von Ozon auf die allergische Reaktion des Bronchialsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joerres, R. [Krankenhaus Grosshansdorf (Germany). Zentrum fuer Pneumologie und Thoraxchirurgie; Nowak, D. [Krankenhaus Grosshansdorf (Germany). Zentrum fuer Pneumologie und Thoraxchirurgie; Magnussen, H. [Krankenhaus Grosshansdorf (Germany). Zentrum fuer Pneumologie und Thoraxchirurgie

    1994-04-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate whether short-term exposure to ozone can enhance bronchial responsiveness to allergens in subjects with extrinsic asthma, or facilitate an allergen-induced bronchial response in subjects with allergic rhinitis. In the first part of the study we investigated 57 subjects with mild extrinsic asthma, 29 subjects with allergic rhinitis and 32 healthy control subjects. Subjects inhaled 250 ppb (500 {mu}g/m{sup 3}) ozone during intermittent exercise for 3 hours. Among these, ozone-sensitive subjects as defined by their change in lung function participated in the second part of the study. Subjects were exposed to either ozone or filtered air for 3 hours with intermittent exercise in randomized order. Before and after exposures, lung function and airway responsiveness to methacholine were determined, and allergen inhalation challenges were performed 3 hrs after exposures. 29 subjects with mild extrinsic asthma, 12 subjects with allergic rhinitis, and 10 healthy subjects were enrolled in this part of the study. In the first part of the study, after ozone exposure, we found a decrease in forced expiratory volume in the subjects with asthma, rhinitis, or healthy subjects, respectively. Interindividual variability in the airway response to ozone was much larger than differences between study groups. In subjects in whom airway responsiveness to methacholine could be assessed by a 20% fall in FEV{sub 1}, an increase of methacholine responsiveness after ozone exposure was observed. A decrease in methacholine responsiveness after ozone exposure was demonstrated. Taking into account the limited resolution due to insufficient airway response in some subjects, these data did not indicate differences between study groups. In the second part of the study, after ozone exposure, subjects with asthma showed a decrease in FEV{sub 1} of 10.0 {+-} 11.6%, subjects with rhinitis of 15.0{+-}11.0%, and healthy subjects of 7.7{+-}8.6%. (Abstract Truncated

  10. Inflammatory dendritic cells - not basophils - are necessary and sufficient for induction of Th2 immunity to inhaled house dust mite allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Hammad; M. Plantinga (Maud); K. Deswarte (Kim); P. Pouliot (Philippe); M. Kool (Mirjam); M.A. Willart (Monique); F. Muskens (Femke); B.N.M. Lambrecht (Bart)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIt is unclear how Th2 immunity is induced in response to allergens like house dust mite (HDM). Here, we show that HDM inhalation leads to the TLR4/MyD88-dependent recruitment of IL-4 competent basophils and eosinophils, and of inflammatory DCs to the draining mediastinal nodes. Depletion

  11. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... containers, or rags or clothing soaked with chemicals drunk or disoriented actions slurred speech nausea (feeling sick) ... functions choking—inhaling vomit after inhalant use injuries—accidents, including driving, while intoxicated Are inhalants addictive? It ...

  12. Mono and multifaceted inhalant and/or food allergen reduction interventions for preventing asthma in children at high risk of developing asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Tanja; Kaper, Janneke; Sheikh, Aziz; Knottnerus, J André; Wesseling, Geertjan; Dompeling, Edward; Muris, Jean W M; van Schayck, Constant Paul

    2009-07-08

    Allergen exposure is one of the environmental factors seemingly associated with the development of asthma. If asthma is a multi-factorial disease, it is hypothesised that prevention might only prove effective if most or all relevant environmental factors are simultaneously avoided. To assess effect(s) of monofaceted and multifaceted interventions compared with control interventions in preventing asthma and asthma symptoms in high risk children. We searched the Cochrane Airways Trials Register (December 2008). Randomised controlled trials of allergen exposure reduction for the primary prevention of asthma in children. Interventions were multifaceted (reducing exposure to both inhalant and food allergens) or monofaceted (reducing exposure to either inhalant or food allergens) Follow up had to be from birth (or during pregnancy) up to a minimum of two years of age. We included in the analysis studies assessing the primary outcome (current diagnosis: asthma) and/or one of the secondary outcomes (current respiratory symptoms: wheezing, nocturnal coughing and dyspnoea). We pooled multifaceted and monofaceted intervention trials separately. We made an indirect comparison of their effects using tests for interaction to calculate relative odds ratios. We included three multifaceted and six monofaceted intervention studies (3271 children). Physician diagnosed asthma in children less than five years, and asthma as defined by respiratory symptoms and lung function criteria in children aged five years and older, both favoured treatment with a multifaceted intervention compared to usual care ( 5 years: OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.85). However, there was no significant difference in outcome between monofaceted intervention and control interventions ( 5 years: OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.16). Indirect comparison between these treatments did not demonstrate a significant difference between multiple interventions and mono-interventions in reducing the frequency of asthma diagnosis in

  13. Challenges in testing genetically modified crops for potential increases in endogenous allergen expression for safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, R; Ariyarathna, H; Amnuaycheewa, P; Tetteh, A; Pramod, S N; Taylor, S L; Ballmer-Weber, B K; Goodman, R E

    2013-02-01

    Premarket, genetically modified (GM) plants are assessed for potential risks of food allergy. The major risk would be transfer of a gene encoding an allergen or protein nearly identical to an allergen into a different food source, which can be assessed by specific serum testing. The potential that a newly expressed protein might become an allergen is evaluated based on resistance to digestion in pepsin and abundance in food fractions. If the modified plant is a common allergenic source (e.g. soybean), regulatory guidelines suggest testing for increases in the expression of endogenous allergens. Some regulators request evaluating endogenous allergens for rarely allergenic plants (e.g. maize and rice). Since allergic individuals must avoid foods containing their allergen (e.g. peanut, soybean, maize, or rice), the relevance of the tests is unclear. Furthermore, no acceptance criteria are established and little is known about the natural variation in allergen concentrations in these crops. Our results demonstrate a 15-fold difference in the major maize allergen, lipid transfer protein between nine varieties, and complex variation in IgE binding to various soybean varieties. We question the value of evaluating endogenous allergens in GM plants unless the intent of the modification was production of a hypoallergenic crop. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Inflammatory dendritic cells—not basophils—are necessary and sufficient for induction of Th2 immunity to inhaled house dust mite allergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantinga, Maud; Deswarte, Kim; Pouliot, Philippe; Willart, Monique A.M.; Kool, Mirjam; Muskens, Femke

    2010-01-01

    It is unclear how Th2 immunity is induced in response to allergens like house dust mite (HDM). Here, we show that HDM inhalation leads to the TLR4/MyD88-dependent recruitment of IL-4 competent basophils and eosinophils, and of inflammatory DCs to the draining mediastinal nodes. Depletion of basophils only partially reduced Th2 immunity, and depletion of eosinophils had no effect on the Th2 response. Basophils did not take up inhaled antigen, present it to T cells, or express antigen presentation machinery, whereas a population of FceRI+ DCs readily did. Inflammatory DCs were necessary and sufficient for induction of Th2 immunity and features of asthma, whereas basophils were not required. We favor a model whereby DCs initiate and basophils amplify Th2 immunity to HDM allergen. PMID:20819925

  15. Relevance of inhalant and food allergens to the etiology and management of patients with atopic dermatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platts-Mills, T.A.; Mitchell, E.B.; Rowntree, S.; Heymann, P.W.; Chapman, M.D.

    Patients with atopic dermatitis have IgE antibodies to common environmental antigens, both foods and inhalants. Such antibodies are probably relevant and exposure to the corresponding antigens can give rise to eczema. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved and the role of other etiologies, e.g. contact reactions, remain to be elucidated. Patients with atopic dermatitis should have comprehensive evaluations to determine the role of environmental antigens.

  16. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, K E; Johansen, J D

    2003-01-01

    elicitation reaction than patch testing with the allergen (hydroxycitronellal) alone, in patients previously patch tested positive to hydroxycitronellal. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction was defined as at least 1 day of patch test reading showing more positive patch tests...

  17. The effect of ozone exposure on the airway response to inhaled allergens; Die Wirkung der Einatmung von Ozon auf die allergische Reaktion des Bronchialsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joerres, R. [Krankenhaus Grosshansdorf (Germany). Zentrum fuer Pneumologie und Thoraxchirurgie; Nowak, D. [Krankenhaus Grosshansdorf (Germany). Zentrum fuer Pneumologie und Thoraxchirurgie; Magnussen, H. [Krankenhaus Grosshansdorf (Germany). Zentrum fuer Pneumologie und Thoraxchirurgie

    1995-06-01

    The aim of our study was to determine whether a short-term exposure to ozone enhances the bronchial response to allergens in subjects with allergic asthma, or facilitates a bronchial response in subjects with allergic rhinitis. In the first part of the study we investigated 57 subjects with mild stable asthma, 29 subjects with allergic rhinitis only and 32 healthy subjects. They were exposed to 250 ppb ozone for 3 hrs of intermittent exercise. The effects of ozone on symptoms, lung function parameters and methacholine responsiveness were no markedly different between groups. Twenty-four subjects with asthma and a proven bronchial response to an inhaled allergen, 12 subjects with allergic rhinitis and 10 healthy subjects participated in the second part of the study. In randomized order, subjects breathed 250 ppb ozone or filtered air (FA) for 3 hrs of intermittent exercise. Lung function and airway responsiveness to methacholine were determined before and after exposures, and allergen inhalation challenges were performed 3 hrs after exposures. The 5 subjects with asthma showed increased airway responsiveness to the inhaled allergen after ozone. The subjects with rhinitis showed a slight bronchial response when a high dose of allergen was inhalated after ozone exposure. The changes in lung function, methacholine and allergen responsiveness induced by ozone did not correlate with each other. Our data suggest that a short-term exposure to ozone can increase bronchial allergen responsiveness in subjects with asymptomatic to mild asthma and that this effect is not directly related to other functional changes induced by ozone. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Unsere Untersuchung widmete sich der Frage, ob die Einatmung von Ozon das Auftreten oder die Auspraegung einer allergischen Reaktion der Atemwege beeinflussen kann. Zunaechst prueften wir 57 Probanden mit allergischem Asthma bronchiale, 29 mit allergischer Rhinitis ohne Asthma und 32 gesunde Kontrollpersonen auf die

  18. IgE sensitization to inhalant allergens and the risk of airway infection and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaaby, Tea; Husemoen, Lise Lotte Nystrup; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbæk

    2017-01-01

    E sensitization confers an increased risk of respiratory infections in adults. We investigated the association between IgE sensitization and the incidence of acute airway infections, other infections and chronic lower airway disease events as recorded in nation-wide registries. METHODS: We included 14,849 persons......-analysed, and expressed as hazard ratios, HRs (95% confidence intervals, CIs). RESULTS: The relative risks for IgE sensitized vs. non-sensitized were: for pneumonia (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.41), other acute airway infection (HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.60, 1.22), infection (HR = 1.06, 95% CI: 0.90, 1.24), asthma (HR = 2......BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin E (IgE) sensitization, which is the propensity to develop IgE antibodies against common environmental allergens, is associated with a lymphocyte T-helper type 2 (Th2) skewed immune response and a high risk of allergic respiratory disease. Little is known about whether Ig...

  19. Soft-X-Ray-Enhanced Electrostatic Precipitation for Protection against Inhalable Allergens, Ultrafine Particles, and Microbial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettleson, Eric M.; Schriewer, Jill M.; Buller, R. Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Protection of the human lung from infectious agents, allergens, and ultrafine particles is difficult with current technologies. High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters remove airborne particles of >0.3 μm with 99.97% efficiency, but they are expensive to maintain. Electrostatic precipitation has been used as an inexpensive approach to remove large particles from airflows, but it has a collection efficiency minimum in the submicrometer size range, allowing for a penetration window for some allergens and ultrafine particles. Incorporating soft X-ray irradiation as an in situ component of the electrostatic precipitation process greatly improves capture efficiency of ultrafine particles. Here we demonstrate the removal and inactivation capabilities of soft-X-ray-enhanced electrostatic precipitation technology targeting infectious agents (Bacillus anthracis, Mycobacterium bovis BCG, and poxviruses), allergens, and ultrafine particles. Incorporation of in situ soft X-ray irradiation at low-intensity corona conditions resulted in (i) 2-fold to 9-fold increase in capture efficiency of 200- to 600-nm particles and (ii) a considerable delay in the mean day of death as well as lower overall mortality rates in ectromelia virus (ECTV) cohorts. At the high-intensity corona conditions, nearly complete protection from viral and bacterial respiratory infection was afforded to the murine models for all biological agents tested. When optimized for combined efficient particle removal with limited ozone production, this technology could be incorporated into stand-alone indoor air cleaners or scaled for installation in aircraft cabin, office, and residential heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. PMID:23263945

  20. Aluminum sulfate significantly reduces the skin test response to common allergens in sensitized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grier Thomas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avoidance of allergens is still recommended as the first and best way to prevent allergic illnesses and their comorbid diseases. Despite a variety of attempts there has been very limited success in the area of environmental control of allergic disease. Our objective was to identify a non-invasive, non-pharmacological method to reduce indoor allergen loads in atopic persons' homes and public environments. We employed a novel in vivo approach to examine the possibility of using aluminum sulfate to control environmental allergens. Methods Fifty skin test reactive patients were simultaneously skin tested with conventional test materials and the actions of the protein/glycoprotein modifier, aluminum sulfate. Common allergens, dog, cat, dust mite, Alternaria, and cockroach were used in the study. Results Skin test reactivity was significantly reduced by the modifier aluminum sulfate. Our studies demonstrate that the effects of histamine were not affected by the presence of aluminum sulfate. In fact, skin test reactivity was reduced independent of whether aluminum sulfate was present in the allergen test material or removed prior to testing, indicating that the allergens had in some way been inactivated. Conclusion Aluminum sulfate was found to reduce the in vivo allergic reaction cascade induced by skin testing with common allergens. The exact mechanism is not clear but appears to involve the alteration of IgE-binding epitopes on the allergen. Our results indicate that it may be possible to diminish the allergenicity of an environment by application of the active agent aluminum sulfate, thus producing environmental control without complete removal of the allergen.

  1. Personal exposure to inhalable dust and the specific latex aero-allergen, Hev b6.02, in latex glove manufacturing in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguanchaiyakrit, Nuthchyawach; Povey, Andrew C; de Vocht, Frank

    2014-06-01

    Latex product manufacturing is an important industry in south-east Asia but has the potential for considerable occupational exposure of workers to latex allergens. Although exposure to latex allergens can result in adverse health reactions, few studies to characterize this exposure have been conducted to date. This study therefore aimed to characterize current airborne inhalable dust and the specific allergen, Hev b 6.02, exposures in this industry in Thailand. Workers were recruited from three factories in the southern part of Thailand. Full-shift inhalable dust personal air sampling was conducted using IOM sampling heads equipped with polytetrafluoroethylene filters at a 2.0 l min(-1) flowrate. After weighing to determine inhalable dust levels, filters were extracted and analysed for Hev b 6.02 using an enzyme immunometric assay. Two hundred and seventy-five workers agreed to participate, resulting in a total of 292 measurements. Geometric mean (GM) personal exposure to inhalable dust was 0.88 mg m(-3), but individual exposures up to 12.34 mg m(-3) were measured. The pattern of exposure was similar across factories, with highest exposures in the stripping (GM 2.08-4.05 mg m(-3) for the 3 factories) and tumbling departments (1.11-2.17 mg m(-3)). Within-worker (day-to-day) variability contributed 92% to total variability. The Hev b 6.02 exposure pattern was similar with time-weighted average GM exposure levels in the oldest factory ranging from 8.7 mg m(-3) in the laboratory to 30.2mg m(-3) in the stripping department. In contrast to inhalable dust exposure, total exposure variability was primary driven by variability between workers (67%). Workers in these latex product factories get routinely exposed to measurable Hev b 6.02 levels, which may give rise to increased incidence of allergic symptoms and occupational asthma. Also, in this measurement campaign a 10mg m(-3), but not 15 mg m(-3), occupational exposure limit for inhalable dust was occasionally exceeded

  2. Anaphylaxis during skin testing with food allergens in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsios, Constantinos; Dimitriou, Anastasia; Stefanaki, Efthalia C; Kontou-Fili, Kalliopi

    2010-05-01

    Skin testing is the diagnostic cornerstone for allergies and is considered extremely safe. It is usually performed with the prick and the prick-to-prick method. The aim of this study is to report the first two pediatric cases of systemic allergic reactions during skin prick tests (SPT) with commercial food allergens. Both patients had a history of fish allergy. A 5-year-old girl, with a history of atopic dermatitis and asthma, reported an episode of urticaria and angioedema due to ingestion of fish, which had occurred 2 years before consultation. Ten minutes after having completed SPT to fish extracts, which had resulted positive, she suffered from generalized pruritus, nausea, stomach pain, and loss of consciousness. A 9-year-old boy, with a history of asthma and two episodes of acute urticaria and angioedema upon eating fish during infancy, reported a recent episode of oropharyngeal pruritus after tasting salmon. He was evaluated for fish allergy with SPT but developed conjunctivitis and acute urticaria during the first 10 min of the test. Anaphylaxis appears to be a rare side effect of skin testing in pediatric patients. Children with a history of asthma and atopic dermatitis are more likely to react.

  3. Aero-allergens in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia based on 1000 intradermal skin tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S; Bettenay, S V; Tideman, L

    2000-06-01

    To determine the most relevant aero-allergens involved in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia and provide information about these aero-allergens to the general practitioner. Dogs presented to the Animal Skin & Allergy Clinic with history and clinical signs of atopic dermatitis were injected intradermally with 38 different allergens and negative and positive control. Intradermal skin tests in 1000 dogs were retrospectively evaluated. One third of all patients reacted to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae. Allergens reacting in more than 15% of the patients were wheat (Triticum aestivum), sweet vernal (Anthoxanthum odoratum), English couch (Agropyron repens), yellow dock (Rumex crispus), Mexican tea (Chenopodium ambrosioides), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) and peppercorn (Schimus spp). House dust mites are the most common allergens in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia and D farinae is involved most frequently. However, a number of grass, weed and tree pollens also are involved regularly.

  4. In vitro Cell Culture Model for Toxic Inhaled Chemical Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shama; Ahmad, Aftab; Neeves, Keith B.; Hendry-Hofer, Tara; Loader, Joan E.; White, Carl W.; Veress, Livia

    2014-01-01

    Cell cultures are indispensable to develop and study efficacy of therapeutic agents, prior to their use in animal models. We have the unique ability to model well differentiated human airway epithelium and heart muscle cells. This could be an invaluable tool to study the deleterious effects of toxic inhaled chemicals, such as chlorine, that can normally interact with the cell surfaces, and form various byproducts upon reacting with water, and limiting their effects in submerged cultures. Our model using well differentiated human airway epithelial cell cultures at air-liqiuid interface circumvents this limitation as well as provides an opportunity to evaluate critical mechanisms of toxicity of potential poisonous inhaled chemicals. We describe enhanced loss of membrane integrity, caspase release and death upon toxic inhaled chemical such as chlorine exposure. In this article, we propose methods to model chlorine exposure in mammalian heart and airway epithelial cells in culture and simple tests to evaluate its effect on these cell types. PMID:24837339

  5. Association Between Allergic Diseases and Food Allergens Based on Skin Prick Test in Bushehr Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Keshvari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Frequency of allergic diseases is growing in recent years. Identification of frequency of food allergens in different areas play an important role in diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. The aim of this study was to determine frequency and association of common food allergens in patients with allergic diseases based on Skin Prick Test in Bushehr province. Material and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 1100 patients were enrolled with allergic diseases which had a sensitivity to at least one allergen.  This test was carried out with 21 common food allergens extract. Results: In all patients, association between the severity of the reaction prick allergy test and severity of allergic diseases with shrimp, cow's Milk and peanuts were (P= 0.01, (P= 0.02 and (P=0.04 respectively. In this study, the frequency of allergic rhinitis, asthma, chronic and acute urticaris and atopic eczema were 54.2%, 23%, 12.4%, 4.1% and 12%, respectively. While the the most common food allergens were peanuts (46.6%, egg yolk (43.1% and shrimp (42% respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated that food allergens such as shrimp, cow's Milk and peanuts have a greater role in severity of allergic diseases and this food allergens showed the highest frequency in patients.

  6. Adenosine dry powder inhalation for bronchial challenge testing, part 1 : Inhaler and formulation development and in vitro performance testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, Anne J.; Hagedoorn, Paul; Van Der Wiel, Erica; Hacken, ten Nicolaas; Frijlink, Henderik W.; De Boer, Anne H.

    2014-01-01

    Dry powder administration of adenosine by use of an effective inhaler may be an interesting alternative to nebulisation of adenosine 5 '-monophosphate in bronchial challenge testing, because of a shorter administration time and more consistent delivered fine particle dose over the entire dose range.

  7. Discrepancy between sensitization to inhaled allergens and respiratory symptoms in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosca, Maria Angela; Villa, Elisa; Silvestri, Michela; D'Annunzio, Giuseppe; Pistorio, Angela; Aicardi, Marco; Minicucci, Laura; Lorini, Renata; Rossi, Giovanni A

    2009-06-01

    According to the 'Th(1)/Th(2) paradigm', children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) should have a lower risk of developing allergic sensitization and, because of the involvement of insulin in modulating airway inflammation, different frequency or severity in allergy-related respiratory manifestations. This article aims at evaluating the frequency and type of allergic sensitization and its respiratory manifestation, asthma and/or rhinitis, in a group of pediatric patients with T1DM. Patients (112) with T1DM, 7.8-16.9 yr of age (63 males and 49 females) were evaluated. Skin prick test (SPT) reactivity to the most common classes of aeroallergens were performed and compared with data obtained in 709 school-aged children. The frequency of sensitization was not different in the T1DM and in the control subjects (43.7% and 40.8%, respectively; p = 0.55), with similar proportions of individuals sensitized to one allergen (32.7% and 38.1%, respectively; p = 0.47). In both groups, sensitization to house dust mite allergens was the most frequently detected (69.4% and 65.4%, respectively; p = 0.59), with a higher proportions of individuals sensitized to Graminae (+Cynodon dactylon; p controls. No differences were found between T1DM and control groups in the proportion of individuals reporting rhinitis (26.8% and 29.2%; p = 0.60). However, comparing separately sensitized and non-sensitized subjects, a lower proportion of rhinitis subjects was detected in the non-sensitized T1DM patients, when compared with the non-sensitized control subjects (p = 0.01). In addition, no differences were detected between T1DM and control groups in frequency of symptoms related to 'lifetime asthma', i.e., asthma episodes during life (14.3% and 16.5%, respectively: p = 0.55), also when sensitized and non-sensitized subjects were evaluated separately (p = 0.12 and p = 1.00, respectively). However, no T1DM patient had 'actual asthma', i.e., asthma episodes in the last year, vs. 5.8% of the

  8. ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL ALLERGENS ON ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wardhana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic eczematous skin disease that develops in a patient with atopic diathesis, which is characterized by an increased liability to produce IgE antibodies for allergens mostly derived from environmental or inhalant allergens and food allergens. They are produced by cell-mediated allergic contact reactions, and recently contact sensitivity to various environmental allergens has been demonstrated in patients with AD. Atopic patients are recognized by their ability to produce large amounts of specific IgE antibodies to common substances as environmental allergens, i.e. house dust mites, grass pollens, animal danders, molds, food, etc. These antibodies can be detected by skin prick test. The aim of this study was to identify the sensitization against environmental or inhalants allergens through skin prick tests in the patients with atopic dermatitis. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive study. We revised all medical records of patients with AD since January 2002 to December 2004 in the Out Patients Unit of Sanglah General Hospital, Bali-Indonesia. The variables studied were: gender, age, work related, diagnosis associates to AD, and prick test of environmental allergens. Results: In 3 years periods we had revised 46 of patients with AD that was done skin prick tests. The median age was 38 years (range 29-54 years, 34/46 (73.9 % of these were male and 12 (26.1 % female. Twenty nine patients presented pure AD, and 17 patients had AD with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Only 16 (34.7% of patients had no history of allergic disease. Thirsty six of 46 (78.20% of all tested AD patients had a positive skin prick tests against inhalant (aeroallergens 16 patients and food allergens 21 patients. Sixteen patients with positive of skin test include; dust mite in 12 patients, animal dander in 10 patients, grass pollen in 9 patients and cockroach in 6 patients. Conclusion: We concluded that

  9. Ethosome formulation of contact allergens may enhance patch test reactions in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese; Simonsson, Carl; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus E

    2010-10-01

    Ethosomes and liposomes are ultra-small vesicles capable of encapsulating drugs and cosmetic ingredients for topical use, thereby potentially increasing bioavailability and clinical efficacy. So far, few reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic ingredients in vesicular carrier systems may increase the allergenicity potential. To investigate the effect of ethosome formulation of isoeugenol and methyldibromo glutaronitrile on the elicitation response under patch test conditions and by repeated open applications. A total of 27 volunteer patients with a previous positive patch test reaction to either isoeugenol or methyldibromo glutaronitrile were included in the study. In all patients, a serial dilution patch test was performed with the allergen in question formulated in ethosomes and in an ethanol/water solution. In addition, a repeated open application test (ROAT) was performed in a subset of 16 patients, and lag time until a positive response was recorded. Both contact allergens encapsulated in ethosomes showed significantly enhanced patch test reactions as compared with the allergen preparation in ethanol/water without ethosomes. No significant difference in the median lag time was recorded between preparations in the ROAT. Encapsulating potential contact allergens in ethosomes may increase the challenge response as compared with the same concentrations in an ethanol/water base without ethosomes. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Correlation between stated and measured concentrations of acrylate and methacrylate allergens in patch-test preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Anthony Teik-Jin; Bruze, Magnus; Zimerson, Erik; Sörensen, Osten; Goh, Chee-Leok; Koh, David Soo-Quee; Isaksson, Marléne

    2011-01-01

    Contact allergy to acrylates and methacrylates is not uncommon. The allergy is confirmed by patch-testing patients with commercial patch-test preparations. To investigate acrylate and methacrylate allergens used for patch testing in nine different dermatology departments from Europe, America, Asia, and Australia. The acrylate and methacrylate (methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and triethylene glycol diacrylate) allergen samples were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography to measure the allergen content. Variation in measured versus stated concentrations was seen in these samples. The ratio of measured to stated concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 1.1. Only 22 (63%) of 35 samples were within the arbitrary acceptable limits of 80 to 120% of the stated concentrations. The results may have implications for individual diagnosis and prevention and when test results from various centers are compared.

  11. Allergen skin prick test should be adjusted by the histamine reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreborg, Sten

    2015-01-01

    Skin prick test results are mostly reported as mean wheal diameter obtained with one concentration of allergen. Differences in technique between personnel causes variation in wheal size. The research question was whether the influence of differences in skin prick test technique among assistants and centers can be reduced by relating the allergen wheal response to that of histamine. Two methods for estimating skin reactivity, the method of Nordic Guidelines using histamine as a reference and the method of Brighton et al. [Clin Allergy 1979;9:591-596] not using histamine as a reference, were applied to data from two biological standardization trials, using the same batch of freeze-dried timothy pollen preparation. The concentration defining the Nordic biological unit, defined as a concentration of allergen eliciting a wheal of the same size as that of histamine dihydrochloride 10 mg/ml, did not differ between the centers. When not using histamine as a reference, applying the method of Brighton et al., there was a 15-fold difference in the estimate of the biological activity between the trials that was eliminated by adjusting the allergen response to that of the histamine reference. To reduce the influence of differences in test technique among assistants and centers responses to allergen-induced skin prick tests should be compared to that of histamine. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Airway uric acid is a sensor of inhaled protease allergens and initiates type 2 immune responses in respiratory mucosa1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Kenichiro; Iijima, Koji; Elias, Martha K.; Seno, Satoshi; Tojima, Ichiro; Kobayashi, Takao; Kephart, Gail M.; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Kita, Hirohito

    2014-01-01

    While type 2 immune responses to environmental antigens are thought to play pivotal roles in asthma and allergic airway diseases, the immunological mechanisms that initiate the responses are largely unknown. Many allergens have biologic activities, including enzymatic activities and abilities to engage innate pattern-recognition receptors such as TLR4. Here we report that IL-33 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) were produced quickly in the lungs of naïve mice exposed to cysteine proteases, such as bromelain and papain, as a model for allergens. IL-33 and TSLP sensitized naïve animals to an innocuous airway antigen OVA, which resulted in production of type 2 cytokines and IgE antibody and eosinophilic airway inflammation when mice were challenged with the same antigen. Importantly, upon exposure to proteases, uric acid (UA) was rapidly released into the airway lumen, and removal of this endogenous UA by uricase prevented type 2 immune responses. UA promoted secretion of IL-33 by airway epithelial cells in vitro, and administration of UA into the airways of naïve animals induced extracellular release of IL-33, followed by both innate and adaptive type 2 immune responses in vivo. Finally, a potent UA synthesis inhibitor, febuxostat, mitigated asthma phenotypes that were caused by repeated exposure to natural airborne allergens. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the development of type 2 immunity to airborne allergens and recognize airway UA as a key player that regulates the process in respiratory mucosa. PMID:24663677

  13. A revisit to cockroach allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookrung, Nitat; Chaicumpa, Wanpen

    2010-01-01

    Among cockroaches (CR) that live in people's homes, two species, i.e., German CR (Blattella germanica) and American CR (Periplaneta americana) predominate in temperate and tropical areas, respectively. CR is an important source of inhalant indoor allergens that sensitize atopic subjects to (localized) type I hypersensitivity or atopy including allergic rhinitis and atopic asthma. In Thailand the predominant CR species is P. americana. CR allergens are found throughout CR infested houses; the number found in kitchens correlates with the degree of CR infestation while sensitization and reactivation of the allergic morbidity are likely to occur in the living room and bedroom. Levels of the CR allergens in homes of CR allergic Thais, measured by using locally made quantification test kits, revealed that the highest levels occur in dust samples collected from the wooden houses of urban slums and in the cool and dry season. CR allergens are proteins that may be derived from any anatomical part of the insect at any developmental stage. The allergens may be also from CR secretions, excretions, body washes or frass. The proteins may be the insect structural proteins, enzymes or hormones. They may exist as dimers/multimers and/or in different isoforms. Exposure to CR allergens in infancy leads to allergic morbidity later in life. Clinical symptoms of CR allergy are usually more severe and prolonged than those caused by other indoor allergens. The mechanisms of acute and chronic airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) have been addressed including specific IgE- and non-IgE-mediated mechanisms, i.e., role of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2). Participation of various allergen activated-CD4+ T cells of different sublineages, i.e., Th2, Th17, Th22, Th9, Th25, Tregs/Th3 as well as invariant NKT cells, in asthma pathogenesis have been mentioned. The diagnosis of CR allergy and the allergy intervention by CR population control are also discussed.

  14. Skin test results but not serology reflect immediate type respiratory sensitivity: a study performed with recombinant allergen molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederberger, V; Stübner, P; Spitzauer, S; Kraft, D; Valenta, R; Ehrenberger, K; Horak, F

    2001-10-01

    The diagnosis of type I allergy, an IgE-antibody-mediated hypersensitivity disease affecting more than 25% of the population, is based on the measurement of allergen-specific serum IgE levels and provocation testing. Whether the determination of allergen- specific serum IgE levels can replace in vivo provocation testing for allergy diagnosis is a controversial issue. We used purified recombinant timothy grass and birch pollen allergens to compare by skin prick and nasal provocation testing as well as by serology in vivo sensitivity with antibody-binding capacity in 24 pollen allergic patients and eight control individuals. Results from biologic tests were correlated with each other and with allergen-specific IgE and IgG1-4 levels. IgE-reactive allergens induced immediate skin and nasal reactions, but the intensity of the allergic tissue reactions was not correlated with either the levels of allergen-specific IgE or the levels of allergen-specific IgG antibodies. Less frequently detected allergens with low IgE-binding capacity were able to induce strong allergic reactions comparable to those caused by major allergens with high IgE-binding capacity. In contrast, skin test and nasal provocation results were significantly correlated (r = 0.63, p components for specific immunotherapy.

  15. Inhaled Mannitol as a Laryngeal and Bronchial Provocation Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Tunn Ren; Hoy, Ryan; Richards, Amanda L; Paddle, Paul; Hew, Mark

    2017-03-01

    Timely diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction (VCD), more recently termed "inducible laryngeal obstruction," is important because VCD is often misdiagnosed as asthma, resulting in delayed diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. Visualization of paradoxical vocal cord movement on laryngoscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis, but is limited by poor test sensitivity. Provocation tests may improve the diagnosis of VCD, but the diagnostic performance of current tests is less than ideal. Alternative provocation tests are required. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of using inhaled mannitol for concurrent investigation of laryngeal and bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Consecutive patients with suspected VCD seen at our institution's asthma clinic underwent flexible laryngoscopy at baseline and following mannitol challenge. VCD was diagnosed on laryngoscopy based on inspiratory adduction, or >50% expiratory adduction of the vocal cords. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness after mannitol challenge was also assessed. We evaluated the interrater agreement of postmannitol laryngoscopy between respiratory specialists and laryngologists. Fourteen patients with suspected VCD in the context of asthma evaluation were included in the study. Mannitol provocation demonstrated VCD in three of the seven patients with normal baseline laryngoscopy (42.9%). Only two patients had bronchial hyperresponsiveness. There was substantial interrater agreement between respiratory specialists and laryngologists, kappa = 0.696 (95% confidence interval: 0.324-1) (P = 0.006). Inhaled mannitol can be used to induce VCD. It is well tolerated and can evaluate laryngeal and bronchial hyperresponsiveness at the same setting. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Thioredoxin from the Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella: cloning and test of the allergenic potential in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoflehner, Elisabeth; Binder, Marina; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Mahler, Vera; Panzani, Raphael C; Jarisch, Reinhart; Wiedermann, Ursula; Duchêne, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella is a highly prevalent food pest in human dwellings, and has been shown to contain a number of allergens. So far, only one of these, the arginine kinase (Plo i 1) has been identified. The aim of this study was to identify further allergens and characterise these in comparison to Plo i 1. A cDNA library from whole adult P. interpunctella was screened with the serum of a patient with indoor allergy and IgE to moths, and thioredoxin was identified as an IgE-binding protein. Recombinant thioredoxin was generated in E. coli, and tested together with Plo i 1 and whole moth extracts in IgE immunoblots against a large panel of indoor allergic patients' sera. BALB/c mice were immunised with recombinant thioredoxin and Plo i 1, and antibody production, mediator release from RBL cells, T-cell proliferation and cytokine production were measured. For the first time a thioredoxin from an animal species was identified as allergen. About 8% of the sera from patients with IgE against moth extracts reacted with recombinant P. interpunctella thioredoxin, compared to 25% reacting with recombinant Plo i 1. In immunised BALB/c mice, the recombinant allergens both induced classical Th2-biased immune responses such as induction IgE and IgG1 antibodies, upregulation of IL-5 and IL-4 and basophil degranulation. Thioredoxin from moths like Plo i 1 acts like a classical Type I allergen as do the thioredoxins from wheat or corn. This clearly supports the pan-allergen nature of thioredoxin. The designation Plo i 2 is suggested for the new P. interpunctella allergen.

  17. Thioredoxin from the Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella: cloning and test of the allergenic potential in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hoflehner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: The Indianmeal moth Plodia interpunctella is a highly prevalent food pest in human dwellings, and has been shown to contain a number of allergens. So far, only one of these, the arginine kinase (Plo i 1 has been identified. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify further allergens and characterise these in comparison to Plo i 1. METHOD: A cDNA library from whole adult P. interpunctella was screened with the serum of a patient with indoor allergy and IgE to moths, and thioredoxin was identified as an IgE-binding protein. Recombinant thioredoxin was generated in E. coli, and tested together with Plo i 1 and whole moth extracts in IgE immunoblots against a large panel of indoor allergic patients' sera. BALB/c mice were immunised with recombinant thioredoxin and Plo i 1, and antibody production, mediator release from RBL cells, T-cell proliferation and cytokine production were measured. RESULT: For the first time a thioredoxin from an animal species was identified as allergen. About 8% of the sera from patients with IgE against moth extracts reacted with recombinant P. interpunctella thioredoxin, compared to 25% reacting with recombinant Plo i 1. In immunised BALB/c mice, the recombinant allergens both induced classical Th2-biased immune responses such as induction IgE and IgG1 antibodies, upregulation of IL-5 and IL-4 and basophil degranulation. CONCLUSION: Thioredoxin from moths like Plo i 1 acts like a classical Type I allergen as do the thioredoxins from wheat or corn. This clearly supports the pan-allergen nature of thioredoxin. The designation Plo i 2 is suggested for the new P. interpunctella allergen.

  18. Stability of selected volatile contact allergens in different patch test chambers under different storage conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Kristian Fredløv; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer

    2012-01-01

    storage conditions. Methods. Petrolatum samples of methyl methacrylate (MMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate (2-HPA), cinnamal and eugenol in patch test concentrations were stored in three different test chambers (IQ chamber™, IQ Ultimate™, and Van der Bend® transport...... during storage in the refrigerator. For these two chamber systems, the contact allergen concentration dropped below the stability limit in the following order: MMA, cinnamal, 2-HPA, eugenol, and 2-HEMA. In the Van der Bend® transport container, the contact allergens exhibited acceptable stability under...... both storage conditions, whereas MMA and 2-HPA required cool storage for maintenance of the limit. Conclusion. The Van der Bend® transport container was the best device for storage of samples of volatile contact allergens....

  19. Skin Prick Test Reactivity to Common Aero and Food Allergens among Children with Allergy

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    Safoora Hosseini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of allergic diseases has risen in the last decades. The objective of this study was to determine the common allergens in children via the skin prick test. Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited 313 allergic children (4 months to 18 years old referred to the Asthma and Allergy Clinic of Children’s Medical Center in Tehran. A questionnaire containing demographic data and patient history was completed. The Skin Prick Test (SPT was selected according to the patients’ history of food and/or aeroallergen sensitivity. Results: Patients (62.4% male, 37.6% female with symptoms of asthma (n=141, 57.1%, allergic rhinitis (n=50, 20.4%, atopic dermatitis (n=29, 11.7%, and urticaria (n=20, 8.1% were studied. Positive skin prick test to at least one allergen was 58.1%. The most prevalent allergens were tree mix (26%, Alternaria alternata (26%, weed mix (23.6%, Dermatophagoides farinae (22.9%, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (22.9%, milk (21.7%, eggs (20%, and wheat flour (18.3%. Also, common allergens in the patients with different symptoms of allergic disorders were as follows: asthma (tree mix, weed mix, and Dermatophagoides farinae; allergic rhinitis (Dermatophagoides farinae, tree mix, and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; and atopic dermatitis (Alternaria alternata, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, and cockroaches. Conclusion: Identifying allergens in each area is necessary and has an important role in the diagnosis and management of allergic disorders and possibility of performing immunotherapy. In this study, the most common aeroallergens were tree mix, Alternaria alternata, and weed mix and also the most common food allergens were milk, eggs, and wheat. Considering these data, appropriate preventive strategies can decrease the cost and morbidity of therapeutic actions.

  20. The effect of exposure to sulphuric acid on the early asthmatic response to inhaled grass pollen allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, W S; Evans, D E; Mark, D; Harrison, R M; Ayres, J G

    2001-10-01

    Particulate sulphates, including sulphuric acid (H2SO4), are important components of the ambient aerosol in some areas and are regarded as air pollutants with potentially important human health effects. Challenge studies suggest little or no effect of H2SO4 exposure on lung function in asthmatic adults, although some epidemiological studies demonstrate an effect of acid species on symptoms in subjects with asthma. To date, the effect of H2SO4 on allergen responsiveness has not been studied. The effect of exposure to particulate H2SO4 on the early asthmatic response to grass pollen allergen has been investigated in 13 adults with mild asthma. After establishment of the provocative dose of allergen producing a 15% fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEVI) (PD15) for each subject, they were exposed to air, 100 microg m(-3) or 1,000 g x m(-3) H2SO4 for 1 h, double-blind in random order > or =2 weeks apart, through a head dome delivery system 14 h after each exposure subject underwent a fixed-dose allergen challenge (PD15). Ten subjects completed the study. The mean early asthmatic responses (maximum percentage change in FEV1 during the first 2 h after challenge) following air, 100 microg x m(-3) H2SO4, and 1,000 microg m(-3) H2SO4, were -14.1%, -16.7%, and -18.4%, respectively. The difference between 1,000 microg x m(-3) H2SO4 and air was significant (mean difference: -4.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI: -1.2-7.4%, p=0.013). The difference between air and 100 microg m(-3) H2SO4 approached significance (mean difference: -2.6%, 95% CI: 0.0-5.3%, p = 0.051). These results suggest that, at least at high mass concentration, sulphuric acid can potentiate the early asthmatic response of mild asthmatic subjects to grass pollen allergen, although the effect is limited.

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF SKIN TESTING .1. CHOOSING ALLERGEN CONCENTRATIONS AND CUTOFF VALUES BY FACTORIAL DESIGN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NIEMEIJER, NR; GOEDEWAAGEN, B; KAUFFMAN, HF; DEMONCHY, JGR

    1993-01-01

    Standardized extracts of Phleum pratensis (grass) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (house-dust mite) were used as test allergens for multiple regression in order to determine optimum concentrations and cutoff values with regard to diagnostic capacity and safety. If a RAST value of class 1 or more

  2. Evaluation of skin prick test sensitivity for 37 allergen extracts in atopic patients with nasal polyposis

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    Z A Ashour

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion Negative SPT does not exclude allergy in atopic patients with nasal polyposis. Thus, before delivering a diagnosis of nonallergic rhinitis in patients with negative SPT to common allergen, further tests are needed. We recommend further studies to evaluate the prevalence, immunopathology, and management of local allergic rhinitis.

  3. A study of skin sensitivity to various allergens by skin prick test in patients of nasobronchial allergy

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    Prasad R

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study skin sensitivity to various allergens in patients of nasobronchial allergy. Materials and Methods: 2880 skin prick tests with 60 allergens were performed in 48 patients of nasobronchial allergy. Results: Most common offending allergens were insects (21.2%, followed by dusts (12.0%, pollens (7.8%, animal dander (3.1%, and fungi (1.3%. The common insect antigen were locust female (33.3% followed by locust male (25%, grasshopper (20.8%, cricket (16.7%, cockroach female (16.7% and cockroach male (14.6%. Common dust allergens were house dust, wheat dust, cotton mill and paper dust. Among pollens, Amaranthus spinosus, Argemone mexicana, Adhatoda vasica, Ailanthus and Cannabis were found to be common allergens. In animal danders common offending allergens were cow dander and dog dander. Among fungi Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria teneis and Fusarium sodani were common allergens. Patients of bronchial asthma had associated allergic rhinitis in 80% cases. Conclusion: Common allergens in patients of nasobronchial allergy were identified. The data may prove useful in of allergen avoidance and immunotherapy in these patients.

  4. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2003-01-01

    elicitation reaction than patch testing with the allergen (hydroxycitronellal) alone, in patients previously patch tested positive to hydroxycitronellal. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction was defined as at least 1 day of patch test reading showing more positive patch tests...... with more positive patch tests on the forearm patch tested with SLS plus hydroxycitronellal and no day of patch test readings with more positive patch tests on the forearm tested with hydroxycitronellal (P = 0.0253). Estimation of the blood flow with laser Doppler supported these findings....

  5. Evaluation of skin test reactivity to environmental allergens in healthy cats and cats with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleifer, Sebastian G; Willemse, Ton

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate skin test reactivity to environmental allergens in healthy cats and in cats with atopic dermatitis (AD). 10 healthy cats and 10 cats with AD. 10 allergens in serial dilutions were injected ID on the lateral aspect of the thorax of sedated cats. Histamine (0.01% solution) and buffer solutions were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. Immediately after the last injection, 10% fluorescein solution was administered IV. Skin test results were evaluated with ultraviolet light after 15 to 30 minutes and at 4 and 6 hours by 2 independent observers. In the control group, skin tests were repeated after 6 weeks. Skin test reactivity and the nature of the immunoglobulin involved were investigated by use of the Prausnitz-Küstner test with untreated and heat-treated cat sera. Intertest and interobserver agreement were high when measurement of the diameter of the fluorescent wheal was used to evaluate skin test responses, compared with assessment of its intensity. In both groups of cats, immediate skin test reactivity was observed as an IgE-mediated reaction, as an IgG-mediated reaction, and as a result of nonspecific mast cell degranulation. There was no correlation between allergen concentration and the type of reaction observed. Skin test reactivity in cats should be evaluated after IV administration of 10% fluorescein solution by means of a Prausnitz-Küstner test to differentiate among IgE-mediated, IgG-mediated, and nonspecific reactions.

  6. Evaluation of photopatch test allergens for Indian patients of photodermatitis: Preliminary results

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    Nidhi Jindal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a strong need to develop a photopatch test tray suitable for Indian patients of photodermatitis as European/Scandinavian photopatch test trays may not be wholly relevant for them. Aim: We carried out this study using photoallergens relevant in the Indian context to determine their relevance in patients of photodermatitis. Methods: Thirty patients (M:F, 23:7 between 19 and 76 years of age of photodermatitis and 10 controls were patch- and photopatch tested with 20 common photoallergens. In addition, the patients were also (photo patch tested with articles of daily use as and when these were suspected to be the cause. Results: Forty-three positive reactions to one or more antigens were seen in 22 (74% patients. Fourteen positive photopatch tests to seven allergens were observed in 10 (33% patients, and nine (30% of them had a definite relevance. The most common contact allergen was fragrance mix (FM (30%, followed by p-phenylenediamine (20% and Parthenium hysterophorous (17%. The definite relevance of the patch- and photopatch tests could be correlated in 47% of these patients. Conclusions: FM is the most common contact and photocontact allergen among the various photopatch test antigens. Although differences in technique and evaluation make direct comparison between different centers difficult, still photopatch testing remains an integral part and gold standard for the work-up of the photosensitive patients.

  7. [Analysis on allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in Urumqi Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhongqiao; Gao, Yan; Zheng, Yan

    2015-08-01

    Understand the main types and characteristics of inhaled allergens in allergic rhinitis patients in Urumqi, Xinjiang, and provide theoretical basis for diagnosis, treatment, prevention of local allergic rhinitis and epidemiological investigation. Inhaled allergen detecting on suspected patients with allergic rhinitis in clinic by the allergopharma skin prick test. Group the skin prick test positive patients of 340 samples according to their nationality, age and gender, then compare the inhaled allergen differences between them. The total positive rate with allergic rhinitis prick test in 340 cases is 94.7%, of which the highest proportion is Artemisia (66.2%), followed by Chenopodium album (51.2%), poplar (42.6%), Ulmus (40.9%), Liu (33.8%), Timothy (27.6%), dust mite (21.2%), house dust mite (17.9%), ragweed (15.9%), dog (11.2%), cat (10.6%), cockroach (8.5%), Alternaria (5.6%) and Candida albicans (3.5%). The sensitivity of poplar, willow, Timothy and Alternaria of the minority group is higher than the Han group (Pallergen positive rate difference among different age group has statistical significance (Χ2=59.076, Pallergens in Urumqi area. There is a difference in allergen sensitivity between Minority and Han nationality patients. There is no statistical significance on inhaled allergen positive rate between different genders. Specific allergens can provide basis for the prevention and control of allergic diseases in Urumqi area.

  8. Ethosome formulation of contact allergens may enhance patch test reactions in patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2010-01-01

    Background: Ethosomes and liposomes are ultra-small vesicles capable of encapsulating drugs and cosmetic ingredients for topical use, thereby potentially increasing bioavailability and clinical efficacy. So far, few reports have suggested that formulation of cosmetic ingredients in vesicular...... carrier systems may increase the allergenicity potential. Objectives: To investigate the effect of ethosome formulation of isoeugenol and methyldibromo glutaronitrile on the elicitation response under patch test conditions and by repeated open applications. Patients/Materials/Methods: A total of 27...... volunteer patients with a previous positive patch test reaction to either isoeugenol or methyldibromo glutaronitrile were included in the study. In all patients, a serial dilution patch test was performed with the allergen in question formulated in ethosomes and in an ethanol/water solution. In addition...

  9. PATTERN OF PATCH TEST ALLERGEN POSITIVITY IN CHRONIC URTICARIA PATIENTS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN TELANGANA

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    Nayeem Sadath Haneef

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT Patch test is the gold standard for detection of causative allergens in allergic contact dermatitis. Though chronic urticaria is a multifactorial condition, a sizeable number of such patients are thought to be due to various contact allergens. Hence, a hospital based prospective study of patch test positivity to various allergens was conducted in patients suffering from chronic urticaria. AIMS To evaluate the pattern of allergen positivity in chronic urticaria patients by patch test using Indian Standard Series. SETTINGS & DESIGN Prospective investigational study was conducted at Dermatology, Venereology and Leprosy department of a tertiary care hospital attached to a postgraduate training institute in Telangana state of India. METHODS & MATERIAL Thirty chronic urticaria patients, above 18 years of age were evaluated with patch test of Indian standard series. Two of these patients had prior history of contact sensitivity to rubber and paraphenylenediamine. Patch test was done by application of allergens of Indian standard series over upper back. Patch test site was examined after 48 hours and after 72 hours. Patch test was considered positive if erythema, erythematous papules or vesicles were found at the site of application of corresponding allergen. RESULTS Patch test was positive in 4 out of 30 patients of chronic urticaria, fragrance, black rubber mix, paraphenylenediamine and parthenium being the allergens in 1 patient each. Patients with positive patch test to black rubber mix and paraphenylenediamine had prior history of contact allergy. CONCLUSION Patch test is a simple, noninvasive, inexpensive and useful diagnostic test in a difficult to evaluate condition of chronic urticaria, irrespective of feasibility of avoidance of potential allergens.

  10. Allergenic food introduction and risk of childhood atopic diseases.

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    Niels J Elbert

    Full Text Available The role of timing and diversity of allergenic food introduction in the development of childhood allergic sensitization and atopic diseases is controversial.To examine whether timing and diversity of allergenic food introduction are associated with allergic sensitization, allergy and eczema in children until age 10 years.This study among 5,202 children was performed in a population-based prospective cohort. Timing (age ≤6 months vs. >6 months and diversity (0, 1, 2 and ≥3 foods of allergenic food (cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, tree nuts, soy and gluten introduction were assessed by questionnaires at ages 6 and 12 months. At age 10 years, inhalant and food allergic sensitization were measured by skin prick tests, and physician-diagnosed inhalant and food allergy by questionnaire. Data on parental-reported physician-diagnosed eczema were obtained from birth until age 10 years.Children introduced to gluten at age ≤6 months had a decreased risk of eczema (aOR (95% CI: 0.84 (0.72, 0.99, compared with children introduced to gluten at age >6 months. However, timing of allergenic food introduction was not associated with allergic sensitization or physician-diagnosed allergy. Children introduced to ≥3 allergenic foods at age ≤6 months had a decreased risk of physician-diagnosed inhalant allergy (0.64 (0.42, 0.98, compared with children not introduced to any allergenic food at age ≤6 months. However, diversity of allergenic food introduction was not associated with allergic sensitization, physician-diagnosed food allergy or eczema.Neither timing nor diversity of allergenic food introduction was consistently associated with childhood allergic sensitization, allergy or eczema.

  11. Cross-allergenicity between Aspergillus restrictus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria alternata determined by radioallergosorbent test inhibition

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    Tatsuo Sakamoto

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus restrictus, an osmophilic fungus, is abundant in house dust. We have shown previously that the incidence of immediate hypersensitivity to A. restrictus is comparable to that for Aspergillus fumigatus and Alternaria alternata in asthmatic children. Radioallergosorbent test (RAST inhibition was used to determine whether A. restrictus shares similar allergenic components with A. fumigatus and A. alternata. Mycelial mats of the three species cultivated on completely synthetic media were used for extract preparation. IgE antibodies to each fungus were measured with RAST using a polyvinyl chloride microplate as a solid phase. Analysis of a serum pool obtained from nine asthmatic children with a positive RAST to A. restrictus showed that A. restrictus inhibited the RAST to A. restrictus, A. fumigatus and A. alternata by more than 80%. Similar results were observed with A. fumigatus and A. alternata. Additionally, when 13 serum samples with a positive RAST to A. restrictus were tested separately, A. restrictus substantially inhibited the A. restrictus RAST in all subjects tested. A. fumigatus and A. alternata inhibited the A. restrictus RAST in 10 and 8 of the samples studied, respectively. These findings indicate that A. restrictus shares allergenic components with A. fumigatus and A. alternata. The allergenic cross-reactivity between A. fumigatus and A. alternata was also demonstrated.

  12. A comparison of intradermal testing and detection of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in horses affected with skin hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Erin E; Miller, William H; Wagner, Bettina

    2007-12-15

    Skin hypersensitivities (allergies) in horses are often diagnosed using clinical signs only. Intradermal testing or serological assays are diagnostic options to confirm the allergic nature of the disease and to identify the allergen(s). Our objective was to develop an allergen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a monoclonal antibody specific for horse IgE and to examine its potential for allergen detection in serum in comparison to intradermal testing. Intradermal testing with 61 allergen extracts was performed on 10 horses affected with skin hypersensitivity. Their sera were analyzed by ELISA for IgE antibodies to the same allergens. The kappa test of concordance was used for comparison of the results of both tests. Out of 61 allergen extracts, only two (Timothy and Quack) had kappa values greater than 0.60, suggesting a substantial agreement between skin testing and IgE ELISA. The statistical comparison of the remaining 59 allergens showed little or no concordance between the tests beyond chance. To identify parameters that may influence the sensitivity of the ELISA, the assay was modified to detect allergen-specific IgGb and IgG(T) in serum, and the protein content in all allergen extracts was determined by SDS-PAGE. The commercial allergen extracts revealed a high variation in detectable protein. High concentrations of allergen-specific IgG in horse serum were found to compete with IgE for binding to the plates. In conclusion, an ELISA using whole serum and crude allergen preparations provides limited diagnostic information in horses. The reliable diagnosis of allergens in equine skin hypersensitivity is essential to improve allergen-specific treatments, such as hyposensitization, or the development of allergy vaccines.

  13. Evaluation of commercial skin prick test solutions for selected occupational allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, V; de Blay, F; Folletti, I; Kobierski, P; Moscato, G; Olivieri, M; Quirce, S; Sastre, J; Walusiak-Skorupa, J; Kotschy-Lang, N; Müsken, H; Mahler, V; Schliemann, S; Ochmann, U; Sültz, J; Worm, M; Sander, I; Zahradnik, E; Brüning, T; Merget, R; Raulf-Heimsoth, M

    2013-01-01

    Skin prick testing (SPT) is an important step in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated occupational allergic diseases. The outcome of SPT is related to the quality of allergen extracts. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess different commercially available SPT solutions for selected occupational allergens. SPT was performed in 116 bakers, 47 farmers and 33 subjects exposed to natural rubber latex (NRL), all with work-related allergic symptoms. The SPT solutions from different manufacturers (n = 3-5) for wheat flour, rye flour, soy, cow hair/dander, storage mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Acarus siro) and NRL were analysed with respect to their protein and antigen contents. SPT was carried out in 16 allergy centres in six European countries using standardized procedures. Specific IgE values were used as the gold standard to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of SPT solutions. The optimal cut-point for each SPT solution was determined by Youden Index. Protein and antigen contents and patterns of the SPT solutions varied remarkably depending on the manufacturer. While SPT solutions for wheat flour and soy reached overall low sensitivities, sensitivities of other tested SPT solutions depended on the manufacturer. As a rule, solutions with higher protein and antigen content showed higher sensitivities and test efficiencies. There is a wide variability of SPT solutions for occupational allergens, and the sensitivity of several solutions is low. Thus, improvement and standardization of SPT solutions for occupational allergens is essential. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Patch test study of 90 patients with tattoo reactions: negative outcome of allergy patch test to baseline batteries and culprit inks suggests allergen(s) are generated in the skin through haptenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serup, Jørgen; Hutton Carlsen, Katrina

    2014-11-01

    Tattoo reactions, especially in red tattoos, are often suggested as allergic in nature, however, systematic evaluation by patch testing has not performed in the past. To report the results of patch testing in 90 patients with non-infectious chronic tattoo reactions. From 2009 to 2013 at the 'Tattoo Clinic', Department of Dermatology, Bispebjerg University Hospital, 90 patients were patch tested with batteries of baseline allergens, disperse dyes/textile allergens, and a selection of tattoo ink stock products, which, according to case observations, were problematic, supplemented with individual culprit inks when accessible. Patients with reactions to the tattoo colour red, the most predominant colour associated with skin reactions, showed negative patch test results with common allergens. Outcomes were also negative in patients who had experienced concomitant reactions in another hitherto tolerated tattoo of the same colour as the problematic tattoo. The allergen or allergens responsible for tattoo reactions are not present directly in tattoo ink stock products. This is despite the fact that clinical histories suggest that the vast majority of clinical reactions, especially reactions to red and red nuances, are likely to be allergic events caused by the injected inks. We suggest that the responsible allergen results from a complicated and slow process of haptenization, which may even include photochemical cleavage of red azo pigment. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Systemic inflammatory responses following welding inhalation challenge test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppi, Paula; Järvelä, Merja; Tuomi, Timo; Luukkonen, Ritva; Lindholm, Tuula; Nieminen, Riina; Moilanen, Eeva; Hannu, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate inflammatory and respiratory responses to welding fume exposure in patients with suspected occupational asthma. Sixteen patients referred to the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health underwent mild steel (MS) and stainless steel (SS) welding challenge tests, due to suspicion of OA. Platelet count, leucocytes and their differential count, hemoglobin, sensitive CRP, lipids, glucose and fibrinogen were analyzed in addition to interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, endothelin-1, and E-selectin in plasma samples. Peak expiratory flow (PEF), forced expiratory volume in 1 min (FEV 1 ) and exhaled nitric oxide (NO) measurements were performed before and after the challenge test. Personal particle exposure was assessed using IOM and a mini sampler. Particle size distribution was measured by an Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI). The number of leukocytes, neutrophils, and platelets increased significantly, and the hemoglobin level and number of erythrocytes decreased significantly after both the MS and SS exposure tests. Five of the patients were diagnosed with OA, and their maximum fall in FEV 1 values was 0.70 l (±0.32) 4 h after SS exposure. MS welding generated an average inhalable particle mass concentration of 31.6, and SS welding of 40.2 mg/m 3 . The mean particle concentration measured inside the welding face shields by the mini sampler was 30.2 mg/m 3 and 41.7 mg/m 3 , respectively. Exposure to MS and SS welding fume resulted in a mild systemic inflammatory response. The particle concentration from the breathing zones correlated with the measurements inside the welding face shields.

  16. Immunoblot and radioallergosorbent test inhibition studies of allergenic cross-reactivity of the predatory mite Amblyseius cucumeris with the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Nicolette W; Groenewoud, Giséle C M; van Ree, Ronald; van Leeuwen, Astrid; Vermeulen, Ab M; van Toorenenbergen, Albert W; de Groot, Hans; van Wijk, Roy Gerth

    2004-09-01

    In 1999, an extensive study among bell pepper growers showed that a predatory mite, Amblyseius cucumeris, is a potentially relevant source of occupational allergens because 23% of the population had positive skin prick test reactions. To investigate whether cross-reactivity between A. cucumeris and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is responsible for the cosensitization to both mite species found in 58.7% of A. cucumeris-sensitized greenhouse workers. Fifteen serum samples from greenhouse workers with work-related inhalant allergy and a positive radioallergosorbent test (RAST) reaction to A. cucumeris or D. pteronyssinus were selected for immunoblot analysis using extracts of both mites. A subselection (n = 5) was used for RAST and immunoblot inhibition to investigate potential cross-reactivity. On immunoblot, 2 distinct patterns were observed: one pattern showed common protein bands in A. cucumeris and D. pteronyssinus blots suggestive of cross-reactivity between A. cucumeris and D. pteronyssinus and the other pattern showed no shared protein bands. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus RAST inhibition with A. cucumeris extract was low in 4 serum samples (RAST inhibition with D. pteronyssinus extract was high in 1 serum sample (75% inhibition), low in 2 serum samples (35% and <15% inhibition), and absent in 2 serum samples. These results were confirmed by immunoblot inhibition experiments. Amblyseius cucumeris, a new occupational allergen, has species-specific antigens and common antigens that are cross-reactive with the house dust mite D. pteronyssinus.

  17. Common Allergens Identified Based on Patch Test Results in Patients with Suspected Contact Dermatitis of the Scalp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleid, Nouf M.; Fertig, Raymond; Maddy, Austin; Tosti, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Background Contact dermatitis of the scalp is common and might be caused by many chemicals including metals, ingredients of shampoos and conditioners, dyes, or other hair treatments. Eliciting a careful history and patch tests are necessary to identify the responsible allergen and prevent relapses. Objectives To identify allergens that may cause contact dermatitis of the scalp by reviewing patch test results. Methods We reviewed the records of 1,015 patients referred for patch testing at the Dermatology Department of the University of Miami. A total of 226 patients (205 females and 21 males) with suspected scalp contact dermatitis were identified, and the patch test results and clinical data for those patients were analyzed. Most patients were referred for patch testing from a specialized hair clinic at our institution. Results The most common allergens in our study population were nickel (23.8%), cobalt (21.0%), balsam of Peru (18.2%), fragrance mix (14.4%), carba mix (11.6%), and propylene glycol (PG) (8.8%). The majority of patients were females aged 40–59 years, and scalp itching or burning were reported as the most common symptom. Conclusion Frequent sources of allergens for metals include hair clasps, pins, and brushes, while frequent sources of allergens for preservatives, fragrance mix, and balsam of Peru include shampoos, conditioners, and hair gels. Frequent sources of allergens for PG include topical medications. PMID:28611994

  18. High-efficiency particulate arrest-filter vacuum cleaners increase personal cat allergen exposure in homes with cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Robin B; Durrell, Bethan; Bishop, Sophie; Curbishley, Lisa; Woodcock, Ashley; Custovic, Adnan

    2003-04-01

    On the basis of experimental chamber studies, vacuum cleaners with double-thickness bags and integral high-efficiency particulate arrest (HEPA) air filters are claimed to reduce airborne allergen levels and are currently recommended to allergic patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of vacuum cleaning on personal inhaled cat allergen exposure in homes with cats. Five unused new vacuum cleaners were compared with an old non-HEPA filter vacuum cleaner. Each vacuum cleaner was tested in an experimental chamber and in 5 homes with cats. Inhaled cat allergen was measured by nasal air sampling. New vacuum cleaners failed to leak any allergen in the experimental chamber. There was a significant increase in inhaled cat allergen during vacuum cleaning in homes (F = 48.39, df = 1.4, P =.002) with no difference between the old vacuum cleaner and the unused new vacuum cleaners (5-fold and 3-fold increase compared to baseline, respectively; F = 0.005, df = 1.4, P =.95). The use of new HEPA-filter vacuum cleaners increases inhaled cat allergen in homes with cats. The use of HEPA-filter modern vacuum cleaners to reduce pet allergen exposure in the homes of pet owners should not be justified merely on the basis of experimental chamber data.

  19. Immunocap® ISAC and microtest for multiplex allergen testing in people with difficult to manage allergic disease: A systematic review and cost analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Westwood (Marie); B.L.T. Ramaekers (Bram); Lang, S. (Shona); N. Armstrong (Nigel); C. Noake; De Kock, S. (Shelley); M.A. Joore (Manuela); J.L. Severens (Hans); J. Kleijnen (Jos)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground Allergy is a form of immune-mediated exaggerated sensitivity (hypersensitivity) to a substance that is either inhaled, swallowed, injected or comes into contact with the skin. Foreign substances that provoke allergies are called allergens. It has been claimed that multiplex

  20. Comparison of levocabastine, a new selective H1-receptor antagonist, and disodium cromoglycate, in a nasal provocation test with allergen.

    OpenAIRE

    Kolly, M; Pécoud, A

    1986-01-01

    The effect of intranasal administration of levocabastine, a new selective H1-receptor antagonist, was investigated in a nasal provocation test (NPT) performed with allergens. The NPT allowed a quantitative estimation of the nasal allergic threshold (concentration of allergen necessary to trigger the reaction). In addition, the intensity of the three major rhinitis symptoms (obstruction, rhinorrhea and sneezing) was determined. Twelve adult patients, allergic to grass pollen, underwent a first...

  1. Increased Sensitization to Mold Allergens Measured by Intradermal Skin Testing following Hurricanes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Saporta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To report on changes in sensitivity to mold allergens determined by changes in intradermal skin testing reactivity, after exposure to two severe hurricanes. Methods. A random, retrospective allergy charts review divided into 2 groups of 100 patients each: Group A, patients tested between 2003 and 2010 prior to hurricanes, and Group B, patients tested in 2014 and 2015 following hurricanes. Reactivity to eighteen molds was determined by intradermal skin testing. Test results, age, and respiratory symptoms were recorded. Chi-square test determined reactivity/sensitivity differences between groups. Results. Posthurricane patients had 34.6 times more positive results (p<0.0001 at weaker dilutions, all tested molds were found to be more reactive, and 95% had at least one positive test versus only 62% before the hurricanes (p<0.0001; average mold reactivity was 55% versus 16% while 17% of patients reacted to the entire panel versus none before the hurricanes (p<0.0001. The posthurricane population was younger (p<0.001 and included more patients with asthma or lower respiratory symptoms (p<0.05. Conclusion. Reactivity and sensitization to mold allergens increased compared to patients before the hurricanes. This supports climatologists’ hypothesis that environmental changes resulting from hurricanes can be a health risk as reflected in increased allergic sensitivities and symptoms and has significant implications for physicians treating patients from affected areas.

  2. Allergens in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses. © 2015 The Authors Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Comparison between Siriraj mite allergen vaccine and standardized commercial mite vaccine by skin prick testing in normal Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Pacharn, Punchama; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai; Weeravejsukit, Sirirat; Sripramong, Chaweewan; Sookrung, Nitat; Bunnag, Chaweewan

    2010-03-01

    House dust mite is a major cause of allergic asthma and rhinitis in Thai population. Skin prick test (SPT) is a useful tool for the diagnosis of the IgE-mediated reactions. The imported commercial mite vaccine for SPT is available but it is relatively expensive. Aim of this study is to compare Siriraj Mite Allergen Vaccine (SMAV) with standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine by skin prick testing in normal Thai adults. A double blind, self-controlled study between the SMAV and standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine was performed by SPT in 17 normal Thai adult males and non-pregnant or non-lactating females aged 18-60 years. The study showed that 35.29 % of non atopic adults had positive SPT reaction to Dp and Df of both SMAV and standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine. Mean wheal and flare diameters from SPT of Dp and Df of SMAV showed strong correlation with standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine (r= 0.768 and 0.897 in Dp and Df respectively, p standardized commercial mite allergen vaccine. No systemic or large local reaction was found in any of the study cases.

  4. Hypersensitivity to pollen allergens on the Adriatic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvitanović, Slavica; Znaor, Ljubo; Perisić, Dubravka; Grbić, Dragica

    2004-06-01

    This paper describes a study of air concentrations of pollens and a calendar of pollination around the town of Split on the Croatian Adriatic in 1994. High pollen concentrations of Parietaria officinalis dominated during the year (up to 20% from April to June) followed by the pollens of Pistacia lentiscus, Olea europaea, Pinus halepensis, Juniperus oxycedrus, Acacia baileyana, Artemisia vulgaris, Ambrosia elatior and Cistus monspeliensis. In 1994-95, skin prick tests using commercially available standard inhalation allergens and specially prepared pollen allergens were performed on 3,500 patients with allergic respiratory symptoms. About 30% were allergic to standard pollen allergens (mixed grass pollen, mixed tree pollen, Parietaria officinalis and Pittosporum tobira). Hypersensitivity to more than one allergen was found in 45% of patients, whereas 15% did not react to any of the standard allergens. Additional testing with newly prepared individual allergens (P. lentiscus, O. europaea, P. halepensis, A. baileyana, C. monspeliensis, A. vulgaris, A. elatior) revealed hypersensitivity in a number of patients, but 36% showed no reaction. This finding suggests that further studies of this kind are needed for additional identification, isolation, and characterisation of pollen allergens that are present in the Adriatic coast.

  5. ImmunoCAP® ISAC and Microtest for multiplex allergen testing in people with difficult to manage allergic disease: a systematic review and cost analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, Marie; Ramaekers, Bram; Lang, Shona; Armstrong, Nigel; Noake, Caro; de Kock, Shelley; Joore, Manuela; Severens, Johan; Kleijnen, Jos

    2016-09-01

    Allergy is a form of immune-mediated exaggerated sensitivity (hypersensitivity) to a substance that is either inhaled, swallowed, injected or comes into contact with the skin. Foreign substances that provoke allergies are called allergens. It has been claimed that multiplex allergen testing may help in diagnosing the cause of symptoms in patients with an unclear cause of allergy or who are allergic to more than one substance. To evaluate multiplex allergen testing [devices that can measure the presence of multiple immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies in a patient's blood at the same time], by assessing (1) clinical effectiveness (allergy symptoms, incidence of acute exacerbations, mortality, adverse events of testing and treatment, health-care presentations or admissions, health-related quality of life); (2) effects on treatment (diet, immunotherapy medications, other potential testing); (3) any additional diagnostic information provided by multiplex allergen testing; and (4) cost-effectiveness (cost of different assessment strategies). Fifteen databases were searched from 2005 to April 2015, including MEDLINE (via OvidSp), MEDLINE In-Process Citations, MEDLINE Daily Update, PubMed (National Library of Medicine), EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), Health Technology Assessment (HTA) database, Science Citation Index (SCI), Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science (CPCI-S), BIOSIS Previews, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) HTA programme, and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA); supplementary searches of conference proceedings and trials registries were performed. Review methods followed published guidance from the Cochrane Collaboration and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, University of York, UK. The methodological quality of included studies

  6. Food allergen digestibility: The influence on allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed...... potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing...... existing data from digestibility studies on known food allergens, it becomes evident that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. However, the choice of assay conditions, the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof greatly influences the outcome. Studies...

  7. Measurement of natural rubber latex allergen levels in medical gloves by allergen-specific IgE-ELISA inhibition, RAST inhibition, and skin prick test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosuo, T; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, S; Alenius, H; Reunala, T; Yip, E; Turjanmaa, K

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to natural rubber latex (NRL) medical gloves poses risks to patients sensitized to NRL and to users of protective gloves. Previous studies have shown that extractable allergen levels of the gloves vary widely. Since most of the available laboratory methods of NRL allergen measurement lack adequate validation, we wanted to evaluate the performance of a recently developed competitive IgE-ELISA-inhibition method in relation to the skin prick test (SPT) and RAST inhibition, as well as to extractable protein quantification and an immunochemical latex antigen assay (LEAP). Twenty samples of surgical (n = 14) and examination gloves (n = 6), covering > 90% of medical gloves marketed in Finland in 1994-5, were collected by the Finnish National Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, coded, extracted, and analyzed by the five methods. The IgE-ELISA inhibition correlated highly significantly with SPT (r = 0.94) and RAST inhibition (r = 0.96). Likewise, ELISA inhibition and RAST inhibition showed highly significant correlation (P = 0.96, P RAST inhibition (r = 0.82), and ELISA inhibition (r = 0.81, P 100 AU/ml) in seven of the 20 glove brands analyzed. In conclusion, the results of a novel IgE-ELISA-inhibition method of measuring NRL allergen levels in medical gloves correlated highly significantly with those of SPT. The ELISA method was found to be sensitive, reproducible, technically easy, inexpensive, and suitable for the analysis of large numbers of NRL products. The results of extensive market surveys in 1994 and 1995, communicated to the medical community in Finland, appear to have had a clear effect in moving glove purchasing policies toward the use of low-allergen gloves.

  8. Increased Sensitization to Mold Allergens Measured by Intradermal Skin Testing following Hurricanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saporta, Diego; Hurst, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective . To report on changes in sensitivity to mold allergens determined by changes in intradermal skin testing reactivity, after exposure to two severe hurricanes. Methods . A random, retrospective allergy charts review divided into 2 groups of 100 patients each: Group A, patients tested between 2003 and 2010 prior to hurricanes, and Group B, patients tested in 2014 and 2015 following hurricanes. Reactivity to eighteen molds was determined by intradermal skin testing. Test results, age, and respiratory symptoms were recorded. Chi-square test determined reactivity/sensitivity differences between groups. Results . Posthurricane patients had 34.6 times more positive results ( p hurricanes ( p hurricanes ( p hurricanes. This supports climatologists' hypothesis that environmental changes resulting from hurricanes can be a health risk as reflected in increased allergic sensitivities and symptoms and has significant implications for physicians treating patients from affected areas.

  9. Allergic contact dermatitis and changes in the frequency of the causative allergens demonstrated with patch testing in 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tichy, Martin; Karlova, Iva

    2015-09-01

    The frequency of contact allergens is often regionally different and hence it regional identification is important for the prevention of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD). The aim of the study was to determine the most common contact allergens in the etiology of ACD from 2008-2012 and evaluate their dynamics in comparison with similar studies in the Czech Republic and internationally carried out in previous years. A total of 1941 patients with suspected ACD were examined using the patch tests from the European Standard Series. The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. The most common contact allergy was to nickel (15.4%), the second most frequent allergen was Balsam of Peru (11.6%). The top five allergens in the whole sample also included, in descending order, fragrance-mix I (7.1%), cobalt chloride (6.4%), and Kathon CG (4.0%). While the order of contact allergens causing sensitisation in women is consistent with the results of the whole sample, in men instead of cobalt and Kathon CG, epoxy resin and chromium appeared among the five most common allergens. In the Czech Republic, despite existing EU legislation, action to reduce the frequency of sensitization to nickel failed in contrast to other EU countries. In addition to nickel, consistent preventive measures should be focused mainly on sensitization to Balsam of Peru, cobalt, epoxy resins, chromium and aromatic substances and preservatives used in the cosmetic industry.

  10. Pain perception and performance of three devices for single-site allergen skin testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Harold S; Lopez, Phillip; Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Skin testing remains the preferred method for most allergists for establishing the presence of allergen sensitization. This study examined the performance of a new single-site skin test device that incorporates initial pressure to reduce the sensation of pain. Comparators were a conventional skin testing system and a smallpox needle. Twenty subjects were tested on the back, four sites with histamine and four sites with saline with each of the three skin testing devices. The single-site skin test device was applied with downward pressure, the conventional skin testing system, and smallpox needle (SPN) by pricking at a 45°angle. Outcomes were size and reproducibility of the skin test reactions and discomfort, as graded by the subject. The whealing responses to histamine were larger with the conventional skin testing system than with the single-site skin test device and both produced larger wheals than the SPN. The conventional skin testing system also produced greater intrasubject variability. Only the conventional skin testing system produced wheals of >3 mm with saline. There was no significant difference in perception of pain, which was low with all three devices. All three devices were well tolerated, without a significant difference in perception of discomfort. Testing with histamine revealed differences in wheal size and reproducibility among the three devices and testing with saline revealed differing likelihood of inducing a significantly sized wheal.

  11. Prevalence of allergen sensitization, most important allergens and factors associated with atopy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Prudente de Carvalho Baldacara

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Knowledge of the profile of allergen sensitization among children is important for planning preventive measures. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and profile of sensitization to inhaled allergens and food among children and adolescents in an outpatient population in the city of Palmas. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study at outpatient clinics in Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil. METHODS: Ninety-four patients aged 1-15 years who were attending two pediatric outpatient clinics were selected between September and November 2008. All of the subjects underwent clinical interviews and skin prick tests. RESULTS: A positive skin prick test was observed in 76.6% of the participants (72.3% for inhalants and 28.9% for food allergens. The most frequent allergens were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (34%, cat epithelium (28.7%, dog epithelium (21.3%, Dermatophagoides farinae (19.1%, Blomia tropicalis (18.1%, cow's milk (9.6% and grasses (9.6%. A positive skin prick test correlated with a history of atopic disease (odds ratio, OR = 5.833; P = 0.002, a family history of atopic disease (OR = 8.400; P < 0.001, maternal asthma (OR = 8.077; P = 0.048, pet exposure (OR = 3.600; P = 0.012 and cesarean delivery (OR = 3.367; P = 0.019. CONCLUSION: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was the most frequent aeroallergen and cow’s milk was the most prevalent food allergen. There was a positive correlation between a positive skin prick test and several factors, such as a family history of atopic disease, maternal asthma, pet exposure and cesarean delivery.

  12. Anomalous cutaneous absorption of allergens as cause of skin prick testing adverse reactions in adult patients. Clinical and experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antico, A; Arisi, M; Lima, G

    2015-07-01

    Paediatric age, active eczema and high number of allergens tested in poly-sensitized patients have been pinpointed as possible risk factors of systemic reactions by skin prick testing. As far as atopic eczema concerns, the higher penetration of the allergens into the skin because of the scraping or micro-injuries is an intuitive rationalization. Purpose of the present study is to provide documentary evidence that adverse reactions elicited by anomalous absorption of allergens can occur also in adult patients with apparently normal skin. Report of some exemplifying clinical and experimental observations. Measuring the inoculum volume into impaired skin and its variability in relation to the variation of the chemical-physical characteristic of the solutions used for the tests by means of a method of direct assay based on the use of a gamma-camera. Localized impairments of the skin permeability can cause a significant increase in inoculum volume by prick-test. Critical amounts of allergens can be introduced into the skin because of the possibility of direct absorption, also without pricking, of allergy diagnostic solutions. The greater water content of the solutions used for prick-testing can significantly increase the inoculum volume. This study adds clinical and experimental evidences that localized impairments of permeability can occur in adult patients with apparently normal skin. Special precautions should be taken when a change of the drops' normal shape and cohesion is seen, because allergy prick-testing in such areas is potentially associated with increased risk of large local or systemic reactions.

  13. [Allergen analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Martin; Weber, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    The fundamental requirement when testing for and ensuring compliance with legally required labelling regulations is the reliable analysis of food allergens. This can be carried out by means of either DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) or protein detection. Protein detection has the advantage of directly detecting the allergenic component and can currently be carried out using immunological (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA])/lateral flow devices [LFD]) or mass spectrometry-based techniques. DNA detection is indirect, but allows the presence of food allergens to be validated through the use of another marker. Each method has its pros and cons, which have to be considered on a case-by-case basis. ELISA is quantitative, quick and easy to carry out and has high sensitivity. LFD testing is ideal for industrial applications, as the tests can be carried out on-site. Both antibody-based tests may have problems with processed foods and false positive results. Mass-spectrometric techniques show a lot of promise, but are currently still time-consuming and complex to carry out. They also run into problems with processed foods and their degree of sensitivity is matrix and parameter dependent. For these reasons, this technique is only occasionally used. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) provides the highest specificity and, depending on the target sequence, a very good to good level of sensitivity. Despite the high stability of DNA, PCR is still subject to the influence of processing and matrix related factors. Due to natural variation and production-related changes in the structures relevant in the process of detection, all methods exhibit a relatively high level of uncertainty of measurement. At present, there is no method which provides the absolute correct quantification. However, by means of laboratory-based analyses it is possible to calibrate for the allergen in question and thus be able to make reliable measurements using methods that are already available.

  14. 40 CFR 79.60 - Good laboratory practices (GLP) standards for inhalation exposure health effects testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exposure health effects testing. (a) General Provisions—(1) Scope. (i) This section prescribes good... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Good laboratory practices (GLP) standards for inhalation exposure health effects testing. 79.60 Section 79.60 Protection of Environment...

  15. Parametric two-tier sequential quality assurance test of delivery dose uniformity of multiple-dose inhaler and dry powder inhaler drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsong, Yi; Shen, Meiyu; Lostritto, Richard T; Poochikian, Guiragos K

    2008-01-01

    The delivery dose uniformity is one of the most critical requirements of dry powder inhaler and metered dose inhaler products. In 1998, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommended a two-tier acceptance sampling plan in the Draft Guidance of Metered Dose Inhaler and Dry Powder Inhaler Drug Products Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls. The two-tier procedure is a modification of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) sampling plan of dose content uniformity. It employed a zero tolerance criterion. In addition, it has a near-zero probability acceptance at the second tier. In this article, a two-tier sequential tolerance interval approach is proposed that is equivalent to a two-tier two one-sided testing procedure. It controls the probability of the product delivering below a prespecified effective dose and the probability of the product delivering over a prespecified safety dose.

  16. The relationship between RAST and skin test results in patients with asthma or rhinitis: a quantitative study with purified major allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteman, A M; Stapel, S O; Perdok, G J; Sjamsoedin, D H; Jansen, H M; Aalberse, R C; van der Zee, J S

    1996-01-01

    Study of the relationship between skin test results and IgE antibody levels is seriously hampered by the use of conventional allergen extracts because the precise amount of relevant allergen for each patient is unknown. This study was designed to investigate skin reactivity with purified major allergens and to assess the relation with serum levels of IgE antibodies and to determine which additional factors contribute to the skin test result. We used five purified major allergens (Der p 1, Der p 2, Fel d 1, Lol p 1, and Lol p 5) in skin tests, RASTs, and histamine release tests in 43 multisensitized patients with asthma or rhinitis. The differences in biologic activity of the five major allergens at a given level of specific IgE are within one order of magnitude. A significant residual variation remains in the correlation between skin test results and levels of IgE antibodies, which cannot be explained by imprecision of both tests (Pearson log skin test vs log specific IgE: r = 0.46-0.92). With similar levels of specific IgE, the amount of allergen that is required for a positive skin test result may differ by as much as a factor of 100 between patients. The amount of total IgE in serum contributes significantly to the skin test result. High values of total IgE are accompanied by a lower skin reactivity for allergen. Within individuals, allergens that cause skin test results that deviate from the prediction based on IgE antibody level often show a similar deviation in the histamine release test. This indicates that the type of IgE response (i.e., affinity or epitope recognition pattern) contributes significantly to the skin test result. Skin reactivity for histamine does not significantly influence the skin reactions expressed as allergen threshold. However, increased skin reactions with higher allergen dosages depend on histamine reactivity. The major allergens tested show similar biologic activities. In addition to IgE antibody level, total serum IgE and type of

  17. The relationship between RAST and skin test results in patients with asthma or rhinitis: a quantitative study with purified major allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteman, A. M.; Stapel, S. O.; Perdok, G. J.; Sjamsoedin, D. H.; Jansen, H. M.; Aalberse, R. C.; van der Zee, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    Study of the relationship between skin test results and IgE antibody levels is seriously hampered by the use of conventional allergen extracts because the precise amount of relevant allergen for each patient is unknown. This study was designed to investigate skin reactivity with purified major

  18. Intrauterine sensitization of allergen-specific IgE analyzed by a highly sensitive new allergen microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamemura, Norio; Tada, Hitomi; Shimojo, Naoki; Morita, Yoshinori; Kohno, Yoichi; Ichioka, Takao; Suzuki, Koichi; Kubota, Kenji; Hiyoshi, Mineyoshi; Kido, Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    To design a rational allergy prevention program, it is important to determine whether allergic sensitization starts in utero under the maternal immune system. To investigate the origin of allergen-specific IgE antibodies in cord blood (CB) and maternofetal transfer of immunoglobulins. The levels of food and inhalant allergen-specific IgE, IgA, IgG, and IgG(4) antibodies in CB and maternal blood (MB) from 92 paired neonates and mothers were measured by using a novel allergen microarray of diamond-like-carbon-coated chip, with high-sensitivity detection of allergen-specific antibodies and allergen profiles. The levels of allergen-specific IgE antibodies against food and inhalant allergens and allergen profiles were identical in CB and newborn blood, but the levels and profiles, specifically against inhalant allergens, were different from those in MB. The level of allergen-specific IgA antibodies was below the detection levels in CB despite clear detection in MB. Therefore, contamination with MB in CB was excluded on the basis of extremely low levels of IgA antibodies in CB and the obvious mismatch of the allergen-specific IgE and IgA profiles between CB and MB. However, the levels of allergen-specific IgG and IgG(4) antibodies and their allergen profiles were almost identical in both MB and CB. Allergen-specific levels of IgE and IgA antibodies and their allergen profiles analyzed by the diamond-like-carbon allergen chip indicate that IgE antibodies in CB are of fetal origin. Food-allergen specific IgE antibodies were detected more often than inhalant-allergen specific IgE antibodies in CB, the reason of which remains unclarified. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sensitization Profile to Allergens in Patients Using Multi-Test II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniglia, Sergio Fabricio; Tsuru, Fernanda Miyoko; Santos, Victor Carvalho dos; Ueda, Denis Massatsugu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Medical intervention in allergies has broadened its perspective, also focusing in the quality of life of patients. Patients are instructed, before using pharmacotherapy agents, to avoid the causal agent. Objective This study aims to analyze the sensitization profile of patients with allergic complaints and identify possible characteristics specific to each age group and gender. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study included data collected from medical records (from Multi-Test II database, Lincoln Diagnostics Inc. Decatur, Illinois) of 1,912 patients who underwent skin prick test from March to October 2013. Patients were organized and analyzed according to gender, age, and results of the allergens subtypes tested. Results The study was composed of 1,912 patients (60% male and 40% female) of ages between 3 and 87 years. Positive tests were more prevalent in quantity and intensity with the mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae, each with 60% of the total analyzed. In second place were pollens, especially Dactylis glomerata and Festuca pratensis. Conclusion The female and male sexes were equally atopic. Fungi and epithelia of dog and cat were not considered potential aeroallergens that could cause symptoms. However, mites are common in Paraná, Brazil. Further studies regarding the pollens are needed, as this study result diverged from the literature. PMID:25992129

  20. [Analysis on allergen of clinical allergic rhinitis patients in north-west mountain area of Hubei Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangjun; Chen, Jianjun; Wang, Qiurong; Zhu, Hongling; Li, Guoyi; Kong, Weijia

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the main inhaled allergens and the difference of that between city and rural suburbs in patients with allergic rhinitis in the mountain region of the northwest Hubei province and to provide epidemiological basis for prevention and treatment in the region. Eight hundred and thirty-five cases who were diagnosed as allergic rhinitis with standardized allergens in Taihe Hospital of Hubei University of Medicine from Sep 2009 and Dec 2011 were studied. The data of allergens and the distribution of the patients were recorded and analyzed. χ2-test were used to analyze the data. The top 7 of inhaled allergens were house dust mites (89.6%), dust mites (86.0%), tropical mites (56.9%), croton bug (18.8%), felon herb (8.1%), the cat hair (8.1%) and fine chain alternata bacteria (9.5%), Two main kinds of allergen in three different area are with no obvious difference (P > 0.05). In northwest Hubei Province, the highest rate of inhaled allergens was dust mites, which are approximate in different age groups and different regions, especially in the city.

  1. Reaction profile in patch testing with allergens formed during vulcanization of rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Christer; Pontén, Ann; Svedman, Cecilia; Bergendorff, Ola

    2014-05-01

    Vulcanization of rubber changes its allergen pattern. To estimate the contact allergic reactivity profile of users of finished rubber products. Twenty-four patients with known contact allergy to rubber accelerators were patch tested with 21 compounds found in chemical analyses of vulcanized rubber products. No diphenylguanidine, p-phenylenediamine antioxidants or thioureas were included in the study. Thiuram monosulfides formed during vulcanization showed generally stronger test reactions than the corresponding thiuram disulfides. We also obtained more positive thiuram reactions to the monosulfides than to the disulfides. A positive reaction to a dithiocarbamate was accompanied by a positive reaction to the corresponding thiuram, except for 1 patient. The nitrogen substituents showed only minor differences between the methyl, ethyl and pentamethylene groups, but the butyl derivatives gave, in most cases, a negative response. Dialkylthiocarbamyl benzothiazole sulfides, formed between thiurams and mercaptobenzothiazoles during vulcanization, showed strong test reactions in almost all patients who were sensitive to dithiocarbamates, thiurams, or mercaptobenzothiazoles. We found thiuram monosulfides to be better markers of thiuram sensitivity than the corresponding disulfides or dithiocarbamates. Surprisingly, the dialkylthiocarbamyl benzothiazole sulfides were good markers of both thiuram and mercaptobenzothiazole sensitivity. This is an unexpected finding that needs to be confirmed in a larger study. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Sensitization Rates for Various Allergens in Children with Allergic Rhinitis in Qingdao, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to common allergens in children with allergic rhinitis (AR living in Qingdao, China. We conducted a retrospective analysis for AR cases, who underwent skin prick tests (SPT in Qingdao. A total of 2841 children with AR qualified for the inclusion criteria (Age 3–5 years: 1500 children; Age 6–12 years: 1341 children. The most common inhaled allergens to which the AR children were sensitive were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (69.3%, Dermatophagoides farinae (66.2% and mould 1 (Penicillium notatum 38.9%; while the corresponding ingested allergens were mussel (39.2%, shrimp (36.3% and carp (36.5%. The prevalence of sensitization to inhaled allergens and food allergens was higher in children >6 years of age as compared to that in children 3–5 years of age (all p < 0.05. Children >6 years old were more sensitive to dust mite as compared to children 3–5 years old (p < 0.05. Sensitization to dust mite was more common in males than in females (p = 0.05. In this study, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae were the most common allergens causing AR in children in Qingdao, China. Older children with AR, particularly males, were found to be more sensitive to dust mite.

  3. Sensitization Rates for Various Allergens in Children with Allergic Rhinitis in Qingdao, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hang; Lin, Rongjun; Li, Na

    2015-09-07

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to common allergens in children with allergic rhinitis (AR) living in Qingdao, China. We conducted a retrospective analysis for AR cases, who underwent skin prick tests (SPT) in Qingdao. A total of 2841 children with AR qualified for the inclusion criteria (Age 3-5 years: 1500 children; Age 6-12 years: 1341 children). The most common inhaled allergens to which the AR children were sensitive were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (69.3%), Dermatophagoides farinae (66.2%) and mould 1 (Penicillium notatum 38.9%); while the corresponding ingested allergens were mussel (39.2%), shrimp (36.3%) and carp (36.5%). The prevalence of sensitization to inhaled allergens and food allergens was higher in children >6 years of age as compared to that in children 3-5 years of age (all p 6 years old were more sensitive to dust mite as compared to children 3-5 years old (p < 0.05). Sensitization to dust mite was more common in males than in females (p = 0.05). In this study, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae were the most common allergens causing AR in children in Qingdao, China. Older children with AR, particularly males, were found to be more sensitive to dust mite.

  4. Outdoor allergens.

    OpenAIRE

    Rogers, Christine Anne; Burge, Harriet A

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contrib...

  5. Determination of irritant threshold concentrations of multiple tree, grass, weed and mould allergens for intradermal testing of horses residing in the southern USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Martha J; Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M; Kearney, Michael T; Woodward, Michelle

    2017-12-01

    Appropriate allergen threshold concentrations (TCs) for intradermal testing (IDT) have not been established in horses for many pollen and mould allergens. To determine the TCs in non-allergic horses and describe the frequency of late phase reactions for 26 allergens, including trees, grasses, weeds and moulds in horses residing in the southern Unites States. Twenty four clinically normal horses in the southern United States. Threshold concentrations for different allergens were determined using IDT subjective measurements at 30 minutes. Delayed reactions were evaluated at 4 and 24 h. Threshold concentrations (all PNU/mL) were established for eight tree allergens (black willow 1,000, box elder 1,000, live oak 1,000, pecan 2,000, white ash 4,000, red oak 4,000, red mulberry 2,000 and green ash 2,000); two grass allergens (Johnson grass 250 PNU/mL and Kentucky blue grass 500 PNU/mL); two weeds (carelessweed 1,000 PNU/mL, great ragweed 500 PNU/mL) and one mould (Curvularia 8,000 PNU/mL). The TC was not determined due to excessive reactivity at the lowest concentration tested (1,000 PNU/mL) for bahia and perennial rye grass. Eleven other allergens did not meet the criteria to establish a TC when evaluated at 30 min due to lack of positive reactions. Multiple allergens caused positive reactions in ≥10% of horses at 4 h. Reactions at 24 h were rare with the exception of one horse. This study identified intradermal TC for multiple pollen and mould allergens in horses. These values may prove useful for optimizing allergen concentrations for IDT of allergic horses. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Development and evaluation of an inhalation chamber for in vivo tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO R. DA SILVA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The bioavailability, toxicity, and therapeutic efficacy of a drug is directly related to its administration route. The pulmonary route can be accessed by inhalation after fumigation, vaporization or nebulization. Thus, pharmacological and toxicological evaluation accessed by an apparatus specifically designed and validated for this type of administration is extremely important. Based on pre-existing models, an inhalation chamber was developed. This presents a central structure with five animal holders. The nebulized air passes directly and continuously through these holders and subsequently to an outlet. Evaluation of its operation was performed using clove essential oil, a nebulizer, and a flow meter. The air within the chamber was collected by static headspace and analyzed by gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. For this purpose, a 2.5 minutes chromatographic method was developed. The air flow in each of the five outputs was 0.92 liters per minute. During the first minute, the chamber became saturated with the nebulized material. Homogeneous and continuous operation of the chamber was observed without accumulation of volatile material inside it for 25 minutes. The inhalation chamber works satisfactorily for in vivo tests with medicines designed to be administrated by inhalation.

  7. Levels of nickel and other potentially allergenic metals in Ni-tested commercial body creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocca, B; Forte, G; Petrucci, F; Cristaudo, A

    2007-09-03

    It is extensively well-known that Ni and other metals occurring as impurities in cosmetic products might give rise to contact dermatitis in subjects with pre-existing allergy. The present study on the content of 13 metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ir, Mn, Ni, Pb, Pd, Pt, Rh, and V) in moisturizing creams, labelled as "Ni-tested" (i.e., Ni content creams were slightly above the concentration reported on the label. The other elements were at levels below 1 microg g(-1). The highest concentrations, in ng g(-1), of Co, Cr, Cu, and Mn were 222, 303, 51.2, and 59.9, respectively. Mean Cd, Pb, and V were below 5 ng g(-1), while Hg was absent in all the samples. Among the new emergent allergens, Ir and Rh were in traces or even undetectable, while Pt had levels of 2.65 and 6.28 ng g(-1) in two creams and Pd was equal to 1.07 ng g(-1) in one product. The overall results are below the sensitizing limit proposed for consumer products and, thus, probably have no significant toxicological effects. Nevertheless, some creams presented amounts of Co and Cr comparable to those of Ni and therefore they have to be monitored in consideration of their cross-reactivity as well.

  8. Performing IgE serum testing due to bioinformatics matches in the allergenicity assessment of GM crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard E

    2008-10-01

    Proteins introduced into genetically modified (GM) organisms through genetic engineering must be evaluated for their potential to cause allergic disease under various national laws and regulations. The Codex Alimentarius Commission guidance document (2003) calls for testing of serum IgE binding to the introduced protein if the gene was from an allergenic source, or the sequence of the transferred protein has >35% identity in any segment of 80 or more amino acids to a known allergen or shares significant short amino acid identities. The Codex guidance recognized that the assessment will evolve based on new scientific knowledge. Arguably, the current criteria are too conservative as discussed in this paper and they do not provide practical guidance on serum testing. The goals of this paper are: (1) to summarize evidence supporting the level of identity that indicates potential risk of cross-reactivity for those with existing allergies; (2) to provide example bioinformatics results and discuss their interpretation using published examples of proteins expressed in transgenic crops; and (3) to discuss key factors of experimental design and methodology for serum IgE tests to minimize the rate of false negative and false positive identification of potential allergens and cross-reactive proteins.

  9. Pattern of sensitization to common environmental allergens amongst atopic Singapore children in the first 3 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, J; Shek, L P; Shek, L; Khor, E S; Wang, D Y; Lee, B W

    2001-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the sensitization pattern to a range of common allergens in young Singaporean children. A cross-sectional study involving 75 children aged below 3 years was carried out. They presented between December 1995 and April 2000 with symptoms of asthma, rhinitis, eczema, or food allergy. Their levels of allergen-specific serum IgE to a panel of foods (egg white, milk, soy protein, shrimp, wheat and peanut), pet dander, dust mites and cockroaches were measured with Pharmacia CAP System radioallergosorbent test kits. Serum IgE levels greater than 0.35 kU/l represented a positive result. Four children could not be tested with the complete panel because of insufficient serum. The prevalence of sensitization was highest for cow's milk (45.9%) followed by egg white (38.7%), dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (31.4%) and Blomia tropicalis (25.5%). Sensitization to ingested allergens was significantly more prevalent in children aged 1 year or younger than in the older children (70.4% of those below 1 year, and 50% of those aged 1-3 years; p allergens, such as dust mites, was more likely to manifest as respiratory symptoms (allergic rhinitis and asthma), while ingested allergens were associated with gastrointestinal symptoms and eczema (p Allergen avoidance is therefore important even in the very young. The prevalence of sensitization to food allergens is higher compared to inhalant allergens in young children.

  10. Quality assurance test of delivered dose uniformity of multiple-dose inhaler and dry powder inhaler drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsong, Yi; Dong, Xiaoyu; Shen, Meiyu; Lostritto, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    The delivered dose uniformity is one of the most critical requirements for dry powder inhaler (DPI) and metered dose inhaler products. In 1999, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a Draft Guidance entitled Nasal Spray and Inhalation Solution, Suspension, and Spray Drug Products-Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls Documentation and recommended a two-tier acceptance sampling plan that is a modification of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) sampling plan of dose content uniformity (USP34). This sampling acceptance plan is also applied to metered dose inhaler (MDI) and DPI drug products in general. The FDA Draft Guidance method is shown to have a near-zero probability of acceptance at the second tier. In 2000, under the request of The International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium, the FDA developed a two-tier sampling acceptance plan based on two one-sided tolerance intervals (TOSTIs) for a small sample. The procedure was presented in the 2005 Advisory Committee Meeting of Pharmaceutical Science and later published in the Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics (Tsong et al., 2008). This proposed procedure controls the probability of the product delivering below a pre-specified effective dose and the probability of the product delivering over a pre-specified safety dose. In this article, we further propose an extension of the TOSTI procedure to single-tier procedure with any number of canisters.

  11. A Novel Immunoassay Test System for Detection of Modified Allergen Residues Present in Almond-, Cashew-, Coconut-, Hazelnut-, and Soy-Based Nondairy Beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiri, Jongkit; Benoit, Lora; Meshgi, Mahzad; Day, Jeffrey; Nadala, Cesar; Samadpour, Mansour

    2016-09-01

    A growing number of plant-based milk substitutes have become commercially available, providing an array of options for consumers with dietary restrictions. Though several of these products rival cow's milk in terms of their nutritional profiles, beverages prepared with soy and tree nuts can be a significant concern to consumers because of potential contamination with food allergens. Adding to this concern is the fact that allergen residues from plant-based beverages are modified during manufacturing, thereby decreasing the sensitivity of antibody-based detection methods. Consequently, many commercially available allergen detection kits are less effective for allergens derived from nondairy milk substitutes. To address this limitation, we developed a panel of polyclonal antibodies directed against the modified proteins present in almond, cashew, coconut, hazelnut, and soy milks and incorporated them into rapid lateral flow immunoassay tests configured in both sandwich and competitive format. The tests had robust detection capabilities when used with a panel of various brand-name products, with a sensitivity of 1 ppm and selectivity values of 3 to 5 ppm in nondairy beverages. Minimal cross-reactivity to extracts prepared from common commodities was observed. The development of a highly sensitive and rapid test specifically designed to detect trace quantities of highly modified allergen residues in plant-based, dairy-free beverages will aid food manufacturers and regulatory agencies in monitoring products for these modified allergens when testing environmental and food samples.

  12. Evaluation of endogenous allergens for the safety evaluation of genetically engineered food crops: review of potential risks, test methods, examples and relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Richard E; Panda, Rakhi; Ariyarathna, Harsha

    2013-09-04

    The safety of food produced from genetically engineered (GE) crops is assessed for potential risks of food allergy on the basis of an international consensus guideline outlined by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (2003). The assessment focuses on evaluation of the potential allergenicity of the newly expressed protein(s) as the primary potential risk using a process that markedly limits risks to allergic consumers. However, Codex also recommended evaluating a second concern, potential increases in endogenous allergens of commonly allergenic food crops that might occur due to insertion of the gene. Unfortunately, potential risks and natural variation of endogenous allergens in non-GE varieties are not understood, and risks from increases have not been demonstrated. Because regulatory approvals in some countries are delayed due to increasing demands for measuring endogenous allergens, we present a review of the potential risks of food allergy, risk management for food allergy, and test methods that may be used in these evaluations. We also present new data from our laboratory studies on the variation of the allergenic lipid transfer protein in non-GE maize hybrids as well as data from two studies of endogenous allergen comparisons for three GE soybean lines, their nearest genetic soy lines, and other commercial lines. We conclude that scientifically based limits of acceptable variation cannot been established without an understanding of natural variation in non-GE crops. Furthermore, the risks from increased allergen expression are minimal as the risk management strategy for food allergy is for allergic individuals to avoid consuming any food containing their allergenic source, regardless of the crop variety.

  13. Contact allergy to allergens of the TRUE-test (panels 1 and 2) has decreased modestly in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T; Nielsen, N H; Johansen, J D

    2009-11-01

    The prevalence of contact allergy in the general population is nearly 20%. This study aimed to monitor the development of contact allergy to allergens from the TRUE-test (panels 1 and 2) between 1990 and 2006. Two random samples of adults from the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark, were invited to participate in a general health examination including patch testing. In 1990 and 2006, we patch tested and questioned 543 and 3460 adult Danes. Patch test readings were performed on day 2 only. The overall prevalence decreased significantly from 15.5% in 1990 to 10.0% in 2006, mainly as a result of a decrease in thimerosal allergy from 3.4% to 0.8%. Furthermore, the prevalence of cobalt allergy and rubber-related allergens decreased from 1.1% to 0.2% and from 1.5% to 0.2%, respectively. Stratification by sex and age group revealed decreasing prevalences of contact allergy in all male age groups and in young and middle-aged female age groups (18-55 years) whereas increasing prevalences were observed among older women (56-69 years). The diverging trend observed in women was probably explained by a cohort effect due to a change in the prevalence of nickel allergy following the Danish regulation on nickel exposure. Although the overall prevalence of contact allergy decreased in the general population, frequent contact allergens such as fragrance mix II and methyldibromo glutaronitrile were not tested. Thus, contact allergy remains prevalent in the general population.

  14. Association Between Aeroallergens and Allergic Diseases Based on Skin Prick Test in Bushehr Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Moradi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of allergic diseases is growing in the world and Iran. Allergens play an important role in creating these diseases. Since inhalation allergens are an important part of these allergens the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of aeroallergens and their association with allergic diseases based on skin prick test (SPT. Material and Methods: In this study, the frequency of these allergens were examined by using 22 aeroallergens and based on Skin Prick Test in 1100 patients with allergic diseases who referred to Shohadaye- Khalije- Fars university hospital. Results: The reaction severity of SPT and the severity of disease associated with inhaled allergens with Russian thistle (21.1%, P꞊0.001, Chenopodium album pollen (14%, P꞊0.001 and Dermatophagoid Pteronyssinus (9%, P꞊0.001 respectively. Also, in these patients, the frequency of inhalation allergens were House Dust Mite (HDM (69%, feather (60.8%, Russian this tle (59.9% pollen and Alternaria mold (59.6% respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated that outdoors inhaled allergens  such as Russian thistle and Chenopodium album pollen have the most allergenicity in patients with allergic and asthma in Bushehr province, Meanwhile, the prevalence of indoor aeroallergens such as HDM, feather and mold were high in these patients.

  15. Nasal provocation test using allergen extract versus cold dry air provocation test: which and when?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hyo; Jang, Tae Young

    2013-01-01

    Nasal provocation tests (NPTs) are useful for evaluation of patients with allergic rhinitis. The cold dry air (CDA) provocation test is useful for evaluation of patients with nonspecific nasal hyperreactivity (NHR). This study aimed to determine whether the NPT or CDA provocation would be more useful for patients with different clinical pictures. We evaluated changes in nasal symptoms (visual analog scale [VAS]) and acoustic parameters after NPT or CDA provocation in healthy volunteers (group A, n = 27), patients with allergic rhinitis (group B, n = 20), and subjects with nonallergic rhinitis (group C, n = 26). According to their subjective cold hyperresponsiveness (SCH), we compared changes in VAS and acoustic parameters after each protocol. The correlation between results of the skin-prick test (SPT) and changes in VAS after each protocol was analyzed. Finally, we performed an analysis of correlation between NPT and CDA provocation. After NPT, group B showed a larger change in VAS for rhinorrhea, sneezing, and itching (p < 0.01). After CDA challenge, the change in VAS for nasal obstruction was larger in group C (p < 0.05). Changes in acoustic parameters were larger in groups B and C after NPT (p < 0.01). After CDA challenge, the SCH(+) group (n = 49) showed a larger decrease of acoustic parameters than the SCH(-) group (n = 24; p < 0.01). Significant correlation was observed between the size of SPT and degree of change in VAS after NPT. No significant correlation was observed between NPT and CDA. CDA could be an adjunct tool for evaluating NHR in patients with self-reported SCH.

  16. Trends in patch-test results and allergen changes in the standard series: a Mayo Clinic 5-year retrospective review (January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Ashley B; Yiannias, James A; Keeling, James H; Hall, Matthew R; Camilleri, Michael J; Drage, Lisa A; Torgerson, Rochelle R; Fett, Debra D; Prakash, Amy V; Scalf, Leigh Ann; Allen, Eve M; Johnson, Janis S; Singh, Nidhi; Nordberg Linehan, Diane L; Killian, Jill M; Davis, Mark D P

    2014-02-01

    Patch testing is essential for identification of culprits causing allergic contact dermatitis. We sought to identify trends and allergen changes in our standard series during 2006 to 2010, compared with our previous report (2001-2005). We conducted a retrospective review of patch-test results. A total of 3115 patients were tested with a mean of 73.0 allergens. Since our prior report, 8 allergens were added to the standard series; 14 were deleted. Significantly higher rates of allergic positive reaction were documented for carba mix, 3%, and Disperse Orange 3, 1%. Rates were lower for 10 allergens: neomycin sulfate, 20%; gold sodium thiosulfate, 0.5%; hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)triazine, 1%; disperse blue 124, 1%; disperse blue 106, 1%; diazolidinyl urea, 1%; hexylresorcinol, 0.25%; diazolidinyl urea, 1% aqueous; 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, 0.25%; and lidocaine, 5%. Many final patch-test readings for many allergens were categorized as mild reactions (erythema only). Overall allergenicity and irritancy rates declined significantly since our prior report. Results were generally comparable with those in a North American Contact Dermatitis Group report from 2005 to 2006. This was a retrospective study; there is a lack of long-term follow-up. Since our previous report, our standard series composition has changed, and overall rates of allergenicity and irritancy have decreased. Notably, many final patch-test readings showed mild reactions. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Skin prick testing to food allergens in breast-fed young infants with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennick, Gordon J; Moore, Elizabeth; Orchard, David C

    2006-02-01

    SUMMARY The role of food allergy in atopic dermatitis is controversial. This study presents results of skin prick tests to 31 different food allergens in a selected population of predominantly breast-fed young infants who had moderate to severe generalized atopic dermatitis. Of the 59 infants (22 female, mean age 26.5 weeks) tested, 54 infants (91.5%) had positive responses to one or more foods, 53 infants (90%) were positive to one or more of the five common food allergens (egg white, cow's milk, peanuts, wheat or soy) and 80% were positive to egg white, which was by far the most common positive test. A total of 37 infants had strongly positive responses to one or more foods, with 33 of these 37 having strongly positive responses to egg white. The significance of these responses is discussed. It is concluded that positive skin prick tests to foods, particularly to egg white, are very common in this selected population of breast-fed infants with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis.

  18. The influence of digestibility on the allergenicity of food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by the food allergens. One of the features believed...... potential exist. Resistance to digestion is therefore a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. In recent years, the association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has been challenged. When reviewing...... existing data from digestibility studies on known food allergens, it becomes evident that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. However, the choice of assay conditions, the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof greatly influences the outcome. Studies...

  19. Resolution of methamphetamine stereoisomers in urine drug testing: urinary excretion of R(-)-methamphetamine following use of nasal inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, R L; Ramos, J M; Bogema, S C; Poklis, A

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether R(-)-methamphetamine inhaled from nasal inhalers produces positive methamphetamine results in currently used urine drug screening procedures and to present a rapid method for distinguishing the optical isomers of methamphetamine. Urine from three subjects inhaling from a Vicks Nasal Inhaler every 20 min for six hours tested positive for methamphetamine by EMIT, Toxilab, TDx, and GC/MS. The chiral derivatizing reagent N-trifluoroacetyl-L-prolyl chloride (L-TPC) was used to form methamphetamine diastereomers allowing rapid identification of each stereoisomer of methamphetamine present in the urine samples. Urine samples positive for amphetamines during routine drug screening were determined to consist of a racemic mixture of methamphetamine. The isomeric composition of methamphetamine present in a urine sample indicates the probable source of the drug.

  20. Testing Dust Control Preparation with Respect to Mine Employee Exposure to Inhalling Chemical Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Orszulik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of tests used in dust hazard prevention for air-water spraying devices in collieries. The purpose of the tests was to evaluate mine employees’ exposure to inhalling chemical agents when the ZWILKOP ZW-10 preparation is used. The paper presents the results of the measurements of concentration, in a mine atmosphere, of the following chemical agents: hazardous substances 2-(2-butoxyethoxyethanol and 2-ethylhexan-1-ol, constituting ingredients of the preparation at mine employees’ workstations. The tests were performed during work related to the mining of coal in inclined drift C31, seam 415/1-2 on the premises of “Borynia-Zofiówka-Jastrzębie” Hard Coal Mine, Jastrzębie-Zdrój, Poland, using the TELESTO mist systems. Using aqueous solutions for the preparation at concentrations of 15 and 20‰ causes no exceedance of the allowable mine air concentrations for the chemical agents tested.

  1. Ingestive and inhalative allergy to the mushroom Boletus edulis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torricelli, R; Johansson, S G; Wüthrich, B

    1997-07-01

    This is the first report on inhalative and ingestive allergy to the common edible mushroom Boletus edulis (Be) (English, edible boletus; German, Steinpilz; French, bolet; Italian, porcino or boleto) belonging to the class Basidiomycetes. Four cases observed in our allergy unit are presented, showing different clinical manifestations of this rare allergy: as an occupational problem or life-threatening anaphylactic reactions after eating Be. In all cases, skin prick-to-prick tests with raw Be were strongly positive: in three cases, specific IgE against Be could be found. The symptoms were reproducible after an inhalation challenge test. It is noteworthy that not only can Basidiomycetes cause airborne allergy but also that edible mushrooms from this class can cause inhalative and intestinal allergy. The two patients with strong anaphylactic reactions demonstrate that Be may have great allergenic potential.

  2. Identification of Aspergillus (A. flavus and A. niger) Allergens and Heterogeneity of Allergic Patients' IgE Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermani, Maansi; Vijayan, Vannan Kandi; Agarwal, Mahendra Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Aspergillus species (A. flavus and A. niger) are important sources of inhalant allergens. Current diagnostic modalities employ crude Aspergillus extracts which only indicate the source to which the patient has been sensitized, without identifying the number and type of allergens in crude extracts. We report a study on the identification of major and minor allergens of the two common airborne Aspergillus species and heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to them. Skin prick tests were performed on 300 patients of bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and 20 healthy volunteers. Allergen specific IgE in patients' sera was estimated by enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST). Immunoblots were performed to identify major/minor allergens of Aspergillus extracts and to study heterogeneity of patients'IgE response to them. Positive cutaneous responses were observed in 17% and 14.7% of patients with A. flavus and A. niger extracts, respectively. Corresponding EAST positivity was 69.2% and 68.7%. In immunoblots, 5 allergenic proteins were identified in A. niger extract, major allergens being 49, 55.4 and 81.5 kDa. Twelve proteins bound patients' IgE in A. flavus extract, three being major allergens (13.3, 34 and 37 kDa). The position and slopes of EAST binding and inhibition curves obtained with individual sera varied from patient to patient. The number and molecular weight of IgE-binding proteins in both the Aspergillus extracts varied among patients. These results gave evidence of heterogeneity of patients' IgE response to major/minor Aspergillus allergens. This approach will be helpful to identify disease eliciting molecules in the individual patients (component resolved diagnosis) and may improve allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  3. Inhaled Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medications Long-Term Control Medications Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...

  4. Contact allergy to acrylates/methacrylates in the acrylate and nail acrylics series in southern Sweden: simultaneous positive patch test reaction patterns and possible screening allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teik-Jin Goon, Anthony; Bruze, Magnus; Zimerson, Erik; Goh, Chee-Leok; Isaksson, Marléne

    2007-07-01

    In a recent study we showed that all our dental personnel/patients were detected with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) and 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy)phenyl]propane (bis-GMA). We studied 90 patients tested to the acrylate and nail acrylics series at our department over a 10 year period to see whether screening allergens could be found. Patch testing with an acrylate and nail acrylics series was performed. Among the 10 acrylate/methacrylate-allergic occupational dermatitis patients tested to the acrylate series, the most common allergens were triethyleneglycol diacrylate (TREGDA, 8), diethyleneglycol diacrylate (5), and 1,4-butanediol diacrylate (BUDA, 5). All 10 of these patients would have been picked up by a short screening series combining TREGDA, 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (2-HPMA), and BUDA or 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA). Among the 14 acrylate/methacrylate-allergic nail patients, the most common allergens were ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA, 11), 2-HEMA, (9), and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (9). Screening for 3 allergens i.e. 2-HEMA plus EGDMA plus TREGDA, would have detected all 14 nail patients. A short screening series combining 2-HEMA, EGDMA, TREGDA, 2-HPMA, bis-GMA, and BUDA or HDDA would have picked up all our past study patients (dental, industrial, and nail) with suspected allergy to acrylate/methacrylate allergens.

  5. Effect of exposure and sensitization to indoor allergens on asthma control level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Toshihiro; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Akemi; Taniguchi, Masami; Akiyama, Kazuo; Tsuchiya, Tomoyoshi; Suda, Takafumi; Chida, Kingo

    2012-03-01

    Reducing risk factors, such as exposure to allergens, and stepwise pharmacotherapy to achieve and maintain control of asthma are the mainstay of asthma care. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of exposure and sensitization to indoor allergens, including house dust mites, cats, and dogs, on the asthma control level. Dust samples were collected from the mattresses of 101 adult asthma patient homes and the Dermatophagoides mite group 1 (Der 1), Fel d 1, and Can f 1 concentrations were measured using ELISA. Sensitization was determined by positive specific IgE antibodies. The Asthma Control Test (ACT), lowest peak expiratory flow (PEF) during 1 week expressed as a percentage of the highest PEF (Min%Max PEF), and spirometry were measured for the assessment of asthma control. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the relationships. Sixty-nine patients were exposed to high levels (>10μg/g dust for Der 1 and Can f 1 and >8μg/g dust for Fel d 1) of 1 or more allergens and 39 patients were sensitized to at least one allergen. Multivariate logistic regression analyses revealed that the FEV(1) (% of predicted value) was associated with low ACT scores (≤19) and that the number of highly exposed allergens and inhaled corticosteroid dose were associated with a low level of Min%Max PEF (allergens, but not sensitization, is associated with the asthma control level determined by PEF variation.

  6. Outdoor allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, H A; Rogers, C A

    2000-01-01

    Outdoor allergens are an important part of the exposures that lead to allergic disease. Understanding the role of outdoor allergens requires a knowledge of the nature of outdoor allergen-bearing particles, the distributions of their source, and the nature of the aerosols (particle types, sizes, dynamics of concentrations). Primary sources for outdoor allergens include vascular plants (pollen, fern spores, soy dust), and fungi (spores, hyphae). Nonvascular plants, algae, and arthropods contribute small numbers of allergen-bearing particles. Particles are released from sources into the air by wind, rain, mechanical disturbance, or active discharge mechanisms. Once airborne, they follow the physical laws that apply to all airborne particles. Although some outdoor allergens penetrate indoor spaces, exposure occurs mostly outdoors. Even short-term peak outdoor exposures can be important in eliciting acute symptoms. Monitoring of airborne biological particles is usually by particle impaction and microscopic examination. Centrally located monitoring stations give regional-scale measurements for aeroallergen levels. Evidence for the role of outdoor allergens in allergic rhinitis is strong and is rapidly increasing for a role in asthma. Pollen and fungal spore exposures have both been implicated in acute exacerbations of asthma, and sensitivity to some fungal spores predicts the existence of asthma. Synergism and/or antagonism probably occurs with other outdoor air particles and gases. Control involves avoidance of exposure (staying indoors, preventing entry of outdoor aerosols) as well as immunotherapy, which is effective for pollen but of limited effect for spores. Outdoor allergens have been the subject of only limited studies with respect to the epidemiology of asthma. Much remains to be studied with respect to prevalence patterns, exposure and disease relationships, and control. PMID:10931783

  7. Specific IgE Antibodies in Young Children with Atopic Dermatitis--Correlation of Multiple Allergen Simultaneous Immunoblot Test and ImmunoCap System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Ewa; Ceregra, Aldona; Maciorkowska, Elzbieta; Surowska, Barbara; Trojanowska, Ilona; Roszko-Kirpsza, Izabela; Cukrowska, Bozena

    2016-01-01

    Sensitization to food allergens is a common condition in pediatric atopic dermatitis (AD). Recently, the multiple allergen simultaneous test (MAST) allowing for a comprehensive assessment of atopy has been developed, but the usefulness in young AD children is not known. The aim of this study was to determine IgE specificity in AD children using MAST and to compare the results for selected food allergens with the reference ImmunoCap system. The study enrolled 50 children up to 2 years old with a diagnosis of AD. IgE antibodies were measured with the MAST-immunoblots. Children with specific IgE levels ≥ 0.35 kU/L were identified as sensitized to allergens. Most often children were sensitized to food allergens (egg white and yolk, hazelnuts, potato, cow's milk proteins, wheat flour, codfish, and soybean), but a high percentage of them also had IgE antibodies against house dust mites (12%), grass (10%), and birch (10%). Eight percent of children were sensitized to domestic animals (cats and dogs). Almost perfect (kappa index 0.8 - 1.0) and substantial (kappa index 0.6 - 0.8) agreement between MAST and ImmunoCap was found for food allergens except codfish. Pearson's analysis of antibody classes showed a very strong correlation between two methods (r = 0.8 - 1.0) for egg white, hazelnuts, potato, cow's milk proteins, wheat flour, and soybean, and a strong correlation (r = 0.6 - 0.79) was observed for peanut, egg yolk, and codfish. The study showed the frequent occurrence of IgE antibodies against food and airborne and animal allergens in young AD children and confirmed the usefulness of MAST-immunoblots for screening of sensitization in pediatric patients.

  8. Comparison of levocabastine, a new selective H1-receptor antagonist, and disodium cromoglycate, in a nasal provocation test with allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolly, M; Pécoud, A

    1986-10-01

    The effect of intranasal administration of levocabastine, a new selective H1-receptor antagonist, was investigated in a nasal provocation test (NPT) performed with allergens. The NPT allowed a quantitative estimation of the nasal allergic threshold (concentration of allergen necessary to trigger the reaction). In addition, the intensity of the three major rhinitis symptoms (obstruction, rhinorrhea and sneezing) was determined. Twelve adult patients, allergic to grass pollen, underwent a first NPT without pretreatment ('initial NPT'); the NPT was then repeated after the single intranasal administration of either placebo, 8 mg disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) or 0.2 mg levocabastine in a double-blind random order. The NPTs gave reproducible results since both the threshold and symptom intensities were similar in the initial NPT and in the NPT performed after placebo. The reaction threshold increased in 8/12 patients after DSCG (0.05 less than P less than 0.1) and in 9/12 patients after levocabastine (P less than 0.05). Levocabastine clearly inhibited rhinorrhea (P less than 0.001) and sneezing (P less than 0.02) but did not influence the nasal obstruction. DSCG inhibited rhinorrhea only (P less than 0.01). The intranasal administration of levocabastine might be useful in the treatment of allergic rhinitis.

  9. Objective measurement of inhaler inhalation flow profile using acoustic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacalle, H.; Taylor, T.E.; Marco, S.; Reilly, R.B.

    2016-07-01

    Patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are mostly treated with inhalers that deliver medication directly to their airways. Drug delivery from dry powder inhalers (DPIs) is very much reliant on the inhalation manoeuvre, specifically the peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR), inspiratory capacity (IC) and inhalation rise time (IRT) of the inhalation. It has been widely reported that patients may not follow correct inhalation technique while using their inhaler. In this study, a novel acoustic method is proposed to accurately estimate inhalation flow profile using only one inhalation recording for calibration. An Ellipta DPI was placed inside an airtight container with a spirometer connected in order to measure inhalation flow parameters. An acoustic recording device (Inhaler Compliance Assessment (INCA)) was also attached to the DPI. Inhalation audio and flow signals were recorded simultaneously. The data were collected from 20 healthy subjects while performing inhaler inhalations at a range of inspiratory flow rates. A power law regression model was computed to obtain the relationship between the acoustic envelope of the inhalation and flow profile of each recording. Each model was tested on the remaining audio signals to estimate flow profile. The average estimation error was found to be 10.5±0.3% for estimating flow profile from audio signals. Inhalation flow profile parameters (PIFR, IC and IRT) could then be measured from the estimated flow profile with high accuracy giving information on user inhalation technique. This method may assist in improving patient inhaler adherence and overall disease control. (Author)

  10. Dynamic Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Nasal Airflow Resistance during Nasal Allergen Provocation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiina M. Seppänen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis is a major chronic respiratory disease and an immunoneuronal disorder. We aimed at providing further knowledge on the function of the neural system in nasal allergic reaction. Here, a method to assess simultaneously the nasal airflow resistance and the underlying function of autonomic nervous system (ANS is presented and used during the nasal provocation of allergic and nonallergic subjects. Continuous nasal airflow resistance and spectral heart rate variability parameters show in detail the timing and intensity differences in subjects’ reactions. After the provocation, the nasal airflow resistance of allergic subjects showed a positive trend, whereas LF/HF (Low Frequency/High Frequency ratio and LF power showed a negative trend. This could imply a gradual sympathetic withdrawal in allergic subjects after the allergen provocation. The groups differed significantly by these physiological descriptors. The proposed method opens entirely new opportunities to research accurately concomitant changes in nasal breathing function and ANS.

  11. Ethylene Oxide: Acute Four-Hour and One-Hour Inhalation Toxicity Testing in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Snellings

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene oxide was tested on groups of rats for either 4-hour or 1-hour inhalation exposure, followed by 14 days of observation. Groups of five Sprague-Dawley rats/sex were exposed, and clinical signs and mortality were recorded. Clinical signs noted included irregular breathing, absence of certain reflexes, and tremors. Rats that died had moderate to severe pulmonary congestion. The calculated LC50 values, reported as ppm by volume (with 95% confidence limits, were as follows. 4-hour LC50 values were 1972 (1887 to 2061 ppm for males; 1537 (1391 to 1698 ppm for females; 1741 (1655 to 1831 ppm for the combined sexes. The 1-hour LC50 values were 5748 (5276 to 6262 ppm for males; 4439 (4034 to 4884 ppm for females; 5029 (4634 to 5459 ppm for the combined sexes.

  12. The Allergen Bank: a source of extra contact allergens for the dermatologist in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Rastogi, S C; Carlsen, L

    1996-01-01

    The Allergen Bank was established to give dermatologists easy access to special test materials in order to make early diagnoses of special cases of allergic contact dermatitis. The Allergen Bank comprises a computer system to register several hundred contact allergens in appropriate patch test co...

  13. Immunoblot and radioallergosorbent test inhibition studies of allergenic cross-reactivity of the predatory mite Amblyseius cucumeris with the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Nicolette W.; Groenewoud, Giséle C. M.; van Ree, Ronald; van Leeuwen, Astrid; Vermeulen, Ab M.; van Toorenenbergen, Albert W.; de Groot, Hans; van Wijk, Roy Gerth

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1999, an extensive study among bell pepper growers showed that a predatory mite, Amblyseius cucumeris, is a potentially relevant source of occupational allergens because 23% of the population had positive skin prick test reactions. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether cross-reactivity

  14. Discrepancies between the skin test and IgE antibody assays: study of histamine release, complement activation in vitro, and occurrence of allergen-specific IgG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, J. S.; de Groot, H.; van Swieten, P.; Jansen, H. M.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1988-01-01

    Intracutaneous skin tests (STs) and RAST with the common allergens, grass pollen, house dust mite, and cat dander, were performed on 660 adult patients. In 117 patients (18%), we found 140 discordances (7%) in a total number of 1980 ST and RAST combinations. In agreement with studies in the

  15. The risk of systemic reactions to skin prick-tests using food allergens: CICBAA data and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codreanu, F; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Morisset, M; Guénard, L; Rancé, F; Kanny, G; Lemerdy, Ph

    2006-02-01

    Prick-tests to foods are usually carried out as the first step in the diagnosis of food allergy. Severe anaphylaxis accounts for 4.9 % of allergies in children and occurs more frequently in adults, raising the possibility of systemic reactions to prick-tests in highly sensitized people. Several studies published in the literature have used commercial extracts. As for airborne allergens, concentrations causing a skin reaction of 15 mm do not present a risk of systemic reactions. Prick-tests to native foods--prick-in-prick tests--have been less extensively studied. The CICBAA1 data, from 1,138 food allergic patients of all ages, cover 34,905 prick-in-prick tests to foods. The wheal of these prick-tests has been regulary registered. The risk of systemic reactions can be evaluated at 0.008 %. There were no severe reactions and anti-histamine and corticosteroid therapy were sufficient. These results are similar to those of the large study in 2000 carried out by Devenney in neonates (0.005%). A review of the literature reveals only a few severe reactions in adults. The authors draw attention to the necessary precautions: temporary contra-indication for skin prick-tests in children and adults with grade 3 or 4 asthma, with particular attention to such foods as all kinds of nuts, fish, etc.

  16. Alternative acute inhalation toxicity testing by determination of the concentration-time-mortality relationship : experimental comparison with standard LC50 testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, A.; Arts, J.H.E.; Berge, W.F. ten; Appelman, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    A new design for acute inhalation toxicity testing was evaluated and compared with results obtained according to OECD guideline 403. The new design consists of a range-finding test, which is compatible with a conventional limit test, and can be followed by determination of a

  17. Screening for Compositae sensitization with pure allergens: implications of molecular structure, strength of reaction, and time of testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2011-01-01

    The sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix is the only commercial Compositae allergy screening agent that consists of pure allergens; its detection rate is lower than that of Compositae plant extracts.......The sesquiterpene lactone (SL) mix is the only commercial Compositae allergy screening agent that consists of pure allergens; its detection rate is lower than that of Compositae plant extracts....

  18. Innate immune responses to environmental allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, HF

    Aero-allergens, including plant pollens, house dust mite particles, fungal spores, and mycelium fragments, are continuously inhaled and deposited on the airway mucosa. These particles and their soluble components actively interact with innate recognition systems present in the mucosal layer (e.g.,

  19. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  20. Bronchial effects of leukotriene D4 inhalation in normal human lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Groth, S

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether inhaled leukotriene (LT) D4 could mimic the characteristics of asthmatic patients after allergen-induced attack, i.e. a prolonged subclinical bronchial obstruction, an increased reactivity of the airways and a late reaction. The effects of LTD4 were...... obstruction had decreased by 50% of the maximum effect, and no delayed reaction was observed within 10 h. The reactivity of the airways did not change during 10 h after inhalation of LTD4 as tested by repeated exercise challenges. Pretreatment with ipratropium bromide prevented the effect of LTD4 on FEV1, yet...

  1. Specific IgE and IgG measured by the MeDALL allergen-chip depend on allergen and route of exposure: The EGEA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siroux, Valérie; Lupinek, Christian; Resch, Yvonne; Curin, Mirela; Just, Jocelyne; Keil, Thomas; Kiss, Renata; Lødrup Carlsen, Karin; Melén, Erik; Nadif, Rachel; Pin, Isabelle; Skrindo, Ingebjørg; Vrtala, Susanne; Wickman, Magnus; Anto, Josep Maria; Valenta, Rudolf; Bousquet, Jean

    2017-02-01

    The nature of allergens and route and dose of exposure may affect the natural development of IgE and IgG responses. We sought to investigate the natural IgE and IgG responses toward a large panel of respiratory and food allergens in subjects exposed to different respiratory allergen loads. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 340 adults of the EGEA (Epidemiological study of the Genetics and Environment of Asthma, bronchial hyperresponsiveness and atopy) (170 with and 170 without asthma) cohort. IgE and IgG responses to 47 inhalant and food allergen components were analyzed in sera using allergen microarray and compared between 5 French regions according to the route of allergen exposure (inhaled vs food allergens). Overall 48.8% of the population had allergen-specific IgE levels of 0.3 ISAC standardized units (ISU) or more to at least 1 of the 47 allergens with no significant differences across the regions. For ubiquitous respiratory allergens (ie, grass, olive/ash pollen, house dust mites), specific IgE did not show marked differences between regions and specific IgG (≥0.5 ISU) was present in most subjects everywhere. For regionally occurring pollen allergens (ragweed, birch, cypress), IgE sensitization was significantly associated with regional pollen exposure. For airborne allergens cross-reacting with food allergens, frequent IgG recognition was observed even in regions with low allergen prevalence (Bet v 1) or for allergens less frequently recognized by IgE (profilins). The variability in allergen-specific IgE and IgG frequencies depends on exposure, route of exposure, and overall immunogenicity of the allergen. Allergen contact by the oral route might preferentially induce IgG responses. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. IgE-binding proliferative responses and skin test reactivity to Cop c 1, the first recombinant allergen from the basidiomycete Coprinus comatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brander, K A; Borbély, P; Crameri, R; Pichler, W J; Helbling, A

    1999-09-01

    Basidiomycetes spores are ubiquitously distributed, found throughout the year in outdoor and indoor air, and represent relevant sources of aeroallergens associated with allergy and asthma. Cloning and characterization of Coprinus comatus (shaggy cap mushroom) allergens is essential to elucidate their molecular characteristics and to improve the diagnosis of allergy. A complementary DNA (cDNA) library of C comatus displayed on phage surface was screened with sera of basidiomycete-sensitized individuals. Subcloning and high-level expression of one of the enriched cDNAs allowed the isolation of a [His](6)-tagged recombinant protein formally termed rCop c 1. The allergenic properties of rCop c 1 were investigated in vitro by ELISA, inhibition experiments, immunoblots, and proliferation assays and in vivo by skin tests. The rCop c 1-encoding cDNA spans 435 bp and contains an open reading frame of 246 bp, predicting a protein of 8.96 kd without significant sequence homology to known proteins. Immunoblots with [His](6)-rCop c 1 fusion protein show a background free IgE-binding band of the expected size that can be completely inhibited by crude C comatus extracts in ELISA. rCop c 1 induced specific proliferative responses in PBMCs of C comatus-sensitized individuals. The incidence of sensitization to rCop c 1 among 92 sera of basidiomycete-sensitized individuals tested in ELISA was 25%, indicating that Cop c 1 is an intermediate allergen. However, prick tests showed that less than 2 pmol of the rCop c 1 protein was able to induce strong specific skin reactions in sensitized individuals. rCop c 1, the first cloned allergen from the genus Coprinus, fulfills all the criteria required to be classified as a clinically relevant allergen. The data demonstrate at the molecular level the presence of sensitizing molecules among Basidiomycetes, the most important source contributing to the total spore load in the outdoor air.

  3. The Effect of Inhalation of Essential Oils of Polianthes Tuberosa on Test Anxiety in Students: A Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ghorat, Fereshteh; Shahrestani, Shamim; Tagabadi, Zahra; Bazghandi, Monir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Based on Iranian traditional medicine, the root cause of anxiety is due to the heart and brain diseases. The use of aromatic substances is one of the basic treatments for the heart and brain diseases in Iranian traditional medicine. Concerning the prevalence of test anxiety among students, this study was conducted to determine the effect of inhalation of essential oils of Polianthes tuberosa on test anxiety among students of Farzanegan high school in Sabzevar during 2015. Methods:...

  4. Results of patch testing to personal care product allergens in a standard series and a supplemental cosmetic series: an analysis of 945 patients from the Mayo Clinic Contact Dermatitis Group, 2000-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, David A; Yiannias, James A; Prakash, Amy V; Davis, Mark D P; Farmer, Sara A; el-Azhary, Rokea A

    2010-11-01

    Patch testing to a standard screening series of allergens in combination with supplemental cosmetic allergens is often used to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis due to personal care products. To report results of patch testing to skin care product allergens contained in a standard series and a supplemental cosmetic series and to compare efficacy of this combined series in detecting positive reactions to personal care product allergens with the efficacy of various standard screening series. Positive reaction rates to skin care product allergens were tabulated for patients who underwent patch testing to both standard and cosmetic series allergens at Mayo Clinic between 2000 and 2007. Data were compared with skin care allergens detected on standard screening series, including the thin-layer rapid use epicutaneous (TRUE) test. Of 945 patch-tested patients, 68.4% had at least one positive reaction and 47.3% had at least two positive reactions. Also, 49.4% of patients reacted to at least one preservative; 31.2% reacted to at least one fragrance/botanical additive. Compared with use of our standard series and cosmetic series, use of the TRUE test would have missed 22.5% of patients with preservative allergy, 11.3% with fragrance/botanical allergy, and 17.3% with vehicle allergy. Various allergens tested over time, patch test reading by residents, and lack of confirmation of allergen in personal care products. Standard patch-test screening series miss a substantial number of patients with skin care product ingredient allergy. Copyright © 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of sensitization to the predatory mite Amblyseius cucumeris as a new occupational allergen in horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewoud, G C M; de Graaf in 't Veld, C; vVan Oorschot-van Nes, A J; de Jong, N W; Vermeulen, A M; van Toorenenbergen, A W; Burdorf, A; de Groot, H; Gerth van Wijk, R

    2002-07-01

    Protection against thrips, a common pest in bell pepper horticulture is effectively possible without pesticides by using the commercially available predatory mite Amblyzeius cucumeris (Ac). The prevalence of sensitization to Ac among exposed greenhouse employees and its clinical relevance was studied. Four hundred and seventytwo employees were asked to fill in a questionnaire and were tested on location. Next to RAST, skin prick tests (SPTs) were performed with common inhalant allergens, the storage mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Tp) which serves as a temporary food source during the cultivation process and Ac. Furthermore, nasal challenge tests with Ac were carried out in 23 sensitized employees. SPTs positive to Ac were found in 109 employees (23%). Work-related symptoms were reported by 76.1%. Sensitization to Tp was found in 62 employees of whom 48 were also sensitized to Ac. Immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated allergy to inhalant allergens appeared to be an important risk factor for sensitization to Ac. Employees with rhinitis symptoms showed a significantly higher response to all Ac doses during the nasal challenge test compared with employees without rhinitis symptoms. The predatory mite Ac is a new occupational allergen in horticulture which can cause an IgE-mediated allergy in exposed employees. It is biologically active on the mucous membranes of the nose and therefore clinically relevant for the development of work-related symptoms.

  6. Prevalences of positive skin test responses to 10 common allergens in the US population: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbes, Samuel J; Gergen, Peter J; Elliott, Leslie; Zeldin, Darryl C

    2005-08-01

    Allergy skin tests were administered in the second and third National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES II and III) conducted in the United States from 1976 through 1980 and 1988 through 1994, respectively. This study estimated positive skin test response rates in NHANES III and identified predictors of one or more positive test responses. Comparisons with NHANES II were also made. In NHANES III, 10 allergens and 2 controls were tested in all subjects aged 6 to 19 years and a random half-sample of subjects aged 20 to 59 years. A wheal-based definition of a positive test response was used. In NHANES III, 54.3% of the population had positive test responses to 1 or more allergens. Prevalences were 27.5% for dust mite, 26.9% for perennial rye, 26.2% for short ragweed, 26.1% for German cockroach, 18.1% for Bermuda grass, 17.0% for cat, 15.2% for Russian thistle, 13.2% for white oak, 12.9% for Alternaria alternata, and 8.6% for peanut. Among those with positive test responses, the median number of positive responses was 3.0. Adjusted odds of a positive test response were higher for the following variables: age of 20 to 29 years, male sex, minority race, western region, old homes, and lower serum cotinine levels. For the 6 allergens common to NHANES II and III, prevalences were 2.1 to 5.5 times higher in NHANES III. The majority of the US population represented in NHANES III was sensitized to 1 or more allergens. Whether the higher prevalences observed in NHANES III reflect true changes in prevalence or methodological differences between the surveys cannot be determined with certainty.

  7. Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015 in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested during the last five-year period. As expected, fragrance materials, preservatives, and hair dyes were the most frequent culprits, but a great variety of other allergenic ingredients were involved as well. This underlines the need of additional and extensive patch testing with the patient’s products used and their ingredients.

  8. Investigation of the homogeneity of methacrylate allergens in commercially available patch test preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Kristian Fredløv; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Christensen, Lars Porskjaer

    2013-01-01

    The homogeneity of methacrylates in commercial patch test preparations has not yet been investigated. Inhomogeneous patch test preparations may give rise to false-negative or false-positive patch test results in patients suspected of having methacrylate allergy.......The homogeneity of methacrylates in commercial patch test preparations has not yet been investigated. Inhomogeneous patch test preparations may give rise to false-negative or false-positive patch test results in patients suspected of having methacrylate allergy....

  9. Food allergen analysis for processed food using a novel extraction method to eliminate harmful reagents for both ELISA and lateral-flow tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kaori; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Oyama, Yuriko; Tsuruma, Rieko; Saito, Eriko; Saito, Yoshikazu; Ozu, Takeshi; Honjoh, Tsutomu; Adachi, Reiko; Sakai, Shinobu; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Shoji, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is commonly used to determine food allergens in food products. However, a significant number of ELISAs give an erroneous result, especially when applied to highly processed food. Accordingly, an improved ELISA, which utilizes an extraction solution comprising the surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (SDS) and reductant 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), has been specially developed to analyze food allergens in highly processed food by enhancing analyte protein extraction. Recently, however, the use of 2-ME has become undesirable. In the present study, a new extraction solution containing a human- and eco-friendly reductant, which is convenient to use at the food manufacturing site, has been established. Among three chemicals with different reducing properties, sodium sulfite, tris(3-hydroxypropyl)phosphine, and mercaptoethylamine sodium sulfite was selected as a 2-ME substitute. The protein extraction ability of SDS/0.1 M sodium sulfite solution was comparable to that of SDS/2-ME solution. Next, the ELISA performance for egg, milk, wheat, peanut, and buckwheat was evaluated by using model-processed foods and commercially available food products. The data showed that the SDS/0.1 M sulfite ELISA significantly correlated with the SDS/2-ME ELISA for all food allergens examined (p food allergens in processed food, showing consistency with the SDS/0.1 M sulfite ELISA results. Accordingly, a harmonized analysis system for processed food comprising a screening LF test and a quantitative ELISA with identical extraction solution has been established. The ELISA based on the SDS/0.1 M sulfite extraction solution has now been authorized as the revised official method for food allergen analysis in Japan.

  10. EFFECTIVENESS OF TUBERCULOUS RECOMBINANT ALLERGEN SKIN TESTS FOR DETECTING TUBERCULOSIS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS OF MOSCOW IN 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Slogotskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Explanation. Mantoux test is used to detect the tuberculous infection; however, low specificity of this method results in a high rate of false positive responses due to cross-reactions of PPD (protein purified derivate antigens contained in many mycobacterial species and Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG strains. New drug Diaskintest (DST — recombinant protein CFP10-ESAT6 produced by Escherichia coli BL21(DE3/pCFP-ESAT proved to be the best acceptable diagnostic drug. The article was aimed at studying effectiveness of tuberculous recombinant allergen tests for detecting tuberculosis in the children and adolescents, who were registered in Moscow in 2013. Methods. Mantoux tests were used to examine 1,420,100 persons; positive reactions were observed in 1,020,000 children and adolescents (71,8%; 131,361 (12.9% of them were examined using DSTs. Results. Positive reactions to DST were observed in 3,304 persons (2.5% of the persons with positive reactions to Mantoux test. The tuberculosis detection rate among the persons with positive reactions to Mantoux tests using 2TU PPD-L (Leningrad Research Institute of Vaccines and Serums is 0.13%, among the persons with positive reactions to DSTs — 4.9%, i.e. 40 times more often (p = 0.000. Post-tuberculosis alterations were detected in 169 persons: in 0.13% of the persons with positive reactions to Mantoux tests using 2TU PPD-L and in 5.1% of the persons with positive reactions to DSTs (p = 0.000. Conclusion. Cohort studies conducted in Moscow demonstrated high effectiveness of Diaskintests for detecting tuberculosis in children and adolescents. High sensitivity of the method helps to detect the overwhelming majority of the persons with tuberculosis.

  11. [Are amylases in bakery products and flour potential food allergens?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Sander, I; Jansen, A; Czuppon, A B

    1994-05-21

    The enzyme alpha-amylase from the mould Aspergillus oryzae (Asp o II) routinely used for the production of bread, cakes and pastries has in recent years been identified as an inhalative allergen for occupational diseases (bakers' asthma). It is doubtful whether this amylase in the final product, i.e. after the baking procedure, can still be regarded as an allergen. To clarify this question, detailed case histories on 138 subjects were recorded (98 allergics, 20 patients suffering form chronic intestinal diseases, 20 healthy controls). The clinical examinations included prick skin test and IgE antibody determination using one of the customary enzyme preparations. EAST showed a few of these 138 bread consumers to be weakly sensitized to the enzyme. One of the subjects displayed a significant reaction to alpha-amylase heated to 200 degrees C. As expected, eleven bakers sensitized to alpha-amylase by inhaling it in the workplace (positive prick test, positive case history) predominantly exhibited specific IgE antibodies to the native enzyme. Apart from one weakly positive finding, heated alpha-amylase yielded negative results in this collective. Baking conditions vary widely, especially with regard to single components, temperature and duration. Thus, further investigations as to residual allergenicity or the feasible occurrence of new antigenic determinants during the production of bread, cake and pastries are required. 27% of bakers examined and 9% of atopics showed antibodies to a flour inherent enzyme, a beta-amylase. On the whole, the selected conditions hinted at a weakly sensitizing potential inherent in baking flour and in added amylase.

  12. Scavenger Receptors and Resistance to Inhaled Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    to show that tyrosine kinases, PKC, PI-3K and MAPKs are necessary for SR-mediated phagocytosis by MØ. The requirement for PI-3K and tyro - sine...treatment of MØ cell lines with soluble SR ligands results in the tyro - sine phosphorylation of Src kinases, PLCγ and PI-3K as well as a tyrosine kinase

  13. Risk of Unexpected Adverse Effects Resulting from the Use of a Skin Test with Recombinant Tuberculosis Allergen in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Kryvohizh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This report reviews clinical cases, and their possible causes of unexpected local and systemic adverse effects associated with a novel skin test using recombinant tuberculosis allergen (RTA, Diaskintest in 2—11 years old children. This preparation consists of a M. tuberculosis ESAT6/CFP10 fusion protein produced in E. coli, and, in Russia, it has been used as a tool for preventive screening for tuberculosis since 2009. The most common side effects developed within 1 to 12 h after injection and were represented as local or non-life threatening systemic symptoms: fever up to 39°C lasting up to 24 h, painful excessive edema with reddening on the forearm, and, sometimes herpes-like blisters on the skin. In 72 h, the papula at the injection site was moderate, but the hyperemia around it was considerable. We argue that the most likely reason for this type of response could be the development of Type III hypersensitivity (associated with immune complexes, and/or antibody-independent anaphylactoid response to the ESAT6/CFP10 protein or contaminating bacterial culture components. To prevent possible side effects, we recommend to observe the patients for not less than 15 min after the injection of RTA, and to be ready to respond in case of anaphylaxis development.

  14. Sensibilização a alérgenos inalantes e alimentares em crianças brasileiras atópicas, pela determinação in vitro de IgE total e específica: Projeto Alergia (PROAL Sensitization to inhalant and food allergens in Brazilian atopic children by in vitro total and specific IgE assay: Allergy Project - PROAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles K. Naspitz

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a freqüência de sensibilização a alérgenos inalantes e alimentares em crianças atendidas em serviços brasileiros de alergia. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: IgE sérica total e específica (RAST a alérgenos inalantes e alimentares (UniCAP® - Pharmacia foram determinados em 457 crianças acompanhadas em serviços de alergia pediátrica e em um grupo de controles (n = 62. Resultados classe igual ou maior que 1 foram considerados positivos (R+. RESULTADOS: A freqüência de R+ foi significantemente maior entre os atópicos (361/457, 79% quando comparados aos controles (16/62, 25,8%. Não houve diferenças quanto ao sexo. A prevalência de R+ entre os atópicos foi significantemente maior para todos os alérgenos avaliados. Os níveis séricos de IgE total foram significantemente mais elevados entre os atópicos com R+ quando comparados aos com R-. Comparando-se atópicos e controles, a freqüência de R+ para os principais alérgenos inalantes foi como segue: D. pteronyssinus = 66,7 versus 14,5% (p OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of sensitization to inhalant and food allergens in children seen at Brazilian allergy services. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Total and specific IgE serum levels to inhalant and food allergens (RAST, UniCAP® - Pharmacia were measured in 457 children accompanied in pediatric allergy services and in 62 control children age matched. RAST equal or higher than class 1 was considered as positive (R+. RESULTS: Frequency of R+ was significantly higher among atopics (361/457, 79% when compared to controls (16/62, 25.8%. There were no differences according to gender. The frequency of R+ to all allergens evaluated were higher among atopics when compared to controls. Significantly higher total IgE serum levels were observed among the atopics with R+ in comparison to those with R-. The frequency of R+ to main inhalant allergens were: D. pteronyssinus = 66.7% x 14.5% (p < 0.05, D. farinae = 64.5% x 17.8% (p < 0.05, B

  15. The Effect of Inhalation of Essential Oils of Polianthes Tuberosa on Test Anxiety in Students: A Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorat, Fereshteh; Shahrestani, Shamim; Tagabadi, Zahra; Bazghandi, Monir

    2016-05-01

    Based on Iranian traditional medicine, the root cause of anxiety is due to the heart and brain diseases. The use of aromatic substances is one of the basic treatments for the heart and brain diseases in Iranian traditional medicine. Concerning the prevalence of test anxiety among students, this study was conducted to determine the effect of inhalation of essential oils of Polianthes tuberosa on test anxiety among students of Farzanegan high school in Sabzevar during 2015. This was a randomized clinical trial, in which 54 students with eligibility criteria were randomly divided into the intervention and control groups. In the pre-test stage, demographic data and Sarason anxiety questionnaires were filled by all students (7th grade). Then, in the intervention stage, students of the intervention group inhaled Tuberose oil using handkerchiefs smeared with Tuberose oil for 15-20 minutes during the exam. The control group received placebo with the same method. At the end of the exam, test anxiety questionnaire was filled by the two groups again. The collected data were analyzed by the statistical tests (i.e. χ2, paired t-test and independent sample t-test) using SPSS 18. Independent t-test showed a significant difference in the mean scores of test anxiety after intervention between the two groups of study and control (PPolianthes tuberosa was effective in reducing test anxiety among students. It is recommended to conduct educational programs concerning this method in schools to decrease the test anxiety of students.

  16. Contact allergy to (meth)acrylates in the dental series in southern Sweden: simultaneous positive patch test reaction patterns and possible screening allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goon, Anthony T J; Isaksson, Marléne; Zimerson, Erik; Goh, Chee Leok; Bruze, Magnus

    2006-10-01

    Contact allergy to dental allergens is a well-studied subject, more so among dental professionals than dental patients. 1632 subjects had been patch tested to either the dental patient series or dental personnel series at the department of Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Malmö, Sweden. Positive patch tests to (meth)acrylate allergens were seen in 2.3% (30/1322) of the dental patients and 5.8% (18/310) of the dental personnel. The most common allergen for both groups was 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), followed by ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate, and methyl methacrylate. 47 (29 dental patients and 18 dental personnel) out of these 48 had positive patch tests to 2-HEMA. All 30 subjects who had a positive reaction to EGDMA had a simultaneous positive reaction to 2-HEMA. One dental patient reacted only to 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]propane (bis-GMA). From our data, screening for (meth)acrylate contact allergy with 2-HEMA alone would have picked up 96.7% (29/30) of our (meth)acrylate-allergic dental patients and 100% (18/18) of our (meth)acrylate-allergic dental personnel. The addition of bis-GMA in dental patients would increase the pick-up rate to 100%.

  17. Allergic Contact Dermatitis to Ophthalmic Medications: Relevant Allergens and Alternative Testing Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Katherine R; Warshaw, Erin M

    Allergic contact dermatitis is an important cause of periorbital dermatitis. Topical ophthalmic agents are relevant sensitizers. Contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications can be challenging to diagnose and manage given the numerous possible offending agents, including both active and inactive ingredients. Furthermore, a substantial body of literature reports false-negative patch test results to ophthalmic agents. Subsequently, numerous alternative testing methods have been described. This review outlines the periorbital manifestations, causative agents, and alternative testing methods of allergic contact dermatitis to ophthalmic medications.

  18. Association between pet ownership and the sensitization to pet allergens in adults with various allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Bum; Mo, Eun-Kyung; Lee, Jae-Young; Kim, Joo-Hee; Kim, Cheol-Hong; Hyun, In-Gyu; Choi, Jeong-Hee

    2013-09-01

    As pet ownership increases, sensitization to animal allergens due to domestic exposure is a concern. Sensitization to animal allergens may occur from indirect exposure, as well as direct ownership of animals. However, there have been conflicting results regarding the association between pet ownership and sensitization to animal allergens in adults. In total, 401 patients with various allergic diseases were enrolled in this study. We performed skin prick tests with 55 common inhalant and food allergens, including dog, cat, and rabbit allergens. A mean wheal diameter of 3 mm or greater was considered a positive reaction. The exposure modality to each animal allergen was investigated using a questionnaire and included present ownership, past ownership, occupational exposure, occasional exposure, contact with pet owner, and no contact. Present ownership, past ownership, occupational, and occasional exposure were regarded as direct exposure. The sensitization rate for animal allergens was 20.4% for dog, 15.0% for cat, and 9.0% for rabbit. Direct exposure to dogs (72.0%) was significantly higher than that of other animals (18.4% for cats and 16.7% for rabbits), whereas 'no contact' with cats (78.3%) and rabbits (83.3%) was significantly higher than with dogs (26.8%; P<0.0001). Independent risk factors for sensitization to animal allergens were sensitization to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (OR=2.4, P=0.052), Dermatophagoides farinae (OR=5.1, P<0.001), cat (OR=4.4, P<0.0001), and direct exposure to dogs (OR=1.5, P=0.029) for dog, and sensitization to dog (OR=4.4, P<0.0001) and rabbit (OR=2.6, P=0.036) for cats. Finally, for rabbits, the independent risk factor was sensitization to Alternaria (OR=6.0, P<0.002). These results suggest that direct exposure to dogs contributes to the sensitization to dog allergens in patients with allergic diseases, whereas indirect exposure to cats and rabbits may induce sensitization to each animal's allergen.

  19. [Practice patterns in Mexican allergologists about skin tests with allergens during 2005-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larenas Linnemann, Désirée; Fogelbach, Guillermo Arturo Guidos; Cruz, Alfredo Arias

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapy has been practiced since over a hundred years. The exact composition of the immunotherapy concentrate, with which the patient is treated, depends partly on the results of the skin prick tests applied to the allergic patient. As such, the effectiveness of the immunotherapy depends heavily on the quality of the skin prick test. The detailed recommendations for the realization of the skin prick tests have evolved and changed over the years, leading to multiple variations in its application in Mexico. We tried to get a picture of the daily practice patterns of the members of CMICA and CoMPedIA concerning the application of skin prick tests. Aquestionnaire was sent in various occasions to all members of the Colegio Mexicano de Inmunologia Clinica y Alergia (CMICA) and of the Colegio Mexicano de Pediatras, Especialistas en Inmunologia y Alergia (CoMPedIA). The results are presented descriptively and by calculation of the frequency/percentages of intervals of replies, in the case of numerical responses. A response rate of 61 (17%) was obtained of the College members, showing consistency in some replies but a wide variation in others, for example in the time certain medication has to be suspended before the execution of the skin prick test. Comparing the replies obtained with recent recommendations in international publications, some discrepancy can be detected. In some aspects of the survey there is coincidence of the skin test practices among the participants; however, in other items there is an important variation.

  20. In vitro performance testing of the novel Medspray wet aerosol inhaler based on the principle of Rayleigh break-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Anne H; Wissink, Jeroen; Hagedoorn, Paul; Heskamp, Iwan; de Kruijf, Wilbur; Bünder, Ralf; Zanen, Pieter; Munnik, Paul; van Rijn, Cees; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2008-05-01

    A new inhaler (Medspray) for pulmonary drug delivery based on the principle of Rayleigh break-up has been tested with three different spray nozzles (1.5; 2.0 and 2.5 mum) using aqueous 0.1% (w/w) salbutamol and 0.9% (w/w) sodium chloride solutions. Particle size distributions in the aerosol were measured with the principles of time of flight (APS) and laser diffraction (LDA). The Medspray inhaler exhibits a highly constant droplet size distribution in the aerosol during dose emission. Droplets on the basis of Rayleigh break-up theory are monodisperse, but due to some coalescence the aerosols from the Medspray inhaler are slightly polydisperse. Mass median aerodynamic diameters at 60 l.min(-1) from APS are 1.42; 1.32 and 1.27 times the theoretical droplet diameters (TD's) and median laser diffraction diameters are 1.29; 1.14 and 1.05 times TD for 1.5; 2.0 and 2.5 mum nozzles (TD: 2.84; 3.78 and 4.73 mum respectively). The narrow particle size distribution in the aerosol from the Medspray is highly reproducible for the range of flow rates from 30 to 60 l.min(-1). The mass median aerodynamic droplet diameter can be well controlled within the size range from 4 to 6 mum at 60 l.min(-1).

  1. Food Allergens: Is There a Correlation between Stability to Digestion and Allergenicity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    and the method used for detection of residual intact protein as well as fragments hereof may greatly influence the outcome as well as the interpretation of results. The finding that digests from food allergens may retain allergenicity, stresses the importance of using immunological assays for evaluating......Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. It has not yet been established what makes a dietary protein a food allergen. Several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by food allergens. One of these is resistance to digestion....... This paper reviews data from digestibility studies on purified food allergens and evaluates the predictive value of digestibility tests on the allergenic potential. We point out that food allergens do not necessarily resist digestion. We discuss how the choice of in vitro digestibility assay condition...

  2. Sensitising capacity of peptides from food allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm

    potential exist. Resistance to digestion is for this reason a test parameter included in the safety assessment of the allergenic potential of novel proteins in genetically modified foods. The association between resistance to digestion and allergenic potential has though been challenged in recent years...... the immune system in one direction, other mixtures of peptides may guide the immune system in another direction. Together these results demonstrate that several characteristics of digestion products from food allergens may collectively contribute the allergenic potential, where more than just peptide sizes......Food allergy is a major health problem in the Western countries, affecting 3-8% of the population. What makes a dietary protein a food allergen has not yet been established, though several characteristics have been proposed to be shared by food allergens. One of the features believed...

  3. Rapid and sensitive detection of the food allergen glycinin in powdered milk using a lateral flow colloidal gold immunoassay strip test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Deng, Ruiguang; Zhang, Gaiping; Li, Qingmei; Yang, Jifei; Sun, Yaning; Li, Zhixi; Hu, Xiaofei

    2015-03-04

    A rapid immunochromatographic lateral flow test strip in a sandwich format was developed with the colloidal gold-labeled mouse antiglycinin monoclonal antibody (mAb) and rabbit antiglycinin polyclonal antibody (pAb) to specifically identify glycinin, a soybean allergen. The test strip is composed of a sample pad, a conjugate reagent pad, an absorbent pad, and a test membrane containing a control line and a test line. This test strip has high sensitivity, and results can be obtained within 10 min without sophisticated procedures. The limit of detection (LOD) of the test strip was calculated to be 0.69 mg/kg using an optical density scanner that measures relative optical density. The assay showed high specificity for glycinin, with no cross-reactions with other soybean proteins or other food allergens. The recoveries of the lateral flow test strip in detecting glycinin in powdered milk samples ranged between 80.5 and 89.9% with relative standard deviations of less than 5.29% (intra-assay) and 6.72% (interassay). Therefore, the test strip is useful as a quantitative, semiquantitative, or qualitative detection method for glycinin in powdered milk. In addition, the test strip can be used to detect glycinin in other processed foods and may be a valuable tool in identifying effective approaches for reducing the impact of glycinin.

  4. Search for Allergens from the Pollen Proteome of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.: A Major Sensitizer for Respiratory Allergy Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandini Ghosh

    Full Text Available Respiratory allergy triggered by pollen allergens is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Sunflower pollen is thought to be an important source of inhalant allergens. Present study aims to identify the prevalence of sunflower pollinosis among the Indian allergic population and characterizes the pollen allergens using immuno-proteomic tools.Clinico-immunological tests were performed to understand the prevalence of sensitivity towards sunflower pollen among the atopic population. Sera from selected sunflower positive patients were used as probe to detect the IgE-reactive proteins from the one and two dimensional electrophoretic separated proteome of sunflower pollen. The antigenic nature of the sugar moiety of the glycoallergens was studied by meta-periodate modification of IgE-immunoblot. Finally, these allergens were identified by mass-spectrometry.Prevalence of sunflower pollen sensitization was observed among 21% of the pollen allergic population and associated with elevated level of specific IgE and histamine in the sera of these patients. Immunoscreening of sunflower pollen proteome with patient sera detected seven IgE-reactive proteins with varying molecular weight and pI. Hierarchical clustering of 2D-immunoblot data highlighted three allergens characterized by a more frequent immuno-reactivity and increased levels of IgE antibodies in the sera of susceptible patients. These allergens were considered as the major allergens of sunflower pollen and were found to have their glycan moiety critical for inducing IgE response. Homology driven search of MS/MS data of these IgE-reactive proteins identified seven previously unreported allergens from sunflower pollen. Three major allergenic proteins were identified as two pectate lyases and a cysteine protease.Novelty of the present report is the identification of a panel of seven sunflower pollen allergens for the first time at immuno-biochemical and proteomic level, which substantiated the

  5. Search for Allergens from the Pollen Proteome of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): A Major Sensitizer for Respiratory Allergy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Nandini; Sircar, Gaurab; Saha, Bodhisattwa; Pandey, Naren; Gupta Bhattacharya, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory allergy triggered by pollen allergens is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Sunflower pollen is thought to be an important source of inhalant allergens. Present study aims to identify the prevalence of sunflower pollinosis among the Indian allergic population and characterizes the pollen allergens using immuno-proteomic tools. Clinico-immunological tests were performed to understand the prevalence of sensitivity towards sunflower pollen among the atopic population. Sera from selected sunflower positive patients were used as probe to detect the IgE-reactive proteins from the one and two dimensional electrophoretic separated proteome of sunflower pollen. The antigenic nature of the sugar moiety of the glycoallergens was studied by meta-periodate modification of IgE-immunoblot. Finally, these allergens were identified by mass-spectrometry. Prevalence of sunflower pollen sensitization was observed among 21% of the pollen allergic population and associated with elevated level of specific IgE and histamine in the sera of these patients. Immunoscreening of sunflower pollen proteome with patient sera detected seven IgE-reactive proteins with varying molecular weight and pI. Hierarchical clustering of 2D-immunoblot data highlighted three allergens characterized by a more frequent immuno-reactivity and increased levels of IgE antibodies in the sera of susceptible patients. These allergens were considered as the major allergens of sunflower pollen and were found to have their glycan moiety critical for inducing IgE response. Homology driven search of MS/MS data of these IgE-reactive proteins identified seven previously unreported allergens from sunflower pollen. Three major allergenic proteins were identified as two pectate lyases and a cysteine protease. Novelty of the present report is the identification of a panel of seven sunflower pollen allergens for the first time at immuno-biochemical and proteomic level, which substantiated the clinical evidence of

  6. Application of porous foams for size-selective measurements of airborne wheat allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogdanovic, J.; Pater, A.J. de; Doekes, G.; Wouters, I.M.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Exposure to airborne wheat allergen is a well-known cause of bakers' allergy and asthma. Airborne wheat allergen can be measured by enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) in extracts of inhalable dust samples, but only limited knowledge is available on the size distribution of wheat

  7. Immunological aspects of the immune response induced by mosquito allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantillo, José Fernando; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Puerta, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Allergies caused by mosquito bites may produce local or systemic reactions. The inhalation of mosquito allergens may also cause asthma and/or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in sensitized individuals. The mechanisms implicated in the development of these immune responses involve IgE antibodies, different subtypes of IgG and proinflammatory cytokines as well as basophils, eosinophils and mast cells. Several allergenic components have been identified in the saliva and bodies of mosquitoes and some of these are present in different mosquito species. The most common species implicated in allergic reactions belong to the genera Aedes, Culex and Anopheles. Several Aedes aegypti allergens have been cloned and sequenced. The recombinant molecules show IgE reactivity similar to that of the native allergens, making them good candidates for the diagnosis of mosquito allergies. Allergen-specific immunotherapy with mosquito extracts induces a protective response characterized by a decreased production of IgE antibodies, increased IgG levels, a reduction in the severity of cutaneous and respiratory symptoms and the need for medication. The aims of this review are to summarize the progress made in the characterization of mosquito allergens and discuss the types of immune responses induced by mosquito bites and the inhalation of mosquito allergens in atopic individuals. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Long-term repeatability of the skin prick test is high when supported by history or allergen-sensitivity tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, U; Jacobsen, C R; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2003-01-01

    Long-term reproducibility of the skin-prick test (SPT) has been questioned. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical relevance of SPT changes.......Long-term reproducibility of the skin-prick test (SPT) has been questioned. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical relevance of SPT changes....

  9. Allergen reduction measures in houses of allergic asthmatic patients : Effects of air-cleaners and allergen-impermeable mattress covers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderHeide, S; Kauffman, HF; Dubois, AEJ; deMonchy, JGR

    Recommendations for allergen avoidance or allergen reduction measures play an important part in the treatment of allergic asthmatic patients. The purpose of this study was to test recently developed air-cleaners with respect to their capacity to capture airborne allergen particles and to improve

  10. [Sensitisation profile to airborne allergens of patients followed for asthma in Cotonou, Benin. A cross-sectional study using prick-tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agodokpessi, G; Ade, G; Dovoedo, N; Ade, S; Wachinou, A P; Fayomi, B; Gninafon, M

    2015-11-01

    The sensitisation profile to airborne allergens of asthma patients followed in Benin is not known. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted from April to June 2013 at the hospital reference centre. A prick-test was performed in all adults with asthma consulting during this period. The standardized allergenic extracts tested were: mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [DP], Dermatophagoides farinae [DF] and Blomia tropicalis [BT]), cockroaches, 5 different grasses, Alternaria, dogs and cats. The test was positive when the diameter of the wheal was more than half that of the positive control and/or when the diameter of the wheal was ≥3mm than the negative control. Of the 253 asthmatics tested, 247 (97.6%) had at least one positive skin reaction. The average age was 44 years, the sex ratio was 0.81. Sensitization to mites was the most frequent (99.6%), followed by cockroaches (71.3%), 5 grasses (71.3%), Alternaria (71%), dog (68%) and cat (63.6%). The average number of sensitivities was 5±2. Asthmatics monitored in Cotonou have multiple sensitisations dominated by mites. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Rat inhalation test with particles from biomass combustion and biomass co-firing exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellmann, B.; Creutzenberg, O.; Ernst, H.; Muhle, H.

    2009-02-01

    The health effects of 6 different fly ash samples from biomass combustion plants (bark, wood chips, waste wood, and straw), and co-firing plants (coal, co-firing of coal and sawdust) were investigated in a 28-day nose-only inhalation study with Wistar WU rats. Respirable fractions of carbon black (Printex 90) and of titanium dioxide (Bayertitan T) were used as reference materials for positive and negative controls. The exposure was done 6 hours per day, 5 days per week at an aerosol concentration of 16 mg/m3. The MMAD of all fly ash samples and reference materials in the inhalation unit were in the range from 1.5 to 3 μm. The investigations focused predominantly on the analysis of inflammatory effects in the lungs of rats using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histopathology. Different parameters (percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), interleukin-8 and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue) indicating inflammatory effects in the lung, showed a statistically significant increase in the groups exposed to carbon black (positive control), C1 (coal) and C1+BM4 (co-firing of coal and sawdust) fly ashes. Additionally, for the same groups a statistically significant increase of cell proliferation in the lung epithelium was detected. No significant effects were detected in the animal groups exposed to BM1 (bark), BM2 (wood chips), BM3 (waste wood), BM6 (straw) or titanium dioxide.

  12. Rat inhalation test with particles from biomass combustion and biomass co-firing exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Bellmann; O. Creutzenberg; H. Ernst; H. Muhle [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The health effects of 6 different fly ash samples from biomass combustion plants (bark, wood chips, waste wood, and straw), and co-firing plants (coal, co-firing of coal and sawdust) were investigated in a 28-day nose-only inhalation study with Wistar WU rats. Respirable fractions of carbon black (Printex 90) and of titanium dioxide (Bayertitan T) were used as reference materials for positive and negative controls. The exposure was done 6 hours per day, 5 days per week at an aerosol concentration of 16 mg/m{sup 3}. The MMAD of all fly ash samples and reference materials in the inhalation unit were in the range from 1.5 to 3 {mu}m. The investigations focused predominantly on the analysis of inflammatory effects in the lungs of rats using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histopathology. Different parameters (percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), interleukin-8 and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue) indicating inflammatory effects in the lung, showed a statistically significant increase in the groups exposed to carbon black (positive control), C1 (coal) and C1+BM4 (co-firing of coal and sawdust) fly ashes. Additionally, for the same groups a statistically significant increase of cell proliferation in the lung epithelium was detected. No significant effects were detected in the animal groups exposed to BM1 (bark), BM2 (wood chips), BM3 (waste wood), BM6 (straw) or titanium dioxide. 7 refs., 2 tabs.

  13. Rat inhalation test with particles from biomass combustion and biomass co-firing exhaust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellmann, B; Creutzenberg, O; Ernst, H; Muhle, H, E-mail: bernd.bellmann@item.fraunhofer.d [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Nikolai-Fuchs-Str.1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)

    2009-02-01

    The health effects of 6 different fly ash samples from biomass combustion plants (bark, wood chips, waste wood, and straw), and co-firing plants (coal, co-firing of coal and sawdust) were investigated in a 28-day nose-only inhalation study with Wistar WU rats. Respirable fractions of carbon black (Printex 90) and of titanium dioxide (Bayertitan T) were used as reference materials for positive and negative controls. The exposure was done 6 hours per day, 5 days per week at an aerosol concentration of 16 mg/m{sup 3}. The MMAD of all fly ash samples and reference materials in the inhalation unit were in the range from 1.5 to 3 mum. The investigations focused predominantly on the analysis of inflammatory effects in the lungs of rats using bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and histopathology. Different parameters (percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), interleukin-8 and interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration in the lung tissue) indicating inflammatory effects in the lung, showed a statistically significant increase in the groups exposed to carbon black (positive control), C1 (coal) and C1+BM4 (co-firing of coal and sawdust) fly ashes. Additionally, for the same groups a statistically significant increase of cell proliferation in the lung epithelium was detected. No significant effects were detected in the animal groups exposed to BM1 (bark), BM2 (wood chips), BM3 (waste wood), BM6 (straw) or titanium dioxide.

  14. One-dimensional model for the intracranial pulse morphological analysis during hyperventilation and CO2 inhalation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jaiyoung; Hu, Xiao; Shadden, Shawn C.

    2015-11-01

    The brain's CO2 reactivity mechanism is coupled with cerebral autoregulation and other unique features of cerebral hemodynamics. We developed a one-dimensional nonlinear model of blood flow in the cerebral arteries coupled to lumped parameter (LP) networks. The LP networks incorporate cerebral autoregulation, CO2 reactivity, intracranial pressure, cerebrospinal fluid, and cortical collateral blood flow models. The model was used to evaluate hemodynamic variables (arterial deformation, blood velocity and pressure) in the cerebral vasculature during hyperventilation and CO2 inhalation test. Tests were performed for various arterial blood pressure (ABP) representing normal and hypotensive conditions. The increase of the cerebral blood flow rates agreed well with the published measurements for various ABP measurements taken during clinical CO2 reactivity tests. The changes in distal vasculature affected the reflected pulse wave energy, which caused the waveform morphological changes at the middle cerebral, common and internal carotid arteries. The pulse morphological analysis demonstrated agreement with previous clinical measurements for cerebral vasoconstriction and vasodilation.

  15. Diesel exhaust augments allergen-induced lower airway inflammation in allergic individuals: a controlled human exposure study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, Chris; Blomberg, Anders; Pui, Mandy; Sandstrom, Thomas; Wong, Sze Wing; Alexis, Neil; Hirota, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution has been shown to augment allergy and airway disease. However, the enhancement of allergenic effects by diesel exhaust in particular is unproven in vivo in the human lung, and underlying details of this apparent synergy are poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that a 2 h inhalation of diesel exhaust augments lower airway inflammation and immune cell activation following segmental allergen challenge in atopic subjects. 18 blinded atopic volunteers were exposed to filtered air or 300 µg PM(2.5)/m(3) of diesel exhaust in random fashion. 1 h post-exposure, diluent-controlled segmental allergen challenge was performed; 2 days later, samples from the challenged segments were obtained by bronchoscopic lavage. Samples were analysed for markers and modifiers of allergic inflammation (eosinophils, Th2 cytokines) and adaptive immune cell activation. Mixed effects models with ordinal contrasts compared effects of single and combined exposures on these end points. Diesel exhaust augmented the allergen-induced increase in airway eosinophils, interleukin 5 (IL-5) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and the GSTT1 null genotype was significantly associated with the augmented IL-5 response. Diesel exhaust alone also augmented markers of non-allergic inflammation and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 and suppressed activity of macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells. Inhalation of diesel exhaust at environmentally relevant concentrations augments allergen-induced allergic inflammation in the lower airways of atopic individuals and the GSTT1 genotype enhances this response. Allergic individuals are a susceptible population to the deleterious airway effects of diesel exhaust. NCT01792232. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. New tree nut allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 7S vicilin and 11S legumin seed storage globulins belong to the cupin protein superfamily and are major food allergens in many of the “big eight” food allergen groups. Korean pine vicilin and pecan vicilin are thus predicted to be food allergens. Recombinant vicilins were expressed in E. coli an...

  17. Effect of Inhaled Prostaglandin E2 on Methacholine and Leukotriene D4 Airway Responsiveness in Asthmatic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wil Hm Stevens

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies in asthmatics have demonstrated that the endogenous release of inhibitory prostaglandins limits the bronchoconstrictor response to repeated challenges with exercise and histamine, and that inhaled prostaglandin (PG E2 attenuates allergen-induced asthmatic responses and exercise bronchoconstriction in asthmatics. Inhaled PGE2 does not significantly attenuate methacholine airway responsiveness. These results, taken together, indicate that inhaled PGE2 attenuates the bronchoconstriction caused by stimuli, such as allergen and exercise, that result in bronchoconstriction through cysteinyl leukotriene (LT release. The purpose of this study was to determine whether inhaled PGE2 could selectively attenuate LTD4-induced bronchoconstriction in seven stable asthmatic subjects. Each subject was studied on four different study days. On two occasions the subjects inhaled 100 mg PGE2, 30 mins before a methacholine, or LTD4 challenge test. On the other two study days, the subjects were pretreated with its diluent. Results were expressed as the provocation concentration causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 (PC20. PGE2 pretreatment significantly increased the LTD4 PC20, but not the methacholine PC20. The mean LTD4 PC20 increased from 2.00 mg/mL (%SEM 1.65 after diluent pretreatment to 3.01 mg/mL (%SEM 1.64 after PGE2 pretreatment (P=0.008. The mean methacholine PC20 was 1.28 mg/mL (%SEM 1.68 after diluent pretreatment and 1.62 mg/mL (%SEM 1.46 after PGE2 pretreatment (P=0.28. These results suggest that PGE2 partially attenuates LTD4-induced bronchoconstriction; however, the magnitude of the effect is unlikely to account for its attenuation of exercise and allergen-induced bronchoconstriction.

  18. Inhalation Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhalation injuries are acute injuries to your respiratory system and lungs. They can happen if you breathe in toxic substances, such as smoke (from fires), chemicals, particle pollution, and gases. Inhalation injuries can also be caused by extreme heat; these are a type of thermal injuries. ...

  19. Nicotine Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine oral inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine oral inhalation should be used together with a smoking ... Nicotine oral inhalation comes as a cartridge to inhale by mouth using a special inhaler. Follow the directions on ...

  20. Performance of ELISA and PCR methods for the determination of allergens in food: an evaluation of six years of proficiency testing for soy (Glycine max L.) and wheat gluten (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Alexandra; Kasel, Udo; Wichmann, Gerhard; Besler, Matthias

    2013-10-30

    For the routine detection of allergens in foods, PCR and/or ELISA methods are employed. To assess the suitability of these methods, proficiency tests (PTs) could be used as a valuable instrument. It is a common practice to evaluate the results with respect to the experimentally obtained robust mean without considering the actual allergen content. In the present study, an overview is given of the results of allergen PTs for the determination of soy and gluten conducted by Dienstleistung Lebensmittel Analytik GbR (DLA). A total of 16 PTs were evaluated with respect to the comparison of PCR and ELISA performances and a new focus on the actually spiked values. The analytes were added in the ranges of 7.8-6264 mg/kg (gluten) and 184-5500 mg/kg (soy protein) in differently composed matrices such as pastry, infant food, and sausage meat. The evaluation of the PTs showed a widely reliable qualitative detection of both allergens by PCR methods. ELISA performances differed for soy and gluten. Although a high number of false-negative results occurred for the detection of soy, the qualitative detection of gluten was appropriate. Quantitative results showed obvious test kit-specific differences for the ELISA methods, but the limits of quantification were suitable for gluten determination. Both ELISA and PCR methods demonstrated their valuable contribution in food allergen determination.

  1. The hammock: a reservoir of allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca X. M. Rego

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Asthma affects approximately 10% of the world's population. Sensitization to allergens is an important risk factor, and exposure to allergens is associated with disease severity. METHODS: We performed skin tests to evaluate allergen sensitization to mites, cockroaches, cats, dogs, and molds in 73 asthmatic patients. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay was used to assay the mite and cockroach allergens found in dust from the bedding, hammocks, bedroom floors, living rooms, and kitchens of 29 patients and 14 controls. RESULTS: Fifty patients (68.5% had positive skin test responses. There were positive responses to D. pteronyssinus (52.0%, B. tropicalis (53.4%, T. putrescentiae (15.0%, E. maynei (12.3%, L. destructor (8.2%, B. germanica (20.5%, P. americana (21.9%, Felis catus (10.9%, C. herbarium (2.7%, A. alternata (4.1%, and P. notatun (1.3%. The exposure to mite and cockroach allergens was similar in the patients and the controls. The Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Group 1 levels were highest in the beds and hammocks. The Blattella germanica Group 1 levels were highest in the kitchens, living rooms and hammocks. DISCUSSION: The positive skin tests to mites, cockroaches and cats were consistent with previous studies. D pteronyssinus was the most prevalent home dust mite, and hammocks were a source of allergens. To improve asthma prophylaxis, it is important to determine its association with mite allergen exposure in hammocks.

  2. Mass spectrometric analysis of electrophoretically separated allergens and proteases in grass pollen diffusates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geczy Carolyn L

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollens are important triggers for allergic asthma and seasonal rhinitis, and proteases released by major allergenic pollens can injure airway epithelial cells in vitro. Disruption of mucosal epithelial integrity by proteases released by inhaled pollens could promote allergic sensitisation. Methods Pollen diffusates from Kentucky blue grass (Poa pratensis, rye grass (Lolium perenne and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon were assessed for peptidase activity using a fluorogenic substrate, as well as by gelatin zymography. Following one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Coomassie-stained individual bands/spots were excised, subjected to tryptic digestion and analysed by mass spectrometry, either MALDI reflectron TOF or microcapillary liquid chromatography MS-MS. Database searches were used to identify allergens and other plant proteins in pollen diffusates. Results All pollen diffusates tested exhibited peptidase activity. Gelatin zymography revealed high Mr proteolytic activity at ~ 95,000 in all diffusates and additional proteolytic bands in rye and Bermuda grass diffusates, which appeared to be serine proteases on the basis of inhibition studies. A proteolytic band at Mr ~ 35,000 in Bermuda grass diffusate, which corresponded to an intense band detected by Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody to the timothy grass (Phleum pratense group 1 allergen Phl p 1, was identified by mass spectrometric analysis as the group 1 allergen Cyn d 1. Two-dimensional analysis similarly demonstrated proteolytic activity corresponding to protein spots identified as Cyn d 1. Conclusion One- and two-dimensional electrophoretic separation, combined with analysis by mass spectrometry, is useful for rapid determination of the identities of pollen proteins. A component of the proteolytic activity in Bermuda grass diffusate is likely to be related to the allergen Cyn d 1.

  3. Stability of Candida albicans allergens during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, J; Viander, M; Einarsson, R; Nieminen, E; Koivikko, A

    1992-11-01

    Stability of Candida albicans allergens was studied under various storage conditions. Lyophilized extract was reconstituted with human serum albumin (NSA) diluent, glycerol-free and in the presence of 10% or 50% glycerol and stored at various temperatures for different time periods. All extracts were tested at the same time with immunoblotting using C. albicans allergic patient sera and galactosidase-labelled anti-IgE. The highest number of detected allergens in the immunoblotting pattern was found in the presence of 50% glycerol at +6 degrees C. The most important allergen of C. albicans, the 46 kD protein allergen was stable up to 10 weeks at +6 degrees C in the presence of 50% glycerol but thereafter began to lose its IgE-binding capacity. After 30 weeks more than 50% of the IgE binding had disappeared. The 27 kD protein, another important allergen, was also labile but retained the allergenicity better than the 46 kD one. The 29 kD protein allergen was stable at all storage conditions, except +37 degrees C tested even after one year. More than 6 months storage at +6 degrees C or higher temperature is, however, unacceptable even in the presence of the 50% glycerol. These findings have particular importance in the diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases.

  4. Inhaler technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, M L; Dekhuijzen, P R N; Barnes, P J

    2016-01-01

    Health professionals tasked with advising patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) how to use inhaler devices properly and what to do about unwanted effects will be aware of a variety of commonly held precepts. The evidence for many of these is, however, lacking or old...... and therefore in need of re-examination. Few would disagree that facilitating and encouraging regular and proper use of inhaler devices for the treatment of asthma and COPD is critical for successful outcomes. It seems logical that the abandonment of unnecessary or ill-founded practices forms an integral part...... of this process: the use of inhalers is bewildering enough, particularly with regular introduction of new drugs, devices and ancillary equipment, without unnecessary and pointless adages. We review the evidence, or lack thereof, underlying ten items of inhaler 'lore' commonly passed on by health professionals...

  5. Modelling allergenic risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birot, Sophie

    for all the methods using uncertainty analysis [11]. The recommended approach for the allergen risk assessment was implemented in a Shiny application with the R software. Thus, allergen risk assessment can be performed easily by non-statisticians with the interactive application....... Allergen and Allergy Management) aims at developing strategies for food allergies based on evidences. Especially, food allergen risk assessment helps food producers or authorities to make decisions on withdrawing a food product from the market or adding more information on the label when allergen presence...... is unintended. The risk assessment method has three different kinds of input. The exposure is calculated from the product consumption and the allergen contamination in the food product. The exposure is then compared to the thresholds to which allergic individuals react in order to calculate the chance...

  6. Occupational inhalant allergy to pork followed by food allergy to pork and chicken: sensitization to hemoglobin and serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, C; Swiontek, K; Hentges, F; Donnay, C; de Blay, F; Pauli, G

    2010-01-01

    Animal-derived proteins are implicated in primary food allergies, but also in inhalant allergies with secondary food allergy symptoms. The objective of this study was to define the allergen(s) implicated in a case of food allergy to chicken meat, which developed in a person previously sensitized to pork after occupational exposure. A 42-year-old female with a history of occupational inhalant allergy to pork reported rhinitis, asthma, dysphonia and conjunctivitis 30 min after ingestion of chicken. Skin tests were positive to chicken meat. Protein extracts were prepared from chicken meat. Allergens were characterized by IgE immunoblotting, N-terminal sequencing and ELISA. The patient showed specific IgE binding to chicken meat proteins at 12, 14, 26, 55 and 65 kDa. N-terminal amino acid sequencing identified the 12- and 14-kDa proteins as the alpha- and beta-chain of hemoglobin. ELISA and immunoblot showed specific IgE binding to hemoglobin purified from chicken blood. IgE antibodies to chicken serum albumin were detected by ELISA. Inhibition studies with chicken and porcine hemoglobin as well as with serum albumins demonstrated cross-reactive IgE antibodies. We report a case of confirmed occupational inhalant allergy due to pork followed by food allergy to pork and 3 years later by food allergy to chicken. Porcine and chicken hemoglobin were found to be cross-reactive allergens. Cross-reactivity between porcine and chicken serum albumin was possibly linked to a prior sensitization to cat serum albumin. 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Allergy to kiwi in patients with baker's asthma: identification of potential cross-reactive allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacin, Arantxa; Quirce, Santiago; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Varela, Javier; Sastre, Joaquín; Salcedo, Gabriel

    2008-08-01

    Baker's asthma is a frequent IgE-mediated occupational disorder mainly provoked by inhalation of cereal flour. Allergy to kiwifruit has being increasingly reported in the past few years. No association between both allergic disorders has been described so far. Twenty patients with occupational asthma caused by wheat flour inhalation were studied. Kiwi allergens Act d 1 and Act d 2 were purified by cation-exchange chromatography. Wheat, rye, and kiwi extracts, purified kiwi allergens, and model plant glycoproteins were analyzed by IgE immunodetection, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and inhibition ELISAs. Kiwifruit ingestion elicited oral allergy syndrome in 7 of the 20 patients (35%) with baker's asthma. Positive specific IgE and skin prick test responses to this fruit were found in all these kiwi allergic patients, and IgE to Act d 1 and Act d 2 was detected in 57% and 43%, respectively, of the corresponding sera. Actinidin Act d 1 and bromelain (harboring cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants) reached above 50% inhibition of the IgE binding to wheat and/or kiwi extracts. A potential association between respiratory allergy to cereal flour and allergy to kiwifruit has been disclosed. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants and thiol-proteaseshomologous to Act d 1 are responsible for wheat-kiwi crossreactivity in some patients.

  8. Immunotherapy with Allergen Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larché Mark

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Specific allergen immunotherapy (SIT is disease-modifying and efficacious. However, the use of whole allergen preparations is associated with frequent allergic adverse events during treatment. Many novel approaches are being designed to reduce the allergenicity of immunotherapy preparations whilst maintaining immunogenicity. One approach is the use of short synthetic peptides which representing dominant T cell epitopes of the allergen. Short peptides exhibit markedly reduced capacity to cross link IgE and activate mast cells and basophils, due to lack of tertiary structure. Murine pre-clinical studies have established the feasibility of this approach and clinical studies are currently in progress in both allergic and autoimmune diseases.

  9. Allergen immunotherapy: Current and new therapeutic strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Rolland

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT involves the administration of gradually increasing amounts of an allergen extract to reduce clinical symptoms of allergy. Well-controlled clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of SIT in the treatment of allergic diseases, including rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma, and best practice protocols have been established. Nevertheless, application of this potentially curative treatment is restricted, largely due to the risk of serious adverse events, especially in asthmatics. Although efficacy is high for venom-induced allergy, success rates for the more common aeroallergen-induced disease range from 60 to 80% depending on the allergen. The practice of SIT is currently being refined following major advances in our knowledge of basic immune mechanisms. In particular, new T cell-targeted strategies are being explored with the awareness of the pivotal role allergen-specific T cells play in initiating and regulating the immune response to allergens. Current SIT induces decreased IgE class switching and eosinophil activation by downregulating production of the T helper (Th 2-type cytokines interleukin (IL-4 and IL-5. Therefore, allergen preparations that have ablated IgE binding while retaining T cell reactivity should still be clinically effective but have substantially improved safety. These approaches include the use of small peptides based on dominant T cell epitopes of allergens and chemically modified or recombinant allergen molecules. Both approaches have already been tested, with promising results, in animal models; peptide immunotherapy has been shown effective in clinical trials. Defined hypoallergenic molecules or peptides offer ease of standardization in addition to efficacy and safety and will result in more widespread use of SIT in clinical practice. Elucidation of mechanisms for downregulating Th2-predominant responses to allergen by SIT will enable the development of laboratory assays for

  10. Investigation on the effects of ciclosporin (Atopica) on intradermal test reactivity and allergen-specific immunoglobulin (IgE) serology in atopic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Candice; Rosser, Edmund; Petersen, Annette; Hauptman, Joe

    2010-08-01

    The ability to use ciclosporin (Atopica®: Novartis Animal Health, Greensboro, NC, USA) prior to intradermal testing (IDT) would help avoid exacerbation of clinical disease that can be associated with drug withdrawal. This study evaluated the effects of 30 days of administration of ciclosporin at a dose of 5 mg/kg once daily on IDT reactivity (immediate phase reactions) in a group of dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD) with initial positive IDT reactions. 16 dogs diagnosed with AD were included in the study. Eight dogs (group A) were treated with ciclosporin orally at 5 mg/kg once daily for 30 days. Eight dogs (group P) were treated with a placebo orally once daily for 30 days. IDT was performed at day 0 and day 30 on all dogs enrolled using a standardized panel of 45 aqueous allergens (Greer Laboratories, Lenoir, NC, USA) appropriate to our geographical region. IDT reactivity was assessed by both subjective and objective methods at 15 min post-intradermal injection. Serum for allergen-specific immunoglobulin (IgE) serology was obtained at day 0 and day 30. The study was designed as a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Data were analysed using a split-plot analysis of variance with the grouping factor of treatment and the repeat factor of time (SAS System for Windows). At week 4, ciclosporin did not have a statistically significant effect on IDT reactivity or serology results. It therefore appears that, no withdrawal is recommended to evaluate immediate phase reactions. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. Evaluating the sensitivity, reproducibility and flexibility of a method to test hard shell capsules intended for use in dry powder inhalers

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Rosalind H.E.; Jones, Brian E.; Díez, Fernando; Birchall, James C.; Coulman, Sion A

    2016-01-01

    Pharmaceutical tests for hard shell capsules are designed for orally administered capsules. The use of capsules in dry powder inhalers is widespread and increasing and therefore more appropriate tests are required to ensure quality and determine if these capsules are fit for purpose. This study aims to determine the flexibility, reproducibility and sensitivity of a quantitative method that is designed to evaluate the puncture characteristics of different capsule shell formulations under diffe...

  12. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciclesonide oral inhalation is used to prevent difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma in adults ... Ciclesonide comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Ciclesonide is usually inhaled twice ...

  13. Substance use - inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance abuse - inhalants; Drug abuse - inhalants; Drug use - inhalants; Glue - inhalants ... Gases, such as butane (lighter fluid), computer cleaning spray, ... fast-drying glue, felt-tip marker, gasoline, nail polish remover, ...

  14. Effect of Budesonide by metered dose inhaler with or without spacer & dry powder inhaler on Lung Function

    OpenAIRE

    Dilshad Ali Rizvi; Mohammad Tariq Salman; Joydeep Sircar; Ali Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Aims & objective-To compare the efficacy of Budesonide delivered by metered dose inhaler, metered dose inhaler with spacer and dry powder inhaler on the lung function test parameters. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was undertaken to assess the effect of budesonide administered from fifty patients of chronic stable bronchial asthma were budesonide(400mcg) by metered dose inhaler, metered dose inhaler with spacer and by dry powder inhaler at day 14, 21 and 28 after enrolment ...

  15. Hypersensitivity to latex and Ficus benjamina allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbourg, M F; Moneret-Vautrin, D A; Guilloux, L; Ville, G

    1995-12-01

    Association between allergy to Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis, two botanically unrelated plants, was suspected in consequence of two clinical observations. Symptoms were rhinitis and asthma. This study was undertaken to assess the in vivo and in vitro cross-reactivity between Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis allergens. The two patients were asked about use and contact with latex devices and relationship between symptoms and Ficus benjamina exposure. Skin prick tests were performed with Ficus benjamina, Hevea brasiliensis extracts and common allergens. Double-blind nasal and bronchial challenge tests were done using the rinse fluid from a brand of latex gloves. Total and specific IgE antibodies to Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis were determined. In vitro cross-reactivity was investigated by means of CAP RAST and immunodot inhibition experiments. We observed that for the first patient the primary phenomenon is probably allergy to latex followed by allergy to Ficus benjamina. For the second patient, allergy to Ficus benjamina was diagnosed (improvement related to the avoidance of exposure to Ficus benjamina allergens) and positivity to latex skin prick tests may be due to the cross-reacting allergens. In vitro assays showed specific IgE antibodies to both allergens and cross-reactivity was confirmed in the two cases by reciprocal inhibition of the two extracts. The increasing risk of sensitization to widely used latex devices and extensive exposure to Ficus species in households and offices indicates increased allergenic risk from this newly recognized cross-reactivity.

  16. Contamination of nebulizers with environmental allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Mary E; Butz, Arlene; Mudd, Kim; Hamilton, Robert G

    2005-11-01

    A previous article described cockroach allergen in the nebulizer reservoir of an asthmatic patient who experienced a life-threatening exacerbation after nebulizer use. To determine whether indoor allergens can be measured in home nebulizers. As part of a large study examining nebulizer use in underserved asthmatic children, visiting nurses replaced nebulizer sets in patients' homes. Twenty used sets were randomly selected for analysis, without linkage to clinical or home environmental data. Nebulizer reservoirs and negative controls (buffer and albuterol) were extracted overnight with 2 mL of buffer. For positive controls, nebulizer sets were placed in homes with cats and dogs, and other reservoirs were intentionally contaminated with cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1 and Bla g 2), and mouse (Mus m 1) skin test solutions. Extracts were tested for allergens in a masked manner using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 17 reservoirs with adequate specimens for allergen detection, 5 (29%) had measurable levels for at least 1 of 5 allergens tested. One reservoir had measurable Can f 1, 2 had Bla g, 3 had Mus m 1, and none had Fel d 1 allergen. Two of 3 homes with cats where nebulizer setups were placed had measurable Fel d 1 in the reservoir, and 1 of 2 homes with dogs had measurable Can f 1. Reservoirs kept in sealed plastic bags had no detectable allergen. Indoor allergens can be found in the nebulizer equipment of children with asthma, with the potential for adverse consequences. Storing nebulizer sets in sealed plastic bags may prevent contamination.

  17. [New aero-allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Blay, F; Bessot, J C; Pauli, G

    1996-01-01

    As the number of proteins recognized as causing allergic respiratory diseases increases, new aero allergens have appeared in the animal and vegetable realms, both in home and professional environments. Lepidoglyphus destructor and Blomia tropicalis, two mites found in storage areas, are particularly important in agricultural areas and in homes. Over the last ten years, the frequency of reactions to cockroaches has also increased in several countries. The allergenicity of non-biting insects is a frequent cause of allergy in certain countries including Japan. Chironomides cause respiratory diseases in professional and outdoor environments. The important role of Alternaria, a mold, in producing severe asthma has also been demonstrated. The pathophysiology of pollen-induced asthma has been shown to result from pollen allergens carried by particles less than 5 microns in diameter. Cyprus and ash tree pollen also cause an increasing number of pollinoses and flowers can cause rhinitis and asthma. Respiratory allergy to Ficus benjamina inaugurated a new type of allergies caused airborne allergens from non-pollinating plants. Allergy to latex raises a particular problem for health care workers. The immunochemical structures of the major and minor airborne allergens are now better known and the homologous structures of different allergens largely explains certain cross-reactions. In the future, recombinant allergens will probably be used to better understand the role of allergens in inducing and maintaining the allergic reaction and should help in our approach to diagnosis and therapy.

  18. Transient dimers of allergens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Rouvinen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE antibodies bound to the FcepsilonRI receptors on the mast cell surface is the key feature of the type I allergy. If an allergen is a homodimer, its allergenicity is enhanced because it would only need one type of antibody, instead of two, for cross-linking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: An analysis of 55 crystal structures of allergens showed that 80% of them exist in symmetric dimers or oligomers in crystals. The majority are transient dimers that are formed at high protein concentrations that are reached in cells by colocalization. Native mass spectrometric analysis showed that native allergens do indeed form transient dimers in solution, while hypoallergenic variants of them exist almost solely in the monomeric form. We created a monomeric Bos d 5 allergen and show that it has a reduced capability to induce histamine release. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that dimerization would be a very common and essential feature for allergens. Thus, the preparation of purely monomeric variants of allergens could open up novel possibilities for specific immunotherapy.

  19. Allergenicity and cross-reactivity of Senecio pollen: identification of novel allergens using the immunoproteomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo, O; Mollá, R; Gámez, C; Cardona, V; López, E; Sastre, B; Waisel, Y; Belmonte, J; Cadahia, A; Lahoz, C; del Pozo, V

    2008-06-01

    The genus Senecio is the largest genus of the family Asteraceae (Compositae). The allergenicity of Senecio has not been assessed previously. The aim of this study was to investigate the allergens of Senecio jacobea pollen and to determine their immunological characteristics and clinical relevance. Fifty patients with rhinoconjunctivitis and a positive skin prick test (SPT) to Senecio were recruited. The clinical relevance of this pollen was assessed by means of a nasal provocation test (NPT). Allergens were characterized by one-dimensional electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Furthermore, characterization and identification of the allergens were performed by mass spectrometry (MS). In vitro inhibition tests were performed to evaluate cross-reactivity with other pollen. Three predominant allergens, both in the intensity of reaction and the frequency of recognition by human-allergic sera, were 59 (60%), 42 (50%) and 31 kDa (50%). The two-dimensional analysis allowed the identification of several allergens. One spot around 42 kDa was identified as a protein homologous to pectate lyase and three other spots were homologous to malate dehydrogenase by MS. S. jacobea proteins showed cross-reactivity with other proteins of the Asteraceae family and also with Parietaria judaica. This was demonstrated by immunoblotting and ELISA inhibition studies. S. jacobea constitute a newly discovered allergenic source. It shows cross-reactivity with other members of the Asteraceae plant family as well as with P. judaica.

  20. Tiotropium Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a specially designed inhaler. You will use the inhaler to breathe in the dry powder contained in the capsules. Tiotropium is usually inhaled once a day in the morning or evening. To help you remember to inhale ... only work if you use the inhaler it comes with to inhale the powder in ...

  1. Inhalation method for delivery of nanoparticles to the Drosophila respiratory system for toxicity testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posgai, Ryan; Ahamed, Maqusood [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Hussain, Saber M. [Applied Biotechnology Branch, Human Effectiveness Directorate Air Force Research Laboratory/RHBP, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH, 45433 (United States); Rowe, John J. [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States); Nielsen, Mark G., E-mail: Mark.Nielsen@notes.udayton.edu [Department of Biology, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH, 45469-2320 (United States)

    2009-12-20

    The growth of the nanotechnology industry and subsequent proliferation of nanoparticle types present the need to rapidly assess nanoparticle toxicity. We present a novel, simple and cost-effective nebulizer-based method to deliver nanoparticles to the Drosophila melanogaster respiratory system, for the purpose of toxicity testing. FluoSpheres (registered) , silver, and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles of different sizes were effectively aerosolized, showing the system is capable of functioning with a wide range of nanoparticle types and sizes. Red fluorescent CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles were successfully delivered to the fly respiratory system, as visualized by fluorescent microscopy. Silver coated and uncoated nanoparticles were delivered in a toxicity test, and induced Hsp70 expression in flies, confirming the utility of this model in toxicity testing. This is the first method developed capable of such delivery, provides the advantage of the Drosophila health model, and can serve as a link between tissue culture and more expensive mammalian models in a tiered toxicity testing strategy.

  2. Role of offending out-door aero-allergen and CD14 C(-159)T ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    allergens and associated genetic pathway in nasso-bronchial asthma among Kolkata population. Methods: Skin-prick test was done among 950 asthmatic patients against 11 common aero-allergens and total serum IgE concentration was measured.

  3. The allergens of Parietaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Paolo; Bonura, Angela; Costa, Maria; Izzo, Vincenzo; Passantino, Rosa; Locorotondo, Giovanni; Amoroso, Saverio; Geraci, Domenico

    2003-03-01

    Parietaria is a genus of dicotyledonous weeds of the Urticaceae family including several species and its pollen grain is one of the most important allergenic sources in the Mediterranean area. Species belonging to this genus induce IgE responses in approximately 10 million people. Identification of allergens by means of independent strategies suggest that the allergens of the two more common species, Parietaria judaica and Parietaria Officinalis, show molecular weights ranging between 10 and 14 kD and that the allergens of the two extracts are highly cross-reactive. Biochemical analysis and molecular cloning allowed the isolation and immunological characterization of the two major allergens of the P. judaica pollen, Par j 1 and Par j 2. Sequence comparison suggests that the P j major allergens of P. Judaica belong to the nonspecific lipid transfer protein family, and three-dimensional modeling by homology has revealed that both proteins present a very conserved structural motif composed of four alpha-helices. Immunological analysis has shown that Par j 1 and Par j 2 are able to bind most of the P. Judaica-specific IgE and some of their IgE determinants have been mapped. Recombinant Par j 1 and Par j 2 allergens have been shown to possess immunological properties equivalent to their natural counterpart and their availability represents a fundamental tool for the diagnosis and therapy of Parietaria pollen allergy. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  4. [Effects of Instruction on Inhalation Techniques Using iPads - Web Application "Inhalation Lessons"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogawa, Noriko; Ito, Reiko; Gon, Yasuhiro; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Hashimoto, Shu

    2015-12-01

    Instruction on inhalation techniques for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)and asthma patients being treated with inhalants have sufficient therapeutic effects and are important to maintain adherence. However, problems continue to exist, including time constraints of medical staff that have a large number of patients and a lack of knowledge on inhalation instruction methods. A web application,"Inhalation Lessons,'for the iPad has been developed. It explains inhalation methods, and consists of videos and review tests. Instruction on inhalation techniques was performed using this application for patients that use Diskus, and the effects were examined. As a result, there are significant improvements in the inhalation techniques of patients after viewing the"Inhalation Lessons'application. Uniform instruction on inhalation techniques can be performed even in the field of homecare.

  5. Allergenic cross-reactivity among pollens of Urticaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbí, A L; Cortes, C; Bousquet, J; Basomba, A; Cistero, A; Garcia-Selles, J; d'Amato, G; Carreira, J

    1985-01-01

    Common antigenic determinants have been observed between Parietaria and Urtica dioica pollen. The four Parietaria pollens selected (P. judaica, P. officinalis, P. lusitanica and P. mauritanica) are shown to possess a high allergenic homology. IgE-binding structures, homologous to the P. judaica main allergenic polypeptide (Pj10), were found in the other species by immunodetection. Monoclonal antibodies specific to the Pj10 polypeptide recognized proteins from the four Parietaria pollens. Skin prick test and RAST inhibition yielded results that also indicated a high allergenic cross-reactivity among these pollens, with homologous peptides bearing common antigenic and allergenic determinants. On the other hand, U. dioica pollen showed only a slight allergenic similarity to Parietaria. The potential allergenic activity of these pollens is discussed.

  6. Therapeutic effects of co-inhaled roflumilast or formoterol and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1056. 14. Vanacker N, Palmans E, Pauwels R, Kips J. Dose-related effect of inhaled fluticasone on allergen-induced airway changes in rats. Eur Respir J 2002; 20: 873-879. 15. Price D, Hillyer EV. Fluticasone propionate/formoterol fumarate in ...

  7. Dobutamine "stress" test and latent cardiac susceptibility to inhaled diesel exhaust in normal and hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazari, Mehdi S; Callaway, Justin; Winsett, Darrell W; Lamb, Christina; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Krantz, Q Todd; King, Charly; Costa, Daniel L; Farraj, Aimen K

    2012-08-01

    Exercise "stress" testing is a screening tool used to determine the amount of stress for which the heart can compensate before developing abnormal rhythm or ischemia, particularly in susceptible persons. Although this approach has been used to assess risk in humans exposed to air pollution, it has never been applied to rodent studies. We hypothesized that a single exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) would increase the risk of adverse cardiac events such as arrhythmia and myocardial ischemia in rats undergoing a dobutamine challenge test, which can be used to mimic exercise-like stress. Wistar-Kyoto normotensive (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats implanted with radiotelemeters and a chronic intravenous catheter were whole-body exposed to 150 μg/m3 DE for 4 hr. Increasing doses of dobutamine, a β1-adrenergic agonist, were administered to conscious unrestrained rats 24 hr later to elicit the cardiac response observed during exercise while heart rate (HR) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were monitored. A single exposure to DE potentiated the HR response of WKY and SH rats during dobutamine challenge and prevented HR recovery at rest. During peak challenge, DE-exposed SH rats had lower overall HR variability when compared with controls, in addition to transient ST depression. All DE-exposed animals also had increased arrhythmias. These results are the first evidence that rats exhibit stress-induced cardiac dysrhythmia and ischemia sensitivity comparable to humans after a single exposure to a toxic air pollutant, particularly when in the presence of underlying cardiovascular disease. Thus, exposure to low concentrations of air pollution can impair the heart's ability to respond to stress and increase the risk of subsequent triggered dysfunction.

  8. Skin prick test responses and allergen-specific IgE levels as predictors of peanut, egg, and sesame allergy in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Rachel L; Allen, Katrina J; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Tang, Mimi L K; Koplin, Jennifer J; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Lowe, Adrian J; Hill, David; Gurrin, Lyle C

    2013-10-01

    Ninety-five percent positive predictive values (PPVs) provide an invaluable tool for clinicians to avoid unnecessary oral food challenges. However, 95% PPVs specific to infants, the age group most likely to present for diagnosis of food allergy, are limited. We sought to develop skin prick test (SPT) and allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) thresholds with 95% PPVs for challenge-confirmed food allergy in a large population-based cohort of 1-year-old infants with challenges undertaken irrespective of SPT wheal size or previous history of ingestion. HealthNuts is a population-based, longitudinal food allergy study with baseline recruitment of 1-year-old infants. Infants were recruited from council-run immunization sessions during which they underwent SPTs to 4 allergens: egg, peanut, sesame, and cow's milk/shrimp. Any infant with a detectable SPT response was invited to undergo oral food challenge and sIgE testing. Five thousand two hundred seventy-six infants participated in the study. Peanut SPT responses of 8 mm or greater (95% CI, 7-9 mm), egg SPT responses of 4 mm or greater (95% CI, 3-5 mm), and sesame SPT responses of 8 mm or greater (95% CI, 5-9 mm) had 95% PPVs for challenge-proved food allergy. Peanut sIgE levels of 34 kUA/L or greater (95% CI, 14-48 kUA/L) and egg sIgE levels of 1.7 kUA/L or greater (95% CI, 1-3 kUA/L) had 95% PPVs for challenge-proved food allergy. Results were robust when stratified on established risk factors for food allergy. Egg SPT responses and sIgE levels were poor predictors of allergy to egg in baked goods. These 95% PPVs, which were generated from a unique dataset, are valuable for the diagnosis of food allergy in young infants and were robust when stratified across a number of different risk factors. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence of self-reported food allergy and IgE antibodies to food allergens in Swedish and Estonian schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandin, A; Annus, T; Björkstén, B; Nilsson, L; Riikjärv, M-A; van Hage-Hamsten, M; Bråbäck, L

    2005-03-01

    To compare the prevalence of self-reported food allergy and IgE antibodies to food allergens in wheezing and non-wheezing Estonian and Swedish schoolchildren, in the light of the disparities in the standard of living, food consumption and prevalence of respiratory allergies that still exist between Estonia and the Scandinavian countries. As a part of the ISAAC Phase II study, children from a random sample of schools in Tallinn in Estonia and Linköping and Ostersund in Sweden participated in skin prick tests to inhalant allergens and the parents replied to questionnaires. IgE antibodies against a panel of food allergens (egg white, milk, soy bean, fish, wheat and peanut) were taken from children with questionnaire-reported wheezing and a random sample of nonwheezing children. Children aged 10-11 y. The prevalence of self-reported food allergy was similar in Estonia and Sweden and about twice as high in wheezing children than in nonwheezing children. In Estonia, however, 3% of the children with perceived food allergy reported reactions from at least four different foods, as compared to 31% in Sweden. The prevalence of sensitisation to food allergens was similar in wheezing and nonwheezing children in Estonia (8%) while, in Swedish children, IgE antibodies to food allergens were more likely among wheezing children (Linköping 38 vs 11%, crude OR 5.1, 95% CI 2.2-11.6, and Ostersund 24 vs 7%, crude OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.9-8.5). Our study suggests that IgE-mediated food reactions were less likely in Estonian schoolchildren. Moreover, the perception of food allergy and thereby the meaning of self-reported food allergy appears to be different in the two countries.

  10. Allergens of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyhani Nemat O

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Beauveria bassiana is an important entomopathogenic fungus currently under development as a bio-control agent for a variety of insect pests. Although reported to be non-toxic to vertebrates, the potential allergenicity of Beauveria species has not been widely studied. Methods IgE-reactivity studies were performed using sera from patients displaying mould hypersensitivity by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. Skin reactivity to B. bassiana extracts was measured using intradermal skin testing. Results Immunoblots of fungal extracts with pooled as well as individual sera showed a distribution of IgE reactive proteins present in B. bassiana crude extracts. Proteinase K digestion of extracts resulted in loss of IgE reactive epitopes, whereas EndoH and PNGaseF (glycosidase treatments resulted in minor changes in IgE reactive banding patterns as determined by Western blots. Immunoblot inhibitions experiments showed complete loss of IgE-binding using self protein, and partial inhibition using extracts from common allergenic fungi including; Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladosporium herbarum, Candida albicans, Epicoccum purpurascens, and Penicillium notatum. Several proteins including a strongly reactive band with an approximate molecular mass of 35 kDa was uninhibited by any of the tested extracts, and may represent B. bassiana specific allergens. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the in vitro results, demonstrating allergenic reactions in a number of individuals, including those who have had occupational exposure to B. bassiana. Conclusions Beauveria bassiana possesses numerous IgE reactive proteins, some of which are cross-reactive among allergens from other fungi. A strongly reactive potential B. bassiana specific allergen (35 kDa was identified. Intradermal skin testing confirmed the allergenic potential of B. bassiana.

  11. [Food allergy. Most often conceals an inhalational allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbling, A

    1998-09-30

    Food allergy (hypersensitivity) is a form of adverse food reaction in which the reaction is caused by an immunological response to a food. Most immediate allergic reactions to food are IgE-mediated. The prevalence of food allergy in the general population without the oral allergy syndrome is about 1-2%. Although many foods have been described to cause an allergic reaction, only a few are responsible for the majority of hypersensitivity symptoms. Based on continuous studies by B. Wüthrich, Allergy Unit of the Dermatology Department, University Hospital, Zurich, celery (42%) followed by dairy products (16%), carrot (13%), hen's egg (12%) and fish (7%) is by far the major source of food allergy in Switzerland. In adults food hypersensitivity is mainly due to cross-reactivity between inhalative and food allergens. Pathophysiologically, IgE antibodies induced by aeroallergens recognize structurally similar components in certain foods even from taxonomically unrelated plants. Following an accurate allergological examination, oral provocation tests are considered the most conclusive procedures to establish diagnosis. The only proven form of management in food allergy is strict elimination of the offending food. Food-allergic patients must be provided with emergency medications. Identification of allergens and their characterization finally will improve our understanding for pathophysiologic mechanisms of food allergy.

  12. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2% petro...

  13. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, M A; Simons, F E R; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    -presenting cells (mostly Langerhans and myeloid dendritic cells) exhibit a tolerogenic phenotype, despite constant exposure to danger signals from food and microbes. This reduces the induction of pro-inflammatory immune responses leading to systemic allergic reactions. Oral tissues contain relatively few mast......To cite this article: Calderón MA, Simons FER, Malling H-J, Lockey RF, Moingeon P, Demoly P. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy: mode of action and its relationship with the safety profile. Allergy 2012; 67: 302-311. ABSTRACT: Allergen immunotherapy reorients inappropriate immune responses...... in allergic patients. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) has been approved, notably in the European Union, as an effective alternative to subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) for allergic rhinitis patients. Compared with SCIT, SLIT has a better safety profile. This is possibly because oral antigen...

  14. Challenges and opportunities in implementing the FDA default parametric tolerance interval two one-sided test for delivered dose uniformity of orally inhaled products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larner, Greg; Cooper, Andrew; Lyapustina, Svetlana; Leiner, Stefan; Christopher, David; Strickland, Helen; Golden, Michael; Delzeit, Hans-Joachim; Friedman, Emil M

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this article is to discuss considerations regarding implementation of the parametric tolerance interval two one-sided test (PTI-TOST) for delivered dose uniformity (DDU) of orally inhaled products (OIPs). That test was proposed by FDA in 2005 as an alternative to the counting test described in the 1998 draft FDA guidance for metered dose inhalers and dry powder inhalers. The 2005 PTI-TOST, however, still has not found much use in practice despite the general desirability of parametric approaches in modern pharmaceutical quality control. A key reason for its slow uptake is that it rejects, with high probability, batches whose quality is considered acceptable by all other published regulatory and pharmacopeial standards as well as by the DDU specifications for many approved OIPs. Manufacturers therefore continue using nonparametric counting tests for control of DDU. A simulated case study presented here compares the consequences of the PTI-TOST compared to the counting test. The article discusses three possibilities that would help increase the uptake of the PTI-TOST approach, namely: product-specific quality standards, a different default standard suitable for the majority of OIPs, and integration of the PTI-TOST with a continuous verification control strategy rather than using it as an isolated-batch (transactional) end-product testing. In any of these efforts, if a parametric test is used, it is critical not to set the target quality close to, or at the boundary of the process/product capabilities, because PTI tests are designed to reject with high probability the identified target quality.

  15. Plutonium-aerosol emission rates and potential inhalation exposure during cleanup and treatment test at Area 11, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinn, J.H.; Homan, D.N.

    1985-08-13

    A Cleanup and Treatment (CAT) test was conducted in 1981 at Area 11, Nevada Test Site. Its purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of using a large truck-mounted vacuum cleaner similar to those used to clean paved streets for cleaning radiological contamination from the surface of desert soils. We found that four passes with the vehicle removed 97% of the alpha contamination and reduced resuspension by 99.3 to 99.7%. Potential exposure to cleanup workers was slight when compared to natural background exposure. 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Skin testing with food allergens. Guideline of the German Society of Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAKI), the Physicians' Association of German Allergologists (ADA) and the Society of Pediatric Allergology (GPA) together with the Swiss Society of Allergology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henzgen, Margot; Ballmer-Weber, Barbara K; Erdmann, Stephan; Fuchs, Thomas; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Lepp, Ute; Niggemann, Bodo; Raithel, Martin; Reese, Imke; Saloga, Joachim; Vieths, Stefan; Zuberbier, Torsten; Werfel, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Skin testing has a central role in the diagnosis of food allergy. Prick testing is well- established as a routine diagnostic tool. Nonetheless, unstable allergens and the lack of standardized extracts create difficulties in the identification of sensitization to foods in patients with suspected food allergy. Therefore prick-to-prick tests with native (raw, fresh) foods are still recommended. The indications and contraindications are the same as those of routine skin testing in clinical allergology. We recommend a careful and restricted application of skin tests in patients with a history of severe anaphylaxis to foods.

  17. Contact allergy to allergens of the TRUE-test (panels 1 and 2) has decreased modestly in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J P; Linneberg, A; Menné, T

    2009-01-01

    in Copenhagen, Denmark, were invited to participate in a general health examination including patch testing. In 1990 and 2006, we patch tested and questioned 543 and 3460 adult Danes. Patch test readings were performed on day 2 only. RESULTS: The overall prevalence decreased significantly from 15.5% in 1990...

  18. Airway responsiveness to mannitol 24 h after allergen challenge in atopic asthmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, B E; Amakye, D O; Cockcroft, D W

    2015-06-01

    Airway responsiveness to indirect stimuli correlates positively with airway inflammation. In atopic asthmatics, allergen inhalation is associated with an influx of inflammatory cells and increased responsiveness to the direct-acting stimuli methacholine at 3 and 24 h after exposure. We have shown mannitol responsiveness decreases 3 h after allergen inhalation. The current investigation assessed mannitol responsiveness 24 h after allergen challenge. Eleven mild atopic asthmatics completed allergen challenges on two separate occasions. In random order, methacholine or mannitol challenges were performed 24 h pre- and post-allergen challenge. Levels of fractional exhaled nitric oxide were also measured. Allergen challenge increased airway responsiveness to methacholine 24 h postchallenge; the geometric mean (95% CI) methacholine PC20 decreased from 5.9 mg/ml (1.8-19.4) to 2.2 mg/ml (0.81-5.89); P = 0.01. This coincided with a significant increase (P = 0.02) in FeNO levels. Conversely, allergen challenge decreased airway responsiveness to mannitol; geometric mean (95% CI) dose-response ratio was significantly higher after allergen exposure (57 mg/% FEV1 fall [27-121] to 147 mg/% FEV1 fall [57-379]; P = 0.03), and FeNO levels were not significantly increased (P = 0.054). Allergen-induced changes in airway responsiveness to direct and indirect stimuli are markedly different. The loss in responsiveness to mannitol is likely not explainable by a refractory state. The effect(s) of allergen exposure on airway responsiveness to indirect-acting stimuli require further investigation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Integrating Allergen Analysis Within a Risk Assessment Framework: Approaches to Development of Targeted Mass Spectrometry Methods for Allergen Detection and Quantification in the iFAAM Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitride, Chiara; Lee, Victoria; Baricevic-Jones, Ivona; Adel-Patient, Karine; Baumgartner, Sabine; Mills, E N Clare

    2017-12-05

    Allergen analysis is central to implementing and monitoring food allergen risk assessment and management processes by the food industry, but current methods for the determination of allergens in foods give highly variable results. The European Union-funded "Integrated Approaches to Food Allergen and Allergy Risk Management" (iFAAM) project has been working to address gaps in knowledge regarding food allergen management and analysis, including the development of novel MS and immuno-based allergen determination methods. Common allergenic food ingredients (peanut, hazelnut, walnut, cow's milk [Bos domesticus], and hen's egg [Gallus domesticus]) and common food matrixes (chocolate dessert and cookie) have been used for both clinical studies and analytical method development to ensure that the new methods are clinically relevant. Allergen molecules have been used as analytical targets and allergenic ingredients incurred into matrixes at levels close to reference doses that may trigger the use of precautionary allergen labeling. An interlaboratory method comparison has been undertaken for the determination of peanut in chocolate dessert using MS and immuno-based methods. The iFAAM approach has highlighted the need for methods to report test results in allergenic protein. This will allow food business operators to use them in risk assessments that are founded on clinical study data in which protein has been used as a measure of allergenic potency.

  20. 77 FR 43087 - Nomination of an In Vitro Test Method for the Identification of Contact Allergens: Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... (enhance animal well-being and lessen or avoid pain and distress), or replace animal use. The ICCVAM... INFORMATION: Background The development of alternatives to animal testing for ACD is an ICCVAM priority... Test Methods of High Scientific Quality to Protect and Advance the Health of People, Animals, and the...

  1. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flunisolide oral inhalation is used to prevent difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma in adults ... Flunisolide comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth. It usually is inhaled twice daily. Try to ...

  2. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluticasone oral inhalation is used to prevent difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma in adults ... Fluticasone comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler and as a powder to ...

  3. Allergens might trigger migraine attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bektas, Hesna; Karabulut, Hayriye; Doganay, Beyza; Acar, Baran

    2017-03-01

    Migraine is a common primary headache disorder. The mechanisms underlying the onset of a migraine attack are not completely understood. Environmental changes and a number of other factors could induce migraine attacks. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the frequency of migraine attacks and allergens. Migraine patients without aura, and healthy individuals similar in age and gender without a history of headache and allergy were prospectively included in the study. The duration of migraine, the frequency of migraine attacks, the medication history, and the symptoms during attacks were questioned. Migraine disability assessment score (MIDAS) and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were obtained. Allergen extracts including dust, fungi, insect, animal epithelium, pollens, and food allergens were applied for allergy tests. 49 migraine patients and 49 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. There was no significant difference in terms of age and gender. The median migraine disease duration, the number of attacks in a month, and the duration of attacks were, respectively, 5.5 years (1-44), 4 (1-10) day/month, and 24 (4-72) h. The mean MIDAS grade was 2.45 ± 0.14 (1-4), and mean VAS score was 7.89 ± 0.27 (4-10). The positivity of allergy tests was 55.1 % (27/49) in the migraine group and 32.7 % (16/49) in the control group (p < 0.05). The allergy tests were positive for house dust, red birch, hazel tree, olive tree, nettle, and wheat. The frequency of migraine attacks was higher in allergy-test-positive patients than in negative ones in the migraine group (p = 0.001). The migraine patients who had frequent attacks should be examined for allergies.

  4. Optimal cutoff values of allergen-specific immunoglobulin E to house dust mites and animal dander based on skin-prick test results: Analysis in 16,209 patients with allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-25

    The most common tests for allergen sensitization in patients with allergic rhinitis are the skin-prick test(SPT) and an in vitro test to detect serum specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE). However, in vitro allergen test results were interpreted dichotomically as positive or negative at a threshold of 0.35kU/L of sIgE, regardless of the patient characteristics or antigen types. The purpose of this study was to determine the cutoff value for sIgE in house-dust mites and animal dander, and to analyze differences in cutoff value according to age and gender. A total of 16,209 patients with more than one allergic rhinitis symptom who underwent both SPT and serum sIgE testing were retrospectively evaluated between March 2008 and May 2012. There were 9374 male (57.8%) and 6835 female (42.2%) patients. The mean age was 31.8 years (range, 2-89 years). The criterion standard for allergen sensitization was defined as a wheal of > 3 mm or an allergen-to-histamine ratio of greater than or equal to 1 in SPT results. The Youden index was used to calculate the cutoff value of sIgE. Cutoff values of sIgE for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, cat, and dog were 0.69, 1.16, 0.13, and 0.45 kU/L, respectively. The cutoff value of sIgE changed according to age for D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae but not for cat and dog allergens. When categorizingaccording to age group, the cutoff values of sIgE for D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae had a tendency to decrease with age. There was no significant difference in cutoff value according to gender. The cutoff value for sIgE differed for each antigen and changed with age. Physicians should select the proper cutoff value for sIgE for appropriate criteria according to antigen and patient age rather than using a uniform cutoff value.

  5. Atopy patch tests in young adult patients with atopic dermatitis and controls: dose-response relationship, objective reading, reproducibility and clinical interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygum, Anette; Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    The clinical interpretation and reproducibility of atopy patch tests was studied in 23 selected young adult patients with atopic dermatitis and 25 healthy controls using standard inhalant allergens. Non-invasive measurements were used for objective assessment of test reactions and the participants......-dependent results were obtained with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, grass and cat with a reproducibility rate of 0.69 to 0.81 in patients and 0.60-0.96 in controls. A unique finding was a significant positive correlation between a positive atopy patch test, allergen dose and increase in transepidermal water loss...

  6. Comparison of dose-responses of contact allergens using the guinea pig maximization test and the local lymph node assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Och, F.M.M. van; Vandebriel, R.J.; Prinsen, M.K.; Jong, W.H. de; Slob, W.; Loveren, H. van

    2001-01-01

    The guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) has been used as a method for the prediction of skin sensitizing potential for over 30 years. Besides hazard identification, risk assessment of sensitizing chemicals requires the assessment of potency. For the determination of potency based on lowest effective

  7. Assessment of the risk of respiratory sensitization from fragrance allergens released by air fresheners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Burg, Wouter; Bouma, Krista; Schakel, Durk J; Wijnhoven, Susan W P; van Engelen, Jacqueline; van Loveren, Henk; Ezendam, Janine

    2014-04-01

    Consumers using air fresheners are exposed to the emitted ingredients, including fragrances, via the respiratory tract. Several fragrances are known skin sensitizers, but it is unknown whether inhalation exposure to these chemicals can induce respiratory sensitization. Effects on the immune system were assessed by testing a selection of five fragrance allergens in the respiratory local lymph node assay (LLNA). The probability and extent of exposure were assessed by measuring concentrations of the 24 known fragrance allergens in 109 air fresheners. It was shown that the most frequently used fragrances in air fresheners were D-limonene and linalool. In the respiratory LLNA, these fragrances were negative. Of the other tested chemicals, only isoeugenol induced a statistically significant increase in cell proliferation. Consumer exposure was assessed in more detail for D-limonene, linalool, and isoeugenol by using exposure modeling tools. It was shown that the most frequently used fragrances in air fresheners, D-limonene, and linalool gave rise to a higher consumer exposure compared with isoeugenol. To evaluate whether the consumer exposure to these fragrances is low or high, these levels were compared with measured air concentrations of diisocyanates, known human respiratory sensitizers. This comparison showed that consumer exposure from air fresheners to D-limonene, linalool, and isoeugenol is considerably lower than occupational exposure to diisocyanates. By combing this knowledge on sensitizing potency with the much lower exposure compared to diisocyanates it seems highly unlikely that isoeugenol can induce respiratory sensitization in consumers using air fresheners.

  8. Multiplex detection of food allergens and gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chung Y; Nowatzke, William; Oliver, Kerry; Garber, Eric A E

    2015-05-01

    To help safeguard the food supply and detect the presence of undeclared food allergens and gluten, most producers and regulatory agencies rely on commercial test kits. Most of these are ELISAs with a few being PCR-based. These methods are very sensitive and analyte specific, requiring different assays to detect each of the different food allergens. Mass spectrometry offers an alternative approach whereby multiple allergens may be detected simultaneously. However, mass spectrometry requires expensive equipment, highly trained analysts, and several years before a quantitative approach can be achieved. Using multianalyte profiling (xMAP®) technology, a commercial multiplex test kit based on the use of established antibodies was developed for the simultaneous detection of up to 14 different food allergens plus gluten. The assay simultaneously detects crustacean seafood, egg, gluten, milk, peanut, soy, and nine tree nuts (almond, Brazil nut, cashew, coconut, hazelnut, macadamia, pine nut, pistachio, and walnut). By simultaneously performing multiple tests (typically two) for each analyte, this magnetic bead-based assay offers built-in confirmatory analyses without the need for additional resources. Twenty-five of the assays were performed on buffer extracted samples, while five were conducted on samples extracted using reduced-denatured conditions. Thus, complete analysis for all 14 allergens and gluten requires only two wells of a 96-well microtiter plate. This makes it possible to include in a single analytical run up to 48 samples. All 30 bead sets in this multiplex assay detected 5 ng/mL of food allergen and gluten with responses greater than background. In addition, 26 of the bead sets displayed signal/noise ratios of five or greater. The bead-based design makes this 30-plex assay expandable to incorporate new antibodies and capture/detector methodologies by ascribing these new detectors to any of the unassigned bead sets that are commercially available.

  9. Racial differences in the association of CD14 polymorphisms with serum total IgE levels and allergen skin test reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ZY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ZongYao Wang,1 John S Sundy,1 Catherine M Foss,1 Huiman X Barnhart,2 Scott M Palmer,1 Sallie D Allgood,3 Evan Trudeau,1 Katie M Alexander,3 Marc C Levesque31Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, 2Duke Clinical Research Institute, 3Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USABackground: The CD14 C-159T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP has been investigated widely as a candidate genetic locus in patients with allergic disease. There are conflicting results for the association of the CD14 C-159T SNP with total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE levels and atopy. There are limited data regarding the association of the CD14 C-159T SNP in subjects of African ancestry. The aim of the study was to determine whether the C-159T SNP and other CD14 SNPs (C1188G, C1341T were associated with total serum IgE levels and with allergy skin test results in nonatopic and atopic subjects; as well as in Caucasian and African American subjects.Methods: A total of 291 participants, 18–40 years old, were screened to determine whether they were atopic and/or asthmatic. Analyses were performed to determine the association between CD14 C-159T, C1188G, or C1341T genotypes with serum IgE levels and with the number of positive skin tests among Caucasian or African American subjects.Results: We found no significant association of serum total IgE level with CD14 C-159T, C1188G, or C1341T genotypes within nonatopic or atopic subjects. Subjects with CD14-159 T alleles had significantly more positive allergen skin tests than subjects without CD14-159 T alleles (P = 0.0388. There was a significant association between the CD14 1188 G allele, but not the CD14 1341 T allele, with the number of positive skin-test results in Caucasians, but not in African Americans.Conclusion: These results support a possible association between CD14 polymorphisms and atopy. CD14-159 T or CD14 1188 G alleles were associated with atopic

  10. Allergen Immunotherapy and Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomokazu Matsuoka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT is associated with a marked decrease in symptoms on allergen exposure, a reduced requirement for 'rescue' anti-allergic drugs and improvement in patients' quality of life. These benefits persist for at least several years following discontinuation of immunotherapy - the hallmark of clinical and immunological tolerance. AIT has been shown to modulate both innate and adaptive immunological responses. Early suppression of innate effector cells of allergic inflammation (mast cells, basophils, regulation of pro-allergic T helper 2 type (Th 2 responses and IgE+ B cell responses have been shown to occur both in the tissue and in the peripheral blood during AIT. The allergen-tolerant state is associated with local and systemic induction of distinct populations of allergen-specific T regulatory cells including IL-10+ Tregs (Tr1 cells, TGF-P+ Tregs and FoxP3+ memory T regs. B cells are switched in favour of producing IgG (particularly IgG4 antibodies and associated blocking activity for IgE-dependent events, including basophil activation and IgE-facilitated allergen binding to B cells. An induction of IL-10+ B regulatory cells and alterations in dendritic cell subsets have also recently been described. These events are followed by the induction of T regulatory cells, suppression of allergen-specific T cell proliferation and immune deviation from Th2 in favour of Th1 responses. Alternative mechanisms of tolerance include apoptosis/deletion of antigen-specific memory Th2 cells and/or a failure of co-stimulation leading to T cell anergy.

  11. Cross-reactivity between Anisakis spp. and wasp venom allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Rosa; Monsalve, Rafael I; Galán, Agustin; Perez-Piñar, Teresa; Umpierrez, Ana; Lluch-Bernal, Magdalena; Polo, Francisco; Caballero, María Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Anisakiasis is caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked fish or cephalopods parasitized by live L3 larvae of nematode Anisakis spp. Larvae anchor to stomach mucosa releasing excretion/secretion products which contain the main allergens. It has been described that nematode larvae release venom allergen-like proteins among their excretion/secretion products. We investigated potential cross-reactivity between Anisakis and wasp venom allergens. Two groups of 25 patients each were studied: wasp venom- and Anisakis-allergic patients. Sera from patients were tested by ImmunoCAP, dot-blotting with recombinant Anisakis allergens and ADVIA-Centaur system with Hymenoptera allergens. Cross-reactivity was assessed by IgE immunoblotting inhibition assays. Role of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) was studied by inhibition with bromelain and periodate treatment. A total of 40% of wasp venom-allergic patients had specific IgE to Anisakis simplex and 20% detected at least one of the Anisakis recombinant allergens tested. Likewise, 44% of Anisakis-allergic patients had specific IgE to Vespula spp. venom and 16% detected at least one of the Hymenoptera allergens tested. Wasp venom-allergic patients detected CCDs in Anisakis extract and peptide epitopes on Anisakis allergens rAni s 1 and rAni s 9, whereas Anisakis-allergic patients only detected CCDs on nVes v 1 allergen from Vespula spp. venom. The only Anisakis allergen inhibited by Vespula venom was rAni s 9. This is the first time that cross-sensitization between wasp venom and Anisakis is described. CCDs are involved in both cases; however, peptide epitopes are only recognized by wasp venom-allergic patients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Efficacy of a House Dust Mite Sublingual Allergen Immunotherapy Tablet in Adults With Allergic Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virchow, Johann Christian; Backer, Vibeke; Kuna, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The house dust mite (HDM) sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is a potential novel treatment option for HDM allergy-related asthma. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of the HDM SLIT tablet vs placebo for asthma exacerbations during an inhaled corticos...

  13. The effect of hypo-allergenic formulas in infants at risk of allergic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Jacobsen, H P; Høst, A

    1995-01-01

    Development of atopic disease seems to depend on both genetic factors and exposure to several environmental factors. At present ther is evidence that the mode of early infant feeding influences the development of food allergy, whereas daily exposure to inhalant allergens and daily exposure...

  14. Dust Allergens within Rural Northern Rocky Mountain Residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, Emily; Semmens, Erin; Noonan, Curtis; Cady, Carol; Ward, Tony

    2015-01-23

    To date, few studies have characterized allergens within residences located in rural areas of the northern Rocky Mountain region. In this study, we collected dust samples from 57 homes located throughout western Montana and northern Idaho. Dust samples were collected and later analyzed for dust mite allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1, Group 2 mite allergens (Der p 2 and Der f 2), domestic feline (Fel d 1), and canine (Can f 1). Indoor temperature and humidity levels were also measured during the sampling program, as were basic characteristics of each home. Dog (96%) and cat (82%) allergens were the most prevalent allergens found in these homes (even when a feline or canine did not reside in the home). Results also revealed the presence of dust mites. Seven percent (7%) of homes tested positive for Der p 1, 19% of homes were positive for Der f 1, and 5% of homes were positive for the Group 2 mite allergens. Indoor relative humidity averaged 27.0 ± 7.6% within the homes. Overall, humidity was not significantly associated with dust mite presence, nor was any of the other measured home characteristics. This study provides a descriptive assessment of indoor allergen presence (including dust mites) in rural areas of the northern Rocky Mountains, and provides new information to assist regional patients with reducing allergen exposure using in-home intervention strategies.

  15. Allergens from fish and egg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hansen, T K; Nørgaard, A

    2001-01-01

    Allergens from fish and egg belong to some of the most frequent causes of food allergic reactions reported in the literature. Egg allergens have been described in both white and yolk, and the egg white proteins ovomucoid, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin and lysozyme have been adopted in the allergen...... nomenclature as Gal d1-d4. The most reported allergen from egg yolk seems to be alpha-livitin. In fish, the dominating allergen is the homologues of Gad c1 from cod, formerly described as protein M. A close cross-reactivity exists within different species of fish between this calcium-binding protein family...

  16. Unintended allergens in precautionary labelled and unlabelled products pose significant risks to UK allergic consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, B C; Baumert, J L; Blom, W M; Houben, G F; Taylor, S L; Kruizinga, A G

    2015-07-01

    Allergens in food may pose a risk to allergic consumers. While there is EU regulation for allergens present as an ingredient, this is not the case for unintended allergen presence (UAP). Food companies use precautionary allergen labels to inform allergic individuals of a potential risk from UAPs. This study investigates the risk of an allergic reaction within the milk-, wheat-, hazelnut- and peanut-allergic populations when ingesting UK foods across multiple product categories with and without precautionary allergen labelling. Allergen risk assessment using probabilistic techniques enables the estimation of the residual risk after the consumption of a product that unintentionally contains an allergen. Within this selection of UK products, the majority that tested positive for an allergen contained a concentration of allergen predicted to cause a reaction in >1% of the allergic population. The concentrations of allergens measured were greater than the VITAL(®) 2.0 action levels and would trigger precautionary allergen labelling. This was found for products both with and without precautionary allergen labelling. The results highlight the need for the food industry and regulators to adopt a transparent, risk-based approach for the communication of the risk associated with potential cross-contact that could occur in the processing facility or production chain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. [False positive reaction in measurement of allergen-specific IgE--comparison of 3M IgE FAST-Plus Test using polystyrene well as adsorbent with Phadezym RAST].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagihara, S; Ohtake, T; Kano, S; Iri, H

    1992-11-01

    Irrelevant IgE binding to cellulose discs is known to give false positive results in Phadezym RAST (Pharmacia) for the estimation of allergen-specific IgE in serum. We investigated FAST-Plus Test (3M Diagnostic Systems), an enzyme-linked sandwich type Fluoro-Allergo-Sorbent Test in which a particular allergen was coated to polystyrene well. Phadezym RAST and CAP RAST (Pharmacia) using cellulose-derivative discs as adsorbent were used as reference methods. Patients' sera which gave negative blank reactions to uncoated filter paper disc in the Phadezym RAST system were assayed for specific IgE to 6 allergens using FAST-Plus Test, CAP RAST and Phadezym RAST, and the results of the former two were compared with those of Phadezym RAST using a comparable class system. FAST-Plus Test showed variable correlations with Phadezym RAST, the correlation coefficients ranged from 0.41 to 0.97 (r = 0.462 in house dust 1, r = 0.713 in house dust 2, r = 0.412 in Candida albicans, r = 0.952 in Dermatophagoides peteronyssinus, r = 0.969 in Dermatophagoides farinae and r = 0.682 in Japanese cedar), although most of the results were within one class difference. Similar correlations were obtained between CAP RAST and Phadezym RAST. Of 3004 patients' sera tested in the past two years using Phadezym RAST, 132 (96 cases) displayed positive blank reactions to the uncoated filter paper disc. Of the 96 cases, 80 sera were assayed for binding of IgE to the uncoated cellulose-derivative disc in the CAP RAST system. 18 showed positive results up to 7 IU/ml.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Equine intradermal test threshold concentrations for house dust mite and storage mite allergens and identification of stable acari fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Holly A; Hurcombe, Samuel D A; Hillier, Andrew; Lorch, Gwendolen

    2014-04-01

    House dust mite (HDM) and storage mite (SM) stable fauna and their associated equine intradermal test (IDT) threshold concentrations (TCs) for the midwestern region of the USA are unknown. To determine IDT TCs and serum IgE concentrations for two HDM and three SM species in clinically normal horses over two seasons, and to identify the mite taxa and habitats in a stable. Thirty-eight clinically normal horses. Threshold concentrations for HDMs and SMs were determined using IDT subjective measurements and a statistical model. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to quantify serum IgE concentrations for the same mite species. A modified flotation method was used to identify morphologically HDMs and SMs. Subjective IDT TCs were as follows: 1:80,000 w/v for Dermatophagoides farinae in both seasons; 1:80,000 w/v in spring and 1:160,000 w/v in late summer for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; 1:40,000 w/v in spring and 1:20,000 w/v in late summer for Acarus siro; 1:20,000 w/v for Lepidoglyphus destructor in both seasons; and 1:20,000 w/v in spring and 1:10,000 w/v in late summer for Tyrophagus putrescentiae. Statistically significant associations for increased serum IgE and a positive IDT reaction were evident for D. farinae in the spring and D. pteronyssinus in both seasons. One mite from all four genera specific to this study was identified; however,two HDM and A. siro species were not detected.Conclusions and clinical importance – This study established HDM and SM IDT dilution concentrations for the horses in this region. Exposure to diverse acaridae fauna may contribute to the pathogenesis of equine allergic disease.

  19. [Basophil activation test--a practical approach to diagnosis of common respiratory allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leśniak, Małgorzata; Dyga, Wojciech; Porębski, Grzegorz; Czarnobilska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of immediate allergy is based on clinical data, skin prick tests (SPT), and measurements of allergen-specific IgE (sIgE). Basophil activation test (BAT) can supplement these methods and obviate their disadvantages, and possibly replace allergen challenge tests, such as a nasal provocative test (NPT). In this study, we assessed the influence of different storage times on BAT results. Futhermore, we compared the results of SPT, sIgE and NPT against BAT for common aeroallergens. BAT was performed in twelve patients with allergic rhinitis sensitized to birch pollen or mites 1, 4 and 24 hours after blood sampling. CD63 was used as an activation marker. Three serial 10-fold dilutions (1:1, 1:10, 100) of allergen extract were employed. The further 10 individuals allergic to mites undergone complete diagnostic evaluation including SPT, sIgE measurements, NPT and BAT. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the diagnostic techniques and tests conditions. Basophil activation expressed as stimulation index did not decline significantly up to 24h. Exposure to causal allergens resulted in a dose-dependent increase in expression of CD63 on peripheral blood basophils in tested individuals. We did not observed substantial differences in results of the investigated diagnostic methods determined by a ROC analysis. Flow-assisted diagnosis of common respiratory allergy relies upon allergen-induced activation of blood basophils can be a useful approach to determine the clinically relevant allergen in sensitized individuals. BAT with inhaled allergens can be performed within 24 hours after blood collecting into a tube with EDTA. Allergen suitable for NPT in appropriate dilutions is a good reagent for use in BAT.

  20. Chlorine Gas Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Carl W.; Martin, James G.

    2010-01-01

    inhalation have demonstrated evidence of oxidative injury and inflammation. Early epithelial injury, airways hyperresponsiveness, and airway remodeling, likely diminishing over time, have been shown. As in humans, ALI/ARDS can occur, becoming more likely when the upper airways are bypassed. Inhalation models of chlorine toxicity provide unique opportunities for testing potential pharmacologic rescue agents. PMID:20601629

  1. New Insights into Cockroach Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomés, Anna; Mueller, Geoffrey A; Randall, Thomas A; Chapman, Martin D; Arruda, L Karla

    2017-04-01

    This review addresses the most recent developments on cockroach allergen research in relation to allergic diseases, especially asthma. The number of allergens relevant to cockroach allergy has recently expanded considerably up to 12 groups. New X-ray crystal structures of allergens from groups 1, 2, and 5 revealed interesting features with implications for allergen standardization, sensitization, diagnosis, and therapy. Cockroach allergy is strongly associated with asthma particularly among children and young adults living in inner-city environments, posing challenges for disease control. Environmental interventions targeted at reducing cockroach allergen exposure have provided conflicting results. Immunotherapy may be a way to modify the natural history of cockroach allergy and decrease symptoms and asthma severity among sensitized and exposed individuals. The new information on cockroach allergens is important for the assessment of allergen markers of exposure and disease, and for the design of immunotherapy trials.

  2. The cashew allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Marit

    2017-01-01

    Cashew nut allergy can be a severe food allergy of which the prevalence appears to be increasing. The aim of this thesis was a comprehensive molecular and serological characterisation of the cashew nut allergens Ana o 1, 2 and 3 for improved diagnosis and characterisation of patient populations.

  3. New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Goossens

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.

  4. Food processing and allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Vissers, Y.M.; Baumert, J.L.; Faludi, R.; Feys, M.; Flanagan, S.; Herouet-Guicheney, C.; Holzhauser, T.; Shimojo, R.; Bolt, N. van der; Wichers, H.; Kimber, I.

    2015-01-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed. In this review the impact of processing (heat and non-heat

  5. Food Processing and Allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.; Vissers, Y.; Baumert, J.L.; Faludi, R.; Fleys, M.; Flanagan, S.; Herouet-Guicheney, C.; Holzhauser, T.; Shimojo, R.; Bolt, van der Nieke; Wichers, H.J.; Kimber, I.

    2015-01-01

    Food processing can have many beneficial effects. However, processing may also alter the allergenic properties of food proteins. A wide variety of processing methods is available and their use depends largely on the food to be processed.

    In this review the impact of processing (heat and

  6. [Analysis of food allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in Guangzhou].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haiwen; Chen, Fei fei; Li, Jing

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the distribution of multiple food allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in Guangzhou area. Skin prick tests were performed in 1529 patients with allergic rhinitis. The result was discussed by the age of patients, the types of allergens and the response intensity. Five hundred and eighty-seven cases were positive. The most important food allergens were crab (25.6%), prawn (19.4%). There were statistical differences of positive reactions among three age groups (P food allergen was seafood. Crab and prawn are the main food allergens in patients with allergic rhinitis in Guangzhou. It is helpful for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Current challenges facing the assessment of the allergenic capacity of food allergens in animal models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Katrine Lindholm; van Bilsen, Jolanda; Głogowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    validated as predictive and none are currently suitable to test the allergenic potential of new foods. Here, the design of various animal models are reviewed, including among others considerations of species and strain, diet, route of administration, dose and formulation of the test protein, relevant...... produced using new technologies and production processes, insects, algae, duckweed, or agricultural products from third countries, creates the opportunity for development of new food allergies, and this in turn has driven the need to develop test methods capable of characterizing the allergenic potential...... of novel food proteins. There is no doubt that robust and reliable animal models for the identification and characterization of food allergens would be valuable tools for safety assessment. However, although various animal models have been proposed for this purpose, to date, none have been formally...

  8. Investigation of acute dermal irritation/corrosion, acute inhalation toxicity and cytotoxicity tests for Nanobiocide®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Hemmati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Nanomaterials, especially silver Nanoparticles (Ag-NPs, are employed in an increasing number of commercial products. This has led to an ever growing exposure of human beings to this substance. The first purpose of the Nano Committee of Food and Drug Administration of The Islamic Republic of Iran (IFDA is developing guidelines to assess and approve commercial nano-health products for their safety of human applications. Nanobiocide® as a commercial product of stable colloid including 2000 ppm Ag-NPs for surface antimicrobial applications was investigated according to IFDA guidelines in the approval process. Methods: The first fabrication and characterization method of the product were determined. The human exposure to Nanobiocide® were studied by cytotoxicity assay, dermal irritation and inhalation toxicity assay based on the standard assay. Results: According to cytotoxicity assay by MTT method the concentration-dependent of cell viability was reduced and Inhibitory concentration-50 was about 1160 ppm. The Draize dermal irritation scoring system (DDIS showed no irritation to the skin of rabbits. No sign of gross toxicity, adverse pharmacological effect, or abnormal behavior based on inhalation toxicity was observed. Conclusions: The consideration of toxicity of Nanobiocide® is one of the major key for medical application. The results obtained revealed that the Nanobiocide® may be safe using in domestic and veterinary applications.

  9. Practical aspects of allergy-testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne

    2003-01-01

    Allergy-testing is a prerequisite for specific allergy treatment, including specific allergen avoidance measures, relevant pharmacotherapy and specific allergy vaccination. All children with persisting, recurrent or severe possible "allergic symptoms" or those with a need for continuous treatment...... should be tested, irrespective of the child's age. Allergy-testing includes a careful case history and a determination of IgE sensitisation by skin prick test or the measurement of allergen-specific IgE in serum by standardised and validated methods. The diagnosis of food allergy cannot usually be based...... solely on the case history and IgE sensitisation; the diagnosis has to be confirmed by controlled food elimination and food challenge procedures. The diagnosis of inhalant allergic disease requires only confirmatory nasal, conjunctival or bronchial challenges in equivocal cases or before specific allergy...

  10. Effects of oral cetirizine, a selective H1 antagonist, on allergen- and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in subjects with asthma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gong, H

    1990-03-01

    The protective efficacy of oral cetirizine, a selective and potent H1-receptor antagonist, against the immediate bronchoconstrictive response to allergen inhalation and exercise challenge was evaluated in 16 subjects with stable, predominantly mild asthma. The subjects underwent double-blind, crossover pretreatments in randomized order in two separate protocols with (1) three daily oral doses of 20 mg of cetirizine and placebo, followed by allergen inhalation, and (2) single oral doses of cetirizine (5, 10, and 20 mg), albuterol (4 mg), and placebo, followed by exercise with cold-air inhalation. Cetirizine failed to decrease bronchial sensitivity to inhaled allergen in eight of 10 subjects. Neither cetirizine nor albuterol uniformly inhibited exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Serum concentrations of cetirizine were consistent with systemic H1-blocking activity. Modest bronchodilation occurred after administration of cetirizine and albuterol before exercise but not after the third dose of cetirizine in the allergen protocol. One subject developed moderate drowsiness during multiple dosing with cetirizine. Thus, cetirizine, in the doses studied, is not uniformly effective in preventing allergen- or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Histamine is one of many mediators participating in immediate asthmatic responses, and selective H1 antagonists do not completely block these airway events. However, cetirizine may still clinically benefit some patients with asthma, such as patients with allergic rhinitis or urticaria.

  11. Serological response of cattle to Brucella allergen after repeated intradermal applications of this allergen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muskens, J.A.M.; Bercovich, Z.; Damen, C.P.R.M.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether an allergen that has been prepared from a mucoid strain of Brucella abortus triggers a serum antibody response that interferes with the interpretation of serologic tests results. Fifteen cattle seronegative for Brucella antigen were tested with the SDTH

  12. An alternative inhibition method for determining cross-reactive allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Hieltjes, Yvonne; Teodorowicz, Malgorzata; Jansen, Ad; den Hartog, Gerco; Elfvering-Berendsen, Lisette; de Jong, Nicolette W; Savelkoul, Huub F J; Ruinemans-Koerts, Janneke

    2017-02-01

    Inhibition assays are an useful tool to identify the allergen of primary sensitization of cross-reactive allergens. Classical ELISA-based inhibition assays are limited by both the availability of commercial standardized allergen extracts and the experience and knowledge needed for making home-made extracts. Moreover the direct comparison of the inhibition ELISAs outcomes between different laboratories is difficult because of different sources of used allergen extracts and a number of methodological variations. Therefore, we propose a novel ImmunoCap (Phadia, Thermofisher Scientific) based immunoinhibition method with the use of commercially available Caps as the allergen source. The novel ImmunoCap based immunoinhibition method was developed and tested with sera from patients with a well-known cross-reactive sensitization for fig (Ficus carica) and ficus (Ficus benjamina). Results were compared with a classically applied inhibition method, i.e. addition of homemade allergen extract to patient serum. The amount of allergens (fig and ficus extracts) needed to reach a similar degree of inhibition was comparable for both inhibition methods. The ImmunoCap based inhibition assay, in addition to classical inhibition methods, is a valuable tool as the ImmunoCap analyzer and commercial allergens (Caps) are more widely available which makes the outcomes of inhibition tests comparable between different laboratories. Furthermore, in the ImmunoCap inhibition method the same protein source is used for both the inhibition of sIgE and sIgE measurement, which might be even more relevant when multiple cross-reactive allergens are tested.

  13. Induction of Food Allergy in Mice by Allergen Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    M.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Cincinnati Foundation for Biomedical Research & Education Cincinnati, OH 45220-2213 REPORT DATE: December 2016...Biomedical Research & Education Cincinnati, OH 45220-2213 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S...best time after feeding to recover partially digested egg white from the stomach: Duration: 4 weeks (month 13). Animal requirement: 72 mice. Task 2

  14. Allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moote William

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy is a potentially disease-modifying therapy that is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis, allergic asthma and stinging insect hypersensitivity. However, despite its proven efficacy in these conditions, it is frequently underutilized in Canada. The decision to proceed with allergen-specific immunotherapy should be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account individual patient factors such as the degree to which symptoms can be reduced by avoidance measures and pharmacological therapy, the amount and type of medication required to control symptoms, the adverse effects of pharmacological treatment, and patient preferences. Since this form of therapy carries the risk of anaphylactic reactions, it should only be prescribed by physicians who are adequately trained in the treatment of allergy. Furthermore, injections must be given under medical supervision in clinics that are equipped to manage anaphylaxis. In this article, the authors review the indications and contraindications, patient selection criteria, and the administration, safety and efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  15. Allergen management in the food industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boye, Joyce I; Godefroy, Samuel Benrejeb

    2010-01-01

    .... Starting with an introduction to food allergens, the book follows with sections on food allergen management during production and processing, guidelines for the processing of specific allergen-free...

  16. Can pan-allergens affect the sensitization pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciprandi, Giorgio; Comite, Paola; Bruzzone, Marco; Fontana, Vincenzo

    2017-05-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that a pan-allergen sensitization may affect the sensitization pattern. For this reason, 22 sensitization pattern allergens (SPA), common in Genoa (Italy), were selected for analyses. Successively, five of them, such as Pru p 3 as representative for LTP family, Bet v 1 and Pru p 1 for PR-10, and Bet v 2 and Pru p 4 for Profilin, were used as target allergens (TA). This retrospective study included 1059 subjects, (396 males and 663 females, mean age 42.8 years). The current study showed that sensitization to a pan-allergen entails higher odds to have other sensitizations. In addition, the co-sensitization pattern depends on the basis of the sensitizing pan-allergen family. LTP-sensitization is strongly associated with peanut sensitization, PR10 and profiling sensitization with hazelnut positivity. This study shows that a pan-allergen sensitization is frequently associated with co-sensitizations and the sensitization pattern depends on the sensitizing pan-allergen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. [Evaluation of the total biological activity and allergenic composition of allergenic extracts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardero, M; González, R; Duffort, O; Juan, F; Ayuso, R; Ventas, P; Cortés, C; Carreira, J

    1986-01-01

    In the present study, a complete procedure is presented in order to standardize allergenic extracts, the meaning of which is the measurement of the total allergenic activity and the determination of the allergenic composition. The measurement of the biological activity comprises 2 steps: Preparation of Reference Extracts and determination of their "in vivo" activity. Evaluation of the total allergenic activity of extracts for clinical use. Reference extracts were prepared from the main allergens and their "in vivo" biological activity was determined by a quantitative skin prick test in a sample of at least 30 allergic patients. By definition, the protein concentration of Reference Extract that produces, in the allergic population, a geometric mean wheal of 75 mm.2 has an activity of 100 biological units (BUs). The determination of the biological activity of a problem extract is made by RAST inhibition. The sample is compared with the corresponding Reference Extract by this technique and, from this comparison, it is possible to quantify the activity of the problem extract in biologic units (BUs) with clinical significance. Likewise, different techniques have been used to determine the allergenic composition of extracts. These techniques comprise 2 steps: Separation of the components of the extract. Identification of the components that bind specific human IgE. The separation of the components of the extract has been carried out by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS-PAGE). In order to identify the allergenic components, an immunoblotting technique has been employed. The separated components in the IEF gel or SDS-PAGE gel are transferred to a nitrocellulose sheet and later on, this membrane is overlaid with a serum pool from allergic patients and a mouse monoclonal anti-human IgE, labelled with 125I. Finally, the autoradiography of the nitrocellulose membrane is obtained. In this way it is possible to compare

  18. A fungal protease allergen provokes airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balenga, Nariman A.; Klichinsky, Michael; Xie, Zhihui; Chan, Eunice C.; Zhao, Ming; Jude, Joseph; Laviolette, Michel; Panettieri, Reynold A.; Druey, Kirk M.

    2015-01-01

    Asthma, a common disorder that affects more than 250 million people worldwide, is defined by exaggerated bronchoconstriction to inflammatory mediators including acetylcholine, bradykinin, and histamine—also termed airway hyper-responsiveness Nearly 10% of people with asthma have severe, treatment-resistant disease, which is frequently associated with IgE sensitization to ubiquitous fungi, typically Aspergillus fumigatus. Here we show that a major Aspergillus fumigatus allergen, Asp f13, which is a serine protease, alkaline protease 1 (Alp 1), promotes airway hyper-responsiveness by infiltrating the bronchial submucosa and disrupting airway smooth muscle cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Alp 1-mediated extracellular matrix degradation evokes pathophysiological RhoA-dependent Ca2+ sensitivity and bronchoconstriction. These findings support a pathogenic mechanism in asthma and other lung diseases associated with epithelial barrier impairment, whereby airway smooth muscle cells respond directly to inhaled environmental allergens to generate airway hyper-responsiveness. PMID:25865874

  19. Ipratropium Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipratropium oral inhalation is used to prevent wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness in people with chronic ... comes as a solution (liquid) to inhale by mouth using a nebulizer (machine that turns medication into ...

  20. Identification of actinidin as the major allergen of kiwi fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorello, E A; Conti, A; Pravettoni, V; Farioli, L; Rivolta, F; Ansaloni, R; Ispano, M; Incorvaia, C; Giuffrida, M G; Ortolani, C

    1998-04-01

    Allergic reactions to fruits and vegetables are among the most frequent food allergies in adults. Kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensis) is commonly involved, causing local mucosal, systemic, or both types of symptoms by an IgE-mediated mechanism. In a previous study on 30 patients allergic to kiwi, we identified a major allergen of 30 kd against which all sera tested clearly reacted. Other allergens were detected at 12, 24, and 28 kd. The aim of this study was to fully characterize the major kiwi fruit allergen of 30 kd. Allergens were separated and purified by high-performance liquid chromatography with anion-exchange columns. The purity of the single proteins was checked by sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and their allergenicity was checked by immunoblotting with a pool of sera from patients allergic to kiwi. The allergens were characterized by isoelectrofocusing and amino acid sequencing, and periodic acid-Schiff stain was used to detect glycoproteins. Proteins of 30, 28, 24, and 17 kd were purified by high-performance liquid chromatography. IgE binding indicated the 30 kd protein, which showed an isoelectric point of 3.5, as the major allergen of kiwi. Determination of its partial amino acid sequence and comparison with the Swiss Protein Bank showed that this was actinidin, the main protein component of kiwi. The 24 and 28 kd proteins had the same N-terminal sequence, which did not correspond to any known protein. The 17 kd protein had a blocked N-terminal sequence. These results demonstrate that the major allergen of kiwi fruit, Act c 1, is actinidin, a proteolytic enzyme belonging to the class of thiol-proteases. Two other allergens of 24 and 28 kd appear identical on amino acid sequencing.

  1. Occupational mouse allergen exposure among non-mouse handlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin-Brosnan, Jean; Paigen, Beverly; Hagberg, Karol A; Langley, Stephen; O'Neil, Elise A; Krevans, Mary; Eggleston, Peyton A; Matsui, Elizabeth C

    2010-12-01

    This study assessed mouse allergen exposure across a range of jobs, including non-mouse handling jobs, at a mouse facility. Baseline data from 220 new employees enrolled in the Jackson Laboratory (JAXCohort) were analyzed. The baseline assessment included a questionnaire, allergy skin testing, and spirometry. Exposure assessments consisted of collection of two full-shift breathing zone air samples during a 1-week period. Air samples were analyzed for mouse allergen content, and the mean concentration of the two shifts represented mouse allergen exposure for that employee. The mean age of the 220 participants was 33 years. Ten percent reported current asthma and 56% were atopic. Thirty-eight percent were animal caretakers, 20% scientists, 20% administrative/support personnel, 10% materials/supplies handlers, and 9% laboratory technicians. Sixty percent of the population handled mice. Eighty-two percent of study participants had detectable breathing zone mouse allergen, and breathing zone mouse allergen concentrations were 1.02 ng/m³ (0.13-6.91) (median [interquartile range (IQR)]. Although mouse handlers had significantly higher concentrations of breathing zone mouse allergen than non-handlers (median [IQR]: 4.13 ng/m³ [0.69-12.12] and 0.21 ng/m³ [below detection (BD)-0.63], respectively; p < 0.001), 66% of non-handlers had detectable breathing zone mouse allergen. Mouse allergen concentrations among administrative/support personnel and materials/supplies handlers, jobs that generally do not entail handling mice, were median [IQR]: 0.23 ng/m³ [BD-0.59] and 0.63 ng/m³ [BD-18.91], respectively. Seventy-one percent of administrative/support personnel, and 68% of materials/supplies handlers had detectable breathing zone mouse allergen. As many as half of non-mouse handlers may have levels of exposure that are similar to levels observed among mouse handlers.

  2. Quality requirements for allergen extracts and allergoids for allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, J; Bonertz, A; Vieths, S

    2017-12-01

    All allergen products for allergen immunotherapy currently marketed in the European Union are pharmaceutical preparations derived from allergen-containing source materials like pollens, mites and moulds. Especially this natural origin results in particular demands for the regulatory requirements governing allergen products. Furthermore, the development of regulatory requirements is complicated by the so far missing universal link between certain quality parameters, in particular biological potency, on the one hand and clinical efficacy on the other hand. As a consequence, each allergen product for specific immunotherapy has to be assessed individually for its quality, safety and efficacy. At the same time, biological potency of allergen products is most commonly determined using IgE inhibition assays based on human sera relative to product-specific in house references, ruling out full comparability of products from different manufacturers. This review article aims to summarize the current quality requirements for allergen products including the special requirements implemented for control of chemically modified allergen extracts (allergoids). Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. The dispersion behaviour of dry powder inhalation formulations cannot be assessed at a single inhalation flow rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasmeijer, Floris; de Boer, Anne H.

    2014-01-01

    The dispersion performances of inhalation powders are often tested at only one inhalation flow rate in mechanistic formulation studies. This limited approach is challenged by studies showing that interactions exist between inhalation flow rate and the effects on dispersion performance of several

  4. Evaluating the sensitivity, reproducibility and flexibility of a method to test hard shell capsules intended for use in dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Rosalind H E; Jones, Brian E; Díez, Fernando; Birchall, James C; Coulman, Sion A

    2016-03-16

    Pharmaceutical tests for hard shell capsules are designed for orally administered capsules. The use of capsules in dry powder inhalers is widespread and increasing and therefore more appropriate tests are required to ensure quality and determine if these capsules are fit for purpose. This study aims to determine the flexibility, reproducibility and sensitivity of a quantitative method that is designed to evaluate the puncture characteristics of different capsule shell formulations under different climatic conditions. A puncture testing method was used to generate force displacement curves for five capsule formulations that were stored and tested at two different temperatures (5°C and 19°C). Force-displacement puncture profiles were reproducible for individual capsule shell formulations. The methodology was able to discriminate between capsules produced using different primary materials i.e. gelatin versus hypromellose, as well as more minor changes to capsule formulation i.e. different material grades and excipients. Reduced temperature increased the forces required for capsule puncture however further work is required to confirm its significance. Results indicate the method provides a reproducible and sensitive means of evaluating capsule puncture. Future studies should validate the methodology at different test sites, using different operators and with different capsule shell formulations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Allergy diagnosis in patients with bronchial asthma (bronchial provocation test, skin test and RAST) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Fruhmann, G; von Liebe, V

    1978-12-15

    87 patients with bronchial asthma underwent skin test, RAST and measurment of airway resistance before and after inhalation of control solution as well as at least 10 times after each of one to four bronchial provocations (making up a total of 171 tests) with extracts of house dust, house dust mite, animal dander, mould spores and pollen in increasing concentrations. An actual clinical significance of the skin test reactions was found in 60% of all cases and of the RAST results in 66% of all cases. The overall agreement between skin test results and RAST results was 61%. The correlations between the different tests depended on the degree of hypersensitivity, on the tested allergen and on whether the results of skin test and RAST, respectively, were positive or negative. There existed a good correlation between the results of all three test methods and case history only for pollen allergens and animal dander. Noticeably often negative RAST results with house dust and mould spores, as well as positive skin tests with house dust mite and mould spores could not be confirmed by the provocation test. Important indications for a bronchial provocation test in asthmatics are doubtful case history, doubtful skin test or RAST results with the problem-allergens house dust, house dust mite and mould spores; the bronchial provocation test is especially commendable when drastic or cumbersome therapeutic measures (immunotherapy, change of home, change of job) are to follow or if late asthmatic reactions are expected.

  6. Food, novel foods, and allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; LPI

    2002-01-01

    Certain foods lead may to allergic responses in certain individuals. Main allergenic foods are Crustacea (shrimp, lobster, crab), egg, fish, milk, peanuts, soybeans, tree nuts, and wheat, and allergens are always proteins. A wide array of symptoms can result from food allergy (gastrointestinal,

  7. Comparison of immunoglobulin E measurements on IMMULITE and ImmunoCAP in samples consisting of allergen-specific mouse-human chimeric monoclonal antibodies towards allergen extracts and four recombinant allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal B; Stender, Steen

    2013-01-01

    Specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibody in vitro tests are performed on enzyme immunoassay systems. Poor agreement among systems has been reported and comparisons have been made exclusively with allergen extracts - not with recombinant allergens. Here we compare the ImmunoCAP and the IMMULITE...

  8. The safety and efficacy of inhaled dry powder mannitol as a bronchial provocation test for airway hyperresponsiveness: a phase 3 comparison study with hypertonic (4.5% saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freed-Martens Ruth

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhaled mannitol is a new bronchial provocation test (BPT developed to improve portability and standardisation of osmotic challenge testing. Osmotic challenge tests have an advantage over the traditional methods of measuring airway hyperresponsiveness using methacholine as they demonstrate higher specificity to identify asthma and thus the need for treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS. The safety and the efficacy of mannitol (M as a BPT to measure airway hyperresponsiveness were compared to hypertonic (4.5% saline (HS in people both with and without signs and symptoms of asthma. Methods A phase III, multi-centre, open label, operator-blinded, crossover design, randomised trial, with follow-up. Asthmatics and non-asthmatics (6–83 yr were recruited and 592 subjects completed the study. Mannitol was delivered using a low resistance dry powder inhaler and HS was delivered using an ultrasonic nebuliser. The FEV1 was measured 60 seconds after each dose of mannitol (5,10,20,40,80,160,160,160 mg and after each exposure to HS (0.5,1.0,2.0,4.0,8.0 minutes. A 15% fall in FEV1 defined a positive test. Adverse events were monitored and diaries kept for 7 days following the tests. Results Mean pre-test FEV1 (mean ± SD was 95.5 ± 14% predicted. 296 were positive to mannitol (M+ and 322 positive to HS (HS+. A post study physician conducted clinical assessment identified 82.3% asthmatic (44% classified mild and 17.7% non-asthmatic. Of those M+, 70.1% were taking ICS and of those mannitol negative (M-, 81.1 % were taking ICS. The % fall in FEV1 for mannitol in asthmatics was 21.0% ± 5.7 and for the non-asthmatics, 5.5% ± 4.8. The median PD15 M was 148 mg and PD15 HS 6.2 ml. The sensitivity of M to identify HS+ was 80.7% and the specificity 86.7%. The sensitivity of M compared with the clinical assessment was 59.8% and specificity 95.2% and increased to 88.7% and 95.0% respectively when the M- subjects taking ICS were excluded

  9. Control of airborne and liquid-borne fungal and pet allergens using microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan; Yao, Maosheng

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the dog, cat allergens (Can f 1 and Fel d 1) and fungal allergens (Alt a 1 and Asp f 1) were aerosolized and exposed to the microwave irradiation (2450 MHz) at different output powers for up to 2 min. The allergen bioaerosols were collected by a BioSampler, and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Control and microwave-irradiated Asp f 1 allergens were also tested with IgEs in human blood sera samples. For airborne Asp f 1 and Alt a 1 allergens, the allergenicity was shown to decrease about 50% when exposed to microwave irradiation at 385 and 119 W and relatively no change at 700 W. For airborne Can f 1 allergen, the allergenicity was shown to increase about 70% when exposed to the irradiation at 385 W, but remained relatively unchanged at 700 and 119 W. In contrast, airborne Fel d 1 allergen was observed to lose allergenicity completely at 700 W, and retained about 40% and 80% at 385 and 119 W, respectively. Radioallergosorbent (RAST) tests showed that changes detected in IgE levels in human blood sera mixtures were not statistically significant for the control and microwave-irradiated waterborne Asp f 1 allergens. This study implies that although certain allergenicity reductions were observed for some allergens in certain cases, particular care should be taken when the microwave irradiation is used to disinfect food, water, and air because of its complex effects.

  10. Airway responses towards allergens - from the airway epithelium to T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazian, Dick; Hansen, Søren; Würtzen, Peter A

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis is increasing, affecting up to 30% of the human population worldwide. Allergic sensitization arises from complex interactions between environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility, resulting in inflammatory T helper 2 (Th2) cell......-damaged, healthy epithelium lowers the DCs ability to induce inflammatory T cell responses towards allergens. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge on which signals from the airway epithelium, from first contact with inhaled allergens all the way to the ensuing Th2 cell responses......, influence the pathology of allergic diseases. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  11. Isolation and partial characterization of three allergens of timothy pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løwenstein, H

    1978-02-01

    Three allergens, antigen Nos. 3, 25, and 30, were isolated from freeze-dried aqueous extract of timothy pollen by various combinations of anionic and cationic exchange and gel chromatography. The allergens were all of protein nature and contained less than 2% (w/w) immunochem;cally detectable impurities. Molecular weights and pI's were determined to less than 10 X 10(3), 15 X 10(3) and 3.9, 4.5, 9.4, respectively, and antigen 25 was determined as the major component of the earlier isolated antigen B. amino acid analyses performed an antigens 3 and 30 revealed large variation s in the amino acid composition. The allergenic activities were verified by means of RAST inhibition and pick tests and proved antigen 25 to be quantitatively the most important allergen of timothy pollen.

  12. Low molecular weight allergens of the pollen of Parietaria officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffilli, A; Oreste, U; Santonastaso, V; Scotto D' Abusco, A; Sacerdoti, G

    1987-03-01

    The allergenic composition of a low mol. wt fraction of the pollen extract of Parietaria officinalis (PO) was investigated. Fraction C, that was eluted after oxytocin (mol. wt 1040) when the pollen extract was gel filtered on Sephadex or on Biogel, was cross-reactive in the RAST with the major allergen P015 and was capable of eliciting histamine release from leukocytes of sensitive donors. RAST inhibition (RAST I) analysis of the eluate of gel filtration on Sephadex G-10 revealed several peaks of IgE binding activity. Analysis of fine specificity of response of individual patients carried out by skin-prick tests and by RAST I, revealed individual patterns of reactivity, indicating that allergens contained in fraction C were minor allergens.

  13. Asthma Inhalers: Which One's Right for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dose inhaler Metered dose inhaler with a spacer Dry powder inhaler Small and convenient to carry. Less convenient to ... t use a standard metered dose inhaler or dry powder inhaler. Other types include: Metered dose inhaler with a ...

  14. Functional testing of an inhalable nanoparticle based influenza vaccine using a human precision cut lung slice technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Neuhaus

    Full Text Available Annual outbreaks of influenza infections, caused by new influenza virus subtypes and high incidences of zoonosis, make seasonal influenza one of the most unpredictable and serious health threats worldwide. Currently available vaccines, though the main prevention strategy, can neither efficiently be adapted to new circulating virus subtypes nor provide high amounts to meet the global demand fast enough. New influenza vaccines quickly adapted to current virus strains are needed. In the present study we investigated the local toxicity and capacity of a new inhalable influenza vaccine to induce an antigen-specific recall response at the site of virus entry in human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS. This new vaccine combines recombinant H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin (HAC1, produced in tobacco plants, and a silica nanoparticle (NP-based drug delivery system. We found no local cellular toxicity of the vaccine within applicable concentrations. However higher concentrations of NP (≥10(3 µg/ml dose-dependently decreased viability of human PCLS. Furthermore NP, not the protein, provoked a dose-dependent induction of TNF-α and IL-1β, indicating adjuvant properties of silica. In contrast, we found an antigen-specific induction of the T cell proliferation and differentiation cytokine, IL-2, compared to baseline level (152±49 pg/mg vs. 22±5 pg/mg, which could not be seen for the NP alone. Additionally, treatment with 10 µg/ml HAC1 caused a 6-times higher secretion of IFN-γ compared to baseline (602±307 pg/mg vs. 97±51 pg/mg. This antigen-induced IFN-γ secretion was further boosted by the adjuvant effect of silica NP for the formulated vaccine to a 12-fold increase (97±51 pg/mg vs. 1226±535 pg/mg. Thus we were able to show that the plant-produced vaccine induced an adequate innate immune response and re-activated an established antigen-specific T cell response within a non-toxic range in human PCLS at the site of virus entry.

  15. Molecular composition and biological activity of commercial birch pollen allergen extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focke, M; Marth, K; Valenta, R

    2009-05-01

    Commercial extracts used for diagnosis and treatment of allergy are currently prepared from natural allergen sources. The aim of this study was to analyse birch pollen allergen extracts produced for in vivo diagnosis of birch pollen allergy regarding their contents of individual birch pollen allergens (Bet v 1, Bet v 2 and Bet v 4). Protein contents were measured and the allergen composition was analysed by immunoblotting using antibody probes specific for Bet v 1, Bet v 2 and Bet v 4 in birch pollen extracts from five manufacturers of allergen extracts. The contents of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1, were quantified with a specific two-site binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with nanogram sensitivity for Bet v 1. The biological activities of the allergen extracts were evaluated by skin prick testing in birch pollen allergic patients and compared with their sensitization profiles. A more than 10-fold variation regarding total protein contents (23.1-314 microg mL(-1)) and also regarding the amounts of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1 (1.62-19.6 microg mL(-1)) was found. The highly cross-reactive Bet v 4 allergen was absent in three of the five tested extracts. Furthermore, varying skin test results were obtained in birch pollen allergic patients with the allergen extracts. Commercial birch pollen extracts exhibit a considerable variability regarding allergen contents and hence deliver varying in vivo test results. These problems might be overcome with recombinant allergen-based preparations.

  16. Taxonomy of Allergenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levetin, Estelle; Horner, W Elliott; Scott, James A

    2016-01-01

    The Kingdom Fungi contains diverse eukaryotic organisms including yeasts, molds, mushrooms, bracket fungi, plant rusts, smuts, and puffballs. Fungi have a complex metabolism that differs from animals and plants. They secrete enzymes into their surroundings and absorb the breakdown products of enzyme action. Some of these enzymes are well-known allergens. The phylogenetic relationships among fungi were unclear until recently because classification was based on the sexual state morphology. Fungi lacking an obvious sexual stage were assigned to the artificial, now-obsolete category, "Deuteromycetes" or "Fungi Imperfecti." During the last 20 years, DNA sequencing has resolved 8 fungal phyla, 3 of which contain most genera associated with important aeroallergens: Zygomycota, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota. Advances in fungal classification have required name changes for some familiar taxa. Because of regulatory constraints, many fungal allergen extracts retain obsolete names. A major benefit from this reorganization is that specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in individuals sensitized to fungi appear to closely match fungal phylogenetic relationships. This close relationship between molecular fungal systematics and IgE sensitization provides an opportunity to systematically look at cross-reactivity and permits representatives from each taxon to serve as a proxy for IgE to the group. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular and immunological characterization of the first allergenic lipocalin in hamster: the major allergen from Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, José Alberto; de Las Heras, Manuel; Maroto, Aroa Sanz; Vivanco, Fernando; Sastre, Joaquín; Pastor-Vargas, Carlos

    2014-08-22

    The most frequent pet allergy is to cat and dog, but in recent years, it has become increasingly popular to have other pets, and the risk of exposure to new allergens is more prevalent. The list of new pets includes hamsters, and one of the most popular hamsters is the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). The aim of this study was the characterization and cloning of the major allergen from this hamster. The study of its allergenicity and cross-reactivity could improve the specific diagnosis and treatment for hamster-allergic patients. Thirteen Siberian hamster-allergic patients were recruited at the outpatient clinic. Protein extracts were prepared from the hair, urine, and salivary glands of four hamster species (European, golden, Siberian, and Roborovski). IgE-binding proteins were detected by immunoblotting and identified by mass spectrometry. The recombinant protein was produced in Escherichia coli and then purified by metal chelate affinity chromatography. The allergenic properties of the recombinant protein were tested by ELISA and immunoblotting, and biological activity was tested according to capacity for basophil activation. Three IgE-binding proteins were identified in extracts obtained from Siberian hamster hair, urine, and salivary glands. All proteins corresponded to the same protein, which was identified as a lipocalin. This lipocalin had no cross-reactivity with common and golden hamsters. The recombinant allergen was cloned and purified, showing similar IgE reactivity in vitro to Siberian hamster protein extracts. Also, the recombinant allergen was capable of producing biological activation in vivo. The major Siberian hamster allergen was cloned, and allergenic properties were characterized, providing a new tool for specific diagnosis of allergy to Siberian hamster. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  18. Does allergen-specific immunotherapy induce contact allergy to aluminium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netterlid, Eva; Hindsén, Monica; Siemund, Ingrid; Björk, Jonas; Werner, Sonja; Jacobsson, Helene; Güner, Nuray; Bruze, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Persistent, itching nodules have been reported to appear at the injection site after allergen-specific immuno-therapy with aluminium-precipitated antigen extract, occasionally in conjunction with contact allergy to aluminium. This study aimed to quantify the development of contact allergy to aluminium during allergen-specific immunotherapy. A randomized, controlled, single-blind multicentre study of children and adults entering allergen-specific immunotherapy was performed using questionnaires and patch-testing. A total of 205 individuals completed the study. In the 3 study groups all subjects tested negative to aluminium before allergen-specific immunotherapy and 4 tested positive after therapy. In the control group 4 participants tested positive to aluminium. Six out of 8 who tested positive also had atopic dermatitis. Positive test results were found in 5/78 children and 3/127 adults. Allergen-specific immunotherapy was not shown to be a risk factor for contact allergy to aluminium. Among those who did develop aluminium allergy, children and those with atopic dermatitis were more highly represented.

  19. Contact allergens in oral antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEnery-Stonelake, Melissa; Silvestri, Dianne L

    2014-01-01

    Excipients in various formulations of active drugs occasionally include known contact allergens. Their ingestion may trigger dermatitis or cause it to become widespread or refractory to therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of common contact allergens among the excipients of oral antihistamines available in this country. We gathered the complete ingredient lists of 2119 different preparations of 12 oral antihistamines from the National Library of Medicine data bank and entered them into an electronic database for analysis. More than half the formulations (55.0%) contained at least 1 member of the 10 allergen families assessed. Most brompheniramine and doxepin preparations included potentially allergenic excipients, whereas fexofenadine was most often free of them. Sorbitan group members, azo dyes, and propylene glycol were the allergens found most frequently in the antihistamines, each present in over 25% of the products. Elixirs, liquids, solutions, suspensions, and syrups were more likely than nonchewable caplets, capsules, and tablets to contain the allergens tabulated (100% vs 39.3%, respectively). Chewable pills frequently contained azo dyes. Ingestion of antihistamines could precipitate a systemic contact dermatitis in a patient sensitized to an allergen present as an excipient in the medicine.

  20. Comparing Proteolytic Fingerprints of Antigen-Presenting Cells during Allergen Processing

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    Heidi Hofer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Endolysosomal processing has a critical influence on immunogenicity as well as immune polarization of protein antigens. In industrialized countries, allergies affect around 25% of the population. For the rational design of protein-based allergy therapeutics for immunotherapy, a good knowledge of T cell-reactive regions on allergens is required. Thus, we sought to analyze endolysosomal degradation patterns of inhalant allergens. Four major allergens from ragweed, birch, as well as house dust mites were produced as recombinant proteins. Endolysosomal proteases were purified by differential centrifugation from dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells, and combined with allergens for proteolytic processing. Thereafter, endolysosomal proteolysis was monitored by protein gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. We found that the overall proteolytic activity of specific endolysosomal fractions differed substantially, whereas the degradation patterns of the four model allergens obtained with the different proteases were extremely similar. Moreover, previously identified T cell epitopes were assigned to endolysosomal peptides and indeed showed a good overlap with known T cell epitopes for all four candidate allergens. Thus, we propose that the degradome assay can be used as a predictor to determine antigenic peptides as potential T cell epitopes, which will help in the rational design of protein-based allergy vaccine candidates.

  1. Identification of autoclave-resistant Anisakis simplex allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballeda-Sangiao, Noelia; Olivares, Fabiola; Rodriguez-Mahillo, Ana I; Careche, Mercedes; Tejada, Margarita; Moneo, Ignacio; González-Muñoz, Miguel

    2014-04-01

    Anisakis simplex is a fish parasite able to induce allergic reactions in humans infected when eating raw or undercooked fish parasitized with viable third-stage larvae. Some authors claim that exposure to nonviable Anisakis material can result in allergic symptoms in previously sensitized patients, indicating that parasite allergens are resistant to the thermal treatments of usual cooking procedures. Furthermore, some patients report symptoms after eating canned fish. The aim of this work was the analysis of parasite allergen stability in heating to 121 °C in an autoclave to simulate the thermal process applied to canned fish. Third-stage larvae were subjected to autoclaving for 20, 40, and 80 min, and parasite crude extracts were analyzed by electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and a flow-cytometric basophil activation test. Allergens resistant to autoclaving were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by ion trap mass spectrometry. Protein analysis by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that autoclaving considerably reduced the number and intensity of identifiable protein bands in a time-dependent manner. Several allergens were detected by immunoblotting with a pool of A. simplex allergic patients' sera after autoclaving. Allergens of 9 and 14 kDa resistant to autoclaving were identified as Ani s 4 and Ani s 1 allergens, respectively. Functional analysis showed that allergens retain their capacity to activate basophils even after autoclaving for 80 min. In conclusion, some relevant A. simplex allergens retain their capacity to bind immunoglobulin E and activate basophils after being subjected to autoclaving, which is a method equivalent to that used in industrial canning processes.

  2. Nonadverse effects on allergenicity of isopentenyltransferase-transformed broccoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, E C; Chen, J T; Chao, M L; Yu, S C; Chang, C Y; Chu, W S; Tsai, J J

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) provide modern agriculture with improvements in efficiency and the benefits of enhanced food production; however, the potential impact of GMOs on human health has not yet been clarified. To investigate the allergenicity of isopentenyltransferase (ipt)-transformed broccoli compared with non-GM broccoli. Sera from allergic individuals were used to identify the allergenicity of GM and non-GM broccoli. Immunoglobulin (Ig) binding of different lines of GM and non-GM broccoli was identified using immunoblotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the histamin release assay. Positive reactions to broccoli (Brassica Oleracea) were observed in 7.02% of individuals. Specific IgE to broccoli and total IgE fro allergic individuals were well correlated. The different tests performed showed no significant differences in the allergenicity of conventionally raised and GM broccoli, indicating the absence of unexpected effects on allergenicity in ipt-transformed plants. Using Western blot analysis we detected heterogeneous IgE-reactive allergenic components in broccoli-allergic sera, but no significant differences between GM an non-GM broccoli were observed in serum from the same patients. Our study demonstrates that there are no differences between GM (ipt-transformed) broccoli and non-GM broccoli, as determined by specific IgE in sera from broccoli-allergic patients. This indicates that there were no unexpected effects on allergenicity in this GM broccoli.

  3. Fragrance allergens in 'specific' cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Andrea; Drieghe, Jacques; Claes, Lieve; Boey, Lies; Goossens, An

    2011-04-01

    Together with preservative agents, fragrance components are the most important sensitizing culprits in cosmetic products. To identify the nature of the fragrance ingredients responsible for allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) from specific cosmetic products. Between 2000 and 2009, positive patch test reactions or positive usage tests with the patients' own cosmetic products, were recorded using a standardised form. Of the 806 cosmetic records, corresponding to 485 patient files, 344 concerned reactions to fragrance ingredients that according to the label were present ('Presence Confirmed' [PC n = 301]) or suspected to be present ('Presence Not Confirmed' [PNC n = 376]) in the causal cosmetic products used, which belonged to 15 different categories, toilet waters/fine perfumes being the most frequent. Geraniol in fragrance mix I (FM I) and hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) in FM II were the most frequent PC, and together with hydroxycitronellal and Evernia prunastri (oak moss) the most frequent PNC ingredients in the causal cosmetic products. Limonene was the most frequent PC confirmed fragrance allergen. This study not only underlines the usefulness of fragrance-ingredient labelling in order to identify the causal allergen(s) present in specific cosmetic products, but may also provide information on trends in the actual use of sensitizing fragrance ingredients in them. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. AllergenFP: allergenicity prediction by descriptor fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Ivan; Naneva, Lyudmila; Doytchinova, Irini; Bangov, Ivan

    2014-03-15

    Allergenicity, like antigenicity and immunogenicity, is a property encoded linearly and non-linearly, and therefore the alignment-based approaches are not able to identify this property unambiguously. A novel alignment-free descriptor-based fingerprint approach is presented here and applied to identify allergens and non-allergens. The approach was implemented into a four step algorithm. Initially, the protein sequences are described by amino acid principal properties as hydrophobicity, size, relative abundance, helix and β-strand forming propensities. Then, the generated strings of different length are converted into vectors with equal length by auto- and cross-covariance (ACC). The vectors were transformed into binary fingerprints and compared in terms of Tanimoto coefficient. The approach was applied to a set of 2427 known allergens and 2427 non-allergens and identified correctly 88% of them with Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.759. The descriptor fingerprint approach presented here is universal. It could be applied for any classification problem in computational biology. The set of E-descriptors is able to capture the main structural and physicochemical properties of amino acids building the proteins. The ACC transformation overcomes the main problem in the alignment-based comparative studies arising from the different length of the aligned protein sequences. The conversion of protein ACC values into binary descriptor fingerprints allows similarity search and classification. The algorithm described in the present study was implemented in a specially designed Web site, named AllergenFP (FP stands for FingerPrint). AllergenFP is written in Python, with GIU in HTML. It is freely accessible at http://ddg-pharmfac.net/Allergen FP. idoytchinova@pharmfac.net or ivanbangov@shu-bg.net.

  5. Effect of Age on Allergen Responses of Allergic Patients in Southern Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chiang

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available To survey airborne and food allergen patterns in southern Taiwan and to analyze the effect of age on response to different allergens, we tested samples from 4,411 allergic patients at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital using the MAST-CLA test (new Taiwan panel. A total of 2,212 (50.1% samples showed a positive response. We grouped allergic patients into five age groups. Milk and egg white were the main food allergens in the younger groups (< 3 years old and 3-6 years old. Shrimp, crab, and shellfish were the main allergens in the groups aged 7-12, 13-18, and more than 18 years. Among airborne allergens, house dust and mites Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus were the main allergens in all age groups, whereas the frequency of response to cockroach allergen was low in the group aged less than 3 years, but increased in the other age groups. There was a sharp increase in the frequency of response to airborne allergens after 3 years old and a sharp decrease in response to food allergens. Among subjects allergic to both airborne and food allergens, there was a positive MAST-CLA rate of 19.9% to 26% (all five age groups, no significant difference. When we compared our results with those from Taipei Veterans General Hospital in northern Taiwan, there were significant differences for yeast, peanut, feather mix, dog dander, cockroach, D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus allergens (p < 0.01. These differences were probably caused by differences in patient location, patient age, disease patterns and allergen panels.

  6. Prevalence of food and airborne allergens in allergic patients in Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Fouladseresht

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of various environmental allergens is the major challenge in allergic diseases and the only treatment is avoiding these allergens. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of food and airborne allergens in allergic patients using Skin Prick Test (SPT. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done on clinically confirmed patients of atopic-dermatitis (n=54, allergenic-rhinitis (n=64 and chronic-urticaria (n=39 who referred to asthma and allergy clinic at Afzali-Pour hospital in Kerman during 2008-2010. Skin prick test was done using allergen extracts to determine the patients' sensitivity to food and airborne antigens. Results: Fifty-nine percent of patients responded to at least one allergen. Allergy to airborne and food allergens was 55.9 % and 21.7%, respectively. Chenopodiaceae (22.9% and egg white (10.2% were most prevalent airborne and food allergens. Allergy to cockroach, egg white, egg yolk and tomato was significantly higher in males than in females (P<0.05. Conclusion: The results indicated that allergy to food and airborne allergens is different depending on the nutrition and environmental conditions.

  7. High environmental ozone levels lead to enhanced allergenicity of birch pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Isabelle; Jochner, Susanne; Gilles, Stefanie; McIntyre, Mareike; Buters, Jeroen T M; Schmidt-Weber, Carsten; Behrendt, Heidrun; Ring, Johannes; Menzel, Annette; Traidl-Hoffmann, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is compelling for a positive correlation between climate change, urbanisation and prevalence of allergic sensitisation and diseases. The reason for this association is not clear to date. Some data point to a pro-allergenic effect of anthropogenic factors on susceptible individuals. To evaluate the impact of urbanisation and climate change on pollen allergenicity. Catkins were sampled from birch trees from different sites across the greater area of Munich, pollen were isolated and an urbanisation index, NO2 and ozone exposure were determined. To estimate pollen allergenicity, allergen content and pollen-associated lipid mediators were measured in aqueous pollen extracts. Immune stimulatory and modulatory capacity of pollen was assessed by neutrophil migration assays and the potential of pollen to inhibit dendritic cell interleukin-12 response. In vivo allergenicity was assessed by skin prick tests. The study revealed ozone as a prominent environmental factor influencing the allergenicity of birch pollen. Enhanced allergenicity, as assessed in skin prick tests, was mirrored by enhanced allergen content. Beyond that, ozone induced changes in lipid composition and chemotactic and immune modulatory potential of the pollen. Higher ozone-exposed pollen was characterised by less immune modulatory but higher immune stimulatory potential. It is likely that future climate change along with increasing urbanisation will lead to rising ozone concentrations in the next decades. Our study indicates that ozone is a crucial factor leading to clinically relevant enhanced allergenicity of birch pollen. Thus, with increasing temperatures and increasing ozone levels, also symptoms of pollen allergic patients may increase further.

  8. Toxicology Studies for Inhaled and Nasal Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, R K

    2015-08-03

    This review examines issues related to the toxicological testing of pharmaceuticals delivered by the inhalation or nasal route. The purpose of the toxicology studies is to conduct studies in animals that will aid the assessment of the safety of these agents delivered to patients. Inhalation toxicology studies present some unique issues because the dosing method differs from more standard administration methods such as oral or injection administration. Also, dose determination issues are more complex, particularly for inhalation administration since it is often difficult to determine the amount of material delivered to the lung both for patients and in animal toxicology studies.

  9. [Studies on the food allergenic proteins contained in pharmaceutical excipients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Shinobu; Adachi, Reiko; Miyazaki, Tamaki; Aso, Yukio; Okuda, Haruhiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2012-01-01

    Most drugs contain pharmaceutical excipients. These are pharmacologically inactive substances used as vehicles for the active ingredients of a medication. Some of these pharmaceutical excipients are produced from allergenic foods (e.g., milk, egg, peanut, soybean, and sesame) and removing proteins completely from such excipients is difficult. Therefore, if individuals with food allergy consume drugs containing allergenic food-derived excipients, eliminating the risk of developing specific allergic symptoms induced by them may not be possible. We determined the levels of proteins in pharmaceutical excipients and ethical drugs (inhalants and injections) by spectrophotometric analyses. The level of protein in the pharmaceutical excipient lactose in each sample was approximately 1 mg/g. In the case of oils from soybeans, peanuts, and sesame in pharmaceutical excipients, proteins were detected in the range 7-9 microg/g sample. We also determined levels of allergenic proteins in pharmaceutical excipients and ethical drugs using commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay systems. The milk proteins in lactose were detected in the range 1.39-13.07 microg/g. The results of this study suggest that physicians, patients with food allergies, pharmacists, and healthcare providers must pay attention to presence of potential impurities those may cause allergic symptoms in pharmaceutical products.

  10. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Dhami, Sangeeta; Arasi, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). To inform the development of recommendations, we sought to critically assess the systematic review evidence on the effective...

  11. The Level of Sensitivity of Food Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Rengganis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the occurrence of allergy continues to increase rapidly both domestically and globally. World Allergy Organization (WAO revealed that 22% of the world population suffers from allergies, and this number increases every year. Food allergy is a condition caused by the reaction of IgE against substances (chemicals in food. Food allergy can interfere with brain function and body organ systems as well as affect the quality of life. The purpose of this study is to know the level of sensitivity of food allergens in the Immunology Allergy Poly RSCM in 2007. Data were collected from 208 patients who have medical records and went through skin prick tests in the Immunology Allergy Clinic RSCM in 2007. Univariate analysis was performed to describe the types of food allergens within groups of children and adults. Around 49% of the respondents were sensitive to food allergens. The types of foods that caused the most allergies for children and adults are respectively shrimp, egg white and cornstarch. Cow's milk and wheat flour are the types of food that caused most allergies for children only, whereas for adults, the food that caused the most allergies is crab.

  12. Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gent, Janneane F., E-mail: janneane.gent@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Belanger, Kathleen [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Triche, Elizabeth W. [Brown University, Department of Community Health/Epidemiology, Providence, RI (United States); Bracken, Michael B. [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Beckett, William S. [Mount Auburn Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Cambridge, MA (United States); Leaderer, Brian P. [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Background: Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma. Objective: To examine the dose-response relationships and health impact of five common household dust allergens on disease severity, quantified using both symptom frequency and medication use, in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. Methods: Asthmatic children (N=300) aged 4-12 years were followed for 1 year. Household dust samples from two indoor locations were analyzed for allergens including dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1). Daily symptoms and medication use were collected in monthly telephone interviews. Annual disease severity was examined in models including allergens, specific IgE sensitivity and adjusted for age, gender, atopy, ethnicity, and mother's education. Results: Der p 1 house dust mite allergen concentration of 2.0 {mu}g/g or more from the main room and the child's bed was related to increased asthma severity independent of allergic status (respectively, OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.37, 6.30 for 2.0-10.0 {mu}g/g and OR 2.55 95% CI 1.13, 5.73 for {>=}10.0 {mu}g/g). Higher pet allergen levels were associated with greater asthma severity, but only for those sensitized (cat OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19, 4.89; dog OR 2.06 95% CI 1.01, 4.22). Conclusion: Higher levels of Der p 1 and pet allergens were associated with asthma severity, but Der p 1 remained an independent risk factor after accounting for pet allergens and regardless of Der p 1 specific IgE status.

  13. Allergen component analysis as a tool in the diagnosis of occupational allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulf, Monika

    2016-04-01

    Rapid developments have been seen in molecular allergy diagnosis, based on the detection and quantification of specific IgE to single allergens. This review summarizes and discusses studies on allergen component analysis as a tool in the diagnosis of occupational allergy. More than 400 agents are identified as sensitizers of occupational asthma, but only very few are characterized on the molecular level and available for routine diagnosis. Baker's asthma is one of the most frequently occurring forms of occupational asthma caused by workplace-related inhalation of cereal flour mainly wheat. Wheat sensitization profiles of bakers show great interindividual variability and no wheat allergen could be classified as the major allergen. Component-resolved diagnosis is a useful tool for diagnosing natural rubber latex (NRL) allergy. In cases with unexpected high-latex IgE but without clinical symptoms application of crossreactive carbohydrate determinants are helpful to clarify the cause of IgE binding. Latex is an excellent model for component-resolved diagnosis and demonstrates well how to improve the diagnosis by using single allergens. For diagnosis of baker's asthma, a whole wheat extract is still the best option for specific IgE determination, but single wheat allergens might help to discriminate between wheat-induced food allergy, grass-pollen allergy, and baker's asthma. New diagnostic tools and platforms are promising, but further knowledge of molecules relevant for occupational asthma (as in wood dust allergens, enzymes, laboratory animal allergens, etc.) and for occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis is necessary to improve and standardize the diagnostic tools.

  14. Allergen cross-reactivity in allergic rhinitis and oral-allergy syndrome: a bioinformatic protein sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Michael; Howell, Sara; Sachdeva, Ricky; Dumont, Charles

    2014-07-01

    Clinical allergy cross-reactivity that is seen with related inhalant allergens or between unrelated inhalant allergens and foods in oral allergy syndrome (OAS) remains poorly understood. The goal of this study is to determine whether clinical cross-reactivity can be identified from primary protein sequences in allergy epitopes and food proteins. High-throughput analysis was performed by assembling all known allergy epitopes within the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB; http://www.iedb.org) for 5 common species from 5 inhalant allergen subclasses and comparing their protein sequences to each other, as well as to sequences of intact proteins from known cross-reactive foods in the European Molecular Biology Laboratory-European Bioinformatics Institute (EMBL-EBI) protein database (http://www.uniprot.org) that have been implicated in OAS. Computational methods were employed to allow for exact matching, gaps, and similar amino acids using multiple algorithms. A phylogenetic tree was created to determine evolutionary relationships between cross-reactive epitopes in OAS. Twenty-three common inhalant allergens had 4429 unique epitopes; the 19 foods implicated in OAS had 9497 protein sequences. The Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) algorithm identified interclass and intraclass sequence similarities for the 5 inhalant allergy classes with high similarity for mites, grasses, and trees. Analysis of OAS proteins identified 104 matches to inhalant allergy epitopes that are known to cross-react. The phylogenetic tree displayed relationships that mostly followed organism phylogeny. Use of primary protein sequences was successful in explaining clinical allergy cross-reactivity. Clinical correlation is needed for use of these epitopes as diagnostic or therapeutic entities for patients with cross-reactive allergic disease. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  15. Long-term effects of allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy for house dust mite induced allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, E; Dizdar, D; Dinc, M E; Cirik, A A

    2017-10-17

    Allergic rhinitis is strongly associated with the presence of house dust mites. This study investigated the long-term effects of allergen-specific immunotherapy. Allergen-specific immunotherapy was applied over three years. The study was based on a 10-year follow up of patients with allergic rhinitis. The study was conducted between 2001 and 2015. Skin prick test results and symptom scores were evaluated before (26 patients) and after 3 years (20 patients) of allergen-specific immunotherapy (using data from a previously published study), and 10 years after allergen-specific immunotherapy had ended (20 of 26 patients). The symptom scores before allergen-specific immunotherapy were significantly higher than those obtained after 3 years of allergen-specific immunotherapy and 10 years after allergen-specific immunotherapy (p 0.0175). Subcutaneous immunotherapy is an effective treatment for house dust mite induced allergic rhinitis.

  16. Fungi: the neglected allergenic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crameri, R; Garbani, M; Rhyner, C; Huitema, C

    2014-02-01

    Allergic diseases are considered the epidemics of the twentieth century estimated to affect more than 30% of the population in industrialized countries with a still increasing incidence. During the past two decades, the application of molecular biology allowed cloning, production and characterization of hundreds of recombinant allergens. In turn, knowledge about molecular, chemical and biologically relevant allergens contributed to increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying IgE-mediated type I hypersensitivity reactions. It has been largely demonstrated that fungi are potent sources of allergenic molecules covering a vast variety of molecular structures including enzymes, toxins, cell wall components and phylogenetically highly conserved cross-reactive proteins. Despite the large knowledge accumulated and the compelling evidence for an involvement of fungal allergens in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, fungi as a prominent source of allergens are still largely neglected in basic research as well as in clinical practice. This review aims to highlight the impact of fungal allergens with focus on asthma and atopic dermatitis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Identification and characterisation of heat-stable allergens from Sarcoptes scabiei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simson Tarigan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Animals or human recovered from Sarcoptes scabiei infestation acquired protective immunity against reinfestation. The protective immunity is considered to be associated with a type-1-hypersensitivity reaction against allergens instigated by the mites during infestation. It is assumed that these allergens have the potential to be used as the main component of an anti-scabies vaccine. The purpose of this study is to identify and characterise the sarcoptic allergens. For this purpose, 645 mg of mites, collected from mangy goats, were homogenised in PBS to prepare soluble mite proteins. Fractionation of proteins was initially performed on a Q-sepharose column but the results were unsatisfactory. Consequently, SDS PAGE was used as an alternative. Proteins from the gel were transferred onto a nitrocellulose membrane. The membrane was cut into strips so each strip contained proteins with molecular weights of ³ 90, 80-90, 70-80, 60-70, 50-60, 40-50, 30-40, 25-30, 20-25, 15-20 and 10-15 kDa, respectively. The heat stability of the allergens was determined by heating the suspension at 60ºC for 60 minutes, whereas their dialysability was evaluated using a 10-kDa-cut-off ultramembrane. The activity of the allergens was assayed by an intradermal test on sensitised goats. This study showed that mite protein extract was very potent allergens since mite extract containing as little as 1 ng mite proteins still caused an obvious hypersensitive reaction. The mite extract contained heat-stable, dialysable and non-dialysable allergens. All fractions recovered from a Q-sepharose column contained allergens with almost equal potency. Fractionation with the SDS-PAGE revealed that the allergens had molecular weights of 35 and <10 kDa. The former allergen is assumed to be a member of group 10 allergens, whereas the later belong to haptenic allergens.

  18. Biochemical and immunological characterization of recombinant allergen Lol p 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamborini, E; Faccini, S; Lidholm, J; Svensson, M; Brandazza, A; Longhi, R; Groenlund, H; Sidoli, A; Arosio, P

    1997-11-01

    Pollen from perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne), a major cause of type-I allergy worldwide, contains a complex mixture of allergenic proteins among which Lol p 1 is one of the most important. We describe the expression, purification and characterization of a recombinant Lol p 1 overproduced in Escherichia coli. The recombinant allergen, expressed in high yields and purified in milligram amounts, bound to specific IgE antibodies from human sera, induced histamine release from sensitized human basophils, and elicited rabbit antisera that recognize specifically recombinant Lol p 1 and natural Lol p 1 of pollen extract. Recombinant Lol p 1 was used to develop ImmunoCAP assays for analysis of 150 sera that were Radioallergosorbent test positive to L. perenne pollen. In 130 of them (87%) the assay detected a significant level of IgE antibodies to Lol p 1, reaching on average 37% of the level obtained with a test for IgE to the whole grass pollen extract. To map epitopes on Lol p 1, we produced three deletion mutants [des-(116-240)-Lol p 1, des-(1-88)-Lol p 1 and des-(133-189)-Lol p 1], which were efficiently expressed in bacteria. These all showed a strong reactivity with the specific rabbit IgG antibodies, but lacked most or all the allergenic properties of recombinant Lol p 1. A study of the antigenic structure of Lol p 1 was performed using the three deletion mutants and a set of 17-18-residue overlapping synthetic peptides covering the whole allergen sequence. The results indicate that human IgE and rabbit IgG antibodies bind to distinct regions of Lol p 1, and that at least some important IgE epitopes are mainly conformational. The findings suggest that recombinant allergens constitute useful reagents for further development of serological diagnosis of allergy, and that it should be possible to produce immunogenic fragments of allergenic proteins without allergenic properties.

  19. Allergen Induced Increase in Nonallergic Airway Responsiveness: A Citation Classic Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald W Cockcroft

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND:The present paper revisits the 1977 paper by DW Cockcroft, RE Ruffin, the late J Dolovich and FE Hargreave entitled "Allergen-induced increase in nonallergic bronchial reactivity" (Clin Allergy 1977;7:503-13 that became a citation classic. Although clinical types of asthma were recognized at the time, there was a poor understanding regarding the role of allergic reactions in causing increases in airway hyperresponsiveness. The objective was to study formally Dr Altounyan's observation that patients with asthma showed increases in airway responsiveness at the times of natural allergen exposure during pollen season. Thirteen atopic patients with asthma were studied over two days, following inhalation of diluent (control and following doubling amounts of an allergen solution at 10-min intervals until forced expiration volume in 1 s fell by 20%. Methacholine and histamine challenges were performed before, at 8 h, at 32 h and seven days following the inhalations. A significant reduction (reduction of at least one doubling concentration in the provocative concentration that causes a 20% fall in forced expiration volume in 1 s occurred in seven of 13 patients, and more often in subjects with a late bronchoconstrictor response to allergen challenge.

  20. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression in asthmatic children on inhaled and nasal corticosteroids: is the early-morning serum adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) a useful screening test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöllner, Ekkehard W; Lombard, Carl; Galal, Ushma; Hough, Stephen; Irusen, Elvis; Weinberg, Eugene

    2011-09-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression (HPAS) in asthmatic children treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), with or without nasal steroids (NS), may be more common than previously thought. Only dynamic testing will identify children at risk of adrenal crisis. It is impractical to test all asthmatic children for HPAS with a gold standard adrenal function test, i.e. the metyrapone or insulin tolerance test. To determine which clinical or biochemical parameter is the most useful screening test for HPAS in asthmatic children. Twenty-six asthmatic children, 5-18 yr old, on ICS ± NS, not treated with oral or topical steroids in the preceding year were recruited. Height, weight, height velocity, weight velocity and a change in systolic blood pressure from the recumbent to the standing position (ΔSBP) were recorded. Early-morning urine for urinary free cortisol (UFC) and urinary cortisol metabolites (UCM) was collected. UFC was analysed by both a chemiluminescent assay and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Morning serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels were measured. The overnight metyrapone test was performed if the fasting morning serum cortisol was >83 nmol/l. HPAS was diagnosed if the ACTH failed to rise >100 pg/ml after metyrapone. Spearman correlation coefficients (r) were calculated between the post-metyrapone ACTH and each variable. A receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve was drawn for the most promising test, and the diagnostic performance was calculated. All clinical and biochemical parameters investigated were weakly and non-significantly correlated with the post-metyrapone ACTH, except for the morning serum ACTH (r = 0.68; p <0.001). The best discrimination between those who have and those who do not have HPAS is a morning serum ACTH level of 11.7 pg/ml. This corresponds to a sensitivity of 0.89 (0.57-0.98), a specificity of 0.77 (0.53-0.90), a positive predictive value of 0.67 (0.39-0.87), a negative

  1. An international multicentre study on the allergenic activity of air-oxidized R-limonene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bråred Christensson, Johanna; Andersen, Klaus; Bruze, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    Limonene is a common fragrance terpene that, in its pure form, is not allergenic or is a very weak allergen. However, limonene autoxidizes on air exposure, and the oxidation products can cause contact allergy. Oxidized R-limonene has previously been patch tested in multicentre studies, giving 2...

  2. Role of offending out-door aero-allergen and CD14 C(-159)T ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Objective: Present study involved identification of offending out-door aero-allergens and associated genetic pathway in nas- so-bronchial asthma among Kolkata population. Methods: Skin-prick test was done among 950 asthmatic patients against 11 common aero-allergens and total serum IgE con- centration was ...

  3. [Prevalence of immediate allergy to respiratory allergens in fodder farmers in Doubs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiez, A; Meyer, V; Gora, D; Pernet, D; Polio, J C; Lagarde, D; Gibey, R; Laplante, J J; Depierre, A; Dalphin, J C

    1995-01-01

    The Doubs is a damp, semi-mountainous fodder farming department in which occupational respiratory diseases (including asthma) are common in farmers. We studied the prevalence of IgE-mediated allergy (total IgE, Phadiatop and skin prick tests) in a group of 265 exclusive dairy farmers of both sexes of the department and in a control group of non exposed, administrative workers living in the same area. Skin prick tests were: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Acarus siro, cat hair, cow danders, grass pollens, betullacea pollens (trees from the East of France), and hay extracts from the Doubs. Total IgE were higher than 180 KUI/l in 26 (9.9%) farmers and in 15 (10.5%) controls (NS). Phadiatop was positive in 41 (15.7%) farmers and in 27 (19%) controls (NS). Prevalence of positive skin prick tests (at least one) in farmers and controls was respectively 36% and 40% (NS). Farmers were more frequently sensitized to hay extracts (OR = 1.7), cow danders (OR = 1.3) and less frequently to cat hair (OR = 0.63) than controls but the differences were not statistically significant. In conclusion, this study fails to give evidence of a risk of IgE-mediated allergy to work-related and other common inhalation allergens in dairy farmers the Doubs.

  4. Pediatric inhalation injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Soman

    2017-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury can cause severe physiologic perturbations. In pediatric patients, these perturbations cause profound changes in cardiac and pulmonary physiology. In this review, we examine the pathology, early management options, ventilator strategy, and long-term outcomes in pediatric patients who have suffered a smoke inhalation injury.

  5. Reasons for Inhalant Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, George W.; Simpson, D. Dwayne

    1991-01-01

    Among 110 Mexican-American adolescents in a Texas drug abuse program, initial use of toxicant inhalants was related to availability and sensation-seeking, followed by psychological problems, parental and home problems, and peer influence. Quitting inhalant use was related to social pressures, attitude change, and perceived health risks. (Author/SV)

  6. Allergy skin test responses during experimental infection with respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoner, David P; Gentile, Deborah A; Angelini, Betty; Doyle, William J

    2006-06-01

    Allergy skin testing is one of the most frequently performed physician office procedures. Many factors can affect the results of those tests, including the well-defined suppressive effect of systemic antihistamines. False-positive allergen skin test results are known to occur; however, contributing factors are not well understood. To determine whether a viral upper respiratory tract infection affects allergy skin test responsiveness. We performed skin tests with histamine and a panel of geographically relevant inhalant allergens on 16 adults before and 3, 6, and 21 days after experimental exposure to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a virus that causes signs and symptoms of a cold. The RSV exposure, with and without documented infection, caused increased wheal and flare areas to histamine and allergen and de novo positive allergen test responses in individuals with no measurable responses at baseline. These were noted as late as 21 days after RSV exposure and may be consistent with mediation by up-regulated neurogenic inflammation during RSV infection. These results may have implications for explaining the cause of such well-known complications of RSV infection as otitis media, bronchiolitis, and asthmatic exacerbation.

  7. Influence of peak inspiratory flow rates and pressure drops on inhalation performance of dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hira, Daiki; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Ichihashi, Mika; Mizutani, Ayano; Ishizeki, Kazunori; Okada, Toyoko; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the relationship between human inspiratory flow patterns and the concomitant drops in pressure in different inhalation devices, and the influence of the devices on inhalation performance. As a model formulation for inhalers, a physically mixed dry powder composed of salbutamol sulfate and coarse lactose monohydrate was selected. The drops in pressure at 28.3 L/min of three inhalation devices, Single-type, Dual-type, and Reverse-type, was 1.0, 5.1, and 8.7 kPa, respectively. Measurements of human inspiratory patterns revealed that although the least resistant device (Single) had large inter- and intra-individual variation of peak flow rate (PFR), the coefficients of variation of PFR of the three devices were almost the same. In tests with a human inspiratory flow simulator in vitro, inhalation performance was higher, but the variation in inhalation performance in the range of human flow patterns was wider, for the more resistant device. To minimize the intra- and inter-individual variation in inhalation performance for the model formulation in this study, a formulation design that allows active pharmaceutical ingredient to detach from the carrier with a lower inhalation flow rate is needed.

  8. Inhalants in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, R; Ferrando, D

    1995-01-01

    In Peru, the prevalence and consequences of inhalant abuse appear to be low in the general population and high among marginalized children. Inhalant use ranks third in lifetime prevalence after alcohol and tobacco. Most of the use appears to be infrequent. Among marginalized children, that is, children working in the streets but living at home or children living in the street, the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious problem. Among children working in the streets but living at home, the lifetime prevalence rate for inhalant abuse is high, ranging from 15 to 45 percent depending on the study being cited. For children living in the streets, the use of inhalant is even more severe. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, most of these street children use inhalants on a daily basis. The lack of research on the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious impediment to development of intervention programs and strategies to address this problem in Peru. Epidemiologic and ethnographic research on the nature and extent of inhalant abuse are obvious prerequisites to targeted treatment and preventive intervention programs. The urgent need for current and valid data is underscored by the unique vulnerability of the youthful population at risk and the undisputed harm that results from chronic abuse of inhalants. Nonetheless, it is important to mention several programs that work with street children. Some, such as the Information and Education Center for the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Generation, and Centro Integracion de Menores en Abandono have shelters where street children are offered transition to a less marginal lifestyle. Teams of street educators provide the children with practical solutions and gain their confidence, as well as offer them alternative socialization experiences to help them survive the streets and avoid the often repressive and counterproductive environments typical of many institutions. Most of the children who go through these programs tend to abandon

  9. [A new allergen for the determination of ovine brucellosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menasse, I; Skoulas, E; Seimenis, A; Skyrianos, G

    1976-01-01

    The authors report on the experimental use of an allergen, prepared by a special method, for the detection of brucellosis in both infected and non-infected sheep. The best method is the intradermal injection into the eyelid of 0.5 ml and the best time for reading the reaction is between 48 and 72 hrs after inoculation. The allergen proved more sensitive than the serum-agglutination test on infected sheep, and extremely specific, since all tests on non-infected sheep were negative and induced neither agglutinin production nor allergic sensitization.

  10. Dobutamine “Stress” Test and Latent Cardiac Susceptibility to Inhaled Diesel Exhaust in Normal and Hypertensive Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaway, Justin; Winsett, Darrell W.; Lamb, Christina; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Krantz, Q. Todd; King, Charly; Costa, Daniel L.; Farraj, Aimen K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Exercise “stress” testing is a screening tool used to determine the amount of stress for which the heart can compensate before developing abnormal rhythm or ischemia, particularly in susceptible persons. Although this approach has been used to assess risk in humans exposed to air pollution, it has never been applied to rodent studies. Objective: We hypothesized that a single exposure to diesel exhaust (DE) would increase the risk of adverse cardiac events such as arrhythmia and myocardial ischemia in rats undergoing a dobutamine challenge test, which can be used to mimic exercise-like stress. Methods: Wistar-Kyoto normotensive (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats implanted with radiotelemeters and a chronic intravenous catheter were whole-body exposed to 150 μg/m3 DE for 4 hr. Increasing doses of dobutamine, a β1-adrenergic agonist, were administered to conscious unrestrained rats 24 hr later to elicit the cardiac response observed during exercise while heart rate (HR) and electrocardiogram (ECG) were monitored. Results: A single exposure to DE potentiated the HR response of WKY and SH rats during dobutamine challenge and prevented HR recovery at rest. During peak challenge, DE-exposed SH rats had lower overall HR variability when compared with controls, in addition to transient ST depression. All DE-exposed animals also had increased arrhythmias. Conclusions: These results are the first evidence that rats exhibit stress-induced cardiac dysrhythmia and ischemia sensitivity comparable to humans after a single exposure to a toxic air pollutant, particularly when in the presence of underlying cardiovascular disease. Thus, exposure to low concentrations of air pollution can impair the heart’s ability to respond to stress and increase the risk of subsequent triggered dysfunction. PMID:22543081

  11. Avoidance of allergens by the patients with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, D; Kaur, Sukhpal; Gupta, D; Verma, S K

    2008-05-01

    Association between environmental allergens and bronchial asthma is well established. A great number of substances found in the environment can precipitate or aggravate respiratory symptoms in asthmatics. Avoiding allergens is recognized as an integral part of management. Through various educational interventions the patients can be taught various measures to avoid these allergens. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of 'self care manual' an educational intervention on the avoidance of various environmental allergens. The total enrolled patients were 523 of which 260 were included in the study group to whom 'self care manual' was given and 263 in the control group with no access to self care manual. A fourteen items interview schedule consisting of three parts was administered. The first two subparts were in the form of checklist to know the various allergens which were inducing symptoms in the patients and weather they could avoid these triggers. The third part which was open ended was administered to know their ways of avoiding these triggers. All the patients were followed up at 2 weeks, 6 months and at 1 year. Mean age of the subjects in both the groups was 36.72 +/- 11.52 years and 34.33 +/- 12.86 years respectively. Both the groups were comparable on majority of the socio-demographic variables. The number of patients whose symptoms were aggravated by a particular triggering factor reduced significantly on each successive visit in the study group. Almost all the patients started avoiding their triggers in follow-ups in the study group. In control group this change was only for few triggers. More and more patients started using inhalers on exposure to dust or triggering weather conditions. They started slowing down for exercises and diverted their attentions against triggering emotional situations. Patient education should be an essential component in the overall management of bronchial asthma. Control of asthma symptoms is better achieved

  12. Chloroatranol, an extremely potent allergen hidden in perfumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J.D.; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Svedman, C.

    2003-01-01

    Oak moss absolute is a long-known, popular natural extract widely used in perfumes. It is reported as the cause of allergic reactions in a significant number of those with perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute has been the target of recent research to identify its allergenic components. Recently......, chloroatranol, a hitherto unknown fragrance allergen, was identified in oak moss absolute. The objective was to assess the clinical importance of chloroatranol as a fragrance allergen by characterizing its elicitation profile. 13 patients previously showing a positive patch test to oak moss absolute...... and chloroatranol were included, together with a control group of 10 patients without sensitization to either of the 2 materials. A serial dilution patch test was performed on the upper back with concentrations ranging from 200 to 0.0063 p.p.m. of chloroatranol in ethanol. Simultaneously, the participant performed...

  13. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  14. Allergenic ingredients in nail polishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainio, E L; Engström, K; Henriks-Eckerman, M L; Kanerva, L

    1997-10-01

    It has been known since the 1940s that nail polishes contain allergenic ingredients. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the nail polishes on the market today contain significant amounts of allergens, and what the solvents are. The following ingredients were determined: toluene, toluene sulfonamide formaldehyde resins, free formaldehyde, acrylates, methacrylates and certain organic solvents. The study comprised 20 brands and 42 samples. All the nail polishes analysed contained allergenic toluene sulfonamide formaldehyde resins (TSFR), in concentrations from 0.08 to 11.0%. The concentration of total formaldehyde varied from 0.02% to 0.5%. The more TSFR a nail polish contained, the higher was its formaldehyde content. Probably not only TSFR-allergic but also formaldehyde-allergic persons may get dermatitis from many of the nail polishes studied. The concentrations of acrylates and methacrylates were so small that they are of practical significance only to those previously sensitized to acrylates. Of the organic solvents, toluene was still widely used, whereas xylene was found in only 1 product. The nail polishes on the market today are not safe for all consumers. However, according to the regulations of the European Union, the packaging labeling of all cosmetic products must be supplied with a list of ingredients from the beginning of 1998. This will help the consumer to avoid allergenic products. A better alternative could, however, be to substitute the most allergenic ingredients with substances possessing minor allergy potency.

  15. Sensitivity to the Main Allergens in Children with Allergic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.D. Kuznietsova

    2015-11-01

    Objective of the research — to study hypersensitivity to the main allergens in children with allergic diseases based on the results of skin allergy testing, as well as to analyze the structure of diseases. Materials and methods. We have examined 228 children using skin prick testing, the estimation of results was conducted 25–40 minutes after performing the test. Associations between the results of skin prick test with various allergens were studied using cross-correlation analysis in the package of applied statistics Statistics 6.0. Results. 85.5 % of children were sensitized to the pollen allergens, domestic — 54 %, food — 21 %, fungal allergens — 35 %. Among pollen plants, there prevails sensitization to ambrosia — 47.8 %, sunflower — 49.5 %, cyclachaena — 38.5 %; among domestic allergens — to the tick species D.рteronyssinus and D.farinae — 24 %, cat hair — 19.7 %, among fungal — to Alternaria (23 %. Most often hyperergic reaction (papule diameter ≥ 8 mm was observed to cyclachaena (44 %, sunflower (46 %, ambrosia (50 %, cat hair (42 %, D.farinae (39 %. We have established significant (р < 0.05 correlations of mainly middle strength between positive prick-tests in pairs: ambrosia — cyclachaena (r = +0.43, ambrosia — sunflower (r = +0.43, acarus D.рteronyssinus — D.farinae (r = +0.66, mixture «birch, alder, oak, hazel» — ryegrass (r = +0.53, beef meat — egg yolk (r = +0.42, pork meat — chicken meat (r = +0.35, milk (r = +0.36, wool of sheep — pork (r = +0.36. Conclusion. Predominance of sensitization to pollen allergens represents the epidemiological situation in the South region of Ukraine. The presence of correlations between the different types of allergens indicates the cross reactions between them. In case of multiple positive results of skin allergen tests, the study using molecular allergy diagnostic method is recommended to establish genuine or cross allergy.

  16. Plant lipid transfer protein allergens: no cross-reactivity between those from foods and olive and Parietaria pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordesillas, Leticia; Sirvent, Sofía; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Villalba, Mayte; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Salcedo, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Cross-reactivity among plant food allergens belonging to the nonspecific lipid transfer protein (LTP) family is well known. In contrast, the relationship among these allergens and their putative homologs from olive (Ole e 7) and Parietaria (Par j 1) pollen has not been clarified. Sera with specific IgE to LTP allergens were obtained from peach-, mustard- and olive pollen-allergic patients. Purified LTP allergens from foods (peach, apple, mustard and wheat) and pollens (olive, mugwort and Parietaria) were tested by ELISA and ELISA-inhibition assays. Plant food LTP-allergic patients showed a significantly higher number of sera (89-100 vs. 33-64%) with specific IgE and mean specific IgE levels (0.30-1.56 vs. 0.21-0.34 OD units) to the 4 food LTP allergens tested than to olive Ole e 7 and Parietaria Par j 1 pollen. ELISA-inhibition assays indicated cross-inhibition between food LTP allergens but no cross-reactivity between these allergens and Ole e 7 and Par j 1, or, even more, between the LTP allergens from olive and Parietaria pollen. LTP allergens from olive and Parietaria pollen cross-react neither with allergenic LTPs from plant foods nor between themselves. Therefore, both pollens do not seem to be related with the LTP syndrome. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Effectiveness of Indonesian Essential Oil Mixture of Lemongrass, Cananga, and Patchouli in Relaxation through Inhalation: A Clinical Test on Healthy Woman with High Potential for Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Siahaan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Relaxation is one of many mechanisms for coping with stress. One of the most widely used methods for relaxation is aromatherapy with the application of essential oils. Known for their therapeutic benefits, essential oils can be extracted from various Indonesian native herbs such as lemongrass (sereh wangi or Cymbopogon winterianus, cananga or ylang-ylang (kenanga or Canarium odoratum, and patchouli (nilam or Pogostemon cabin. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of a mixture of Indonesian essential oil made of lemongrass, cananga, and patchouli extracts. Experiment was conducted by asking a number of subjects to inhale the oil mixture and assessing its effectiveness in terms of psychological relaxation by using Visual Analog Scale or VAS and of physical relaxation by examining the subjects’ blood pressure (MAP, pulse frequency, and breathing frequency. The result was then compared with that of lavender oil and with the control group. The study was conducted on 60 healthy women through single-blind clinical trials (before and after using the “intent to treat” approach, followed by a startle test. Participants were divided into three groups: (1 20 participants who were treated with Indonesian essential oil mixture, (2 20 participants who were treated with lavender oil, and (3 20 participants who served as the control group. Psychological relaxation measurement showed that Indonesian essential oil mixture produced the same degree of effectiveness as lavender oil and the control groups did, although both treatments tended to produce better results than the control group did. However, physical relaxation measurement showed that Indonesian essential oil mixture produced a higher degree of effectiveness than lavender oil and tended to produce a better result than the control group did, especially in terms of blood pressure based on MAP scores.

  18. Inhalation therapy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Pietrzak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Inhalation is a form of treatment used in respiratory diseases that allows medications to be administered directly to the affected site. Thanks to this, the administration of lower doses helps obtain a higher concentration in the target organ and eliminate or effectively reduce systemic adverse effects. For drug deposition in the respiratory system, we use inhalers (pressurised, dry powder, soft mist or nebulisers (jet, ultrasonic, vibrating mesh. In pressurised inhalers, spacers or holding chambers can be used to effectively synchronise inspiration with dose release. Inhalers are indicated in lower respiratory tract diseases, and the only contraindication is the inability to use the device. Nebulisers can be used in upper and lower respiratory tract diseases, but there are certain contraindications (among others: acute inflammation, flares of chronic diseases, circulatory insufficiency. The selection of an inhaler (or a shift to another device must be justified. It should be based on the knowledge of the properties and principles of individual inhalers, assessment of the child’s ability to use the device properly (including obtaining optimal inspiratory flows as well as on the preferences of patients and their guardians. It is significant to individually instruct the patient how to use an inhaler when this treatment is being implemented and to review the inhalation technique during each follow-up visit. Treatment benefits can be achieved when age, clinical condition, proper inhalation technique correlated with the abilities of patients are considered.

  19. Percutaneous penetration characteristics and release kinetics of contact allergens encapsulated in ethosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2011-03-01

    Formulation of the contact allergens dinitrochlorobenzene and isoeugenol in ethanolic liposomes (ethosomes) increases their sensitizing properties in the local lymph node assay compared with an ethanol-water formulation of the allergens. Likewise, isoeugenol and methyldibromo-glutaronitrile formulated in ethosomes enhanced the patch test reactions in sensitized human volunteers. The relationship between the percutaneous penetration/absorption and sensitization/elicitation phases of contact allergy is not well elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the observed increased sensitizing and elicitation properties following the formulation of selected contact allergens in ethosomes could be explained by a change in release kinetics of the allergens and their pattern of percutaneous penetration and absorption as well as allergen deposition in epidermis and dermis. Release kinetics were studied using dialysis bags, and samples were taken at selected time points until equilibrium was reached. Percutaneous absorption and penetration were studied using human skin on Franz cells, and receptor fluid samples were taken at selected time points. Experiments were terminated after 24 hours, and deposition of allergen in epidermis and dermis was measured. Maximum flux and lag time were calculated. Ethosome formulation decreased the release of both allergens compared with the ethanol-water formulation. Ethosome formulation of dinitrochlorobenzene increased its percutaneous penetration but reduced the percutaneous penetration of isoeugenol compared with control formulations. Likewise, all other calculated parameters showed an opposite trend for the 2 allergens in ethosomes and ethanol-water. The present study demonstrates that identical ethosomes affect the percutaneous penetration characteristics of 2 allergens differently. Thus, our results indicate that each combination of an allergen and a vehicle needs to be evaluated separately. The exact mechanistic

  20. New Horizons in Allergen Immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    importance as the allergen that is most often implicated as a trigger for asthma and perennial allergic rhinitis on aworldwide basis. Numerous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) using HDM allergen for both asthma and allergic rhinitis,4-6 and a smallernumberof studies......,theresults ofthestudybyVirchow et al are important and clinically relevant. In particular, instead of themorecommonapproach of studying patientswith milder asthma or those with only allergic rhinitis, this trial focused on themore challenging subset of patientswith asthma, thosewith inadequatesymptomcontrol despite......, these adherence rates are similar to those seen with SCIT and even with long-term pharmacotherapy for allergic disease and asthma.17 SLIT is currently approved for numerous allergens by the European regulatory authorities and is inwide use throughout Europe. In 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration announced...

  1. [The high risk factors of allergen sensitization among 518 children with allergic rhinitis symptoms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Weili; Ge, Wentong; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Yamei

    2014-04-01

    To study the high risk factors of allergen sensitization among 1-16 years old children with allergic rhinitis (AR) symptoms. Medical history was collected from 518 children with AR symptoms aged 1 to 16 years old between April 2011 and November 2012, including five aspects:basic information, disease characteristics, associated with other allergic diseases, growth and development history and genetic history and so on. The allergens were determined by UniCAP 100 system. The high risk factors of allergen sensitization (sIgE ≥ grade III) among 1-16 years old children with AR symptoms were analyzed. The data processing and statistical analysis were conducted by SPSS 17.0 software. Three hundred and thirty of 518 patients (63.7%) could be diagnosed as AR. The primary allergen was mixed fungal (52.4%). The highest percentage of allergen sIgE ≥ grade III accounted for the corresponding allergen positive cases was 71.1% (mixed fungal). Single factor analysis of clinical characteristics in the groups of AR and non AR showed that the history of months(χ(2) = -3.591), concomitant allergic conjunctivitis (χ(2) = 12.325) and cats or dogs at home (χ(2) = 5.615) were statistically significant between the two groups (all P allergic conjunctivitis and cats or dogs at home are risk factors for AR;In children with AR, not breastfeeding and the bedroom toward back are risk factors for inhalation allergen sIgE ≥ gradeIII.

  2. The dispersion behaviour of dry powder inhalation formulations cannot be assessed at a single inhalation flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasmeijer, Floris; de Boer, Anne H

    2014-04-25

    The dispersion performances of inhalation powders are often tested at only one inhalation flow rate in mechanistic formulation studies. This limited approach is challenged by studies showing that interactions exist between inhalation flow rate and the effects on dispersion performance of several formulation variables. In this note we explain that such interactions with inhalation flow rate are, in fact, always to be expected. Because these interactions may greatly affect conclusions concerning the effects of formulation variables and their underlying mechanisms, the utility of future dry powder inhalation formulation studies may benefit from an approach in which dispersion performance is by default tested over a range of inhalation flow rates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fish allergens at a glance: Variable allergenicity of parvalbumins, the major fish allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette eKuehn

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish is a common trigger of severe, food-allergic reactions. Only a limited number of proteins induce specific IgE-mediated immune reactions. The major fish allergens are the parvalbumins. They are members of the calcium-binding EF-hand protein family characterized by a conserved protein structure. They represent highly cross-reactive allergens for patients with specific IgE to conserved epitopes. These patients might experience clinical reactions with various fish species. On the other hand, some individuals have IgE antibodies directed against unique, species-specific parvalbumin epitopes, and these patients show clinical symptoms only with certain fish species. Furthermore, different parvalbumin isoforms and isoallergens are present in the same fish and might display variable allergenicity. This was shown for salmon homologs, where only a single parvalbumin (beta-1 isoform was identified as allergen in specific patients. In addition to the parvalbumins, several other fish proteins, enolases, aldolases and fish gelatin, seem to be important allergens.New clinical and molecular insights advanced the knowledge and understanding of fish allergy in the last years. These findings will be useful for the advancement of the IgE-based diagnosis but also for the management of fish allergies consisting of advice and treatment of fish-allergic patients.

  4. The allergen of Ficus benjamina in house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bircher, A J; Langauer, S; Levy, F; Wahl, R

    1995-03-01

    Ficus benjamina, a member of the Moraceae family, is a tropical, non-flowering green plant which is widely used for ornamental purposes. It is an occupational allergen in plant keepers but sensitization is also increasingly found in non-occupationally exposed atopic and non-atopic patients. The allergen of Ficus benjamina is located in the plant sap, a so-called latex. By radioallergosorbent test-(RAST)-inhibition studies allergen could also be demonstrated in the dust collected from the leaf surface and in dust samples from the floor of rooms where the plant was placed. These findings could result in more extensive preventive measures in patients sensitized to Ficus benjamina. In addition there is some evidence that possibly a crossreactivity between latex of Ficus benjamina and latex from the rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, a member of the Euphorbiaceae family, may exist.

  5. EAACI Guidelines on allergen immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pajno, G B; Fernandez-Rivas, M; Arasi, S

    2017-01-01

    Food allergy can result in considerable morbidity, impairment of quality of life, and healthcare expenditure. There is therefore interest in novel strategies for its treatment, particularly food allergen immunotherapy (FA-AIT) through the oral (OIT), sublingual (SLIT), or epicutaneous (EPIT) routes....... This Guideline, prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Task Force on Allergen Immunotherapy for IgE-mediated Food Allergy, aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for active treatment of IgE-mediated food allergy with FA-AIT. Immunotherapy relies on the delivery...

  6. Allergens, germs and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Glenis Kathleen

    2015-04-01

    To explore asthma pathogenesis using data from upper and lower airways. English-language papers on human asthma and nasal polyp subjects from 1990 onwards. High-quality studies in established journals. The recognition of its inflammatory nature led to a quantum leap in the understanding and treatment of asthma, with lives saved by inhaled corticosteroids. Further work at genetic, molecular, histological and clinical levels has shown that asthma is polymorphic and rarely involves isolated Th2 bronchial inflammation. Viral infections may act as an initiating event in children and adults, showing synergy with atopy. Chronic staphylococcal colonization of the mucosa may act as a promoter, as in atopic dermatitis. These two observations may be linked, with viruses providing an entry for bacteria into the mucosal epithelium. Most asthma begins in the nose and involves allergy and infection: both viral and bacterial. The combination of atopy and infection suggests new possibilities for therapy. © 2014 The Author. The Clinical Respiratory Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corgard), and propranolol (Inderal); digoxin (Lanoxin); diuretics ('water pills'); epinephrine (Epipen, Primatene Mist); other inhaled medications used to relax the air passages such as metaproterenol and levalbuterol (Xopenex); and ...

  8. Levalbuterol Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and propranolol (Inderal); digoxin (Digitek, Lanoxin); diuretics ('water pills'); epinephrine (Epipen, Primatene Mist); medications for colds; and other inhaled medications to relax the air passages such as metaproterenol (Alupent) and pirbuterol (Maxair). ...

  9. Umeclidinium Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs and airways, that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema). Umeclidinium inhalation is in a class of medications ...

  10. Olodaterol Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs and airways, which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema). Olodaterol oral inhalation is in a class of ...

  11. Inhalational Monkeypox Virus Infection in Cynomolgus Macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy eBarnewall

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An inhalation exposure system was characterized to deliver aerosolized monkeypox virus (MPXV, and a nonhuman primate (NHP inhalation monkeypox model was developed in cynomologus macaques. A head-only aerosol exposure system was characterized, and two sampling methods were evaluated: liquid impingement via an impinger and impaction via a gelatin filter. The aerosol concentrations obtained with the gelatin filter and impinger were virtually identical, indicating that either method is acceptable for sampling aerosols containing MPXV. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD was for individual aerosol tests in the aerosol system characterization and the NHP study ranged from 1.08 to 1.15 µm, indicating that the aerosol particles were of a sufficient size to reach the alveoli. Six cynomolgus macaques (four male and two female were used on study. The animals were aerosol exposed with MPXV and received doses between 2.51 x 104 to 9.28 x 105 plaque forming units (pfu inhaled. Four of the six animals died or were euthanized due to their moribund conditions. Both animals that received the lowest exposure doses survived to the end of the observation period. The inhalation LD50 was determined to be approximately 7.8 x 104 pfu inhaled. These data demonstrate that an inhalation MPXV infection model has been developed in the cynomolgus macaque with disease course and lethal dose similar to previously published data.

  12. Nasal inhalation of budesonide from a spacer in children with perennial rhinitis and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, W; Hjuler, Inga Merete; Bisgaard, H

    1998-01-01

    The standard treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma consists of topical corticosteroids administered intranasally and inhaled through the mouth. Although this therapy is highly effective, and side-effects are few and mild, it may be possible further to improve the therapeutic index and patient...... compliance with the treatment. In the present study, we evaluated a nasal inhalation system used for the simultaneous treatment of rhinitis and asthma. In principle, it results in an airway deposition of the corticosteroid similar to that of inhaled allergens. Twenty-four children with perennial rhinitis.......05), and in an increase of nasal peak inspiratory flow (P oral peak expiratory flow (P=0.01). There were no differences between budesonide and placebo in local side-effects, such as dry nose, nosebleed, and hoarseness. We conclude that nasal inhalation of a corticosteroid from a spacer offers a simple...

  13. Nasal inhalation of budesonide from a spacer in children with perennial rhinitis and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, W; Hjuler, Inga Merete; Bisgaard, H

    1998-01-01

    compliance with the treatment. In the present study, we evaluated a nasal inhalation system used for the simultaneous treatment of rhinitis and asthma. In principle, it results in an airway deposition of the corticosteroid similar to that of inhaled allergens. Twenty-four children with perennial rhinitis...... and asthma inhaled budesonide through the nose from a pressurized aerosol, attached to a spacer device, in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Compared with placebo, budesonide treatment resulted in a significant reduction of nasal symptoms (P... and effective treatment for both rhinitis and asthma in children, but it is an open question whether the nasal inhalation system can improve the ratio of antirhinitis/antiasthma effects to side-effects....

  14. Bronchial effects of leukotriene D4 inhalation in normal human lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Groth, S

    1987-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether inhaled leukotriene (LT) D4 could mimic the characteristics of asthmatic patients after allergen-induced attack, i.e. a prolonged subclinical bronchial obstruction, an increased reactivity of the airways and a late reaction. The effects of LTD4 were...... compared with those of histamine and the mechanism of action sought. Thirty-three non-atopic individuals participated in the study. The two drugs were inhaled as an aerosol of small particles causing a relative peripheral deposition pattern in order to mimic the preferential involvement of peripheral...... than histamine. LTD4 inhalations were almost symptomless as opposed to the irritative and dyspnoeic symptoms seen after inhalation of histamine. The time duration for the induced change in partial flow-volume curves was the same for the two drugs. Approximately 30 min elapsed until the bronchial...

  15. Role of tachykinin NK1 and NK2 receptors in allergen-induced early and late asthmatic reactions, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation in conscious, unrestrained guinea pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, M; Zuidhof, A.B; Zaagsma, Hans; Meurs, Herman

    Using a guinea pig model of allergic asthma, we investigated the effects of the inhaled, highly selective nonpeptide tachykinin NK1 and NK2 receptor antagonists SR 140333 and SR 48968, respectively, on allergen-induced early (EAR) and late (LAR) asthmatic reactions, airway hyperreactivity (AHR)

  16. Immunochemical detection of egg-white antigens and allergens in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, V; Demeulemester, C; Polack, B; Guizard, C; Le Guern, L; Peltre, G

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect antigens and allergens in egg-white byproduct ingredients and after their incorporation in processed pork meat pastes. Commercially prepared foods may have potentially allergenic ingredients (egg, milk, soybean, wheat, and peanut) added in processing. Since allergic patients may react to unidentified ingredients, it is important to assess the allergenic potency of these food proteins added during processing. Egg white was chosen as an experimental model, since egg is one of the most prevalent allergens in food hypersensitivity. Experimental pork meat pastes containing egg white underwent pasteurization and sterilization. Ingredients derived from egg-white or paste extracts were isoelectrofocused and then blotted onto cyanogen bromide-activated nitrocellulose membranes. Egg-white antigens were identified in ingredients and in meat products with rabbit anti-egg-white antiserum by isoelectric focusing immunoblotting. Allergens were identified with sera from sensitized patients. A sensitive ELISA test was developed to detect egg-white proteins in raw, pasteurized, and sterilized meat products. Antigens and allergens in four egg-white byproducts were detected. Egg-white antigens were detectable in all ingredients and meat pastes by ELISA. Allergens were detected in ingredients and in raw and pasteurized products by immunoprint techniques and ELISA. Masked egg-white allergens are recognized by human serum IgE after pasteurization. Egg-white antigens are detectable in sterilized meat by ELISA techniques. Ingestion of processed foods could entail a risk of allergic reactions for sensitized consumers.

  17. Multiplex, quantitative, ligation-dependent probe amplification for determination of allergens in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustorp, Stina L; Drømtorp, Signe M; Holck, Askild L

    2011-05-25

    Legislation requires labeling of foods containing allergenic ingredients. Here, we present a robust 10-plex quantitative and sensitive ligation-dependent probe amplification method, the allergen-multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) method, for specific detection of eight allergens: sesame, soy, hazelnut, peanut, lupine, gluten, mustard, and celery. Ligated probes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and amplicons were detected using capillary electrophoresis. Quantitative results were obtained by comparing signals with an internal positive control. The limit of detection varied from approximately 5 to 400 gene copies, depending on the allergen. The method was tested using different foods spiked with mustard, celery, soy, or lupine flour in the 1-0.001% range. Depending on the allergen, sensitivities were similar or better than those obtained with qPCR. The allergen-MLPA method is modular and can be adapted by adding probe pairs for other allergens. The DNA-based allergen-MLPA method will constitute a complementary method to the traditional protein-based methods.

  18. Contact allergens in shoe leather among patients with foot eczema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Coevorden, AM; Coenraads, PJ; Pas, HH; van der Valk, PGM

    Some patients with relapsing foot eczema and a shoe leather allergy, who fail to show positive results with standard series and shoe wear screening tray patch testing, do not respond to the use of hypoallergenic shoe leather. We assume that relevant allergens are present in hypoallergenic shoe

  19. Assessment of protein allergenicity studies in brown Norway rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knippels, L.M.J.; Penninks, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    For the safety evaluation of genetically engineered crops, the potential allergenicity of the newly introduced protein(s) has become an important issue. There is, however, no universal and reliable test system for the evaluation of the allergic sensitizing ability of food proteins. Therefore, there

  20. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte proliferative responses to food allergens in dogs with food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Masato; Masuda, Kenichi; Hayashiya, Makio; Okayama, Taro

    2011-10-01

    Two different allergy tests, antigen-specific immunoglobulin E quantification (IgE test) and flow cytometric analysis of antigen-specific proliferation of peripheral lymphocytes (lymphocyte proliferation test), were performed to examine differences in allergic reactions to food allergens in dogs with food allergy (FA). Thirteen dogs were diagnosed as FA based on clinical findings and elimination diet trials. Seven dogs clinically diagnosed with canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) were used as a disease control group, and 5 healthy dogs were used as a negative control group. In the FA group, 19 and 33 allergen reactions were identified using the serum IgE test and the lymphocyte proliferation test, respectively. Likewise, in the CAD group, 12 and 6 allergen reactions and in the healthy dogs 3 and 0 allergen reactions were identified by each test, respectively. A significant difference was found between FA and healthy dogs in terms of positive allergen detection by the lymphocyte proliferation test, suggesting that the test can be useful to differentiate FA from healthy dogs but not from CAD. Both tests were repeated in 6 of the dogs with FA after a 1.5- to 5-month elimination diet trial. The IgE concentrations in 9 of 11 of the positive reactions decreased by 20-80%, whereas all the positive reactions in the lymphocyte proliferation test decreased to nearly zero (Pfood allergens may be involved in the pathogenesis of canine FA.

  1. New insights into ragweed pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordas-Le Floch, Véronique; Groeme, Rachel; Chabre, Henri; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Nony, Emmanuel; Mascarell, Laurent; Moingeon, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Pollen allergens from short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) cause severe respiratory allergies in North America and Europe. To date, ten short ragweed pollen allergens belonging to eight protein families, including the recently discovered novel major allergen Amb a 11, have been recorded in the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) allergen database. With evidence that other components may further contribute to short ragweed pollen allergenicity, a better understanding of the allergen repertoire is a requisite for the design of proper diagnostic tools and efficient immunotherapies. This review provides an update on both known as well as novel candidate allergens from short ragweed pollen, identified through a comprehensive characterization of the ragweed pollen transcriptome and proteome.

  2. Allergens of the cupin superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, E N; Jenkins, J; Marigheto, N; Belton, P S; Gunning, A P; Morris, V J

    2002-11-01

    The cupin family comprises a family of proteins possessing a common beta-barrel structure that is thought to have originated in a prokaryotic ancestor. This structural motif is found as a single domain in fungal spherulins, fern sporulins and the germins/oxalate oxidase proteins of plants, while the globular storage proteins of plants, called legumins (11 S) and euvicilins (7 S), are two-domain cupins. The 11 S globulins are hexameric heteroligomeric proteins of M (r) approximately 360000, with each subunit comprising an acidic 30000-40000- M (r) polypeptide that is disulphide-linked to a 20000- M (r) basic polypeptide. A number of cupins have been identified as major plant food allergens, including the 7 S globulins of soybean (beta-conglycinin), peanut (conarachin; Ara h 1), walnut (Jug r 2) and lentil, and the 11 S globulins of peanut (arachin; Ara h 3), soybean (glycinin) and possibly also coconut and walnut. Other members of the cupin superfamily have not been identified as allergens, with the exception of one germin (germination-specific protein) from pepper. Cupins are generally very stable proteins. A summary of our current knowledge of allergenic seed storage globulins will be presented, together with an overview of cupin structure and stability properties, as illustrated by the allergenic soya globulins, glycinin and beta-conglycinin.

  3. Effectiveness of Inhalant Abuse Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batis, Jeffery C

    2017-01-28

    Since peaking in the 1990s, inhalant abuse has steadily decreased over the past two decades. Concurrently, nearly every state has passed legislation aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse. While males have historically been more likely to abuse inhalants than females, there is no longer a sex effect in self-reported rates of inhalant abuse. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of anti-inhalant abuse legislation on self-reported rates of inhalant abuse, in high school age males and females. Beginning in 1993, the CDC's biannual Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey asked respondents if they have ever used inhalants to get high. Data from these surveys were collected, along with the date of passage of anti-inhalant abuse legislation in 46 of 50 states. ANOVAs were conducted to assess the effect of legislation on self-reported inhalant abuse rates. There were no significant main effects or interactions that demonstrated that inhalant abuse rates decreased in males or females following passage of legislation aimed at decreasing inhalant abuse. Conclusion/Importance: To date, 46 of 50 states have passed laws aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse, and while inhalant abuse rates have been decreasing for the past two decades, there is no evidence that this decline is related to enactment of these laws. Further research is needed to determine the cause of the decrease in inhalant abuse. The laws may benefit from amendments to include options for treatment.

  4. [Use of THP-1 for allergens identification method validation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuezheng; Jia, Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Li, Xue; Zhang, Yanshu; Dai, Yufei

    2014-05-01

    Look for an in vitro test method to evaluate sensitization using THP-1 cells by the changes of the expression of cytokines to provide more reliable markers of the identification of sensitization. The monocyte-like THP-1 cells were induced and differentiated into THP-1-macrophages with PMA (0.1 microg/ml). The changes of expression of cytokines at different time points after the cells being treated with five known allergens, 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), nickel sulfate (NiSO4), phenylene diamine (PPDA) potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and two non-allergens sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and isopropanol (IPA) at various concentrations were evaluated. The IL-6 and TNF-alpha production was measured by ELISA. The secretion of IL-1beta and IL-8 was analyzed by Cytometric Bead Array (CBA). The section of the IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-8 were the highest when THP-1 cells were exposed to NiSO4, DNCB and K2Cr2O7 for 6h, PPDA and TDI for 12h. The production of IL-6 were approximately 40, 25, 20, 50 and 50 times for five kinds chemical allergens NiSO4, DNCB, K2Cr2O7, PPDA and TDI respectively at the optimum time points and the optimal concentration compared to the control group. The expression of TNF-alpha were 20, 12, 20, 8 and 5 times more than the control group respectively. IL-1beta secretion were 30, 60, 25, 30 and 45 times respectively compared to the control group. The production of IL-8 were approximately 15, 12, 15, 12 and 7 times respectively compared to the control group. Both non-allergens SDS and IPA significantly induced IL-6 secretion in a dose-dependent manner however SDS cause a higher production levels, approximately 20 times of the control. Therefore IL-6 may not be a reliable marker for identification of allergens. TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-8 expressions did not change significantly after exposed to the two non-allergens. The test method using THP-1 cells by detecting the productions of cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and

  5. Threshold dose distributions for 5 major allergenic foods in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blom, W Marty; Vlieg-Boerstra, Berber J; Kruizinga, Astrid G; van der Heide, Sicco; Houben, Geert F; Dubois, Anthony E J

    2013-01-01

    For most allergenic foods, insufficient threshold dose information within the population restricts the advice on levels of unintended allergenic foods which should trigger precautionary labeling on prepackaged foods. We wanted to derive threshold dose distributions for major allergenic foods and to elaborate the protein doses at which a proportion of the allergic population is likely to respond. For 7 allergenic foods double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFCs) with a positive outcome for allergic reactions were selected from the clinical database of children routinely tested to diagnose food allergy at the University Medical Center Groningen. For each allergen 2 population threshold distributions were determined with the individual minimal eliciting dose and the preceding dose of each DBPCFC for objective symptoms and any symptom (either subjective or objective). Individual positive DBPCFCs were available for peanut (n = 135), cow's milk (n = 93), hen's egg (n = 53), hazelnut (n = 28), and cashew nut (n = 31). Fewer children were challenged with soy (n = 10) or walnut (n = 13). Threshold dose distributions showed a good statistical and visual fit. The protein dose at which 5% of the allergic population is likely to respond with objective reactions was 1.6 mg for peanut, 1.1 mg for cow's milk, 1.5 mg for hen's egg, 7.4 mg for cashew nut, and 0.29 mg for hazelnut. Thresholds for any symptom were on average 2 to 6 times lower than for objective symptoms. The 95% upper and lower confidence intervals of the threshold distributions were overlapping. The peanut threshold distribution on objective symptoms was similar to the distribution of another European center. Threshold distribution curves and eliciting doses are a powerful tool to compare different allergenic foods and for informing policy on precautionary labeling. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk assessment of allergen metals in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahi, Hande; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Güngör, Zerrin; Erdem, Onur; Soykut, Buğra; Akay, Cemal; Aydin, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Cosmetics are one of the most common reasons for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. Because of the increased use of cosmetics within the population and an increase in allergy cases, monitoring of heavy metals, especially allergen metals, is crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of allergen metals, nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr), in the most commonly used cosmetic products including mascara, eyeliner, eye shadow, lipstick, and nail polish. In addition, for safety assessment of cosmetic products, margin of safety of the metals was evaluated. Forty-eight makeup products were purchased randomly from local markets and large cosmetic stores in Istanbul, Turkey, and an atomic absorption spectrometer was used for metal content determination. Risk assessment of the investigated cosmetic products was performed by calculating the systemic exposure dosage (SED) using Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guideline. According to the results of this investigation in all the samples tested, at least two of the allergen metals, Ni and/or Co and/or Cr were detected. Moreover, 97% of the Ni-detected products, 96% of Cr- and 54% of Co-detected products, contained over 1 μg/g of this metals, which is the suggested ultimate target value for sensitive population and thereby can be considered as the possible allergen. On the basis of the results of this study, SED of the metals was negligible; however, contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics is most probably due to the allergen metal content of the products. In conclusion, to assess the safety of the finished products, postmarketing vigilance and routine monitoring of allergen metals are very important to protect public health.

  7. Charting novel allergens from date palm pollen (Phoenix sylvestris) using homology driven proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bodhisattwa; Bhattacharya, Swati Gupta

    2017-08-08

    Pollen grains from Phoenix sylvestris (date palm), a commonly cultivated tree in India has been found to cause severe allergic diseases in an increasing percentage of hypersensitive individuals. To unearth its allergenic components, pollen protein were profiled by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting with date palm pollen sensitive patient sera. Allergens were identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF employing a layered proteomic approach combining conventional database dependent search and manual de novo sequencing followed by homology-based search as Phoenix sylvestris is unsequenced. Derivatization of tryptic peptides by acetylation has been demonstrated to differentiate the 'b' from the 'y' ions facilitating efficient de novo sequencing. Ten allergenic proteins were identified, out of which six showed homology with known allergens while others were reported for the first time. Amongst these, isoflavone reductase, beta-conglycinin, S-adenosyl methionine synthase, 1, 4 glucan synthase and beta-galactosidase were commonly reported as allergens from coconut pollen and presumably responsible for cross-reactivity. One of the allergens had IgE binding epitope recognized by its glycan moiety. The allergenic potency of date palm pollen has been demonstrated using in vitro tests. The identified allergens can be used to develop vaccines for immunotherapy against date palm pollen allergy. Identification of allergenic proteins from sources harboring them is essential in developing therapeutic interventions. This is the first comprehensive study on the identification of allergens from Phoenix sylvestris (date palm) pollen, one of the major aeroallergens in India using a proteomic approach. Proteomic methods are being increasingly used to identify allergens. However, since many of these proteins arise from species which are un-sequenced, it becomes difficult to interpret those using conventional proteomics. Date palm being an unsequenced species, the Ig

  8. Workshop proceedings: challenges and opportunities in evaluating protein allergenicity across biotechnology industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Nicola J; Ghantous, Hanan N; Ladics, Gregory S; House, Robert V; Gendel, Steven M; Hastings, Kenneth L

    2013-01-01

    A workshop entitled "Challenges and Opportunities in Evaluating Protein Allergenicity across Biotechnology Industries" was held at the 51st Annual Meeting of the Society of Toxicology (SOT) in San Francisco, California. The workshop was sponsored by the Biotechnology Specialty Section of SOT and was designed to present the science-based approaches used in biotechnology industries to evaluate and regulate protein allergenicity. A panel of experts from industry and government highlighted the allergenicity testing requirements and research in the agricultural, pharmaceutical/biopharma, and vaccine biotechnology industries and addressed challenges and opportunities for advancing the science of protein allergenicity. The main learning from the workshop was that immunoglobulin E-mediated allergenicity of biotechnology-derived products is difficult to assess without human data. The approaches currently being used to evaluate potential for allergenicity across biotechnology industries are very different and range from bioinformatics, in vitro serology, in vivo animal testing, in vitro and in vivo functional assays, and "biosimilar" assessments (ie, biotherapeutic equivalents to innovator products). The challenge remains with regard to the different or lack of regulatory requirements for allergenicity testing across industries, but the novel approaches being used with bioinformatics and biosimilars may lead to opportunities in the future to collaborate across biotechnology industries.

  9. Inhalation characteristics and their effects on in vitro drug delivery from dry powder inhalers .1. Inhalation characteristics, work of breathing and volunteers' preference in dependence of the inhaler resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBoer, AH; Winter, H.M.I.; Lerk, CF

    1996-01-01

    A test inhaler with exchangeable air flow resistances encompassing the range of commercial DPIs has been used to study the inspiratory flow curves of 39 healthy adult volunteers. A strong increase in mean Peak Inspiratory Flow Rate (PIFR) has been obtained with decreasing inhaler resistance, varying

  10. The prevalence of dogs with lymphocyte proliferative responses to food allergens in canine allergic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, K; Oumi, K; Ashida, Y; Horiuchi, Y; Mizuno, T

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the correlation between the results of lymphocyte proliferative test (LPT) specific to food allergens and allergic skin diseases in dogs. Investigations were performed in 138 dogs with allergic skin diseases diagnosed in a private animal hospital. Of the 138 animals, 97 cases had positive reactions in LPT specific to food allergens. Of these 97 dogs, 67 animals were diagnosed with canine atopic dermatitis (CAD), but 30 dogs did not have IgE antibodies to environmental allergens. As 14 dogs out of 30 animals showed a positive result, 12 dogs underwent elimination diet trial based on the test results and all of them showed improvement in the pruritus score. Therefore, we conclude that LPT is an effective diagnostic test for allergic skin disease. Results of the lymphocyte test are useful in the identification of food allergens for the elimination diet trial.

  11. Allergen-specific IgE testing in the diagnosis of food allergy and the event of a positive match in the bioinformatics search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Ree, Ronald; Vieths, Stefan; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2006-01-01

    Current documents on risk assessment of genetically modified foods recommend including IgE-binding tests on sera from allergic patients. However, there is no generally accepted recommendation on technical aspects of the testing procedures or on the interpretation of the results, despite that fact...

  12. Urticaria and anaphylaxis in a child after inhalation of lentil vapours: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaliti, Giovanna; Morselli, Ignazio; Di Stefano, Valeria; Lanzafame, Angela; La Rosa, Mario; Leonardi, Salvatore

    2012-12-13

    Among legumes, lentils seem to be the most common legume implicated in pediatric allergic reactions in the Mediterranean area and India, and usually they start early in life, below 4 years of age. A 22 -month-old child was admitted to our Pediatric Department for anaphylaxis and urticaria. At the age of 9 months she presented a first episode of angioedema and laryngeal obstruction, due to a second assumption of lentils in her diet. At admission we performed routine analyses that were all in the normal range, except for the dosage of specific IgE, that revealed a positive result for lentils. Prick tests too were positive for lentils, while they were all negative for other main food allergens. The child also performed a prick by prick that gave the same positive result (with a wheal of 8 mm of diameter). The child had not previously eaten lentils and other legumes, but her pathological anamnesis highlighted that the allergic reaction appeared soon after the inhalation of cooking lentil vapours when the child entered the kitchen Therefore a diagnosis of lentils vapours allergy was made. Our case shows the peculiarity of a very early onset. In literature there are no data on episodes of anaphylaxis in so young children, considering that our child was already on lentils exclusion diet. Therefore a diet of exclusion does not absolutely preserve patients from allergic reactions, that can develop also after their cooking steams inhalation.

  13. Urticaria and anaphilaxis in a child after inhalation of lentils vapours: a case report and literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Among legumes, lentils seem to be the most common legume implicated in pediatric allergic reactions in the Mediterranean area and India, and usually they start early in life, below 4 years of age. Case report A 22 -month-old child was admitted to our Pediatric Department for anaphylaxis and urticaria. At the age of 9 months she presented a first episode of angioedema and laryngeal obstruction, due to a second assumption of lentils in her diet. At admission we performed routine analyses that were all in the normal range, except for the dosage of specific IgE, that revealed a positive result for lentils. Prick tests too were positive for lentils, while they were all negative for other main food allergens. The child also performed a prick by prick that gave the same positive result (with a wheal of 8 mm of diameter). The child had not previously eaten lentils and other legumes, but her pathological anamnesis highlighted that the allergic reaction appeared soon after the inhalation of cooking lentil vapours when the child entered the kitchen Therefore a diagnosis of lentils vapours allergy was made. Conclusions Our case shows the peculiarity of a very early onset. In literature there are no data on episodes of anaphylaxis in so young children, considering that our child was already on lentils exclusion diet. Therefore a diet of exclusion does not absolutely preserve patients from allergic reactions, that can develop also after their cooking steams inhalation. PMID:23237421

  14. Urticaria and anaphilaxis in a child after inhalation of lentils vapours: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliti Giovanna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among legumes, lentils seem to be the most common legume implicated in pediatric allergic reactions in the Mediterranean area and India, and usually they start early in life, below 4 years of age. Case report A 22 -month-old child was admitted to our Pediatric Department for anaphylaxis and urticaria. At the age of 9 months she presented a first episode of angioedema and laryngeal obstruction, due to a second assumption of lentils in her diet. At admission we performed routine analyses that were all in the normal range, except for the dosage of specific IgE, that revealed a positive result for lentils. Prick tests too were positive for lentils, while they were all negative for other main food allergens. The child also performed a prick by prick that gave the same positive result (with a wheal of 8 mm of diameter. The child had not previously eaten lentils and other legumes, but her pathological anamnesis highlighted that the allergic reaction appeared soon after the inhalation of cooking lentil vapours when the child entered the kitchen Therefore a diagnosis of lentils vapours allergy was made. Conclusions Our case shows the peculiarity of a very early onset. In literature there are no data on episodes of anaphylaxis in so young children, considering that our child was already on lentils exclusion diet. Therefore a diet of exclusion does not absolutely preserve patients from allergic reactions, that can develop also after their cooking steams inhalation.

  15. Indoor allergen exposure and asthma outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, William J.; Phipatanakul, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review The aim of the present review is to discuss updates on research regarding the relationship between indoor allergen exposure and childhood asthma with a focus on clinical effects, locations of exposure, and novel treatments. Recent findings Recent data continue to demonstrate that early life sensitization to indoor allergens is a predictor of asthma development later in life. Furthermore, avoidance of exposure to these allergens continues to be important especially given that the vast majority of children with asthma are sensitized to at least one indoor allergen. New research suggests that mouse allergen, more so than cockroach allergen, may be the most relevant urban allergen. Recent evidence reminds us that children are exposed to clinically important levels of indoor allergens in locations away from their home, such as schools and daycare centers. Exposure to increased levels of indoor mold in childhood has been associated with asthma development and exacerbation of current asthma; however, emerging evidence suggests that early exposure to higher fungal diversity may actually be protective for asthma development. Novel treatments have been developed that target TH2 pathways thus decreasing asthmatic responses to allergens. These therapies show promise for the treatment of severe allergic asthma refractory to avoidance strategies and standard therapies. Summary Understanding the relationship between indoor allergens and asthma outcomes is a constantly evolving study of timing, location, and amount of exposure. PMID:27653703

  16. Attenuated Allergenic Activity of Ovomucoid After Electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kido, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Ovomucoid (OMC) is the most prominent allergen causing hen's egg allergy, containing disulfide (S-S) bonds that may be responsible for its allergic action. As S-S bonds may be reduced during electrolysis, this study was undertaken to evaluate modulation of the allergic action of OMC after electrolysis. Electrolysis was carried out for 1% OMC containing 1% sodium chloride for 30 minutes with a voltage difference of 90 V, 0.23 A (30 mA/cm2). Protein assays, amino acid measurement, and mass spectrometry in untreated OMC and OMC on both the anode and cathode sides after electrolysis were performed. Moreover, 21 patients with IgE-mediated hen's egg allergy were evaluated by using the skin prick test (SPT) for untreated OMC and OMC after electrolysis. The allergic action of OMC was reduced after electrolysis on both the anode and cathode sides when evaluated by the SPT. The modifications of OMC on electrolysis caused the loss of 2 distinct peptide fragments (57E-63K and 123H-128R) as seen on matrix-associated laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The total free SH groups in OMC were increased on the cathode side. Although the regions of S-S broken bonds were not determined in this study, the change in S-S bonds in OMC on both the anode and cathode sides may reduce the allergenic activity. PMID:26333707

  17. [Inhaled medication in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapet, A; Oudyi, M; Dubus, J-C

    2013-08-01

    Three different devices are available for inhaled medications in children: the pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs, breath-actuator synchronized pMDI, and valved holding spacers), the dry powder inhalers, and the nebulizers. To choose the better device for a particular patient, a perfect knowledge of the available devices, of their mode of use, of their advantages and inconvenient is required. The use of a pMDI coupled to a valved holding spacer is the first mode of delivery to propose in children aged less than 6 years. After 6 years old, the DPIs may be proposed depending on the child's competences. At last, the nebulizations are indicated in some particular and severe indications, but new indications are appearing because of recent progresses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Nicotine microaerosol inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, P G; Rhem, R; Rosenfeld, J; Dolovich, M B

    1999-01-01

    To measure the droplet size distribution of a nicotine pressurized metered-dose inhaler using a nicotine in ethanol solution formulation with hydrofluoroalkane as propellant. Sizing was performed at room temperature by multistage liquid impinger and quartz crystal impactor. The mass median aerodynamic diameter of the nicotine aerosol produced was measured at 1.6 mm by multistage liquid impinger and 1.5 mm by quartz crystal impactor. The inhaler formulation used produces a microaerosol of sufficiently fine droplet size that mimics the puff-by-puff pulmonary arterial bolus nicotine delivery of tobacco smoke. The absence of combustion products such as heat, carcinogens and carbon monoxide permits safer nicotine delivery via the inhaler than is possible via smoked tobacco.

  19. "COMMON FOOD ALLERGENS IN CHILDREN (A REPORT FROM A REFERRAL CENTER IN TEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF MEDICAL SCIENCES"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pourpak

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of food allergy is different in various nations. The identification of the most common food allergens is a priority in any population to provide effective preventive and curative measures. The aim of this study is to determine the most common food allergens in Iranian children. One hundred and ninety children with skin, respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms, which were thought to be due to food allergy, were studied. Total serum IgE and eosinophil count tests were measured in all patients. Allergy to 25 food allergens was determined according to the patient’s history, skin prick tests, radioallergosorbent test (RAST and open food challenge tests. The most common food allergens were cow’s milk, tomato, egg white, egg yolk, beef and almond, in decreasing order of frequency. The order of common food allergens in this study was different from other reports that might be due to the different food habits and/or ethnic diversities.

  20. Allergen-induced Increases in Sputum Levels of Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Subjects with Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruchong; Smith, Steven G; Salter, Brittany; El-Gammal, Amani; Oliveria, John Paul; Obminski, Caitlin; Watson, Rick; O'Byrne, Paul M; Gauvreau, Gail M; Sehmi, Roma

    2017-09-15

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), a major source of type 2 cytokines, initiate eosinophilic inflammatory responses in murine models of asthma. To investigate the role of ILC2 in allergen-induced airway eosinophilic responses in subjects with atopy and asthma. Using a diluent-controlled allergen challenge crossover study, where all subjects (n = 10) developed allergen-induced early and late responses, airway eosinophilia, and increased methacholine airway responsiveness, bone marrow, blood, and sputum samples were collected before and after inhalation challenge. ILC2 (lin - FcεRI - CD45 + CD127 + ST2 + ) and CD4 + T lymphocytes were enumerated by flow cytometry, as well as intracellular IL-5 and IL-13 expression. Steroid sensitivity of ILC2 and CD4 + T cells was investigated in vitro. A significant increase in total, IL-5 + , IL-13 + , and CRTH2 + ILC2 was found in sputum, 24 hours after allergen, coincident with a significant decrease in blood ILC2. Total, IL-5 + , and IL-13 + , but not CRTH2 + , CD4 + T cells significantly increased at 24 and 48 hours after allergen in sputum. In blood and bone marrow, only CD4 + cells demonstrated increased activation after allergen. Airway eosinophilia correlated with IL-5 + ILC2 at all time points and allergen-induced changes in IL-5 + CD4 + cells at 48 hours after allergen. Dexamethasone significantly attenuated IL-2- and IL-33-stimulated IL-5 and IL-13 production by both cell types. Innate and adaptive immune cells are increased in the airways associated with allergic asthmatic responses. Total and type 2 cytokine-positive ILC2 are increased only within the airways, whereas CD4 + T lymphocytes demonstrated local and systemic increases. Steroid sensitivity of both cells may explain effectiveness of this therapy in those with mild asthma.

  1. Effectiveness of allergen-specific immunotherapy with pollen allergens in children from the viewpoint of molecular allergology

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    S.M. Nedelska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Allergen-specific immunotherapy as elimination procedures is the only method of treatment and prevention of allergic disorders formation and exacerbation of clinical symptoms. One of the approaches to molecular diagnosis is choice of allergen for allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT. The purpose of our study was to identify possible reasons of failure of ASIT with pollen allergens (predominantly weeds in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever and/or bronchial asthma based on studying hypersensitivity to the allergens, analysis of anamnestic data. Materials and methods. Allergy skin prick tests were conducted to 192 children (middle age 9.8 ± 2.7 years with the seasonal symptoms of rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma according to standard methodology with pollen allergens of Immunolog Ltd (Vinnytsia. We evaluated positive results as 5 mm and higher diameter of papula/hyperemia. The anamnestic survey was carried out in 52 patients by means of the questionnaire that contained questions about cross allergy (pollen-food, oral allergy syndrome, concomitant pathology of upper respiratory tract and effectiveness of АSІТ, which is elaborated by us. Results. The skin prick tests show that in 192 patients, who have hay fever, ragweed, sunflower sensibilization predominates (56 and 58 %, correspondingly. About 10–20 % of children are sensitive to cereals (ryegrass, fescue. To the allergens of poplar, acacia, couch-grass, oak, mint, nettle, walnut, the positive reactions of prick tests were observed in 3–7 children, that is 1.5–3.6 %. According to our results, 23 % of patients had sensibilization to 5 and more pollen allergens. 52 % of children had concomitant food allergy, 15 % of patients have reactions of the lips, oral cavity when using certain products, mostly tomatoes, nuts, seeds (they were diagnosed oral allergy syndrome. Also, one third of children have varying degrees of adenoid hypertrophy, tonsils hypertrophy

  2. Optimisation of grass pollen nasal allergen challenge for assessment of clinical and immunological outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scadding, Guy W; Calderon, Moises A; Bellido, Virginia; Koed, Gitte Konsgaard; Nielsen, Niels-Christian; Lund, Kaare; Togias, Alkis; Phippard, Deborah; Turka, Laurence A; Hansel, Trevor T; Durham, Stephen R; Wurtzen, Peter Adler

    2012-10-31

    Nasal allergen challenge can be used to assess the clinical and immunological aspects of rhinitis due to inhalant allergens. We aimed to develop a reproducible technique for grass pollen nasal allergen challenge and to study biomarkers within nasal secretions. 20 Grass pollen allergic individuals underwent nasal challenges with purified Timothy grass allergen. An initial dose-titration challenge was used to determine dose-response characteristics. Subsequently, volunteers underwent 3 further challenges using individualised threshold doses. Symptom scores, visual analogue scores, and peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) were recorded at baseline and up to 6h after challenge. Nasal secretions were collected at each time point using synthetic filter papers or absorptive polyurethane sponges and analysed for IL-4, -5, -10, -13, IFN-γ, Tryptase and Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP). Challenges gave reproducible symptom scores and decreased PNIF. Tryptase levels in nasal fluid peaked at 5 min after challenge and returned to baseline levels at 1h. ECP, IL-5, IL-13 and IL-4 levels were increased from 2-3 h and showed progressive increases to 5-6 h. Sponges proved the superior nasal fluid sampling technique. We have developed a reproducible nasal allergen challenge technique. This may be used as a surrogate clinical endpoint in trials assessing the efficacy of treatments for allergic rhinitis. Tryptase in local nasal secretions is a potential biomarker of the early phase response; ECP and the Th2 cytokines IL-5, -13 and -4 markers of late phase allergic responses. Our model allows correlation between clinical responses and local biomarkers following nasal allergen challenge. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhaled Corticosteroids (ICSs) and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inhaled Corticosteroids (ICSs) In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having a baby ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to inhaled corticosteroids may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  4. Allergen-specific immunotherapy prescription patterns in veterinary practice: a US population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tater, Kathy Chu; Cole, William Elliott; Pion, Paul David

    2017-08-01

    Poor adherence to continuing allergen-specific immunotherapy treatment (ASIT) may be an issue in veterinary medicine. No studies describe how allergen tests are used in general veterinary practice, including the percentage of patients that receive ASIT after allergen testing. Assess veterinary ASIT patterns in United States general practices. Dogs (n = 2,557) and 121 cats allergen-tested at 177 hospitals (173 general practice and four specialty practices) in 44 states. Invoiced service descriptions of allergen tests and ASIT orders were retrieved from an aggregated database of veterinary practices. In general practice, 42% (992 of 2,360) of patients did not begin ASIT after allergen testing. ASIT was not refilled for 29% (398 of 1,368) of patients after the initial order. ASIT was initiated and refilled more often in dogs (56.6%, 71.4%, respectively) than cats (38%, 67.4%). Specialty practice patients had the highest ASIT initiation (94.4%) and refill (92.7%) percentages in comparison to general practices (P < 0.001). Size, age, geographical region and type of practice were associated with whether dogs were started on ASIT. Geographical region was also associated with refilling a prescription for ASIT, which was considered to be evidence of adherence to continuing treatment. Almost one third of clients failed to continue ASIT beyond the initial order, which is a much shorter duration of therapy than the 12 months recommended for determining ASIT efficacy. A large number of general practice patients did not begin ASIT after allergen testing, likely due to differences in how clinicians in general and dermatology practices use allergen tests. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  5. Who Can Use an Inhaler?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Should You Go to School? Breast Cancer Who Can Use an Inhaler? KidsHealth > For Kids > Who Can Use an Inhaler? Print A A A en ... get medicine right into your lungs , where it can help stop breathing problems related to asthma. Inhalers ...

  6. False-positive skin prick test responses to commercially available dog dander extracts caused by contamination with house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, M. J.; Mulder, M.; Witteman, A. M.; van Ree, R.; Aalberse, R. C.; Jansen, H. M.; van der Zee, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In an outpatient population, a high frequency of positive skin prick test responses to dog dander was found in the absence of detectable IgE to dog dander in the RAST. The majority of these patients were sensitized to house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) and had no obvious

  7. Mutants of the major ryegrass pollen allergen, Lol p 5, with reduced IgE-binding capacity: candidates for grass pollen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swoboda, Ines; De Weerd, Nicole; Bhalla, Prem L; Niederberger, Verena; Sperr, W R; Valent, Peter; Kahlert, Helga; Fiebig, Helmut; Verdino, Petra; Keller, Walter; Ebner, Christof; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Singh, Mohan B

    2002-01-01

    More than 400 million individuals are sensitized to grass pollen allergens. Group 5 allergens represent the most potent grass pollen allergens recognized by more than 80 % of grass pollen allergic patients. The aim of our study was to reduce the allergenic activity of group 5 allergens for specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. Based on B- and T-cell epitope mapping studies and on sequence comparison of group 5 allergens from different grasses, point mutations were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis in highly conserved sequence domains of Lol p 5, the group 5 allergen from ryegrass. We obtained Lol p 5 mutants with low IgE-binding capacity and reduced allergenic activity as determined by basophil histamine release and by skin prick testing in allergic patients. Circular dichroism analysis showed that these mutants exhibited an overall structural fold similar to the recombinant Lol p 5 wild-type allergen. In addition, Lol p 5 mutants retained the ability to induce proliferation of group 5 allergen-specific T cell lines and clones. Our results demonstrate that a few point mutations in the Lol p 5 sequence yield mutants with reduced allergenic activity that represent potential vaccine candidates for immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy.

  8. Allergen immunotherapy, when and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díez Zuluaga, Libia Susana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen specific immunotherapy is currently the only treatment that modifies the natural course of allergic diseases. Its present indications are asthma, rhinitis, conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis and hymenoptera venom allergy. However, there still is some controversy regarding its safety and clinical utility. In this article, we present a review about the molecular mechanisms, indications, contraindications, safety and efficacy of immunotherapy in each one of these diseases, by means of illustrative cases.

  9. High environmental ozone levels lead to enhanced allergenicity of birch pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Beck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence is compelling for a positive correlation between climate change, urbanisation and prevalence of allergic sensitisation and diseases. The reason for this association is not clear to date. Some data point to a pro-allergenic effect of anthropogenic factors on susceptible individuals. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of urbanisation and climate change on pollen allergenicity. METHODS: Catkins were sampled from birch trees from different sites across the greater area of Munich, pollen were isolated and an urbanisation index, NO2 and ozone exposure were determined. To estimate pollen allergenicity, allergen content and pollen-associated lipid mediators were measured in aqueous pollen extracts. Immune stimulatory and modulatory capacity of pollen was assessed by neutrophil migration assays and the potential of pollen to inhibit dendritic cell interleukin-12 response. In vivo allergenicity was assessed by skin prick tests. RESULTS: The study revealed ozone as a prominent environmental factor influencing the allergenicity of birch pollen. Enhanced allergenicity, as assessed in skin prick tests, was mirrored by enhanced allergen content. Beyond that, ozone induced changes in lipid composition and chemotactic and immune modulatory potential of the pollen. Higher ozone-exposed pollen was characterised by less immune modulatory but higher immune stimulatory potential. CONCLUSION: It is likely that future climate change along with increasing urbanisation will lead to rising ozone concentrations in the next decades. Our study indicates that ozone is a crucial factor leading to clinically relevant enhanced allergenicity of birch pollen. Thus, with increasing temperatures and increasing ozone levels, also symptoms of pollen allergic patients may increase further.

  10. Common Allergens in Patients with Atopic Dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bonyadi, MR. (PhD; Ezzati, F. (MSc

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Being exposed to different allergens, followed by the production of specific IgE, has an important role in causing atopic dermatitis, recognizing the allergens and applying immunotherapy for treatment. We aimed to determine the frequency of common allergens in the patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Material and Methods: In this descriptive- analytical study the serum level of total IgE and frequency of specific IgE were measured by Immunoblotting method again...

  11. Effect of inhaled medication and inhalation technique on dental caries in asthmatic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boskabady, Marzie; Nematollahi, Hossein; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the type of inhaled medication, length of use, dosing, the inhaler use technique and the severity and duration of disease on the dental caries of asthmatic patients. In the present study, the frequency of dental caries in the asthmatic patients and control group was examined. In addition the possible association of dental caries with disease duration, disease severity, asthma symptoms, chest wheeze, PFT values, and dose of medication and inhalation use technique was evaluated. 40 asthmatic patients of both sex (20-30 years old) and 40 age and sex matched controls were studied. In asthmatic patients, the type, dose, duration of medications, the technique of inhaler use and severity and duration of the disease were recorded. The dental health status including DT, MT, FT and DMFT (decay, missing, filling teeth) were examined. In addition, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were performed for both groups. All PFT variables in asthmatic patients were significantly lower than those of control group except for FVC (P dental caries in asthmatic group were higher than those of controls which was statistically significant for MT and DMFT (P asthma duration were significantly more than those of 6-10 years (P dental caries and disease duration, PFT values; doses of medication or the technique of inhaler use; although the technique of inhaler use was relatively acceptable in all asthmatic patients. These results showed that dental caries among asthmatic patients was more common than control group which can be due to using inhaler drugs or the technique of inhaler use.

  12. Effective Allergen Management : Precautionary (may contain) allergen labeling; when to apply?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort. M.M.J. van

    2013-01-01

    When do you label food products as having been possibly cross contaminated by allergens? TNO can help you to develop a quantitative risk management guidance for food allergens, based on a unique method that quantifies the risk of food allergen traces in products and validated data on thresholds.

  13. Legumin allergens from peanuts and soybeans : Effects of denaturation and aggregation on allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, van E.L.; Broek, van den L.A.M.; Koppelman, S.J.; Gruppen, H.

    2008-01-01

    Legumin proteins Ara h 3 from peanuts and glycinin from soybeans are increasingly described as important allergens. The stability of an allergen's IgE binding capacity towards heating and digestion is considered an important characteristic for food allergens. We investigated the effects of heating

  14. Occupational IgE-mediated softwood allergy: characterization of the causative allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kespohl, Sabine; Kotschy-Lang, Nicole; Tomm, Janina M; von Bergen, Martin; Maryska, Silke; Brüning, Thomas; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Allergic reactions to wood dust allergens are rare, and only few in vitro diagnostic tools and information about relevant allergens are available. To differentiate between protein-based allergy and probably clinically silent glycogenic sensitization, it is helpful to characterize the relevant protein allergens and specify IgE binding. The current case report deals with the occupational softwood allergy of a carpenter exposed to different wood dusts. Skin tests and IgE tests against wood were performed with specifically tailored ImmunoCAPs and cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants. Potential allergens were identified by IgE blots and tandem mass spectrometry. The clinical relevance was verified by challenge tests. Specific IgE to softwood (spruce, pine and larch wood), beech wood, natural rubber latex (NRL) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were detected. Allergens in spruce wood, the dominant allergen source, were identified as peroxidases. Softwood were the strongest inhibitors. HRP reduced IgE binding to softwood to 50% by HRP, indicating predominantly glycogenic IgE epitopes. Skin and challenge tests underlined that softwoods were the source of sensitization. For the polysensitized patient, a clinically relevant softwood allergy was diagnosed, not only by challenge tests but also with specifically tailored in vitro tools. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Glycoproteomic analysis of seven major allergenic proteins reveals novel post-translational modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Adnan; Carlsson, Michael C; Madsen, Caroline Benedicte; Brand, Stephanie; Møller, Svenning Rune; Olsen, Carl Erik; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; Brimnes, Jens; Wurtzen, Peter Adler; Ipsen, Henrik; Petersen, Bent L; Wandall, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    Allergenic proteins such as grass pollen and house dust mite (HDM) proteins are known to trigger hypersensitivity reactions of the immune system, leading to what is commonly known as allergy. Key allergenic proteins including sequence variants have been identified but characterization of their post-translational modifications (PTMs) is still limited. Here, we present a detailed PTM(1) characterization of a series of the main and clinically relevant allergens used in allergy tests and vaccines. We employ Orbitrap-based mass spectrometry with complementary fragmentation techniques (HCD/ETD) for site-specific PTM characterization by bottom-up analysis. In addition, top-down mass spectrometry is utilized for targeted analysis of individual proteins, revealing hitherto unknown PTMs of HDM allergens. We demonstrate the presence of lysine-linked polyhexose glycans and asparagine-linked N-acetylhexosamine glycans on HDM allergens. Moreover, we identified more complex glycan structures than previously reported on the major grass pollen group 1 and 5 allergens, implicating important roles for carbohydrates in allergen recognition and response by the immune system. The new findings are important for understanding basic disease-causing mechanisms at the cellular level, which ultimately may pave the way for instigating novel approaches for targeted desensitization strategies and improved allergy vaccines. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Sensitization to indoor allergens and frequency of asthma exacerbations in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Irene

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The rapid increase in asthma incidence has implicated the importance of environmental influences over genetic influences. Sensitization to perennial indoor allergens has been associated with increased asthma symptoms. Objective To examine the correlation between sensitization to indoor allergens and frequency of asthma exacerbations in children. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out on asthmatic children aged 6 to 12 years in the Department of Child Health, Udayana University Medical School /Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar. Degree of sensitization was assessed by mean wheal diameter (positive defined as 3 mm greater than negative control for seven common indoor allergens. Frequency of asthma exacerbation for three consecutive months prior to data collection was retrospectively reviewed. Results Positive skin test results for one or more allergens were found in 84 of 89 (94% asthmatic children. Higher frequency of asthma exacerbations weakly correlated with the number of allergens with positive sensitization (r=0.284; P=0.007. Mean wheal diameter of each allergen did not correlate to the frequency of asthma exacerbations. In addition, the frequency of asthma exacerbations was independent for parental and sibling atopic history, preceding respiratory infections, use of asthma controllers and passive environmental tobacco smoke exposure. Conclusions Sensitization to common indoor allergens correlates weakly with frequency of asthma exacerbations.

  17. Advanced DNA- and Protein-based Methods for the Detection and Investigation of Food Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, M; Ortea, I; Vial, S; Rivas, J; Calo-Mata, P; Barros-Velázquez, J

    2016-11-17

    Currently, food allergies are an important health concern worldwide. The presence of undeclared allergenic ingredients or the presence of traces of allergens due to contamination during food processing poses a great health risk to sensitized individuals. Therefore, reliable analytical methods are required to detect and identify allergenic ingredients in food products. The present review addresses the recent developments regarding the application of DNA- and protein-based methods for the detection of allergenic ingredients in foods. The fitness-for-purpose of reviewed methodology will be discussed, and future trends will be highlighted. Special attention will be given to the evaluation of the potential of newly developed and promising technologies that can improve the detection and identification of allergenic ingredients in foods, such as the use of biosensors and/or nanomaterials to improve detection limits, specificity, ease of use, or to reduce the time of analysis. Such rapid food allergen test methods are required to facilitate the reliable detection of allergenic ingredients by control laboratories, to give the food industry the means to easily determine whether its product has been subjected to cross-contamination and, simultaneously, to identify how and when this cross-contamination occurred.

  18. Association of house dust allergen concentrations with residential conditions in city and in rural houses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardzyńska, Aleksandra; Majkowska-Wojciechowska, Barbara; Pełka, Jolanta; Korzon, Leszek; Kaczała, Magdalena; Jarzębska, Marzanna; Gwardys, Tomasz; Kowalski, Marek L

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between house dust mite, cat and dog allergen levels with household characteristics in the houses of children living in urban and rural areas in central Poland. Dust samples were collected from 141 urban and 191 rural houses. Der f1 + Der p1, Can f 1, and Fel d1 levels were measured and associated with residential conditions and atopy-related health outcomes assessed by clinical examination and skin prick testing. Concentrations of mite allergens were lower, and cat and dog allergen levels were higher in urban houses. Fel d1 and Can f1 levels depended on the presence of a respective animal in the house. In urban houses, Der p1 + Der f1 concentration was lower in households with central heating, whereas Can f1 concentration was related to building age. Multivariate analyses revealed that the concentrations of house dust mite and dog allergens were associated with relative humidity, number of people in the household, and the presence of a dog at home. There was no significant association between allergen level and sensitization or atopic diseases. Concentrations of indoor allergens in urban and rural houses differ significantly, and residential conditions associated with allergen levels seem to be different in both environments.

  19. Budesonide Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs hoarseness difficulty breathing or swallowing wheezing cough chest pain anxiety fever, chills, or other signs of infection tiredness nausea vomiting weakness changes in vision Budesonide inhalation may cause children to grow more slowly. There is not enough ...

  20. Inhalational Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Farzaneh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhalational lung diseases are among the most important occupational diseases. Pneumoconiosis refers to a group of lung diseases result from inhalation of usually inorganic dusts such as silicon dioxide, asbestos, coal, etc., and their deposition in the lungs. The resultant pulmonary disorders depend on the susceptibility of lungs; size, concentration, solubility and fibrogenic properties of the inhaled particles; and duration of exposure. Radiographic manifestations of pneumoconiosis become apparent several years after exposure to the particles. However, for certain types of dusts, e.g., silicone dioxide crystal and beryllium, heavy exposure within a short period can cause an acute disease. Pulmonary involvement in asbestosis is usually in the lower lobes. On the contrary, in silicosis and coal worker pneumoconiosis, the upper lobes are involved predominantly. For imaging evaluation of pneumoconiosis, high-resolution computed tomography (CT is superior to conventional chest x-ray. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and positron emission tomography (PET scan are helpful in those with suspected tumoral lesions. In this essay, we reviewed the imaging aspects of inhalational lung disease.

  1. Tropomyosin and Actin Identified as Major Allergens of the Carpet Clam (Paphia textile) and the Effect of Cooking on Their Allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad Yadzir, Zailatul Hani; Misnan, Rosmilah; Bakhtiar, Faizal; Abdullah, Noormalin; Murad, Shahnaz

    2015-01-01

    To identify the major allergenic proteins of clam (Paphia textile) and to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of these identified proteins. Clam protein extracts were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. IgE reactive proteins were then analyzed by immunoblotting with sera from patients with positive skin prick tests (SPT) to the raw clam extract. Mass spectrometry was used to identify the major allergenic proteins of this clam. Raw extract showed 12 protein bands (18-150 kDa). In contrast, fewer protein bands were seen in the boiled extract; those ranging from 40 to 150 kDa were denatured. The protein profiles were similarly altered by frying or roasting. The immunoblots of raw and boiled extracts yielded 10 and 2 IgE-binding proteins, respectively. The fried and roasted extracts showed only a single IgE-binding protein at 37 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 37 and 42 kDa major allergens indicated that these spots were tropomyosin and actin, respectively. The two major allergens of Paphia textile were identified as the thermostable tropomyosin and a new thermolabile allergen actin.

  2. Tropomyosin and Actin Identified as Major Allergens of the Carpet Clam (Paphia textile and the Effect of Cooking on Their Allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailatul Hani Mohamad Yadzir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify the major allergenic proteins of clam (Paphia textile and to investigate the effect of different cooking methods on the allergenicity of these identified proteins. Methods. Clam protein extracts were separated by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. IgE reactive proteins were then analyzed by immunoblotting with sera from patients with positive skin prick tests (SPT to the raw clam extract. Mass spectrometry was used to identify the major allergenic proteins of this clam. Results. Raw extract showed 12 protein bands (18–150 kDa. In contrast, fewer protein bands were seen in the boiled extract; those ranging from 40 to 150 kDa were denatured. The protein profiles were similarly altered by frying or roasting. The immunoblots of raw and boiled extracts yielded 10 and 2 IgE-binding proteins, respectively. The fried and roasted extracts showed only a single IgE-binding protein at 37 kDa. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 37 and 42 kDa major allergens indicated that these spots were tropomyosin and actin, respectively. Conclusion. The two major allergens of Paphia textile were identified as the thermostable tropomyosin and a new thermolabile allergen actin.

  3. Inhaler treatment options in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Newman

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A variety of inhaler devices are available for delivering treatments to patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and new inhalers are currently being developed. Each type of device has advantages and disadvantages, and the methods of preparation and use vary between them. The differences in instructions for use can easily confuse patients and health providers alike, resulting in incorrect use of many inhalers. "Crucial" errors in inhaler technique, whereby no drug is deposited in the lungs, must be avoided. Any type of inhaler can be misused so that little or no drug is deposited in the lungs. It is now increasingly widely recognised that a successful treatment outcome in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease depends as much on the inhaler device as it does on the drug. Inhaler choice in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease should take into account whether the patient is likely to use it correctly, as well as patient preference and the likelihood of adherence to treatment.

  4. Application of scientific criteria to food allergens of public health importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y J; Ronsmans, S; Crevel, R W R; Houben, G F; Rona, R J; Ward, R; Baka, A

    2012-11-01

    Scientific criteria for identifying allergenic foods of public health importance (Björkstén, B., Crevel, R., Hischenhuber, C., Løvik, M., Samuels, F., Strobel, S., Taylor, S.L., Wal, J.-M., Ward, R., 2008. Criteria for identifying allergenic foods of public health importance. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 51(1), 42-52) have been further refined to incorporate an assessment of the strength of available scientific evidence (van Bilsen, J.H., Ronsmans, S., Crevel, R.W., Rona, R.J., Przyrembel, H., Penninks, A.H., Contor, L., Houben, G.F., 2011. Evaluation of scientific criteria for identifying allergenic food of public health importance. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 60, 281-289). A multi-disciplinary group was invited to critically test the refined approach. They independently evaluated selected publications on coconut, soy and/or peanut allergy, scored them using the newly developed level of evidence criteria, and debated proposed approaches for combining and utilising the scores to measure the overall impact of an allergen in public health impact assessments. The evaluation of selected publications using the modified criteria produced a relatively consistent result across the experts. These refined criteria were judged to be a way forward for the identification of allergenic foods of public health importance, and for prioritisation of allergen risk management and future data gathering. The debate to combine available evidence when assessing whether an allergenic food is of sufficient public health importance to warrant active management led to proposals on how to weight and combine evidence on allergen severity, potency and prevalence. The refined criteria facilitate a debate to find a meaningful sequence of steps to summarise the available information in relation to a food allergen. Copyright © 2012 ILSI Europe. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Differences in nonspecific bronchial responsiveness between patients with asthma and patients with rhinitis are not explained by type and degree of inhalant allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witteman, A. M.; Sjamsoedin, D. H.; Jansen, H. M.; van der Zee, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    Patients with allergic asthma have higher levels of nonspecific bronchial responsiveness than patients with allergic rhinitis. The aim of the study was to investigate whether this is caused by differences in the degree of allergy to inhalant allergens between asthmatics and rhinitics. Therefore,

  6. Improvement of Brain Tissue Oxygenation by Inhalation of Carbogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashkanian, M.; Borghammer, P.; Gjedde, A.

    2008-01-01

    Hyperoxic therapy for cerebral ischemia is suspected to reduce cerebral blood flow (CBF), due to the vasoconstrictive effect of oxygen on cerebral arterioles. We hypothesized that vasodilation predominates when 5% CO(2) is added to the inhaled oxygen (carbogen). Therefore, we used positron emission...... tomography (PET) to measure CBF and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) during inhalation of test gases (O(2), CO(2), carbogen and atmospheric air) in 10 healthy volunteers. Arterial blood gases were recorded during administration of each gas. The data were analyzed with volume-of-interest and voxel......-based statistical methods. Inhalation of CO(2) or carbogen significantly increased global CBF, whereas pure oxygen decreased global CBF. The CMRO(2) generally remained unchanged, except in white matter during oxygen inhalation relative to condition of atmospheric air inhalation. The volume-of-interest results were...

  7. Molecular, Structural and Immunological Characterization of Der p 18, a Chitinase-Like House Dust Mite Allergen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Resch

    Full Text Available The house dust mite (HDM allergen Der p 18 belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family 18 chitinases. The relevance of Der p 18 for house dust mite allergic patients has only been partly investigated.To perform a detailed characterization of Der p 18 on a molecular, structural and immunological level.Der p 18 was expressed in E. coli, purified to homogeneity, tested for chitin-binding activity and its secondary structure was analyzed by circular dichroism. Der p 18-specific IgG antibodies were produced in rabbits to localize the allergen in mites using immunogold electron microscopy and to search for cross-reactive allergens in other allergen sources (i.e. mites, crustacea, mollusca and insects. IgE reactivity of rDer p 18 was tested with sera from clinically well characterized HDM-allergic patients (n = 98 and its allergenic activity was analyzed in basophil activation experiments.Recombinant Der p 18 was expressed and purified as a folded, biologically active protein. It shows weak chitin-binding activity and partial cross-reactivity with Der f 18 from D. farinae but not with proteins from the other tested allergen sources. The allergen was mainly localized in the peritrophic matrix of the HDM gut and to a lower extent in fecal pellets. Der p 18 reacted with IgE from 10% of mite allergic patients from Austria and showed allergenic activity when tested for basophil activation in Der p 18-sensitized patients.Der p 18 is a rather genus-specific minor allergen with weak chitin-binding activity but exhibits allergenic activity and therefore should be included in diagnostic test panels for HDM allergy.

  8. Percutaneous penetration characteristics and release kinetics of contact allergens encapsulated in ethosomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp; Vogel, Stefan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2011-01-01

    Formulation of the contact allergens dinitrochlorobenzene and isoeugenol in ethanolic liposomes (ethosomes) increases their sensitizing properties in the local lymph node assay compared with an ethanol-water formulation of the allergens. Likewise, isoeugenol and methyldibromo-glutaronitrile formu......-glutaronitrile formulated in ethosomes enhanced the patch test reactions in sensitized human volunteers. The relationship between the percutaneous penetration/absorption and sensitization/elicitation phases of contact allergy is not well elucidated....

  9. Occupational exposure to allergens in oxidative hair dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Zaletel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative hair dyes are the most important hair dying products. Hairdressers are exposed to the allergens found in oxidative hair dyes during the process of applying dyes to the hair, when cutting freshly dyed hair, or as a consequence of prior contamination of the working environment. pphenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diamine and its sulphate are the most common ingredients in oxidative hair dyes that cause allergic contact dermatitis in hairdressers. Cross-reactivity of p-phenylenediamine with para-amino benzoic acid, sulphonamides, sulphonylurea, dapsone, azo dyes, benzocaine, procaine, and black henna temporary tattoos is possible. Allergic contact dermatitis is classified as delayed-type hypersensitivity, according to Coombs and Gell. Skin changes typically appear on the hands after previous sensitization to causative allergens. Combined with the patient’s overall medical and work history and clinical picture, epicutaneous testing is the basic diagnostic procedure for confirming the diagnosis and identifying the causative allergens. The simplest and most effective measure for preventing the occurrence of allergic contact dermatitis in hairdressers is prevention. Preventive measures should be applied as early as in the beginning stage of vocational guidance for this profession. It is important to include health education in the process of professional training and to implement general technical safety measures, in order to reduce sensitization to allergens in hairdressing. Here, special emphasis must be given to the correct use of protective gloves. Legislation must limit the concentration of allergenic substances in hair dyes, based on their potential hazards documented by scientific research.

  10. Thoracic fraction of inhaled fiber aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yung Sung; Su, Wei-Chung

    2013-01-01

    Size-selective sampling is a health-related method to collect airborne particles based on penetration of inhaled particles into different regions of the human respiratory tract; thus, it is the most relevant sampling method to correlate health risks with occupational exposure. The current practice of sampling asbestos and other fibers is not a size-selective method. The thoracic size fraction, defined as the portion of inhaled particles that can penetrate through the larynx, has been suggested as the most relevant size-selective sampling method for fiber aerosol. The thoracic fraction is based on 1-deposition of inhaled spherical particles in the human extrathoracic airways for mouth breathing and corrected for the particle inhalability. There is no comparable information for fiber aerosols; therefore, there is no technical basis to ascertain whether the current thoracic fraction definition is suitable for fiber aerosols. No human data are available from controlled experiments of inhaled fiber aerosols for the obvious reason that most fiber materials are potentially hazardous when inhaled. Our approach was to measure penetration of fiber aerosol in realistic human oropharyngeal airway replicas and to compare that with data from spherical particles. We showed that realistic human oral airway replicas (including the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx regions) provided useful spherical and fiber particle deposition in the human head airway. These data could be used to test the thoracic fraction curves. The spherical penetration is in agreement with human in vivo data used to establish the thoracic fraction curve. Fiber penetrations through the larynx of two human oral airway replicas were higher than those for spherical particles for the same aerodynamic diameter using the same replicas. The thoracic curve as defined for spherical particles, therefore, may not include some fibers that could penetrate to the thoracic region.

  11. Development of an animal model to evaluate the allergenicity of food allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Birgit; Quarcoo, David; Buhner, Sabine; Reese, Gerald; Vieths, Stefan; Hamelmann, Eckard

    2014-01-01

    Considering the increasing numbers of patients suffering from food allergy (FA) as well as the great variety of novel foods and food compositions, an unmet need exists for the development of preclinical approaches to characterize the allergenic potential of proteins. The aim of our study was to evaluate the allergenicity of different food allergens in a rat model. Brown Norway rats were sensitized to protein extracts (RuBisCO, apple, soy, peanut, garden pea) or ovalbumin (OVA) combined with Bordetella pertussis and aluminium hydroxide, followed by oral allergen challenges. Allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin production and the proliferation of mononuclear cells from spleen confirmed sensitization. To assess functional alterations in the gut, intestinal permeability was measured, which increased in sensitized and challenged animals compared to non-sensitized controls. Allergens with high allergenic potential (peanut, OVA, soy) caused a stronger immunological response than allergens with low allergenic potential, such as RuBisCO and apple. Moreover, the immunological responses were reduced when using boiled instead of raw soy and pea proteins. This model mimics key features of FA and facilitates investigating the allergenicity of allergens in novel food or food compositions in vivo. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Allergy to inhaled egg material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, J H; McConnochie, K; Trotman, D M; Collins, G; Saunders, M J; Latham, S M

    1983-09-01

    The use of a spray system to coat meat rolls with egg solution resulted in the development of asthmatic type symptoms in eight of thirteen workers exposed to the spray. Symptoms were severe in five workers, less severe in two, and one worker experienced vague symptoms. Even though precipitins were present in nine of the workers there were no pyrexial episodes nor influenza-like symptoms occurring some hours after inhaling the egg material to suggest extrinsic allergic alveolitis. All sera with precipitins reacted against an antigen in egg yolk, two sera only to this antigen but no precipitins to ovalbumin were detected. Lung function, X-ray and haematology provided no evidence that the inhalation of egg had lasting detrimental effects. There was no correlation between clinical response, skin testing, IgE levels and precipitins, hence, for each individual none of these parameters is predictive. However, collectively the results show sensitization and this has been confirmed by lack of symptoms when a different method of coating the pastry was adopted.

  13. Maillard reaction and enzymatic browning affect the allergenicity of Pru av 1, the major allergen from cherry (Prunus avium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Patrick; Vieths, Stefan; Wangorsch, Andrea; Nerkamp, Jörg; Hofmann, Thomas

    2004-06-16

    The influence of thermal processing and nonenymatic as well as polyphenoloxidase-catalyzed browning reaction on the allergenicity of the major cherry allergen Pru av 1 was investigated. After thermal treatment of the recombinant protein rPru av 1 in the absence or presence of carbohydrates, SDS-PAGE, enzyme allergosorbent tests, and inhibition assays revealed that thermal treatment of rPru av 1 alone did not show any influence on the IgE-binding activity of the protein at least for 30 min, thus correlating well with the refolding of the allergen in buffer solution as demonstrated by CD spectroscopic experiments. Incubation of the protein with starch and maltose also showed no effect on IgE-binding activity, whereas reaction with glucose and ribose and, even more pronounced, with the carbohydrate breakdown products glyceraldehyde and glyoxal induced a strong decrease of the IgE-binding capacity of rPru av 1. In the second part of the study, the effect of polyphenoloxidase-catalyzed oxidation of polyphenols on food allergen activity was investigated. Incubation of rPru av 1 with epicatechin in the presence of tyrosinase led to a drastic decrease in IgE-binding activity of the protein. Variations of the phenolic compound revealed caffeic acid and epicatechin as the most active inhibitors of the IgE-binding activity of rPru av 1, followed by catechin and gallic acid, and, finally, by quercetin and rutin, showing significantly lower activity. On the basis of these data, reactive intermediates formed during thermal carbohydrate degradation as well as during enzymatic polyphenol oxidation are suggested as the active chemical species responsible for modifying nucleophilic amino acid side chains of proteins, thus inducing an irreversible change in the tertiary structure of the protein and resulting in a loss of conformational epitopes of the allergen.

  14. A study of the human immune response to Lolium perenne (rye) pollen and its components, Lol p I and Lol p II (rye I and rye II). I. Prevalence of reactivity to the allergens and correlations among skin test, IgE antibody, and IgG antibody data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidhoff, L R; Ehrlich-Kautzky, E; Grant, J H; Meyers, D A; Marsh, D G

    1986-12-01

    In a stratified random sample of 320 white adults, the prevalence of puncture skin test positivity (ST +) to Lolium perenne (rye grass)-pollen extract (LPE) was 16%. Fifteen percent of all subjects (or 84% of subjects classified LPE IgE antibody positive [Ab +]) was classified IgE Ab + to highly purified Lol p I (Rye I), and 4% of all subjects (or 26% of subjects classified LPE IgE Ab +) was classified IgE Ab + to highly purified Lol p II (Rye II). These data and similar results obtained in an allergy-enriched group of 361 subjects are consistent with previous studies that Lol I is a major allergen and Lol II is a minor allergen of LPE. Whether we studied LPE, Lol I, or Lol II, responder subjects were younger than nonresponder subjects and more male than female subjects were responders. We then investigated the quantitative interrelationships among ST, IgE, and IgG Ab responsiveness to LPE, Lol I, and Lol II in the allergy-enriched group. For each allergen, log-log correlations were strong and significant for ST versus IgE Ab and for IgE Ab versus IgG Ab. All subjects IgE Ab + to Lol I or Lol II were IgG Ab + to that allergen, supporting other evidence for a commonality in the genetic control influencing the production of IgE and IgG Abs to a given allergen. Log-log correlations among ST end points, IgE Ab levels, or IgG Ab levels were strong for LPE versus either Lol I or Lol II but weak between Lol I and Lol II, consistent with the reported lack of cross-reactivity between Lol I and Lol II. Despite these findings, almost all Lol II + subjects were Lol I + by ST (98%), IgE Ab (91%), and IgG Ab (83%), suggesting that the Ia-restricted immune recognition of both these molecules is at least in part under a common genetic control.

  15. Efficacy and Tolerability of an Inhaled Selective Glucocorticoid Receptor Modulator - AZD5423 - in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: Phase II Study Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuna, Piotr; Aurivillius, Magnus; Jorup, Carin; Prothon, Susanne; Taib, Ziad; Edsbäcker, Staffan

    2017-10-01

    AZD5423 is a novel, inhaled, selective glucocorticoid receptor modulator (SGRM), which in an allergen challenge model in asthma patients improved lung function and airway hyper-reactivity. In the current trial, AZD5423 was for the first time tested in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this double-blind, randomized and parallel group study, we examined airway and systemic effects of two doses of AZD5423, inhaled via Turbuhaler for 12 weeks, in 353 symptomatic patients with COPD (average pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one-second (FEV1) at screening was 50-52% of predicted normal). Pre-bronchodilator FEV1 was primary variable, with other lung function parameters plus symptoms and 24-hr plasma cortisol being secondary variables. Plasma concentrations of AZD5423 were also measured. Effects were compared against placebo and a reference glucocorticoid receptor agonist control. Neither AZD5423, at doses which have shown to be efficacious in allergen-induced asthma, nor the reference control, at double the approved dose, had any clinically meaningful effect in the patient population studied in regard to lung function or markers of inflammation. Both GR modulators were well tolerated and did suppress 24-hr cortisol. This study suggests that the selected population of patients with COPD does not respond to treatment with AZD5423 as regards lung function, while showing the expected systemic effects. It cannot be ruled out that a favourable lung function response of AZD5423 can be evoked using another experimental setting and/or within a different population of patients with COPD. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  16. Allergenic pollen in the atmosphere of Kayseri, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Ali; Kart, Levent; Demir, Ramazan; Ozyurt, M Sabri

    2004-01-01

    Airborne pollen are important allergens that cause sensitization in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. Our aim was to detect the pollen in the atmosphere of Kayseri, to present a pollen calendar, and to detect the allergenic level of these pollen by performing skin tests on patients. Atmospheric pollen were collected by Durham gravimetric samplers in Kayseri between March and November in the years 1996 and 1997. In our study, we observed pollen belonging to 43 different taxa. The total number of pollen per cm2 was found to be 1,330.8 in 1996 and 1,182.5 in 1997. Most of the pollen were from the taxa Pinus, Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, Cupressaceae, Populus and Quercus in decreasing order. In the skin tests, pollen of the taxa Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae were found to give the most frequent allergic reactions. It was concluded that preparing an airborne pollen calendar could be useful for medical practice. Nevertheless the skin test data did not really correlate with the aerobiologic data, as skin test reactivity is related to the allergenicity of the pollen and not just to ambient exposure.

  17. Inhalation exposure methodology.

    OpenAIRE

    Phalen, R F; Mannix, R C; Drew, R T

    1984-01-01

    Modern man is being confronted with an ever-increasing inventory of potentially toxic airborne substances. Exposures to these atmospheric contaminants occur in residential and commercial settings, as well as in the workplace. In order to study the toxicity of such materials, a special technology relating to inhalation exposure systems has evolved. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the techniques which are used in exposing laboratory subjects to airborne particles and ga...

  18. Component resolved testing for allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, Kirsten; Poulsen, Lars K

    2010-01-01

    Component resolved diagnostics introduces new possibilities regarding diagnosis of allergic diseases and individualized, allergen-specific treatment. Furthermore, refinement of IgE-based testing may help elucidate the correlation or lack of correlation between allergenic sensitization and allergi...

  19. Component resolved testing for allergic sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, Kirsten; Poulsen, Lars K

    2010-01-01

    Component resolved diagnostics introduces new possibilities regarding diagnosis of allergic diseases and individualized, allergen-specific treatment. Furthermore, refinement of IgE-based testing may help elucidate the correlation or lack of correlation between allergenic sensitization and allergic...

  20. Skin Barrier Function and Allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engebretsen, Kristiane Aasen; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan

    2016-01-01

    The skin is an important barrier protecting us from mechanical insults, microorganisms, chemicals and allergens, but, importantly, also reducing water loss. A common hallmark for many dermatoses is a compromised skin barrier function, and one could suspect an elevated risk of contact sensitization...... and skin barrier status. Psoriasis has traditionally been regarded a Th1-dominated disease, but the discovery of Th17 cells and IL-17 provides new and interesting information regarding the pathogenesis of the disease. Research suggests an inverse relationship between psoriasis and CA, possibly due...

  1. Simultaneous detection of DNA from 10 food allergens by ligation-dependent probe amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlert, Alexandra; Demmel, Anja; Hupfer, Christine; Busch, Ulrich; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2009-04-01

    The simultaneous detection of DNA from different allergenic food ingredients by a ligation-dependent probe amplification (LPA) system is described. The approach allows detection of several targets in a one-tube assay. Synthetic oligonucleotides were designed to detect DNA from peanuts, cashews, pecans, pistachios, hazelnuts, sesame seeds, macadamia nuts, almonds, walnuts and brazil nuts. The specificity of the system was tested with DNA from more than 50 plant and animal species. The sensitivity of the method was suitable to detect allergenic ingredients in the low mg kg(-1) range. The limit of detection (LOD) for single allergens in different food matrices was 5 mg kg(-1). The novel analytical strategy represents a useful tool for the surveillance of established legislation on food allergens within the European Union.

  2. Public protection - reliable allergen risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, V.; Popov Raljić, J.; Đorđević, V.

    2017-09-01

    Consumers with potentially fatal food allergies are dependent on correct product labelling to protect their health. The food industry is responsible for providing every detail consumers need to make informed decisions. Considering public health, food suppliers have to monitor the presence of allergens, prevent cross-contamination and label products accurately. Allergen labelling of food products, drinks and non pre-packed food and drink products is clearly defined with legal regulations. To achieve this, a complete understanding of each product’s allergenic ingredients is needed and cross-contamination of food with allergens must be avoided. Raw materials need to be checked, every ingredient must be verified and every single allergen has to be stipulated. A mislabeled product could be recalled at potential cost, financially damaging business and at the same time, negatively impacting brand and reputation.

  3. [Esophageal candidiasis as complication of inhaled steroid therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuto, Hiroshi; Nagata, Makoto; Terashi, Yoshinori; Yamaguchi, Michiya; Takizawa, Takao; Shuto, Chizuru; Watanabe, Kensuke; Tosaka, Kaoru; Okano, Masahiko; Noguchi, Hisashi

    2003-11-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed in two bronchial asthma patients using inhaled corticosteroid who complained of odynophagia. The endoscopic finding was high grade with white moss (Grade III) in both patients. Esophageal candidiasis is often recognized in bronchial asthmatic patients receiving long-term fluticasone propionate (FP) dry powder (Diskhaler) inhalation. We therefore examined the complicated context of esophageal candidiasis in patients with long-term FP inhalation. Out of 20 bronchial asthmatic patients who had been using FP inhalation long-term, seven showed signs of esophageal candidiasis. Three patients had mild grade (Grade I), one middle grade (Grade II) and three high grade (Grade III) candidiasis, with a frequency of 35%. This rate is higher than the usual spontaneous occurrence rate of esophageal candidiasis, and it is suggested that inhalation of corticosteroid medication can penetrate into the esophagus after deep inhalation. We tested this hypothesis in two studies. 1) To measure the esophageal concentration of FP, four healthy adults inhaled 200 microg FP once. Right after inhalation, FP concentration in the esophageal washing fluid was 3.3 microg. On another day, 30 minutes after the same dose of inhaled FP, one FP concentration in the esophageal washing fluid was 0.67 microg (immediately laydown), and another was 0.11 microg (remained standing). This indicates that even though FP dissipates quickly, it remains in the esophagus 30 minutes after inhalation. 2) We observed the process in one patient with high grade (Grade III) esophageal candidiasis. The time of inhalation was changed from just after getting up and just before going to bed to before breakfast and before dinner. Under this regimen, the signs of esophageal candidiasis improved from high to middle grade. If asthmatic patients do not go to sleep immediately after FP inhalation, the remaining FP in the esophagus decreases rapidly, thereby decreasing the risk of esophageal

  4. SIXTY YEARS AFTER INHALATIONAL DEVICES- WHERE DO WE STAND?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasri Helen Gali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are the Common Respiratory Diseases (CRD’s. Drugs delivered through inhaler devices are the backbone for treatment of CRD’s. Inhaler technique errors are common even after more than 60 years of introduction of these devices. The aim of the study is to explore the faulty inhaler techniques among patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Health education has significant impact on improving the inhaler technique thereby achieving better disease control and also brings out regularity of inhaler usage by patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS All the relevant information including patients profile and usage of inhalers was collected by a prepared questionnaire from 242 patients with asthma or COPD attending our OPD. The patient’s inhaler technique was assessed using a standard checklist for proper use of a Metered-Dose Inhaler (MDI or Dry Powder Inhaler (DPI. All the participants were asked to demonstrate their inhaler technique, which was assessed and documented. Education was given to all patients about the correct inhalational method and they were also counseled to adhere to it. Inhaler technique was reassessed in all the patients after a month and reinforcement of the correct technique was done. Statistical Analysis- Using the chi-square test, P-values of each variable like age, gender, education, duration of illness, etc. were derived. P value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Settings and Design- This is a cross-sectional study with an interventional component done on 242 patients with bronchial asthma or COPD attending the pulmonology OPD in Apollo Institute of Medical Sciences and Research. RESULTS Out of 242 patients studied on baseline evaluation in the first visit, only 46 patients (19.008% were able to do the technique correctly, which after education on the correct inhaler technique increased to 134 patients (55.37% in the follow up

  5. Allergenic sesquiterpene lactones from cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii Cass.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Gade Hyldgaard, Mette; Andersen, Klaus E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Australian cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii) of the Compositae family of plants has become a popular pot and container plant. The plant produces the sesquiterpene lactone allergen calocephalin. OBJECTIVES: To assess the sensitizing potential of sesquiterpene lactones from cushion...... bush. PATIENTS/MATERIALS/METHODS: Eleven Compositae-sensitive patients were patch tested with seven sesquiterpene lactones isolated from cushion bush. RESULTS: Six of seven sesquiterpene lactones elicited positive reactions in 4 of 11 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The well-known sesquiterpene lactone...

  6. The 'traveling salesman problem': a new approach for identification of differences among pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosman, E; Eshel, A; Waisel, Y

    1997-04-01

    It is not easy to identify the specific plant species that causes an allergic response in a certain patient at a certain time. This is further complicated by the fact that closely related plant species cause similar allergic responses. A novel mathematical technique is used for analysis of skin responses of a large number of patients to several groups of allergens for improvement of the understanding of their similarity or dissimilarity and their status regarding cross-reactivity. The responses of 153 atopic patients to 42 different pollen extracts were tested by skin prick tests. Among the responses of patients to various extracts, a measure of dissimilarity was introduced and calculated for all pairs of allergens. A matrix-structuring technique, based on a solution of the 'Travelling Salesman Problem', was used for clustering of the investigated allergens into groups according to patients' responses. The discrimination among clusters was confirmed by statistical analysis. Sub groups can be discerned even among allergens of closely related plants, i.e. allergens that are usually regarded as fully cross-reactive. A few such cases are demonstrated for various cultivars of olives and pecans and for various sources of date palms, turf grasses, three wild chenopods and an amaranth. The usefulness of the proposed approach for the understanding of similarity and dissimilarity among various pollen allergens is demonstrated.

  7. Evaluation of criteria for diagnosis of atopic dermatitis and detection of allergen specific IgE antibodies in dogs allergic to Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milčić-Matić Natalija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Common ragweed (Ambrosia atremisiifolia is one of the most frequent causes of pollen-induced allergic reactions both in humans and dogs. It has not been defined yet, what is the major allergen(s to which most dogs allergic to ragweed show a positive result on intradermal skin test (IDST. In the present study sensitization to Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen allergens in dogs with atopic dermatitis was examined with both in vivo and in vitro tests, including IDST and serum allergen specific IgE test. Detection of specific-IgE antibodies against ragweed allergens by immunoblotting in the sera of allergic dogs was optimized, as well. Dogs that were positive, as judged by IDST reactions to ragweed pollen allergens, also had alergen specific IgE antibodies in their sera. Results indicate that major allergens of A. artemisifolia pollen in dogs are Amb a 1 and Amb a 2. Further characterization of ragweed allergens is needed before they could potentially be used in intradermal testing or allergen immunotherapy in affected dogs. Also, we evaluated new Favrots diagnostic criteria for canine atopic dermatitis in dogs allergic to Ambrosia atremisiifolia pollen. It might be concluded that proposed criteria are of great assistance for seting up suspected diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis, after ruling out other pruritic dermatoses. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172024

  8. Allergic Contact Dermatitis: Patch Testing Beyond the TRUE Test

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Jenny L; Mowad, Christen M.

    2010-01-01

    Epicutaneous patch testing is the gold standard method for the diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis. Despite this knowledge, many clinical dermatologists do not offer patch testing in their offices or offer testing with only a limited number of allergens. Introduced in 1995, the Thin-Layer Rapid Use Epicutaneous Test originally contained 23 allergens and one control. In 2007, five additional allergens were added. This United States Food and Drug Administration-approved patch testing syste...

  9. Acrylate contact allergy: patient characteristics and evaluation of screening allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drucker, Aaron Mark; Pratt, Melanie Dawn

    2011-01-01

    Acrylates are present in a wide variety of products and cause occupational and non-occupational allergic contact dermatitis. There is no clear guidance from the literature as to which allergens should be used for patch-test screening for acrylates. To characterize patients with contact allergy to acrylates and to evaluate the allergens used to screen for acrylate allergy. Charts of patients visiting an outpatient contact dermatitis clinic from January 1998 to February 2008 were reviewed retrospectively. Forty-four patients were found to have contact allergy to acrylates. The most commonly positive allergens were hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), ethyl acrylate (EA), and methyl methacrylate (MMA). Thirty-two of the 44 positive patch-test results (73%) would have been discovered with the use of the two compounds (MMA, EA) in the North American Standard Series (Chemotechnique screening series), a commercially available screening series, while 12 were found through expanded patch testing. Artificial nails, dental materials, and adhesives were the most common exposures. Occupational relevance was found in 18 cases, including those of dental workers, assemblers, and aestheticians. Acrylates are an important cause of contact allergy. Screening series identify most cases of acrylate allergy but miss a substantial number. Clinicians should remain vigilant for acrylate allergy even if initial screening is negative.

  10. Chloroatranol, an extremely potent allergen hidden in perfumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Svedman, Cecilia

    2003-01-01

    Oak moss absolute is a long-known, popular natural extract widely used in perfumes. It is reported as the cause of allergic reactions in a significant number of those with perfume allergy. Oak moss absolute has been the target of recent research to identify its allergenic components. Recently...... an open test simulating the use of perfumes on the volar aspect of the forearms in a randomized and double-blinded design. A solution with 5 p.p.m. chloroatranol was used for 14 days, and, in case of no reaction, the applications were continued for another 14 days with a solution containing 25 p.p.m. All....... The dose eliciting a reaction in 50% of the test subjects at patch testing was 0.2 p.p.m. In conclusion, the hidden exposure to a potent allergen widely used in perfumes has caused a highly sensitized cohort of individuals. Judged from the elicitation profile, chloroatranol is the most potent allergen...

  11. Common indoor and outdoor aero-allergens in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aero-allergens in South Africa that are also encountered around the world are listed in Table I. In addition to this wide range of common aero-allergens, South Africans are also exposed to a full range of food allergens, some of which, e.g. perlemoen (Haliotis midae) and other seafood allergens, are unique to this region.

  12. Authentication of food allergen quality by physicochemical and immunological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sancho, A I; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Alessandri, S

    2010-01-01

    Purified allergens are required to detect cross-contamination with other allergenic foods and to understand allergen interaction with other components of the food matrix. Pure allergens are also used for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergies. For example, serological methods are being dev...

  13. Adherence logger for a dry powder inhaler: a new device for medical adherence research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogen, Daniel; Apter, Andrea J

    2004-10-01

    Adherence to inhaled steroid regimens is frequently poor. Finding ways to improve adherence depends on the ability to measure time and date of inhaler use reliably and to detect deliberate dose dumping. There is no such monitor for the popular new dry powder inhalers. To develop and test an electronic monitor for a dry powder inhaler that will provide information on the time and date of use. An electronic adherence monitor for the Advair Diskus dry powder inhaler was developed and tested. In this device, inhaler use is determined by detecting and recording the motion of the drug delivery lever in the inhaler with a magnetic sensor. An additional electronic interface and software were also developed to allow the adherence data to be uploaded to a computer for display and analysis. System and reliability tests involving multiple-day and repeated-use tests of the adherence monitor demonstrate the overall performance and reliability of the device, and specifically its ability to record the time and date of dose delivery. In the repeated-use test, 300 successive actuations of the dose delivery lever were correctly sensed and recorded without error. The simple-to-use, low-cost, reusable adherence monitor accurately records time and date of inhaler use and thus allows clinical monitoring and adherence studies in patients using the Advair Diskus dry powder inhaler. The same technology should be adaptable to other dry powder inhalers, including the Pulmicort Tubuhaler and the Symbicort Tubuhaler.

  14. Cigarette smoke enhances Th-2 driven airway inflammation and delays inhalational tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joos Guy F

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Active smoking increases asthma severity and is related to diminished treatment efficacy. Animal models in which inhalation of both allergen and mainstream cigarette smoke are combined can help us to understand the complex interaction between both agents. We have recently shown that, in allergic mice, the airway inflammation can be cleared by repeated allergen challenge, resulting in the establishment of a state of inhalational tolerance. Methods In this study, we assessed in vivo the impact of cigarette smoke on the efficacy and time course of this form of tolerance induction. We exposed sensitized mice to concurrent mainstream cigarette smoke and allergen (Ovalbumin- OVA and measured the airway inflammation at different time points. Results We first confirmed that aerosolized OVA administered for a prolonged time period (4–8 weeks resulted in the establishment of tolerance. Concurrent OVA and smoke exposure for 2 weeks showed that tobacco smoke enhanced the Th-2 driven airway inflammation in the acute phase. In addition, the induction of the tolerance by repeated inhalational OVA challenge was delayed significantly by the tobacco smoke, since 4 weeks of concurrent exposure resulted in a more persistent eosinophilic airway inflammation, paralleled by a more mature dendritic cell phenotype. However, smoke exposure could not prevent the establishment of tolerance after 8 weeks of antigen exposure as shown by both histopathology (disappearance of the Th-2 driven inflammation and by in vivo functional experiments. In these tolerized mice, some of the inflammatory responses to the smoke were even attenuated. Conclusion Cigarette smoke enhances acute allergic inflammation and delays, but does not abrogate the development of tolerance due to prolonged challenge with inhaled antigen in experimental asthma.

  15. American Indian adolescent inhalant use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, P J; Green, V A

    1997-01-01

    Inhalant use and use patterns, decision-making pertaining to inhalant use, cognitive capacity, cognitive egocentrism, and adherence to traditional ways were studied in a sample of male and female American Indian adolescents residing in a boarding home. Significant differences were not found for gender. Inhalant use group differences were found for only one variable, participation in tribal activities. For males, cognitive ability, cognitive egocentrism and participation in tribal activities were significant predictors of inhalant use/non-use. For females, tribal activities was the only significant predictor.

  16. Manganese Inhalation as a Parkinson Disease Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ordoñez-Librado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the effects of divalent and trivalent Manganese (Mn2+/Mn3+ mixture inhalation on mice to obtain a novel animal model of Parkinson disease (PD inducing bilateral and progressive dopaminergic cell death, correlate those alterations with motor disturbances, and determine whether L-DOPA treatment improves the behavior, to ensure that the alterations are of dopaminergic origin. CD-1 male mice inhaled a mixture of Manganese chloride and Manganese acetate, one hour twice a week for five months. Before Mn exposure, animals were trained to perform motor function tests and were evaluated each week after the exposure. By the end of Mn exposure, 10 mice were orally treated with 7.5 mg/kg L-DOPA. After 5 months of Mn mixture inhalation, striatal dopamine content decreased 71%, the SNc showed important reduction in the number of TH-immunopositive neurons, mice developed akinesia, postural instability, and action tremor; these motor alterations were reverted with L-DOPA treatment. Our data provide evidence that Mn2+/Mn3+ mixture inhalation produces similar morphological, neurochemical, and behavioral alterations to those observed in PD providing a useful experimental model for the study of this neurodegenerative disease.

  17. Ozone inhalation modifies the rat liver proteome☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis, Whitney S.; Andringa, Kelly K.; Millender-Swain, Telisha; Dickinson, Dale A.; Postlethwait, Edward M.; Bailey, Shannon M.

    2013-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is a serious public health concern. Recent findings indicate that the damaging health effects of O3 extend to multiple systemic organ systems. Herein, we hypothesize that O3 inhalation will cause downstream alterations to the liver. To test this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0.5 ppm O3 for 8 h/day for 5 days. Plasma liver enzyme measurements showed that 5 day O3 exposure did not cause liver cell death. Proteomic and mass spectrometry analysis identified 10 proteins in the liver that were significantly altered in abundance following short-term O3 exposure and these included several stress responsive proteins. Glucose-regulated protein 78 and protein disulfide isomerase increased, whereas glutathione S-transferase M1 was significantly decreased by O3 inhalation. In contrast, no significant changes were detected for the stress response protein heme oxygenase-1 or cytochrome P450 2E1 and 2B in liver of O3 exposed rats compared to controls. In summary, these results show that an environmentally-relevant exposure to inhaled O3 can alter the expression of select proteins in the liver. We propose that O3 inhalation may represent an important unrecognized factor that can modulate hepatic metabolic functions. PMID:25544660

  18. Ozone inhalation modifies the rat liver proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theis, Whitney S; Andringa, Kelly K; Millender-Swain, Telisha; Dickinson, Dale A; Postlethwait, Edward M; Bailey, Shannon M

    2014-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is a serious public health concern. Recent findings indicate that the damaging health effects of O3 extend to multiple systemic organ systems. Herein, we hypothesize that O3 inhalation will cause downstream alterations to the liver. To test this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0.5ppm O3 for 8h/day for 5 days. Plasma liver enzyme measurements showed that 5 day O3 exposure did not cause liver cell death. Proteomic and mass spectrometry analysis identified 10 proteins in the liver that were significantly altered in abundance following short-term O3 exposure and these included several stress responsive proteins. Glucose-regulated protein 78 and protein disulfide isomerase increased, whereas glutathione S-transferase M1 was significantly decreased by O3 inhalation. In contrast, no significant changes were detected for the stress response protein heme oxygenase-1 or cytochrome P450 2E1 and 2B in liver of O3 exposed rats compared to controls. In summary, these results show that an environmentally-relevant exposure to inhaled O3 can alter the expression of select proteins in the liver. We propose that O3 inhalation may represent an important unrecognized factor that can modulate hepatic metabolic functions. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ozone inhalation modifies the rat liver proteome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney S. Theis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone (O3 is a serious public health concern. Recent findings indicate that the damaging health effects of O3 extend to multiple systemic organ systems. Herein, we hypothesize that O3 inhalation will cause downstream alterations to the liver. To test this, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0.5 ppm O3 for 8 h/day for 5 days. Plasma liver enzyme measurements showed that 5 day O3 exposure did not cause liver cell death. Proteomic and mass spectrometry analysis identified 10 proteins in the liver that were significantly altered in abundance following short-term O3 exposure and these included several stress responsive proteins. Glucose-regulated protein 78 and protein disulfide isomerase increased, whereas glutathione S-transferase M1 was significantly decreased by O3 inhalation. In contrast, no significant changes were detected for the stress response protein heme oxygenase-1 or cytochrome P450 2E1 and 2B in liver of O3 exposed rats compared to controls. In summary, these results show that an environmentally-relevant exposure to inhaled O3 can alter the expression of select proteins in the liver. We propose that O3 inhalation may represent an important unrecognized factor that can modulate hepatic metabolic functions.

  20. Urine and serum concentrations of inhaled and oral terbutaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Hostrup, Morten; Pedersen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    We examined urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic use of single and repetitive doses of inhaled and supratherapeutic oral use of terbutaline. We compared the concentrations in 10 asthmatics and 10 healthy subjects in an open-label, cross-over study with 2 mg inhaled and 10 mg oral...... differences in urine and serum concentrations between asthmatic and healthy subjects. We compared urine and serum concentrations after therapeutic inhaled doses and supratherapeutic oral doses and observed significant statistical differences in both groups but found it impossible to distinguish between...... therapeutic and prohibited use based on doping tests with urine and blood samples....

  1. Detection of known allergen-specific IgE antibodies by immunological methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Barbara I; Niessner, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of patients are suffering from allergic diseases such as rhinoconjunctivitis, atopic eczema, uticaria, anaphylaxis, and food and drug allergies. Although it is possible to measure a multitude of allergen-specific IgE antibodies by radio or enzyme immunoassays in the patients' blood, these tests are expensive, time-consuming, and usually need a rather high volume of reagent solutions (allergens and blood). Protein microarrays offer the possibility to circumvent these limitations. The described in vitro allergy testing system is based on microscopic glass slides activated with glycidyloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane. Allergen solutions (allergen extracts and/or purified allergens; approximately 10 nL) are printed on the activated glass surface with a piezoelectric spotting machine. The protein components of the allergen solutions are immobilized on the modified glass surface via hydrophobic interaction and/ or covalent binding. After a blocking step, the slides are incubated with the respective diluted serum sample (approximately 25 microL serum required) and bound IgE antibodies are detected with a secondary horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labelled anti-human-IgE antibody via chemiluminescence. The measurement can be performed automatically with the so called PASA system. Test results are directly visualized with a CCD-camera. Analytical and clinical data have shown that the microarray-based test format offers significant advantages in time and costs compared with traditional test formats. The described allergen microarray demonstrated a sufficient qualitative reproducibility and enabled the distinction between allergic and non-allergic patients. Detection limits of 0.35 kU/L (r Bet v1), 0.16 kU/L (PLA2), 1.9 kU/L (Der p1), and 41 kU/L (total IgE) were achieved.

  2. Pollen used to produce allergen extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codina, Rosa; Lockey, Richard F

    2017-02-01

    To review the use of pollen for the production of allergen extracts to diagnose and treat allergic diseases, examine the associated regulations, and highlight candidate areas for improvement. A PubMed search was performed using focused keywords combined with a review of regulatory documents and industry guidelines. The information obtained through literature, documents, and industry was scrutinized and used with personal experience and expertise to write this article. Both genetic and environmental factors affect the allergenic composition of pollen because it is a biologically active pharmaceutical ingredient obtained from nature. The potential effect of airborne contaminants in pollen requires major attention but can be properly addressed through careful collection practices, combined with a proper interpretation of the data on purity obtained for each pollen lot. The regulations associated with pollen used to manufacture allergen extracts in the United States and Europe and the numbers of pollen allergen extracts commercially available in both areas of the world differ. A critical parameter to select the appropriate extracts for diagnosis and allergen immunotherapy is to understand the phenomenon of cross-reactivity among pollen families, genera, and species. Physicians should be aware of the factors responsible for the qualitative and quantitative composition of pollen allergen extracts and the associated regulations to produce suitable extracts to diagnose and treat allergic diseases. Collaboration and cooperation among allergen manufacturing companies and regulatory agencies are necessary. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Ficus benjamina--the hidden allergen in the house].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenkelberger, V; Freitag, M; Altmeyer, P

    1998-01-01

    The weeping fig, Ficus benjamina (Fb), is a relatively common indoor allergen. Many cases of perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma caused by Fb hypersensitivity are not detected. These patients typically have proven sensitization to housedust mites and do not improve after avoidance of exposure (encasing) and specific immunotherapy. The number of Fb sensitizations is increasing in Germany, which can partly be explained by the cross-reactivity between Hevea brasiliensis (Hb) latex and Fb and the rapidly increasing number of mostly occupational latex allergies. But Fb itself is a potential sensitizer which is widely spread as ornamental plant in homes and offices. As relevant indoor allergen Fb ranks third after housedust mites and pets but before molds among our allergy patients. For diagnosis, prick-tests with Fb-latex seem to be more sensitive than in vitro-methods (RAST, CAPRAST). Fb plants should not be kept in the homes of atopic individuals or persons with latex (Hb) allergy.

  4. Cutaneous and serological responses to cat allergen in adults exposed or not to cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccardi, Gennaro; Martín, Santiago; Lombardero, Manuel; D'Amato, Maria; Barber, Domingo; D'Amato, Gennaro; Cazzola, Mario

    2005-05-01

    The relationship between pet ownership and the risk of developing respiratory allergic sensitization to pet allergens is still controversial. To determine the degree of cutaneous immediate hypersensitivity and the levels of specific IgE and IgG4 antibodies to cat allergen in cat sensitized patients directly or indirectly exposed to this animal. We studied 112 adolescents and adults sensitized to cat allergens (43 with and 69 without a cat at home). There were also 52 control subjects, 27 atopic non-sensitized to cat and 25 non-atopic. The degree of immediate hypersensitivity was assessed by using, in duplicate, skin prick test with four five-fold dilutions of cat hair allergen extract with the content of its major allergen Fel d 1 quantified in micrograms plus positive (10 mg/ml histamine chlorhydrate) and negative (saline solution) controls. The resulting wheal areas were analysed by means of Parallel Line Assay. A blood sample was collected from every patient and control subjects for the evaluation of serological cat specific IgE and IgG4 antibodies. Patients with cat at home had a lower cutaneous response than patients without this pet. The difference in the skin sensitivity was estimated in 3.4 times (Presponse to cat allergenic extract, assessed by SPT and compared with indirect exposure. In patients with cat at home mean levels of specific IgE are statistically comparable whereas the levels of IgG4 are higher in comparison with subjects not exposed to cats. The role of indirect exposure to cat allergens in airways sensitization also in adults is emphasized. Moreover, patients with cat at home show a cutaneous and serological sensitization to cat allergen not higher in comparison with subjects not exposed to cats.

  5. Molecular characterization of wheat allergens specifically recognized by patients suffering from wheat-induced respiratory allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahr, S; Constantin, C; Mari, A; Scheiblhofer, S; Thalhamer, J; Ebner, C; Vrtala, S; Mittermann, I; Valenta, R

    2012-04-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is an important allergen source responsible for various clinical manifestations of allergy (i.e. food allergy, pollen allergy, respiratory allergy to flour-Baker's asthma). The objective of this study was the molecular and immunological characterization of new recombinant wheat allergens and to evaluate their usefulness for the diagnosis of allergy to wheat. A T. aestivum cDNA library was constructed and screened with serum IgE from patients suffering from wheat allergy to identify cDNAs coding for new wheat allergens. The allergen-encoding cDNAs were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. IgE reactivity of recombinant proteins was analysed in RAST-based, non-denaturing dot blot experiments and by ELISA with sera from wheat allergic patients and their allergenic activity was assessed in basophil degranulation experiments. We report the molecular characterization, recombinant expression and purification of five wheat allergens, a thioredoxin h isoform, glutathione transferase, 1-Cys-peroxiredoxin, profilin and dehydrin. Homologous proteins were identified by sequence comparisons in various plants. 1-Cys-peroxiredoxin appeared to be the most relevant of the newly identified wheat allergens according to prevalence of IgE recognition and results from basophil degranulation experiments. It showed IgE cross-reactivity with seed proteins from barley, rye, rice, maize, soy, oat and spelt. 1-Cys-peroxiredoxin, glutathione transferase and dehydrin were mainly recognized by patients with baker's asthma but not wheat-induced food allergy. The characterized recombinant wheat allergens may be useful for the development of serological tests which allow the discrimination of different clinical manifestations of wheat allergy. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Testing the coherence between occupational exposure limits for inhalation and their biological limit values with a generalized PBPK-model: the case of 2-propanol and acetone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizer, Daan; Huijbregts, Mark A J; van Rooij, Joost G M; Ragas, Ad M J

    2014-08-01

    The coherence between occupational exposure limits (OELs) and their corresponding biological limit values (BLVs) was evaluated for 2-propanol and acetone. A generic human PBPK model was used to predict internal concentrations after inhalation exposure at the level of the OEL. The fraction of workers with predicted internal concentrations lower than the BLV, i.e. the 'false negatives', was taken as a measure for incoherence. The impact of variability and uncertainty in input parameters was separated by means of nested Monte Carlo simulation. Depending on the exposure scenario considered, the median fraction of the population for which the limit values were incoherent ranged from 2% to 45%. Parameter importance analysis showed that body weight was the main factor contributing to interindividual variability in blood and urine concentrations and that the metabolic parameters Vmax and Km were the most important sources of uncertainty. This study demonstrates that the OELs and BLVs for 2-propanol and acetone are not fully coherent, i.e. enforcement of BLVs may result in OELs being violated. In order to assess the acceptability of this "incoherence", a maximum population fraction at risk of exceeding the OEL should be specified as well as a minimum level of certainty in predicting this fraction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Know How to Use Your Asthma Inhaler

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... metered dose inhaler one to two inches from mouth Your browser does not support iframes Using a ... KB] Using a metered dose inhaler (inhaler in mouth) Your browser does not support iframes Using a ...

  8. Specific Immunoglobulin (Ig) G Reference Intervals for Common Food, Insect, and Mold Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Thomas B; Bandhauer, Michael E; Wilcock, Diane M; Hill, Harry R; Slev, Patricia R

    2016-12-01

    The clinical utility of serum IgG measurement in the diagnosis of allergy and food-induced hypersensitivity has been largely discredited. Recent studies, however, have shown that specific IgG can inhibit IgE mediated allergies, and may play a role in allergen specific desensitization. Accurate reference intervals for IgG specific allergens have not been widely established and are needed for better interpretation of serum antibody concentrations. In this study we established 64 IgG reference intervals for 48 common food allergens, 5 venoms, and 11 molds. Specific IgG concentrations were determined employing an automated fluorescent enzyme immunoassay on serum samples from 130 normal adults (65 males and 65 females), age range 18-69 y, mean 37.3 y. The lower reference interval limit for all allergens tested (n=64) was <2 mcg/mL. The median upper reference interval value for all 64 allergens was 12.9 mcg/mL, with Tuna (f40) having the lowest upper interval limit at 3.8 mcg/mL, and the mold Setomelanomma rostrate (m8) demonstrating the highest upper interval limit at 131 mcg/L. The considerable variation observed among the upper reference interval limits emphasizes the need for the establishment of allergen specific ranges for IgG. These newly established ranges should be a useful aid for clinicians in the interpretation of laboratory serum IgG results. © 2016 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  9. Characterization of allergenic components in sap extract from the weeping fig (Ficus benjamina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, I G; Johansson, S G; Larsson, P H; Zetterström, O

    1990-01-01

    The allergen composition of crude extract from sap (latex) of the weeping fig (Ficus benjamina) was investigated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. The allergenic components were detected by sera from 11 occupationally exposed plant keepers, of whom 7 were non-atopic, and from 9 non-occupationally exposed atopic patients with a positive radio-allergosorbent test to weeping fig. The allergen-antibody complexes were visualized by rabbit anti-IgE and beta-galactosidase-labelled sheep anti-rabbit IgG, using a chromogenic insoluble substrate. A total of 11 allergenic components were identified. Three of them were found to be major allergenic components, identified by more than 50% of the investigated sera. These 3 IgE-binding components had molecular weights of approximately 29,000, 28,000 and 25,000 daltons, respectively. The major allergenic components were denatured by heat in the temperature range of 60-90 degrees C.

  10. Airborne study of grass allergen (Lol p 1) in different-sized particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Linares, C; Díaz de la Guardia, C; Nieto Lugilde, D; Alba, F

    2010-01-01

    The Poaceae family is considered one of the main causes of pollen allergy in industrialized countries. The aim of this study is to establish the dynamics of the Poaceae allergens and determine their distribution in the different-sized particles in the atmosphere. The air of Granada (southern Spain) was sampled during the pollination period of Poaceae using a cascade impactor and a Hirst-type volumetric collector simultaneously. The sampled airborne allergens were analyzed by indirect ELISA and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Airborne pollen was evaluated with the Spanish Aerobiological Network methodology. Poaceae pollen and allergenic activity have parallel dynamics during the period of maximum pollination, which is reflected in the positive correlations between the 2 variables. In addition, the highest Lol p 1 concentrations were recorded in particle sizes lower than 3.3 mum (stage 4-F). The Spearman correlation test showed that airborne allergens are not dependent on meteorological factors, such as humidity, wind direction or sunshine, however, Lol p 1 allergen correlated positively with Poaceae pollen. The results of the present study confirm that the Lol p 1 allergen is detected more frequently with pollutants than with coarse particles with similar dynamics and a positive correlation between airborne pollen and aeroallergens. Moreover, Lol p 1 is released in stable weather conditions without large changes in humidity or temperature. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Mapping of Lol p I allergenic epitopes by using murine monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, W; Bernier, D; Jobin, M; Hébert, J

    1989-11-01

    Murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against three non-overlapping epitopes of Lol p I allergen were previously produced and subsequently used for purification of the allergen. In the present study, these MAbs were further characterized, and the biological activity of the purified allergen assessed. The three MAbs were of the IgG isotype and carried a kappa light chain. Their affinity constants were in the range of 7.4-15.1 x 10(-9) mol/l. Purified Lol p I kept its biological activity, as shown by its ability to induce histamine release by basophils of Lol p I-sensitive patients. The profiles of histamine release induced by either Lol p I or crude Lolium perenne extracts were comparable. This observation suggests that human IgE bound to basophils are polyspecific which has been confirmed by immunoblot and inhibition assay. Our data indicated also that Lol p I possesses a major allergenic epitope recognized by all human serum IgE tested. This epitope seems to be partially shared by those recognized by the three MAbs. Finally, preincubation of Lol p I with either one of the Mabs did not affect significantly the basophil-histamine release induced by the purified allergen. This suggests that Lol p I possesses allergenic sites other than the one shared by MAbs and IgE Abs.

  12. Assessment of 3D models for allergen research

    OpenAIRE

    Trevor D Power; Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Schein, Catherine H.; Braun, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Allergenic proteins must cross-link specific IgE molecules, bound to the surface of mast cells and basophils, to stimulate an immune response. A structural understanding of the allergen-IgE interface is needed to predict cross-reactivities between allergens and to design hypoallergenic proteins. However, there are less than 90 experimentally determined structures available for the approximately 1500 sequences of allergens and isoallergens catalogued in the Structural Database of Allergenic Pr...

  13. Rubber: new allergens and preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepy, Marie-Noëlle

    2016-12-01

    Natural rubber latex (NRL) and rubber accelerators are well-known causes of occupational skin diseases. The latest epidemiological data on rubber allergy show that rubber additives are still among the allergens most strongly associated with occupational contact dermatitis, however, a decrease in NRL allergy has been confirmed. A review of recent publications on rubber allergens based on the Pubmed database is presented. New glove manufacturing processes have been developed, such as low-protein natural rubber gloves, vulcanisation accelerator-free gloves, or specific-purpose gloves containing antimicrobial agents or moisturisers. Several websites provide information on allergens found in gloves and/or glove choice according to occupation.

  14. Asymptomatic inhaled foreign body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Muhammad U.; Asghar, Asif; Tareen, Irum; Azhar, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    It is very rare to have a big foreign body in the lungs without any complications or symptoms for 2 years. A 14-year-old male with episodes of minor hemoptysis for 4 weeks had a history of inhalation of a bullet 2 years earlier. He had asymptomatic for lung complications for 2 years. The bullet was removed by right thoracotomy and non-anatomical wedge stapled resection, and he followed an uneventful recovery. An aspirated foreign body although big can remain asymptomatic for a long time, especially if it has migrated to the periphery. PMID:27652366

  15. Accidental condom inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, C L; Gupta, Rajnish; Arora, V K

    2004-01-01

    A 27-year-old lady presented with persistent cough, sputum and fever for the preceding six months. Inspite of trials with antibiotics and anti-tuberculosis treatment for the preceeding four months, her symptoms did not improve. A subsequent chest radiograph showed non-homogeneous collapse-consolidation of right upper lobe. Videobronchoscopy revealed an inverted bag like structure in right upper lobe bronchus and rigid bronchoscopic removal with biopsy forceps confirmed the presence of a condom. Detailed retrospective history also confirmed accidental inhalation of the condom during fellatio.

  16. Contact sensitization to cosmetic series of allergens in a general population in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Li, Lin-Feng

    2014-03-01

    Cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis (CACD) due to common cosmetic allergens in standard series has been extensively studied; however, the prevalence of contact allergy to other cosmetic allergens other than those in standard series is largely unknown. In this study, the frequency of contact sensitization to a European cosmetic series of allergens (Chemotechnique Diagnostics, Vellinge, Sweden) in healthy university student volunteers were detected in Beijing. Of 201 students studied, fifty-eight exhibited positive results, and 9 of them reported had cosmetics related dermatitis previously. The total positivity rate was not correlated to gender. The leading allergens were thimerosal (19.4%), shellac (3.0%), cocamidopropyl betaine (2.0%), hexamethylenetetramine (1.5%), dodecyl gallate (1.5%), hexahydro-1,3,5-tris-(2-hydroxyethyl)triazine (1.0%) and methyldibromo glutaronitrile (1.0%). The positivity rate of thimerosal patch test in men (9.8%) was lower than that of women (23.6%, P cosmetic allergens in men and women (P > 0.05, Chi square test). These results suggested that some cosmetic-related contact allergies may be missed by just testing patients with the European standard series or T.R.U.E. test system only, we recommend shellac, cocamidopropyl betaine, hexamethylenetetramine and dodecyl gallate as the additionally candidates for patch testing in patients with suspected CACD. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Characterization of the allergenic potential of proteins: an assessment of the kiwifruit allergen actinidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearman, Rebecca J; Beresford, Lorna; Foster, Emily S; McClain, Scott; Kimber, Ian

    2014-05-01

    Assessment of the potential allergenicity (IgE-inducing properties) of novel proteins is an important challenge in the overall safety assessment of foods. Resistance to digestion with pepsin is commonly measured to characterize allergenicity, although the association is not absolute. We have previously shown that specific IgE antibody production induced by systemic [intraperitoneal (i.p.)] exposure of BALB/c strain mice to a range of proteins correlates with allergenic potential for known allergens. The purpose of the present study was to explore further the utility of these approaches using the food allergen, actinidin. Recently, kiwifruit has become an important allergenic foodstuff, coincident with its increased consumption, particularly as a weaning food. The ability of the kiwifruit allergen actinidin to stimulate antibody responses has been compared with the reference allergen ovalbumin, and with the non-allergen bovine haemoglobin. Haemoglobin was rapidly digested by pepsin whereas actinidin was resistant unless subjected to prior chemical reduction (reflecting intracellular digestion conditions). Haemoglobin stimulated detectable IgG antibody production at relatively high doses (10%), but failed to provoke detectable IgE. In contrast, actinidin was both immunogenic and allergenic at relatively low doses (0.25% to 1%). Vigorous IgG and IgG1 antibody and high titre IgE antibody responses were recorded, similar to those provoked by ovalbumin. Thus, actinidin displays a marked ability to provoke IgE, consistent with allergenic potential. These data provide further encouragement that in tandem with analysis of pepsin stability, the induction of IgE after systemic exposure of BALB/c strain mice provides a useful approach for the prospective identification of protein allergens. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Allergenic fragments of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen Lol p IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, K S; Ekramoddoullah, A K; Kisil, F T

    1989-01-01

    To facilitate studies on establishing the nature of structure/function relationships of allergens, ryegrass pollen allergen, Lol p IV, was cleaved into smaller fragments by cyanogen bromide (CNBr) and the resulting peptides were further digested with trypsin. The resulting peptides were then fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a C-18 reverse phase column. The allergenic activity of the HPLC fractions was evaluated in terms of their ability to inhibit the binding of 125I-Lol p IV to serum IgE antibodies of a grass-allergic patient. Many of these fractions inhibited the binding between the native allergen and IgE antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitions were specific, i.e., the fractions did not inhibit the binding between 125I-Lol p I (a group-I ryegrass pollen allergen) and the IgE antibodies present in the allergic human serum. The possibility that the allergenic peptide fractions were contaminated by the native undegraded allergen, which might have accounted for the observed inhibition, was ruled out by the fact that the native allergen could not be detected by SDS-PAGE and the elution profiles of allergenically active peptides did not coincide with that of native allergen. One of the allergenic sites recognized by monoclonal antibody (Mab) 90, i.e., site A, was located in HPLC fractions 90-100 while another allergenic site B (recognized by Mab 12) appeared to be lost following the sequential digestion of Lol p IV with CNBr and trypsin.

  19. The effect of the novel phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor MEM 1414 on the allergen induced responses in mild asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaker, Brian R; Singh, Dave; Ali, Ferhana Y; Barnes, Peter J; O'Connor, Brian

    2014-10-28

    Inhaled allergen challenge is a standard method to study airway responses to inflammatory provocation and evaluate the therapeutic potential of novel anti-inflammatory compounds in asthma. MEM 1414 is a novel oral PDE4 inhibitor with high affinity and selectivity creating the potential for an improved side effect profile vs non-selective PDE inhibitors. We evaluated the tolerability and effect of MEM 1414 on airway responses in mild asthmatics. A randomised double blind placebo controlled cross over study in two centres, in which sixteen steroid naïve atopic asthmatics were challenged with inhaled allergen. Subjects were dosed with MEM 1414 (600 mg) or placebo, twice daily orally for 7 days. Allergen challenge was performed on day 6 (2 hours post-dose), and methacholine responsiveness was measured 24 hours post allergen (day 7). Biomarkers of drug effects using ex vivo LPS stimulation of whole blood production of interleukin (IL)-6 and leukotriene (LT)-B4 and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) were measured on day 6 (0, 2 and 8 hours post-dose). Plasma pharmacokinetics were measured on days 1, 6 and 7. The primary endpoint was the effect on late asthmatic response to allergen. Treatment with MEM 1414 abrogated the late phase response with a mean difference in FEV1 (LAR 3-10 hours) of 104 ml (25%) vs placebo (p MEM 1414 treatment with reductions in LPS-stimulated whole blood assays for TNFα at 8 hours (p MEM 1414 treatment phase was associated with higher incidence of nausea (6/16 MEM 1414 vs 2/16 placebo) and vomiting (3/16 vs 0/16 placebo). Oral MEM 1414, a novel PDE4 inhibitor, significantly reduces the late response following inhaled allergen challenge. MEM 1414 also inhibited whole blood assays of cytokine production from inflammatory cells. MEM 1414 was associated with a typical adverse event profile of PDE4 inhibitors, namely nausea and vomiting although these were mild side effects. Current controlled trials ISRCTN48047493.

  20. The importance of EN ISO 15189 accreditation of allergen-specific IgE determination for reliable in vitro allergy diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, C; Sarrat, A; Bienvenu, F; Brabant, S; Nicaise-Roland, P; Alyanakian, M-A; Apoil, P-A; Capron, C; Couderc, R; Evrard, B; Jaby, D; Hémont, C; Lainé, C; Lelong, M; Mariotte, D; Martinet, J; Rénier, G; Sainte-Laudy, J; Tabary, T; Treiner, E; Uring-Lambert, B; Vigneron, C; Vivinus, M; Witthuhn, F; Vitte, J

    2015-02-01

    Allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E detection and quantification have become an important step in allergy diagnosis and follow-up. In line with the current trend of laboratory test accreditation to international standards, we set out to design and assess an accreditation procedure for allergen-specific serum IgE. Method validation according to the accreditation procedure under the EN ISO 15189 standard was carried out for allergen-specific immunoglobulin E determination using the fluoroimmunoenzymatic method ImmunoCAP(®) (ThermoFisher). Data were produced by 25 hospital laboratories in France. A total of 29 allergen specificities including mixes, extracts, and molecular allergens were assayed. Allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 100 kUA /l. Repeatability, reproducibility, and accuracy results fulfilled method validation criteria for automated laboratory tests and proved similar irrespective of the allergen specificity, allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E concentration, or individual laboratory. Allergen-specific serum immunoglobulin E determination with the fluoroimmunoenzymatic method ImmunoCAP(®) is a highly repeatable, reproducible, and accurate method which may be considered as a single analyte assay in view of the EN ISO 15189 accreditation procedure. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Gunter J; Varga, Eva-Maria; Roberts, Graham

    2017-01-01

    and adults to prevent further moderate to severe systemic sting reactions. Venom immunotherapy is also recommended in adults with only generalized skin reactions as it results in significant improvements in quality of life compared to carrying an adrenaline auto-injector. This guideline aims to give...... immunotherapy. This guideline has been prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology's (EAACI) Taskforce on Venom Immunotherapy as part of the EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy initiative. The guideline aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for the use of venom...... practical advice on performing venom immunotherapy. Key sections cover general considerations before initiating venom immunotherapy, evidence-based clinical recommendations, risk factors for adverse events and for relapse of systemic sting reaction, and a summary of gaps in the evidence. This article...

  2. Fish allergy and fish allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuehn, A; Hilger, Christiane; Ollert, Markus

    2016-01-01

    but patients with this phenotype constitute an important sub-group among fish-allergic individuals. 2. Newly identified fish allergens, enolases, aldolases, and fish gelatin, are of high relevance as the majority of the fish-allergic individuals seem to develop specific IgE against these proteins. The present......Fish is one of the main elicitors for food allergies. For a long time, the clinical picture of fish allergy was reduced to the following features. First, fish-allergic patients suffer from a high IgE cross-reactivity among fishes so that they have to avoid all species. Second, clinically relevant...... symptoms are linked to the presence of IgE-antibodies recognizing parvalbumin, the fish panallergen. This view was challenged by results from recent studies as follows. 1. Allergic reactions which are limited to single or several fish species (mono-or oligosensitisations) apply not only to single cases...

  3. Inactivation of allergens and toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandini, Piero

    2010-11-30

    Plants are replete with thousands of proteins and small molecules, many of which are species-specific, poisonous or dangerous. Over time humans have learned to avoid dangerous plants or inactivate many toxic components in food plants, but there is still room for ameliorating food crops (and plants in general) in terms of their allergens and toxins content, especially in their edible parts. Inactivation at the genetic rather than physical or chemical level has many advantages and classical genetic approaches have resulted in significant reduction of toxin content. The capacity, offered by genetic engineering, of turning off (inactivating) specific genes has opened up the possibility of altering the plant content in a far more precise manner than previously available. Different levels of intervention (genes coding for toxins/allergens or for enzymes, transporters or regulators involved in their metabolism) are possible and there are several tools for inactivating genes, both direct (using chemical and physical mutagens, insertion of transposons and other genetic elements) and indirect (antisense RNA, RNA interference, microRNA, eventually leading to gene silencing). Each level/strategy has specific advantages and disadvantages (speed, costs, selectivity, stability, reversibility, frequency of desired genotype and regulatory regime). Paradigmatic examples from classical and transgenic approaches are discussed to emphasize the need to revise the present regulatory process. Reducing the content of natural toxins is a trade-off process: the lesser the content of natural toxins, the higher the susceptibility of a plant to pests and therefore the stronger the need to protect plants. As a consequence, more specific pesticides like Bt are needed to substitute for general pesticides. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Viable allergenic fungi in a documentary deposit of the National Archive of Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Veloso, Alian; Borrego-Alonso, Sofía F

    2017-01-01

    Intense and persistent exposure to indoor-air biological agents has been associated with the appearance of allergic diseases. Archives and libraries Indoor environments in tropical countries are an important reservoir of fungal propagules. To evaluate the degree of air pollution with allergenic fungi in a repository of frequently-manipulated documents. Air sampling was performed by two methods: active (biocollector) and passive (sedimentation plate). Fungi were taxonomically identified, and spores were measured to determine their penetrability in the human respiratory tract, and its impact on episodes of allergy. In terms of concentration and diversity, the local environment behaved as a fungal propagule reservoir, which showed that there is significant health risk for the staff that manipulates the documents. Some spores were shown to be able to reach the lower respiratory tract when inhaled, which increases their allergenic and pathogenic potential. Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Alternaria, which are referred to as highly allergenic fungi, were prevalent. Aerobiological studies are a valuable tool for the treatment of patients with allergy to fungi and other disorders they produce.

  5. EARLY BIOMARKERS OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY ALLERGEN EXPOSURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Allergic asthma prevalence has been increasing in Western societies for several decades. Identification of potential allergens facilitates reduction in exposure and may reduce the risk of asthma development. Predictive models for recognition of sensitizers require th...

  6. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23095870

  7. Allergen management in the food industry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boye, Joyce I; Godefroy, Samuel Benrejeb

    2010-01-01

    "This book comprehensively addresses the sources of allergenic contaminants in foods, their fate during processing, and the specific measures that need to be taken to minimize their occurrence in foods...

  8. Associations between baseline allergens and polysensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, B.C.; Menne, T.; Johansen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    sulfate, epoxy resin, primin, and nickel sulfate showed statistically significant negative associations to polysensitization. For the allergens with the strongest associations, only every second individual with these particular allergies had two or more additional allergies. Conclusions: No common...

  9. Associations between baseline allergens and polysensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit Christina; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2008-01-01

    sulfate, epoxy resin, primin, and nickel sulfate showed statistically significant negative associations to polysensitization. For the allergens with the strongest associations, only every second individual with these particular allergies had two or more additional allergies. CONCLUSIONS: No common...

  10. CORRELATION BETWEEN SPIROMETRY DATES AND SPECIAL ALLERGEN- SPECIFIC IGE IN PATIENTS WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA IN WEST GEORGIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepiashvili, R; Chikhladze, M; Khachapuridze, D; Gamkrelidze, S

    2017-05-01

    The study aimed to establish correlation between airway obstruction and specific IgE specificity, managing future treatment in the patients with bronchial asthma, among the population of west Georgia. In the study have been involved 56 patients (among them 24 males and 32 females) of different ages, with diagnostic bronchial asthma (according to GINA recommendation). On the ground of the aim the study included the following steps of allegro-diagnostics: I step - Computerized spirometry by apparatus ,,SPIROLAB 3". II step - To detect allergenization degree, total serum IgE levels, specific IgE and concentration of Phadiatop, using modern automated system - "Immuno CAP 100", were estimated in the patients. III step- future treatment recommendations. All 56 patients were undergone the spirometry measurement. Our results show that of 56 patient 21 (38%) had very severe obstruction by spiromatry: Pretest: FEV 1 - 28%; FEF-45%; FEV1/FVC ratio -55% on average. Post test: significant bronchodilatation was revealed FEV1> +12%( >200 mL) after the inhalation of four puffs of a short - acting beta2 sympathomimetic agent, e.r., 400 µg of salbutamol. In 19 (33%) patients severe bronchoobstruction was established. By spiromometry was revealed: Pre test: FEV 1 - 42%; FEF-55%; FEV1/FVC ratio -67% on average. Post test: significant bronchodilatation was revealed FEV1> +12%( >200 mL) In 14 (25%) patients moderate bronchoobstruction was diagnosed, the spiromatry results were. Pretest: FEV 1 - 52%; FEF-65%; FEV1/FVC ratio - 67% on average. Post test: It was revealed significant bronchodilatation FEV1> +12%( >200 mL). Only in 2 (4%) patients were diagnosed the normal spiromatry. In the patients with bronchial asthma of a specific positivity of specific IgE to the weeds (Wx2) - ambrosia, plantain, clasp/tarragon, atriplex - in 23 (53%) on average; tree dust (Tx9) - alder, lactarius piperatus, nuts, oak, willow - 11 (19%); and cereals (Gx1) - festuca pratensis, lolium temulentum, timoti

  11. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gent, Janneane F., E-mail: janneane.gent@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Kezik, Julie M., E-mail: julie.colburn@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Hill, Melissa E., E-mail: melissa.hill@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Tsai, Eling, E-mail: tsai.umiami@gmail.com [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Li, De-Wei, E-mail: DeWei.Li@ct.gov [Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Valley Laboratory, 153 Cook Hill Road, Windsor, CT 06095 (United States); Leaderer, Brian P., E-mail: brian.leaderer@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Background: Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective: To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods: We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results: Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g and Can f 1>1.2 {mu}g/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 {mu}g/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g (by 32%). Conclusion: Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies address concurrent allergen exposures, sensitization and asthma morbidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with asthma were tested for sensitivity to common indoor allergens

  12. Allergenic Asteraceae in air particulate matter: quantitative DNA analysis of mugwort and ragweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Germann, I; Pickersgill, D A; Paulsen, H; Alberternst, B; Pöschl, U; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, J; Després, V R

    2017-01-01

    Mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) and ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) are highly allergenic Asteraceae. They often cause pollen allergies in late summer and fall. While mugwort is native to Europe, ragweed reached Europe as a neophyte from North America about 150 years ago and continued spreading ever since. To understand possible relationships between the spread of ragweed, its abundance in air, and to judge possible health risks for the public, we quantified ragweed DNA in inhalable fine as well as in coarse air particulate matter. Mugwort was chosen for comparison, as it is closely related to ragweed and grows in similar, though mainly not identical, habitats but is native to Germany. The DNA quantification was performed on atmospheric aerosol samples collected over a period of 5 years in central Europe. The DNA concentrations were highest during the characteristic pollination periods but varied greatly between different years. In the inhalable fine particle fraction, ragweed exceeds the mugwort DNA concentration fivefold, while the coarse particle fraction, bearing intact pollen grains, contains more mugwort than ragweed DNA. The higher allergenic potential of ragweed might be linked to the humidity or long-range transport-induced bursting of ragweed pollen into smaller allergenic particles, which may reach the lower airways and cause more intense allergic reactions. Airborne ragweed DNA was detected also outside the local pollination periods, which can be explained by atmospheric long-range transport. Back-trajectory analyses indicate that the air masses containing ragweed DNA during winter had originated in regions with milder climate and large ragweed populations (Southern France, Carpathian Basin).

  13. The dominant 55 kDa allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) pollen is a group 13 pollen allergen, Pas n 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Janet M; Voskamp, Astrid; Dang, Thanh D; Pettit, Benjamin; Loo, Dorothy; Petersen, Arnd; Hill, Michelle M; Upham, John W; Rolland, Jennifer M; O'Hehir, Robyn E

    2011-03-01

    Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, is an important pollen allergen source with a long season of pollination and wide distribution in subtropical and temperate regions. We aimed to characterize the 55 kDa allergen of Bahia grass pollen (BaGP) and ascertain its clinical importance. BaGP extract was separated by 2D-PAGE and immunoblotted with serum IgE of a grass pollen-allergic patient. The amino-terminal protein sequence of the predominant allergen isoform at 55 kDa had similarity with the group 13 allergens of Timothy grass and maize pollen, Phl p 13 and Zea m 13. Four sequences obtained by rapid amplification of the allergen cDNA ends represented multiple isoforms of Pas n 13. The predicted full length cDNA for Pas n 13 encoded a 423 amino acid glycoprotein including a signal peptide of 28 residues and with a predicted pI of 7.0. Tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides of 2D gel spots identified peptides specific to the deduced amino acid sequence for each of the four Pas n 13 cDNA, representing 47% of the predicted mature protein sequence of Pas n 13. There was 80.6% and 72.6% amino acid identity with Zea m 13 and Phl p 13, respectively. Reactivity with a Phl p 13-specific monoclonal antibody AF6 supported designation of this allergen as Pas n 13. The allergen was purified from BaGP extract by ammonium sulphate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction and size exclusion chromatography. Purified Pas n 13 reacted with serum IgE of 34 of 71 (48%) grass pollen-allergic patients and specifically inhibited IgE reactivity with the 55 kDa band of BaGP for two grass pollen-allergic donors. Four isoforms of Pas n 13 from pI 6.3-7.8 had IgE-reactivity with grass pollen allergic sera. The allergenic activity of purified Pas n 13 was demonstrated by activation of basophils from whole blood of three grass pollen-allergic donors tested but not control donors. Pas n 13 is thus a clinically relevant pollen allergen of the subtropical Bahia grass likely to be important in eliciting

  14. Consumer preferences for food allergen labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Carlo A; Harvard, Stephanie; Grubisic, Maja; Galo, Jessica; Clarke, Ann; Elliott, Susan; Lynd, Larry D

    2017-01-01

    Food allergen labeling is an important tool to reduce risk of exposure and prevent anaphylaxis for individuals with food allergies. Health Canada released a Canadian food allergen labeling regulation (2008) and subsequent update (2012) suggesting that research is needed to guide further iterations of the regulation to improve food allergen labeling and reduce risk of exposure. The primary objective of this study was to examine consumer preferences in food labeling for allergy avoidance and anaphylaxis prevention. A secondary objective was to identify whether different subgroups within the consumer population emerged. A discrete choice experiment using a fractional factorial design divided into ten different versions with 18 choice-sets per version was developed to examine consumer preferences for different attributes of food labeling. Three distinct subgroups of Canadian consumers with different allergen considerations and food allergen labeling needs were identified. Overall, preferences for standardized precautionary and safety symbols at little or no increased cost emerged. While three distinct groups with different preferences were identified, in general the results revealed that the current Canadian food allergen labeling regulation can be improved by enforcing the use of standardized precautionary and safety symbols and educating the public on the use of these symbols.

  15. Cross-reactivity of peanut allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublin, Merima; Breiteneder, Heimo

    2014-04-01

    Peanut seeds are currently widely used as source of human food ingredients in the United States of America and in European countries due to their high quality protein and oil content. This article describes the classification and molecular biology of peanut seed allergens with particular reference to their cross-reactivities. Currently, the IUIS allergen nomenclature subcommittee accepts 12 peanut allergens. Two allergens belong to the cupin and four to the prolamin superfamily, and six are distributed among profilins, Bet v 1-like proteins, oleosins, and defensins. Clinical observations frequently report an association of peanut allergy with allergies to legumes, tree nuts, seeds, fruits and pollen. Molecular cross-reactivity has been described between members of the Bet v 1-like proteins, the non-specific lipid transfer proteins, and the profilins. This review also addresses the less well-studied cross-reactivity between cupin and prolamin allergens of peanuts and of other plant food sources and the recently discovered cross-reactivity between peanut allergens of unrelated protein families.

  16. Allergen homologs in the Euroglyphus maynei draft genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Dean Rider

    Full Text Available Euroglyphus maynei is a house dust mite commonly found in homes worldwide and is the source of allergens that sensitize and induce allergic reactions in humans. It is the source of species-specific allergens as well as allergens that are cross-reactive with the allergens from house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus, and the ectoparasitic scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei. The genomics, proteomics and molecular biology of E. maynei and its allergens have not been as extensively investigated as those of D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and S. scabiei where natural and recombinant allergens from these species have been characterized. Until now, little was known about the genome of E. maynei and it allergens but this information will be important for producing recombinant allergens for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes and for understanding the allergic response mechanism by immune effector cells that mediate the allergic reaction. We sequenced and assembled the 59 Mb E. maynei genome to aid the identification of homologs for known allergenic proteins. The predicted proteome shared orthologs with D. farinae and S. scabiei, and included proteins with homology to more than 30 different groups of allergens. However, the majority of allergen candidates could not be assigned as clear orthologs to known mite allergens. The genomic sequence data, predicted proteome, and allergen homologs identified from E. maynei provide insight into the relationships among astigmatid mites and their allergens, which should allow for the development of improved diagnostics and immunotherapy.

  17. Interactions between diltiazem and inhalation anaesthetics in the isolated heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carceles, M D; Miralles, F S; Laorden, M L; Hernandez, J

    1989-09-01

    It has been postulated that inhalation anaesthetics may interfere with calcium movement across cell membranes. We have evaluated the interaction between diltiazem and the inhalation anaesthetics halothane and isoflurane on sinus automaticity in the isolated right atrium (SAIRA). Isoflurane significantly reduced atrial rate at all concentrations tested. However, halothane produced only a small but significant decrease at the higher concentrations used (1-2 v/v%). Diltiazem modified the maximal negative chronotropic response to inhalation anaesthetics. Maximum depression of SAIRA was significantly greater in the presence of two different doses of diltiazem compared with exposure to halothane and isoflurane alone. These results suggest that inhalation anaesthetics may block the influx of extracellular calcium through voltage-dependent calcium channels inhibited by diltiazem.

  18. FEASIBILITY OF SPECIFIED ALLERGEN PREVENTION IN SCHOOL CHILDREN WITH BRONCHIAL ASTHMA AND ALLERGIC RHINITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanmant Ganpati Varudkar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Accurate diagnosis of allergy is rarely done in allergic rhinitis and asthma patients. The correct prevention of specified allergens may help in better management of these ailments and prevent progression of disease. The aim of the study is to study the identification of common allergens and feasibility of allergen avoidance in school children of 9-14 years age group. MATERIALS AND METHODS An observational study was done at Ujjain from 2013 to 2015.A questionnaire was distributed in 34 schools covering 10,000 students. Symptom exacting six questions were to be answered by students and parents. Students having AR and/or BA underwent dermal sensitivity testing with 25 common allergens. Monthly follow up was done for a year. RESULTS 3142 questionnaires were received back, out of which, 2061 were valid. Among these, 694 patients were having positive response to at least one of the questions in questionnaire. Allergy testing could be done in only 42 children, out of 199, due to various reasons. 54.8% patients showed reduction in symptoms after the avoidance, but in 38.1% of cases, the symptoms were persistent. CONCLUSION Dermal tests showed sensitivity to house dust, Aspergillus fumigatus, rice, egg whole and cat dander. Those patients who prevented allergens had relief of symptoms.

  19. Tolerance and immunological changes of chemically modified allergen vaccine of Parietaria judaica in accelerated schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asturias, J A; Ferrer, A; Arilla, M C; Andreu, C; Madariaga, B; Martínez, A

    2007-03-01

    The physicochemical modification of allergen vaccines provides a chance for administering higher doses in a shorter period of time. We sought to assess the safety and immunological changes of using a biologically standardized and modified Parietaria judaica pollen extract in accelerated schedules. Two accelerated schedules were tested in 45 P. judaica-allergic patients: 20 patients reached the maximum dose after two visits using two different concentrations and 25 patients reached the maximum dose after only one visit with two injections of the maximum concentration vial. The tolerance was assessed by recording all side effects related with immunotherapy. Specific antibody levels against native extract and rPar j 2 allergen were evaluated at the beginning and the end of the study. Allergenic potency determined by enzyme allergosorbent test (EAST) inhibition and skin prick test showed that modified P. judaica pollen had a 99.9% less allergenicity than native extract. After 650 doses administered, two clinically irrelevant local reactions (diameter<0 x 5 cm) and no systemic reactions were registered. Significant increases in allergen-specific IgG4 and IgG against P. judaica extract and rPar j 2 and significant decrease of specific IgE against Par j 2 were observed. The modified extract of P. judaica is safe to treat sensitive patients, even at accelerated regimens, and induces significant immunological changes.

  20. Sensitization to occupational allergens in hairdressing apprentices diagnosed already before entering vocational training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Golińska-Zach

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hairdressers are occupationally exposed to many allergenic and irritating substances. Additionally, hairdressing apprentices are exposed to the same allergens as professional hairdressers, due to the fact that vocational training starts in the beginning of the education. This study was undertaken to investigate early occurrence of sensitization to occupational allergens in hairdressing apprentices before the onset of the vocational training. Material and Methods: Three hundred and seven hairdressing apprentices were assessed using a questionnaire and skin prick tests (SPTs to common and occupational allergens. The level of total and serum specific immunoglobulin E (IgE to occupational allergens was evaluated and spirometry was performed. Results: At least one skin and/or respiratory and/or conjunctival symptom was reported by 29.9% of subjects. Among subjects with at least one symptom, 28.2% of them were atopic whereas among 43.4% of them total IgE level was elevated. Atopy was found in 20% cases. In the case of one apprentice, positive SPT for paraphenylenediamine was found. Nearly 33% of apprentices had elevated total IgE level and 5 of them had specific IgE for occupational allergens. Conclusions: The study revealed that hairdressing apprentices might be sensitized to occupational allergens even before the beginning of vocational training, due to prior non-professional exposure to hairdressing agents. Furthermore, many of them report skin, respiratory and conjunctival symptoms, often connected with chronic disease diagnosis. Thus, candidates for hairdressers should be examined thoroughly before the start of the education and tests for allergy to hairdressing substances are indicated. Med Pr 2016;67(5:567–575

  1. Triethylene glycol bis(2-ethylhexanoate) - a new contact allergen identified in a spectacle frame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Vestergaard, M. E.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær

    2014-01-01

    Background. Allergic reactions to spectacle frames are not unusual. A patient had a reproducible strong allergic patch test reaction to scrapings from the plastic material, and negative patch test results with available spectacle frame chemicals. Objectives. To identify the culprit allergen...... in this patient's spectacle frame. Materials and methods. An extract from the temple arms was analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and a major low molecular weight compound was detected. This compound was isolated by semi-preparative high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by GC...... bis(2-ethylhexanoate) was the causative allergen in the spectacle frame. Ten consecutive eczema patients tested as controls were negative. Conclusion. Triethylene glycol bis(2-ethylhexanoate) is a new, hitherto unreported contact allergen....

  2. Use of a cognitive ergonomics approach to compare usability of a multidose dry powder inhaler and a capsule dry powder inhaler: an open-label, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Mark; Briggs, Pamela

    2004-11-01

    Usability (ease of use) is an important feature of inhalers to ensure optimal dose delivery The aim of this study was to compare the usability of a multidose dry powder inhaler (mDPI) and a capsule dry powder inhaler (cDPI) in older individuals, using a range of qualitative and quantitative techniques from the field of cognitive ergonomics. Participants aged >50 years were enrolled in this 2-visit, open-label, randomized, controlled, parallel-group study conducted at Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. Participants who had used an inhaler or were inhaler naive were randomized to use the mDPI or cDPI. At visit 1, the inhaler procedure was demonstrated twice by the investigator. Participants then repeated the procedure (although they were not expected to inhale because no drug was to be administered) until they made 3 consecutive correct attempts. They also undertook a range of tests to assess their confidence in using the device, manual dexterity, and self-efficacy At visit 2 (2 days later), participants made a single inhaler attempt before receiving any demonstrations from the investigator; this was intended to simulate clinical practice, in which the patient may not use an inhaler for a few days after it is prescribed. Participants then completed the inhaler procedure 10 times while undertaking a concurrent distracter task. The number of critical errors (ie, those having a high impact on dose delivery) was recorded for all attempts. To facilitate subsequent correlation analyses, an overall performance measure was derived from a combination of the results of the single inhaler trial and the 10 trials with a distracter. Eighty individuals (51 women, 29 men; mean [SD] age, 74.1 [7.5] years) participated in the study(40 participants per device). Forty of the participants (50%) had used an inhaler previously; 40 (50%) were inhaler naive. Based on the overall performance measure, participants testing the mDPI made significantly fewer critical

  3. Production of Recombinant Peanut Allergen Ara h 2 using Lactococcus lactis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frøkiær Hanne

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural allergen sources can supply large quantities of authentic allergen mixtures for use as immunotherapeutics. However, such extracts are complex, difficult to define, vary from batch to batch, which may lead to unpredictable efficacy and/or unacceptable levels of side effects. The use of recombinant expression systems for allergen production can alleviate some of these issues. Several allergens have been tested in high-level expression systems and in most cases show immunereactivity comparable to their natural counterparts. The gram positive lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis is an attractive microorganism for use in the production of protein therapeutics. L. lactis is considered food grade, free of endotoxins, and is able to secrete the heterologous product together with few other native proteins. Hypersensitivity to peanut represents a serious allergic problem. Some of the major allergens in peanut have been described. However, for therapeutic usage more information about the individual allergenic components is needed. In this paper we report recombinant production of the Ara h 2 peanut allergen using L. lactis. Results A synthetic ara h 2 gene was cloned into an L. lactis expression plasmid containing the P170 promoter and the SP310mut2 signal sequence. Flask cultures grown overnight showed secretion of the 17 kDa Ara h 2 protein. A batch fermentation resulted in 40 mg/L recombinant Ara h 2. Purification of Ara h 2 from the culture supernatant was done by hydrophobic exclusion and size separation. Mass spectrometry and N-terminal analysis showed a recombinant Ara h 2 of full length and correctly processed by the signal peptidase. The immunological activity of recombinant Ara h 2 was analysed by ELISA using antibodies specific for native Ara h 2. The recombinant Ara h 2 showed comparable immunereactivity to that of native Ara h 2. Conclusion Recombinant production of Ara h 2 using L. lactis can offer high yields

  4. Proteomic analysis of the major birch allergen Bet v 1 predicts allergenicity for 15 birch species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schenk, M.F.; Cordewener, J.H.G.; America, A.H.P.; Peters, J.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.

    2011-01-01

    Pollen of the European and Asian white birch (Betula pendula and B. platyphylla) causes hay fever in humans. The allergenic potency of other birch species is largely unknown. To identify birch trees with a reduced allergenicity, we assessed the immunochemical characteristics of 15 species and two

  5. Authentication of food allergen quality by physicochemical and immunological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sancho, A I; Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K; Alessandri, S

    2010-01-01

    and standardization of methods between different laboratories and operators for risk assessment in the food industry. Therefore, there is a need for well-defined purified food allergens. In this context, a panel of 46 food allergens from plant and animal sources has been purified, from either the food sources......Purified allergens are required to detect cross-contamination with other allergenic foods and to understand allergen interaction with other components of the food matrix. Pure allergens are also used for the diagnosis and treatment of food allergies. For example, serological methods are being...

  6. Exposure to allergens of different cattle breeds and their relevance in occupational allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heutelbeck, Astrid R R; Junghans, Carsten; Esselmann, Hermann; Hallier, Ernst; Schulz, Thomas G

    2009-10-01

    Cattle are an important source of allergens in the working area of farmers. Asthma caused by cow allergens is a significant occupational problem. Yet in allergological testing, the results of in vivo and in vitro diagnostic tests are often inconsistent even in cases with clearly cattle-related symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate four different commercial cow allergen extracts and to compare them with self prepared extracts of different cattle breeds by means of SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting using the sera of 42 German farmers with asthma and rhino-conjunctivitis caused by cattle contact. The commercial extracts investigated in this study showed only minor differences in protein pattern. Using sera in immunoblotting experiments distinct bands were found for all symptomatic farmers, even in 13 farmers with a negative result in commercially available serological allergy tests. Bands with molecular weights in the range between about 11 and 67 kDa were observed; reactivity with the major allergen Bos d 2 at about 20 kDa was detected in all farmers, although it was not the strongest band in all cases. We demonstrate for the first time the allergenic relevance of additional proteins with molecular weights of 14, 30, 55 and approx. 67-97 kDa in more than 50% of farmers with cattle related symptoms. One of our most striking results was that 32% of the investigated farmers with cattle related symptoms showed negative results with commercial serological tests but distinct reactions with cow allergen in immunoblotting experiments. The Bos d 2 content in hair showed differences between certain breeds whereas German Brown and Simmental had particularly higher quantities of Bos d 2 in their hair than breeds such as Holstein-Friesian. These results strongly support the following recommendation: test results with commercial extracts that are contradictory to the clinical symptoms should be supplemented by skin tests using extracts of the hair of the farmers' own

  7. [A basic study for estimating the level of exposure to a nasal inhalant containing a stimulant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, H; Shimizu, H; Takahashi, Y; Fukumoto, M; Okonogi, H; Kadokura, M

    1993-08-01

    Criminal cases involving stimulant abuse have increased since 1970 but have now leveled off. Some of the offenders claimed to have used the Vicks Inhaler containing a stimulant (1-methamphetamine) which is used for the treatment of nasal obstruction. The aim of this experiment was to measure the amount of 1-methamphetamine contained in the Vicks Inhaler by stimulating the human respiratory system. The results are as follows: 1) The data from the stimulation experiment showed that the inhalation level of 1-methamphetamine was estimated to be 320.4ng. From this value, the level of 1-methamphetamine absorbed per one respiration was calculated to be 21ng. 2) The data from quantitative and qualitative analysis by gas-chromatography showed that menthol interfered with the methamphetamine. 3) A qualitative test for the stimulant in urine was negative when the subject inhaled the Vicks Inhaler only once. However, this test turned positive when the subject inhaled it more than 17 times.

  8. Endogenous allergens and compositional analysis in the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A; Mills, E N C; Lovik, M; Spoek, A; Germini, A; Mikalsen, A; Wal, J M

    2013-12-01

    Allergenicity assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants is one of the key pillars in the safety assessment process of these products. As part of this evaluation, one of the concerns is to assess that unintended effects (e.g. over-expression of endogenous allergens) relevant for the food safety have not occurred due to the genetic modification. Novel technologies are now available and could be used as complementary and/or alternative methods to those based on human sera for the assessment of endogenous allergenicity. In view of these developments and as a step forward in the allergenicity assessment of GM plants, it is recommended that known endogenous allergens are included in the compositional analysis as additional parameters to be measured. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Skin test reactivity among Danish children measured 15 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C

    2006-01-01

    to most allergens tested, statistically significant; however, only for mugwort and Alternaria iridis. Among subjects, who were sensitized to only one allergen, we found significantly fewer individuals with reactions to D. pteronyssinus and mugwort. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of atopic sensitization...

  10. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, M.J.; Putney, L.F.; St George, J.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Avdalovic, M.V. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmona