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Sample records for test fallout occurred

  1. Radioactive Fallout From Nuclear Weapons Testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Detonating nuclear weapons above ground sends radioactive materials into the atmosphere from the ground level up to very high elevations. Overtime, these materials settle out of the atmosphere and fall to the ground. Fallout typically contains hundreds of different radionuclides. Since the end of aboveground nuclear weapons testing, radionuclides have largely decayed away.

  2. Federal Guidance Report No. 4: Estimates and Evaluation of Fallout in the United States from Nuclear Weapons Testing Conducted Through 1962

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Federal Radiation Council report includes a full study and analysis of fallout expected in 1963 from nuclear testing that occurred in the past. This report covers fallout expected from Soviet and United States tests through 1962.

  3. Fallout deposition in the Marshall Islands from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Harold L; Bouville, André; Moroz, Brian E; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Deposition densities (Bq m(-2)) of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in nuclear weapons testing fallout from tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls (1946-1958) have been estimated on a test-specific basis for 32 atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. A complete review of various historical and contemporary data, as well as meteorological analysis, was used to make judgments regarding which tests deposited fallout in the Marshall Islands and to estimate fallout deposition density. Our analysis suggested that only 20 of the 66 nuclear tests conducted in or near the Marshall Islands resulted in substantial fallout deposition on any of the 23 inhabited atolls. This analysis was confirmed by the fact that the sum of our estimates of 137Cs deposition from these 20 tests at each atoll is in good agreement with the total 137Cs deposited as estimated from contemporary soil sample analyses. The monitoring data and meteorological analyses were used to quantitatively estimate the deposition density of 63 activation and fission products for each nuclear test, plus the cumulative deposition of 239+240Pu at each atoll. Estimates of the degree of fractionation of fallout from each test at each atoll, as well as of the fallout transit times from the test sites to the atolls were used in this analysis. The estimates of radionuclide deposition density, fractionation, and transit times reported here are the most complete available anywhere and are suitable for estimations of both external and internal dose to representative persons as described in companion papers.

  4. NUCLEAR TEST, POLITICAL FALLOUT, AND DOMESTIC TURMOIL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Scott Snyder; See-Won Byun

    2017-01-01

    North Korea's fifth nuclear test on Sept. 9 and the intensified test-firing of a range of missile types throughout 2016 underscored existing weaknesses in using dialogue and sanctions as a response...

  5. Worldwide fallout of plutonium from nuclear weapons tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holleman, J.W.; Quiggins, P.A.; Chilton, B.D.; Uziel, M.S.; Pfuderer, H.A.; Longmire, J.A.

    1987-03-01

    Measurements of /sup 238/Pu and /sup 239,240/Pu fallout from nuclear weapons tests and the SNAP-9A navigational satellite burnup are presented for the years through 1980. Data abstracted from the literature were taken from the stratosphere, atmosphere, and from deposition and surface soil. Over 7300 data entries are included in the 23 tables. The tables are sorted by medium (stratosphere, atmosphere, and deposition near the surface and soil, nuclide, hemisphere, and longitude going from west to east, and are arranged in chronological order. Latitudes are also provided. Fallout levels in SI units (becquerels), calculated from the original readings, and the references from which the original data were taken are given in the report. The appendix is a map showing the various sites from which data were obtained.

  6. Magnitude of fission product depositions from atmospheric nuclear weapon test fallout in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Philippe; Louvat, Didier

    2004-04-01

    The external dose attributable to fallout from worldwide atmospheric nuclear testing, which represents about 40% of the total effective dose received before 2000, is dominated by specific fission products such as 95Zr, 104Ba, 106Ru, 103Ru, and 144Ce, which are far less well-documented than 90Sr and 137Cs. The depositions of these nuclides over France were calculated on the basis of activity measurements in air and rainwater samples collected from 1961 to 1977. These depositions were then compared to the same radionuclides activities measured in grass during that period. This study shows that the transfer and deposition processes occur in a very similar manner for all the studied radionuclides. Depositions calculated in this study, consistent in most cases with UNSCEAR estimates, constitute a good basis for the external dose assessment of nuclear weapon test fallout over Western Europe.

  7. Predictions of dispersion and deposition of fallout from nuclear testing using the NOAA-HYSPLIT meteorological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroz, Brian E; Beck, Harold L; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    The NOAA Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) was evaluated as a research tool to simulate the dispersion and deposition of radioactive fallout from nuclear tests. Model-based estimates of fallout can be valuable for use in the reconstruction of past exposures from nuclear testing, particularly where little historical fallout monitoring data are available. The ability to make reliable predictions about fallout deposition could also have significant importance for nuclear events in the future. We evaluated the accuracy of the HYSPLIT-predicted geographic patterns of deposition by comparing those predictions against known deposition patterns following specific nuclear tests with an emphasis on nuclear weapons tests conducted in the Marshall Islands. We evaluated the ability of the computer code to quantitatively predict the proportion of fallout particles of specific sizes deposited at specific locations as well as their time of transport. In our simulations of fallout from past nuclear tests, historical meteorological data were used from a reanalysis conducted jointly by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR). We used a systematic approach in testing the HYSPLIT model by simulating the release of a range of particle sizes from a range of altitudes and evaluating the number and location of particles deposited. Our findings suggest that the quantity and quality of meteorological data are the most important factors for accurate fallout predictions and that, when satisfactory meteorological input data are used, HYSPLIT can produce relatively accurate deposition patterns and fallout arrival times. Furthermore, when no other measurement data are available, HYSPLIT can be used to indicate whether or not fallout might have occurred at a given location and provide, at minimum, crude quantitative estimates of the magnitude of the deposited activity. A variety of

  8. Implications of Atmospheric Test Fallout Data for Nuclear Winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-01

    temperatures produce an n, type distribution almost 100 I pu j -71, AQA SOIL~~~~if - CL’DSRBTO 101% ~ ~ - -~ - --- ~ -.--W-- 4 - --7 -~ without exception...Fallout, Operation Plumbbob ,WT-1488, Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology , University of California at Los Angeles, 28 July 1968. 16

  9. Historical overview of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing and estimates of fallout in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Harold L; Bennett, Burton G

    2002-05-01

    From 1945 to 1980, over 500 weapons tests were conducted in the atmosphere at a number of locations around the world. These tests resulted in the release of substantial quantities of radioactive debris to the environment. Local, intermediate, and global fallout deposition densities downwind from test sites depended on the heights of bursts, the yields, and the half-lives and volatilities of the particular fission or activation products, as well as on the meteorological conditions. A number of national and international monitoring programs were established to trace the fallout through the atmosphere and biosphere. These programs included continuous monitoring of ground-level air, exposure rates, and deposition as well as periodic sampling of food, bone, water, soil, and stratospheric air. Although data for specific high-yield tests are still classified, the fission and fusion yields of the various tests and test series have been estimated and from this information the quantities of specific fission and activation products released into the atmosphere have been determined. The geographic and temporal variations in the fallout deposition of specific radionuclides based on both actual measurements and model calculations are discussed in this paper. A feasibility study to estimate the deposition density (deposition per unit area) of particular radionuclides from both Nevada Test Site and "global" fallout on a county-by-county scale for the continental United States is described. These deposition estimates provide a basis for reconstructing population exposure and dose. They support the feasibility of a more detailed evaluation of the population doses that resulted from fallout from atmospheric tests to document the experience fully and to report results more systematically and completely to the world community. The impact of weapons fallout will continue to be felt for years to come since a contaminant baseline has been imposed on the ambient radiation environment that

  10. RESUME95 Nordic field test of mobile equipment for nuclear fall-out monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeois, C.; Bresson, J.; Chiffot, T.; Guillot, L. [Centre d`Etudes de Valduc, Direction des Applications Militaires, Commissaiat a L`Energie Atomique, Tille (France)

    1997-12-31

    Nordic Safety Research (NKS) organised in August 1995 a field test of various techniques and instrumentation for monitoring radioactive fall-out. In an emergency situation, after a major release of radioactive material, many different measuring systems are going to be used, ranging from small hand hold intensitometer to complex spectrometer systems. In this test the following type of equipment were tested: Airborne spectrometers; Carborne spectrometers and dose rate meters; In situ spectrometers and intensitometers. Helinuc team was equipped of an airborne system and of a germanium device for in situ measurements. Different tasks were specified for each team: Mapping caesium fall-out and natural activity over two areas of 18 and 5 km{sup 2}; Research of hidden sources. For measurements and data processing the respect of time allowed was strictly controlled for testing the ability of each team. (au).

  11. Deposition of vaporized species onto glassy fallout from a near-surface nuclear test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, David G.; Jacobsen, Benjamin; Marks, Naomi E.; Knight, Kim B.; Isselhardt, Brett H.; Matzel, Jennifer E.; Weber, Peter K.; Prussin, Stan G.; Hutcheon, Ian D.

    2017-03-01

    occurring. These fallout formation processes deviate from historical models of fallout formation, and have not been previously recognized in the literature.

  12. Direct Pb Isotopic Analysis of a Nuclear Fallout Debris Particle from the Trinity Nuclear Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, Jeremy J; Snape, Joshua F; Whitehouse, Martin J; Nemchin, Alexander A

    2017-02-07

    The Pb isotope composition of a nuclear fallout debris particle has been directly measured in post-detonation materials produced during the Trinity nuclear test by a secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) scanning ion image technique (SII). This technique permits the visual assessment of the spatial distribution of Pb and can be used to obtain full Pb isotope compositions in user-defined regions in a 70 μm × 70 μm analytical window. In conjunction with backscattered electron (BSE) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) mapping of the same particle, the Pb measured in this fallout particle cannot be from a major phase in the precursor arkosic sand. Similarly, the Pb isotope composition of the particle is resolvable from the surrounding glass at the 2σ uncertainty level (where σ represents the standard deviation). The Pb isotope composition measured in the particle here is in excellent agreement with that inferred from measurements of green and red trinitite, suggesting that these types of particles are responsible for the Pb isotope compositions measured in both trinitite glasses.

  13. A high resolution record of chlorine-36 nuclear-weapons-tests fallout from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J.R.; Cecil, L.D.; Synal, H.-A.; Santos, J.; Kreutz, K.J.; Wake, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    The Inilchek Glacier, located in the Tien Shan Mountains, central Asia, is unique among mid-latitude glaciers because of its relatively large average annual accumulation. In July 2000, two ice cores of 162 and 167 meters (m) in length were collected from the Inilchek Glacier for (chlorine-36) 36Cl analysis a part of a collaborative international effort to study the environmental changes archived in mid-latitude glaciers worldwide. The average annual precipitation at the collection site was calculated to be 1.6 m. In contrast, the reported average annual accumulations at the high-latitude Dye-3 glacial site, Greenland, the mid-latitude Guliya Ice Cap, China, and the mid-latitude Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, USA, were 0.52, 0.16 and 0.76 m, respectively. The resolution of the 36Cl record in one of the Inilchek ice cores was from 2 to 10 times higher than the resolution of the records at these other sites and could provide an opportunity for detailed study of environmental changes that have occurred over the past 150 years. Despite the differences in accumulation among these various glacial sites, the 36Cl profile and peak concentrations for the Inilchek ice core were remarkably similar in shape and magnitude to those for ice cores from these other sites. The 36Cl peak concentration from 1958, the year during the mid-1900s nuclear-weapons-tests period when 36Cl fallout was largest, was preserved in the Inilchek core at a depth of 90.56 m below the surface of the glacier (74.14-m-depth water equivalent) at a concentration of 7.7 ?? 105 atoms of 36Cl/gram (g) of ice. Peak 36Cl concentrations from Dye-3, Guliya and the Upper Fremont glacial sites were 7.1 ?? 105, 5.4 ?? 105 and 0.7 ?? 105 atoms of 36Cl/g of ice, respectively. Measurements of 36Cl preserved in ice cores improve estimates of historical worldwide atmospheric deposition of this isotope and allow the sources of 36Cl in ground water to be better identified. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. A high resolution record of chlorine-36 nuclear-weapons-tests fallout from Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. R.; Cecil, L. D.; Synal, H.-A.; Santos, J.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.

    2004-08-01

    The Inilchek Glacier, located in the Tien Shan Mountains, central Asia, is unique among mid-latitude glaciers because of its relatively large average annual accumulation. In July 2000, two ice cores of 162 and 167 meters (m) in length were collected from the Inilchek Glacier for (chlorine-36) 36Cl analysis a part of a collaborative international effort to study the environmental changes archived in mid-latitude glaciers worldwide. The average annual precipitation at the collection site was calculated to be 1.6 m. In contrast, the reported average annual accumulations at the high-latitude Dye-3 glacial site, Greenland, the mid-latitude Guliya Ice Cap, China, and the mid-latitude Upper Fremont Glacier, Wyoming, USA, were 0.52, 0.16 and 0.76 m, respectively. The resolution of the 36Cl record in one of the Inilchek ice cores was from 2 to 10 times higher than the resolution of the records at these other sites and could provide an opportunity for detailed study of environmental changes that have occurred over the past 150 years. Despite the differences in accumulation among these various glacial sites, the 36Cl profile and peak concentrations for the Inilchek ice core were remarkably similar in shape and magnitude to those for ice cores from these other sites. The 36Cl peak concentration from 1958, the year during the mid-1900s nuclear-weapons-tests period when 36Cl fallout was largest, was preserved in the Inilchek core at a depth of 90.56 m below the surface of the glacier (74.14-m-depth water equivalent) at a concentration of 7.7 × 105 atoms of 36Cl/gram (g) of ice. Peak 36Cl concentrations from Dye-3, Guliya and the Upper Fremont glacial sites were 7.1 × 105, 5.4 × 105 and 0.7 × 105 atoms of 36Cl/g of ice, respectively. Measurements of 36Cl preserved in ice cores improve estimates of historical worldwide atmospheric deposition of this isotope and allow the sources of 36Cl in ground water to be better identified.

  15. Dose assessment for sheep exposed to fallout from nuclear test Nancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasser, L.B.; Soldat, J.K.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Murphy, D.W.

    1982-10-01

    Radiation doses were estimated for sheep wintering on Nevada ranges during the testing at the Nevada Test Site of the nuclear weapon Nancy on March 24, 1953. Exposure pathways considered were inhalation of radionuclides from both cloud passage and resuspension, external exposure of the total body and skin, and ingestion of contaminated forage and soil. Physiological, metabolic, and dosimetric data needed for these calculations were obtained from data appropriate for the sheep. Dose rate and radionuclide deposition values for shot Nancy were used. Radionuclide deposition and retention on the desert vegetation were obtained from data collected during several nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Existing dosimetric computer programs, whose libraries were modified to include the sheep data, and specially developed models were used to estimate the dose commitment for the sheep. The total-body dose for reference sheep located within the 40-mR/hr (H+12) isopleth from all modes of exposure was estimated to be 2.6 rad. Ingestion of fallout on edible vegetation contributed the majority of the dose, whereas inhalation of radionuclides and consumption of contaminated soil from the ground contributed little to the internal doses. The dose to the thyroid of ewes from radioiodine and other radionuclides reaching the thyroid was approximately 400 rad. The calculated uniform dose to the reticulo-rumen was 4 rad; however, if fallout particles were assumed to concentrate in the ventral rumen, a localized dose of 200 rad could have been received by the rumen wall. Estimated dose to the bare skin of ewes was 120 rad. The dose to the fetal thyroid from radioiodine ingested by a pregnant ewe grazing at a location where the dose rate was 40 mR/hr (H+12) was estimated to be 700 rad, or approximately twice the dose to the maternal thyroid.

  16. Development of the town data base: Estimates of exposure rates and times of fallout arrival near the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C.B.; McArthur, R.D. [Univ. and Community College System of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Hutchinson, S.W. [Mead Johnson Nutritional Group, Evansville, IN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project, the time of fallout arrival and the H+12 exposure rate were estimated for populated locations in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah that were affected by fallout from one or more nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of exposure rate were derived from measured values recorded before and after each test by fallout monitors in the field. The estimate for a given location was obtained by retrieving from a data base all measurements made in the vicinity, decay-correcting them to H+12, and calculating an average. Estimates were also derived from maps produced after most events that show isopleths of exposure rate and time of fallout arrival. Both sets of isopleths on these maps were digitized, and kriging was used to interpolate values at the nodes of a 10-km grid covering the pattern. The values at any location within the grid were then estimated from the values at the surrounding grid nodes. Estimates of dispersion (standard deviation) were also calculated. The Town Data Base contains the estimates for all combinations of location and nuclear event for which the estimated mean H+12 exposure rate was greater than three times background. A listing of the data base is included as an appendix. The information was used by other project task groups to estimate the radiation dose that off-site populations and individuals may have received as a result of exposure to fallout from Nevada nuclear tests.

  17. SIMS Analyses of Aerodynamic Fallout from a Uranium-Fueled Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, L. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Knight, K. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Matzel, J. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Prussin, S. G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ryerson, F. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kinman, W. S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zimmer, M. M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hutcheon, I. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-09

    Five silicate fallout glass spherules produced in a uranium-fueled, near-surface nuclear test were characterized by secondary ion mass spectrometry, electron probe microanalysis, autoradiography, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x ray spectroscopy. Several samples display distinctive compositional heterogeneity suggestive of incomplete mixing, and exhibit heterogeneity in U isotopes with 0.02 < 235U/ 238U < 11.8 among all five samples and 0.02 < 235U/ 238U < 7.81 within a single sample. In two samples, the 235U/ 238U ratio is correlated with major element composition, consistent with the agglomeration of chemically and isotopically distinct molten precursors. Two samples are quasi-homogeneous with respect to composition and uranium isotopic composition, suggesting extensive mixing possibly due longer residence time in the fireball. Correlated variations between 234U, 235U, 236U and 238U abundances point to mixing of end-members corresponding to uranium derived from the device and natural U ( 238U/ 235U = 0.00725) found in soil.

  18. Temporal trends in childhood leukaemia incidence following exposure to radioactive fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard; Darby, Sarah C; Murphy, Michael F G

    2010-05-01

    Notably raised rates of childhood leukaemia incidence have been found near some nuclear installations, in particular Sellafield and Dounreay in the United Kingdom, but risk assessments have concluded that the radiation doses estimated to have been received by children or in utero as a result of operations at these installations are much too small to account for the reported increases in incidence. This has led to speculation that the risk of childhood leukaemia arising from internal exposure to radiation following the intake of radioactive material released from nuclear facilities has been substantially underestimated. The radionuclides discharged from many nuclear installations are similar to those released into the global environment by atmospheric nuclear weapons testing, which was at its height in the late-1950s and early-1960s. Measurements of anthropogenic radionuclides in members of the general public resident in the vicinity of Sellafield and Dounreay have found levels that do not differ greatly from those in persons living remote from nuclear installations that are due to ubiquitous exposure to the radioactive debris of nuclear weapons testing. Therefore, if the leukaemia risk to children resulting from deposition within the body of radioactive material discharged from nuclear facilities has been grossly underestimated, then a pronounced excess of childhood leukaemia would have been expected as a consequence of the short period of intense atmospheric weapons testing. We have examined childhood leukaemia incidence in 11 large-scale cancer registries in three continents for which data were available at least as early as 1962. We found no evidence of a wave of excess cases corresponding to the peak of radioactive fallout from atmospheric weapons testing. The absence of a discernible increase in the incidence of childhood leukaemia following the period of maximum exposure to the radioactive debris of this testing weighs heavily against the suggestion that

  19. Acute and chronic intakes of fallout radionuclides by Marshallese from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak and related internal radiation doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Melo, Dunstana; Beck, Harold L; Weinstock, Robert M

    2010-08-01

    Annual internal radiation doses resulting from both acute and chronic intakes of all important dose-contributing radionuclides occurring in fallout from nuclear weapons testing at Bikini and Enewetak from 1946 through 1958 have been estimated for the residents living on all atolls and separate reef islands of the Marshall Islands. Internal radiation absorbed doses to the tissues most at risk to cancer induction (red bone marrow, thyroid, stomach, and colon) have been estimated for representative persons of all population communities for all birth years from 1929 through 1968, and for all years of exposure from 1948 through 1970. The acute intake estimates rely on a model using, as its basis, historical urine bioassay data, for members of the Rongelap Island and Ailinginae communities as well as for Rongerik residents. The model also utilizes fallout times of arrival and radionuclide deposition densities estimated for all tests and all atolls. Acute intakes of 63 radionuclides were estimated for the populations of the 20 inhabited atolls and for the communities that were relocated during the testing years for reasons of safety and decontamination. The model used for chronic intake estimates is based on reported whole-body, urine, and blood counting data for residents of Utrik and Rongelap. Dose conversion coefficients relating intake to organ absorbed dose were developed using internationally accepted models but specifically tailored for intakes of particulate fallout by consideration of literature-based evidence to choose the most appropriate alimentary tract absorption fraction (f1) values. Dose estimates were much higher for the thyroid gland than for red marrow, stomach wall, or colon. The highest thyroid doses to adults were about 7,600 mGy for the people exposed on Rongelap; thyroid doses to adults were much lower, by a factor of 100 or more, for the people exposed on the populated atolls of Kwajalein and Majuro. The estimates of radionuclide intake and

  20. Optoelectronic Particle-Fallout Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlefeld, Curtis; Mogan, Paul A.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Moerk, John S.; Haskell, William D.; Cox, Robert B.; Rose, Kenneth A.

    1995-01-01

    Portable optoelectronic system monitors fallout of small particles (dust and fibers) onto surface at given location during extended time. Data on accumulated fallout downloaded from system to computer for display and analysis. Typical display is plot of signal proportional to amount of accumulated fallout as function of time and read to determine when contamination occurs. In many cases, possible to establish correlations between accumulations of particles and activities in vicinity. Also capable of signaling alarm in event contamination by fallout exceeds specified level. System made very inexpensively and used to monitor accumulation of dust and fibers associated with motion of air in variety of environments. Phenomena monitored indirectly by use of system might include circulation of air in buildings, and human and animal activity. Also serves as auxiliary intrusion monitor (though probably not real-time alarm) in sealed room because motion of intruder inevitably stirs up some dust.

  1. Long-range tropospheric transport of uranium and plutonium weapons fallout from Semipalatinsk nuclear test site to Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Cato Christian; Fifield, L Keith; Oughton, Deborah H; Lind, Ole Christian; Skipperud, Lindis; Bartnicki, Jerzy; Tims, Stephen G; Høibråten, Steinar; Salbu, Brit

    2013-09-01

    A combination of state-of-the-art isotopic fingerprinting techniques and atmospheric transport modelling using real-time historical meteorological data has been used to demonstrate direct tropospheric transport of radioactive debris from specific nuclear detonations at the Semipalatinsk test site in Kazakhstan to Norway via large areas of Europe. A selection of archived air filters collected at ground level at 9 stations in Norway during the most intensive atmospheric nuclear weapon testing periods (1957-1958 and 1961-1962) has been screened for radioactive particles and analysed with respect to the concentrations and atom ratios of plutonium (Pu) and uranium (U) using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Digital autoradiography screening demonstrated the presence of radioactive particles in the filters. Concentrations of (236)U (0.17-23nBqm(-3)) and (239+240)Pu (1.3-782μBqm(-3)) as well as the atom ratios (240)Pu/(239)Pu (0.0517-0.237) and (236)U/(239)Pu (0.0188-0.7) varied widely indicating several different sources. Filter samples from autumn and winter tended to have lower atom ratios than those sampled in spring and summer, and this likely reflects a tropospheric influence in months with little stratospheric fallout. Very high (236)U, (239+240)Pu and gross beta activity concentrations as well as low (240)Pu/(239)Pu (0.0517-0.077), (241)Pu/(239)Pu (0.00025-0.00062) and (236)U/(239)Pu (0.0188-0.046) atom ratios, characteristic of close-in and tropospheric fallout, were observed in filters collected at all stations in Nov 1962, 7-12days after three low-yield detonations at Semipalatinsk (Kazakhstan). Atmospheric transport modelling (NOAA HYSPLIT_4) using real-time meteorological data confirmed that long range transport of radionuclides, and possibly radioactive particles, from Semipalatinsk to Norway during this period was plausible. The present work shows that direct tropospheric transport of fallout from atmospheric nuclear detonations periodically may have

  2. A registry for exposure and population health in the Altai region affected by fallout from the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoikhet, Ya.N.; Kiselev, V.I.; Zaitsev, E.V.; Kolyado, I.B.; Konovalov, B.Yu. [Institute of Regional Medico-Ecological Problems, P.O. Box 4664, Barnaul 656043 (Russian Federation); Bauer, S.; Grosche, B.; Burkart, W. [Federal Office of Radiation Protection, Institute of Radiation Hygiene, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    A registry of the rural population in the Altai region exposed to fallout from nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site (STS) was established more than four decades after the first Soviet nuclear explosion on August 29, 1949. Information about individuals living in an exposed and a control area was collected using all available local sources, such as kolkhoz documentation, school registries, medical treatment records and interviews with residents. As a result, a database comprising an exposed group of 39 179 individuals from 53 Altai region villages, 6769 external and 3303 internal controls was compiled. For several settlements, effective dose estimates reached the level of 1.5 Sv, while the average effective dose estimate in the exposed group was 340 mSv. Dosimetric data, vital status information and health records gathered at rayon and village medical facilities are held in the registry. Cause-of-death information for deceased residents is obtained from death registration forms archived at the Altai region vital statistics office. At present, a follow-up of approximately 40% of the population exposed in 1949 has been done. More will be added by searching for migrants to the larger towns of the Altai region, i.e. Barnaul, Rubtsovsk and Biisk. In order to assess the influence of radiation exposure, analytical studies with a case-control design for stomach and lung cancer are currently being prepared. The number of known cases is sufficient to detect an odds ratio of 1.5 at the 95% confidence level. Epidemiological studies in populations affected by fallout from STS may be equally important to the atomic bomb survivors' study for the direct quantification of radiation effects. The range of exposure rates experienced will extend the acute high-dose-rate findings from Hiroshima/Nagasaki towards acute and protracted lower exposures, which are more relevant for radiation protection issues. (orig.)

  3. Radiation doses and cancer risks in the Marshall Islands associated with exposure to radioactive fallout from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests: summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André; Land, Charles E; Beck, Harold L

    2010-08-01

    for internal doses to the thyroid gland, external exposure was generally the major contributor to organ doses, particularly for red bone marrow and stomach wall. Internal doses to the stomach wall and red bone marrow were similar in magnitude, about 1 mGy to 7 mGy for permanent residents of the southern and mid-latitude atolls. However, adult residents of Utrik and Rongelap Island, which are part of the northern atolls, received much higher internal doses because of intakes of short-lived radionuclides leading to doses from 20 mGy to more than 500 mGy to red bone marrow and stomach wall. In general, internal doses to the colon wall were four to ten times greater than those to the red bone marrow and internal doses to the thyroid gland were 20 to 30 times greater than to the red bone marrow. Adult internal thyroid doses for the Utrik community and for the Rongelap Island community were about 760 mGy and 7,600 mGy, respectively. The highest doses were to the thyroid glands of young children exposed on Rongelap at the time of the Castle Bravo test of 1 March 1954 and were about three times higher than for adults. Internal doses from chronic intakes, related to residual activities of long-lived radionuclides in the environment, were, in general, low in comparison with acute exposure resulting from the intakes of radionuclides immediately or soon after the deposition of fallout. The annual doses and the population sizes at each atoll in each year were used to develop estimates of cancer risks for the permanent residents of all atolls that were inhabited during the testing period as well as for the Marshallese population groups that were relocated prior to the testing or after it had begun. About 170 excess cancers (radiation-related cases) are projected to occur among more than 25,000 Marshallese, half of whom were born before 1948. All but about 65 of those cancers are estimated to have already been expressed. The 170 excess cancers are in comparison to about 10

  4. A Comparison of Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) Software Dose-Rate Contour Plots to a Sample of Local Fallout Data From Test Detonations in the Continental United States, 1945 - 1962

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chancellor, Richard W

    2005-01-01

    A comparison of Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) software dose-rate contour plots to a sample of local nuclear fallout data from test detonations in the continental United States, 1945 - 1962, is performed...

  5. Derivation of Effective Resuspension Factors in Scenarios for Inhalation Exposure Involving Resuspension of Previously Deposited Fallout by Nuclear Detonations at Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-30

    where the exposure rate was much higher. Data at Operation TEAPOT. Particle-size distributions of activity in fallout from tower Shots TESLA , TURK...fractions of fallout samples from tower shots in Operation UPSHOT-KNOTHOLE at NTS..............................................106 4-4 Percentages of...total activities in smallest size fractions of fallout samples from tower shots in Operation TEAPOT at NTS

  6. Radiological survey and evaluation of the fallout area from the Trinity test: Chupadera Mesa and White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, W.R.; Rodgers, J.C.

    1985-06-01

    Current radiological conditions were evaluated for the site of the first nuclear weapons test, the Trinity test, and the associated fallout zone. The test, located on White Sands Missile Range, was conducted as part of the research with nuclear materials for the World War II Manhattan Engineer District atomic bomb project. Some residual radioactivity attributable to the test was found in the soils of Ground Zero on White Sands Missile Range and the areas that received fallout from the test. The study considered relevant information including historical records, environmental data extending back to the 1940s, and new data acquired by field sampling and measurements. Potential exposures to radiation were evaluated for current land uses. Maximum estimated doses on Chupadera Mesa and other uncontrolled areas are less than 3% of the DOE Radiation Protection Standards (RPSs). Radiation exposures during visits to the US Army-controlled Ground Zero area are less than 1 mrem per annual visit or less than 0.2% of the RPS for a member of the public. Detailed data and interpretations are provided in appendixes. 14 figs., 45 tabs.

  7. When the dust settles: stable xenon isotope constraints on the formation of nuclear fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassata, W S; Prussin, S G; Knight, K B; Hutcheon, I D; Isselhardt, B H; Renne, P R

    2014-11-01

    Nuclear weapons represent one of the most immediate threats of mass destruction. In the event that a procured or developed nuclear weapon is detonated in a populated metropolitan area, timely and accurate nuclear forensic analysis and fallout modeling would be needed to support attribution efforts and hazard assessments. Here we demonstrate that fissiogenic xenon isotopes retained in radioactive fallout generated by a nuclear explosion provide unique constraints on (1) the timescale of fallout formation, (2) chemical fractionation that occurs when fission products and nuclear fuel are incorporated into fallout, and (3) the speciation of fission products in the fireball. Our data suggest that, in near surface nuclear tests, the presence of a significant quantity of metal in a device assembly, combined with a short time allowed for mixing with the ambient atmosphere (seconds), may prevent complete oxidation of fission products prior to their incorporation into fallout. Xenon isotopes thus provide a window into the chemical composition of the fireball in the seconds that follow a nuclear explosion, thereby improving our understanding of the physical and thermo-chemical conditions under which fallout forms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The risk of leukaemia in young children from exposure to tritium and carbon-14 in the discharges of German nuclear power stations and in the fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, Richard [The University of Manchester, Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, Institute of Population Health, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-15

    Towards the end of 2007, the results were published from a case-control study (the ''KiKK Study'') of cancer in young children, diagnosed <5 years of age during 1980-2003 while resident near nuclear power stations in western Germany. The study found a tendency for cases of leukaemia to live closer to the nearest nuclear power station than their matched controls, producing an odds ratio that was raised to a statistically significant extent for residence within 5 km of a nuclear power station. The findings of the study received much publicity, but a detailed radiological risk assessment demonstrated that the radiation doses received by young children from discharges of radioactive material from the nuclear reactors were much lower than those received from natural background radiation and far too small to be responsible for the statistical association reported in the KiKK Study. This has led to speculation that conventional radiological risk assessments have grossly underestimated the risk of leukaemia in young children posed by exposure to man-made radionuclides, and particular attention has been drawn to the possible role of tritium and carbon-14 discharges in this supposedly severe underestimation of risk. Both {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C are generated naturally in the upper atmosphere, and substantial increases in these radionuclides in the environment occurred as a result of their production by atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the late 1950s and early 1960s. If the leukaemogenic effect of these radionuclides has been seriously underestimated to the degree necessary to explain the KiKK Study findings, then a pronounced increase in the worldwide incidence of leukaemia among young children should have followed the notably elevated exposure to {sup 3}H and {sup 14}C from nuclear weapons testing fallout. To investigate this hypothesis, the time series of incidence rates of leukaemia among young children <5 years of age at diagnosis has been

  9. The risk of leukaemia in young children from exposure to tritium and carbon-14 in the discharges of German nuclear power stations and in the fallout from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeford, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Towards the end of 2007, the results were published from a case-control study (the "KiKK Study") of cancer in young children, diagnosed nuclear power stations in western Germany. The study found a tendency for cases of leukaemia to live closer to the nearest nuclear power station than their matched controls, producing an odds ratio that was raised to a statistically significant extent for residence within 5 km of a nuclear power station. The findings of the study received much publicity, but a detailed radiological risk assessment demonstrated that the radiation doses received by young children from discharges of radioactive material from the nuclear reactors were much lower than those received from natural background radiation and far too small to be responsible for the statistical association reported in the KiKK Study. This has led to speculation that conventional radiological risk assessments have grossly underestimated the risk of leukaemia in young children posed by exposure to man-made radionuclides, and particular attention has been drawn to the possible role of tritium and carbon-14 discharges in this supposedly severe underestimation of risk. Both (3)H and (14)C are generated naturally in the upper atmosphere, and substantial increases in these radionuclides in the environment occurred as a result of their production by atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the late 1950s and early 1960s. If the leukaemogenic effect of these radionuclides has been seriously underestimated to the degree necessary to explain the KiKK Study findings, then a pronounced increase in the worldwide incidence of leukaemia among young children should have followed the notably elevated exposure to (3)H and (14)C from nuclear weapons testing fallout. To investigate this hypothesis, the time series of incidence rates of leukaemia among young children nuclear weapons testing, or that incidence rates are related to level of exposure to fallout, is apparent from these

  10. Elevated in vivo strontium-90 from nuclear weapons test fallout among cancer decedents: a case-control study of deciduous teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Joseph J; Sherman, Janette D

    2011-01-01

    Risks to health from large-scale atmospheric nuclear weapons testing are still relatively unknown. A sample of 85,000 deciduous teeth collected from Americans born during the bomb-testing years assessed risk by in vivo measurement of residual strontium-90 (Sr-90) concentrations, using liquid scintillation spectrometry. The authors' analysis included 97 deciduous teeth from persons born between 1959 and 1961 who were diagrosed with cancer, and 194 teeth of matched controls. Average Sr-90 in teeth of persons who died of cancer was significantly greater than for controls (OR = 2.22; p < 0.04). This discovery suggests that many thousands have died or will die of cancer due to exposure to fallout, far more than previously believed.

  11. Compilation of Local Fallout Data from Test Detonations 1945-1962 Extracted from DASA 1251. Volume II-Oceanic U.S. Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    o• .• .,a• 4 Shot i \\ Brava ., • Romeo plKER*" €R _• • ;t’tuto Miles Union Yankee now fIT LFA ZEBRA WOVIE • . KE...mr/:ir. In contrast to the othcr bar ,yv shots, contamination was also pxbriencod on the .to].]’s southwontcrn i slands. The off-site fallout pattern

  12. Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. D. Richins; T. K. Larson

    2006-08-01

    A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for “stick built” structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tiedowns. This project was

  13. Fallout Radioactivity and Epiphytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. T. Odum; George Ann Briscoe; C. B. Briscoe

    1970-01-01

    After relatively high levels of fallout retention were dicovered in the epiphytic mossy forest of the Luquillo Mountains durin 1962, a survey of the distribution of radioactivity in the rain forest system was made with beta counting of 1500 samples supplemented with gamma spectra. High levels, up to 4138 counts per minute per gram, were found mainly in or on green...

  14. Behavior and food consumption pattern of the population exposed in 1949-1962 to fallout from Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Schonfeld, Sara; Akimzhanov, Kuat; Aldyngurov, Daulet; Land, Charles E; Luckyanov, Nickolas; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Potischman, Nancy; Schwerin, Michael J; Semenova, Yulia; Tokaeva, Alma; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Bouville, André; Simon, Steven L

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between radiation exposure from nuclear weapons testing fallout and thyroid disease in a group of 2,994 subjects has been the subject of study by the US National Cancer Institute. In that study, radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated for residents of villages in Kazakhstan possibly exposed to deposition of radioactive fallout from nuclear testing conducted by the Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site in Kazakhstan between 1949 and 1962. The study subjects included individuals of both Kazakh and Russian origin who were exposed during childhood and adolescence. An initial dose reconstruction used for the risk analysis of Land et al. (Radiat Res 169:373-383, 2008) was based on individual information collected from basic questionnaires administered to the study population in 1998. However, because data on several key questions for accurately estimating doses were not obtained from the 1998 questionnaires, it was decided to conduct a second data collection campaign in 2007. Due to the many years elapsed since exposure, a well-developed strategy was necessary to encourage accurate memory recall. In our recent study, a focus group interview data collection methodology was used to collect historical behavioral and food consumption data. The data collection in 2007 involved interviews conducted within four-eight-person focus groups (three groups of women and one group of men) in each of four exposed villages where thyroid disease screening was conducted in 1998. Population-based data on relevant childhood behaviors including time spent in- and outdoors and consumption rates of milk and other dairy products were collected from women's groups. The data were collected for five age groups of children and adolescents ranging from less than 1 year of age to 21 years of age. Dairy products considered included fresh milk and other products from cows, goats, mares, and sheep. Men's focus group interviews pertained to construction materials of

  15. Linus Pauling and the scientific debate over fallout hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, J Christopher

    2002-12-01

    From 1954 to 1963, numerous scientists engaged in a public debate over the possible hazards from radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Nobel laureate Linus Pauling, a California Institute of Technology chemist, was one of the most prominent. His scientific papers relating to the fallout debate reveal many of the scientific, social and political issues involved in the controversy. Although the public controversy ended after the signing of the 1963 Limited Test Ban Treaty, many of the scientific questions about the possible hazards of low-level radiation remain under debate within the scientific community. Moreover, the fallout debate was a prototype of current controversies over environmental and public-health hazards.

  16. The potential use of Chernobyl fallout data to test and evaluate the predictions of environmental radiological assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richmond, C.R.; Hoffman, F.O.; Blaylock, B.G.; Eckerman, K.F.; Lesslie, P.A.; Miller, C.W.; Ng, Y.C.; Till, J.E.

    1988-06-01

    The objectives of the Model Validation Committee were to collaborate with US and foreign scientists to collect, manage, and evaluate data for identifying critical research issues and data needs to support an integrated assessment of the Chernobyl nuclear accident; test environmental transport, human dosimetric, and health effects models against measured data to determine their efficacy in guiding decisions on protective actions and in estimating exposures to populations and individuals following a nuclear accident; and apply Chernobyl data to quantifications of key processes governing the environmental transport, fate and effects of radionuclides and other trace substances. 55 refs.

  17. Carborne fallout mapping - STUK/HUT team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honkamaa, T.; Tiilikainen, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Aarnio, P.; Nikkinen, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    During the summer 1995 altogether 8,625 spectrometric and 3,108 dose-rate measurements were performed in Padasjoki Auttoinen village using carborne measuring devices. As a result {sup 137}Cs fallout and dose-rate maps were produced. The highest measured values in the test area II were 160 kBq m{sup -2} for fallout and 0.22 {mu}Sv h{sup -1} for dose-rate. One hot spot was found beside the test area (dose rate 0.31 {mu}Sv h{sup -1}). On the cultivated areas the measured count rates in {sup 137}Cs-window are three to four times lower than in the forest areas in average, indicating an altered depth profile of caesium. (au).

  18. Distribution and Ratios of 137Cs and K in Control and K-treated Coconut Trees at Bikini Island where Nuclear Test Fallout Occurred: Effects and Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Brown, P H; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2008-05-19

    Coconut trees growing on atolls of the Bikini Islands are on the margin of K deficiency because the concentration of exchangeable K in coral soil is very low ranging from only 20 to 80 mg kg{sup -1}. When provided with additional K, coconut trees absorb large quantities of K and this uptake of K significantly alters the patterns of distribution of {sup 137}Cs within the plant. Following a single K fertilization event, mean total K in trunks of K-treated trees is 5.6 times greater than in trunks of control trees. In contrast, {sup 137}Cs concentration in trunks of K-treated and control trees is statistically the same while {sup 137}Cs is significantly lower in edible fruits of K treated trees. Within one year after fertilization (one rainy season), K concentration in soil is back to naturally, low concentrations, however, the tissue concentrations of K in treated trees stays very high internally in the trees for years while {sup 137}Cs concentration in treated trees remains very low in all tree compartments except for the trunk. Potassium fertilization did not change soil Cs availability. Mass balance calculations suggest that the fertilization event increased above ground plant K content by at least a factor of 5 or 2.2 kg. Potassium concentrations and content were higher in all organs of K fertilized trees with the greatest increases seen in organs that receive a portion of tissue K through xylem transport (trunk, fronds and fruit husks) and lowest in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). {sup 137}Cesium concentrations and contents were dramatically lower in all organs of K treated trees with greatest proportional reductions observed in organs supplied predominantly with K via the phloem (palm heart, spathe, coco meat and fluid). All trees remobilize both K and {sup 137}Cs from fronds as they proceed toward senescence. In control trees the reduction in concentration of K and {sup 137}Cs in fronds as they age is logarithmic but K remobilization is linear in K-treated trees where K concentration is high. As a result of K treatment the {sup 137}Cs concentration in K-treated fronds is extremely low and constant with frond age. Fronds of K treated trees contain a greater amount of K than control tree fronds. As they fall to the ground and decay they provide a small continuing pool of K that is about 3% of the natural K in soil under the tree canopy. Results of K and {sup 137}Cs concentration and distribution in control and K-treated coconut trees suggest that the application of K reduces {sup 137}Cs uptake both in the short term immediately following K fertilization and in the long term, after soil K levels have returned to normal but while plant K stores remain high. These results suggests that high internal K concentration and not high soil K is primarily responsible for long-term reduction of {sup 137}Cs in edible fruits, and plays a significant role in limiting further uptake of {sup 137}Cs by roots, and affects allocation of {sup 137}Cs to edible fruits for years. Coconut trees are capable of luxury K accumulation when provided with excess K and in this example the additional K can effectively provide the K requirements of the plant for in excess of 10 years. The reduction of {sup 137}Cs uptake lasts for at least 10 y after K is last applied and greatly reduces the estimated radiation dose to people consuming local tree foods. Effectiveness and duration of K treatment provides important assurances that reduction in {sup 137}Cs is long term and the radiation dose from consuming local plant foods will remain low.

  19. Chernobyl fallout on Alpine glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambach, W; Rehwald, W; Blumthaler, M; Eisner, H; Brunner, P

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of the gross beta activity of snow samples from four Alpine glaciers contaminated by radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear accident and a gamma-spectrum analysis of selected samples are reported. The results are discussed with respect to possible risks to the population from using meltwater from these glaciers as drinking water.

  20. Evidence for Bismuth-207 in Global Fallout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Asker; Dahlgaard, Henning; Holm, Elis

    1984-01-01

    Samples of lichen, moss, soil and air collected since 1961 in Greenland, Svalbard, Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Sweden and Denmark have been remeasured for γ-emitting radionuclides by Ge(Li) spectroscopy. The samples have shown the presence of 207Bi (physical half-life 38 years), a nuclide which h...... not been reported earlier in world-wide fallout. The concentrations of 207Bi have been compared with those of 60Co, 125Sb, and 137Cs. From this comparison the production of 207Bi is estimated at 1 PBq. It is assumed that the 207Bi is created in thermonuclear tested explosions in general...

  1. Chromosome aberrations in Japanese fishermen exposed to fallout radiation 420-1200 km distant from the nuclear explosion test site at Bikini Atoll: report 60 years after the incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Ohtaki, Megu; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2016-08-01

    During the period from March to May, 1954, the USA conducted six nuclear weapon tests at the "Bravo" detonation sites at the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, Marshall Islands. At that time, the crew of tuna fishing boats and cargo ships that were operating approximately 150-1200 km away from the test sites were exposed to radioactive fallout. The crew of the fishing boats and those on cargo ships except the "5th Fukuryu-maru" did not undergo any health examinations at the time of the incident. In the present study, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined in detail by the G-banding method in 17 crew members from 8 fishing boats and 2 from one cargo ship, 60 years after the tests. None of the subjects examined had suffered from cancer. The percentages of both stable-type aberrations such as translocation, inversion and deletion, and unstable-type aberrations such as dicentric and centric ring in the study group were significantly higher (1.4- and 2.3-fold, respectively) than those in nine age-matched controls. In the exposed and control groups, the percentages of stable-type aberrations were 3.35 % and 2.45 %, respectively, and the numbers of dicentric and centric ring chromosomes per 100 cells were 0.35 and 0.15, respectively. Small clones were observed in three members of the exposed group. These results suggest that the crews were exposed to slightly higher levels of fallout than had hitherto been assumed.

  2. Chromosome aberrations in Japanese fishermen exposed to fallout radiation 420-1200 km distant from the nuclear explosion test site at Bikini Atoll: report 60 years after the incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kimio [Hiroshima University, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima City, Hiroshima (Japan); Institute for Environmental Sciences, Kakimita, Aomori (Japan); Ohtaki, Megu; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima City, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    During the period from March to May, 1954, the USA conducted six nuclear weapon tests at the ''Bravo'' detonation sites at the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, Marshall Islands. At that time, the crew of tuna fishing boats and cargo ships that were operating approximately 150-1200 km away from the test sites were exposed to radioactive fallout. The crew of the fishing boats and those on cargo ships except the ''5th Fukuryu-maru'' did not undergo any health examinations at the time of the incident. In the present study, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined in detail by the G-banding method in 17 crew members from 8 fishing boats and 2 from one cargo ship, 60 years after the tests. None of the subjects examined had suffered from cancer. The percentages of both stable-type aberrations such as translocation, inversion and deletion, and unstable-type aberrations such as dicentric and centric ring in the study group were significantly higher (1.4- and 2.3-fold, respectively) than those in nine age-matched controls. In the exposed and control groups, the percentages of stable-type aberrations were 3.35 % and 2.45 %, respectively, and the numbers of dicentric and centric ring chromosomes per 100 cells were 0.35 and 0.15, respectively. Small clones were observed in three members of the exposed group. These results suggest that the crews were exposed to slightly higher levels of fallout than had hitherto been assumed. (orig.)

  3. Toxoplasma antibodies and retinochoroiditis in the Marshall Islands and their association with exposure to radioactive fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.H.; Kindermann, W.R.; Walls, K.W.; Heotis, P.M.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly universal serologic evidence of Toxoplasma gondii infection was found to have occurred by adulthood in 517 Marshallese tested in 1981-1982. The prevalence and incidence of retinal lesions compatible with toxoplasmosis were 3.9% and 273 cases/year/100,000 seropositive persons, respectively, thus indicating a significant public health problem. Seronegativity was significantly more common in a subgroup of Marshallese that had received 110-190 rads of total-body gamma radiation as a consequence of accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. Despite this finding there was no evidence of an increase in clinically significant lesions in exposed persons.

  4. Nuclear Fallout Decision Tool for First Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archibald, E. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, B. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-11

    If terrorists detonated an improvised nuclear device (IND) in an urban area, thousands of people would die from the blast, and many more would become sick or die from exposure to fallout radiation. Proper sheltering and evacuation can protect people from fallout and save lives. This project provides guidance to first responders as to when to evacuate and what route to take to protect themselves against fallout radiation.

  5. A Comparison in the Accuracy of Mapping Nuclear Fallout Patterns Using HPAC, HYSPLIT, DELFIC FPT and an AFIT FORTRAN95 Fallout Deposition ode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    of Fallout from Nuclear Testing using the NOAA- HYSPLIT Meteorological Model,” Health Physics, 99: 252-269 (August 2010). 26. Norment, Hillyer G...ADA 088 367). 121 27. Norment, Hillyer G. DELFIC: Department of Defense Fallout Prediction System. Volume 1I - User’s Guide...Archive Distribution System.” http://nomad3.ncep.noaa.gov/. October 2005. 29. Norment, Hillyer G. Validation and Refinement of the DELFIC Cloud

  6. Particle fallout/activity sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ihlefeld M. (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Moerk, John S. (Inventor); Rose, Kenneth A., III (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A particle fallout/activity sensor measures relative amounts of dust or other particles which collect on a mirror in an area to be monitored. The sensor includes a sensor module and a data acquisition module, both of which can be operated independently of one another or in combination with one another. The sensor module includes a housing containing the mirror, an LED assembly for illuminating the mirror and an optical detector assembly for detecting light scattered off of the mirror by dust or other particles collected thereon. A microprocessor controls operation of the sensor module's components and displays results of a measurement on an LCD display mounted on the housing. A push button switch is also mounted on the housing which permits manual initiation of a measurement. The housing is constructed of light absorbing material, such as black delrin, which minimizes detection of light by the optical detector assembly other than that scattered by dust or particles on the mirror. The data acquisition module can be connected to the sensor module and includes its own microprocessor, a timekeeper and other digital circuitry for causing the sensor module to make a measurement periodically and send the measurement data to the data acquisition module for display and storage in memory for later retrieval and transfer to a separate computer. The time tagged measurement data can also be used to determine the relative level of activity in the monitored area since this level is directly related to the amount of dust or particle fallout in the area.

  7. Fukushima-derived radiocesium fallout in Hawaiian soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Trista; Dulai, Henrietta

    2017-12-01

    Several reactors at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant suffered damage on March 11, 2011, resulting in the release of radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs), as well as other radionuclides, into the atmosphere. A week later, these isotopes were detected in aerosols over the state of Hawai'i and in milk samples analyzed on the island of Hawai'i. This study estimated the magnitude of cesium deposition in soil, collected in 2015-2016, resulting from atmospheric fallout. It also examined the patterns of cesium wet deposition with precipitation observed on O'ahu and the island of Hawai'i following the disaster. Fukushima-derived fallout was differentiated from historic nuclear weapons testing fallout by the presence of 134Cs and the assumption that the 134Cs to 137Cs ratio was 1:1. Detectable, Fukushima-derived 134Cs inventories ranged from 30 to 630 Bq m-2 and 137Cs inventories ranged from 20 to 2200 Bq m-2. Fukushima-derived cesium inventories in soils were related to precipitation gradients, particularly in areas where rainfall exceeded 200 mm between March 19 and April 4, 2011. This research confirmed and quantified the presence of Fukushima-derived fallout in the state of Hawai'i in amounts higher than predicted by models and observed in the United States mainland, however the activities detected were an order of magnitude lower than fallout associated with historic sources such as the nuclear weapons testing in the Pacific. In addition, this study showed that areas of highest cesium deposition do not overlap with densely populated or agriculturally used areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A year-by-year record of 236-U/238-U in coral as a step towards establishing 236-U from nuclear weapons testing fall-out as oceanic tracer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Stephan; Steier, Peter [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna (Austria); Carilli, Jessica [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights (Australia)

    2012-07-01

    Since uranium is known to behave conservatively in ocean waters, 236-U has great potential in application as oceanic tracer. 236-U (t1/2=23.4 Ma) was introduced into the oceans by atmospheric nuclear weapon testing with amount estimates ranging from 700 kg to 1500 kg. Thus a resulting initial average 236-U/238-U ratio of at least 5e-9 is expected for an oceanic mixed layer depth of 100 m. This ratio is already higher than the natural pre-nuclear background, which is expected to be at 10e-14 levels. Even the elevated ratios of global stratospheric fall-out are beyond the capabilities of ICPMS and TIMS methods. However, the exceptional sensitivity and ultra-low background for 236-U of the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator's Accelerator Mass Spectrometry system allows us to measure down to 10-13 detection limits. We present a year-by-year record of 236-U/238-U for a Caribbean coral core covering years 1944 to 2006, thus allowing to us put constraints on the oceanic input of 236-U by atmospheric testing. Moreover modeling of the results also demonstrates the capabilities of 236-U as oceanic tracer.

  9. Review of current nuclear fallout codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxier, Jerrad P; Auxier, John D; Hall, Howard L

    2017-05-01

    The importance of developing a robust nuclear forensics program to combat the illicit use of nuclear material that may be used as an improvised nuclear device is widely accepted. In order to decrease the threat to public safety and improve governmental response, government agencies have developed fallout-analysis codes to predict the fallout particle size, dose, and dispersion and dispersion following a detonation. This paper will review the different codes that have been developed for predicting fallout from both chemical and nuclear weapons. This will decrease the response time required for the government to respond to the event. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Radioactive fallout and neural tube defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejat Akar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Possible link between radioactivity and the occurrence of neural tube defects is a long lasting debate since the Chernobyl nuclear fallout in 1986. A recent report on the incidence of neural defects in the west coast of USA, following Fukushima disaster, brought another evidence for effect of radioactive fallout on the occurrence of NTD’s. Here a literature review was performed focusing on this special subject.

  11. Building Protection Against External Ionizing Fallout Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Homann, Steven G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    A nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill tens to hundreds of thousands of people through exposure to fallout (external gamma) radiation. Existing buildings can protect their occupants (reducing external radiation exposures) by placing material and distance between fallout particles and indoor individuals. This protection is not well captured in current fallout risk assessment models and so the US Department of Defense is implementing the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology to improve the ability of the Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) model to account for building protection. This report supports the HPAC improvement effort by identifying a set of building attributes (next page) that, when collectively specified, are sufficient to calculate reasonably accurate, i.e., within a factor of 2, fallout shelter quality estimates for many individual buildings. The set of building attributes were determined by first identifying the key physics controlling building protection from fallout radiation and then assessing which building attributes are relevant to the identified physics. This approach was evaluated by developing a screening model (PFscreen) based on the identified physics and comparing the screening model results against the set of existing independent experimental, theoretical, and modeled building protection estimates. In the interests of transparency, we have developed a benchmark dataset containing (a) most of the relevant primary experimental data published by prior generations of fallout protection scientists as well as (b) the screening model results.

  12. Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds for WCTE Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William D. Richins; Thomas K. Larson; Jeffrey M. Lacy; Ryan G. Kobbe

    2006-08-01

    A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for "stick built" structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tie-downs. This project was

  13. Modeling Fallout of Anthropogenic I-129

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englund, Edvard; Aldahan, Als; Possnert, Göran

    2008-01-01

    Despite the relatively well-recognized emission rates of the anthropogenic 1291, there is little knowledge about the temporal fallout patterns and magnitude of fluxes since the start of the atomic era at the early 1940s. We here present measurements of annual 1291 concentrations in sediment archi...

  14. Fallout from Chernobyl [Letters to the editor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, E.D. (Addenbrooke' s Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Abelin, T.; Egger, M. (Bern Univ. (Switzerland)) (and others)

    1994-11-12

    Six brief letters discuss the possible health effects of fallout from the Chernobyl reactor accident including an increase in thyroid cancer in children in Belarus, chromosomal abnormalities in workers from Latvia who cleared up the Chernobyl accident site, an increased trisomy 21 in Berlin but a lack of increased childhood leukaemia incidence in Greece. (UK).

  15. Longitudinal Test of Self-Determination Theory's Motivation Mediation Model in a Naturally Occurring Classroom Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyungshim; Kim, Eun Joo; Reeve, Johnmarshall

    2012-01-01

    This study provides the first longitudinally designed, classroom-based empirical test of self-determination theory's motivation mediation model. Measures of perceived autonomy support, motivation (autonomy need satisfaction), engagement, and achievement were collected from 500 (257 females, 243 males) 8th-grade students in Korea in a 3-wave…

  16. FALLOUT RADIATION: EFFECTS ON THE SKIN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R. A.; Cronkite, E. P.; Bond, V. P.

    1963-02-06

    Until recently it has been generally assumed that injury to the skin from ionizing radiation was not a serious hazard associated with the detonation of nuclear dcvices. However, in 1954 the importance of this hazard became apparent when widespread lesions of the skin developed in a large group of people accidentally exposed to fallout radiation in the Marshall Islands following the experimental detonation of a large nuclear device. The accident in the Marshall Islands affords an example of large numbers of lesions of the skin in human beings from the fallout. Studies have been documented and will be referred to frequently in this chapter. The possibility of such accidents must be considered seriously in view of the increasingly widespread use of radioisotopes.

  17. Tumour Lysis Syndrome and Partial Remission Occurring After Administration of a Test Dose of Obinutuzumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Jaffer Abdalkhalig Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL is one of the most common haematological malignancies worldwide, with an increasing prevalence in the elderly population. Obinutuzumab is a type II anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody which showed superiority over rituximab in combination chemotherapy with chlorambucil for the treatment of CLL in the CLL11 trial (NCT01010061 and is becoming part of standard first line treatment for CLL in the elderly based on its potent efficacy and benign safety profile. We report the case of a chemotherapy naive patient who develop tumour lysis syndrome despite appropriate prophylaxis, and had partial remission of her disease after receiving only the initial test dose of obinutuzumab.

  18. Time-dependent ultrasound echo changes occur in tendon during viscoelastic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenwald-Kuehl, Sarah; Kobayashi, Hirohito; Lakes, Roderic; Vanderby, Ray

    2012-11-01

    The viscoelastic behavior of tendons has been extensively studied in vitro. A noninvasive method by which to acquire mechanical data would be highly beneficial, as it could lead to the collection of viscoelastic data in vivo. Our lab has previously presented acoustoelasticity as an alternative ultrasound-based method of measuring tendon stress and strain by reporting a relationship between ultrasonic echo intensity (B mode ultrasound image brightness) and mechanical behavior of tendon under pseudoelastic in vitro conditions [Duenwald, S., Kobayashi, H., Frisch, K., Lakes, R., and Vanderby Jr, R., 2011, "Ultrasound Echo is Related to Stress and Strain in Tendon," J. Biomech., 44(3), pp. 424-429]. Viscoelastic properties of the tendons were not examined in that study, so the presence of time-dependent echo intensity changes has not been verified. In this study, porcine flexor tendons were subjected to relaxation and cyclic testing while ultrasonic echo response was recorded. We report that time- and strain history-dependent mechanical properties during viscoelastic testing are manifested in ultrasonic echo intensity changes. We also report that the patterns of the echo intensity changes do not directly mimic the patterns of viscoelastic load changes, but the intensity changed in a repeatable (and therefore predictable) fashion. Although mechanisms need further elucidation, viscoelastic behavior can be anticipated from echo intensity changes. This phenomenon could potentially lead to a more extensive characterization of in vivo tissue behavior.

  19. A simple model to estimate deposition based on a statistical reassessment of global fallout data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palsson, S.E.; Howard, B.J.; Bergan, T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons began in 1945 and largely ceased in 1963. Monitoring of the resulting global fallout was carried out globally by the Environmental Measurements Laboratory and the UK Atomic Energy Research Establishment as well as at national level by some countries...

  20. Distribution, Characteristics, and Biotic Availability of Fallout, Operation Plumbbob

    Science.gov (United States)

    1957-10-01

    20 Days ................................ 133 6. 8 Persistence of Fallout Debris on Great Basin fit’. Sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata) from Selected...11 Areas in the Priscilla Fallout Pattern .......... ............. 136 6.9 Persistence of Fallout Debris on Great Basin Sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata...Unclassified. 5. Hayden, P. and H. French: Private Communication, 1961. 6. N. R. French, Ray McBride, and Jack Detmer; " Fertility and Population Density of

  1. Cesium-137 global fallout into the Ob river basin and its influence on the Kara sea contamination - Weapons fallout cesium-137 in the Ob' catchment landscapes and its influence on radioactive contamination of the Kara sea: Western Siberia, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenkov, Ivan N.; Miroshnikov, Alexey Yu. [The Organization of Russian Academy of Sciences Institute of geology of ore deposits, petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    There are several high level {sup 137}Cs anomaly zones detected in the deposits of the SW part of the Kara Sea. These anomaly zones were formed in the Ob' and the Enisey river estuaries due to the geochemical 'river-sea' boarder barrier. Level of radiocaesium specific activity reaches 120 Bq*kg{sup -1} in the deposits from these zones. Radiochemical enterprises occur in the both river basins. Their activity results in caesium-137 transfer into the river net. Vast area is contaminated by {sup 137}Cs after nuclear weapons in Semipalatinsk test-site and Kyshtym disaster in the Ob' river basin. Moreover, caesium comes to the Ob' and the Enisey river basins with global atmospheric fallout. The inflow of global fallout caesium-137 to the catchments is 660 kCi (320 kCi including radioactive decay) that is 4 times higher than {sup 137}Cs emission due to Fukushima disaster. Therefore, these river basins as any other huge catchment are an important sources of radioactive contamination of the Arctic Ocean. The aim of our research is to study behavior of global fallout caesium-137 in the landscapes of the Ob and the Enisey river basins. We studied caesium-137 behavior on the example of first order catchments in taiga, wetland, forest-steppe, steppe, and semi-arid landscapes. Geographic information system (GIS) was made. The tenth-order catchments (n=154, Horton coding system) shape 20-groups due to topsoil properties controlling cesium mobility. Eleven first-order basins, characterized 7 groups of tenth order catchments, were studied. And 700 bulk-core soil samples were collected in 2011-2013. Cesium runoff is calculated for 3 first-order river basins in taiga and forest-steppe landscapes. Storage of global fallout caesium-137 declines from undisturbing taiga first-order river basin (90% of cumulative fallout including radioactive decay)> arable steppe and fores-steppe (70 - 75%)> undisturbing wetland (60%). Caesium-137 transfer is high in arable lands

  2. The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kearny, C.H.

    2001-11-20

    The KFM is a homemade fallout meter that can be made using only materials, tools, and skills found in millions of American homes. It is an accurate and dependable electroscope-capacitor. The KFM, in conjunction with its attached table and a watch, is designed for use as a rate meter. Its attached table relates observed differences in the separations of its two leaves (before and after exposures at the listed time intervals) to the dose rates during exposures of these time intervals. In this manner dose rates from 30 mR/hr up to 43 R/hr can be determined with an accuracy of {+-}25%. A KFM can be charged with any one of the three expedient electrostatic charging devices described. Due to the use of anhydrite (made by heating gypsum from wallboard) inside a KFM and the expedient ''dry-bucket'' in which it can be charged when the air is very humid, this instrument always can be charged and used to obtain accurate measurements of gamma radiation no matter how high the relative humidity. The heart of this report is the step-by-step illustrated instructions for making and using a KFM. These instructions have been improved after each successive field test. The majority of the untrained test families, adequately motivated by cash bonuses offered for success and guided only by these written instructions, have succeeded in making and using a KFM. NOTE: ''The KFM, A Homemade Yet Accurate and Dependable Fallout Meter'', was published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory report in1979. Some of the materials originally suggested for suspending the leaves of the Kearny Fallout Meter (KFM) are no longer available. Because of changes in the manufacturing process, other materials (e.g., sewing thread, unwaxed dental floss) may not have the insulating capability to work properly. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has not tested any of the suggestions provided in the preface of the report, but they have been used by other groups. When using these

  3. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  4. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidently exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical Team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Noteworthy has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  5. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  6. New technologies to improve the monitoring of tephra fallouts from Etna: the collaborative system Tefranet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andronico, Daniele; Ferrari, Ferruccio; Merenda, Riccardo; Reitano, Danilo; Scollo, Simona; Cristaldi, Antonio; Lodato, Luigi; Mangiagli, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    During early December 2015, Mt. Etna (Italy) produced 4 paroxysmal events from the Voragine crater in just 3 days. This activity caused ash and lapilli fallout over a wide area extending from the volcanic slopes up to ~100 km from the volcano, affecting numerous villages and the cities of Messina and Reggio Calabria. Monitoring this kind of volcanic activity in order to know the dispersal of tephra fallout in quasi-real time can prove challenging, especially when several paroxysmal events follow each other as during these latest eruptions in December. To tackle similar recurring periods of frequent activity, which have occurred a number of times at Etna over recent years, we devised a collaborative system named Tefranet. The system is easy to use but at the same time designed to rapidly retrieve useful georeferenced information on tephra fallouts from Etna's explosive activity. Tefranet includes a mobile application and a web site, with particular attention to an administration backend tool, making owners of smartphones or other mobile devices participants. The system aims to involve citizens living not only in eastern Sicily (i.e. the area most affected by fallout based on the prevailing winds blowing on Etna), but also those resident at some distance, in areas potentially covered by tephra (more than 60-80 km from the volcano) and that are difficult to reach before the original amounts of tephra on the ground may become altered by anthropic (e.g. car traffic) and atmospheric (wind and rain) factors. The Tefranet community will be informed by the INGV specialists via mobile device in case explosive activity resumes, with users able to visualize all the tephra signals on a map in real time. All kinds of information concerning start/end of the tephra fallout, estimation of the clast dimensions, thickness of the deposit, level of tephra cover on the ground, will be welcomed, especially if accompanied by photos of the deposit and of the eruption plume. Here, we

  7. Radioactive fallout and neural tube defects | Akar | Egyptian Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the west coast of USA, following Fukushima disaster, brought another evidence for effect of radioactive fallout on the occurrence of NTD's. Here a literature review was performed focusing on this special subject. KEYWORDS: Radioactive fallout; Chernobyl; Fukushima; Neural tube defects; Anencephaly; Spina bifida ...

  8. Fukushima fallout in Northwest German environmental media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittauerova, Daniela, E-mail: pittauerova@iup.physik.uni-bremen.de [University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, D-28359 Bremen (Germany); Hettwig, Bernd; Fischer, Helmut W. [University of Bremen, Institute of Environmental Physics, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, D-28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Traces of short- and long-lived fallout isotopes ({sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs) were found in environmental samples collected in Northwest Germany (rain water, river sediment, soil, grass and cow milk) from March to May 2011, following the radioactivity releases after the nuclear accident in Fukushima, Japan. The measured concentrations are consistent with reported concentrations in air, amount of rainfall and expected values applying simple radioecological models. The [{sup 134}Cs]/[{sup 137}Cs] ratio reported for air (about 1) allows for discrimination between 'recent' and 'old'{sup 137}Cs. Expected {sup 136}Cs values fell below the detection limits of the instrumentation, despite large sample masses and long counting times. - Highlights: > {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs traces were detected in the environment of NW Germany. > Detected radionuclides were linked to the Fukushima accident releases. > Areal deposition was predicted from air concentrations using radioecological models. > The measured concentrations are consistent with the models. > Based on Cs isotopic ratios, most of the present {sup 137}Cs comes from the 'old' fallout.

  9. [Comparative analysis of the radionuclide composition in fallout after the Chernobyl and the Fukushima accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotenko, K V; Shinkarev, S M; Abramov, Iu V; Granovskaia, E O; Iatsenko, V N; Gavrilin, Iu I; Margulis, U Ia; Garetskaia, O S; Imanaka, T; Khoshi, M

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear accident occurred at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) (March 11, 2011) similarly to the accident at the Chernobyl NPP (April 26, 1986) is related to the level 7 of the INES. It is of interest to make an analysis of the radionuclide composition of the fallout following the both accidents. The results of the spectrometric measurements were used in that comparative analysis. Two areas following the Chernobyl accident were considered: (1) the near zone of the fallout - the Belarusian part of the central spot extended up to 60 km around the Chernobyl NPS and (2) the far zone of the fallout--the "Gomel-Mogilev" spot centered 200 km to the north-northeast of the damaged reactor. In the case of Fukushima accident the near zone up to about 60 km considered. The comparative analysis has been done with respect to refractory radionuclides (95Zr, 95Nb, 141Ce, 144Ce), as well as to the intermediate and volatile radionuclides 103Ru, 106Ru, 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs, 140La, 140Ba and the results of such a comparison have been discussed. With respect to exposure to the public the most important radionuclides are 131I and 137Cs. For the both accidents the ratios of 131I/137Cs in the considered soil samples are in the similar ranges: (3-50) for the Chernobyl samples and (5-70) for the Fukushima samples. Similarly to the Chernobyl accident a clear tendency that the ratio of 131I/137Cs in the fallout decreases with the increase of the ground deposition density of 137Cs within the trace related to a radioactive cloud has been identified for the Fukushima accident. It looks like this is a universal tendency for the ratio of 131I/137Cs versus the 137Cs ground deposition density in the fallout along the trace of a radioactive cloud as a result of a heavy accident at the NPP with radionuclides releases into the environment. This tendency is important for an objective reconstruction of 131I fallout based on the results of 137Cs measurements of soil samples carried out at

  10. Trees as Filters of Radioactive Fallout from the Chernobyl Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Brownridge, James D

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a copy of an unpublished study of the filtering effect of red maple trees (acer rubrum) on fission product fallout near Binghamton, NY, USA following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. The conclusions of this work may offer some insight into what is happening in the forests exposed to fallout from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident. This posting is in memory of Noel K. Yeh.

  11. Study of Fallout Shelter Ventilation Kit Placement Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    shelter spaces display a great deal of Regional variation , caused mostly by differences in zonal ventilation requirements. These large Regional...Ma -M FEMA Work Unit 12170 Contmct No. DCPA01-76-C-0318 L EF 0 FINAL REPORT RTI/1703/00-OSF STUDY OF FALLOUT SHELTER VENTILATION KIT PLACEMENT 0...Fallout Shelter Ventilation Kit Placement Design by S. •. York, III and J. A. Armstrong for Vt FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENfT AGENCY Washington, D.C. 2041

  12. Short term soil erosion dynamics in alpine grasslands - Results from a Fallout Radionuclide repeated-sampling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Laura; Meusburger, Katrin; Zehringer, Markus; Ketterer, Michael E.; Mabit, Lionel; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Improper land management and climate change has resulted in accelerated soil erosion rates in Alpine grasslands. To efficiently mitigate and control soil erosion and reduce its environmental impact in Alpine grasslands, reliable and validated methods for comprehensive data generation on its magnitude and spatial extent are mandatory. The use of conventional techniques (e.g. sediment traps, erosion pins or rainfall simulations) may be hindered by the extreme topographic and climatic conditions of the Alps. However, the application of the Fallout Radionuclides (FRNs) as soil tracers has already showed promising results in these specific agro-ecosystems. Once deposited on the ground, FRNs strongly bind to fine particles at the surface soil and move across the landscape primarily through physical processes. As such, they provide an effective track of soil and sediment redistribution. So far, applications of FRN in the Alps include 137Cs (half-life: 30.2 years) and 239+240Pu (239Pu [half-life = 24110 years] and 240Pu [half-life = 6561 years]). To investigate short term (4-5 years) erosion dynamics in the Swiss Alps, the authors applied a FRNs repeated sampling approach. Two study areas in the central Swiss Alps have been investigated: the Urseren Valley (Canton Uri), where significant land use changes occurred in the last centuries, and the Piora Valley (Canton Ticino), where land use change plays a minor role. Soil samples have been collected at potentially erosive sites along the valleys over a period of 4-5 years and measured for 137Cs and 239+240Pu activity. The inventory change between the sampling years indicates high erosion and deposition dynamics at both valleys. High spatial variability of 137Cs activities at all sites has been observed, reflecting the heterogeneous distribution of 137Cs fallout after the Chernobyl power plant accident in 1986. Finally, a new modelling technique to convert the inventory changes to quantitative estimates of soil erosion has

  13. Dispersal and fallout simulations for urban consequences management (u)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinstein, Fernando F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wachtor, Adam J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, Matt [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brown, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bos, Randy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patnik, Gopal [US NAVAL RESEARCH LAB.

    2010-01-01

    Hazardous chemical, biological, or radioactive releases from leaks, spills, fires, or blasts, may occur (intentionally or accidentally) in urban environments during warfare or as part of terrorist attacks on military bases or other facilities. The associated contaminant dispersion is complex and semi-chaotic. Urban predictive simulation capabilities can have direct impact in many threat-reduction areas of interest, including, urban sensor placement and threat analysis, contaminant transport (CT) effects on surrounding civilian population (dosages, evacuation, shelter-in-place), education and training of rescue teams and services. Detailed simulations for the various processes involved are in principle possible, but generally not fast. Predicting urban airflow accompanied by CT presents extremely challenging requirements. Crucial technical issues include, simulating turbulent fluid and particulate transport, initial and boundary condition modeling incorporating a consistent stratified urban boundary layer with realistic wind fluctuations, and post-processing of the simulation results for practical consequences management. Relevant fluid dynamic processes to be simulated include, detailed energetic and contaminant sources, complex building vortex shedding and flows in recirculation zones, and modeling of particle distributions, including particulate fallout, as well as deposition, re-suspension and evaporation. Other issues include, modeling building damage effects due to eventual blasts, addressing appropriate regional and atmospheric data reduction.

  14. Cesium, iodine and tritium in NW Pacific waters - a comparison of the Fukushima impact with global fallout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povinec, P. P.; Aoyama, M.; Biddulph, D.

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on the distribution of radionuclides in seawater of the NW Pacific Ocean is compared with global fallout from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Surface and water column samples collected during the Ka...

  15. Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly. Final tabulation of monthly /sup 90/Sr fallout data: 1954--1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-10-01

    This report presents the monthly /sup 90/Sr deposition data derived from a global network of stations started in 1954. This program was carried out to assess the distribution patterns and inventory the amount of fallout of radionuclies from atmospheric nuclear tests. In 1976, monthly deposition rates had diminished to the point where measurable levels of /sup 90/Sr were rarely observed.

  16. Comparison of platelet function and viscoelastic test results between healthy dogs and dogs with naturally occurring chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Alicia; Byron, Julie K; Burkhard, Mary Jo; Warry, Emma; Guillaumin, Julien

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare platelet function and viscoelastic test results between healthy dogs and dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to assess whether dogs with CKD have platelet dysfunction and altered blood coagulation. ANIMALS 10 healthy control dogs and 11 dogs with naturally occurring CKD. PROCEDURES Blood and urine were collected once from each dog for a CBC, serum biochemical analysis, urinalysis, and determination of the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, plasma fibrinogen concentration, and antithrombin activity. Closure time was determined by use of a platelet function analyzer and a collagen-ADP platelet agonist. Thromboelastography (TEG) variables (reaction time, clotting time, α angle, maximum amplitude, and global clot strength [G value]) were determined by use of recalcified nonactivated TEG. Platelet expression of glycoprotein Ib (GPIb; receptor for von Willebrand factor), integrin αIIbβ3 (αIIbβ3; receptor for fibrinogen), and P-selectin (marker for platelet activation) was assessed by flow cytometry. RESULTS Compared with healthy control dogs, the median closure time was prolonged, the median maximum amplitude and G value were increased, and the median clotting time was decreased for dogs with CKD. Platelet expression of both αIIbβ3 and P-selectin was also significantly increased for dogs with CKD, compared with that for control dogs. Platelet expression of GPIb, αIIbβ3, and P-selectin was not correlated with closure time or any TEG variable. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that dogs with CKD frequently had evidence of platelet dysfunction and hypercoagulability that were not totally attributable to alterations in platelet surface expression of GPIb, αIIbβ3, and P-selectin.

  17. Testing failure surface prediction methods and deposit reconstruction for the landslides cluster occurring during Talas Typhoon (Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaboyedoff, Michel; Chigira, Masahiro; Arai, Noriyuki; Derron, Marc-Henri; Rudaz, Benjamin; Tsou, Ching-Ying

    2016-04-01

    Talas Typhoon hit Japan from 2 to 5 September 2011. It induced more than 70 deep-seated landslides in Kii peninsula. The hi-resolution topography of these landslides have been acquired by aerial 1 m LiDAR digital elevation models (DEM) before (pre-DEM) and after (post-DEM) the events (data from Nara prefectural Government and the Kinki Regional development Bureau of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transportation, and Tourism). This extraordinary opportunity allows us to test methods to construct failure surface geometries, buried valley topographies and/or to rebuild deposits surfaces. We tested the sloping base local level method (SLBL) on 5 deep seated landslides which occurred during Typhoon Talas (Akatani, Kitamata, Nagatono, Shimizu and Akatani-East; see Chigira et al., 2013). The SLBL corresponds to a quadratic surface with a constant second derivative in all x-y directions. This curvature can be based on the knowledge of the length of the landslide and its maximum thickness. We used mainly hillshade DEM, slope maps and Coltop schemes to define the limits of landslides and to interpret their structures. Different attempts were performed to reconstruct the failure surface and deposits depending on a priori knowledge. Basically the morphological features extracted from the pre-DEM were used to delineate the limits of the landslides. The curvature of the failure surface was obtained by "expert" interpretations. The failure surfaces obtained using SLBL are in good agreement with the failure surface observed on the post-DEM. The results are improved when (1) they are adjusted to obtain similar estimate of the volume deduced by Chigira et al. (2013), and when (2) the contours of the landslides used comes from an interpretation of both post and pre-DEM. In order to obtain the expansion coefficient some of these landslide, the missing volume of the deposits (by river erosion) were calculated using inverse SLBL. The coefficient of expansion ranges from 13% to 30

  18. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1988 through December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.E.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.; Adams, W.H.

    1995-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to disseminate information concerning the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to fallout radiation in 1954. This report discusses the medical care provided and the medical findings for the years 1988-1991. Details of the BRAVO thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published, and a 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association describing the acute medical effects in the exposed population remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Participation in the Marshall Islands Medical Program by the exposed Marshallese is voluntary. In the spring and fall of each year, medical surveillance is provided to exposed and unexposed cohorts. Examinations performed include: a cancer-related examination as defined by the American Society, an annual thyroid examination and thyroid function testing, serum prolactin testing looking for pituitary tumors, annual blood counts to include platelets, and evaluation for paraneoplastic evidence of neoplasms. This report details the medical program, medical findings, and thyroid surgery findings. Deaths (4 exposed and 10 nonexposed) that occurred during the reporting period are discussed. There is a mild but relatively consistent depression of neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet concentrations in the blood of the exposed population. This depression appears to be of no clinical significance. Thyroid hypofunction, either clinical or biochemical, has been documented as a consequence of radiation exposure in 14 exposed individuals. Previously, one other exposed person was diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma. During this reporting period, a thyroid nodule was identified in an individual who was in utero during the exposure. Upon pathologic review, the nodule was diagnosed as occult papillary carcinoma.

  19. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, J.; Kunkel, D.; Lawrence, M. G.

    2012-05-01

    Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7), using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  20. Fallout Radionuclides as Tracers in Southern Alps Sediment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, A. E.; Karanovic, Z.; Dibb, J. E.

    2005-12-01

    The primary geologic processes shaping the landscape are physical and chemical weathering and the transport of solids by erosion. As part of our studies on the coupling between physical erosion and chemical weathering, we have determined depositional and erosional processes in New Zealand's tectonically active, rapidly uplifting Southern Alps, specifically focusing on the Hokitika River watershed. The South Island watersheds we are studying are subject to extreme orographic precipitation (as high as 7-12 m annually) and high landslide frequency, but have modest topography due to the rapid erosion. In concert with our studies of chemical weathering and physical erosion, we have used the atmospherically-delivered radionuclides of 7Be, 137Cs and 210Pbexcess to determine the relative magnitude of particle residence time in the high elevation Cropp and Whitcombe subwatersheds and the rates of sedimentation. One- and two-box modeling with 7Be and 210Pbexcess was used to determine soil and sediment residence times. Residence time of fine suspended particles is short and particles can travel the length of the river during a single storm, probably due to the short duration, high-intensity rainfalls which produce rapidly moving, steep flood waves. The readily detected peak of 137Cs activity in Cropp terrace and Hokitika gorge soils yielded sedimentation rates of 0.06-0.12 cm yr-1. At the Cropp terrace, inventory models of 210Pbexcess yield soil accumulation rates significantly less than those determined using the 137Cs activity peak. We attribute the differences to overestimation of 210Pbexcess in surface soils and to contrasting fallout fluxes, geochemical behavior and radionuclide contents of sedimenting materials. Total inventories of 210Pbexcess in soils greatly exceed the expected direct atmospheric deposition, suggesting that lateral transport of this nuclide occurs within the watershed. At the Hokitika gorge, all nuclides studied yielded similar sedimentation rates

  1. Global risk of radioactive fallout after major nuclear reactor accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Major reactor accidents of nuclear power plants are rare, yet the consequences are catastrophic. But what is meant by "rare"? And what can be learned from the Chernobyl and Fukushima incidents? Here we assess the cumulative, global risk of exposure to radioactivity due to atmospheric dispersion of gases and particles following severe nuclear accidents (the most severe ones on the International Nuclear Event Scale, INES 7, using particulate 137Cs and gaseous 131I as proxies for the fallout. Our results indicate that previously the occurrence of INES 7 major accidents and the risks of radioactive contamination have been underestimated. Using a global model of the atmosphere we compute that on average, in the event of a major reactor accident of any nuclear power plant worldwide, more than 90% of emitted 137Cs would be transported beyond 50 km and about 50% beyond 1000 km distance before being deposited. This corroborates that such accidents have large-scale and trans-boundary impacts. Although the emission strengths and atmospheric removal processes of 137Cs and 131I are quite different, the radioactive contamination patterns over land and the human exposure due to deposition are computed to be similar. High human exposure risks occur around reactors in densely populated regions, notably in West Europe and South Asia, where a major reactor accident can subject around 30 million people to radioactive contamination. The recent decision by Germany to phase out its nuclear reactors will reduce the national risk, though a large risk will still remain from the reactors in neighbouring countries.

  2. How to Make the 20-cent Fallout Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Serena R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alvarez, Luis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-17

    Nobel Prize winner Luis Alvarez published an article on how to build a homemade fallout meter in the November 12, 1961, issue of the Sunday supplement This Week Magazine. A yellowed copy of the article was recently found in the files of the Radiochemistry Group, C-NR, and is reproduced below in its original form.

  3. Terrain and Spatial Effects on Hazard Prediction and Assessment Capability (HPAC) Software Dose-Rate Contour Plot Predictions as Compared to a Sample of Local Fallout Data from Test Detonations in the Continental United States, 1945-1962

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    mountain near Tonopah Test Range Airport which is about 165 miles NNW of the tri-state intersection and has an estimated elevation of 5750 ft. Google...Earth revealed an area 19 miles SSE of the NTS with a location of 36.47.53N and 115.55.44W that is named Frenchman Lake with an elevation of 3071 ft...deflected by a localized mountain barrier and the wind speed may increase through mountain passes due to the Venturi effect. HPAC has two integrated

  4. Measurements of Background and Fall-out T Radioactivity in Samples from the Baltic Bay of Tvaeren, 1957-1963

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnedahl, P.O.

    1965-01-15

    To get information on the possible effects of future releases of radioactive effluents into Tvaeren, a bay of the Baltic, the Atomic Energy Company has had to carry out a biological and radiological programme in Tvaeren. The work was scheduled to extend over at least two years but in fact proceeded from 1957 to 1963. Unfortunately, no exact idea of the natural activity could be gained on account of the fallout from the repeated atomic bomb tests. Instead, the work developed into a study of the variations in biological samples caused by these tests. This report studies the correlation between the activity in fallout and that in flora and fauna. The contribution of natural activity from the radionuclide K-40 has been determined and is given for all samples. The following values may be regarded as representative of total {beta}-activity and activity of K-40 in the investigated samples. T 1204 has been used as standard.

  5. Detection of fallout 241Am in U.S. Atlantic salt marsh soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, B. M.; Sommerfield, C. K.

    2017-09-01

    We report the presence of the fallout radionuclide 241Am (t1/2 = 433 years) in salt marsh soils from two U.S. Atlantic estuaries and discuss its utility as a particle tracer and geochronometer. This work is motivated by the knowledge that 137Cs, the most widely used geochronometer in environmental studies, will decay to extinction during the next century. At the same time, levels of 241Am, produced by radioactive decay of fallout 241Pu, will continue to increase on Earth's surface as they have since the height of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the 1960s. Measurements of 241Am in soils at eighteen salt marsh locations were made by non-destructive gamma spectrometry and compared to activities of 137Cs in the same samples. Results indicate that decay of fallout 241Pu can explain the presence of 241Am in the soils, and that the activities are sufficiently high to provide meaningful chronological information with acceptable confidence limits. We achieved a detection limit of 0.28-1.47 Bq kg-1 using low-energy, planar germanium detectors and 11-55 g powderized samples. Activities of 241Am (0.08-6.44 Bq kg-1) were similar in mineral- and organic-rich marsh soils indicating that soil composition does not appear to influence the initial capture of 241Pu and retention of its 241Am progeny. Given its high affinity for fine particles, long half-life, and ease of measurement by non-destructive gamma spectrometry, 241Am has potential to serve as an alternative to 137Cs geochronometry in salt marshes and perhaps other estuarine and coastal environments.

  6. Cesium, iodine and tritium in NW Pacific waters – a comparison of the Fukushima impact with global fallout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Povinec

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Radionuclide impact of the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident on the distribution of radionuclides in seawater of the NW Pacific Ocean is compared with global fallout from atmospheric tests of nuclear weapons. Surface and water column samples collected during the Ka'imikai-o-Kanaloa (KOK international expedition carried out in June 2011 were analyzed for 134Cs, 137Cs, 129I and 3H. The 137Cs, 129I and 3H levels in surface seawater offshore Fukushima varied between 0.002–3.5 Bq L−1, 0.01–0.8 μBq L−1, and 0.05–0.15 Bq L−1, respectively. At the sampling site about 40 km from the coast, where all three radionuclides were analyzed, the Fukushima impact on the levels of these three radionuclides represents an increase above the global fallout background by factors of about 1000, 50 and 3, respectively. The water column data indicate that the transport of Fukushima-derived radionuclides downward to the depth of 300 m has already occurred. The observed 137Cs levels in surface waters and in the water column are compared with predictions obtained from the ocean general circulation model, which indicates that the Kuroshio Current acts as a southern boundary for the transport of the radionuclides, which have been transported from the Fukushima coast eastward in the NW Pacific Ocean. The 137Cs inventory in the water column is estimated to be about 2.2 PBq, what can be regarded as a lower limit of the direct liquid discharges into the sea as the seawater sampling was carried out only in the area from 34 to 37° N, and from 142 to 147° E. About 4.6 GBq of 129I was deposited in the NW Pacific Ocean, and 2.4–7 GBq of 129I was directly discharged as liquid wastes into the sea offshore Fukushima. The total amount of 3H released and deposited over the NW Pacific Ocean was estimated to be 0.1–0.5 PBq. These estimations depend, however, on the evaluation of the total 137Cs activities released as liquid wastes directly into the sea, which

  7. Transfer of 137Cs from Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout to different Swedish population groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rääf, C L; Hubbard, L; Falk, R; Agren, G; Vesanen, R

    2006-08-15

    Data from measurements on the body burden of (134)Cs, (137)Cs and (40)K in various Swedish populations between 1959 and 2001 has been compiled into a national database. The compilation is a co-operation between the Departments of Radiation Physics in Malmö and Göteborg, the National Radiation Protection Authority (SSI) and the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI). In a previous study the effective ecological half time and the associated effective dose to various Swedish populations due to internal contamination of (134)Cs and (137)Cs have been assessed using the database. In this study values of human body burden have been combined with data on the local and regional ground deposition of fallout from nuclear weapons tests (only (137)Cs) and Chernobyl debris (both (134)Cs and (137)Cs), which have enabled estimates of the radioecological transfer in the studied populations. The assessment of the database shows that the transfer of radiocesium from Chernobyl fallout to humans varies considerably between various populations in Sweden. In terms of committed effective dose over a 70 y period from internal contamination per unit activity deposition, the general (predominantly urban) Swedish population obtains 20-30 microSv/kBq m(-2). Four categories of populations exhibit higher radioecological transfer than the general population; i.) reindeer herders ( approximately 700 microSv/kBq m(-2)), ii.) hunters in the counties dominated by forest vegetation ( approximately 100 microSv/kBq m(-2)), iii.) rural non-farming populations living in sub-arctic areas (40-150 microSv/kBq m(-2)), and iv.) farmers ( approximately 50 microSv/kBq m(-2)). Two important factors determine the aggregate transfer from ground deposition to man; i.) dietary habits (intakes of foodstuff originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems), and ii.) inclination to follow the recommended food restriction by the authorities. The transfer to the general population is considerably lower

  8. Fallout and drinking water contamination by I-131 and Cs-134, 137 in Japan, from the Fukushima Daiichi NPS accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelecom, Alphonse; Miyashita, Erika; Kelecom, Patrick Vicent [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The earthquake followed by a tsunami in Japan, on last March 11, seriously damaged four of the six reactors of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (NPS). Radioactive smokes and highly contaminated water were released for weeks to the environment. Since March 12, when the plant operator TEPCO and Japan's nuclear agency (NISA) confirmed the presence of radionuclides near the NPS, a giant environmental monitoring operation was set up, covering the entire Japanese territory. Daily thousands measurements are realized. We here analyze data released during 60 days on I-131 and Cs-134,137 radioactive concentrations in drinking water and fallout for 45 prefectures. Miyagi and Fukushima, that requires a separate study, are not considered here. Drinking water contamination by I-131 was observed in 13 prefectures, including Tokyo. The most impacted one was Tochigi (maximum of 110 Bq/l, March 24). This value turned water not drinkable for infants and babies. Cs-137 was detected in drinking water in 8 prefectures, with a maximum level of 18 Bq/l in Ibaraki. These levels do not affect potability of tap water. I-131 was observed in fallout in 27 prefectures, with level reaching 93 kBq/m2 in Ibaraki and 36 kBq/m{sup 2} in Tokyo on March 21 and 23 respectively. Fallout of Cs-137 was observed in 19 prefectures. The maximum deposition occurred again in Ibaraki (13kBq/m{sup 2}, March 21) and in Tokyo (5.3 kBq/m2, March 22). Since mid April, only trace contamination has been observed for both radionuclides in drinking water. Sporadically medium levels of Cs-137 are still observed in fallout. (author)

  9. Characterizing fallout material using Cs and Pu atom ratios in environmental samples from the FDNPP fallout zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, David; Dunne, James; Martin, Peter; Scott, Tom; Yamashiki, Yosuke; Coath, Chris; Chen, Hart

    2017-04-01

    Here we report the use of combined of Cs and Pu isotope measurements to investigate the extensive plumes of radioactive fallout from the disaster at Fukishima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FNDPP) in March 2011. Among the aims of our study are improved assessment of the physico-chemical nature and changing distribution of land-based fallout. 135Cs/137Cs and 134Cs/137Cs atom ratios are indicative of conditions that relate to the nuclear fission reactions responsible for producing the respective radiocaesium isotopes, and offer much more in terms of forensic and chronological analysis than monitoring 137Cs alone. We briefly present methods to quantify the atom ratios of Cs and Pu isotopes in soil, lichen and moss samples from FDNPP catchment using mass spectrometry (ThermoTRITON for Cs and ThermoNEPTUNE for Pu). High precision data from Fukushima are presented (e.g decay corrected 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio = 0.384 ± 0.001 (n = 5) for roadside dust from Iitate region), and these are in agreement with prelimary estimates by others. We also confirm results for IAEA-330, a spinach sample collected from Polesskoe, Ukraine and subject to contamination from the Chernobyl accident. In addition to Cs isotopes, we adopt Pu isotopes to add a further dimension to the forensic analysis. We discuss the corrections required for background levels prior to the disaster, possibility for multiple components of fallout and complicating factors associated with remobilisation during the clean-up operation. In parallel with this work on digests and leaches from bulk environmental samples, we are refining methods for particle identification, isolation and characterisation using a complementary sequence of cutting-edge materials and manipulation techniques, including combined electron microscopy, focused ion beam techniques (Dualbeam), nano/micro manipulators and nano-scale imaging x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (NanoESCA) and microCT.

  10. Childhood Thyroid Radioiodine Exposure and Subsequent Infertility in the Intermountain Fallout Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mary Bishop; Lyon, Joseph L.; VanDerslice, James A.; Alder, Stephen C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Above-ground and underground nuclear weapon detonation at the Nevada Test Site (1951–1992) has resulted in radioiodine exposure for nearby populations. Although the long-term effect of environmental radioiodine exposure on thyroid disease has been well studied, little is known regarding the effect of childhood radioiodine exposure on subsequent fertility. Objectives: We investigated early childhood thyroid radiation exposure from nuclear testing fallout (supplied predominantly by radioactive isotopes of iodine) and self-reported lifetime incidence of male or female infertility or sterility. Methods: Participants were members of the 1965 Intermountain Fallout Cohort, schoolchildren at the time of exposure who were reexamined during two subsequent study phases to collect dietary and reproductive histories. Thyroid radiation exposure was calculated via an updated dosimetry model. We used multivariable logistic regression with robust sandwich estimators to estimate odds ratios for infertility, adjusted for potential confounders and (in separate models) for a medically confirmed history of thyroid disease. Results: Of 1,389 participants with dosimetry and known fertility history, 274 were classified as infertile, including 30 classified as sterile. Childhood thyroid radiation dose was possibly associated with infertility [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.82, 1.67 and AOR = 1.35; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.90 for the middle and upper tertiles vs. the first tertile of exposure, respectively]. The odds ratios were attenuated (AOR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.75, 1.55 and AOR = 1.29; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.83 for the middle and upper tertiles, respectively) after adjusting for thyroid disease. There was no association of childhood radiation dose and sterility. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that childhood radioiodine exposure from nuclear testing may be related to subsequent adult infertility. Further research is required to confirm this. PMID:23099433

  11. Ecological half-time and effective dose from chernobyl debris and from nuclear weapons fallout of 137Cs as measured in different Swedish populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rääf, C L; Hubbard, L; Falk, R; Agren, G; Vesanen, R

    2006-05-01

    The fallout in Sweden of radiocesium from nuclear weapons tests during the 1960's (137Cs) and from the Chernobyl accident in 1986 (134Cs and 137Cs) has transferred to humans through different ecological pathways. Data from whole-body burden measurements of 134Cs, 137Cs, and 40K in various Swedish populations between 1964 and 2002 have been compiled. This database enables an evaluation of the temporal and geographical dependence of the transfer of radiocesium from ground deposition to humans and the associated absorbed dose. The body burdens of 137Cs gradually decrease after the peak values reached in 1965 from nuclear weapons fallout and in 1987 from the Chernobyl fallout, but at a varying rate depending on the population. Assuming a dual exponential decrease, a short-term component of typically 1-2 y and a long-term component of 5-10 y are found in urban populations in Sweden. Among reindeer herders and hunters the effective ecological half-time is mono-exponential with a half-time of 5-7 y. The estimated time-integrated effective dose to an individual during a period of 50 y from the Chernobyl fallout is, on average, approximately 10 mSv for reindeer herders, which is 10-100 times higher than the estimated dose received by urban populations in the three major Swedish urban areas (Malmö, Göteborg, and Stockholm).

  12. Indication of the radioactive fallout in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhomashi, N; Almasoud, Fahad I

    2016-02-01

    On March 2011, a severe damage has occurred to Fukushima Di-iachi nuclear reactor complex in Japan following the huge earthquake and the resulting Tsunami. Consequently, vast amounts of radioactive fallout were released into the atmosphere and contaminated the environment in Japan. Soon after the accident, traces of anthropogenic radionuclides were detected in environmental samples collected in many parts in the northern hemisphere even very far away from Japan creating a global concern. There is no information about radioactive contamination in the Arabian Peninsula caused by the Japanese Fukushima nuclear accident. The first evidence of Fukushima radioactive fallout in Riyadh (24° 43' N, 46° 38' E), Saudi Arabia has been confirmed in April 8, 2011. The airborne fission products (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were measured in air samples. The radionuclide concentrations were determined by identifying their characteristic gamma rays using a germanium detector. Their activity concentrations were studied as a function of time over a period of 20 days at the end of which they had mostly fallen below our limit of detection. The maximum activity concentration of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs in air of, respectively, 323.7 ± 18.5, 17.2 ± 1.0 and 26.0 ± 1.8 μBq m(-3) were observed on April 10-11, 2011. The (131)I/(137)Cs and (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio values in air were presented and discussed. Finally, the effective doses to the public of Riyadh city from inhalation of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs due to contribution from Fukushima incident was found far below levels of concern. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation, January 1983-December 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.H.; Engle, J.R.; Harper, J.A.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    March 1, 1984, was the 30th anniversary of the Bravo thermonuclear test that resulted in the accidental exposure of the populations of Rongelap and Utirik atolls to radioactive fallout. The chronicling of the medical events resulting from that exposure is continued in this report, which covers the period from January 1983 through December 1984. An updated listing of all relevant publications from the Medical Department Brookhaven National Laboratory, is presented in the Reference Section. Thirty years of observation continue to show no detectable increase in mortality in the exposed population as a result of that exposure. The survival curves of the high-exposure Rongelap group, the low-exposure Utirik population, and an unexposed group of Rongelap people matched by age and sex to the exposed Rongelap group in 1957 continue to be similar. 89 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Estimating Fallout Building Attributes from Architectural Features and Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Building Descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dillon, Michael B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kane, Staci R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    A nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill tens to hundreds of thousands (or more) of people through exposure to fallout (external gamma) radiation. Existing buildings can protect their occupants (reducing fallout radiation exposures) by placing material and distance between fallout particles and individuals indoors. Prior efforts have determined an initial set of building attributes suitable to reasonably assess a given building’s protection against fallout radiation. The current work provides methods to determine the quantitative values for these attributes from (a) common architectural features and data and (b) buildings described using the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) taxonomy. These methods will be used to improve estimates of fallout protection for operational US Department of Defense (DoD) and US Department of Energy (DOE) consequence assessment models.

  15. Root cause investigation of a viral contamination incident occurred during master cell bank (MCB) testing and characterization--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dayue; Nims, Raymond; Dusing, Sandra; Miller, Pamela; Luo, Wen; Quertinmont, Michelle; Parekh, Bhavin; Poorbaugh, Josh; Boose, Jeri Ann; Atkinson, E Morrey

    2008-11-01

    An adventitious agent contamination occurred during a routine 9 CFR bovine viral screening test at BioReliance for an Eli Lilly Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell-derived Master Cell Bank (MCB) intended for biological production. Scientists from the sponsor (Eli Lilly and Company) and the testing service company (BioReliance) jointly conducted a systematic investigation in an attempt to determine the root cause of the contamination. Our investigation resulted in the identification of the viral nature of the contaminant. Subsequent experiments indicated that the viral contaminant was a non-enveloped and non-hemadsorbing virus. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the viral contaminant was 25-30 nm in size and morphologically resembled viruses of the family Picornaviridae. The contaminant virus was readily inactivated when exposed to acidic pH, suggesting that the viral contaminant was a member of rhinoviruses. Although incapable of infecting CHO cells, the viral contaminant replicated efficiently in Vero cell with a life cycle of approximately 16 h. Our investigation provided compelling data demonstrating that the viral contaminant did not originate from the MCB. Instead, it was introduced into the process during cell passaging and a possible entry point was proposed. We identified the viral contaminant as an equine rhinitis A virus using molecular cloning and DNA sequencing. Finally, our investigation led us to conclude that the source of the viral contaminant was the equine serum added to the cell growth medium in the 9 CFR bovine virus test.

  16. Historical estimates of external gamma exposure and collective external gamma exposure from testing at the Nevada Test Site. I. Test series through HARDTACK II, 1958

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Church, B.W.

    1985-12-01

    In 1959, the Test Manager's Committee to Establish Fallout Doses calculated estimated external gamma exposure at populated locations based upon measurements of external gamma-exposure rate. Using these calculations and estimates of population, we have tabulated the collective estimated external gamma exposures for communities within established fallout patterns. The total collective estimated external gamma exposure is 85,000 person-R. The greatest collective exposures occurred in three general areas: Saint George, Utah; Ely, Nevada; and Las Vegas, Nevada. Three events, HARRY (May 19, 1953), BEE (March 22, 1955), and SMOKY (August 31, 1957), accounted for over half of the total collective estimated external gamma exposure. The bases of the calculational models for external gamma exposure of ''infinite exposure,'' ''estimated exposure,'' and ''one year effective biological exposure'' are explained. 4 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. External doses from radioactive fallout. Dosimetry and levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehni, T.

    1995-12-31

    The design, manufacture and calibration of a TL-based dosemeter for measurement of low level external photon radiation are presented. The dosemeter is based on CaF{sub 2} with 2 mm brass filter for energy compensation. It is able to resolve a 8% dose increase relative to natural background radiation. With this dosemeter external dose measurements were made in 6 villages in a heavily contaminated region in Russia (Chernobyl fallout), in order to assess external doses to the population. The results were analyzed in the light of additional existing information on radioactive deposition, social habits, decontamination measures and other influencing technical and physical factors. The observed dose values were lower than theoretical estimates of external doses based on published values for external dose levels relative to the level of contamination. 84 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Tephra Fallout Hazard Assessment for VEI5 Plinian Eruption at Kuju Volcano, Japan, Using TEPHRA2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Tomohiro; Ikeda, Michiharu; Kishimoto, Hiroshi; Fujita, Koji; Nishizaka, Naoki; Onishi, Kozo

    2017-06-01

    Tephra fallout has a potential impact on engineered structures and systems at nuclear power plants. We provide the first report estimating potential accumulations of tephra fallout as big as VEI5 eruption from Kuju Volcano and calculated hazard curves at the Ikata Power Plant, using the TEPHRA2 computer program. We reconstructed the eruptive parameters of Kj-P1 tephra fallout deposit based on geological survey and literature review. A series of parameter studies were carried out to determine the best values of empirical parameters, such as diffusion coefficient and the fall time threshold. Based on such a reconstruction, we represent probabilistic analyses which assess the variation in meteorological condition, using wind profiles extracted from a 22 year long wind dataset. The obtained hazard curves and probability maps of tephra fallout associated to a Plinian eruption were used to discuss the exceeding probability at the site and the implications of such a severe eruption scenario.

  19. Influence of radioactive fallout on water supply and sewerage in Finland; Radioaktiivisen laskeuman vaikutukset vesihuoltoon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, A.; Saxen, R.; Puhakainen, M. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland); Hatva, T.; Ahosilta, P.; Tenhunen, J. [National Board of Waters and the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    The report reviews the practices and organization of water supply and sewerage in Finland and is related to their response to radioactive fallout situations. The contribution of drinking water to the internal radiation dose caused by radioactive fallout has earlier been small in Finland. However, in a wide-scale fallout situation, the decreasing of collective dose received from water may be justified, if the dose can be reduced at a reasonable cost, for instance by a temporary change of the raw water source. Efficient exchange of information between radiation protection and water supply experts is important for successful dose reduction measures. In Finland waterworks deliver tap water to 4.2 million people. Half of the water is ground water, and generally very well protected against fallout radioactivity. The other half is treated surface water. (6 figs., 5 tabs.).

  20. The I.R.S.N.-2003 model of Chernobylsk accident fallout in France; Le modele IRSN 2003 des retombees de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A

    2005-12-15

    In conclusion, the whole of the method impreciseness, the sometime important variation between the very simplifying hypothesis used and the available data ( especially for the air contamination and the fallout of nuclear tests), the variations between the results of the model and the measurements, its incompatible results with these ones exposed and validated in the report I.P.S.N.-1997, lead to consider that the I.R.S.N.-2003 model does not allow a reliable quantitative estimation of Chernobylsk fallout and let alone the dosimetry estimations for which it has been used. (N.C.)

  1. The Chernobyl accident--radionuclide fallout in S.W. England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, E I; Zou, B; Clifton, R J

    1986-12-01

    Initial fallout data from the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl is presented for the Plymouth region of Devon S.W. England which received low levels of radioactivity. During the period of maximum fallout the overall gross gamma activity for the Plymouth area was approximately 10% higher than levels recorded prior to the Chernobyl accident. The increase in levels of radioactivity were within the variability of natural background found in local houses.

  2. Radiocaesium fallout behaviour in volcanic soils in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigurgeirsson, M.A. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute, Raudararstigur 10, IS-150 Reykjavik (Iceland)]. E-mail: ms@gr.is; Arnalds, O. [Agricultural Research Institute, Keldnaholt, IS-112 Reykjavik (Iceland); Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute, Raudararstigur 10, IS-150 Reykjavik (Iceland); Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Gudnason, K. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute, Raudararstigur 10, IS-150 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2005-07-01

    The retention of {sup 137}Cs in various types of Andosols in Iceland was investigated. Soils were sampled at 29 sites with varying precipitation and environmental conditions. Samples were obtained from 0 to 5, 5 to 10, and 10 to 15 cm depths. The amount of radiocaesium present was quite variable, ranging between 300 and 4800 Bq m{sup -2} and correlated closely to total annual precipitation (r{sup 2} = 0.71). The majority of {sup 137}Cs, 82.7% on average, was retained in the uppermost 5 cm of the soil. The greatest penetration of {sup 137}Cs was observed for organic Histosols (76.3% in top 5 cm). The Icelandic Vitrisols (barren, poorly developed Andosols) are coarse grained with only 2-5% clay content and contain little organic matter (<1%). Yet these soils retained 74% of {sup 137}Cs in the top 5 cm. The results indicate that radiocaesium fallout is strongly retained by colloidal materials characteristic of Andosols, such as allophane and ferrihydrite. Most soils in Iceland are subject to severe and prolonged freezing and waterlogging; despite this, {sup 137}Cs is retained in the upper soil horizons and vertical migration is negligible in Icelandic Andosols. However, erosion and aeolian activity can markedly influence the amount and vertical distribution of radiocaesium in Icelandic soils.

  3. Neonatal outcomes following exposure in utero to fallout from Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, Maureen; Little, Mark P; Brenner, Alina V; Cahoon, Elizabeth K; Tereshchenko, Valery; Chaikovska, Ludmyla; Pasteur, Igor; Likhtarov, Ilya; Bouville, Andre; Shpak, Victor; Bolshova, Olena; Zamotayeva, Galyna; Grantz, Katherine; Sun, Liping; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Albert, Paul; Tronko, Mykola

    2017-08-30

    Iodine 131 (I-131), the principal component of nuclear fallout from the Chernobyl accident, concentrates in the thyroid gland and may pose risks to fetal development. To evaluate this, neonatal outcomes following the accident in April of 1986 were investigated in a cohort of 2582 in utero-exposed individuals from northern Ukraine for whom estimates of fetal thyroid I-131 dose were available. We carried out a retrospective review of cohort members' prenatal, delivery and newborn records. The relationships of dose with neonatal anthropometrics and gestational length were modeled via linear regression with adjustment for potentially confounding variables. We found similar, statistically significant dose-dependent reductions in both head circumference (-1.0 cm/Gy, P = 0.005) and chest circumference (-0.9 cm/Gy, P = 0.023), as well as a similar but non-significant reduction in neonatal length (-0.6 cm/Gy, P = 0.169). Gestational length was significantly increased with increasing fetal dose (0.5 wks/Gy, P = 0.007). There was no significant (P > 0.1) effect of fetal dose on birth weight. The observed associations of radioiodine exposure with decreased head and chest circumference are consistent with those observed in the Japanese in utero-exposed atomic bomb survivors.

  4. Yttrium and lanthanides in human lung fluids, probing the exposure to atmospheric fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Censi, P., E-mail: censi@unipa.it [Dipartimento C.F.T.A., Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36 90123 - Palermo (Italy); I.A.M.C.-CNR - UOS di Capo Granitola, Via faro, 1 - 91026 Torretta Granitola, Campobello di Mazara (TP) (Italy); En.Bio.Tech. - Via Aquileia, 35 90100 Palermo (Italy); Tamburo, E. [Dipartimento C.F.T.A., Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36 90123 - Palermo (Italy); Speziale, S. [Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum, Telegrafenberg, Potsdam, 14473 (Germany); Zuddas, P. [Institut Genie de l' Environnement et Ecodeveloppement and Departement Sciences de la Terre, UMR 5125, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 2 rue R. Dubois, Bat GEODE 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Randazzo, L.A. [Dipartimento C.F.T.A., Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36 90123 - Palermo (Italy); I.A.M.C.-CNR - UOS di Capo Granitola, Via faro, 1 - 91026 Torretta Granitola, Campobello di Mazara (TP) (Italy); En.Bio.Tech. - Via Aquileia, 35 90100 Palermo (Italy); Institut Genie de l' Environnement et Ecodeveloppement and Departement Sciences de la Terre, UMR 5125, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, 2 rue R. Dubois, Bat GEODE 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Punturo, R. [Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche, Universita di Catania, Corso Italia, 55 - 95129 Catania (Italy); Cuttitta, A. [I.A.M.C.-CNR - UOS di Capo Granitola, Via faro, 1 - 91026 Torretta Granitola, Campobello di Mazara (TP) (Italy); Arico, P. [Dipartimento C.F.T.A., Universita di Palermo, Via Archirafi, 36 90123 - Palermo (Italy)

    2011-02-28

    Inhalation of airborne particles can produce crystallization of phosphatic microcrysts in intraaveolar areas of lungs, sometimes degenerating into pulmonary fibrosis. Results of this study indicate that these pathologies are induced by interactions between lung fluids and inhaled atmospheric dust in people exposed to volcanic dust ejected from Mount Etna in 2001. Here, the lung solid-liquid interaction is evaluated by the distribution of yttrium and lanthanides (YLn) in fluid bronchoalveolar lavages on selected individuals according the classical geochemical approaches. We found that shale-normalised patterns of yttrium and lanthanides have a 'V shaped' feature corresponding to the depletion of elements from Nd to Tb when compared to the variable enrichments of heavy lanthanides, Y, La and Ce. These features and concurrent thermodynamic simulations suggest that phosphate precipitation can occur in lungs due to interactions between volcanic particles and fluids. We propose that patterns of yttrium and lanthanides can represent a viable explanation of some pathology observed in patients after prolonged exposure to atmospheric fallout and are suitable to become a diagnostic parameter of chemical environmental stresses.

  5. GLODEP2: a computer model for estimating gamma dose due to worldwide fallout of radioactive debris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, L.L.; Harvey, T.F.; Peterson, K.R.

    1984-03-01

    The GLODEP2 computer code provides estimates of the surface deposition of worldwide radioactivity and the gamma-ray dose to man from intermediate and long-term fallout. The code is based on empirical models derived primarily from injection-deposition experience gained from the US and USSR nuclear tests in 1958. Under the assumption that a nuclear power facility is destroyed and that its debris behaves in the same manner as the radioactive cloud produced by the nuclear weapon that attached the facility, predictions are made for the gamma does from this source of radioactivity. As a comparison study the gamma dose due to the atmospheric nuclear tests from the period of 1951 to 1962 has been computed. The computed and measured values from Grove, UK and Chiba, Japan agree to within a few percent. The global deposition of radioactivity and resultant gamma dose from a hypothetical strategic nuclear exchange between the US and the USSR is reported. Of the assumed 5300 Mton in the exchange, 2031 Mton of radioactive debris is injected in the atmosphere. The highest estimated average whole body total integrated dose over 50 years (assuming no reduction by sheltering or weathering) is 23 rem in the 30 to 50 degree latitude band. If the attack included a 100 GW(e) nuclear power industry as targets in the US, this dose is increased to 84.6 rem. Hotspots due to rainfall could increase these values by factors of 10 to 50.

  6. Radiocaesium fallout behaviour in volcanic soils in Iceland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigurgeirsson, M.A.; Arnalds, O.; Palsson, S.E.; Gudnason, K. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute, Division of Environmental Monitoring and Emergency Preparedness, Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2004-07-01

    In 2000-2002 the retention of {sup 137}Cs in various types of andosols, which are the most abundant soils in Iceland, was investigated. This is the first comprehensive attempt to determine radiocaesium levels and retention characteristics of Icelandic soils. Soils were sampled at 29 sites located near meteorological stations covering variation in precipitation and environmental conditions. Samples were obtained from 0- 5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm depths. Several physical and chemical parameters were measured, such as organic carbon, cation exchange capacity, pH and clay mineral content. The radiocaesium activity is quite variable and ranges between 300 and 4800 Bq/m{sup 2} and correlates closely to total annual precipitation (r{sup 2}=0.9). Most of the radiocaesium is retained in the uppermost 5 cm of the soil, or 83% on average. The greatest penetration was observed for organic Histo-sols, where 6% of the total {sup 137}Cs was found at 10-15 cm depth compared to less than 3% for Andosols types. The Icelandic Vitrisols (barren, poorly developed Andosols) are coarse grained with low clay content and contain little organic matter (<1%). Yet these soils retained 74% of {sup 137}Cs in the top 5 cm in our study. The results clearly indicate that radioactive fallout caesium is strongly retained by colloidal materials characteristic of Andosols, such as allophane and ferri-hydrite. Winter frost, snow melt, crack flow, and animal activity seem to have little effect on the {sup 137}Cs distribution at the present sampling sites. However, erosion and aeolian activity can markedly influence the aerial activity and vertical distribution of radiocaesium in Icelandic soils. (author)

  7. Fallout plume of submerged oil from Deepwater Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, David L.; Fisher, G. Burch; Bagby, Sarah C.; Nelson, Robert K.; Reddy, Christopher M.; Sylva, Sean P.; Woo, Mary A.

    2014-01-01

    The sinking of the Deepwater Horizon in the Gulf of Mexico led to uncontrolled emission of oil to the ocean, with an official government estimate of ∼5.0 million barrels released. Among the pressing uncertainties surrounding this event is the fate of ∼2 million barrels of submerged oil thought to have been trapped in deep-ocean intrusion layers at depths of ∼1,000–1,300 m. Here we use chemical distributions of hydrocarbons in >3,000 sediment samples from 534 locations to describe a footprint of oil deposited on the deep-ocean floor. Using a recalcitrant biomarker of crude oil, 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane (hopane), we have identified a 3,200-km2 region around the Macondo Well contaminated by ∼1.8 ± 1.0 × 106 g of excess hopane. Based on spatial, chemical, oceanographic, and mass balance considerations, we calculate that this contamination represents 4–31% of the oil sequestered in the deep ocean. The pattern of contamination points to deep-ocean intrusion layers as the source and is most consistent with dual modes of deposition: a “bathtub ring” formed from an oil-rich layer of water impinging laterally upon the continental slope (at a depth of ∼900–1,300 m) and a higher-flux “fallout plume” where suspended oil particles sank to underlying sediment (at a depth of ∼1,300–1,700 m). We also suggest that a significant quantity of oil was deposited on the ocean floor outside this area but so far has evaded detection because of its heterogeneous spatial distribution. PMID:25349409

  8. Most clinical laboratory testing in Kampala occurs in high-volume, high-quality laboratories or low-volume, low-quality laboratories. A tale of two cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Schroeder, Lee F; Jackson, J Brooks; Elbireer, Ali

    2015-01-01

    To describe key characteristics (laboratory quality, test volumes, and complexity) of clinical laboratories in Kampala, Uganda (population ~1.7 million). Cross-sectional survey using a standard questionnaire to document laboratory type and quality, as well as test menus and volumes. Quality was based on the World Health Organization-Africa Region checklist. Of the 954 laboratories identified (a density of one laboratory per 1,781 persons), 779 (82%) performed only simple kit tests or light microscope examinations. The 95% (907/954) of laboratories for whom volumes were obtained performed an average aggregate of 13,189 tests daily, for a test utilization rate of around 2 tests per individual per year. Laboratories could be segregated into eight groups based on quality, test volume, and complexity. However, 90% of the testing was performed by just two groups: (1) low-volume (≤100 tests daily), low-quality laboratories performing simple tests or (2) high-volume (>100 tests daily), high-quality laboratories. Each of these two groups did 45% of the daily testing volume (90% combined). Clinical laboratory density in Kampala (1/1,781 persons) is high, approaching that in the United States (1/1,347 persons). Low-volume/low-quality and high-volume/high-quality laboratories do 90% of the daily aggregate testing. Quality improvement (QI) schemes for Africa must be appropriate to low-volume laboratories as well as to the large laboratories that have been the focus of previous QI efforts. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  9. New isotopic evidence of lead contamination in wheat grain from atmospheric fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Chen, Tongbin; Lei, Mei; Zhou, Xiaoyong; Huang, Qifei; Ma, Chuang; Gu, Runyao; Guo, Guanghui

    2015-10-01

    Crops could accumulate trace metals by soil-root transfer and foliar uptake from atmospheric fallout, and an accurate assessment of pollution sources is a prerequisite for preventing heavy metal pollution in agricultural products. In this study, we examined Pb isotope rates to trace the sources of Pb in wheat grain grown in suburbs. Results showed that, even in zones with scarcely any air pollution spots, atmospheric fallout was still a considerable source of Pb accumulation in wheat. The concentration of Pb in wheat grain has poor correlation with that in farm soil. The Pb concentration in wheat grains with dust in bran coat was significantly higher than that in wheat grains, which indicates that Pb may accumulate by foliar uptake. The Pb isotope rate has obvious differences between the soil and atmospheric fallout, and scatter ratio is significantly closer between the wheat grain and atmospheric fallout. Atmospheric fallout is a more significant source of Pb concentration in wheat grains than in soil. As far as we know, this is the first study on the main sources of lead in grain crop (wheat) samples with isotope. This study aims to improve our understanding of the translocation of foliar-absorbed metals to nonexposed parts of plants.

  10. Observation of gamma-rays from fallout collected at Ibaraki, Japan, during the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegusa, Jun; Kikuta, Yasuaki; Akino, Hitoshi

    2013-07-01

    Gamma-ray pulse height distributions were measured for a fallout sample collected at Ibaraki, Japan, during the Fukushima accident in March 2011. The fallout was collected in a pan of water and then evaporated to dryness on a stainless-steel holder. The sample was measured by a germanium detector three times over a year. In the pulse height distribution of the initial measurement, approximately 140 peaks were observed in the 50-2048 keV energy region. Most of these peaks were either total absorption peaks or sum peaks of Te, I or Cs isotopes. Unlike fallout samples at the past nuclear accidents, nuclides such as Ce and Ru were not detected whereas (110m)Ag was prominently observed. The radioactivity concentration of (137)Cs was determined to be at least 1.4×10(4) Bq m(-2), approximately 14% of which was attributed to rainout. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernette, D.R.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a preliminary review of the literature on organizational and social-psychological issues relevant to fallout-shelter evaluation. Fallout-shelter options are evaluated along two dimensions: shelter size, and extent of shelteree participation in the shelter construction. Four functional criteria are used in the evaluation: decision-making, member coordination, social control, and maintaining morale. Smaller shelters requiring shelteree participation in construction appear preferable as measured in most of these criteria. Additional factors mentioned include demographic characteristics of the shelter population, degree and type of ventilation system, and availability of medical equipment and personnel. 10 references.

  12. Isotopes of the radioactive fallout and their occurrence in milk, seen from the point of view of veterinary medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, W.

    1986-01-01

    Radioactive fallout as a consequence of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests or serious reactor accidents consists of the fission products of uranium-235 or plutonium-239. The Chernobyl reactor accident dramatically has shown the serious consequences of a contamination of the food chain, plants-animals-man. In this food chain, milk is an essential component, and radioactive contamination of milk is a hazard to human health, regardless of the amount of radionuclides involved. The article explains the fate and effects of the most significant radionuclides to be considered in this context, as e.g. radioiodine (/sup 131/I, /sup 132/I), radiocesium (/sup 134/Cs, /sup 137/Cs), and radiostrontium (/sup 89/Sr, /sup 90/Sr).

  13. Potential impacts of tephra fallout from a large-scale explosive eruption at Sakurajima volcano, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biass, S.; Todde, A.; Cioni, R.; Pistolesi, M.; Geshi, N.; Bonadonna, C.

    2017-10-01

    We present an exposure analysis of infrastructure and lifeline to tephra fallout for a future large-scale explosive eruption of Sakurajima volcano. An eruption scenario is identified based on the field characterization of the last subplinian eruption at Sakurajima and a review of reports of the eruptions that occurred in the past six centuries. A scenario-based probabilistic hazard assessment is performed using the Tephra2 model, considering various eruption durations to reflect complex eruptive sequences of all considered reference eruptions. A quantitative exposure analysis of infrastructures and lifelines is presented primarily using open-access data. The post-event impact assessment of Magill et al. (Earth Planets Space 65:677-698, 2013) after the 2011 VEI 2 eruption of Shinmoedake is used to discuss the vulnerability and the resilience of infrastructures during a future large eruption of Sakurajima. Results indicate a main eastward dispersal, with longer eruption durations increasing the probability of tephra accumulation in proximal areas and reducing it in distal areas. The exposure analysis reveals that 2300 km of road network, 18 km2 of urban area, and 306 km2 of agricultural land have a 50% probability of being affected by an accumulation of tephra of 1 kg/m2. A simple qualitative exposure analysis suggests that the municipalities of Kagoshima, Kanoya, and Tarumizu are the most likely to suffer impacts. Finally, the 2011 VEI 2 eruption of Shinmoedake demonstrated that the already implemented mitigation strategies have increased resilience and improved recovery of affected infrastructures. Nevertheless, the extent to which these mitigation actions will perform during the VEI 4 eruption presented here is unclear and our hazard assessment points to possible damages on the Sakurajima peninsula and the neighboring municipality of Tarumizu.

  14. Life history trade-offs and behavioral sensitivity to testosterone: an experimental test when female aggression and maternal care co-occur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A Rosvall

    Full Text Available Research on male animals suggests that the hormone testosterone plays a central role in mediating the trade-off between mating effort and parental effort. However, the direct links between testosterone, intrasexual aggression and parental care are remarkably mixed across species. Previous attempts to reconcile these patterns suggest that selection favors behavioral insensitivity to testosterone when paternal care is essential to reproductive success and when breeding seasons are especially short. Females also secrete testosterone, though the degree to which similar testosterone-mediated trade-offs occur in females is much less clear. Here, I ask whether testosterone mediates trade-offs between aggression and incubation in females, and whether patterns of female sensitivity to testosterone relate to female life history, as is often the case in males. I experimentally elevated testosterone in free-living, incubating female tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor, a songbird with a short breeding season during which female incubation and intrasexual aggression are both essential to female reproductive success. Testosterone-treated females showed significantly elevated aggression, reduced incubation temperatures, and reduced hatching success, relative to controls. Thus, prolonged testosterone elevation during incubation was detrimental to reproductive success, but females nonetheless showed behavioral sensitivity to testosterone. These findings suggest that the relative importance of both mating effort and parental effort may be central to understanding patterns of behavioral sensitivity in both sexes.

  15. Are dietary reports in a case-control study on thyroid cancer biased by risk perception of Chernobyl fallout?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhaard, C; Dumas, A; Souchard, V; Ren, Y; Borson-Chazot, F; Sassolas, G; Schvartz, C; Colonna, M; Lacour, B; Wonoroff, A S; Velten, M; Clero, E; Maillard, S; Marrer, E; Bailly, L; Mariné Barjoan, E; Schlumberger, M; Orgiazzi, J; Adjadj, E; Rubino, C; Bouville, A; Drozdovitch, V; de Vathaire, F

    2017-08-01

    In retrospective case-control studies performed following nuclear tests or nuclear accidents, individual thyroid radiation dose reconstructions are based on fallout and meteorological data from the residential area, demographic characteristics, and lifestyle as well as dietary information. Collecting the latter is a controversial step, as dietary declarations may be affected by the subjects' beliefs about their risk behavior. This report analyses the potential for such bias in a case-control study performed in eastern France. The study included 765 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma matched with 831 controls. Risk perceptions and beliefs of cases and controls were compared using Chi2 tests and differences in dietary reports were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. In general, atmospheric pollution and living near a nuclear power plant were the two major risks that may influence thyroid cancer occurrence cited by cases and controls. When focusing in particular on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, cases were more likely to think that the consequences were responsible for thyroid cancer occurrence than controls. Vegetable consumption during the two months after the Chernobyl accident was correlated with the status of subjects, but not to their beliefs. Conversely, consumption of fresh dairy products was not correlated with the status or beliefs of subjects. We found no evidence of systematic bias in dietary reports according to the status or beliefs held by subjects about the link between thyroid cancer occurrence and Chernobyl fallout. As such, these dietary reports may be used in further studies involving individual dosimetric reconstructions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Naturally occurring hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The study of naturally occurring hazardous materials (NOHMs) was conceived as a proactive response to assure that the Oregon : Department of Transportation (ODOT) maintenance and construction activities take the presence of NOHMs into account. The la...

  17. Graphic presentation of quarterly /sup 90/Sr fallout data, 1954-1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    This report graphically presents all of the precipitation and /sup 90/Sr deposition data for all stations operated as part of the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's (EML) global fallout program since the initiation of the program in 1954. 3 references, 179 figures.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of crisis-relocation fallout-shelter options. Volume 2. Detailed analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Clinch, J.M.; Davis, F.H.; Hill, L.G.; Lynch, E.P.; Tanzman, E.A.; Wernette, D.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a preliminary, detailed evaluation of various shelter options for use if the President orders crisis relocation of the US urban population because of strong expectation of a nuclear war. The availability of livable shelter space at 40 ft/sup 2/ per person (congregate-care space) by state is evaluated. Options are evaluated for construction of fallout shelters allowing 10 ft/sup 2/ per person - such shelters are designed to provide 100% survival at projected levels of radioactive fallout. The FEMA concept of upgrading existing buildings to act as fallout shelters can, in principle, provide adequate shelter throughout most of the US. Exceptions are noted and remedies proposed. In terms of upgrading existing buildings to fallout shelter status, great benefits are possible by turning away from a standard national approach and adopting a more site-specific approach. Existing FEMA research provides a solid foundation for successful crisis relocation planning, but the program can be refined by making suitable modifications in its locational, engineering, and institutionally specific elements.

  19. Upscaling the Use of Fallout Radionuclides in Soil Erosion and Sediment Budget Investigations: Addressing the Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.E. Walling

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The application of fallout radionuclides in soil erosion investigations and related sediment budget studies has provided a widely used tool for improving understanding of soil erosion and sediment transfer processes. However, most studies using fallout radionuclides undertaken to date have focussed on small areas. This focus on small areas reflects both the issues addressed and practical constraints associated with sample collection and analysis. Increasing acceptance of the important role of fine sediment in degrading aquatic habitats and in the transfer and fate of nutrients and contaminants within terrestrial and fluvial systems has emphasised the need to consider larger areas and the catchment or regional scale. The need to upscale existing approaches to the use of fallout radionuclides to larger areas represents an important challenge. This contribution provides a brief review of existing and potential approaches to upscaling the use of fallout radionuclides and presents two examples where such approaches have been successfully applied. These involve a national scale assessment of soil erosion rates in England and Wales based on 137Cs measurements and an investigation of the sediment budgets of three small/intermediate-size catchments in southern Italy.

  20. Worldwide dispersion and deposition of radionuclides produced in atmospheric tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Burton G

    2002-05-01

    Radionuclides produced in atmospheric nuclear tests were widely dispersed in the global environment. From the many measurements of the concentrations in air and the deposition amounts, much was learned of atmospheric circulation and environmental processes. Based on these results and the reported fission and total yields of individual tests, it has been possible to devise an empirical model of the movement and residence times of particles in the various atmospheric regions. This model, applied to all atmospheric weapons tests, allows extensive calculations of air concentrations and deposition amounts for the entire range of radionuclides produced throughout the testing period. Especially for the shorter-lived fission radionuclides, for which measurement results at the time of the tests are less extensive, a more complete picture of levels and isotope ratios can be obtained, forming a basis for improved dose estimations. The contributions to worldwide fallout can be inferred from individual tests, from tests at specific sites, or by specific countries. Progress was also made in understanding the global hydrological and carbon cycles from the tritium and 14C measurements. A review of the global measurements and modeling results is presented in this paper. In the future, if injections of materials into the atmosphere occur, their anticipated motions and fates can be predicted from the knowledge gained from the fallout experience.

  1. Towards prediction of redistribution of fallout radiocesium on forested area discharged from Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Satoru; Aoyama, Michio; Ito, Eriko; Shichi, Koji; Takata, Daisuke; Masaya, Masumori; Sekiya, Nobuhito; Kobayashi, Natsuko; Takano, Naoto; Kaneko, Shinji; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko

    2015-04-01

    Redistribution of fallout 137Cs on forested area discharged from Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) is an issue of major concern for the people in Fukushima and its surrounding areas. To approach this question we investigated global fallout 137Cs (137Cs-GFO) from nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere in the 1950s and 60s, and 137Cs distribution derived from FNPP (137Cs-FK) within the whole trees contaminated directly. We examined concentrations and amounts of 137Cs-GFO in surface soils (0-5, 5-15 and 15-30 cm in depth) of 3470 samples at 316 sites all over Japan, which were collected just before the accident of FNPP. We determined 137Cs-GFO activities by NaI well-type scintillation counter with its accuracy verified using measurements by a germanium detector. We divided 316 sampling sites into 10 groups separated by one longitudinal line and four transversal lines on the terrain of Japan islands, then analyzed rainfall and geomorphological effects on 137Cs-GFO inventories. In addition to this dataset, we collected three whole tree samples of 26 year-old Quercus serrata at a contaminated area by FNPP accident in April, 2014 and examined concentrations of 137Cs-FK of above- and belowground tree parts by a germanium detector. We estimated an average of 137Cs-GFO inventories of forest soils in Japan to be 1.7 ± 1.4 kBq m-2 as of 2008. 137Cs-GFO inventories varied largely from 0-7.9 kBq m-2 among the country and accumulated greater in the north-western part along the Sea of Japan side. We detected rainfall effect on 137Cs-GFO inventories, which were greater where winter rainfall was large. As for vertical distribution of 137Cs-GFO, 44% of 137Cs-GFO remained within the uppermost 5 cm of soil profiles whereas the rest of 56% existed in 5-30 cm in depth. This indicated that considerable downward migration of 137Cs-GFO has happened during these fifty years in forest soils in Japan. However, multiple linear regression analysis by geomorphological factors related to soil

  2. New simple deposition model based on reassessment of global fallout data 1954 - 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S.E. [Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Reykjavik (Iceland); Bergan, T.D. [Directorate for Civil Protection and Emergency Planning, Toensberg (Norway); Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Ikaeheimonen, T.K. [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland); Isaksson, M. [Univ. of Gothenburg. Dept. of Radiation Physics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgren Academy, Gothenburg (Sweden); Nielsen, Sven P. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Nutech, Roskilde (Denmark); Paatero, J. [Finnish Meteorological Institute. Observation Services, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-12-15

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons began in 1945 and largely ceased in 1963. This testing is the major cause of distribution of man-made radionuclides over the globe and constitutes a background that needs to be considered when effects of other sources are estimated. The main radionuclides of long term (after the first months) concern are generally assumed to be {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr. It has been known for a long time that the deposition density of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr is approximately proportional to the amount of precipitation. But the use of this proportional relationship raised some questions such as (a) over how large area can it be assumed that the concentration in precipitation is the same at any given time; (b) how does this agree with the observed latitude dependency of deposition density and (c) are the any other parameters that could be of use in a simple model describing global fallout? These issues were amongst those taken up in the NKS-B EcoDoses activity. The preliminary results for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr showed for each that the measured concentration had been similar at many European and N-American sites at any given time and that the change with time had been similar. These finding were followed up in a more thorough study in this (DepEstimates) activity. Global data (including the US EML and UK AERE data sets) from 1954 - 1976 for {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were analysed testing how well different potential explanatory variables could describe the deposition density. The best fit was obtained by not assuming the traditional proportional relationship, but instead a non-linear power function. The predictions obtained using this new model may not be significantly different from those obtained using the traditional model, when using a limited data set such as from one country as a test in this report showed. But for larger data sets and understanding of underlying processes the new model should be an improvement. (Author)

  3. Tracking Radioactive Fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Accident in Arctic Snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Thompson, J.; Landis, J.; Albert, M. R.; Campbell, S. W.; Hawley, R. L.; Virginia, R. A.

    2011-12-01

    The March 11, 2011 magnitude 9.0 Tohoku, Japan earthquake produced a tsunami that inundated the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant and led to the accidental release of radioactive 131I, 132Te, 134Cs, and 137Cs to the atmosphere. The Japanese Nuclear Safety Commission estimates that 12,000 TBq of 137Cs were released to the atmosphere during the incident, which represents ~14% of the total estimated 137Cs emission from the Chernobyl disaster in April 1986. Measurements of airborne radiation collected at the Fukushima plant illustrate that >50% of the total emitted radiation was released on March 15 and 16 associated with explosions and fires at reactor units 1, 2, and 4, and 70% was emitted in the first 5 days of the event. The source of the radiation is thus well constrained in time and space, providing an opportunity to better understand long-range atmospheric transport processes from Asia to the Arctic, while also assessing the magnitude of the fallout in the Arctic. Here we describe the 137Cs and 134Cs fallout flux near Thule, Greenland (1700 m a.s.l.), at Summit (3200 m a.s.l.), Greenland, and within Denali National Park, Alaska (2400-3900 m a.s.l.) based on series of large-volume (5-15 l) snow pit samples collected in June and July, 2011. In addition to assessing the spatial variability of Fukushima fallout in the Arctic, the elevation range of samples allows for an analysis of any vertical heterogeneity in fallout transport and deposition. Major ion concentrations and stable water isotope ratios are used to confirm the seasonal timing of the Fukushima fallout horizon in the snowpack. Radiocesium was concentrated and isolated from the snow pit meltwater using the well-established ammonium phosphomolybdate (AMP) adsorption method, and 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations were measured using gamma spectrometry with a Canberra 3523 well-type intrinsic Ge-detector at the Dartmouth College Short-Lived Isotope Laboratory. NOAA HYPLIT atmospheric forward

  4. Spatial variability of the dose rate from (137)Cs fallout in settlements in Russia and Belarus more than two decades after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardsson, C; Rääf, C L; Mattsson, S

    2015-11-01

    Radionuclides from the 1986 Chernobyl accident were released and dispersed during a limited period of time, but under widely varying weather conditions. As a result, there was a high geographical variation in the deposited radioactive fallout per unit area over Europe, depending on the released composition of fission products and the weather during the 10 days of releases. If the plume from Chernobyl coincided with rain, then the radionuclides were unevenly distributed on the ground. However, large variations in the initial fallout also occurred locally or even on a meter scale. Over the ensuing years the initial deposition may have been altered further by different weathering processes or human activities such as agriculture, gardening, and decontamination measures. Using measurements taken more than two decades after the accident, we report on the inhomogeneous distribution of the ground deposition of the fission product (137)Cs and its influence on the dose rate 1 m above ground, on both large and small scales (10ths of km(2) - 1 m(2)), in the Gomel-Bryansk area close to the border between Belarus and Russia. The dose rate from the deposition was observed to vary by one order of magnitude depending on the size of the area considered, whether human processes were applied to the surface or not, and on location specific properties (e.g. radionuclide migration in soil). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Understanding Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon transfers at the catchment scale combining chemical and fallout radionuclides analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Lefevre, Irène; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Alliot, fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Contamination of river water and sediment constitutes a major environmental issue for industrialized countries. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants characterized by two or more fused rings. In recent years, studies dealing with PAHs have grown in number. Some PAHs present indeed a high risk for environment and human health because of their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. However, most of these studies focused on measuring PAH concentration in the different compartments of the environment (air, soil, sediment, water, etc.) In this context, there remains a lack of understanding regarding the various processes responsible for PAH transfers from one environmental compartment to another. Our study aims to quantify PAHs transfers at the catchment scale by combining chemical analysis with gamma spectrometry. Air, soil, river water and sediment samples (n=820) were collected in two upstream sub-catchments of the Seine River basin (France) during one year. Chemical analyses were carried out to determine PAHs concentrations in all samples. Furthermore, measurement of fallout radionuclides (Beryllium-7, Lead-210, Caesium-137) in both rainfall and river sediment provided a way to discriminate between freshly eroded sediment vs. resuspension of older material that previously deposited on the riverbed. This information is crucial to estimate PAH residence time and transfer velocities in the Seine River basin. The results show that the PAH behaviour varies from one subcatchment to the next. PAH transfers depend indeed on both the characteristics of the catchment (e.g. topography, presence of drained cropland in catchments) and the local anthropogenic pressures. A significant increase in atmospheric deposition of PAHs is observed during winter due to a larger number of sources (household heating). The 14-month study has also highlighted the seasonal variations of PAH fluxes, which are mainly related to the hydrological

  6. Naturally occurring cardiac glycosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radford, D J; Gillies, A D; Hinds, J A; Duffy, P

    1986-05-12

    Cardiac glycoside poisoning from the ingestion of plants, particularly of oleanders, occurs with reasonable frequency in tropical and subtropical areas. We have assessed a variety of plant specimens for their cardiac glycoside content by means of radioimmunoassays with antibodies that differ in their specificity for cardiac glycosides. Significant amounts of immunoreactive cardiac glycoside were found to be present in the ornamental shrubs: yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana); oleander (Nerium oleander); wintersweet (Carissa spectabilis); bushman's poison (Carissa acokanthera); sea-mango (Cerbera manghas); and frangipani (Plumeria rubra); and in the milkweeds: redheaded cotton-bush (Asclepias curassavica); balloon cotton (Asclepias fruiticosa); king's crown (Calotropis procera); and rubber vine (Cryptostegia grandifolia). The venom gland of the cane toad (Bufo marinus) also contained large quantities of cardiac glycosides. The competitive immunoassay method permits the rapid screening of specimens that are suspected to contain cardiac glycosides. Awareness of the existence of these plant and animal toxins and their dangers allows them to be avoided and poisoning prevented. The method is also useful for the confirmation of the presence of cardiac glycosides in serum in cases of poisoning.

  7. Characteristic of microplastics in the atmospheric fallout from Dongguan city, China: preliminary research and first evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liqi; Wang, Jundong; Peng, Jinping; Tan, Zhi; Zhan, Zhiwei; Tan, Xiangling; Chen, Qiuqiang

    2017-11-01

    Microplastic pollution has exhibited a global distribution, including seas, lakes, rivers, and terrestrial environment in recent years. However, little attention was paid on the atmospheric environment, though the fact that plastic debris can escape as wind-blown debris was previously reported. Thus, characteristics of microplastics in the atmospheric fallout from Dongguan city were preliminarily studied. Microplastics of three different polymers, i.e., PE, PP, and PS, were identified. Diverse shapes of microplastics including fiber, foam, fragment, and film were found, and fiber was the dominant shape of the microplastics. SEM images illustrated that adhering particles, grooves, pits, fractures, and flakes were the common patterns of degradation. The concentrations of non-fibrous microplastics and fibers ranged from 175 to 313 particles/m 2 /day in the atmospheric fallout. Thus, dust emission and deposition between atmosphere, land surface, and aquatic environment were associated with the transportation of microplastics.

  8. Airborne fallout mapping of {sup 137}Cs Finnish defence forces team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, M.; Heininen, T. [Finnish Defence Forces Research Centre, Lakiala (Finland); Pulakka, M. [Finnish Air Force Depot, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The main task of the team was to create a fallout map of {sup 137}Cs in a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used an MI-8 helicopter of the Finnish Air Force. The team had an HPGe system (relative efficiency 70%) to measure nuclide specific ground contamination level. For navigation the team took advantage of the DGPS service provided by Finnish Broadcasting company utilizing the RDS-channel to get position accuracy within 2 meters. The correction signal is reachable nationwide on the FM transmitter network. The system produced a distribution map for {sup 40}K and fallout maps for {sup 134,137}Cs using a Micro Station Program with TerraModeler application. The maximum measured {sup 137}Cs ground contamination exceeded 130-140 kBqm{sup -2}. (au).

  9. Airborne fallout mapping of {sup 137}Cs - STUK/HUT team

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikkinen, M.; Aarnio, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Honkamaa, T.; Tiilikainen, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The task of the team was to create a fallout map of {sup 137}Cs on a specified area in Padasjoki Auttoinen village. The team used AB-420 helicopter of the Finnish Frontier Guard. The team had two measuring systems: HPGe system (relative efficiency 18%) and NaI system (5`x5`). Both systems produced similar maps. The average {sup 137}Cs fallout within the area (lakes and ponds included) was 88 kBq m{sup -2,} the maximum value being 161 kBq m{sup -2}. In an emergency the HPGe is superior to NaI because of its better energy resolution, giving possibility to obtain nuclide-specific results. (au).

  10. Impact Analysis of Age on Fallout Fatality Estimations for IND Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-30

    casualty estimation tools have not considered subpopulation variability. The current study has focused on the vulnerability of particular demographic...fallout decision aid for first responders. Livermore, CA: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; 2010. Bell WC, Dallas CE. Vulnerability of... Disaster Med Public Health Prep 1: 80-89; 2007. DOI:10.1097/DMP.0b013e318159a9e3. Daugherty W, Levi B, Hippel F. Casualties due to the blast, heat

  11. BREXIT FALLOUT FOR BRITISH AND WORLD INSURANCE MARKET: OPERATIONAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rasshyvalov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the fallout of Brexit for insurance industry through a lens of future decisions to be made on the format and mechanism of this process. The operational and institutional aspects are analyzed, with focus on the leading role of the London insurance market in the formation of the capacity of the global insurance market and its dependence on the cash flows of other regional and national insurance as well as financial markets.

  12. Immunological effects of low dose radiation. Absent or minor effects of Chernobyl fallout in Norway?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitan, J.B.; Bergan, T.D.; Strand, P. [Statens Straalevern, Oesteraas (Norway); Melbye, O.J. [Rikshospitalet, Oslo (Norway)

    1998-01-01

    In this pilot study of those Norwegian individuals most heavily exposed to the Chernobyl Fallout, immunological parameters generally stayed within normal limits. However, some parameter, apparently within the assumed normal range did, in fact correlate to the estimated individual dose as assessed by wholebody counting of radiocaesium content. The small possible effects revealed in this study may represent real biological effects, but do not necessarily represent a health detriment. 43 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Synthetic fibers in atmospheric fallout: A source of microplastics in the environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dris, Rachid; Gasperi, Johnny; Saad, Mohamed; Mirande, Cécile; Tassin, Bruno

    2016-03-15

    Sources, pathways and reservoirs of microplastics, plastic particles smaller than 5mm, remain poorly documented in an urban context. While some studies pointed out wastewater treatment plants as a potential pathway of microplastics, none have focused on the atmospheric compartment. In this work, the atmospheric fallout of microplastics was investigated in two different urban and sub-urban sites. Microplastics were collected continuously with a stainless steel funnel. Samples were then filtered and observed with a stereomicroscope. Fibers accounted for almost all the microplastics collected. An atmospheric fallout between 2 and 355 particles/m(2)/day was highlighted. Registered fluxes were systematically higher at the urban than at the sub-urban site. Chemical characterization allowed to estimate at 29% the proportion of these fibers being all synthetic (made with petrochemicals), or a mixture of natural and synthetic material. Extrapolation using weight and volume estimates of the collected fibers, allowed a rough estimation showing that between 3 and 10 tons of fibers are deposited by atmospheric fallout at the scale of the Parisian agglomeration every year (2500 km(2)). These results could serve the scientific community working on the different sources of microplastic in both continental and marine environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ash fallout scenarios at Vesuvius: Numerical simulations and implications for hazard assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedonio, G.; Costa, A.; Folch, A.

    2008-12-01

    Volcanic ash fallout subsequent to a possible renewal of the Vesuvius activity represents a serious threat to the highly urbanized area around the volcano. In order to assess the relative hazard we consider three different possible scenarios such as those following Plinian, Sub-Plinian, and violent Strombolian eruptions. Reference eruptions for each scenario are similar to the 79 AD (Pompeii), the 1631 AD (or 472 AD) and the 1944 AD Vesuvius events, respectively. Fallout deposits for the first two scenarios are modeled using HAZMAP, a model based on a semi-analytical solution of the 2D advection-diffusion-sedimentation equation. In contrast, fallout following a violent Strombolian event is modeled by means of FALL3D, a numerical model based on the solution of the full 3D advection-diffusion-sedimentation equation which is valid also within the atmospheric boundary layer. Inputs for models are total erupted mass, eruption column height, bulk grain-size, bulk component distribution, and a statistical set of wind profiles obtained by the NCEP/NCAR re-analysis. We computed ground load probability maps for different ash loadings. In the case of a Sub-Plinian scenario, the most representative tephra loading maps in 16 cardinal directions were also calculated. The probability maps obtained for the different scenarios are aimed to give support to the risk mitigation strategies.

  15. Mapping of caesium fallout from the Chernobyl accident in the Jotunheimen area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranwal, Vikas C.; Ofstad, Frode; Roenning, Jan S.; Watson, Robin J.

    2011-07-01

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, several areas in Norway received radioactive fallout. One of these areas is the eastern part of Jotunheimen in central Norway. Immediately after the accident in 1986, the Geological Survey of Norway (NGU) performed airborne gamma-ray spectroscopy in central Norway. At that time, it was not possible to calculate reliable radionuclide concentrations, and the data were presented as total counts per second. Several man-made radionuclides were present in the initial fallout, but due to short half-lives, most of these have now disintegrated into stable isotopes. 137Cs, with a half-life of 11.000 days ({approx} 30 years) is still present in the environment in significant quantities, leading to high radioactivity levels in meat from reindeer and sheep. To obtain a detailed map of the caesium fallout concentration in Jotunheimen, an airborne gamma-ray spectrometry (AGRS) survey was carried out, focussing on reindeer grazing areas. This project was a cooperation between Reindeer Husbandry Administration, Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Geological Survey of Norway. (auth)

  16. Cholecystitis occurring without stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seal, M.L.

    1986-03-01

    A case of acalculous cholecystitis in a 65-year-old man with underlying diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and peripheral arteriosclerosis is presented here. His case remained diagnostically puzzling for some time until symptoms and signs became more severe and very suggestive of acute cholecystitis. The clinical impression was then supported by an abnormal radioisotope biliary scan. The scan has fairly good sensitivity in detecting this condition but may not be totally dependable. Acalculous cholecystitis is an unusual but serious variant of a common disorder in which treatable gallbladder disease may masquerade as a less treatable liver malady. A common denominator among this disorder's many etiologies may be impairment of the gallbladder microcirculation in the presence of one or more conditions that lower the gallbladder's resistance to bacterial invasion. Prompt detection and treatment are desirable to reduce morbidity and mortality. However, early diagnosis is not always possible, because the clinical picture often is unclear, clear, gallstones are absent, and laboratory test results may be normal or equivocal. As in the case reported here, the vague clinical picture may dictate following a patient until the illness reaches an intensity acute enough to permit identification. The greatest aid to earlier diagnosis for the physician faced with circumstances similar to those described here is to think of cholecystitis and then to give strong weight to that clinical suspicion. At times, a recommendation for cholecystectomy may have to be made mainly on clinical judgment.

  17. Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly, March 1--June 1, 1976. [Fallout, natural radioactivity, and lead in environmental samples from USA, India, and Taiwan during 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1976-07-01

    This report presents current data from the HASL environmental programs, the Air Monitoring Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Center in India, the Health Physics Section of the Institute of Nuclear Science in Taiwan and the Radiological and Environmental Research Division at Argonne National Laboratory. The initial section consists of interpretive reports and notes on the history of long-range fallout, cesium-137 in Bombay milk, natural and fallout radioactivity in Indian diet, reporting results of radioactivity measurements at near zero levels of sample activity and background, plutonium in soil northeast of the Nevada Test Site, radon levels at the Lloyd, NY regional station, strontium-90 in New York and San Francisco diets through 1975, plutonium-239, 240 in 1974 diet, up-dating stratospheric radionuclide inventories to July 1975 and a revised table of radionuclides. Subsequent sections include tabulations of radionuclide levels in stratospheric air; lead and radionuclides in surface air; strontium-90 in deposition, milk, diet, tap water, and human bone; cesium-137 in Chicago foods in April 1976; and environmental radioactivity surveys for nuclear power plants in North Taiwan. A bibliography of recent publications related to environmental studies is also presented.

  18. Reassessing Nuclear Power: The Fallout from Chernobyl. Worldwatch Paper 75.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Christopher

    The Chernobyl nuclear plant explosion on April 26, 1986, was the world's most serious nuclear power accident to date. This document examines the accident's impact on the world from a variety of perspectives. The first major section of the book provides a step-by-step account of the accident itself, beginning with the special testing that…

  19. Review of medical findings in a Marshallese population twenty-six years after accidental exposure to radioactive fallout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conard, R.A.; Paglia, D.E.; Larsen, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    In March 1954, radioactive debris from a thermonuclear weapon test at Bikini Atoll deviated from predicted trajectories and contaminated several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. As a result, 239 native inhabitants of these islands along with 28 American servicemen and 23 Japanese fishermen received variably severe exposures to diverse ionizing radiations. Fallout material consisted largely of mixed fission products with small amounts of neutron-induced radionuclides and minimal amounts of fissionable elements, producing a complex spectrum of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. Individuals were exposed to deeply penetrating, whole-body gamma irradiation, to internal radiation emitters assimilated either by inhalation or by ingestion of contaminated water and food, and to direct radiation from material accumulating on body surfaces. That accident initiated a cascade of events, medical, social and political, which continue in varying forms to this day. Most of these have been discussed in the open medical literature and in periodic reports issued by the medical team headquartered at Brookhaven National Laboratory. This report attempts to summarize some of the principal findings of medical significnce that have been observed during the subsequent 26 years with particular emphasis on the last six years.

  20. Local fall-out and the animal food chain; Retombees locales et chaine alimentaire animale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, G.; Mercier, F.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The local consequences of fresh fall-out, especially in the case of atmospheric nuclear explosions, are reviewed from the point of view of the internal contamination of the consumer of foodstuffs of animal origin. The edibility of foodstuffs derived from animals having grazed in the presence of fall-out is evaluated both from the wholesome and radio-toxicological points of view. The contamination level of these foodstuffs is calculated as a function of the ground fall-out, and of agronomical and ecological parameters for each radio-nuclide of the animal food chain. The internal exposure of the human consumer is calculated from this level as a function of the diet and of various parameters especially temporal. The equivalent dose to each critical organ, including the digestive tract is deduced from the burdens of each organ. From this a nutritional hygiene in the areas affected by fall-out is obtained, in relationship to the action levels fixed by the responsible authorities in exceptional circumstances. Criteria for these action levels are given as function of the food rations. (authors) [French] Les consequences locales des retombees fraiches, notamment dans le cas d'explosions nucleaires atmospheriques, sont passees en revue en ce qui concerne les problemes de contamination interne du consommateur de denrees d'origine animale. La comestibilite des aliments provenant de betes de boucherie ayant pature sous les retombees est evaluee au double point de vue de la salubrite et de la radiotoxicologie. Le niveau de contamination de ces denrees est calcule en fonction de la retombee au sol, des parametres agronomiques et ecologiques pour chaque radioelement de la chaine alimentaire animale. La contamination interne du consommateur humain est calculee a partir de ce niveau en fonction des modalites d'ingestion et de divers parametres, notamment temporels. L'equivalent de dose au niveau de chaque organe critique, y compris le tube digestif, est deduit

  1. Nuclear Reactor Accident Fallout Artifacts: Unusual Black Spots on Digital Radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashimura, Yasuhiro; Chida, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident resulted in the discharge of radioactive particulate material into the atmosphere. Consequently, several hospitals in Japan have observed black spots on x-ray computed radiography (CR) images caused by particulate radioactive fallout. These black spots have no effect on human health. To reduce the influence of black spots on CR images, we need to erase latent images on imaging plates (IPs) immediately before clinical use and read the IPs soon after the x-ray examination. Alternatively, the contaminated felt of a cassette can be cleaned or exchanged, if possible.

  2. Constraining Erosion Timescales and Magnitudes with Multiple Fallout Radionuclide Tracers in Owens Valley, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaste, J. M.; Evans, G.; Elmore, A. J.; Vest, K. R.; Okin, G. S.

    2011-12-01

    In central Owens Valley, California, groundwater withdrawals during periods of drought have been linked to reduced vegetation cover and a shift from grass-dominated to shrub-dominated landscapes over the past few decades. While there is field evidence of significant soil deflation in areas where native grass cover has declined, the timing and magnitude of wind erosion in this part of the valley is not well understood. An understanding of the spatiotemporal relationship between groundwater pumping, vegetation change, and erosion is necessary for effective water and land use management in this ecologically sensitive area. Here we use measurements of fallout radionuclides 7Be, 137Cs, and 210Pb in soils and dust to quantify the timing and extent of soil deflation in areas of Owens Valley where climate, land use history, and ecological changes are well constrained. We measure cosmogenic 7Be in soils to constrain the heterogeneity of wet deposition and to scale reference inventories for radioactive fallout across an arid precipitation gradient in the valley. Using a mass balance advection-diffusion-decay model, we show that in arid environments, soil 137Cs inventories are sensitive to erosion magnitude, but not so much the timing of the erosion, because vertical advection rates are slow and fallout halted in the 1960s. In contrast, soil 210Pb inventories are sensitive to both the timing and the magnitude of erosion because of near-constant meteoric inputs that can replenish the soil in years following a deflation event. Using a coupled model, we can constrain both the timing and magnitude of soil erosion in Owens Valley over the past half century, and assess how water management and abrupt climate fluctuations can lead to soil loss. Our model indicates a higher likelihood of erosion in central Owens Valley in the past three decades, particularly during and following the drought period of 1986-1992. However, we observed significant spatial variability in total erosion

  3. Displacement of Chernobyl fallout in snow layers of temperate Alpine glaciers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambach, W; Rehwald, W; Blumthaler, M; Eisner, H; Brunner, P

    1988-10-15

    Measurements of the gross-beta-activity and a gamma-spectrum analysis of radioactive fallout from Chernobyl distributed in vertical snow profiles on an Alpine glacier were carried out. Samples were collected in summer 1986 and in summer 1987. A displacement of isotopes to depths of approximately 6 m was observed. The mean activity per unit area amounts to 10.4 and 6.6 kBq m-2 for samples from 1986 and 1987, respectively, both values corrected to 1 May 1987. Isotopes with half-lives shorter than 110m Ag (250 days) could no longer be detected in 1987.

  4. Appendix to health and safety laboratory environmental quarterly. [Tabulated data on fallout radioactivity in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-04-01

    Data are tabulated on: the content of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 89/Sr in monthly deposition at monitoring sites in the USA and other locations throughout the world; the content of /sup 90/Sr in milk samples collected in New York City; the content of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr in samples of drinking water collected in New York City; and the content of fallout radionuclides and lead in samples of surface air collected at various world sites during 1976. (CH)

  5. Radioactive fallout has different effects in Lapland. Lapin luonto herkkae radioactiivisille saasteille

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rissanen, K.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of radioactive fallout in Lapland differ from those in southern Finland. The subarctic area is poor in vegetation and nutrients, for which reason radioactive substances enter food chains rapidly. As potassium is low in supply in the north, plants use cesium to replace it. Thus cesium is accumulated very effectively in food chain. When in the food chain, cesium is enriched in reindeer and further in Lapp people, who eat reindeer meat frequently. The Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety established a regional laboratory in northern Finland in the 1970's to monitor radiation and carry out research an the area.(author).

  6. United theory of biological evolution: Disaster-forced evolution through Supernova, radioactive ash fall-outs, genome instability, and mass extinctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikazu Ebisuzaki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the disaster-forced biological evolution model as a general framework that includes Darwinian “phylogenic gradualism”, Eldredge-Gould's “punctuated equilibrium”, mass extinctions, and allopatric, parapatric, and sympatric speciation. It describes how reproductive isolation of organisms is established through global disasters due to supernova encounters and local disasters due to radioactive volcanic ash fall-outs by continental alkaline volcanism. Our new evolution model uniquely highlights three major factors of disaster-forced speciation: enhanced mutation rate by higher natural radiation level, smaller population size, and shrunken habitat size (i.e., isolation among the individual populations. We developed a mathematical model describing speciation of a half-isolated group from a parental group, taking into account the population size (Ne, immigration rate (m, and mutation rate (μ. The model gives a quantitative estimate of the speciation, which is consistent with the observations of speciation speed. For example, the speciation takes at least 105 generations, if mutation rate is less than 10−3 per generation per individual. This result is consistent with the previous studies, in which μ is assumed to be 10−3–10−5. On the other hand, the speciation is much faster (less than 105 generations for the case that μ is as large as 0.1 in parapatric conditions (m < μ. Even a sympatric (m ~ 1 speciation can occur within 103 generations, if mutation rate is very high (μ ~ 1 mutation per individual per generation, and if Ne < 20–30. Such a high mutation rate is possible during global disasters due to supernova encounters and local disasters due to radioactive ash fall-outs. They raise natural radiation level by a factor of 100–1000. Such rapid speciation events can also contribute to macro-evolution during mass extinction events, such as observed during the Cambrian explosion of biodiversity. A

  7. Combining microscopy with spectroscopic and chemical methods for tracing the origin of atmospheric fallouts from mining sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navel, Aline; Uzu, Gaëlle; Spadini, Lorenzo [University Grenoble Alpes — LTHE UMR 5564–CNRS-INSU/UGA/INPG/IRD, 1025 rue de la Piscine, DU BP53 - 38041 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France); Sobanska, Sophie [LASIR, (UMR CNRS 8516), Université de Lille 1, Bât. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq CEDEX (France); Martins, Jean M.F., E-mail: jean.martins@yujf-grenoble.fr [University Grenoble Alpes — LTHE UMR 5564–CNRS-INSU/UGA/INPG/IRD, 1025 rue de la Piscine, DU BP53 - 38041 Grenoble CEDEX 9 (France)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Numerous ancient mines are left over without specific care for contaminated wastes. • Sources similarity makes the tracing of the origin of metallic fallouts challenging. • Physico-chemical fingerprints of all metal-source sites and fallouts were established. • Combining physical/chemical methods allowed discriminating polluted fallouts origin. • A Hierarchical cluster analysis permitted to identify the dominant particles source. - Abstract: Populations living close to mining sites are often exposed to important heavy metal concentrations, especially through atmospheric fallouts. Identifying the main sources of metal-rich particles remains a challenge because of the similarity of the particle signatures from the polluted sites. This work provides an original combination of physical and chemical methods to determine the main sources of airborne particles impacting inhabited zones. Raman microspectrometry (RMS), X-ray diffraction (DRX), morphology analyses by microscopy and chemical composition were assessed. Geochemical analysis allowed the identification of target and source areas; XRD and RMS analysis identified the main mineral phases in association with their metal content and speciation. The characterization of the dominant minerals was combined with particle morphology analysis to identify fallout sources. The complete description of dust morphologies permitted the successful determination of a fingerprint of each source site. The analysis of these chemical and morphological fingerprints allowed identification of the mine area as the main contributor of metal-rich particles impacting the inhabited zone. In addition to the identification of the main sources of airborne particles, this study will also permit to better define the extent of polluted zones requiring remediation or protection from eolian erosion inducing metal-rich atmospheric fallouts.

  8. Deposition of heavy metals from dust fallout in selected areas of Eastern Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Slančo

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an evaluation of the deposition of selected heavy metals in the form of a detailed analysis of the dust fallout. The loaded areas of Nižná Slaná and Jelšava with the mining and mineral processing industry of siderite ore and magnesite, the area of Krompachy with the copper metal works, the municipal and industrial environs of Košice and relatively clean area of the National Park of Slovak Paradise were monitored and compared. The results have shown significant differences in the qualitative and quantitative effect on the monitored areas. The values of heavy metals content in the dust fallout of the loaded areas exceeded by order the values detected in the Slovak Paradise. As to the mining areas of Nižná Slaná and Jelšava, the highest content of heavy metals was recorded in the case of Mn and As. The metallurgical area of Krompachy is mostly loaded by Cu, Pb, As and Cd..

  9. Fallout from the Chernobyl accident and overall cancer incidence in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurttio, Päivi; Seppä, Karri; Pasanen, Kari; Patama, Toni; Auvinen, Anssi; Pukkala, Eero; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Arvela, Hannu; Hakulinen, Timo

    2013-10-01

    We studied whether incidence of all cancer sites combined was associated with the radiation exposure due to fallout from the Chernobyl accident in Finland. An emphasis was on the first decade after the accident to assess the suggested "promotion effect". The segment of Finnish population with a stable residence in the first post-Chernobyl year (2 million people) was studied. The analyses were based on a 250m × 250m grid squares covering all of Finland and all cancer cases except cancers of the breast, prostate and lung. Cancer incidence in four exposure areas (based on first-year dose due to external exposure Chernobyl accident (1981-1985) and after it (1988-2007) taking into account cancer incidence trends for a longer period prior to the accident (since 1966). There were no systematic differences in the cancer incidence in relation to radiation exposure in any calendar period, or any subgroup by sex or age at accident. The current large and comprehensive cohort analysis of the relatively low levels of the Chernobyl fallout in Finland did not observe a cancer promotion effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Medical status of Marshallese accidentally exposed to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation: January 1980-December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, W.H.; Harper, J.A.; Rittmaster, R.S.; Heotis, P.M.; Scott, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This report updates, for 1980 through 1982, the results of continuing medical surveillance of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to radioactive fallout in March 1954. The originally exposed Marshallese population comprised 64 persons on Rongelap Atoll who each received, on the average, an estimated 190 rads of absorbed external gamma radiation, 18 on Ailingnae Atoll who received 110 rads, and 159 on Utirik who received 11 rads. There were, in addition, 3 persons in utero on Rongelap, 1 person in utero on Ailingnae, and 8 persons in utero on Utirik who are considered exposed. The recipients of primary medical care include exposed and comparison populations as well as a rather large number of additional beneficiaries who are seen on a humanitarian basis of practical need and resource availability. In recent years, about 1400 people have been seen annually. This report, however, deals with four clearly defined groups: the remaining individuals who were exposed to radioactive fallout on Rongelap, Ailingnae, and Utirik in 1954 (including those in utero), and a comparison population of individuals from Rongelap who were unexposed. The number of persons now in each exposure category are 51, 12, 116, and 137, respectively. 100 references, 4 figures, 5 tables. (ACR)

  11. Evidence of the radioactive fallout in the center of Asia (Russia) following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolsunovsky, A., E-mail: radecol@ibp.ru [Radioecology Laboratory, Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, 50-50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Dementyev, D. [Radioecology Laboratory, Institute of Biophysics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Akademgorodok, 50-50, 660036 Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    It was recently reported that radioactive fallout due to the Fukushima Nuclear Accident was detected in environmental samples collected in the USA and Greece, which are very far away from Japan. In April-May 2011, fallout radionuclides ({sup 134}Cs, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 131}I) released in the Fukushima Nuclear Accident were detected in environmental samples at the city of Krasnoyarsk (Russia), situated in the center of Asia. Similar maximum levels of {sup 131}I and {sup 137}Cs/{sup 134}Cs and {sup 131}I/{sup 137}Cs ratios in water samples collected in Russia and Greece suggest the high-velocity movement of the radioactive contamination from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident and the global effects of this accident, similar to those caused by the Chernobyl accident. - Highlights: > Detection of radiocesium and radioiodine in environmental samples in Krasnoyarsk (Russia). > The highest level of {sup 131}I in water samples in Krasnoyarsk (Russia) was similar to the level of {sup 131}I in Greece. > The {sup 137}Cs/{sup 134}Cs and {sup 131}I/{sup 137}Cs ratios varied within the same range for the samples collected in Greece and Russia. > The obtained results suggest the global effects of the radioactive contamination from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

  12. Sensitivity tests and ensemble hazard assessment for tephra fallout at Campi Flegrei, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selva, Jacopo; Costa, Antonio; De Natale, Giuseppe; Di Vito, Mauro; Isaia, Roberto; Macedonio, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    We present the results of a statistical study on tephra dispersion in the case of reactivation of the Campi Flegrei volcano. We considered the full spectrum of possible eruptions, in terms of size and position of eruptive vents. To represent the spectrum of possible eruptive sizes, four classes of eruptions were considered. Of those only three are explosive (small, medium, and large) and can produce a significant quantity of volcanic ash. Hazard assessments are made through dispersion simulations of ash and lapilli, considering the full variability of winds, eruptive vents, and eruptive sizes. The results are presented in form of four families of hazard curves conditioned to the occurrence of an eruption: 1) small eruptive size from any vent; 2) medium eruptive size from any vent; 3) large eruptive size from any vent; 4) any size from any vent. The epistemic uncertainty (i.e. associated with the level of scientific knowledge of phenomena) on the estimation of hazard curves was quantified making use of alternative scientifically acceptable approaches. The choice of such alternative models is made after a comprehensive sensitivity analysis which considered different weather databases, alternative modelling of the possible opening of eruptive vents, tephra total grain-size distributions (TGSD), relative mass of fine particles, and the effect of aggregation. The results of this sensitivity analyses show that the dominant uncertainty is related to the choice of TGSD, mass of fine ash, and potential effects of ash aggregation. The latter is particularly relevant in case of magma-water interaction during an eruptive phase, when most of the fine ash can form accretionary lapilli that could contribute significantly in increasing the tephra load in the proximal region. Relatively insignificant is the variability induced by the use of different weather databases. The hazard curves, together with the quantification of epistemic uncertainty, were finally calculated through a statistical model based on ensemble mixing of selected alternative models, e.g. different choices on the estimate of the total erupted mass, mass of fine ash, effects of aggregation, etc. Hazard and probability maps were produced at different confidence levels compared to the epistemic uncertainty (mean, median, 16th percentile, and 84th percentile).

  13. Use of fallout radionuclides ((7)Be, (210)Pb) to estimate resuspension of Escherichia coli from streambed sediments during floods in a tropical montane catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribolzi, Olivier; Evrard, Olivier; Huon, Sylvain; Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Henri-des-Tureaux, Thierry; Silvera, Norbert; Thammahacksac, Chanthamousone; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth

    2016-02-01

    Consumption of water polluted by faecal contaminants is responsible for 2 million deaths annually, most of which occur in developing countries without adequate sanitation. In tropical aquatic systems, streambeds can be reservoirs of persistent pathogenic bacteria and high rainfall can lead to contaminated soils entering streams and to the resuspension of sediment-bound microbes in the streambed. Here, we present a novel method using fallout radionuclides ((7)Be and (210)Pbxs) to estimate the proportions of Escherichia coli, an indicator of faecal contamination, associated with recently eroded soil particles and with the resuspension of streambed sediments. We show that using these radionuclides and hydrograph separations we are able to characterize the proportion of particles originating from highly contaminated soils and that from the resuspension of particle-attached bacteria within the streambed. We also found that although overland flow represented just over one tenth of the total flood volume, it was responsible for more than two thirds of the downstream transfer of E. coli. We propose that data obtained using this method can be used to understand the dynamics of faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) in streams thereby providing information for adapted management plans that reduce the health risks to local populations. Graphical Abstract Graphical abstract showing (1) the main water flow processes (i.e. overland flow, groundwater return flow, blue arrows) and sediment flow components (i.e. resuspension and soil erosion, black arrows) during floods in the Houay Pano catchment; (2) the general principle of the method using fallout radionuclide markers (i.e. (7)Be and (210)Pbxs) to estimate E. coli load from the two main sources (i.e. streambed resuspension vs soil surface washoff); and 3) the main results obtained during the 15 May 2012 storm event (i.e. relative percentage contribution of each process to the total streamflow, values in parentheses).

  14. Physiochemical processes in the nuclear cloud: a record from aerodynamic Trinity fallout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonamici, C. E.; Fournelle, J.; Zimmer, M. M.; Kinman, W.; Pollington, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    We present results of the first detailed microanalytical study of aerodynamic glassy fallout from Trinity, the world's first nuclear device. The aerodynamic morphology of trinitite beads is consistent with their origination inside the nuclear cloud and solidification prior to reaching the ground. Existing conceptual models of aerodynamic fallout formation involve progressive condensation about a nucleus of ground material, followed by diffusive compositional homogenization. Microstructural and chemical composition data from eleven trinitite beads instead suggest that fallout records a multitude of physiochemical processes, including partial melting, agglomeration, volatile exsolution, condensation, melt mingling, and quenching. SEM-based mapping and EPMA data show that beads are composed of variable amounts of four distinct constituents ­- alkali-rich glass; silica glass (lechatlierite); Ca-Mg-Fe-bearing glass; and unmelted or partially melted mineral aggregates. Smooth, ovoid trinitite beads (2-5 mm diameter) comprise vesicular alkali and silica glass blebs with the compositions of fused feldspar and quartz grains, respectively, embedded within CaMgFe glass. Flattened or elongate beads (4-8 mm long axis) are mineral aggregates encased in a rind of predominantly CaMgFe glass. Increasing vesicularity toward the glass-aggregate interface suggests volatile exsolution as hotter melt contacted cooler mineral debris. CaMgFe glass is compositionally heterogeneous, with SiO2 contents ranging from basaltic to rhyolitic, and compositional banding indicating low-viscosity flow. Contacts between alkali, silica, and CaMgFe glasses are sharp to slightly diffuse, and EPMA traverses across glass contacts confirm limited diffusive exchange of major and minor elements. Autoradiography of trinitite shows that radioisotopes are confined to the CaMgFe glass, where they are patchily distributed, supporting limited diffusive mobility of trace elements as well. Overall, the microscale

  15. Orphan Sources and Fresh Fallout: Virtual Exercise in Mobile Measurement (ORPEX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdall, M. (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, OEsteraas (Norway)); Smethurst, M.A. (Univ. of Exeter and Avalonia Geophysics, Cornwall Campus, Penryn (United Kingdom)); Andersson, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Aage, H.K. (Danish Emergency Management Agency, Birkeroed (Denmark)); Palsson, S.E. (Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute, Reykjavik (Iceland))

    2011-10-15

    In recent years carborne gamma spectrometry has expanded from its role as a geological survey platform to serving as a useful asset in the field of emergency response to radiological and nuclear situations. Its two main applications are searching for orphan sources and for surveying in the aftermath of an accident involving the release of radioactive materials. Despite this expansion, the opportunities for gaining practical experience in the field are limited by cost considerations and practicability. These limitations are exacerbated by the fact that data generated and displayed in the field differ significantly from gamma spectral data generated in a laboratory environment. As a means of exercising existing emergency measuring/surveying capability and introducing carborne measurements to a larger group, a virtual exercise was devised. The exercise ORPEX (Orphan Sources and Fresh Fallout Virtual Exercise in Mobile Measurement) featured two typical emergency scenarios in which carborne measuring systems might be deployed: firstly a search for multiple orphan sources and secondly surveying to delineate patchy fallout from a local release point. In the first scenario, synthetic spectral data were generated for imaginary point sources and inserted into genuine carborne measurements from in the Trondheim area of Norway. Participants were presented with a typical software tool and data in a range of typical formats and asked to report the source locations and isotopes within a time limit. In the second scenario, synthetic spectral data representing fallout from a local fire involving radioactive material were added to real carborne data from the Trondheim area. Participants were asked to produce maps that identify and characterise the regions of contamination within the same time limit. Fourteen individual organisations from seven different countries supplied results. Results from participants indicate that for strong sources of isotopes with simple spectra featuring

  16. Photographs and Pamphlet about Nuclear Fallout. The Constitution Community: Postwar United States (1945 to Early 1970s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, John M., Jr.

    In August 1945, the United States unleashed an atomic weapon against the Japanese at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and brought an end to World War II. These bombs killed in two ways -- by the blast's magnitude and resulting firestorm, and by nuclear fallout. After the Soviet Union exploded its first atom bomb in 1949, the Cold War waged between the two…

  17. Appendix to Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly, June 1, 1976--September 1, 1976. [Fallout radionuclides and Pb in environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1976-10-01

    Tabulated data are presented on the content of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 89/Sr in fallout deposited at various world land sites; /sup 90/Sr in milk and drinking water samples from various locations; and the content of Pb in samples of surface air. (CH)

  18. Study of the thermal and hydraulic phenomena occurring during power excursion on a heated test section; Etude des phenomenes thermiques et hydrauliques accompagnant une excursion rapide de puissance sur un canal chauffant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyer, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    The thermal and hydrodynamic phenomena occurring during a power excursion were studied in an out-of-pile loop with a water cooled channel at low pressure (1 to 4 atm. abs. ). Circular and rectangular test sections with electrically heated walls of two different thermal diffusivity materials(aluminium and stainless steel) were used. The rectangular test sections were 600 mm long, 35 mm wide and had a 2, 9 mm gap; they simulate two half plates of the M.T.R. fuel element. Natural or forced convection are possible in the test section; the water height above it can be varied from 2.8 to 8 meters and the maximum allowed pressure at its outlet is 4 atm. abs.The heating source is a series of lead batteries which is able to generate, for short periods of time, 85 volts and 25000 amperes; linear, square or exponential power rise versus time can be realized. A 14 channels tape recorder (0-10 000 Hz bandwidth; is used for the measurements of temperature (8/100 mm diameter thermocouple), pressure ('Statham' pressure transducers) and void fraction (X rays). More than 500 tests have been carried out. The influence of the initial water temperature, flow rate, pressure, water height on the water ejections, pressure variations and void fraction in the test section were studied. Tests with energies up to 3000 W/cm in 50 milliseconds were attempted. The energy above which the instabilities appear was determined. An interpretation of the observed phenomena and a simplified theoretical model are presented. [French] Les phenomenes thermiques et hydrodynamiques qui apparaissent au cours d'une excursion de puissance ont ete etudies sur un canal refroidi par de l'eau a basse pression situe sur une installation hors pile. On a utilise des sections d'essais de geometrie cylindrique ou parallipedique dont les parois chauffees par effet Joule sont constituees de materiaux de diffusivite calorifique differente (aluminium et acier inoxydable). La section d

  19. Neogene Fallout Tuffs from the Yellowstone Hotspot in the Columbia Plateau Region, Oregon, Washington and Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Barbara P.; Perkins, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentary sequences in the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest ranging in age from 16–4 Ma contain fallout tuffs whose origins lie in volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in northwestern Nevada, eastern Oregon and the Snake River Plain in Idaho. Silicic volcanism began in the region contemporaneously with early eruptions of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), and the abundance of widespread fallout tuffs provides the opportunity to establish a tephrostratigrahic framework for the region. Sedimentary basins with volcaniclastic deposits also contain diverse assemblages of fauna and flora that were preserved during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, including Sucker Creek, Mascall, Latah, Virgin Valley and Trout Creek. Correlation of ashfall units establish that the lower Bully Creek Formation in eastern Oregon is contemporaneous with the Virgin Valley Formation, the Sucker Creek Formation, Oregon and Idaho, Trout Creek Formation, Oregon, and the Latah Formation in the Clearwater Embayment in Washington and Idaho. In addition, it can be established that the Trout Creek flora are younger than the Mascall and Latah flora. A tentative correlation of a fallout tuff from the Clarkia fossil beds, Idaho, with a pumice bed in the Bully Creek Formation places the remarkably well preserved Clarkia flora assemblage between the Mascall and Trout Creek flora. Large-volume supereruptions that originated between 11.8 and 10.1 Ma from the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in the central Snake River Plain deposited voluminous fallout tuffs in the Ellensberg Formation which forms sedimentary interbeds in the CRBG. These occurrences extend the known distribution of these fallout tuffs 500 km to the northwest of their source in the Snake River Plain. Heretofore, the distal products of these large eruptions had only been recognized to the east of their sources in the High Plains of Nebraska and Kansas. PMID:23071494

  20. Neogene fallout tuffs from the Yellowstone hotspot in the Columbia Plateau region, Oregon, Washington and Idaho, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara P Nash

    Full Text Available Sedimentary sequences in the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest ranging in age from 16-4 Ma contain fallout tuffs whose origins lie in volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in northwestern Nevada, eastern Oregon and the Snake River Plain in Idaho. Silicic volcanism began in the region contemporaneously with early eruptions of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG, and the abundance of widespread fallout tuffs provides the opportunity to establish a tephrostratigrahic framework for the region. Sedimentary basins with volcaniclastic deposits also contain diverse assemblages of fauna and flora that were preserved during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, including Sucker Creek, Mascall, Latah, Virgin Valley and Trout Creek. Correlation of ashfall units establish that the lower Bully Creek Formation in eastern Oregon is contemporaneous with the Virgin Valley Formation, the Sucker Creek Formation, Oregon and Idaho, Trout Creek Formation, Oregon, and the Latah Formation in the Clearwater Embayment in Washington and Idaho. In addition, it can be established that the Trout Creek flora are younger than the Mascall and Latah flora. A tentative correlation of a fallout tuff from the Clarkia fossil beds, Idaho, with a pumice bed in the Bully Creek Formation places the remarkably well preserved Clarkia flora assemblage between the Mascall and Trout Creek flora. Large-volume supereruptions that originated between 11.8 and 10.1 Ma from the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in the central Snake River Plain deposited voluminous fallout tuffs in the Ellensberg Formation which forms sedimentary interbeds in the CRBG. These occurrences extend the known distribution of these fallout tuffs 500 km to the northwest of their source in the Snake River Plain. Heretofore, the distal products of these large eruptions had only been recognized to the east of their sources in the High Plains of Nebraska and Kansas.

  1. Neogene fallout tuffs from the Yellowstone hotspot in the Columbia Plateau region, Oregon, Washington and Idaho, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Barbara P; Perkins, Michael E

    2012-01-01

    Sedimentary sequences in the Columbia Plateau region of the Pacific Northwest ranging in age from 16-4 Ma contain fallout tuffs whose origins lie in volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in northwestern Nevada, eastern Oregon and the Snake River Plain in Idaho. Silicic volcanism began in the region contemporaneously with early eruptions of the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), and the abundance of widespread fallout tuffs provides the opportunity to establish a tephrostratigrahic framework for the region. Sedimentary basins with volcaniclastic deposits also contain diverse assemblages of fauna and flora that were preserved during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, including Sucker Creek, Mascall, Latah, Virgin Valley and Trout Creek. Correlation of ashfall units establish that the lower Bully Creek Formation in eastern Oregon is contemporaneous with the Virgin Valley Formation, the Sucker Creek Formation, Oregon and Idaho, Trout Creek Formation, Oregon, and the Latah Formation in the Clearwater Embayment in Washington and Idaho. In addition, it can be established that the Trout Creek flora are younger than the Mascall and Latah flora. A tentative correlation of a fallout tuff from the Clarkia fossil beds, Idaho, with a pumice bed in the Bully Creek Formation places the remarkably well preserved Clarkia flora assemblage between the Mascall and Trout Creek flora. Large-volume supereruptions that originated between 11.8 and 10.1 Ma from the Bruneau-Jarbidge and Twin Falls volcanic centers of the Yellowstone hotspot in the central Snake River Plain deposited voluminous fallout tuffs in the Ellensberg Formation which forms sedimentary interbeds in the CRBG. These occurrences extend the known distribution of these fallout tuffs 500 km to the northwest of their source in the Snake River Plain. Heretofore, the distal products of these large eruptions had only been recognized to the east of their sources in the High Plains of Nebraska and Kansas.

  2. Early detection of radioactive fall-out by gamma-spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Helle Karina; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Bargholz, K.

    2003-01-01

    For multi-gamma energy radioactivity the detection level is 2.6-3.5 nGy h(-1). A standard NaI detector and a 512-channel analyser are used together with noise adjusted singular value decomposition (NASVD). Statistical noise is removed and the measured spectra are reproduced using spectral components......Radioactive fallout should be detected as early as possible. A new and efficient method for detection of low-level irradiation from manmade radioactivity is developed. Radiation abnormalities are detectable down to air kerma rate, of 0.5 to 1.0 nGy h(-1) for Cs-137 and even lower for I-131...... produced by NASVD. Stripping is not used and false alarms due to washout of atmospheric radon progeny are almost eliminated. Detection levels and the criteria for setting warning and alarm levels are discussed. The method may also be useful in other situations, for example where low-level signals from...

  3. Understanding Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon transfers at the catchment scale combining chemical and fallout radionuclide analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateuille, D.; Evrard, O.; Lefevre, I.; Moreau-Guigon, E.; Alliot, F.; Chevreuil, M.; Mouchel, J.-M.

    2012-04-01

    Reducing environmental contamination constitutes a major challenge for industrialized countries. Furthermore, in the European Union, Water Framework Directive (WFD; Directive 2000/60/EC) requires that the member state water bodies reach good ecological and chemical status by 2015. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants considered as priority pollutants because of their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. They are mostly emitted by human activities such as household heating or road traffic. Although emissions have decreased during the last decades, a large amount of PAHs have been released into the atmosphere for the last two centuries. In recent years, studies dealing with PAHs have grown in number but most of them were restricted to the measurement of PAHs concentrations in the different compartments of the environment (air, soil, sediment, water, etc.). In this context, there remains a lack of knowledge about the transfers and, consequently, about the persistence of these compounds in the environment. This question is particularly acute in the Seine River basin where very high concentrations in PAHs are reported in sediment, thereby compromising the achievement of the good chemical status required by WFD. Our study aims to quantify PAHs transfers at the catchment scale by combining chemical analysis with gamma spectrometry. Atmospheric fallout, soil, river water and sediment samples were collected in two upstream sub-catchments of the Seine River basin during one year. Chemical analyses, restricted to 15 of the 16 PAHs selected by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were carried out to determine PAHs concentrations in all samples. Contamination spectra were used to outline the potential origin of pollution. Measurement of fallout radionuclides (Beryllium-7, Lead-210, Caesium-137) in both rainfall and river sediment provided a way to discriminate between freshly eroded sediment vs. material that

  4. Comparative assessment of natural radioactivity in fallout samples from Patras and Megalopolis, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaefthymiou, H. E-mail: epap@chemistry.upatras.gr; Kritidis, P.; Anousis, J.; Sarafidou, J

    2005-03-01

    Bulk deposition samples were collected simultaneously from two Greek cities, Patras and Megalopolis, with different emission sources of natural radioactivity, on a monthly basis, during a whole year. Gross {beta}-activity and {sup 238}U- and {sup 232}Th-activities were determined in a total of 95 samples of deposited dust. The results were statistically analyzed in order to determine the natural radioactivity levels and their variations in the above cities. No significant difference was found in deposited dust amount between the two cities, while the values of gross {beta}-, {sup 238}U- and {sup 232}Th-activities were about 3, 71 and 4 times higher in Megalopolis than in Patras, respectively. This was attributed to the operation of lignite power plants A and B in the vicinity of the city of Megalopolis, while natural radioactivity concentrations in Patras' fallout samples were of natural sources.

  5. Comparative assessment of natural radioactivity in fallout samples from Patras and Megalopolis, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaefthymiou, H; Kritidis, P; Anousis, J; Sarafidou, J

    2005-01-01

    Bulk deposition samples were collected simultaneously from two Greek cities, Patras and Megalopolis, with different emission sources of natural radioactivity, on a monthly basis, during a whole year. Gross beta-activity and 238U- and 232Th-activities were determined in a total of 95 samples of deposited dust. The results were statistically analyzed in order to determine the natural radioactivity levels and their variations in the above cities. No significant difference was found in deposited dust amount between the two cities, while the values of gross beta-, 238U- and 232Th-activities were about 3, 71 and 4 times higher in Megalopolis than in Patras, respectively. This was attributed to the operation of lignite power plants A and B in the vicinity of the city of Megalopolis, while natural radioactivity concentrations in Patras' fallout samples were of natural sources.

  6. Comparative assessment of natural radioactivity in fallout samples from Patras, and Megalopolis, Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaefthymiou, H.; Kritidis, P.; Anousis, J.; Sarafidou, J. [University of Patras, Patras (Greece). Dept. of Chemistry

    2005-07-01

    Bulk deposition samples were collected simultaneously from two Greek cities, Patras and Megalopolis, with different emission sources of natural radioactivity, on a monthly basis, during a whole year. Gross {beta}-activity and U-238- and Th-232-activities were determined in a total of 95 samples of deposited dust. The results were statistically analyzed in order to determine the natural radioactivity levels and their variations in the above cities. No significant difference was found in deposited dust amount between the two cities, while the values of gross {beta}- U-238- and Th-232-activities were about 3, 71 and 4 times higher in Megalopolis than in Patras, respectively. This was attributed to the operation of lignite power plants A and B in the vicinity of the city of Megalopolis, while natural radioactivity concentrations in Patras' fallout samples were of natural sources.

  7. Quantifying sources of fine sediment supplied to post-fire debris flows using fallout radionuclide tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Nyman, Petter; Child, David; Lane, Patrick; Hotchkis, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The supply of fine sediment and ash has been identified as an important factor contributing to the initiation of runoff-generated debris flows after fire. However, despite the significance of fines for post-fire debris flow generation, no investigations have sought to quantify sources of this material in debris flow affected catchments. In this study, we employ fallout radionuclides (Cs-137, excess Pb-210 and Pu-239,240) as tracers to measure proportional contributions of fine sediment (<10 μm) from hillslope surface and channel bank sources to levee and terminal fan deposits formed by post-fire debris flows in two forest catchments in southeastern Australia. While Cs-137 and excess Pb-210 have been widely used in sediment tracing studies, application of Pu as a tracer represents a recent development and was limited to only one catchment. The estimated range in hillslope surface contributions of fine sediment to individual debris flow deposits in each catchment was 22-69% and 32-74%, respectively. No systematic change in the source contributions to debris flow deposits was observed with distance downstream from channel initiation points. Instead, spatial variability in source contributions was largely influenced by the pattern of debris flow surges forming the deposits. Linking the sediment tracing with interpretation of depositional evidence allowed reconstruction of temporal sequences in sediment source contributions to debris flow surges. Hillslope source inputs dominated most elevated channel deposits such as marginal levees that were formed under peak flow conditions. This indicated the importance of hillslope runoff and sediment supply for debris flow generation in both catchments. In contrast, material stored within channels that was deposited during subsequent surges was predominantly channel-derived. The results demonstrate that fallout radionuclide tracers may provide unique information on the changing source contributions of fine sediment during debris

  8. ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION FROM WEAPON TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none

    1958-10-01

    The program of the Atomic Energy Commission on environmental contamination from weapons tests is designed for the overall evaluation of the hazard to humans from test operations. It is limited to studies of the deposition of activity at long range rather than the problems associated with immediate, close-in fallout. The program has largely been a study of Sr{sup 90}, since considerations based on experience and measurement indicate that it is the isotope of greatest potential hazard. Data are presented pertinent to the monitoring of long-range fallout, particularly Sr{sup 90} and Cs{sup 137}. Values are tabulated for the fallout deposition, air concentrations, water concentrations, and the amounts in foods and human bone. In addition, results are given for some experimental investigations. The report of these results is not interpretative although certain papers that do attempt to interpret the present situation with respect to Sr{sup 90} in particular are reprinted. Bibliographies are presented covering the period since the 1957 hearings before the Joint Committee on Atomic Energy concerning the nature of radioactive fallout and its effects on man. A document list of submissions to the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation is given to illustrate the work done in other countries. Several papers on the subject, which have not been generally available, are reprinted.

  9. Long-range volcanic ash transport and fallout during the 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durant, Adam J.; Villarosa, Gustavo; Rose, William I.; Delmelle, Pierre; Prata, Alfred J.; Viramonte, José G.

    2012-01-01

    The May 2008 eruption of Chaitén volcano, Chile, provided a rare opportunity to measure the long-range transport of volcanic emissions and characteristics of a widely-dispersed terrestrial ash deposit. Airborne ash mass, quantified using thermal infrared satellite remote sensing, ranged between 0.2 and 0.4 Tg during the period 3-7 May 2008. A high level of spatiotemporal correspondence was observed between cloud trajectories and changes in surface reflectivity, which was inferred to indicate ash deposition. The evolution of the deposit was mapped for the first time using satellite-based observations of surface reflectivity. The distal (>80 km) ash deposit was poorly sorted and fine grained, and mean particle size varied very little beyond a distance >300 km. There were three particle size subpopulations in fallout at distances >300 km which mirror those identified in fallout from the 18 May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, known to have a high propensity for aggregation. Discrete temporal sampling and characterisation of fallout demonstrated contributions from specific eruptive phases. Samples collected at the time of deposition were compared to bulk samples collected months after deposition and provided some evidence for winnowing. Experimentally-derived ash leachates had near-neutral pH values and charge balance which indicates minimal quantities of adsorbed acids. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed surface enrichments in Ca, Na and Fe and the presence of coatings of mixed Ca-, Na- and Fe-rich salts on ash particles prior to deposition. Low S:Cl ratios in leachates indicate that the eruption had a low S content, and high Cl:F ratios imply gas-ash interaction within a Cl-rich environment. We estimate that ash fallout had potential to scavenge ∼42% of total S released into the atmosphere prior to deposition. XPS analyses also revealed ash particle surfaces were strongly enriched in Fe (in contrast to the results from bulk leachate

  10. Effects of fluvial processes in different order river valleys on redistribution and storage of particle-bound radioactive caesium-137 in area of significant Chernobyl fallout and impact on linked rivers with lower contamination levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Golosov, Valentin; Shamshurina, Evgeniya; Ivanov, Maxim; Ivanova, Nadezhda; Bezukhov, Dmitry; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Evrard, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    -incremental floodplain sediment sections along the Upa River valley, which is the receiving river for the Plava and is characterized by generally much lower caesium-137 contamination within other parts of its basin. One of the sampled sections was located several kilometers upstream from the Plava River mouth and the other 6 - at different distances downstream starting from about 2 km to about 40 km. In this case we can assume the Plava River mouth to be the point-source of sediment-associated radioactive contamination additional to the initial fallout. It has been found that while at the nearest point downstream the floodplain sediment contamination by caesium-137 is about 2 order of magnitude higher, than upstream, it decreases quickly along the Upa River valley two about 3 times higher than upstream at the most remote downstream point. Importantly, the decrease is not represented by gradual and uniform curve. In contrast, it is interrupted by local increase caused by smaller tributary from relatively high contamination area. It is believed that the obtained information on decadal-scale sediment and associated post-fallout caesium-137 redistribution through the fluvial network, patterns of sinks and rate of contamination propagation into the less polluted downstream-linked river basin can be used for testing and improving the predictive models being developed for applications in other contaminated areas such as river basins around the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, providing that differences in landscape settings, hydrological regime and land use patterns are taken into account.

  11. Research paper United theory of biological evolution: Disaster-forced evolution through Supernova, radioactive ash fall-outs, genome instability, and mass extinctions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toshikazu Ebisuzaki Shigenori Maruyama

    2015-01-01

    .... It describes how reproductive isolation of organisms is established through global disasters due to supernova encounters and local disasters due to radioactive volcanic ash fall-outs by continental alkaline volcanism...

  12. Metal and metalloid foliar uptake by various plant species exposed to atmospheric industrial fallout: Mechanisms involved for lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, E., E-mail: eva.schreck@ensat.fr [Universite de Toulouse (France); INP, UPS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); Foucault, Y. [Universite de Toulouse (France); INP, UPS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); STCM, Societe de Traitements Chimiques des Metaux, 30 Avenue de Fondeyre 31200 Toulouse (France); Sarret, G. [ISTerre (UMR 5275), Universite J. Fourier and CNRS, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Sobanska, S. [LASIR (UMR CNRS 8516), Universite de Lille 1, Bat. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France); Cecillon, L. [ISTerre (UMR 5275), Universite J. Fourier and CNRS, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Castrec-Rouelle, M. [Universite Pierre and Marie Curie (UPMC-Paris 6), Bioemco (Biogeochimie et Ecologie des Milieux Continentaux), Site Jussieu, Tour 56, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Uzu, G. [Laboratoire d' Aerologie (UMR 5560), OMP, UPS 14, Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); GET (UMR 5563), IRD, 14, Avenue Edouard Belin, 31400 Toulouse (France); Dumat, C. [Universite de Toulouse (France); INP, UPS (France); EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement) (France); ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France); CNRS (France); EcoLab, 31326 Castanet Tolosan (France)

    2012-06-15

    Fine and ultrafine metallic particulate matters (PMs) are emitted from metallurgic activities in peri-urban zones into the atmosphere and can be deposited in terrestrial ecosystems. The foliar transfer of metals and metalloids and their fate in plant leaves remain unclear, although this way of penetration may be a major contributor to the transfer of metals into plants. This study focused on the foliar uptake of various metals and metalloids from enriched PM (Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb, As, and especially lead (Pb)) resulting from the emissions of a battery-recycling factory. Metal and metalloid foliar uptake by various vegetable species, exhibiting different morphologies, use (food or fodder) and life-cycle (lettuce, parsley and rye-grass) were studied. The mechanisms involved in foliar metal transfer from atmospheric particulate matter fallout, using lead (Pb) as a model element was also investigated. Several complementary techniques (micro-X-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry) were used to investigate the localization and the speciation of lead in their edible parts, i.e. leaves. The results showed lead-enriched PM on the surface of plant leaves. Biogeochemical transformations occurred on the leaf surfaces with the formation of lead secondary species (PbCO{sub 3} and organic Pb). Some compounds were internalized in their primary form (PbSO{sub 4}) underneath an organic layer. Internalization through the cuticle or penetration through stomata openings are proposed as two major mechanisms involved in foliar uptake of particulate matter. - Graphical abstract: Overall picture of performed observations and mechanisms potentially involved in lead foliar uptake. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Foliar uptake of metallic particulate matter (PM) is of environmental and health concerns. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The leaf morphology influences the adsorption

  13. Postglacial eruptive history of Laguna del Maule volcanic field in Chile, from fallout stratigraphy in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierstein, J.; Sruoga, P.; Amigo, A.; Elissondo, M.; Rosas, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Laguna del Maule (LdM) volcanic field, which surrounds the 54-km2 lake of that name, covers ~500 km2 of rugged glaciated terrain with Quaternary lavas and tuffs that extend for 40 km westward from the Argentine frontier and 30 km N-S from the Rio Campanario to Laguna Fea in the Southern Volcanic Zone of Chile. Geologic mapping (Hildreth et al., 2010) shows that at least 130 separate vents are part of the LdM field, from which >350 km3 of products have erupted since 1.5 Ma. These include a ring of 36 postglacial rhyolite and rhyodacite coulees and domes that erupted from 24 separate vents and encircle the lake, suggesting a continued large magma reservoir. Because the units are young, glassy, and do not overlap, only a few ages had been determined and the sequence of most of the postglacial eruptions had not previously been established. However, most of these postglacial silicic eruptions were accompanied by explosive eruptions of pumice and ash. Recent investigations downwind in Argentina are combining stratigraphy, grain-size analysis, chemistry, and radiocarbon dating to correlate the tephra with eruptive units mapped in Chile, assess fallout distribution, and establish a time-stratigraphic framework for the postglacial eruptions at Laguna del Maule. Two austral summer field seasons with a tri-country collaboration among the geological surveys of the U.S., Chile, and Argentina, have now established that a wide area east of the volcanic field was blanketed by at least 3 large explosive eruptions from LdM sources, and by at least 3 more modest, but still significant, eruptions. In addition, an ignimbrite from the LdM Barrancas vent complex on the border in the SE corner of the lake traveled at least 15 km from source and now makes up a pyroclastic mesa that is at least 40 m thick. This ignimbrite (72-75% SiO2) preceded a series of fall deposits that are correlated with eruption of several lava flows that built the Barrancas complex. Recent 14C dates suggest

  14. Angiodysplasia Occurring in Jejunal Diverticulosis

    OpenAIRE

    Edward A Jones; Hugh Chaun; Phillip Switzer; David J Clow; Ronald J Hancock

    1990-01-01

    The first case of angiodysplasia occurring in acquired jejunal diverticulosis is reported. The patient presented with occult gastrointestinal bleeding and chronic anemia, and was created successfully by resection of a 25 cm long segment of jejunum. Possible pathogenetic mechanisms for both angiodysplasia and jejunal diverticulosis are discussed.

  15. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, P. [ed.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  16. Airborne Measurement in the Ash Plume from Mount Sakurajima: Analysis of Gravitational Effects on Dispersion and Fallout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Eliasson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Volcanic ash concentrations in the plume from Sakurajima volcano in Japan are observed from airplanes equipped with optical particle counters and GPS tracking devices. The volcano emits several puffs a day. The puffs are also recorded by the Sakurajima Volcanological Observatory. High concentrations are observed in the puffs and fallout driven by vertical air current, called streak fallout. Puffs dispersion is analyzed by the classical diffusion-advection method and a new gravitational dispersion method. The fluid mechanic of the gravitational dispersion, streak fallout, and classical diffusion-advection theory is described in three separate appendices together with methods to find the time gravitational dispersion constant and the diffusion coefficient from satellite photos. The diffusion-advection equation may be used to scale volcanic eruptions so the same eruption plumes can be scaled to constant flux and wind conditions or two eruptions can be scaled to each other. The dispersion analyses show that dispersion of volcanic plumes does not follow either theories completely. It is most likely diffusion in the interface of the plume and the ambient air, together with gravitational flattening of the plumes core. This means larger boundary concentration gradients and smaller diffusion coefficients than state of the art methods can predict.

  17. Concentration of fallout Cesium-137 in soils of the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, F.C.A.; Lauria, D.C.; Silva, J.I.R., E-mail: fribeiro@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lima, E.S.A.; Amaral Sobrinho, N.M.B. do [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil); Perez, D.V. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (CNPS/EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos

    2016-07-01

    The distribution of fallout {sup 137}Cs in soil samples of the Rio de Janeiro State was investigated. Two-hundred sixty-two samples of soil were analyzed for {sup 137}Cs by gamma spectrometry. A reference data set was built containing thirty-six detected values (14%) and two hundred twenty-six (86%) multiple detection limits of non-detected observations. Distribution pattern of the radionuclide, as well their controlling factors were evaluated based on statistical methods for censored data set (with non-detected observations). The mean of concentration values of thirty-six detected observations was 1.25 Bq.kg{sup -1}, while for the censored data sets the mean value was 0.51 Bq.kg{sup -1}. The references values for the Rio de Janeiro State were estimated as 1.44 Bq.kg{sup -1} (75{sup th}) and 1.78 Bq.kg{sup -1} (90{sup th}) (considering the year of 2015). {sup 137}Cs concentrations tend to be higher in soils with high levels of organic matter and clay and locations with high levels of these parameters would provide higher Cs fixation. No influence of the rainfall index and soil pH on the Cs content in soil was observed. The data and information gathered in this study provide valuable information for decision making purposes in case of soil contamination. (author)

  18. Radioactivity in foodstuffs and doses to the Norwegian population from the Chernobyl fall-out

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, T.; Strand, P.; Baarli, J.

    1987-01-01

    The doses to the Norwegian population from foodstuffs after the fall-out from the Chernobyl accident are discussed. Based on the results of a 'food basket' project and supplementary data from the approx. 30,000 measurements on food samples during the first year after the accident, the total annual effective dose equivalent from foodstuffs to an average Norwegian consumer during the first year after the accident was estimated to be 0.15 +- 0.02 mSv at the 95% confidence level. The contribution from /sup 131/I was estimated to be less than 3% of the total effective dose equivalent in the first year. The individual doses, however, depend very much on dietary habits. The southern Lapps are probably the population receiving the highest doses. Individual reindeer-breeding Lapps, neglecting some of the dietary guidelines from the health authorities, may have received an effective dose equivalent of 20-30 mSv in the first year after the accident.

  19. Understanding sediment dynamics in rivers using fallout radionuclides: How to move forward from the lessons learnt in a tropical catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrard, Olivier; Laceby, J. Patrick; Huon, Sylvain; Gourdin, Elian; Lefèvre, Irène; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Ayrault, Sophie; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    Land use change and the concomitant acceleration of soil erosion have led to an increase in sediment supply to rivers worldwide. This degradation results in significant on-site (e.g., decrease in soil fertility) and off-site impacts (e.g., reservoir siltation and degradation of water quality). To implement effective sediment mitigation measures, it is necessary to clearly understand catchment sediment sources and their spatial temporal dynamics. Fallout radionuclides characterized by different half-lives and origins (Be-7 - 53 d; Pb-210 - 22 y; Cs-137 - 30 y) provide important information required to quantify the dominant sources of sediment and also their temporal dynamics. However, the current methods have several limitations, and the hypotheses underpinning this technique require further verification. To examine these assumptions, we investigated sediment dynamics in a 10-km² catchment in Northern Laos during the first flood of the monsoon in June 2014. Before this event, Be-7 that labelled soil and sediment during previous storms in 2013 had completely decayed, and the material stored in the river channel was shown to be depleted in Be-7. A large set of samples (n=97) was collected to characterize the sources that may supply sediment to the river. In addition, suspended sediment (n=17) was collected in the river at several stations during this the first flood of the monsoon. A distribution modelling approach was used to quantify the relative contributions of surface and subsurface sources. Further we modelled the proportions of material eroded during this storm compared to material that previously eroded before the storm and was remobilized during this recent event. The results demonstrate that the majority of sediment transported during the first erosive storm of the year consists of older, remobilized material. Furthermore, the contribution of sediment supplied to the river by subsurface sources (i.e., channel bank erosion) increases downstream. In the

  20. Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly, June 1, 1977--September 1, 1977. [Fallout radioactivity monitoring at selected world sites, trace metals in surface air and marine sediments, and N/sub 2/O concentrations in stratosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1977-10-01

    This report presents current information from the HASL environmental programs, the Australian Radiation Laboratory, the Air Resources Laboratories of NOAA, the Air Monitoring Section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in Bombay, India and the National Radiation Laboratory in New Zealand. The initial section consists of interpretive reports and notes on background corrections for /sup 90/Sr in ion-exchange resin used in the Australian fallout network, corrections to previously reported N/sub 2/O concentrations in the stratosphere, trace metal concentrations in a marine sediment as measured by five laboratories, an estimate of maximum credible atmospheric radioactivity concentrations from nuclear tests, strontium-90 concentrations in human bone in New York City and San Francisco through 1976, and worldwide deposition of /sup 90/Sr through 1976. Subsequent sections include tabulations of radionuclide and stable lead concentrations in surface air; strontium-90 in deposition, milk, diet and tapwater; fallout and atmospheric radioactivity measurements in India and environmental radioactivity measurements in New Zealand. A bibliography of recent publications related to environmental studies is also presented.

  1. Transport mechanism for Pb-210, Cs-137 and Pu fallout radionuclides through fluvial-marine systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. N.; Ellis, K. M.

    1982-06-01

    Pb-210, Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 sediment-depth profiles in an anoxic, unbioturbated, estuarine depositional regime at the head of the Saguenay Fjord, Que. exhibit a seasonally-modulated component caused by pulsed inputs of silts and sands during high energy, spring river discharge events superimposed on an ambient depositional pattern of finer grained clays and organic matter. A precise sediment timestratigraphy has been determined by the inverse correlation of the Pb-210 activity with the rate of river discharge during the period, 1963-1976. The historical record of Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 sediment fluxes has been reconstructed through the normalization of fallout radionuclide activities to the excess Pb-210 activity profile. Radionuclide flux geochronologies have been interpreted on the basis of a fluvial-marine transport model which distinguishes between inputs due to direct adsorption of radionuclides onto particles in the water column and inputs resulting from the erosion of particle-associated radionuclides from the drainage basin. Rate constants corresponding to residence times of one year for Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 in the water column and 1500 years for each radionuclide in the drainage basin provide reasonable agreement between the model and experimental results, although there is some evidence for a slightly longer drainage basin residence time for plutonium. Both the threshold for the initial appearance of Pu-238, derived from the atmospheric burnup of a SNAP-9A satellite reactor in 1964, and the magnitude of its isotopic dilution by drainage basin inputs of Pu-239,240 are also in agreement with model predictions.

  2. The First Results of Testing Methods and Algorithms for Automatic Real Time Identification of Waveforms Introduction from Local Earthquakes in Increased Level of Man-induced Noises for the Purposes of Ultra-short-term Warning about an Occurred Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravirov, V. V.; Kislov, K. V.

    2009-12-01

    The chief hazard posed by earthquakes consists in their suddenness. The number of earthquakes annually recorded is in excess of 100,000; of these, over 1000 are strong ones. Great human losses usually occur because no devices exist for advance warning of earthquakes. It is therefore high time that mobile information automatic systems should be developed for analysis of seismic information at high levels of manmade noise. The systems should be operated in real time with the minimum possible computational delays and be able to make fast decisions. The chief statement of the project is that sufficiently complete information about an earthquake can be obtained in real time by examining its first onset as recorded by a single seismic sensor or a local seismic array. The essential difference from the existing systems consists in the following: analysis of local seismic data at high levels of manmade noise (that is, when the noise level may be above the seismic signal level), as well as self-contained operation. The algorithms developed during the execution of the project will be capable to be used with success for individual personal protection kits and for warning the population in earthquake-prone areas over the world. The system being developed for this project uses P and S waves as well. The difference in the velocities of these seismic waves permits a technique to be developed for identifying a damaging earthquake. Real time analysis of first onsets yields the time that remains before surface waves arrive and the damage potential of these waves. Estimates show that, when the difference between the earthquake epicenter and the monitored site is of order 200 km, the time difference between the arrivals of P waves and surface waves will be about 30 seconds, which is quite sufficient to evacuate people from potentially hazardous space, insertion of moderators at nuclear power stations, pipeline interlocking, transportation stoppage, warnings issued to rescue services

  3. Epidemiologic evidence of health effects from long-distance transit of chemical weapons fallout from bombing early in the 1991 Persian Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Robert W; Tuite, James J

    2013-01-01

    Military intelligence data published in a companion paper explain how chemical fallout from US and Coalition bombing of Iraqi chemical weapons facilities early in the air campaign transited long distance, triggering nerve agent alarms and exposing US troops. We report the findings of a population-based survey designed to test competing hypotheses on the impact on chronic Gulf War illness of nerve agent from early-war bombing versus post-war demolition. The US Military Health Survey performed computer-assisted telephone interviews of a stratified random sample of Gulf War-era veterans (n = 8,020). Early-war exposure was measured by having heard nerve agent alarms and post-war exposure, by the computer-generated plume from the Khamisiyah demolition. Gulf War illness was measured by two widely published case definitions. The OR (95% CI) for the association of alarms with the Factor case definition was 4.13 (95% CI 2.51-6.80) compared with 1.21 (95% CI 0.86-1.69) for the Khamisiyah plume. There was a dose-related trend for the number of alarms (p(trend) war demolition. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Atmospheric fall-out of metals around the Murano glass-making district (Venice, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Paolo; Matteucci, Gabriele; Guerzoni, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Murano's glass-makers have held a monopoly on quality glass-making for centuries known all over the world. Artistic glass manufacture entails exposure to complex mixtures of pollutants, including metals. A few studies have reported high levels of trace elements in marine waters, sediments and mussels around Murano and shown that emissions from Murano glass-making workshops significantly influence air quality in the Venice area. Nevertheless, to date, there is very little information on atmospheric concentrations and virtually none on atmospheric deposition fluxes of trace elements around the island. This study presents data on the distribution of trace elements in the air and atmospheric depositions around Murano, based on a 2-year sampling period. Airborne PM10 particulate matter was collected daily in the period December 2001-June 2003 (254 air samples), and atmospheric depositions were collected every 19 +/- 6 days, in the period August 2001-July 2003 (38 samples) on the roof of the Experimental Glass Laboratory on the island of Murano. All samples were analysed by ICP-MS for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and Zn contents. Atmospheric concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater on the island of Murano than in the nearest urban areas (Venice and Mestre), with values higher than those reported for European industrial sites. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of all elements were also higher in Murano than those detected by other studies in Venice and Mestre and in the Porto Marghera industrial zone, with As, Cd, Sb and Se 1-2 orders of magnitude higher. In order to study the spatial variability of the atmospheric fall-out, data from other sampling stations belonging to Venice atmospheric deposition monitoring networks were used. A decreasing gradient from Murano to the closer leeward stations was observed for As, Cd and Se. Pb and Zn deposition fluxes in Venice were also comparable to those observed in the Porto

  5. (236)U and (239,)(240)Pu ratios from soils around an Australian nuclear weapons test site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tims, S G; Froehlich, M B; Fifield, L K; Wallner, A; De Cesare, M

    2016-01-01

    The isotopes (236)U, (239)Pu and (240)Pu are present in surface soils as a result of global fallout from nuclear weapons tests carried out in the 1950's and 1960's. These isotopes potentially constitute artificial tracers of recent soil erosion and sediment movement. Only Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has the requisite sensitivity to measure all three isotopes at these environmental levels. Coupled with its relatively high throughput capabilities, this makes it feasible to conduct studies of erosion across the geographical extent of the Australian continent. In the Australian context, however, global fallout is not the only source of these isotopes. As part of its weapons development program the United Kingdom carried out a series of atmospheric and surface nuclear weapons tests at Maralinga, South Australia in 1956 and 1957. The tests have made a significant contribution to the Pu isotopic abundances present in the region around Maralinga and out to distances ∼1000 km, and impact on the assessment techniques used in the soil and sediment tracer studies. Quantification of the relative fallout contribution derived from detonations at Maralinga is complicated owing to significant contamination around the test site from numerous nuclear weapons safety trials that were also carried out around the site. We show that (236)U can provide new information on the component of the fallout that is derived from the local nuclear weapons tests, and highlight the potential of (236)U as a new fallout tracer. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Constraining sediment dynamics during flood events using fallout radionuclides (Be-7 and Pb-210(xs)): a pilot study in a tropical catchment of SE Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdin, Elian; Evrard, Olivier; Huon, Sylvain; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    Soil erosion is particularly intense in mountainous subtropical regions where heavy storms result in the production of large quantities of suspended sediment, leading to both on-site and off-site siltation problems and conveying contaminants and biological compounds along streams. To implement efficient controls on sediment transfer, it is necessary to monitor suspended matter loads and determine whether sediments are directly exported from the catchment during a given flood or re-suspended from deposits left by previous floods. Determination of sediment residence time in catchments can be performed combining fallout radionuclides (Be-7, Pb-210 and Cs-137) measurements in both rainfall and suspended sediments, but prerequisites for their use as tracers during flood events are still required. We conducted experiments along a network of nested catchments with area increasing from 0.12 to 6.15 km², and sampled rainfall and suspended sediment loads during a flood that occurred at the beginning of the rainy season in May 2012. The experiment was carried out in the Houay Xon catchment, part of the MSEC (Multi-Scale Environmental Changes, http://msec3.net/portal/) project in the Northern Luang Prabang province of Laos. This catchment, under shifting cultivation since the end of the 1960s for a large part of its surface, is characterized by a steep topography (slopes ranging from 3% to 350% with a mean slope of 56%) and a land use evolution prone to gully erosion. The seasonal distribution of rainfall controls the Be-7 and Pb-210(xs) activities of soils in the catchment. With a half-life of 53 days, the fallout Be-7 activity of the previous wet season should have sufficiently decayed during the 6-months dry period to be neglected compared to new supply by early rains of the following wet season. Atmospheric deposition of Be-7 and Pb-210(xs) was measured after flocculation of rainfall samples by aluminum chloride hexahydrate and after dehydration of 75 suspended sediment

  7. A GIS-based application for volume estimation and spatial distribution analysis of tephra fallout: a case study of the 122 BC Etna eruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bisson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we demonstrate the use of a geo-spatial information system for volume estimation of fallout deposits and for identification of syn-eruptive and post-eruptive depositional mechanisms. For the first time, we present thickness distribution maps, isopachs maps, and fallout deposit volumes for the single stratigraphic units (A-F of the 122 BC Plinian eruption of Etna, the most powerful eruption of this volcano in historical times. Thickness data collected during the field survey were organized into a geo-referenced database, and several interpolation algorithms were used to calculate the volumes of the six fallout layers of eruption (units A-F. The results are compared with those obtained using the Pyle method, which bases volume calculations on the exponential thickness-decay law of the deposits. Differences in the two methods are analyzed through applying two-dimensional (2D and 3D geo-statistical analysis to thickness data, with an 'ideal' fallout deposit used as reference. Our approach allowed both identification of stratigraphic sections where the deposits were affected by secondary erosional or accumulation phenomena, and assessment of whether the secondary processes were caused by local morphologic conditions or by variations in eruptive dynamics (e.g., rotation of dispersal axis direction.

  8. The "AQUASCOPE" simplified model for predicting 89, 90Sr, 131l and 134, 137Cs in surface waters after a large-scale radioactive fallout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, J.T.; Belova, N.V.; Bulgakov, A.A.; Comans, R.N.J.; Konoplev, A.V.; Kudelsky, A.V.; Madruga, M.J.; Voitsekhovitch, O.V.; Zibolt, G.

    2005-01-01

    Simplified dynamic models have been developed for predicting the concentrations of radiocesium, radiostrontium, and 131I in surface waters and freshwater fish following a large-scale radioactive fallout. The models are intended to give averaged estimates for radionuclides in water bodies and in fish

  9. The Evaluation of Thyroid Disease in the U.S.A. Resulting from Combined Exposures to Radioiodine Fallout: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baverstock, K. [WHO Regional Office for Europe, Helsinki (Finland); Hoffman, F.O. [SENES Oak Ridge, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pritikin, T. [Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    At the time of weapons testing in Nevada and associated activities elsewhere in mainland USA, the risks to health associated with fission product fallout were not appreciated in the way they are today. In retrospect, however, there is evidence to suggest a reluctance of the scientific community to accept the evolving evidence of harm from {sup 131}I, from the 1980s onwards. Some of this reluctance is based on extensive epidemiological follow-up of patients irradiated with diagnostic medical applications of {sup 131}I, which showed a very small effect. The epidemiological community concerned with the {sup 131}I diagnostic studies have proved to be among the most resistant to the abandonment of the belief in the reduced carcinogenic effectiveness of {sup 131}I. However, as early as 1982 Congress mandated the Department of Health and Human Services to review the doses from {sup 131}I to the public as a result of public concern for a rising incidence of thyroid disease. The Lee et al experiment was published in 1982. The conflict between the results of the Lee et al experiments and the earlier studies of the relative carcinogenicity of external radiation and {sup 131}I, led the National Cancer Inst. to take the unusual step, in the mid 1980s, of arranging an independent evaluation of the work on which the Lee paper was based. The review, the results of which were not published, endorsed the results given in the paper. Finally, the evidence of an increase in thyroid cancer after the Chernobyl accident was published in 1992. What were the factors that contributed to this resistance by the scientific community to abandoning an increasingly untenable belief? One factor could have been the use, in the US, of {sup 131}I for medical diagnostic purposes in children and reluctance to accept that this might have been damaging to health in later life. Another possibility was the recognition that, in the event of an accident to a nuclear power plant, release of radio

  10. Human metabolism and ecological transfer of radioactive caesium. Comparative studies of Chernobyl debris and nuclear weapons fallout, in southern Sweden and in Bryansk, Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeaef, C.L

    2000-05-01

    The whole-body content of radiocaesium was measured in a South Swedish urban group of people residing in the city of Lund between 1960 and 1994. The results from the survey have been analysed in order to estimate the ecological half time, T{sub eff,eco} of fallout radiocaesium, and the aggregate transfer from ground deposition to man in the region. After 1987, the biological half times, T{sub e} of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 40}K in man were also determined in the reference group through whole-body content measurements in combination with 24-hour urine sampling. Relationships between 24-hour urinary excretion and body burden of {sup 137}Cs in the group together with data from the literature were then applied to urine samples collected in 1994 and 1995 from adult subjects living in the highly contaminated region of Bryansk, Russia, in order to estimate their average body burden of {sup 137}Cs. The equivalent biological half-time for {sup 137}Cs in females of the Lund reference group was, on average 66{+-}3 d, which agrees with other findings, whereas the value for the males, 81{+-}4 d, was, on average, significantly lower than what is found in the literature. This is partly explained by the elevated mean age and relatively low mean body muscle mass of the males investigated. The {sup 137}Cs from nuclear weapons tests in the 1950s and 1960s still gave a significant contribution to the total {sup 137}Cs levels in man during the post-Chernobyl study period (1987-1994). About 10% of the peak post-Chernobyl concentration level of {sup 137}Cs (3.5-4 Bq/kg) in 1987, was attributed to pre-Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs. The effective ecological half-time for {sup 137}Cs from Chernobyl was found to be 1.8{+-}0.2 y. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of {sup 137}Cs from ground deposition to mean activity concentration in man was estimated to be 0.4 Bq/kg/kBq/m{sup 2}. These values may be compared with an effective ecological half-time of 1.3 years found in the Lund reference group in

  11. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  12. Modelling the external radiation exposure from the Chernobyl fallout using data from the Swedish municipality measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Mattias; Tondel, Martin; Isaksson, Mats; Finck, Robert; Wålinder, Robert; Mamour, Afrah; Rääf, Christopher

    2017-07-24

    In connection with the Chernobyl fallout and the subsequent deposition of radionuclides in Sweden, Swedish municipalities launched a measurement program to monitor the external radiation exposure. This program encompasses measurements of the ambient dose equivalent rate 1 m above ground at selected locations, and repeats those measurements at the same locations at 7-month intervals. Measurement data compiled from the seven locations with the highest deposition were combined with data from aerial surveys since May 1986 of ground deposition of (137)Cs, high-resolution gamma spectrometry performed at four locations in May 1986, and measurements from fixed continuous air gamma rate monitoring stations from 28 April to 15 May 1986. Based on these datasets, a model of the time pattern of the external dose rate in terms of ambient dose equivalent rate from the Chernobyl fallout was developed. The decrease in the ambient dose equivalent rate could, on average, be described by a four-component exponential decay function with effective half-times of 6.8 ± 0.3 d, 104 ± 26 d, 1.0 ± 0.02 y and 5.5 ± 0.09 y, respectively. The predominant contributions to the external dose rate in the first month were from short-lived fission products superseded by (134)Cs and then (137)Cs. Integrated over 70 y and using extrapolation of the curve fits, our model predicts that (137)Cs contributes about 60% and (134)Cs contributes about 30% of the external effective dose at these seven locations. The projected time-integrated 70 y external effective dose to an unshielded person from all nuclides per unit total activity deposition of (137)Cs is estimated to be 0.29 ± 0.0.08 mSv/(kBq m(-2)). These results are in agreement with those found in Chernobyl contaminated Russian forest areas, and emphasize the usefulness of maintaining a long-term and regular measurement program in contaminated areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Collaborative Cyber-infrastructures for the Management of the UNESCO-IGCP Research Project "Forecast of tephra fallout"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, A.; Costa, A.; Cordoba, G.

    2009-04-01

    Tephra fallout following explosive volcanic eruptions produces several hazardous effects on inhabitants, infrastructure, and property and represents a serious threat for communities located around active volcanoes. In order to mitigate the effects on the surrounding areas, scientists and civil decision-making authorities need reliable short-term forecasts during episodes of eruptive crisis and long-term probabilistic maps to plan territorial policies and land use. Modelling, together with field studies and volcano monitoring, constitutes an indispensable tool to achieve these objectives. The UNESCO-IGCP research project proposal "Forecast of tephra fallout" has the aim to produce a series of tools capable to elaborate both short-term forecasts and long-term hazard assessments using the cutting-edge models for tephra transport and sedimentation. A special project website will be designed to supply a set of models, procedures and expertise to several Latino-American Institutes based in countries seriously threatened by this geo-hazard (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, and Nicaragua). This will proportionate to the final users a tool to elaborate short-term forecasts of tephra deposition on the ground, and determine airborne ash concentrations (a quantity of special relevance for aerial navigation safety) during eruptions and emergencies. The project web-site will have a public section and a password-protected area to exchange information and data among participants and, eventually, to allow remote execution of high-resolution mesoscale meteorological forecasts at the BSC facilities. The public website section will be updated periodically and will include sections describing the project objectives and achievements as well as the hazard maps for the investigated volcanoes, and will be linked to other relevant websites such as IAVCEI, IGCP, IUGS and UNESCO homepages. A part of the public section of the website will be devoted to disseminate achieved

  14. New simple deposition model based on reassessment of global fallout data 1954 – 1976

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálsson, Sigurður Emil; Bergan, Tone D.; Howard, Brenda J.

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons began in 1945 and largely ceased in 1963. This testing is the major cause of distribution of man-made radionuclides over the globe and constitutes a background that needs to be considered when effects of other sources are estimated. The main radionuclides...

  15. Control method of dioxines and furans fallout around a UIOM; Methode de surveillance des retombees des dioxines et furanes autour d'une UIOM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durif, M.

    2001-12-15

    This report presents the different methods used to evaluate the pollution related to the dioxines and the furans around an emitted source. Based on the advantages and disadvantages of each methods, a protocol is decided to realize a state of the art around a future implementation site of a unit of domestic wastes incineration (UIOM). This protocol will also be able to control and identify the origins of the fallout around the installation when it will operate. (A.L.B.)

  16. Potential consequences in Norway after a hypothetical accident at Leningrad nuclear power plant. Potential release, fallout and predicted impacts on the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalbandyan, A.; Ytre-Eide, M.A.; Thoerring, H.; Liland, A.; Bartnicki, J.; Balonov, M.

    2012-06-15

    The report describes different hypothetical accident scenarios at the Leningrad nuclear power plant for both RBMK and VVER-1200 reactors. The estimated release is combined with different meteorological scenarios to predict possible fallout of radioactive substances in Norway. For a hypothetical catastrophic accident at an RBMK reactor combined with a meteorological worst case scenario, the consequences in Norway could be considerable. Foodstuffs in many regions would be contaminated above the food intervention levels for radioactive cesium in Norway. (Author)

  17. Rapid Debris Analysis Project Task 3 Final Report - Sensitivity of Fallout to Source Parameters, Near-Detonation Environment Material Properties, Topography, and Meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-01-24

    This report describes the sensitivity of predicted nuclear fallout to a variety of model input parameters, including yield, height of burst, particle and activity size distribution parameters, wind speed, wind direction, topography, and precipitation. We investigate sensitivity over a wide but plausible range of model input parameters. In addition, we investigate a specific example with a relatively narrow range to illustrate the potential for evaluating uncertainties in predictions when there are more precise constraints on model parameters.

  18. Modeling the spatial distribution of AD 79 pumice fallout and pyroclastic density current and derived deposits of Somma-Vesuvius (Campania, Italy) integrating primary deposition and secondary redistribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Sebastian; Märker, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The spatial distributions of primary deposits and related reworked ones from Plinian fallout and from pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) of the AD 79 eruption of Somma-Vesuvius were independently modeled for the Sarno River plain (Campania, Italy). The simulation takes into consideration both primary deposition of the volcanic products and their secondary redistribution by geomorphic processes of erosion, transport, and redeposition. We hypothesize that the pre-eruption topography controlled both the intial volcanic deposition of PDCs and the subsequent processes redistributing material of the pumice fallout and PDC deposits, and thus significantly controlled the thickness of the final volcaniclastic deposits. The methodology applied is based on a reconstructed pre-AD 79 digital elevation model of the Sarno River plain, an extensive tephrostratigraphic dataset from about 1,200 core drillings and a predictive modeling technique. The two models produce contrasting spatial distribution patterns for both the AD 79 deposits from fallout plus their derivates, versus from PDCs and their derivatives. The contrast allows determination of the most important factors controlling the thickness of the AD 79 volcaniclastic deposits. This provides new insights into the process dynamics during and immediately after the AD 79 Plinian eruption including primary deposition, erosion, and redistribution.

  19. Radioecological transfer of {sup 137}Cs from ground deposition to man from Chernobyl debris and from nuclear weapons fallout in different Swedish populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeaef, C.L. [Malmoe Univ. Hospital, Lund Univ., Dept. of Radiation Physics, Malmoe (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    A comparison of the estimated committed effective dose per unit activity deposition on ground was made between different critical groups in Sweden. The time-integrated aggregate transfer of {sup 137}Cs for the global fallout was 2-3 times higher than from Chernobyl debris for Swedish urban populations. For reindeer herders this difference is even more marked, with a factor of three to four higher time-integrated transfer factor of nuclear weapons fallout. Considering the transfer of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs debris the time-integrated transfer factor appears to be more than 25 times higher for reindeer herders in Sweden than for the urban reference groups. An even more pronounced relative difference between the time integrated aggregate transfer was observed between reindeer herders and urban reference populations for the pre-Chernobyl fallout (a factor of 30). The projected committed effective dose from internal contamination of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs per unit activity deposition is observed to be 2030 {mu}Sv/kBq m{sup -2}. The highest values in Sweden are obtained for reindeer herders with an estimated radioecological transfer of 0.5 mSv/kBq m{sup -2}. (au)

  20. Doses from external irradiation to Marshall Islanders from Bikini and Enewetak nuclear weapons tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouville, André; Beck, Harold L; Simon, Steven L

    2010-08-01

    Annual doses from external irradiation resulting from exposure to fallout from the 65 atmospheric nuclear weapons tests conducted in the Marshall Islands at Bikini and Enewetak between 1946 and 1958 have been estimated for the first time for Marshallese living on all inhabited atolls. All tests that deposited fallout on any of the 23 inhabited atolls or separate reef islands have been considered. The methodology used to estimate the radiation doses at the inhabited atolls is based on test- and location-specific radiation survey data, deposition density estimates of 137Cs, and fallout times-of-arrival provided in a companion paper (Beck et al.), combined with information on the radionuclide composition of the fallout at various times after each test. These estimates of doses from external irradiation have been combined with corresponding estimates of doses from internal irradiation, given in a companion paper (Simon et al.), to assess the cancer risks among the Marshallese population (Land et al.) resulting from exposure to radiation from the nuclear weapons tests.

  1. Radioactive debris from operations Tumbler and Snapper: observations beyond 200 miles from the test site. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    List, R.J.

    1953-02-25

    The results of the fall-out monitoring program at fixed stations more than 200 miles from the test site following the series of atomic tests in Nevada during the spring of 1952 are shown in a series of maps. Trajectories of debris from the individual bursts are given, together with a discussion of meteorological phenomena associated with the transport of atomic debris.

  2. Multiple Primary Cancers: Simultaneously Occurring Prostate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-20

    May 20, 2016 ... occurring prostate cancer and other primary tumors-our experience and ... tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited ..... Seretis C, Seretis F, Liakos N. Multidisciplinary approach to.

  3. Is there a role for nonsedating antihistamines in motion sickness? Fallout from space research may soon benefit your patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The rotating chair test, a novel research technique for simulating motion sickness, is used to study the effect of nonsedating oral antihistamines in preventing or forestalling motion sickness. After receiving terfenadine, astemizole, doxepin, or placebo, four groups of male volunteers were rotated at accelerating speed, and they made head movements out of the axis of rotation until they perceived that vomiting would occur if additional head movements were made. Those pretreated with doxepin or terfenadine experienced a statistically significant prophylactic effect, as measured by increased tolerance to Coriolis stimulation. This suggests that selective peripheral H1 antihistamine action may protect against motion sickness.

  4. Sources and ages of fine-grained sediment to streams using fallout radionuclides in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellis, Allen; Fuller, Christopher C.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2017-01-01

    Fallout radionuclides, 7Be and 210Pbex, sampled in bed sediment for 99 watersheds in the Midwestern region of the United States and in 15 samples of suspended sediment from 3 of these watersheds were used to partition upland from channel sources and to estimate the age or the time since the surface-derived portion of sediment was on the land surface (0–∼1 year). Channel sources dominate: 78 of the 99 bed material sites (79%) have >50% channel-derived sediment, and 9 of the 15 suspended-sediment samples (60%) have >50% channel-derived sediment. 7Be was detected in 82 bed sediment samples and all 15 suspended-sediment samples. The surface-derived portion of 54 of the 80 (68%) streams with detectable 7Be and 210Pbex were ≤ 100 days old and the surface-derived portion of all suspended-sediment samples were ≤ 100 days old, indicating that surface-derived fine-grained sediment moves rapidly though these systems. The concentrations of two hydrophobic pesticides–DDE and bifenthrin–are correlated with the proportion of surface-derived sediment, indicating a link between geomorphic processes and particle-associated contaminants in streams. Urban areas had the highest pesticide concentrations and the largest percentage of surface-derived sediment. Although the percentage of surface-derived sediment is less than channel sources at most of the study sites, the relatively young age of the surface-derived sediment might indicate that management actions to reduce sediment contamination where the land surface is an important source could have noticeable effects.

  5. Heavy metals and trace elements in atmospheric fall-out: Their relationship with topsoil and wheat element composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M.A., E-mail: gbermudez@com.uncor.edu [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV), CONICET (Argentina); Catedra de Quimica General, FCEFyN, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Avda. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria (X5016 GCA), Cordoba (Argentina); Jasan, Raquel; Pla, Rita [Tecnicas Analiticas Nucleares, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CAE), Presbitero Gonzalez y Aragon N Degree-Sign 15 (B1802AYA), Ezeiza (Argentina); Pignata, Maria L. [Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV), CONICET (Argentina); Catedra de Quimica General, FCEFyN, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Avda. Velez Sarsfield 1611, Ciudad Universitaria (X5016 GCA), Cordoba (Argentina)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal and trace element deposition rates and concentrations in bulk samples. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anthropogenic vs. natural sources were identified using enrichment factors and PCA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Anthropogenic sources for Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, U, Zn and lanthanides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Main sources were a cement plant, chemical-mechanical industries, cities and mining. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metals in wheat grain were predicted by soil and bulk deposition composition. - Abstract: The objectives of this study were to determine the average concentrations and deposition rates of 28 elements in atmospheric bulk deposition and to elucidate associations among topsoil, bulk deposition and wheat element composition. The fluxes of arsenic (As), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) deposition in Cordoba were higher than in other agro-ecosystems, which reflects both natural (geochemistry and topsoil removal) and anthropogenic sources. High lanthanide, uranium (U) and thorium (Th) concentrations revealed the impact of an open cast uranium mine. The highest enrichment factors (EF) were those of Cu, Pb, Zn and nickel (Ni), with calcium (Ca) being the most prominent in the surroundings of a cement plant. Industries and the transport of airborne urban pollutants were the main anthropogenic sources for Ca, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and antimony (Sb). The concentrations of metals in wheat grain were predicted using the topsoil and atmospheric fall-out composition with R{sup 2} = 0.90, with the latter being the best explanatory variable. The present study highlights the potential health hazards of wheat consumption (Environmental Protection Agency) by the assessment of heavy metals in bulk atmospheric deposition.

  6. Soil to plant uptake of fallout 137Cs by plants from boreal areas polluted by industrial emissions from smelters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunzl, K.; Albers, B.P.; Shimmack, W. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Rissanen, K.; Suomela, M.; Puhakainen, M.; Rahola, T. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority STUK, P.O. Box 14, FIN 00881 Helsinki (Finland); Steinnes, E. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry, N-7034 Trondheim (Norway)

    1999-08-30

    To study the impact of industrial pollution on the soil-to-plant uptake of fallout-radiocesium in a boreal forest ecosystem, four study sites were selected at distances of 7, 16, 21 and 28 km from the large copper-nickel smelter at Monchegorsk on the Kola Peninsula (Russia). At each site, soil and selected plant species were sampled from five plots and analysed separately for 137Cs and 40K. The data show that the root-uptake of 137Cs, as characterised by the median aggregated transfer-factor T{sub ag}, decreased significantly (P<0.05) with decreasing distance from the smelter for the plants Vaccinium myrtillus (from 0.023 to 0.007 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}) and Empetrum nigrum (from 0.015 to 0.007 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}), but increased for Deschampsia flexuosa (from 0.013 to 0.031 m{sup 2} kg{sup -1}). For Vaccinium vitis-idaea a significant trend for the T{sub ag} was not observed. The median 40K activity concentrations in these plants also decreased significantly (P<0.001) with decreasing distance from the smelter for Vaccinium myrtillus (from approx. 140 to 20 Bq kg{sup -1} dry wt.), Empetrum nigrum (from approx. 90 to 40 Bq kg{sup -1} dry wt.), and also for Deschampsia flexuosa (from approx. 270 to 40 Bq kg{sup -1} dry wt.). For Vaccinium vitis-idaea such a continuous significant trend was not observed. The results for the Cu-Ni polluted soils thus show: (1) that the soil-to-plant transfer of radiocesium can be significantly modified; (2) that these modifications are quite specific; and (3) that modifications of the uptake of potassium do not always correspond to those of radiocesium.

  7. Soil to plant uptake of fallout 137Cs by plants from boreal areas polluted by industrial emissions from smelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzl, K; Albers, B P; Shimmack, W; Rissanen, K; Suomela, M; Puhakainen, M; Rahola, T; Steinnes, E

    1999-08-30

    To study the impact of industrial pollution on the soil-to-plant uptake of fallout-radiocesium in a boreal forest ecosystem, four study sites were selected at distances of 7, 16, 21 and 28 km from the large copper-nickel smelter at Monchegorsk on the Kola Peninsula (Russia). At each site, soil and selected plant species were sampled from five plots and analysed separately for 137Cs and 40K. The data show that the root-uptake of 137Cs, as characterised by the median aggregated transfer-factor T(ag), decreased significantly (P < 0.05) with decreasing distance from the smelter for the plants Vaccinium myrtillus (from 0.023 to 0.007 m2 kg-1) and Empetrum nigrum (from 0.015 to 0.007 m2 kg-1), but increased for Deschampsia flexuosa (from 0.013 to 0.031 m2 kg-1). For Vaccinium vitis-idaea a significant trend for the T(ag) was not observed. The median 40K activity concentrations in these plants also decreased significantly (P < 0.001) with decreasing distance from the smelter for Vaccinium myrtillus (from approx. 140 to 20 Bq kg-1 dry wt.), Empetrum nigrum (from approx. 90 to 40 Bq kg-1 dry wt.), and also for Deschampsia flexuosa (from approx. 270 to 40 Bq kg-1 dry wt.). For Vaccinium vitis-idaea such a continuous significant trend was not observed. The results for the Cu-Ni polluted soils thus show: (1) that the soil-to-plant transfer of radiocesium can be significantly modified; (2) that these modifications are quite specific; and (3) that modifications of the uptake of potassium do not always correspond to those of radiocesium.

  8. Percieved functions of naturally occurring autobiographical memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treebak, L. S.; Henriksen, J. R.; Lundhus, S.

    2005-01-01

    The main empirical reference on functions of autobiographical memories is still Hyman & Faries (1992) who used the cue-word-method and retrospective judgements. We used diaries to sample naturally occurring autobiographical memories and participants? perceived use of these. Results partly replicate...... a pattern found by Hyman and Faries, suggest self-related functions to be primary, and indicate possible gender differences...

  9. Down Syndrome: Co-Occuring Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells for various reasons. Dental Issues & Down Syndrome Dental care is important for everybody, but people with Down syndrome can have a number of differences that can require special attention. Dual Diagnosis of Down Syndrome & Autism Autism spectrum disorder occurs more frequently in individuals ...

  10. Can reinforcement occur with a learned trait?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, Helen; Frame, Alicia M; Servedio, Maria R

    2011-07-01

    We use birdsong as a case study to ask whether reinforcement can occur via the spread of a genetically determined female preference for a socially inherited (learned) male trait. We envision secondary contact between two neighboring populations with different song dialects. An individual's ability to learn song is confined by a genetic predisposition: if predispositions are strong, there will be no phenotypic overlap in song between populations, whereas weak predispositions allow phenotypic overlap, or "mixed" song. To determine if reinforcement has occurred, we consider if an allele for within-population female mating preference, based on song, can spread, and whether population specific songs can concurrently be maintained at equilibrium. We model several scenarios, including costs to mating preferences, mating preferences in hybrids, and hybrids having the ability to learn pure songs. We find that when weak predispositions are fixed within a population reinforcement based on song cannot occur. However, when some individuals have strong predispositions, restricting phenotypic overlap between populations in the trait, reinforcement is only slightly inhibited from a purely genetic model. Generalizing beyond the example of song, we conclude that socially learned signals will tend to prohibit reinforcement, but it may still occur if some individuals acquire trait phenotypes genetically. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. Chemical and Biological Significance of Naturally Occurring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF HORSFALL

    and www.bioline.org.br/j a. Chemical and Biological Significance of Naturally Occurring Additives on. African Black Soap and its Performance. IKOTUN, A. ADEBOMI; OGUNDELE, O. FISAYO; KAYODE, O. MOBOLAJI;. *AJAELU, C. JOHN. Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, Bowen Univeristy, Iwo, Nigeria.

  12. Total synthesis and bioactivity of some naturally occurring pterulones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gruijters, B.W.T.; Veldhuizen, van A.; Weijers, C.A.G.M.; Wijnberg, J.B.P.A.

    2002-01-01

    The naturally occurring pterulones 1, 3, and 13 were synthesized in high overall yield from readily available methyl 3-(2-propenyl)-4-(2-propenyloxy)benzoate (6) by employing ring-closing metathesis (RCM) as a key step. The biological activities of the synthesized pterulones were tested using cells

  13. Distribution and inventories of fallout radionuclides ({sup 239+24}Pu, {sup 137}Cs) and {sup 21}Pb to study the filling velocity of salt marshes in Donana National Park (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Anton, M.P. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain)]. E-mail: maripaz.anton@ciemat.es; Pozuelo, M. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Clemente, L. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC-IRNA, Departamento de Geoecologia, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, Sevilla 41012 (Spain); Rodriguez, A. [Universidad de Huelva, Departamento de Geodinamica y Paleontologia, Avda. de las Fuerzas Armadas s/n, Huelva 21071 (Spain); Yanez, C. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia, CSIC-IRNA, Departamento de Geoecologia, Avda. Reina Mercedes s/n, Sevilla 41012 (Spain); Gonzalez, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Meral, J. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Within an extensive multinational and multidisciplinary project carried out in Donana National Park (Spain) to investigate its preservation and regeneration, the filling velocity of the salt marshes has been evaluated through the calculation of their average sediment accumulation rates. {sup 239+24}Pu and {sup 137}Cs from weapons testing fallout and total {sup 21}Pb distribution profiles and inventories have been determined in some of the most characteristic zones of the park, namely, the ponds (or 'lucios') and the waterjets (or 'canos'). Plutonium inventories range from 16 to 101 Bq m{sup -2}, {sup 137}Cs values fluctuate between 514 and 3758 Bq m{sup -2} and unsupported {sup 21}Pb values comprise between 124 and 9398 Bq m{sup -2}. Average sedimentation rates range from 3 to 5 mm y{sup -1} (1952-2002). These data are higher than those obtained by carbon dating for the period 6500 AD-present, estimated as 1.5-2 mm y{sup -1}, suggesting an increase in the accumulation of sediments and the alteration of the park's hydrodynamics caused by the re-channeling of the major rivers feeding the salt marshes.

  14. Distribution and inventories of fallout radionuclides (239+240Pu, 137Cs) and 210Pb to study the filling velocity of salt marshes in Doñana National Park (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascó, C; Antón, M P; Pozuelo, M; Clemente, L; Rodríguez, A; Yañez, C; González, A; Meral, J

    2006-01-01

    Within an extensive multinational and multidisciplinary project carried out in Doñana National Park (Spain) to investigate its preservation and regeneration, the filling velocity of the salt marshes has been evaluated through the calculation of their average sediment accumulation rates. (239+240)Pu and (137)Cs from weapons testing fallout and total (210)Pb distribution profiles and inventories have been determined in some of the most characteristic zones of the park, namely, the ponds (or "lucios") and the waterjets (or "caños"). Plutonium inventories range from 16 to 101 Bq m(-2), (137)Cs values fluctuate between 514 and 3,758 Bq m(-2) and unsupported (210)Pb values comprise between 124 and 9398 Bq m(-2). Average sedimentation rates range from 3 to 5 mm y(-1) (1952-2002). These data are higher than those obtained by carbon dating for the period 6,500 AD-present, estimated as 1.5-2 mm y(-1), suggesting an increase in the accumulation of sediments and the alteration of the park's hydrodynamics caused by the re-channeling of the major rivers feeding the salt marshes.

  15. Ecological behavior and effects of energy related pollutants. Progress report, June 1976--August 1977. [SO2 impact on survival and stability of plant species; fallout /sup 137/Cs transfer processes in Southeastern Coastal Plain ecosystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, R.B.; Ragsdale, H.L.; Murdy, W.H.; Shure, D.J.

    1977-10-25

    The impact of SO/sub 2/ on the survival and stability of plant populations and communities was studied. The results to date have an important bearing on the adequacy of current permissible ambient air levels for SO/sub 2/. Atmospheric SO/sub 2/ concentrations at near permissible levels had a significant adverse effect on sexual reproduction processes, which results in a reduced number of viable seeds, in all 8 populations tested. Implications for both natural and agricultural plant species and possible significant losses of fruit production are discussed. An ecological implication of the invisible effect of fruit and seed mortality is postulated since the life cycle of many insects and the trophic relations of numerous animals depend, at least in part, on fruit production by trees and shrubs. Hence, there is a potential for disruptive effects on ecosystem level processes. Results are also reported from four systems-oriented studies within the Lower Three Runs Creek Watershed, Savannah River Plant, to examine fallout /sup 137/Cs transfer processes in ecological systems characteristic of the Southeastern Coastal Plain. These studies were carried out within the stream and its floodplains, within floodplains along the stream gradient, in upland aquatic systems (Carolina Bays), and in the upland scrub-oak forest system. Results are discussed.

  16. Ethical issues occurring within nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Marsha D; Davis, Anne J

    2013-03-01

    The large body of literature labeled "ethics in nursing education" is entirely devoted to curricular matters of ethics education in nursing schools, that is, to what ought to be the ethics content that is taught and what theory or issues ought to be included in all nursing curricula. Where the nursing literature actually focuses on particular ethical issues, it addresses only single topics. Absent from the literature, however, is any systematic analysis and explication of ethical issues or dilemmas that occur within the context of nursing education. The objective of this article is to identify the spectrum of ethical issues in nursing education to the end of prompting a systematic and thorough study of such issues, and to lay the groundwork for research by identifying and provisionally typologizing the ethical issues that occur within the context of academic nursing.

  17. Clinical Characteristics of Stroke Occurring while Bathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamasu, Joji; Nakatsukasa, Masashi; Oshima, Takeo; Tomiyasu, Kazuhiro; Mayanagi, Keita; Imai, Akira

    2017-07-01

    Stroke can occur during any human activity. Although cardiac arrests or drowning accidents while bathing have been studied extensively, there are few studies focusing on stroke occurring while bathing. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the clinical characteristics of stroke occurring while bathing and the association between stroke and drowning accidents. Clinical data prospectively acquired between January 2011 and December 2015 on 1939 patients with stroke (1224 cerebral infarctions [CIs], 505 intracerebral hemorrhages [ICHs], and 210 subarachnoid hemorrhages [SAHs]) were reviewed to identify patients who sustained a stroke while bathing. The ratio of bathing-related strokes to strokes occurring during other activities was evaluated. Moreover, the demographics of these 2 groups were compared in each stroke type. Among the 1939 patients, 78 (CI, 32; ICH, 28; and SAH, 18) sustained a stroke while bathing. The ratio of bathing to other activities in the SAH group was the highest (8.6%), followed by the ICH group (5.5%), whereas that in the CI group was the lowest (2.6%). Regardless of stroke type, only a minority of patients were found to have collapsed inside the bathtub. The higher ratio of bathing in hemorrhagic strokes may indicate that there is a small risk of hemorrhagic stroke while bathing in vulnerable subjects. This retrospective study did not establish a causal relationship between bathing and stroke nor identify risk factors, which means that future prospective studies are warranted. The finding that the great majority of bathing-related stroke patients were found to have collapsed outside the bathtub suggests that the involvement of stroke in drowning accidents in the bathtub may be small. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Jerky Periods: Myoclonus Occurring Solely During Menses

    OpenAIRE

    Buijink, Arthur W.G.; Gelauff, Jeannette M.; van der Salm, Sandra M. A.; Marina A.J. Tijssen; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur

    2013-01-01

    Background In this case report, we describe an unusual case of a patient with myoclonus only occurring during menses. Case Report A 41-year-old female, known to have neurological sequelae after a car accident 1 year earlier, presented with myoclonic movements of the right arm and hand only during menses. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is compatible with head trauma. Electromyography shows brief irregular bursts with a duration of about 20?ms. Discussion This appears to be the first descript...

  19. Diverticulitis occurs early after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric S; Khalil, Hassan A; Lin, Anne Y; Russell, Marcia; Ardehali, Abbas; Ross, David; Yoo, James

    2014-08-01

    Lung transplantation recipients are at an increased risk for developing diverticulitis. However, the incidence and natural history of diverticulitis have not been well characterized. Our objective was to identify patient and transplant-related factors that may be associated with an increased risk of developing diverticulitis in this patient population. This is a retrospective single institution study. All patients who received a lung transplant between May 2008 and July 2013 were evaluated using an existing lung transplantation database. Patient-related factors, the incidence and timing of diverticulitis, and outcomes of medical and surgical management were measured. Of the 314 patients who received a lung transplant, 14 patients (4.5%) developed diverticulitis. All episodes (100%) of diverticulitis occurred within the first 2 y after transplantation. Eight patients (57%) required surgery with a mortality rate of 12.5%. Six patients (43%) were managed medically and did not require surgery with a mean follow-up period of 442 d. Diverticulitis is common after lung transplantation and occurs with a higher incidence compared with the general population. Diverticulitis occurs early in the posttransplant period, and the majority of patients require surgery. Patients who respond promptly to medical treatment may not require elective resection. A greater awareness of the risk of diverticulitis in the early posttransplant period may allow for earlier diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Distributed modeling of radiocesium washoff from the experimental watershed plots of the Fukushima fallout zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivva, Sergei; Zheleznyak, Mark; Konoplev, Alexei; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama Yoshifumi Wakiyama, Yoshifumi

    2015-04-01

    The distributed hydrological "rainfall- runoff" models provide possibilities of the physically based simulation of surface and subsurface flow on watersheds based on the GIS processed data. The success of such modeling approaches for the predictions of the runoff and soil erosion provides a basis for the implementation of the distributed models of the radionuclide washoff from the watersheds. The field studies provided on the Chernobyl and Fukushima catchments provides a unique data sets for the comparative testing and improvements of the modeling tools for the watersheds located in the areas of the very different geographical and hydro-meteorological condition The set of USLE experimental plots has been established by CRIED, University of Tsukuba after the Fukushima accident to study soil erosion and 137Cs wash off from the watersheds (Onda et al, 2014). The distributed watershed models of surface and subsurface flow, sediment and radionuclide transport has been used to simulate the radionuclide transport in the basin Dnieper River, Ukraine and the watersheds of Prefecture Fuksuhima. DHSVM-R is extension of the distributed hydrological model DHSVM (Lettenmayer, Wigmosta et al, 1996-2014) by the including into it the module of the watershed radionuclide transport. DHSVM is a physically based, distributed hydrology-vegetation model for complex terrain based on the numerical solution of the network of one-dimensional equations. The surface flow submodel of DHSMV has been modified: four-directions schematization for the model's cells has been replaced by the eight-directions scheme, more numerically efficient finite -differences scheme was implemented. The new module of radionuclide wash-off from catchment and transport via stream network in soluble phase and on suspended sediments including bottom-water exchange processes was developed for DHSMV-R. DHSVM-R was implemented recently within Swedish- Ukrainian ENSURE project for the modeling of 234U wash-off from the

  1. Thyroid abnormality trend over time in northeastern regions of Kazakstan, adjacent to the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site. A case review of pathological findings for 7271 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhumadilov, Z. [Semipalatinsk State Medical Academy (Kazakstan); Gusev, B.I.; Takada, Jun; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kimura, Akiro; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Takeichi, Nobuo

    2000-03-01

    From 1949 through 1989 nuclear weapons testing carried out by the former Soviet Union at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS) resulted in local fallout affecting the residents of Semipalatinsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk and Pavlodar regions of Kazakstan. To investigate the possible relationship between radiation exposure and thyroid gland abnormalities, we conducted a case review of pathological findings of 7271 urban and rural patients who underwent surgery from 1966-96. Of the 7271 patients, 761 (10.5%) were men, and 6510 (89.5%) were women. The age of the patients varied from 15 to 90 years. Overall, a diagnosis of adenomatous goiter (most frequently multinodular) was found in 1683 patients (63.4%) of Semipalatinsk region, in 2032 patients (68.6%) of Ust-Kamenogorsk region and in 1142 patients (69.0%) of Pavlodar region. In the period 1982-96, as compared before, there was a noticeable increase in the number of cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and thyroid cancer. Among histological forms of thyroid cancer, papillary (48.1%) and follicular (33.1%) predominated in the Semipalatinsk region. In later periods (1987-96), an increased frequency of abnormal cases occurred among patients less than 40 years of age, with the highest proportion among patients below 20 in Semipalatinsk and Ust-Kamenogorsk regions of Kazakstan. Given the positive findings of a significant cancer-period interaction, and a significant trend for the proportion of cancer to increase over time, we recommend more detailed and etiologic studies of thyroid disease among populations exposed to radiation fallout from the SNTS in comparison to non-exposed population. (author)

  2. Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly, March 1, 1977--June 1, 1977. [Air pollution in environs of Cu smelter and fallout radionuclides in food chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1977-07-01

    This report presents current information from the HASL environmental programs, The Technical University of Wroclaw, Poland, and the Radiological and Environmental Research Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The initial section consists of interpretive reports and notes on environmental levels of lead and mercury in the area of a copper smelter, radionuclide uptake by cultivated dusts in crops, and fallout strontium-90 in diet through 1976. Subsequent sections include tabulations of radionuclide concentrations in stratospheric air, radionuclide and stable lead concentrations in surface air, strontium-90 in deposition, milk, diet, and tapwater and cesium-137 in diet and tapwater. A bibliography of recent publications related to environmental studies is also presented.

  3. Lubrication with Naturally Occurring Double Oxide Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-10

    Friction Test with Metal Powders 24 7. Diagram of Metal Powder Test Specimen 24 R. Effect of Temperature on the Friction Coefficient for 28 CuPRe...that chronates would be produced as a result of its oxidation; more likely chromites (MeO. Cr203). Vanadium and boron are used in small amounts for...the frictional process in an alloy. The metal asperities would act as the basic alloy structure or as harder phases in that structure since it would

  4. Compilation of Local Fallout Data from Test Detonations 1945-1962 Extracted from DASA 1251. Volume I. Continental U.S. Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-05-01

    activity. The on- site pattern was obtained from ground survey readings of the Radio- logical Safety Division of Reynolds Electrical and E-ng’ineering, Co...Cioc H+I HOUR Distance From GZ, Yards Figure 267. Operation HARDTACK II - Ramil It on. On-site dose rate contours in r/hr at H+I hour. 4304I -11TT I I I

  5. Mucinous carcinoma occurring in the male breast

    OpenAIRE

    Ishida, Mitsuaki; UMEDA, TOMOKO; KAWAI, YUKI; MORI, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Yoshihiro; ABE, Hajime; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Tani, Tohru; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2013-01-01

    Male breast carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm, accounting for 0.6% of all breast carcinomas. Invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type is the most common type of male breast carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma occurring in the male breast is extremely rare. In the present study, we report a case of mucinous carcinoma of the male breast and discuss the clinicopathological features of this type of tumor. A 63-year-old Japanese male presented with a gradually enlarged nodule in the right breast...

  6. Jerky Periods - Myoclonus Occurring Solely During Menses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur W. Buijink

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this case report, we describe an unusual case of a patient with myoclonus only occurring during menses. Case Report: A 41-year-old female, known to have neurological sequelae after a car accident 1 year earlier, presented with myoclonic movements of the right arm and hand only during menses. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is compatible with head trauma. Electromyography shows brief irregular bursts with a duration of about 20 ms. Discussion: This appears to be the first description of myoclonus appearing only during menses. We suggest a cortical origin for myoclonus.

  7. Jerky Periods: Myoclonus Occurring Solely During Menses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijink, Arthur W. G.; Gelauff, Jeannette M.; van der Salm, Sandra M. A.; Tijssen, Marina A. J.; van Rootselaar, Anne-Fleur

    2013-01-01

    Background In this case report, we describe an unusual case of a patient with myoclonus only occurring during menses. Case Report A 41-year-old female, known to have neurological sequelae after a car accident 1 year earlier, presented with myoclonic movements of the right arm and hand only during menses. Brain magnetic resonance imaging is compatible with head trauma. Electromyography shows brief irregular bursts with a duration of about 20 ms. Discussion This appears to be the first description of myoclonus appearing only during menses. We suggest a cortical origin for myoclonus. PMID:23724361

  8. Environmental test results for the CDV-711 Mark III and Model 2 remote-sensor radiation meters. Technical report, May 1968-October 1969

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeber, E.O.; Lake, G.H.

    1970-01-01

    The Air Force has a stated requirement for an instrument to monitor the gamma radiation associated with a fallout environment and to be used Air Force wide in fallout shelters and command posts. The Office of Civil Defense (OCD) has developed two instruments, the CDv-711 Mark III, that could possibly satisfy the stated requirement. Both the Model 2 and the Mark III were operationally and environmentally tested to see if one of the instruments was suitable for Air Force use, either with or without additional engineering development.

  9. Naturally occurring Tyzzer's disease in a calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, T; Shirota, K; Une, Y; Nomura, Y; Wada, Y; Goto, K; Takakura, A; Itoh, T; Fujiwara, K

    1999-05-01

    Naturally occurring Clostridium piliforme infection (Tyzzer's disease) was found in a calf. Light microscopic examination revealed multifocal coagulative necrosis in the liver, catarrhal gastroenteritis, tracheitis and pneumonia, and thymic atrophy. Warthin-Starry staining clearly showed large filamentous bacilli in bundles or criss-cross patterns within the hepatocytes and epithelium and smooth muscle cells of the ileum and cecum. Immunohistochemistry using anti-C. piliforme RT and MSK strain antisera showed positive reaction against the bacilli. Electron microscopic examination revealed bacilli within the hepatocytes that demonstrated a characteristic vegetative form, with peritrichous flagella, and spores. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) study using the paraffin-embedded liver sections, the 196-bp DNA fragment specific to 16S ribosomal RNA of C. piliforme was amplified. The characteristics of these bacilli are consistent with those of of C. piliforme. The PCR technique using paraffin-embedded sections should be useful for confirming C. piliforme infection in spontaneous cases.

  10. Does dietary learning occur outside awareness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2004-09-01

    Several forms of dietary learning have been identified in humans. These include flavor-flavor learning, flavor-postingestive learning (including flavor-caffeine learning), and learned satiety. Generally, learning is thought to occur in the absence of contingency (CS-US) or demand awareness. However, a review of the literature suggests that this conclusion may be premature because measures of awareness lack the rigor that is found in studies of other kinds of human learning. If associations do configure outside awareness then this should be regarded as a rare instance of automatic learning. Conversely, if awareness is important, then successful learning may be governed by an individual's beliefs and predilection to attend to stimulus relationships. For researchers of dietary learning this could be critical because it might explain why learning paradigms have a reputation for being unreliable. Since most food preferences are learned, asking questions about awareness can also tell us something fundamental about everyday dietary control.

  11. Pilomyxoid Astrocytoma Occurring in the Third Ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghyeon Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilomyxoid astrocytoma (PMA is a rare central nervous system tumor that has been included in the 2007 World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of the Central Nervous System. Due to its more aggressive behavior, PMA is classified as Grade II neoplasm by the World Health Organization. PMA predominantly affects the hypothalamic/chiasmatic region and occurs in children (mean age of occurrence = 10 months. We report a case of a 24-year-old man who presented with headache, nausea, and vomiting. Brain CT and MRI revealed a mass occupying only the third ventricle. We performed partial resection. Histological findings, including monophasic growth with a myxoid background, and absence of Rosenthal fibers or eosinophilic granular bodies, as well as the strong positivity for glial fibrillary acidic protein were consistent with PMA.

  12. Covariate Balancing through Naturally Occurring Strata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, Farrokh; ElRafey, Amr; Avramovic, Ivan

    2016-12-14

    To provide an alternative to propensity scoring (PS) for the common situation where there are interacting covariates. We used 1.3 million assessments of residents of the United States Veterans Affairs nursing homes, collected from January 1, 2000, through October 9, 2012. In stratified covariate balancing (SCB), data are divided into naturally occurring strata, where each stratum is an observed combination of the covariates. Within each stratum, cases with, and controls without, the target event are counted; controls are weighted to be as frequent as cases. This weighting procedure guarantees that covariates, or combination of covariates, are balanced, meaning they occur at the same rate among cases and controls. Finally, impact of the target event is calculated in the weighted data. We compare the performance of SCB, logistic regression (LR), and propensity scoring (PS) in simulated and real data. We examined the calibration of SCB and PS in predicting 6-month mortality from inability to eat, controlling for age, gender, and nine other disabilities for 296,051 residents in Veterans Affairs nursing homes. We also performed a simulation study, where outcomes were randomly generated from treatment, 10 covariates, and increasing number of covariate interactions. The accuracy of SCB, PS, and LR in recovering the simulated treatment effect was reported. In simulated environment, as the number of interactions among the covariates increased, SCB and properly specified LR remained accurate but pairwise LR and pairwise PS, the most common applications of these tools, performed poorly. In real data, application of SCB was practical. SCB was better calibrated than linear PS, the most common method of PS. In environments where covariates interact, SCB is practical and more accurate than common methods of applying LR and PS. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  13. A perspective on atmospheric nuclear tests in Nevada: Fact Book, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friesen, H.N.

    1995-06-01

    This fact book provides historical background and perspective on the nuclear testing program at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Nuclear tests contributing to the off-site deposition of radioactive fallout are identified, and the concept of cumulative estimated exposure is explained. The difficulty of associating health effects with radiation is presented also. The status of litigation against the government and legislation as of September 1994 are summarized.

  14. An assessment of cumulative external doses from Chernobyl fallout for a forested area in Russia using the optically stimulated luminescence from quartz inclusions in bricks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramzaev, V.; Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2008-01-01

    Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) has been used for estimation of the accumulated doses in quartz inclusions obtained from two fired bricks, extracted in July 2004 from a building located in the forested surroundings of the recreational area Novie Bobovichi, the Bryansk Region, Russia....... The area was significantly contaminated by Chernobyl fallout with initial (CS)-C-137 ground deposition level of similar to 1.1 MBq m(-2). The accumulated OSL doses in sections of the bricks varied from 141 to 207 mGy, of which between 76 and 146 mGy are attributable to Chernobyl fallout. Using the OSL...... depth-dose profiles obtained from the exposed bricks and the results from a gamma-ray-survey of the area, the Chernobyl-related cumulative gamma-ray dose for a point detector located in free air at a height of 1 m above the ground in the study area was estimated to be ca. 240 mGy for the time period...

  15. Determining sources and transit times of suspended sediment in the Murrumbidgee River, New South Wales, Australia, using fallout 137Cs and 210Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallbrink, P. J.; Murray, A. S.; Olley, J. M.; Olive, L. J.

    1998-04-01

    Sediment budgets typically require an estimate of the proportional yield from erosion sources to sediments in transport and storage. This becomes increasingly difficult as catchments become larger, and erosion, storage, and deposition processes become more complex. We demonstrate how fallout radionuclides can be used to estimate the proportional contributions to sediment load, from a tripartite classification of erosion sources in a large catchment (the mid-Murrumbidgee, 13,500 km2). The three major potential sources of sediment within this catchment are cultivated lands (˜22% of the surface area), uncultivated pastoral lands (˜78%), and the numerous channels and gullies found in this region. Concentrations of the fallout radionuclides 210Pbex and 137Cs in representative samples from each of these three sources are significantly different. Employing these values in a simple mixing model shows that the largest contribution of material is currently derived from subsoil channel/gully sources. Alterations to the suspended sediment 210Pbex signature by in situ labeling and decay are also considered. Applying the model with different concentrations of 210Pbex (decayed as a function of residence time in channels) suggests that the mean residence time of fine-grained material within this system is 10±5 years. However, differences in 137Cs concentrations observed between flood and low-flow sediments, and the presence of the short-lived, cosmogenic 7Be, suggest that residence time of some of this fine-grained material may be of the order of only weeks to months.

  16. Intra-cultivar variability of the soil-to-grain transfer of fallout {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr for winter wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimmack, W. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany)]. E-mail: schimmack@gsf.de; Gerstmann, U. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Schultz, W. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Sommer, M. [Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF) e.V., Institute of Soil Landscape Research, Eberswalder Strasse 84, D-15374 Muencheberg (Germany); University of Potsdam, Institute for Geoecology, P.O. Box 601 553, D-14415 Potsdam (Germany); Tschoepp, V. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstrasse 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Zimmermann, G. [Bavarian State Research Center for Agriculture, Voettinger Strasse 38, D-85354 Freising (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    Differences between the root uptake of fallout radionuclides by different cultivars ('inter-cultivar' variability) growing on the same field may be influenced not only by genetic differences of the cultivars, but also by the spatial variability of the soil-to-grain transfer within the cultivation area of each cultivar. This 'intra-cultivar' variability was investigated in 2001 and 2002 for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr using three winter wheat cultivars with four replicates for each cultivar at three different sites in Bavaria, Germany. The intra-cultivar variability proved to be in the same range as the inter-cultivar variability which was determined earlier at the same sites for both radionuclides. An ANOVA of the {sup 137}Cs data set revealed that the variability of the {sup 137}Cs soil-to-grain transfer was caused by the soil and climate (year) at the field sites and the interaction of cultivar and field. A significant contribution of the factor 'cultivar' alone to the variability could not be detected. This may be due to the complex environmental conditions to which plants are exposed in field experiments. To find wheat cultivars with minimal uptake of fallout radionuclides it may be better to examine the molecular mechanisms of their root uptake in order to identify targets for breeding 'safer' plants.

  17. Iododerma occurring during thyroid protection treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkin, J.K.; Strobel, D.

    1985-10-01

    A patient with rheumatoid arthritis developed nodules and ulcers shortly after treatment with supersaturated potassium iodide (SSKI) drops. The SSKI was administered for thyroid protection during an iodide fibrinogen uptake test to detect phlebothrombosis of the legs. Discontinuation of SSKI was accompanied by regression of all lesions. Previous case reports include other patients who experienced iododerma after receiving low doses of iodides. This should be borne in mind if ever a mass iodide prophylaxis program is undertaken following a nuclear event.

  18. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  19. How “lucky” we are that the Fukushima disaster occurred in early spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangeliou, Nikolaos, E-mail: Nikolaos.Evangeliou@lsce.ipsl.fr [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement (LSCE), CEA-UVSQ-CNRS UMR 8212, Institut Pierre et Simon Laplace, L' Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Balkanski, Yves; Cozic, Anne [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement (LSCE), CEA-UVSQ-CNRS UMR 8212, Institut Pierre et Simon Laplace, L' Orme des Merisiers, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Møller, Anders Pape [Laboratoire d' Ecologie, Systématique et Evolution, CNRS UMR 8079, Université Paris-Sud, Bâtiment 362, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2014-12-01

    The present paper studies how a random event (earthquake) and the subsequent disaster in Japan affect transport and deposition of fallout and the resulting health consequences. Therefore, except for the original accident in March 2011, three additional scenarios are assessed assuming that the same releases took place in winter 2010, summer 2011 and autumn 2011 in order to cover a full range of annual seasonality. This is also the first study where a large number of fission products released from the accident are used to assess health risks with the maximum possible efficiency. Xenon-133 and {sup 137}Cs are directly estimated within the model, whereas 15 other radionuclides are calculated indirectly using reported isotopic ratios. As much as 85% of the released {sup 137}Cs would be deposited in continental regions worldwide if the accident occurred in winter 2010, 22% in spring 2011 (when it actually happened), 55% in summer 2011 and 48% if it occurred during autumn 2011. Solid cancer incidents and mortalities from Fukushima are estimated to be between 160 and 880 and from 110 to 640 close to previous estimations. By adding thyroid cancers, the total number rises from 230 to 850 for incidents and from 120 to 650 for mortalities. Fatalities due to worker exposure and mandatory evacuation have been reported to be around 610 increasing total estimated mortalities to 730–1260. These estimates are 2.8 times higher than previously reported ones for radiocaesium and {sup 131}I and 16% higher than those reported based on radiocaesium only. Total expected fatalities from Fukushima are 32% lower than in the winter scenario, 5% that in the summer scenario and 30% lower than in the autumn scenario. Nevertheless, cancer fatalities are expected to be less than 5% of those from the tsunami (∼ 20,000). - Highlights: • A GCM was used to assess impacts of FND during different seasons. • Transport and deposition of multiple radionuclides were compared. • 110 to 640

  20. Medicinal significance of naturally occurring cyclotetrapeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Muna Ali

    2016-10-01

    Bioactive natural products are serendipitous drug candidates, which stimulate synthetic approaches for improving and supporting drug discovery and development. Therefore, the search for bioactive metabolites from different natural sources continues to play an important role in fashioning new medicinal agents. Several cyclic peptides were produced by organisms, such as β-defensins, gramicidin S, and tyrocidine A, and exhibited a wide range of bioactivities, such as antiviral activity against HIV-1, influenza A viruses, or antibacterial activity. Cyclic tetrapeptides are a class of natural products that were found to have a broad range of biological activities, promising pharmacokinetic properties, as well as interesting conformational dynamics and ability of slow inter-conversion to several different structures. Cyclooligopeptides, particularly medium ring-sized peptides, were obtained from marine microorganisms and exhibited a wide range of pharmacological properties, including antimicrobial and anti-dinoflagellate activities, cytotoxicity, and inhibitory activity against enzyme sortase B. Most of the naturally occurring cyclotetrapeptides are obtained from fungi. Some natural cyclic tetrapeptides were found to inhibit histone deacetylase (HDAC), which regulate the expression of genes. These compounds are very useful as cancer therapeutics. Various analogues of the natural cyclotetrapeptides were successfully synthesized to find novel lead compounds for pharmacological and biotechnological applications. Therefore, in this review, previously reported novel natural cyclotetrapeptides are briefly discussed, along with their important biological activities as drug candidates, together with their promising therapeutic properties. Moreover, their future perspective in drug discovery as potential therapeutic agents will be determined.

  1. Sundew adhesive: a naturally occurring hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Sun, Leming; Agrawal, Richa; Zhang, Mingjun

    2015-06-06

    Bioadhesives have drawn increasing interest in recent years, owing to their eco-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable nature. As a typical bioadhesive, sticky exudate observed on the stalked glands of sundew plants aids in the capture of insects and this viscoelastic adhesive has triggered extensive interests in revealing the implied adhesion mechanisms. Despite the significant progress that has been made, the structural traits of the sundew adhesive, especially the morphological characteristics in nanoscale, which may give rise to the viscous and elastic properties of this mucilage, remain unclear. Here, we show that the sundew adhesive is a naturally occurring hydrogel, consisting of nano-network architectures assembled with polysaccharides. The assembly process of the polysaccharides in this hydrogel is proposed to be driven by electrostatic interactions mediated with divalent cations. Negatively charged nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 231.9 ± 14.8 nm, are also obtained from this hydrogel and these nanoparticles are presumed to exert vital roles in the assembly of the nano-networks. Further characterization via atomic force microscopy indicates that the stretching deformation of the sundew adhesive is associated with the flexibility of its fibrous architectures. It is also observed that the adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive is susceptible to low temperatures. Both elasticity and adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive reduce in response to lowering the ambient temperature. The feasibility of applying sundew adhesive for tissue engineering is subsequently explored in this study. Results show that the fibrous scaffolds obtained from sundew adhesive are capable of increasing the adhesion of multiple types of cells, including fibroblast cells and smooth muscle cells, a property that results from the enhanced adsorption of serum proteins. In addition, in light of the weak cytotoxic activity exhibited by these scaffolds towards a variety of

  2. Information Needs While A Disaster Is Occurring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    that rainfall intensity at their homes might be less than the intensity up in the mountains where the debris flows would start. Nor did they know that debris flows travel too quickly to be outrun. These and many other examples indicate need for social and natural scientists to increase awareness of what to expect when the disaster strikes. This information must be solidly understood before the event occurs - while a disaster is unfolding there are no teachable moments. Case studies indicate that even those who come into a disaster well educated about the phenomenon can struggle to apply what they know when the real situation is at hand. In addition, psychological studies confirm diminished ability to comprehend information at times of stress.

  3. Development of Methodology and Technology for Identifying and Quantifying Emission Products from Open Burning and Open Detonation Thermal Treatment Methods. Field Test Series A, B, and C. Volume 1. Test Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    explosive phenomenology, and quality assurance/quality control. A technical steering conmnittee composed of recognized experts in their respective...with an average EF of slightly less than 0.002. For these tests, the TNMHC category was primarily composed of light hydrocarbons, such as ethane...Fallout for the OB/OD thermal treatment testing Is defined as the particulate materialI deposited beyond the ejects area. The Phase C testing was to

  4. Dimensional changes occurring in a glass-ionomer cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A D; Paddon, J M

    1993-12-01

    The dimensional changes occurring when glass ionomer cements are exposed both to desiccating and moist conditions were investigated. All work was done at 23 degrees C. The effect of time allowed for cements to mature before exposure to the test conditions was studied as was the effect of adding cellulose ethers. The contraction of glass ionomer cements under desiccating conditions was far greater than the expansion by water absorption. Increase of the time allowed for the cements to mature reduced the extent of this effect markedly. The addition of cellulose ethers to cement mixes was only moderately effective in reducing dimensional change.

  5. Radiation measurements in the Chiba Metropolitan Area and radiological aspects of fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Hikaru; Akiyama, Masakazu; Chunlei, Bi; Kawamura, Takao; Kishimoto, Takeshi; Kuroda, Tomotaka; Muroi, Takahiko; Odaira, Tomoaki; Ohta, Yuji; Takeda, Kenji; Watanabe, Yushu; Morimoto, Takao

    2012-09-01

    Large amounts of radioactive substances were released into the environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plants in eastern Japan as a consequence of the great earthquake (M 9.0) and tsunami of 11 March 2011. Radioactive substances discharged into the atmosphere first reached the Chiba Metropolitan Area on 15 March. We collected daily samples of air, fallout deposition, and tap water starting directly after the incident and measured their radioactivity. During the first two months maximum daily concentrations of airborne radionuclides observed at the Japan Chemical Analysis Center in the Chiba Metropolitan Area were as follows: 4.7 × 10(1) Bq m(-3) of (131)I, 7.5 Bq m(-3) of (137)Cs, and 6.1 Bq m(-3) of (134)Cs. The ratio of gaseous iodine to total iodine ranged from 5.2 × 10(-1) to 7.1 × 10(-1). Observed deposition rate maxima were as follows: 1.7 × 10(4) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (131)I, 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (137)Cs, and 2.9 × 10(3) Bq m(-2) d(-1) of (134)Cs. The deposition velocities (ratio of deposition rate to concentration) of cesium radionuclides and (131)I were detectably different. Radioactivity in tap water caused by the accident was detected several days after detection of radioactivity in fallout in the area. Radiation doses were estimated from external radiation and internal radiation by inhalation and ingestion of tap water for people living outdoor in the Chiba Metropolitan Area following the Fukushima accident. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Co-occurring protein phosphorylation are functionally associated.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational modifications (PTMs add a further layer of complexity to the proteome and regulate a wide range of cellular protein functions. With the increasing number of known PTM sites, it becomes imperative to understand their functional interplays. In this study, we proposed a novel analytical strategy to explore functional relationships between PTM sites by testing their tendency to be modified together (co-occurrence under the same condition, and applied it to proteome-wide human phosphorylation data collected under 88 different laboratory or physiological conditions. Co-occurring phosphorylation occurs significantly more frequently than randomly expected and include many known examples of cross-talk or functional connections. Such pairs, either within the same phosphoprotein or between interacting partners, are more likely to be in sequence or structural proximity, be phosphorylated by the same kinases, participate in similar biological processes, and show residue co-evolution across vertebrates. In addition, we also found that their co-occurrence states tend to be conserved in orthologous phosphosites in the mouse proteome. Together, our results support that the co-occurring phosphorylation are functionally associated. Comparison with existing methods further suggests that co-occurrence analysis can be a useful complement to uncover novel functional associations between PTM sites.

  7. Erosion and sediment deposition evaluation on slopes under different tillage systems in the Cerrado region using the {sup 137}Cs fallout technique; Analise da distribuicao do fallout do {sup 137}Cs na avaliacao da erosao e deposicao de sedimentos em sistemas de manejo de solo sob Cerrado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Robson Clayton Jacques

    2010-07-01

    In Brazil, the expansion of agricultural areas causes several problems on natural resources. With the increasing occupation of the Cerrado region by agriculture, a series of environmental problems like deforestation, soil erosion and soil compaction are appearing and causing radical transformations in the natural landscape due to removing almost all native vegetation. The conventional tillage system (CTS) is considered an inadequate form of soil management for its frequently irremediable consequences of soil compaction and soil erosion, and the no till system (NTS) makes the maintenance of the soil conditions possible, letting them close to the natural environment, thus reducing rates of soil erosion. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of riparian forests in the retention of sediments originated for three different tillage systems, through the fallout {sup 137}CS redistribution technique, the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and some physical and chemical parameters that indicate the structural conditions of the soils of Goiatuba and Jandaia-GO. In the three areas, soil profiles were collected in three layers of 20 cm (0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm) at distinct points located along linear transects in the direction of the maximum slope until the riparian forest. In the riparian forest of each area, trenches were opened and soil was sampled to evaluate the activity of {sup 137}Cs and the physical and chemical parameters of soil. Detection of the activity of {sup 137}Cs was made with a gamma ray detector model (GEM-20180P, EG and ORTEC) connected to a multichannel analyzer. The comparison of averages was made using the Tukey test at 5% level of significance. The. results indicated that, the three soil tillage systems presented high rates of soil erosion and deposition of sediments and the riparian forest of the areas under CTS, NTS and pasture, located downstream received great amounts of sediments, and that only the riparian forest of CTS was

  8. Tissue water relations of four co-occurring chaparral shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S D; Mooney, H A

    1986-11-01

    Chaparral shrubs of California have a suite of morphological and physiological adaptations to withstand the prolonged summer droughts of a mediterranean climate. Not all species of chaparral have the same rooting depth and there is some evidence that those with shallow roots have tissue that is most tolerant to water stress. We tested this notion by comparing the tissue water relations of four co-occurring chaparral shrubs: Quercus durata, Heteromeles arbutifolia, Adenostoma fasciculatum, and Rhamnus californica. We used a pressure-volume technique and a dew-point hygrometer to metsure seasonal changes in osmotic potential when plant tissue was fully hydrated and osmotic potential at predawn, midday, and the turgor loss point. We also calculated seasonal changes in the minimum daily turgor potential, saturated weight/dry weight ratio of leaf tissue, and the bulk modulus of elasticity. We had information on the seasonal water use patterns and apparent rooting depths of these same four shrubs from a previous study (Davis and Mooney 1986). All evidence indicated that Rhamnus had shallow roots and Quercus deep roots. Our results indicated that the tissue water relations of our four co-occurring chaparral shrubs were not alike. Even though Rhamnus had shallow roots, it had the least xerophytic tissue. Seasonal osmotic potential and saturated weight/dry weight ratios were relatively high and bulk modulus of elasticity and minimum daily turgor potentials were low. Furthermore, even though Quercus had deep roots and experienced no seasonal water stress at our study site, its tissue water relations indicated relatively high tolerance to water stress. We conclude that seasonal drought tolerance of stem and leaf tissue of co-occurring chaparral shrubs does not necessarily correspond to rooting depth, to soil moisture resources available to the shrub, or to the degree of seasonal water stress experienced by the shrub.

  9. Lupus vulgaris occurring in a locus minoris resistentiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Richard; Beatch, Anita; Lee, Mao-Cheng; Cheung-Lee, Melody; Wasel, Norman

    2009-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lupus vulgaris, a form of cutaneous tuberculosis, is not always clear, especially in patients who do not have coexistent extracutaneous tuberculosis and in patients with single lesions. To report a case of lupus vulgaris in a locus minoris resistentiae (a site of reduced resistance) and to use a unique set of clinical circumstances and laboratory tests to reconstruct the pathogenesis of the lesion and the response to treatment. Lupus vulgaris can occur in a locus minoris resistentiae; local trauma and possibly other factors, such as increased temperature, topical corticosteroids, and the virulence of the infecting strain, may facilitate the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis present at a locus minoris resistentiae as a result of a silent bacillemia.

  10. Problems concerning food production, supply and use caused by radioactive deposition: A study directed towards needs for early decision making after radioactive fallout; Radiakproblem inom livsmedelssektorn: En studie inriktad paa behoven foer beslutsfattande i tidigt skede efter radioaktivt nedfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, R.

    1995-12-01

    The primary aim of this study is to analyze and describe how a radioactive deposition after nuclear weapons employment outside Sweden would affect the domestic food production in a short time perspective and in the sequence of events from primary production over processing and transport to food consumption. The study is an attempt at a comprehensive treatment of knowledge needed as a basis for decisions on operative issues, often of a time-urgent nature. Actions to alleviate the problems pertinent to the food supply in the event of radioactive fallout are also discussed, although without any claim of exhaustive coverage. Other aspects, as the economical consequences of the disturbances due to the fallout situation (or of possible counteractions) are not dealt with, however. With certain restrictions mentioned in the text the results are also applicable in connection with radioactive deposition caused by accidental release from a nuclear power plant. 60 refs, 32 figs.

  11. Time and depth scales of fine sediment delivery into gravel stream beds: Constraints from fallout radionuclides on fine sediment residence time and delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, J. D.; Renshaw, C. E.; Dade, W. B.; Magilligan, F. J.

    2012-05-01

    Particles of fine sediment can clog interstitial pore spaces of coarser grained sediment in river beds and thereby impede the exchange of water, dissolved constituents, and particulate matter with consequent ecological impacts. The extent to which fine sediment reduces connectivity between the stream bed and overlying channel is a function, in part, of sediment residence time. Short residence times imply frequent exchange of matter and reduced impact of fine sediment on stream bed habitat, while long residence times indicate that with respect to fine sediment delivery, the stream bed is more isolated from the overlying channel. Here we present a novel technique to quantify the residence time of river bed sediment at various depths over annual and decadal timescales using the fallout radionuclides (FRNs) 7Be (t1/2 = 53 days) and 210Pbex (t1/2 = 22.3 years). We placed mesh cylinders filled with 7Be-free sediment into a stream bed to quantify the capture of 7Be-tagged particles in the absence of scour and fill. We also took cores to the depth of refusal in alluvial sediment in unregulated and regulated rivers in Vermont and New Hampshire. Sampled watershed areas ranged from 29 to 410 km2, and core depths ranged from 19 to 77 cm. The 210Pbex activity profiles of cores show that bed sediment is exchanged to the depth of refusal at decadal timescales. In contrast, 7Be activity profiles indicate that fine sediment infiltrating into the bed had residence times ranging from 4 to > 300 days in unregulated rivers. Cores from a regulated river are notably different—subsurface sediment residence times were always longer than in unregulated rivers at comparable depths, likely owing to restriction of bed mobilization and clogging of bed material by fine sediment. These results suggest that filtration can be an important component of bed material delivery to stream beds, but filtration does not deliver material as deeply into the bed as scour and fill. We find that fallout

  12. Distribution of some chemical elements between dissolved and particulate phases in the ocean. Research period: August 1, 1975--July 31, 1976. [Fallout /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb diffusion in oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies on the distributions of fallout /sup 210/Pb and /sup 210/Po in dissolved and particulate states in the Gulf of Maine and a transect of the equatorial North Atlantic Ocean. The ratio of /sup 210/Pb//sup 226/Ra and /sup 210/Po//sup 210/Pb in seawater and suspended particulate matter in samples collected from 10 stations in the tropical and eastern North Atlantic and two stations in the Pacific was also determined. (CH)

  13. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dercon, G; Mabit, L; Hancock, G; Nguyen, M L; Dornhofer, P; Bacchi, O O S; Benmansour, M; Bernard, C; Froehlich, W; Golosov, V N; Haciyakupoglu, S; Hai, P S; Klik, A; Li, Y; Lobb, D A; Onda, Y; Popa, N; Rafiq, M; Ritchie, J C; Schuller, P; Shakhashiro, A; Wallbrink, P; Walling, D E; Zapata, F; Zhang, X

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on "Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides" (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of ¹³⁷Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), ²¹⁰Pb(ex) (half-life of 22.3 years) and ⁷Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably--a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. Copyright

  14. OCCURANCE OF HISTAMINE IN FISH PRODUCTS ON MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mancusi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Histamine fish poisoning is quite common and occur in consequence of microbial decarboxylase whose activity begin early in the post-mortem but are triggered in consequence of abuse in the shelf life of fish products. In this study forty-eight samples of tuna, mackerel, anchovies, sardines, fresh or processed were sampled from fish shops and supermarkets in the City of Bologna in the period from January to July 2010. Concentration of histamine was assessed using ELISA quantitative test and presence of psicrotrophic histamine forming bacteria was searched using a modified Niven agar medium which allow detection of suspect colonies that were confirmed by PCR for detecting the presence of the histidine decarboxylase genes in their DNA. The positive colonies were then identified on the basis of their morphology, Gram reaction and biochemical characteristics with API20E. The differential capability of the Niven agar was found to be low and approximately one fifth of the suspect colonies were confirmed by the PCR test, which however included both strong and weak histamine producing strains. The presence of Morganella morganii was associated with concentration of histamine 460 mg∙kg-1 above the allowed limit in a sample of tuna sampled from a fish shop. The same bacterium was found in samples of Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus. High histamine concentration (between 258 and > 300 mg∙kg-1 were observed in salted European pilchard and European anchovy (228 mg∙kg-1 sold loose in supermarkets. Because temperature abuse could occur when Tuna (fresh/defrozen are hold on chopping board to sell fresh cuts and during shelf life of salted pilchard and pickled anchovies held in opened cans in chilled display cabinets for extended period, which might results in very high histamine concentration, controls on time and temperature at the retail, in addition to those done during the harvest and processing are needed. The studies aiming at

  15. Five year report on the medical follow up of Marshallese receiving special medical care related to 1954 Bravo fallout radiation (January 1992--1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaswani, A.N.; Howard, J.E.

    1999-06-01

    This is the 17th and final report of the Marshall Islands Medical Program as carried out by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The purpose of these publications has been to provide information on the medical status of 253 Marshallese exposed to radiation fallout in 1954. The medical program fulfills a commitment to disclose unique medical information relevant to public health. Details of the Bravo thermonuclear accident that caused the exposure have been published. A 1955 article in the Journal of the American Medical Association, which described the acute medical effects on the population that required special medical care, remains a definitive and relevant description of events. Marshallese participation in this Congressionally mandated program is voluntary. Throughout the 44 years of the program, each participating individual`s relevant medical findings, laboratory data, disease morbidity, and mortality have been published in the BNL reports in a manner preserving patient confidentiality. In each report, there has been an attempt to interpret these findings and to infer the role of radiation exposure in their development. An equally important aspect of the reports has been the presentation of data that allows for analyses of the medical consequences of the Marshallese exposure.

  16. Forecasting seizures in dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jeffry Howbert

    Full Text Available Seizure forecasting has the potential to create new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, such as providing patient warnings and delivering preemptive therapy. Progress on seizure forecasting, however, has been hindered by lack of sufficient data to rigorously evaluate the hypothesis that seizures are preceded by physiological changes, and are not simply random events. We investigated seizure forecasting in three dogs with naturally occurring focal epilepsy implanted with a device recording continuous intracranial EEG (iEEG. The iEEG spectral power in six frequency bands: delta (0.1-4 Hz, theta (4-8 Hz, alpha (8-12 Hz, beta (12-30 Hz, low-gamma (30-70 Hz, and high-gamma (70-180 Hz, were used as features. Logistic regression classifiers were trained to discriminate labeled pre-ictal and inter-ictal data segments using combinations of the band spectral power features. Performance was assessed on separate test data sets via 10-fold cross-validation. A total of 125 spontaneous seizures were detected in continuous iEEG recordings spanning 6.5 to 15 months from 3 dogs. When considering all seizures, the seizure forecasting algorithm performed significantly better than a Poisson-model chance predictor constrained to have the same time in warning for all 3 dogs over a range of total warning times. Seizure clusters were observed in all 3 dogs, and when the effect of seizure clusters was decreased by considering the subset of seizures separated by at least 4 hours, the forecasting performance remained better than chance for a subset of algorithm parameters. These results demonstrate that seizures in canine epilepsy are not randomly occurring events, and highlight the feasibility of long-term seizure forecasting using iEEG monitoring.

  17. Forecasting seizures in dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howbert, J Jeffry; Patterson, Edward E; Stead, S Matt; Brinkmann, Ben; Vasoli, Vincent; Crepeau, Daniel; Vite, Charles H; Sturges, Beverly; Ruedebusch, Vanessa; Mavoori, Jaideep; Leyde, Kent; Sheffield, W Douglas; Litt, Brian; Worrell, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Seizure forecasting has the potential to create new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy, such as providing patient warnings and delivering preemptive therapy. Progress on seizure forecasting, however, has been hindered by lack of sufficient data to rigorously evaluate the hypothesis that seizures are preceded by physiological changes, and are not simply random events. We investigated seizure forecasting in three dogs with naturally occurring focal epilepsy implanted with a device recording continuous intracranial EEG (iEEG). The iEEG spectral power in six frequency bands: delta (0.1-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), beta (12-30 Hz), low-gamma (30-70 Hz), and high-gamma (70-180 Hz), were used as features. Logistic regression classifiers were trained to discriminate labeled pre-ictal and inter-ictal data segments using combinations of the band spectral power features. Performance was assessed on separate test data sets via 10-fold cross-validation. A total of 125 spontaneous seizures were detected in continuous iEEG recordings spanning 6.5 to 15 months from 3 dogs. When considering all seizures, the seizure forecasting algorithm performed significantly better than a Poisson-model chance predictor constrained to have the same time in warning for all 3 dogs over a range of total warning times. Seizure clusters were observed in all 3 dogs, and when the effect of seizure clusters was decreased by considering the subset of seizures separated by at least 4 hours, the forecasting performance remained better than chance for a subset of algorithm parameters. These results demonstrate that seizures in canine epilepsy are not randomly occurring events, and highlight the feasibility of long-term seizure forecasting using iEEG monitoring.

  18. Predicting Emotions in Facial Expressions from the Annotations in Naturally Occurring First Encounters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarretta, Costanza

    2014-01-01

    to identify emotions in facial expressions. In the classification experiments, we test to what extent emotions expressed in naturally-occurring conversations can be identified automatically by a classifier trained on the manual annotations of the shape of facial expressions and co-occurring speech tokens. We...

  19. Environmental isotopes to test hypotheses for fluid mud (mud bank) generation mechanisms along the southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jacob, N.; Ansari, M.A.; Revichandran, C.

    tritium (3H), sourced from the fallout of thermo nuclear weapons testing, carried out in the atmosphere during 1950e1963, could be effectively used to identify the recent recharge (estimate residence time) from precipitation or surface water bodies...- ditions; absence of energetic oceanic wind waves may be favouring the conditions for the formation of fluid mud. Acknowledgements The project was funded by the Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences, Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India (No...

  20. Mathematical modelling of the landslide occurred at Gagliano Castelferrato (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maugeri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Shallow slopes in clayey colluvial covers are often involved in progressive downhill motion with discontinuous rate of movements, depending on fluctuations in pore-water pressure. In geotechnical engineering research on natural slopes, the main efforts have been concentrated on stability analysis, always with a rigid perfectly plastic body assumption. In case of slow slope movements, however, the notion of stability losses its sense, so the main question is not to evaluate a stability factor, but to model a velocity field and to define the kinematic and dynamic features of the movement (mobility analysis. Many authors, in their researches, deal with slow slope movements and for the complexity of the problem and the great number of parameters involved they agree about applying numerical techniques (FEM, FDM and advanced material modelling (elastoviscoplasticity and suggest to calibrate the involved parameters values with the help of ''back analyses'' of existing case histories. In this paper a mathematical model predicting the landslide body viscous deformations, is presented. The model has been implemented in a computer FDM code, and has been tested on some well known case histories. Here it is applied to the case of a landslide occurred at Gagliano Castelferrato (Sicily – Italy, where a great number of field measurements was available.

  1. Does Temporal Integration Occur for Unrecognizable Words in Visual Crowding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifan Zhou

    Full Text Available Visual crowding-the inability to see an object when it is surrounded by flankers in the periphery-does not block semantic activation: unrecognizable words due to visual crowding still generated robust semantic priming in subsequent lexical decision tasks. Based on the previous finding, the current study further explored whether unrecognizable crowded words can be temporally integrated into a phrase. By showing one word at a time, we presented Chinese four-word idioms with either a congruent or incongruent ending word in order to examine whether the three preceding crowded words can be temporally integrated to form a semantic context so as to affect the processing of the ending word. Results from both behavioral (Experiment 1 and Event-Related Potential (Experiment 2 and 3 measures showed congruency effect in only the non-crowded condition, which does not support the existence of unconscious multi-word integration. Aside from four-word idioms, we also found that two-word (modifier + adjective combination integration-the simplest kind of temporal semantic integration-did not occur in visual crowding (Experiment 4. Our findings suggest that integration of temporally separated words might require conscious awareness, at least under the timing conditions tested in the current study.

  2. Motor sequence learning occurs despite disrupted visual and proprioceptive feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Lara A

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work has demonstrated the importance of proprioception for the development of internal representations of the forces encountered during a task. Evidence also exists for a significant role for proprioception in the execution of sequential movements. However, little work has explored the role of proprioceptive sensation during the learning of continuous movement sequences. Here, we report that the repeated segment of a continuous tracking task can be learned despite peripherally altered arm proprioception and severely restricted visual feedback regarding motor output. Methods Healthy adults practiced a continuous tracking task over 2 days. Half of the participants experienced vibration that altered proprioception of shoulder flexion/extension of the active tracking arm (experimental condition and half experienced vibration of the passive resting arm (control condition. Visual feedback was restricted for all participants. Retention testing was conducted on a separate day to assess motor learning. Results Regardless of vibration condition, participants learned the repeated segment demonstrated by significant improvements in accuracy for tracking repeated as compared to random continuous movement sequences. Conclusion These results suggest that with practice, participants were able to use residual afferent information to overcome initial interference of tracking ability related to altered proprioception and restricted visual feedback to learn a continuous motor sequence. Motor learning occurred despite an initial interference of tracking noted during acquisition practice.

  3. Predictive model of squeal noise occurring on a laboratory brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Oliviero; Sestieri, Aldo

    2006-09-01

    This paper on brake squeal instability presents a reduced order model of a laboratory brake considered in a previous paper, and presents a description of the squeal mechanism occurring during experiments. The model uses the modal parameters of the laboratory brake components, the disc and the caliper, when they are not in contact between them. Successively, the caliper and the disc are put in contact through the pad that is modeled as a one degree of freedom system while the Coulomb law models the friction interaction between them. No stick slip motion of the pad is considered, because it was not observed in the experimental tests. As a result the model is linear and particularly suited for a parametric analysis. The stability of the model is studied by a complex eigenvalue analysis and the obtained results show a good agreement with the experimental data, provided that the key parameters of the model are consistent with the experimental set-up. The key role of the disc and the pad dynamics are discussed.

  4. Do "whiplash injuries" occur in low-speed rear impacts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, W H; Schilgen, M; Meyer, S; Weber, M; Peuker, C; Wörtler, K

    1997-01-01

    A study was conducted to find out whether in a rear-impact motor vehicle accident, velocity changes in the impact vehicle of between 10 and 15 km/h can cause so-called "whiplash injuries". An assessment of the actual injury mechanism of such whiplash injuries and comparison of vehicle rear-end collisions with amusement park bumper car collisions was also carried out. The study was based on experimental biochemical, kinematic, and clinical analysis with volunteers. In Europe between DM 10 and 20 billion each year is paid out by insurance companies alone for whiplash injuries, although various studies show that the biodynamic stresses arising in the case of slight to moderate vehicle damage may not be high enough to cause such injuries. Most of these experimental studies with cadavers, dummies, and some with volunteers were performed with velocity changes below 10 km/h. About 65% of the insurance claims, however, take place in cases with velocity changes of up to 15 km/h. Fourteen made volunteers (aged 28-47 years; average 33.2 years) and five female volunteers (aged 26-37 years; average 32.8 years) participated in 17 vehicle rear-end collisions and 3 bumper car collisions. All cars were fitted with normal European bumper systems. Before, 1 day after and 4-5 weeks after each vehicle crash test and in two of the three bumper car crash tests a clinical examination, a computerized motion analysis, and an MRI examination with Gd-DTPA of the cervical spine of the test persons were performed. During each crash test, in which the test persons were completely screened-off visually and acoustically, the muscle tension of various neck muscles was recorded by surface electromyography (EMG). The kinematic responses of the test persons and the forces occurring were measured by accelerometers. The kinematic analyses were performed with movement markers and a screening frequency of 700 Hz. To record the acceleration effects of the target vehicle and the bullet vehicle, vehicle

  5. Superficial soil erosion assessment in agricultural land and bare land using {sup 7}Be fallout; Estudo da redistribuicao de solo superficial em areas cultivadas e nao cultivadas utilizando o fallout do {sup 7}Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marestoni, Luiz Diego

    2007-02-15

    Geologic and hydrologic phenomenon monitoring presents great environmental and financial interest and several radioisotopes, natural and artificial, have been used for this purpose. The more used are {sup 137}Cs, {sup 210}Pb not supported and {sup 7}Be. In the present work, {sup 7}Be was used to determine the soil erosion in three areas: one with soy ploughed at the direction of the slope, one with it perpendicular to the slope and one in an area with bare soil. {sup 7}Be is a cosmogenic radionuclide, with half-life of 53.3 days, produced by spallation of oxygen and nitrogen by cosmic rays in the troposphere and stratosphere. {sup 7}Be deposition occurs by dry and wet deposition, although wet deposition contributed by 95%. This can be verified through the measures of the {sup 7}Be inventory correlated with the precipitation, which resulted in a good linear adjustment. The experimental set up consisted of two HPGe detectors: one with 66% of relative efficiency and one with 10% of relative efficiency, both detectors coupled to standard gamma ray spectrometry nuclear electronic chain. Soil samples were packed in 1 liter Marinelli beckers. Sampling was accomplished until the depth where {sup 7}Be was present and it was possible to verify that its penetration in the soils could be very well adjusted by an exponential type function. The maximum beryllium-7 penetration in the bare soil without sign of soil erosion was 3 cm, that is, beryllium-7 is a useful tool as tracer for superficial soil erosion determination. The constant of mass relaxation h{sub 0} was determined as 4.71 {+-} 0.36, result that is in agreement with other works in the international literature. It was verified that when the soy is ploughed perpendicular to the slope, the soil redistribution rate is smaller, resulting in economic advantage. The bare soil is very exposed to the erosion, because does not exist any barrier to contain the soil that flows at the direction of the slope, such fact was verified

  6. Intravenous Topiramate: Pharmacokinetics in Dogs with Naturally-Occurring Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Vuu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Barriers to developing treatments for human status epilepticus (SE include the inadequacy of experimental animal models. In contrast, naturally-occurring canine epilepsy is similar to the human condition and can serve as a platform to translate research from rodents to humans. The objectives of this study were to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK of an intravenous (IV dose of topiramate (TPM in dogs with epilepsy, and evaluate its effect on intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG features. Five dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy were used for this study. Three were getting at least one antiseizure drug as maintenance therapy including phenobarbital (PB. Four (ID 1-4 were used for the 10 mg/kg IV TPM + PO TPM study, and three (ID 3-5 were used for the 20 mg/kg IV TPM study. IV TPM was infused over 5 minutes at both doses. The animals were observed for vomiting, diarrhea, ataxia, and lethargy. Blood samples were collected at scheduled pre- and post-dose times. Plasma concentrations were measured using a validated HPLC-MS method. Non-compartmental and population compartmental modeling were performed (Phoenix WinNonLin and NLME using plasma concentrations from all dogs in the study. Intracranial EEG (iEEG was acquired in one dog. The difference between averaged iEEG energy levels at 15 minutes pre- and post-dose was assessed using a Kruskal-Wallis test. No adverse events were noted. Topiramate concentration-time profiles were best fit by a two-compartment model. PB co-administration was associated with a 5.6 fold greater clearance and a ~4 fold shorter elimination half-life. iEEG data showed that TPM produced a significant energy increase at frequencies >4 Hz across all 16 electrodes within 15 minutes of dosing. Simulations suggested that dogs on an enzyme inducer would require 25 mg/kg, while dogs on non-inducing drugs would need 20 mg/kg to attain the target concentration (20-30 µg/mL at 30-minutes post-dose.This study shows that IV

  7. Intravenous Topiramate: Pharmacokinetics in Dogs with Naturally Occurring Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuu, Irene; Coles, Lisa D; Maglalang, Patricia; Leppik, Ilo E; Worrell, Greg; Crepeau, Daniel; Mishra, Usha; Cloyd, James C; Patterson, Edward E

    2016-01-01

    Barriers to developing treatments for human status epilepticus include the inadequacy of experimental animal models. In contrast, naturally occurring canine epilepsy is similar to the human condition and can serve as a platform to translate research from rodents to humans. The objectives of this study were to characterize the pharmacokinetics of an intravenous (IV) dose of topiramate (TPM) in dogs with epilepsy and evaluate its effect on intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) features. Five dogs with naturally occurring epilepsy were used for this study. Three were getting at least one antiseizure drug as maintenance therapy including phenobarbital (PB). Four (ID 1-4) were used for the 10 mg/kg IV TPM + PO TPM study, and three (ID 3-5) were used for the 20 mg/kg IV TPM study. IV TPM was infused over 5 min at both doses. The animals were observed for vomiting, diarrhea, ataxia, and lethargy. Blood samples were collected at scheduled pre- and post-dose times. Plasma concentrations were measured using a validated high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method. Non-compartmental and population compartmental modeling were performed (Phoenix WinNonLin and NLME) using plasma concentrations from all dogs in the study. iEEG was acquired in one dog. The difference between averaged iEEG energy levels at 15 min pre- and post-dose was assessed using a Kruskal-Wallis test. No adverse events were noted. TPM concentration-time profiles were best fit by a two compartment model. PB co-administration was associated with a 5.6-fold greater clearance and a ~4-fold shorter elimination half-life. iEEG data showed that TPM produced a significant energy increase at frequencies >4 Hz across all 16 electrodes within 15 min of dosing. Simulations suggested that dogs on an enzyme inducer would require 25 mg/kg, while dogs on non-inducing drugs would need 20 mg/kg to attain the target concentration (20-30 μg/mL) at 30 min post-dose. This study

  8. Progress in the Chemistry of Naturally Occurring Coumarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Satyajit D; Nahar, Lutfun

    , anticoagulant anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antineoplastic, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. Despite significant advancements in the extraction, isolation, structure elucidation and bioactivity testing of naturally occurring coumarins, only a marginal advancement has been observed recently in relation to the study of their biosynthesis.

  9. Role of Reservoirs in Radionuclide Transport in the River Systems: Comparative Analyses for the Rivers of the Chernobyl and Fukushima Fallout Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheleznyak, Mark; Kivva, , Sergei; Konoplev, Alexei; Nanba, Kenji; Onda, Yuichi

    2015-04-01

    The 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP), Ukraine, caused a significant radioactive contamination of the Dnieper River basin, and, in particular, the Pripyat River watershed. The ChNPP is situated approximately 30 km from the confluence of the Pripyat River with the Kiev Reservoir of the Dnieper river. The watersheds and floodplain territory in the vicinity of the ChNPP and the surrounding watersheds (including those in Russia and Belarus) are heavy contaminated by 137Cs and 90Sr. From these contaminated areas, radionuclides migrate into the Kiev Reservoir, and, consequently, downstream along the cascade of six Dnieper reservoirs toward the Black Sea. Spring flood events, generated by snow melting, and periodic rainfall floods in the Pripyat River watershed lead to elevated levels of radioactive contamination of the water supply sources for the Ukrainian population consuming the Dnieper River water downstream from Kiev. The 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, Japan caused 137Cs contamination of the watersheds of Abukuma River - the largest river of the fallout area, and the number of the rivers crossing the heavy contaminated "no exit" territories and flowing to the populated areas of the Fukushima Prefecture. There are deep reservoirs on some of these rivers at Mano Dam - Manogawa River, at Yokokawa Dam - Otagawa River, Takanakura Dam - Mizunashi Gawa River. In both cases - after Chernobyl accident and after Fukushima accident the reservoirs play a role of the "traps" for the contaminated sediments. However the potential risks of the secondary remobilization of 137Cs during the extreme events - the highest floods of in a cases of the dam breaks should be studied as a part of the post accidental radiation safety analyses. The objective of this presentation is to provide an overview of the results of the monitoring of radionuclide fate in the rivers and reservoirs of the Dnieper River basin in comparison with the data for the rivers and

  10. Chemical characteristics of atmospheric fallout in the south of Xi'an during the dust episodes of 2001-2012 (NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoping; Feng, Linna; Huang, Chunchang; Yan, Xiangyang; Zhang, Xu

    2014-02-01

    Atmospheric fallouts (AFs) were collected in the south of Xi'an, NW China, during the dust episodes of 2001-2012. The chemical characteristics of total 68 AF samples including their chemical compositions, size distribution and magnetic susceptibility were studied. The contamination degree and the source of heavy metals in AF were also explored with enrichment factor method and multivariate statistical analysis. The results showed that the particle mass size distribution of AFs dominated by coarse particles (PM10-50) in dust days. The concentrations of 26 elements associated with AFs determined by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (WDXRF) in studied sites varied from 92.90 to 188.10 mg kg-1 for Cr, 31.40 and 63.00 mg kg-1 for Cu, 16.60 to 167.30 for Pb and 106.60 to 196.80 for Zn. Their average concentrations found in this study were 139.22 ± 29.41 mg kg-1, 46.93 ± 10.56 mg kg-1, 78.42 ± 46.52 mg kg-1 and 150.61 ± 32.84 mg kg-1, respectively, which exceeded their corresponding recommended background values more than two times. While, other elements, such as Br varied from 1.10 to 5.90 with 3.34 ± 1.60 mg kg-1 mean, Cs from 2.90 to 10.90 with mean of 7.23 ± 2.47 mg kg-1, Ga between 6.90 and 20.80 with 15.23 ± 3.59 mg kg-1, Rb in the range of 62.10-124.20 with the average of 80.69 ± 16.89 mg kg-1, Y from 9.90 to 35.00 with 20.43 ± 6.27 mg kg-1 average, La from 29.60 to 54.20 with mean of 37.28 ± 8.28 mg kg-1 and V with average of 81.97 ± 8.93 mg kg-1 in the 57.7-92.10 mg kg-1. Multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis and clustering analysis) was suggested that the principal element elements, Al, Fe, Si, K, Ca, Na, Mg, coupled with the trace elements Co, V, Ce, Mn, Ni, Ga, Y, Rb, La, Br, Cs were predominated by crustal material sources, whereas, Cr, Cu, Ba, Sr, As, Pb and Zn were highly influenced by anthropogenic activities. Simultaneously, the water-soluble ions (WS-ions) of NH4+, SO42-, SO32-, NO3-, SiO44-, HSO4

  11. PTT Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy hCG Tumor Marker HDL Cholesterol Heavy Metals Helicobacter pylori Testing Hematocrit Hemoglobin Hemoglobin A1c Hemoglobinopathy Evaluation ... but can occur due to an extremely poor diet, malabsorption disorders , or prolonged use of certain antibiotics, ...

  12. Ferritin Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the past few decades, some lab-to-lab variability can occur due to differences in testing equipment, ... Pp 443-444. Clarke, W., Editor (© 2011). Contemporary Practice in Clinical Chemistry 2nd Edition: AACC Press, Washington, ...

  13. Erosion and sediment deposition evaluation in two slopes under different tillage systems using the '1{sup 37C}s fallout' technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Robson C.J.; Oliveira, Roberto A.S.; Bacchi, Osny O.S. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: rcarthur@cena.usp.br; betuzzz@yahoo.com.br; osny@cena.usp.br; Correchel, Vladia [Universidade Federal de Goias UFG, Goiania, GO (Brazil)]. E-mail: vladia@agro.ufg.br; Santos, Dileia S.; Sparovek, Gerd [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: leiass@carpa.ciagri.usp.br; gerd@esalq.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    With the increasing of occupation of the Brazilian Cerrado a series of environmental problems followed by the deforestation as soil erosion and soil compaction are appearing, and many of than are being related to the CT used. The NT cropping system which is being adopted more recently in the 'cerrado' region, has revealed benefic to the soil, mainly in terms of soil erosion control. The objective of the present work was to analyze the effect of the No Tillage NT and Conventional Tillage CT systems on the erosion process and to measure the efficiency of the riparian forest in trapping the sediments produced by erosion coming from crop areas cultivated by both systems trough the technique of 137Cs 'fallout' redistribution analysis. The study was carried out in Goiatuba/GO in two sampling dowslope transects located in areas of CT and NT cropping systems. Samples were taken from five points in transects of 200 and 140 meters long respectively, as well as from three soil profiles of a 30 m transect in the downstream riparian forests of each area. Incremental depth samples were also taken from two pits inside each transect in the forest down to 40 and 60 cm depth for the CT and NT respectively. The soil samples were air dried and sieved and the {sup 137}Cs activity was analyzed for in a gamma ray detector (GEM-20180P, EG and ORTEC) coupled to a multichannel analyzer at CENA/USP. The results indicate variation of {sup 137}Cs in soil profiles and high erosion rates for both cropping areas also indicate a movement of sediments from the two cropping areas to the riparian forest. (author)

  14. Total cancer incidence in relation to 137Cs fallout in the most contaminated counties in Sweden after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident: a register-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alinaghizadeh, Hassan; Wålinder, Robert; Vingård, Eva; Tondel, Martin

    2016-12-20

    To determine the total cancer incidence in relation to a 5-year exposure to caesium-137 ((137)Cs) from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident. A closed cohort was defined as all individuals living in the three most contaminated counties in mid-Sweden in 1986. Fallout of (137)Cs was retrieved as a digital map from the Geological Survey of Sweden, demographic data from Statistics Sweden, and cancer diagnosis from the National Board of Health and Welfare. Individuals were assigned an annual (137)Cs exposure based on their place of residence (1986-1990), from which 5-year cumulative (137)Cs exposures were calculated, accounting for the physical decay of (137)Cs and changing residencies. HRs were adjusted for age, sex, rural/non-rural residence and pre-Chernobyl total cancer incidence. The 734 537 people identified were categorised by exposure: the first quartile was low exposure (0.0-45.4 kBq/m(2)), the second and third quartiles were intermediate exposure (45.41-118.8 kBq/m(2)), and the fourth quartile was the highest exposure (118.81-564.71 kBq/m(2)). Between 1991 and 2010, 82 495 cancer cases were registered in the 3 counties. Adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1.03 (1.01 to 1.05) for intermediate exposure and 1.05 (1.03 to 1.07) for the highest exposure compared to the reference exposure. We found a small overall exposure-response pattern of the total cancer incidence related to (137)Cs after adjustment for age, sex, rural residence and pre-Chernobyl cancer incidence. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Bordetella parapertussis outbreak in Bisham, Pakistan in 2009-2010: fallout of the 9/11 syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, S; Said, F; Eqani, S A M A S; Bokhari, H

    2015-09-01

    Pertussis or whooping cough is a highly contagious community disease mainly caused by Bordetella pertussis and B. parapertussis. We report a minor outbreak of whooping cough (2009-2010) in symptomatic subjects from Bisham, near Swat, Khyber Pukhtoonkhawa province, Pakistan. Interestingly, our results show that all the culture-positive isolates (n = 21) collected from children (average age 3·46 years), were identified as B. parapertussis after routine identification tests and PCR IS481, IS1001 and IS1002. Furthermore, in the affected patients, none had received immunization with diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DTPw) vaccine. Therefore, the possibility of the re-emergence of the disease due to limitation of basic health services as a result of the political unrest due to the 9/11 situation is also examined. Moreover, we discuss the importance of vaccinating both adults and children with DTPwPaw vaccine containing both organisms for better protection.

  16. Why Does REM Sleep Occur? A Wake-up Hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. W. R. eKlemm

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses REM to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, 1 when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly called Stage IV, a deep abyss of sleep, and, as the night progresses, the sleep is punctuated by episodes of REM that become longer and more frequent toward morning, 2 conscious-like dreams are a reliable component of the REM state in which the dreamer is an active mental observer or agent in the dream, 3 the last awakening during a night’s sleep usually occurs in a REM episode during or at the end of a dream, 4 both REM and awake consciousness seem to arise out of a similar brainstem ascending arousal system 5 N3 is a functionally perturbed state that eventually must be corrected so that embodied brain can direct adaptive behavior, and 6 corticofugal projections to brainstem arousal areas provide a way to trigger increased cortical activity in REM to progressively raise the sleeping brain to the threshold required for wakefulness. This paper shows how the hypothesis conforms to common experience and has substantial predictive and explanatory power regarding the phenomenology of sleep in terms of ontogeny, aging, phylogeny, abnormal/disease states, cognition, and behavioral physiology. That broad range of consistency is not matched by competing theories, which are summarized herein. Specific ways to test this wake-up hypothesis are suggested. Such research could lead to a better understanding of awake consciousness.

  17. Assessment of soil erosion and deposition rates in a Moroccan agricultural field using fallout 137Cs and 210Pbex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmansour, M; Mabit, L; Nouira, A; Moussadek, R; Bouksirate, H; Duchemin, M; Benkdad, A

    2013-01-01

    In Morocco land degradation - mainly caused by soil erosion - is one of the most serious agroenvironmental threats encountered. However, only limited data are available on the actual magnitude of soil erosion. The study site investigated was an agricultural field located in Marchouch (6°42' W, 33° 47' N) at 68 km south east from Rabat. This work demonstrates the potential of the combined use of (137)Cs, (210)Pb(ex) as radioisotopic soil tracers to estimate mid and long term erosion and deposition rates under Mediterranean agricultural areas. The net soil erosion rates obtained were comparable, 14.3 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and 12.1 ha(-1) yr(-1) for (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) respectively, resulting in a similar sediment delivery ratio of about 92%. Soil redistribution patterns of the study field were established using a simple spatialisation approach. The resulting maps generated by the use of both radionuclides were similar, indicating that the soil erosion processes has not changed significantly over the last 100 years. Over the previous 10 year period, the additional results provided by the test of the prediction model RUSLE 2 provided results of the same order of magnitude. Based on the (137)Cs dataset established, the contribution of the tillage erosion impact has been evaluated with the Mass Balance Model 3 and compared to the result obtained with the Mass Balance Model 2. The findings highlighted that water erosion is the leading process in this Moroccan cultivated field, tillage erosion under the experimental condition being the main translocation process within the site without a significant and major impact on the net erosion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dose conversion factors of radiation doses at normal operation discharges. A. Dispersion in air and fallout on the ground; Dosomraekningsfaktorer foer normaldriftutslaepp. A. Spridning i luft och nedfall paa mark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, Bengt

    2002-10-01

    A study was performed in order to develop and supplement existing models for calculating radiation doses from discharges of radionuclides under normal operating conditions at the Swedish NPPs at Barsebaeck, Forsmark, Oskarshamn and Ringhals, and at the nuclear plants at Studsvik and the Westinghouse Atom fuel plant. Methods for modeling the dispersion i the atmosphere and the fallout on the ground are described in this report. A gaussian plume-model is used, and the effects of different parameters on the results are illustrated. Long term mean values for environmental contamination are calculated for an average year by using 5-year statistics for each location.

  19. Chernobyl fallout in the middle of Norway: Investigations among reindeer herders in 1992, 1993 and 1996; Tsjernobylnedfall i Midt-Norge: Undersoekelser blant reindriftsutoevere i 1992, 1993 og 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehli, Hanne; Skuterud, Lavrans; Mosdoel, Annhild

    1998-12-31

    This report presents results from whole body measurements of 137Cs in reindeer herders in the middle of Norway in 1992, 1993 and 1996 and results from the dietary survey in 1996. Average concentrations of 137Cs in persons in the group is decreasing, but both in 1992, 1993 and 1996 there might have been individuals receiving doses from the Chernobyl fallout of more than 1 mSv. Natural products like game, freshwater fish, mushrooms and berries are in addition to reindeer important in the diet of this population group. 11 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. OCCURANCE OF HISTAMINE IN FISH PRODUCTS ON MARKET

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mancusi, R; Bini, R.M; Cecchini, M; Delle Donne, G; Rosmini, R; Trevisani, M

    2012-01-01

    Histamine fish poisoning is quite common and occur in consequence of microbial decarboxylase whose activity begin early in the post-mortem but are triggered in consequence of abuse in the shelf life of fish products...

  1. Parkinson's Disease and Melanoma May Occur Together, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_167078.html Parkinson's Disease and Melanoma May Occur Together, Study Finds ... FRIDAY, July 7, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- People with Parkinson's disease are about four times more likely to ...

  2. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

  3. Glomus Tumor of Thumb Occurring at Unusual Location

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . These are benign tumors that arise from one of the subcutaneous glomus bodies. These account for approximately 1% of all hand tumors and occur more commonly in women.[2] Their most common location is the subungual region of digits.

  4. Internet Censorship in China: Where Does the Filtering Occur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xueyang; Mao, Z. Morley; Halderman, J. Alex

    China filters Internet traffic in and out of the country. In order to circumvent the firewall, it is helpful to know where the filtering occurs. In this work, we explore the AS-level topology of China's network, and probe the firewall to find the locations of filtering devices. We find that even though most filtering occurs in border ASes, choke points also exist in many provincial networks. The result suggests that two major ISPs in China have different approaches placing filtering devices.

  5. Aerosol and fallout monitoring in France from 1959 to 2014: 55 years of improvement of the surveillance, from the sampling to the measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vismes Ott, A.; Masson, O. [Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As a support for the public authorities the French Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) is in charge of the environment surveillance in France. The OPERA-Air (Observatoire Permanent de la Radioactivite) sampling network is part of this monitoring activity and includes, in addition to 40 low flow (10 to 80 m{sup 3}.h{sup -1}) samplers, 8 high and very high flow (namely 300 and 700 m{sup 3}.h{sup -1}) aerosol samplers. This network also comprises rain and cloud water samplers in order to observe and study the atmospheric fallout in a general way. This paper will focus on these last kinds of samples and the aerosol filters taken by the high flow and very high flow samplers and measured at trace levels in the laboratory of environmental radioactivity measurement by low level gamma ray spectrometry. The developments made during the last decades both in the sampling process and in the measurement techniques will be described. The improvement on the air samplers with higher flow, larger surface or thinner filters for a smaller counting geometry went in concert with the metrology improvements, with new measurement equipments such as low background detectors, well-type detectors or anti cosmic set up. All these implementations were and are still made in order to deal with the decreasing anthropogenic radioactivity levels in the environment, especially in its atmospheric part, and to keep the OPERA-Air network meeting its dual purpose of surveillance as well as research. The improvements in sampling and measuring will be presented as well as some results obtained thanks to them: - Determination of {sup 137}Cs at trace level in fog/clouds waters in order to study the rainout scavenging mechanism and to improve our capability in modeling radionuclide deposition. - Determination over France of trace elements at a few μBq.m{sup -3} during the Fukushima Daiichi accident such as {sup 129m}Te-{sup 129}Te, {sup 132}Te-{sup 132}I, {sup 136}Cs and {sup 140}La

  6. Shear strength properties of naturally occurring bituminous sands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available because of the cohesive nature of bitumen contents. However, results from the direct shear tests were comparable to properties of oil sands reported earlier from various other laboratory tests. Based on the direct shear test results, Mohr-Coulomb failure...

  7. Appendix to Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly report. [Fallout radionuclides deposited and in surface air at various world sites; /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr in milk and drinking water in New York City; and stable Pb in surface air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1977-07-01

    Tabulated data are presented on the deposition of fallout /sup 89/Sr and /sup 90/Sr at various world land sites through 1976; the ..gamma.. spectra and content of /sup 7/Be, /sup 95/Zr, /sup 137/Cs, /sup 144/Ce, /sup 90/Sr, /sup 210/Pb, /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, and stable Pb in samples of surface air collected during 1966 at various world sites; and the content of fallout /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr in samples of drinking water and milk collected in New York City through 1976. (CH)

  8. Endometrial carcinoma occuring from polycystic ovary disease : A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Su Ok; Jeon, Woo Ki [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    Endometrial carcinoma usually occurs in postmenopausal women ; less than 5% occurs in women under the age of 40. Up to one quarter of endometrial carcinoma patients below this age have PCO(polycystic ovary disease, Stein-Leventhal syndrome). The increased incidence of endometrial carcinoma in patients with PCO is related to chronic estrogenic stimulation. We report MR imaging in one case of endometrial carcinoma occuring in a 23 year old woman with PCO and had complained of hypermenorrhea for about three years. On T2-weighted MR image the endometrial cavity was seen to be distended with protruded endometrial masses of intermediate signal intensity, and the junctional zone was disrupted beneath the masses. Both ovaries were best seen on T2-weighted MR imaging and showed multiple small peripheral cysts and low signal-intensity central stroma.

  9. Spreading depolarizations occur in human ischemic stroke with high incidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohmen, C.; Sakowitz, O.W.; Fabricius, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Cortical spreading depression (CSD) and periinfarct depolarization (PID) have been shown in various experimental models of stroke to cause secondary neuronal damage and infarct expansion. For decades it has been questioned whether CSD or PID occur in human ischemic stroke. Here, we...... potential change spreading between adjacent channels was accompanied by transient depression of ECoG activity. In PID, a slow potential change spread between neighboring channels despite already established suppression of ECoG activity. Most CSDs and PIDs appeared repetitively in clusters. CSD or PID...... was observed in all but two patients. In these two patients, the electrode strip had been placed over infarcted tissue, and accordingly, no local ECoG or recurrent transient depolarization activity occurred throughout the observation period. Interpretation: CSD and PID occurred spontaneously with high...

  10. Cloud Chemistry of Fallout Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-31

    rate. The cesium sources were two CaO- AlO 3 _-SiO2 1173 C eutectic composition melts, which initially contained 44 Ag Cs/g silicate and 5 Ag Cs/g...Laboratory Upton, Long Island, New York 11973 Dr. John R. Rust Section of Nuclear Medicine Dr. A.B. Park University of Chicago Agricultural Research 947 E

  11. Factors affecting the depth of burns occurring in medical institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Soon; Choi, Young Hwan; Yoon, Cheonjae; You, Je Sung

    2015-05-01

    Most cases of burns occurring in medical institutions are associated with activities involving heat. It is very difficult to detect these burns. To date, there are few reports on burns occurring in medical institutions. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the etiology of burns occurring in medical institutions and to elucidate the factors affecting burn depth. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the medical records of patients who visited our center from April 2008 to February 2013. This study enrolled all patients with burns occurring in the medical institution during or related to treatment. We excluded burn patients whose burns were not related to treatment (for example, we excluded patients with scalding burns that occurred in the hospital cafeteria and pediatric patients with hot water burns from the water purifier). However, patients with burns that occurred in the recovery room after general anesthesia were included. A total of 115 patients were enrolled in this study. The average patient age was 41.5 years, with more women than men (M:F=31:84). There were 29 cases (25.3%) of superficial burns (first-degree and superficial second-degree) and 86 cases (74.7%) of deep burns (deep second-degree and third-degree). Hot packs were the most common cause of burns (27 cases, 23.5%), followed by laser therapy, heating pads, and grounding pads, accounting for 15 cases each. There were 89 cases (77.4%) of contact burns and 26 cases (22.6%) of non-contact burns. The most common site of burns was the lower extremities (41 cases, 35.7%). The burn site and contact burns were both factors affecting burn depth. The rate of deep burns was higher in patients with contact burns than in those with non-contact burns (odds ratio 4.26) and was associated with lower body burns (odds ratio 2.85). In burns occurring in medical institutions, there is a high probability of a deep burn if it is a contact burn or occurs in the lower body. Therefore, safety guidelines are needed

  12. Targeting proteasomes with natural occurring compounds in cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecarini, V; Cuccioloni, M; Mozzicafreddo, M; Bonfili, L; Angeletti, M; Eleuteri, A M

    2011-03-01

    Aberrant cellular proliferation and compromised apoptotic pathways are hallmarks of cancer aggressiveness, and in this framework, the role of protein degradation machineries has been extensively dissected. Among proteases, the proteasome is unequivocally central in the intracellular regulation of both these processes, thus several proteasome-directed therapies have been investigated, aiming at controlling its activity and possibly restoring normal cell functions. Numerous studies reported proteasome inhibitors (both synthetic and natural occurring) to potently and selectively induce apoptosis in many types of cancer cells. In this review we discuss recent advances in proteasomal modulation by some natural occurring polyphenols, globally providing evidence of the proteasome role as therapeutic target in cancer treatment.

  13. Geotechnical problems that occur due to the fact of groundwater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić Bojana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Beginning from the basic views on the main problem that occurs due to hydro-geomechanical processes, in particular the driving force caused by changing the pressure of groundwater, this paper will provide a review of the assessment of stresses and strains in the soil (soil and rock. The solution is a combination of the system of equations of the soil and ground water flow and caused geotechnical stresses or problems that occur in the soil. The paper will describe in detail the problem of subsidence due to pumping of water in the open pit-field problems and assessment of seepage forces in saturated or unsaturated loose materials.

  14. Why Does Bureaucratic Corruption Occur in the EU?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2013-01-01

    Why does bureaucratic corruption occur in the EU system? Several examples suggest that bureaucratic corruption exists and that the Commission’s anti-fraud agency, OLAF, is not a fully independent authority. We thus develop a novel interpretation of the principalsupervisor-agent model to cope...... with non-independent anti-fraud units. This model shows that corruption is likely to occur when the expected value to the client from bribing the agent is larger than the expected value to the principal of truth-telling by the supervisor. Overall, this analysis points to the risks of flawed incentives...

  15. Early precambrian asteroid impact-triggered tsunami: excavated seabed, debris flows, exotic boulders, and turbulence features associated with 3.47-2.47 Ga-old asteroid impact fallout units, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glikson, Andrew Y

    2004-01-01

    Pioneering studies of Precambrian impact fallout units and associated tsunami deposits in the Hamersley Basin, Pilbara Craton, Western Australia, by B.M. Simonson and S.W. Hassler, document a range of tsunami deposits associated with impact fallout units whose impact connection is identified by associated microtektites and microkrystites (condensation spherules). The impact connection of these particles is demonstrated by iridium anomalies, unique platinum group elements patterns, and Ni-rich mineral phases. Densely packed tsunami-transported fragments and boulders overlie microkrystite units of the >2629 +/- 5 Ma top Jeerinah Impact Layer (JIL). Tsunami events closely follow spherule settling associated with the 2561 +/- 8 Ma Spherule Marker Bed SMB-1 and SMB-2 impact events, Bee Gorge Member, Wittenoom Formation. The two impact cycles are separated by a stratigraphically consistent silicified black siltstone, representing a "Quiet Interval." The SMB turbidites display turbulence eddies, climbing ripples, conglomerate pockets, slumps, and waterlogged sediment deformation features. Consequences of tsunami in the probably contemporaneous Carawine Dolomite (Pb-Pb carbonate ages of approximately 2.56-2.54 Ga), eastern Hamersley Basin, include sub-autochthonous below-wave base excavation and megabrecciation of sea floor substrata, resulting in a unique 10-30-m-thick spherule-bearing megabreccia marker mapped over a nearly 100-km north-south strike distance in the east Hamersley Basin. The field relations suggest a pretsunami settling of the bulk of the spherules. Tsunami wave effects include: (1). dispersal of the spherule-rich soft upper sea floor sediments as a subaqueous mud cloud and (2). excavation of consolidated substrata below the soft sediment zone. Excavation and megabrecciation included injection of liquefied spherule-bearing microbreccia into dilated fractures in the disrupted underlying carbonates. Near-perfect preservation of the spherules within the

  16. On Translating French Occurring in English into Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Robert N.

    1989-01-01

    Explores problems encountered during attempts to translate French expressions occurring in English (such as concierge) into Spanish, particularly when the English interpretation of the expression is different from the standard French usage. Spanish translations are provided for about 200 French terms and expressions commonly used in English. (61…

  17. Skin picking disorder with co-occurring body dysmorphic disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Jon E; Redden, Sarah A; Leppink, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    There is clinical overlap between skin picking disorder (SPD) and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but little research has examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the two disorders when they co-occur. Of 55 participants with SPD recruited for a neurocognitive study and two pharmacological...

  18. Changes occurring in plain, straining and winter yoghurt during the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes occurring in plain, straining and winter yoghurt during the storage periods. S Köse, E Ocak. Abstract. In this study, winter yoghurt, straining yoghurt and yoghurt samples produced from homogenized and non-homogenized sheep and a mixture of sheep and cows milks were evaluated during the storage periods.

  19. The effects of naturally occurring impurities in rock salt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we investigate the effect that naturally occurring impurities in salt mines have both on effective permittivity of the medium and on radio wave propagation at ∼200 MHz. The effective permittivity is determined based on the dielectric properties of salt and the characteristics of the main impurities. We conclude that ...

  20. Controlled fermentation of kimchi using naturally occurring antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinsol; Bang, Jihyun; Beuchat, Larry R; Kim, Hoikyung; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2012-10-01

    Kimchi is a traditional Korean fermented food. Since it ferments continuously during distribution and storage, the extension of shelf life by preventing over-acidification is a major concern in the kimchi industry. One of the most frequently attempted ways to delay fermentation is to add naturally occurring antimicrobial agents. Many researchers have investigated ways to delay over-acidification by adding minor ingredients, fruits or fruit seed extracts, extracts of medicinal herbs, culinary herbs and spices, and other miscellaneous substances to kimchi. The addition of naturally occurring antimicrobial agents may enhance the acceptability of kimchi to consumers over a longer period of time but may also have a disadvantage in that it may cause changes in sensory quality, especially if added in large amounts. To avoid undesirable sensory changes, application of hurdle technologies (i.e., multifactor preservative systems) which involve using combinations of low amounts of various naturally occurring antimicrobial agents as ingredients should be explored with the goal of controlling fermentation. If synergistic or additive antimicrobial effects can be achieved using small amounts of a combination of natural agents, changes in sensory qualities will be minimized, thereby prolonging shelf life. Research findings summarized in this review provide a basis for developing effective hurdle technologies using naturally occurring antimicrobial agents to extend shelf life of kimchi and perhaps other types of traditional fermented foods. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Naturally occurring fatty acids: Source, chemistry, and uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  2. Selective extraction of naturally occurring radioactive Ra2+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, F.W.B.; Verboom, Willem; Reinhoudt, David

    2005-01-01

    Organic extractants play a significant role in the selective removal of radioactive cations from waste streams. Although, literature on the selective removal of man-made radioactive material such as Americium (Am) is widespread, the selective removal of naturally occurring radioactive material such

  3. Cancer Fatigue: Why It Occurs and How to Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer fatigue: Why it occurs and how to cope The exact causes of cancer fatigue and how best to treat it aren't ... clear. Find out what doctors know about cancer fatigue and what you can do about it. By ...

  4. Integrative Priming Occurs Rapidly and Uncontrollably during Lexical Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Zachary; Jones, Lara L.

    2009-01-01

    Lexical priming, whereby a prime word facilitates recognition of a related target word (e.g., "nurse" [right arrrow] "doctor"), is typically attributed to association strength, semantic similarity, or compound familiarity. Here, the authors demonstrate a novel type of lexical priming that occurs among unassociated, dissimilar,…

  5. Biochemical changes occurring during fermentation of camel milk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biochemical changes in amino acids, water soluble vitamins, soluble sugars and organic acids occurring during fermentation (at 43°C for 6 h) of camel milk inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus 37, Lactobacillus delbrueckii sub sp. bulgaricus CH2, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and mixed yogurt ...

  6. Right azygos lobe occurring with fissural and lobation anomalies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The azygos lobe is a rare anomaly of the lung that is separated from the rest of the upper lobe by an azygos fissure. The lobe is encountered mostly in the right lung but a few cases have also been described in the left lung. It occurs at a frequency of 0.25-1% and has surgical and radiological importance.

  7. Biochemical changes occurring during fermentation of camel milk by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... The biochemical changes in amino acids, water soluble vitamins, soluble sugars and organic acids occurring during fermentation (at 43°C for 6 h) of camel milk inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus 37, Lactobacillus delbrueckii sub sp. bulgaricus CH2, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus ...

  8. Salinity ranges of some southern African fish species occurring in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recorded salinity ranges of 96 fish species occurring in southern African estuaries are documented. Factors influen- cing the tolerance of fishes to low and high salinity regimes are discussed, with most species tolerant of low rather than high salinity conditions. This is important since most systems are subject to periodic ...

  9. ERRATA An error which inadvertently occurred in the Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diedong Africanus

    ERRATA. An error which inadvertently occurred in the Ghana Journal of Development Studies,. Vol. 13, No. 2, 2016 is hereby corrected as follows: The correct title of the second article in the October Issue, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2016 should have been written: “Errors in Ghanaian Students' Written English: Is Speaking School ...

  10. THE OCCURENCE OF A HYBRID SWARM INVOLVING A. CHEV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BIG TIMMY

    By the year 2000, the population of had declined and, by the year 2010, the population of had given way to as a result of massive rice farming. The intermediate plant forms that lined the bank of the largest impoundment had also disappeared. RESULTS AND OBSERVATIONS. Bolaji et al.: The Occurence of a Hybrid Swarm.

  11. Adsorption of fluoride ions onto naturally occurring earth materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Batch sorption system using two naturally occurring earth materials (EM) as adsorbents was investigated to remove fluoride ions from aqueous solution. The system variables studied include initial concentration of the sorbate, agitation time, adsorbent dose, pH, co-ions and temperature. The experimental data fitted well to ...

  12. URBAN STORMWATER TRACING WITH THE NATURALLY OCCURRING DEUTERIUM ISOTOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements of the naturally-occurring deuterium isotope assist the tracing of water components during wet-weather flows in an urban watershed. A transect of installations in the vadose and saturated zones was completed in the vicinity of a small stream and storm sewer. High-r...

  13. Treatment of Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Suicidality among Adolescents: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Spirito, Anthony; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hunt, Jeffrey; Monti, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study tested a cognitive-behavioral treatment protocol for adolescents with a co-occurring alcohol or other drug use disorder (AOD) and suicidality in a randomized clinical trial. Method: Forty adolescents (M[subscript age] = 15 years; 68% female, 89% White) and their families recruited from an inpatient psychiatric hospital were…

  14. Survival of naturally occurring Campylobacter in refrigerated and frozen rinsate from a broiler carcass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine if naturally occurring Campylobacter in a broiler carcass rinsate could survive in cold or frozen storage. Ten commercial broiler carcasses were each rinsed with 500 ml of Butterfield’s buffer and all carcasses tested positive for the presence of 104-105...

  15. Characterizing volumetric deformation behavior of naturally occuring bituminous sand materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available on the test results, bulk modulus properties were characterized as a function of the applied hydrostatic stress for individual oil sand samples. When the entire test data were combined, nonlinear bulk modulus models were successfully developed to account...

  16. [Pathologic characteristics of malignant neoplasms occurring in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Tomio; Matsuda, Yoko; Aida, Junko; Takubo, Kaiyo

    2015-08-01

    Malignant neoplasm preferentially occurs in the elderly. Common cancers in the elderly are gastric, colorectal, lung and prostate cancers in men whereas colorectal, lung, gastric and pancreatic cancers in women. There are several characteristic features such as tumor location, histology, biological behavior and pathway of carcinogenesis in malignant neoplasms occurring in the elderly. Multiple cancers increase with aging. Although it is generally believed that carcinoma in the elderly shows well differentiation, slow growth, low incidence of metastasis and favorable prognosis, the tumor does not always show such features. Regarding biological behavior of malignant tumor in the elderly, age-related alterations of the host such as stromal weakness and decreased immune response against cancer cell invasion should be considered as well as characteristics of tumor cell itself. Thus, we need a specific strategy for treatment for malignant neoplasms in the elderly.

  17. Naturally occurring tumours in the basal metazoan Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazet-Lošo, Tomislav; Klimovich, Alexander; Anokhin, Boris; Anton-Erxleben, Friederike; Hamm, Mailin J; Lange, Christina; Bosch, Thomas C G

    2014-06-24

    The molecular nature of tumours is well studied in vertebrates, although their evolutionary origin remains unknown. In particular, there is no evidence for naturally occurring tumours in pre-bilaterian animals, such as sponges and cnidarians. This is somewhat surprising given that recent computational studies have predicted that most metazoans might be prone to develop tumours. Here we provide first evidence for naturally occurring tumours in two species of Hydra. Histological, cellular and molecular data reveal that these tumours are transplantable and might originate by differentiation arrest of female gametes. Growth of tumour cells is independent from the cellular environment. Tumour-bearing polyps have significantly reduced fitness. In addition, Hydra tumours show a greatly altered transcriptome that mimics expression shifts in vertebrate cancers. Therefore, this study shows that spontaneous tumours have deep evolutionary roots and that early branching animals may be informative in revealing the fundamental mechanisms of tumorigenesis.

  18. Mechanism of prion propagation: amyloid growth occurs by monomer addition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean R Collins

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abundant nonfibrillar oligomeric intermediates are a common feature of amyloid formation, and these oligomers, rather than the final fibers, have been suggested to be the toxic species in some amyloid diseases. Whether such oligomers are critical intermediates for fiber assembly or form in an alternate, potentially separable pathway, however, remains unclear. Here we study the polymerization of the amyloidogenic yeast prion protein Sup35. Rapid polymerization occurs in the absence of observable intermediates, and both targeted kinetic and direct single-molecule fluorescence measurements indicate that fibers grow by monomer addition. A three-step model (nucleation, monomer addition, and fiber fragmentation accurately accounts for the distinctive kinetic features of amyloid formation, including weak concentration dependence, acceleration by agitation, and sigmoidal shape of the polymerization time course. Thus, amyloid growth can occur by monomer addition in a reaction distinct from and competitive with formation of potentially toxic oligomeric intermediates.

  19. Sensory-motor transformations for speech occur bilaterally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Gregory B; Thesen, Thomas; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Pesaran, Bijan

    2014-03-06

    Historically, the study of speech processing has emphasized a strong link between auditory perceptual input and motor production output. A kind of 'parity' is essential, as both perception- and production-based representations must form a unified interface to facilitate access to higher-order language processes such as syntax and semantics, believed to be computed in the dominant, typically left hemisphere. Although various theories have been proposed to unite perception and production, the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. Early models of speech and language processing proposed that perceptual processing occurred in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area) and motor production processes occurred in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area). Sensory activity was proposed to link to production activity through connecting fibre tracts, forming the left lateralized speech sensory-motor system. Although recent evidence indicates that speech perception occurs bilaterally, prevailing models maintain that the speech sensory-motor system is left lateralized and facilitates the transformation from sensory-based auditory representations to motor-based production representations. However, evidence for the lateralized computation of sensory-motor speech transformations is indirect and primarily comes from stroke patients that have speech repetition deficits (conduction aphasia) and studies using covert speech and haemodynamic functional imaging. Whether the speech sensory-motor system is lateralized, like higher-order language processes, or bilateral, like speech perception, is controversial. Here we use direct neural recordings in subjects performing sensory-motor tasks involving overt speech production to show that sensory-motor transformations occur bilaterally. We demonstrate that electrodes over bilateral inferior frontal, inferior parietal, superior temporal, premotor and somatosensory cortices exhibit robust sensory-motor neural

  20. Probiotic properties of yeasts occurring in fermented food and beverages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Lene

    Besides being able to improve the quality and safety of many fermented food and beverages some yeasts offer a number of probiotic traits. Especially a group of yeast referred to as "Saccharomyces boulardii", though taxonomically belonging to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been claimed to have...... probiotic properties. Besides, yeasts naturally occurring globally in food and beverages will have traits that might have a positive impact on human health....

  1. Improving the use of the fallout radionuclide 7Be as a sediment tracer by incorporating the hydraulic conductivity in the conversion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryken, Nick; Al-Barri, Bashar; Blake, Will; Taylor, Alex; Boeckx, Pascal; Verdoodt, Ann

    2016-04-01

    There is growing interest in the application of the natural fallout radionuclide 7Be as a soil erosion and sediment tracer. Development of robust datasets is, however, hampered by unquantified spatial variability in its distribution within the surface soil. Models that convert 7Be inventory measurements to soil erosion estimates are all based on the observed depth distribution of 7Be, described by the relaxation mass depth (h0) parameter. Previous work, however, has not considered potential spatial variation in h0 linked to variability in soil physical properties, which could have major implications for the reliability of soil erosion estimates. This work addresses the close relation between infiltration rate and the 7Be depth distribution. During a laboratory rainfall simulation experiment, water spiked with stable 9Be was used to study the variability in 9Be depth distribution for eight compacted and eight non-compacted natural undisturbed soil cores, whereby 9Be was used as a substitute for 7Be. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) scans were used to characterize the porosity of both groups, showing significant lower, strongly horizontally oriented, total porosity of the compacted soil cores. The average saturated hydraulic conductivity (ksat) of the different groups was 0.89 m day-1 and 17 m day-1 for the compacted and the non-compacted samples respectively. This physical compaction resulted in a clear distinction in 9Be depth distribution between both groups. With an average h0 of 4.66 ± 1.1 kg m-2, 9Be penetrated deeper in the non-compacted soil cores, while the compacted cores showed an average h0 of 2.42 ± 0.26 kg m-2. The reported h0 values at the former site were also characterized by a larger coefficient of variation (24%) than those at the latter site (11%), similar to the variations in soil structure observed by the CT-scans. Furthermore, the correlation between the hydraulic conductivity and the 9Be depth distribution is under investigation by

  2. Causes and outcomes of pediatric injuries occurring at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Scala, C; Gallagher, S S; Schneps, S E

    1997-11-01

    This study examines the causes and outcomes of injuries occurring at school and highlights the need for injury prevention strategies. Descriptive statistics were applied to data from a national pediatric trauma database on 1,558 K-12 graders injured at school severely enough to require hospitalization. Factors analyzed included age, gender, cause, place, time, injured body regions, use of hospital resources, in-hospital fatality rate, and functional limitations. Most injuries were unintentional (89.7%) and occurred mostly to children 10-14 years old. Almost half occurred in recreational areas. Falls and sports were the most frequent causes, but the pattern varied by grade and gender. Most children sustained injuries to the extremities (41.3%) or to the head (39.2%). Two percent sustained spinal cord injuries, mainly from sports. Eight children died, and 43.6% developed one or more functional limitations. Frequent, severe, and costly injuries should be the focus of school safety policies, and a mix of injury prevention strategies should be applied.

  3. Percutaneous treatment of complications occurring during hemodialysis graft recanalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofocleous, Constantinos T. E-mail: constant@pol.net; Schur, Israel; Koh, Elsie; Hinrichs, Clay; Cooper, Stanley G.; Welber, Adam; Brountzos, Elias; Kelekis, Dimitris

    2003-09-01

    Introduction/objective: To describe and evaluate percutaneous treatment methods of complications occurring during recanalization of thrombosed hemodialysis access grafts. Methods and materials: A retrospective review of 579 thrombosed hemodialysis access grafts revealed 48 complications occurring during urokinase thrombolysis (512) or mechanical thrombectomy (67). These include 12 venous or venous anastomotic ruptures not controlled by balloon tamponade, eight arterial emboli, 12 graft extravasations, seven small hematomas, four intragraft pseudointimal 'dissections', two incidents of pulmonary edema, one episode of intestinal angina, one procedural death, and one distant hematoma. Results: Twelve cases of post angioplasty ruptures were treated with uncovered stents of which 10 resulted in graft salvage allowing successful hemodialysis. All arterial emboli were retrieved by Fogarty or embolectomy balloons. The 10/12 graft extravasations were successfully treated by digital compression while the procedure was completed and the graft flow was restored. Dissections were treated with prolonged Percutaneous Trasluminal Angioplasty (PTA) balloon inflation. Overall technical success was 39/48 (81%). Kaplan-Meier Primary and secondary patency rates were 72 and 78% at 30, 62 and 73% at 90 and 36 and 67% at 180 days, respectively. Secondary patency rates remained over 50% at 1 year. There were no additional complications caused by these maneuvers. Discussions and conclusion: The majority of complications occurring during percutaneous thrombolysis/thrombectomy of thrombosed access grafts, can be treated at the same sitting allowing completion of the recanalization procedure and usage of the same access for hemodialysis.

  4. Natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni occurs beyond limits of growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegge, Christina S; Brøndsted, Lone; Ligowska-Marzęta, Małgorzata; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy dependent process, that occurs in the absence of transcription but requires an active translational machinery. Moreover, we show the ATP dependent ClpP protease to be important for transformation, which possibly could be associated with reduced protein glycosylation in the ClpP mutant. In contrast, competence of C. jejuni was neither found to be involved in DNA repair following DNA damage nor to provide a growth benefit. Kinetic studies revealed that several transformation events occur per cell cycle indicating that natural transformation of C. jejuni is a highly efficient process. Thus, our findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation takes place in various habitats occupied by C. jejuni.

  5. Hepatitis B Virus Capsid Completion Occurs through Error Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutomski, Corinne A; Lyktey, Nicholas A; Zhao, Zhongchao; Pierson, Elizabeth E; Zlotnick, Adam; Jarrold, Martin F

    2017-11-22

    Understanding capsid assembly is important because of its role in virus lifecycles and in applications to drug discovery and nanomaterial development. Many virus capsids are icosahedral, and assembly is thought to occur by the sequential addition of capsid protein subunits to a nucleus, with the final step completing the icosahedron. Almost nothing is known about the final (completion) step because the techniques usually used to study capsid assembly lack the resolution. In this work, charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS) has been used to track the assembly of the T = 4 hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsid in real time. The initial assembly reaction occurs rapidly, on the time scale expected from low resolution measurements. However, CDMS shows that many of the particles generated in this process are defective and overgrown, containing more than the 120 capsid protein dimers needed to form a perfect T = 4 icosahedron. The defective and overgrown capsids self-correct over time to the mass expected for a perfect T = 4 capsid. Thus, completion is a distinct phase in the assembly reaction. Capsid completion does not necessarily occur by inserting the last building block into an incomplete, but otherwise perfect icosahedron. The initial assembly reaction can be predominently imperfect, and completion involves the slow correction of the accumulated errors.

  6. Naturally Occurring Anthraquinones: Chemistry and Therapeutic Potential in Autoimmune Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Chang Chien

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinones are a class of aromatic compounds with a 9,10-dioxoanthracene core. So far, 79 naturally occurring anthraquinones have been identified which include emodin, physcion, cascarin, catenarin, and rhein. A large body of literature has demonstrated that the naturally occurring anthraquinones possess a broad spectrum of bioactivities, such as cathartic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, diuretic, vasorelaxing, and phytoestrogen activities, suggesting their possible clinical application in many diseases. Despite the advances that have been made in understanding the chemistry and biology of the anthraquinones in recent years, research into their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential in autoimmune disorders is still at an early stage. In this paper, we briefly introduce the etiology of autoimmune diabetes, an autoimmune disorder that affects as many as 10 million worldwide, and the role of chemotaxis in autoimmune diabetes. We then outline the chemical structure and biological properties of the naturally occurring anthraquinones and their derivatives with an emphasis on recent findings about their immune regulation. We discuss the structure and activity relationship, mode of action, and therapeutic potential of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes, including a new strategy for the use of the anthraquinones in autoimmune diabetes.

  7. Airborne Dust Cloud Measurements at the INL National Security Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Abbott; Norm Stanley; Larry Radke; Charles Smeltzer

    2007-09-01

    On July 11, 2007, a surface, high-explosive test (<20,000 lb TNT-equivalent) was carried out at the National Security Test Range (NSTR) on the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site. Aircraft-mounted rapid response (1-sec) particulate monitors were used to measure airborne PM-10 concentrations directly in the dust cloud and to develop a PM-10 emission factor that could be used for subsequent tests at the NSTR. The blast produced a mushroom-like dust cloud that rose approximately 2,500–3,000 ft above ground level, which quickly dissipated (within 5 miles of the source). In general, the cloud was smaller and less persistence than expected, or that might occur in other areas, likely due to the coarse sand and subsurface conditions that characterize the immediate NSTR area. Maximum short time-averaged (1-sec) PM-10 concentrations at the center of the cloud immediately after the event reached 421 µg m-3 but were rapidly reduced (by atmospheric dispersion and fallout) to near background levels (~10 µg m-3) after about 15 minutes. This occurred well within the INL Site boundary, about 8 km (5 miles) from the NSTR source. These findings demonstrate that maximum concentrations in ambient air beyond the INL Site boundary (closest is 11.2 km from NSTR) from these types of tests would be well within the 150 µg m-3 24-hour National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM-10. Aircraft measurements and geostatistical techniques were used to successfully quantify the initial volume (1.64E+9 m3 or 1.64 km3) and mass (250 kg) of the PM-10 dust cloud, and a PM-10 emission factor (20 kg m-3 crater soil volume) was developed for this specific type of event at NSTR. The 250 kg of PM-10 mass estimated from this experiment is almost seven-times higher than the 36 kg estimated for the environmental assessment (DOE-ID 2007) using available Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1995) emission factors. This experiment demonstrated that advanced aircraft-mounted instruments operated by

  8. Comments on the A. Aurengo document entitled 'the 2003 I.R.S.N. model of Chernobylsk accident fallout in France' - 18 december 2005; Commentaires sur le document d'A. Aurengo intitule 'Le modele IRSN 2003 des retombees de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France' - 18 decembre 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The present document brings the principal comments of I.R.S.N. on the analysis note of the 18. december 2005 treating the 2003 I.R.S.N. model on the Chernobylsk accident fallout in France, transmitted by Mister A. Aurengo. (N.C.)

  9. Chemical reactions occurring during direct solar reduction of CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyma, J L; Jensen, R J

    2001-09-28

    At high temperatures carbon dioxide may absorb solar radiation and react to form carbon monoxide and molecular oxygen. The CO, so produced, may be converted by well-established means to a combustible fuel, such as methanol. We intend to make a future demonstration of the solar reduction of CO2 based on these processes. This paper, however, addresses only the problem of preserving, or even enhancing, the initial photolytic CO by quenching the hot gas with colder H2O or CO2. We present model calculations with a reaction mechanism used extensively in other calculations. If a CO2 gas stream is heated and photolyzed by intense solar radiation and then allowed to cool slowly, it will react back to the initial CO2 by a series of elementary chemical reactions. The back reaction to CO2 can be terminated with the rapid addition of CO2, water, or a mixture. Calculations show that a three-fold quench with pure CO2 will stop the reactions and preserve over 90% of the initial photolytic CO. We find that water has one of two effects. It can either increase the CO level, or it can catalyze the recombination of O and CO to CO2. The gas temperature is the determining factor. If the quench gas is not sufficient to keep the temperature below approximately 1100 K, a chain-branching reaction dominates and the reaction to CO2 occurs. If the temperature stays below that level a chain terminating reaction dominates and the CO is increased. The former case occurs below approximately a fourfold quench with a water/CO2 mixture. The later case occurs when the quench is greater than fourfold. We conclude that CO2, H2O, or a mixture may quench the hot gas stream photolyzed by solar radiation and preserve the photolytic CO.

  10. Natural transformation of Campylobacter jejuni occurs beyond limits of growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina S Vegge

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is a human bacterial pathogen. While poultry is considered to be a major source of food borne campylobacteriosis, C. jejuni is frequently found in the external environment, and water is another well-known source of human infections. Natural transformation is considered to be one of the main mechanisms for mediating transfer of genetic material and evolution of the organism. Given the diverse habitats of C. jejuni we set out to examine how environmental conditions and physiological processes affect natural transformation of C. jejuni. We show that the efficiency of transformation is correlated to the growth conditions, but more importantly that transformation occurs at growth-restrictive conditions as well as in the late stationary phase; hence revealing that growth per se is not required for C. jejuni to be competent. Yet, natural transformation of C. jejuni is an energy dependent process, that occurs in the absence of transcription but requires an active translational machinery. Moreover, we show the ATP dependent ClpP protease to be important for transformation, which possibly could be associated with reduced protein glycosylation in the ClpP mutant. In contrast, competence of C. jejuni was neither found to be involved in DNA repair following DNA damage nor to provide a growth benefit. Kinetic studies revealed that several transformation events occur per cell cycle indicating that natural transformation of C. jejuni is a highly efficient process. Thus, our findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer by natural transformation takes place in various habitats occupied by C. jejuni.

  11. Super-infections and relapses occur in chronic norovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julianne R; Roy, Sunando; Tutill, Helena; Williams, Rachel; Breuer, Judith

    2017-11-01

    Norovirus causes chronic infections in immunocompromised patients with considerable associated morbidity. It is not known whether chronic infections involve super- or re-infections or relapses. To retrospectively investigate whether longitudinal sampling in chronically infected patients demonstrates persistent infection with the same virus, or super- or re-infection. Norovirus full genomes were generated from 86 longitudinal samples from 25 paediatric patients. Consensus sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis and genotyping. Super-infections occurred in 17% of chronically infected patients who were continuously PCR positive; including two with mixed norovirus infections. The median duration of infection was 107days longer in those with super-infections; however this was not statistically significant. A third of patients with interrupted norovirus shedding continued to be infected with the same virus despite up to 2 months of PCR negative stools, classified as a relapse. The majority (67%) of patients with interrupted shedding were re-infected with a different genotype. Chronically infected patients who are continuously PCR positive are most likely to remain infected with the same virus; however super-infections do occur leading to mixed infection. Patients with interrupted shedding are likely to represent re-infection with a different genotype, however relapsing infections also occur. Our findings have implications for infection control as immunosuppressed patients remain susceptible to new norovirus infections despite current or recent infection and may continue to be infectious after norovirus is undetectable in stool. The relevance to children without co-morbidities remains to be determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Designing occupancy studies when false-positive detections occur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    1.Recently, estimators have been developed to estimate occupancy probabilities when false-positive detections occur during presence-absence surveys. Some of these estimators combine different types of survey data to improve estimates of occupancy. With these estimators, there is a tradeoff between the number of sample units surveyed, and the number and type of surveys at each sample unit. Guidance on efficient design of studies when false positives occur is unavailable. 2.For a range of scenarios, I identified survey designs that minimized the mean square error of the estimate of occupancy. I considered an approach that uses one survey method and two observation states and an approach that uses two survey methods. For each approach, I used numerical methods to identify optimal survey designs when model assumptions were met and parameter values were correctly anticipated, when parameter values were not correctly anticipated, and when the assumption of no unmodelled detection heterogeneity was violated. 3.Under the approach with two observation states, false positive detections increased the number of recommended surveys, relative to standard occupancy models. If parameter values could not be anticipated, pessimism about detection probabilities avoided poor designs. Detection heterogeneity could require more or fewer repeat surveys, depending on parameter values. If model assumptions were met, the approach with two survey methods was inefficient. However, with poor anticipation of parameter values, with detection heterogeneity, or with removal sampling schemes, combining two survey methods could improve estimates of occupancy. 4.Ignoring false positives can yield biased parameter estimates, yet false positives greatly complicate the design of occupancy studies. Specific guidance for major types of false-positive occupancy models, and for two assumption violations common in field data, can conserve survey resources. This guidance can be used to design efficient

  13. Thermoradiation inactivation of naturally occurring organisms in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, M. C.; Lindell, K. F.; David, T. J.

    1973-01-01

    Samples of soil collected from Kennedy Space Center near spacecraft assembly facilities were found to contain microorganisms very resistant to conventional sterilization techniques. The inactivation behavior of the naturally occurring spores in soil was investigated using dry heat and ionizing radiation, first separately, then in combination. Dry heat inactivation rates of spores were determined for 105 and 125 C. Radiation inactivation rates were determined for dose rates of 660 and 76 krad/hr at 25 C. Simultaneous combinations of heat and radiation were then investigated at 105, 110, 115, 120, and 125 C. Combined treatment was found to be highly synergistic requiring greatly reduced radiation doses to accomplish sterilization.

  14. A case report of osteosarcoma occurred in the maxilla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Yun Hwa [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Seon Doo [Full Time Instructor of Dept. of Dental Hygiene, Yeoju Junior College, Yeoju (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-15

    Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant tumor of bone, The mean age of occurrence of osteosarcoma in the jaws is around 30, somewhat older than for other sites in the body. These lesions occur about equally in the maxilla and mandible. They most frequently develop in the body in the mandible, and the antrum and the posterior portion of alveolar ridge in the maxilla. We report a case of osteosarcoma in 35 years old female complaining swelling of the left cheek. Radiographic features showed cotton wool appearance in upper left posterior area. Histopathologic findings exhibited pleomorphic malignant osteoblasts and neoplastic osteoid.

  15. A Rare Occurance with Epidermolysis Bullosa Disease: Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derya Cimen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidermolysis bullosa is a congenital and herediter vesiculobullous disease. Dystrophic form of this disease is characterized by severe malnutrition, failure to thrive, adhesions at fingers, joint contractures related with the formation of scar tissues, carcinoma of the skin, anemia, hipoalbuminemia, wound enfections and sepsis. Rarely, mortal dilated cardiomyopathy may occur in patients. In this report we present a 13 year-old pediatric patient with dilated cardiomyopathy, clinically diagnosed with Epidermolysis bullosa as well as a review of recent related literature.

  16. Chronic calcified subdural empyema occurring 46 years after surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspera, Wojciech; Bierzyńska-Macyszyn, Grazyna; Majchrzak, Henryk

    2005-03-01

    The authors present a case of a 47-year-old female in whom there was diagnosed a chronic calcified subdural empyema 46 years after the removal of an acute subdural empyema resulting from complications after otitis media. The patient had suffered from grand mal convulsions and partial epileptic seizures occurring 3-4 times a month. A large frontotemporoparietal craniotomy was carried out and the subdural empyema filled with numerous brownish-black, uncharacteristic tissue fragments together with the partially calcified and ossified capsule was removed. The empyema mass was found to be sterile for bacteria. After the operation, mental disability symptoms began to withdraw and the number of epileptic seizures decreased.

  17. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  18. Genetic and molecular dissection of naturally occurring variations in rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Masahiro [National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The progress for structural analysis of the rice genome has allowed us to embark on the sequencing of the whole rice genome. Resources - genetic markers, sequence data, and genomic clones - derived from many efforts will be used for the functional analysis of rice genes in the next decade. Although artificially induced variations, such as mutants, have been used mainly for genetic and physiological studies in rice and other plant species, the development of DNA markers has made possible access to naturally occurring allelic variations underlying complex traits. Such analysis is often referred to as quantitative traits locus (QTL) analysis. Many QTLs have been mapped for many complex traits in rice. During the analyses of several quantitative traits by the DNA marker-assisted strategy, two questions about QTL analysis have been raised: 1) Does a QTL represent a single Mendelian locus or a cluster of multiple loci? 2) Is it possible to precisely map a QTL and identify QTLs at the molecular level using map-based or other strategies? To answer these questions, a series of analyses on heading date, including the identification of putative QTLs, characterization and fine mapping of QTLs using nearly isogenic lines (NILs), and identification of genes at QTLs for heading date by the map-based strategy has been performed. In addition, several primary permanent mapping populations and secondary genetic resources, such as chromosomal segmental substitution lines, have been developed to facilitate the genetic analysis of naturally occurring allelic variation. (M. Suetake)

  19. Radiological protection in North American naturally occurring radioactive material industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, D B

    2015-06-01

    All soils and rocks contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Many ores and raw materials contain relatively high levels of natural radionuclides, and processing such materials can further increase the concentrations of natural radionuclides, sometimes referred to as 'technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material' (TENORM). Examples of NORM minerals include uranium ores, monazite (a source of rare earth minerals), and phosphate rock used to produce phosphate fertiliser. Such activities have the potential to result in above background radiation exposure to workers and the public. The objective of this paper is to review the sources and exposure from NORM in North American industries, and provide a perspective on the potential radiological hazards to workers and the environment. Proper consideration of NORM issues is important and needs to be integrated in the assessment of these projects. Concerns over radioactivity and radiation amongst non-governmental organisations and the local public have resulted in the cancellation of NORM mining and mineral extraction projects, as well as inhibition of the safe use of by-product materials from various NORM industries. This paper also briefly comments on the current regulatory framework for NORM (TENORM) in Canada and the USA, as well as the potential implications of the recent activities of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for NORM industries. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Thermodynamic characterization of tandem mismatches found in naturally occurring RNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Martha E.; Znosko, Brent M.

    2009-01-01

    Although all sequence symmetric tandem mismatches and some sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches have been thermodynamically characterized and a model has been proposed to predict the stability of previously unmeasured sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches [Christiansen,M.E. and Znosko,B.M. (2008) Biochemistry, 47, 4329–4336], experimental thermodynamic data for frequently occurring tandem mismatches is lacking. Since experimental data is preferred over a predictive model, the thermodynamic parameters for 25 frequently occurring tandem mismatches were determined. These new experimental values, on average, are 1.0 kcal/mol different from the values predicted for these mismatches using the previous model. The data for the sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches reported here were then combined with the data for 72 sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches that were published previously, and the parameters used to predict the thermodynamics of previously unmeasured sequence asymmetric tandem mismatches were updated. The average absolute difference between the measured values and the values predicted using these updated parameters is 0.5 kcal/mol. This updated model improves the prediction for tandem mismatches that were predicted rather poorly by the previous model. This new experimental data and updated predictive model allow for more accurate calculations of the free energy of RNA duplexes containing tandem mismatches, and, furthermore, should allow for improved prediction of secondary structure from sequence. PMID:19509311

  1. On the Mechanical Friction Losses Occurring in Automotive Differential Gearboxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Antoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the automobile industry, the mechanical losses resulting from friction are largely responsible for various kinds of surface damage, such as the scuffing occurring in some mechanical assemblies. These scuffing processes seem to be due to a local loss of lubrication between certain mechanical elements of the same assembly, leading to a sharp increase in the friction, which can lead to a surface and volume damage in some of them, and even can cause, in the worst case, the whole destruction of the mechanical system if it has continued to operate. Predicting and checking the occurrence of this kind of undesirable phenomena, especially in some principal systems of the vehicle, represents nowadays, a crucial challenge in terms of automobile reliability and safety. This study focuses on the mechanical friction losses liable to occur in differential automobile gearboxes, which can lead in the long term to the scuffing of these mechanical systems. The friction losses involved were modeled, using a simple analytical approach, which is presented and discussed.

  2. Inhibition of tumor progression by naturally occurring terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttan, Girija; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Manu, Kanjoormana Aryan; Kuttan, Ramadasan

    2011-10-01

    Cancer is a major public health problem in India and many other parts of the world. Its two main characteristics are uncontrolled cell growth and metastasis. Natural products represent a rich source of compounds that have found many applications in various fields of medicines and therapy including cancer therapy. Effective ingredients in several plant-derived medicinal extracts are terpenoid compounds and many terpenes have biological activities and are used for the treatment of human diseases. This review attempted to collect all available published scientific literature of eight naturally occurring terpenoids and their effect on inhibition of tumor progression. The present review is about eight potent naturally occurring terpenoids that have been studied for their pharmacological properties in our lab and this review includes 130 references compiled from all major databases. Literature survey revealed that triterpenoids, such as glycyrrhizic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, and nomilin, the diterpene andrographolide, and the monoterpenoids like limonene and perillic acid had shown immunomodulatory and antitumor activities. All of them could induce apoptosis in various cancer cells by activating various proapoptotic signaling cascades. Many of these terpenoids found to inhibit metastatic progression and tumor-induced angiogenesis. The molecular mechanisms that involved in these activities include inhibition of various oncogenic and anti-apoptotic signaling pathways and suppression or nuclear translocation of various transcription factors including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). The chemopreventive and chemoprotective effects of these compounds point toward their possible role in modern anticancer therapies.

  3. Economic losses occurring due to brucellosis in Indian livestock populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B B; Dhand, N K; Gill, J P S

    2015-05-01

    Brucellosis is a serious public health issue in India. Estimation of economic losses occurring due to brucellosis is required to help formulate prevention and control strategies, but has not been done in India. We estimated economic losses due to brucellosis by sourcing prevalence data from epidemiological surveys conducted in India. Data for livestock populations were obtained from official records. Probability distributions were used for many of the input parameters to account for uncertainty and variability. The analysis revealed that brucellosis in livestock is responsible for a median loss of US $ 3.4 billion (5th-95th percentile 2.8-4.2 billion). The disease in cattle and buffalo accounted for 95.6% of the total losses occurring due to brucellosis in livestock populations. The disease is responsible for a loss of US $ 6.8 per cattle, US$18.2 per buffalo, US $ 0.7 per sheep, US $ 0.5 per goat and US $ 0.6 per pig. These losses are additional to the economic and social consequences of the disease in humans. The results suggest that the disease causes significant economic losses in the country and should be controlled on a priority basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. On the Mechanical Friction Losses Occurring in Automotive Differential Gearboxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoni, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    In the automobile industry, the mechanical losses resulting from friction are largely responsible for various kinds of surface damage, such as the scuffing occurring in some mechanical assemblies. These scuffing processes seem to be due to a local loss of lubrication between certain mechanical elements of the same assembly, leading to a sharp increase in the friction, which can lead to a surface and volume damage in some of them, and even can cause, in the worst case, the whole destruction of the mechanical system if it has continued to operate. Predicting and checking the occurrence of this kind of undesirable phenomena, especially in some principal systems of the vehicle, represents nowadays, a crucial challenge in terms of automobile reliability and safety. This study focuses on the mechanical friction losses liable to occur in differential automobile gearboxes, which can lead in the long term to the scuffing of these mechanical systems. The friction losses involved were modeled, using a simple analytical approach, which is presented and discussed. PMID:24719579

  5. Exploring naturally occurring ivy nanoparticles as an alternative biomaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yi-Jun; Wang, Yongzhong; Yi, Sijia; Fan, Zhen; Sun, Leming; Lin, Derrick; Anreddy, Nagaraju; Zhu, Hua; Schmidt, Michael; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Zhang, Mingjun

    2015-10-01

    Arabinoglactan protein (AGP)-rich nanoparticles obtained from the sticky exudates of Hedera helix (English ivy), have shown promising potential to be used in nanomedicine owing to their excellent aqueous solubility, low intrinsic viscosity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. In this study, the feasibilities of utilizing ivy nanoparticles (INPs) as nano-carriers for delivering chemotherapeutic drugs in cancer therapy and as nano-fillers to develop novel scaffolds for tissue engineering in regenerative medicine are evaluated. Via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, pH-responsive nanoconjugates are formed between the INPs and the doxorubicin (DOX) with an entrapment ratio of 77.9±3.9%. While the INPs show minimal cytotoxicity, the formed INP-DOX conjugates exhibit substantially stronger cytotoxic activity than free DOX against multiple cancer cell lines, suggesting a synergistic effect is established upon conjugation. The anti-cancer effects of the INP-DOX conjugates are further evaluated via in vivo xenograft assays by subcutaneously implanting DOX resistant cell line, SW620/Ad-300, into nude mice. The tumor volumes in mice treated with the INP-DOX conjugates are significantly less than those of the mice treated with free DOX. In addition, the INPs are further exploited as nano-fillers to develop fibrous scaffolds with collagen, via mimicking the porous matrix where the INPs are embedded under natural condition. Enhanced adhesion of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and accelerated proliferation of mouse aortic SMCs are observed in this newly constructed scaffold. Overall, the results obtained from the present study suggest great potential of the INPs to be used as biocompatible nanomaterials in nanomedicine. The AGP-rich INP renders a glycoprotein architecture that is amenable for modification according to the functional designs, capable of being developed as versatile nanomaterials for extensive biomedical applications. Naturally occurring organic

  6. Plutonium from above-ground nuclear tests in milk teeth: investigation of placental transfer in children born between 1951 and 1995 in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froidevaux, Pascal; Haldimann, Max

    2008-12-01

    Occupational risks, the present nuclear threat, and the potential danger associated with nuclear power have raised concerns regarding the metabolism of plutonium in pregnant women. We measured plutonium levels in the milk teeth of children born between 1951 and 1995 to assess the potential risk that plutonium incorporated by pregnant women might pose to the radiosensitive tissues of the fetus through placenta transfer. We used milk teeth, whose enamel is formed during pregnancy, to investigate the transfer of plutonium from the mother's blood plasma to the fetus. We measured plutonium using sensitive sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques. We compared our results with those of a previous study on strontium-90 ((90)Sr) released into the atmosphere after nuclear bomb tests. Results show that plutonium activity peaks in the milk teeth of children born about 10 years before the highest recorded levels of plutonium fallout. By contrast, (90)Sr, which is known to cross the placenta barrier, manifests differently in milk teeth, in accordance with (90)Sr fallout deposition as a function of time. These findings demonstrate that plutonium found in milk teeth is caused by fallout that was inhaled around the time the milk teeth were shed and not from any accumulation during pregnancy through placenta transfer. Thus, plutonium may not represent a radiologic risk for the radiosensitive tissues of the fetus.

  7. Texture characteristics of naturally occurring lonsdaleite-containing diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharlashina, N. N.; Naletov, A. M.

    1990-08-01

    The crystalline structure of six naturally occurring lonsdaleite-containing diamonds from Iakutia placers was determined using the Borodkina and Spektor (1981) XRD method. The slope angle for recordings of (111) reflections was varied from 0 to 90 deg, while for recording of (110) and (311) reflections, the slope angle was varied from 0 to 70 deg; the results were used to construct polar figures for these plane orientations. The crystalline characteristics observed in the six diamond samples support the hypothesis that the process of lonsdaleite formation in these samples is similar to the synthesis process in synthetic diamonds. The arrangement of the lonsdaleite lattice is constrained by the -110 line oriented direction in the diamond structure.

  8. Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baweja, Anar S.; Tracy, Bliss L.

    2008-08-01

    In Canada, nuclear and radiological regulatory responsibilities are shared between the provinces/territories and the federal government. The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates nuclear fuel cycle materials and man-made radionuclides under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (2000). The provinces and territories regulate NORM arising from industrial activities, not involving the nuclear fuel cycle materials. Present guideline—Canadian Guidelines for the Management of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)—was published in 2000 in order to bring uniformity to the management of NORM-related procedures to provide adequate radiation protection for workers and the general public. The basic premise of these guidelines is that the NORM-related activities should not be posing any greater hazard than those activities regulated under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act; these concepts are described in this paper.

  9. Vampire bat reproductive control by a naturally occurring phytooestrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Hector; Pérez-Rivero, Juan-José; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; de-Paz, Octavio; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Rabies transmission by wild animals has not being controlled satisfactorily. One major rabies vector to humans and cattle is the hematophagous vampire bat Desmodus rotundus whose distribution is still increasing in the Americas. Of all of the strategies currently in place to control this vector, none of them are really specific and some have ecological impacts. In the present study we used a naturally occurring phytoestrogen on a small vampire bat colony. After collection, bats were fed bovine blood containing 200 microg coumestrol for a 30-day period. After treatment, gonads were excised and processed for histological evaluation. Data indicate that coumestrol adversely affects gonad histology and has a possible impact on the fertility of both male and female vampire bats.

  10. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Cseh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV, Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV, Tomato black ring virus (TBRV, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV, Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV, Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV, Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4, Grapevine virus A (GVA, Grapevine virus B (GVB and Grapevine rupestris stem pitting- associated virus (GRSPaV have been reported in Hungary and characterized by conventional methods as woody indexing, herbaceous indexing and serological methods. Among grapevine viruses the Grapevine line pattern virus (GLPV seems to be uncial; because it was reported only in Hungary. Causal agents of several grapevine diseases, like enation, vein necrosis and vein mosaic remained undiscovered. These virus-like diseases occurred only sporadically, without economic importance.

  11. Modelling of damping forces occuring in simple MEMS systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Urbanowicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A certain damping force occurs in the micro-mechanical systems referred as MEMS. At the design stage of such systems, these forces must be accurately estimated. As shown in this work, in all systems operating at low frequencies, most important force is the one associated with the flotation of air film from the volume between two parallel operating movable MEMS plates. This force can be accurately estimated by analytical methods known from the literature. The paper presents analytical solutions that are frequently used in practice for simple plates. Also some simple simulations, using all described analytical solutions compared with the results of specialized program called Comsol Multyphysics, are shown. Presented research demonstrate the effectiveness of numerical software.[b]Keywords[/b]: MEMS, damping forces, Reynolds equation, modelling, simulation

  12. A huge glandular odontogenic cyst occurring at posterior mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Gi Chung; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dankook University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    The glandular odontogenic cyst is a rare lesion described in 1987. It generally occurs at anterior region of mandible in adults over the age of 40 and has a slight tendency to recur. Histopathologically, a cystic cavity lined by a nonkeratinized, stratified squamous, or cuboidal epithelium varying in thickness is found including a superficial layer with glandular or pseudoglandular structures. A 21-year-old male visited Dankook University Dental Hospital with a chief complaint of swelling of the left posterior mandible. Radiographically, a huge multilocular radiolucent lesion involving impacted 3rd molar at the posterior mandible was observed. Buccolingual cortical expansion with partial perforation of buccal cortical bone was also shown. Histopathologically, this lesion was lined by stratified squamous epithelium with glandular structures in areas of plaque-like thickening. The final diagnosis was made as a glandular odontogenic cyst.

  13. Is anyone regulating naturally occurring radioactive material? A state survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, E.M.; Barisas, S.G.

    1993-08-01

    As far as we know, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has surrounded humankind since the beginning of time. However, recent data demonstrating that certain activities concentrate NORM have increased concern regarding its proper handling and disposal and precipitated the development of new NORM-related regulations. The regulation of NORM affects the management of government facilities as well as a broad range of industrial processes. Recognizing that NORM regulation at the federal level is extremely limited, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a 50-state survey to determine the extent to which states have assumed the responsibility for regulating NORM as well as the NORM standards that are currently being applied at the state level. Though the survey indicates that NORM regulation comprises a broad spectrum of controls from full licensing requirements to virtually no regulation at afl, a trend is emerging toward recognition of the need for increased regulation of potential NORM hazards, particularly in the absence of federal standards.

  14. Late Acute Rejection Occuring in Liver Allograft Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Yoshida

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of immunosuppressive reduction on the incidence and consequence of late acute rejection (LAR in liver allograft recipients, mean daily prednisone dose, mean cyclosporine A (CsA trough and nadir levels were retrospectively reviewed for the nearest 12-week period preceding six episodes of LAR in five liver allograft recipients (group 1. Results were compared with those from a cohort of 12 liver allograft recipients who did not develop LAR (group 2. LAR was defined as acute rejection occurring more than 365 days post-transplantation. Median follow-up for both groups was similar (504 days, range 367 to 1050, versus 511 days, range 365 to 666, not significant. Mean trough CsA levels were lower in patients with LAR compared with those without (224±66 ng/mL versus 233±49 ng/mL but the difference was not statistically significant. In contrast, mean daily prednisone dose (2.5±1.6 mg/ day versus 6.5±2.9 mg/day, P=0.007 and CsA nadir values (129±60 ng/mL versus 186±40 ng/mL, P=0.03 were significantly lower in patients who developed LAR compared with those who did not. Five of six episodes (83% of LAR occurred in patients receiving less than 5 mg/day of prednisone, versus a single LAR episode in only one of 12 patients (8% receiving prednisone 5 mg/day or more (P=0.004. In all but one instance, LAR responded to pulse methylprednisolone without discernible affect on long term graft function. The authors conclude that liver allograft recipients remain vulnerable to acute rejection beyond the first post-transplant year; and reduction of immunosuppressive therapy, particularly prednisone, below a critical, albeit low dose, threshold increases the risk of LAR.

  15. Epigenetic variation in mangrove plants occurring in contrasting natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira-Medeiros, Catarina Fonseca; Parisod, Christian; Fernandes, Ricardo Avancini; Mata, Camila Souza; Cardoso, Monica Aires; Ferreira, Paulo Cavalcanti Gomes

    2010-04-26

    Epigenetic modifications, such as cytosine methylation, are inherited in plant species and may occur in response to biotic or abiotic stress, affecting gene expression without changing genome sequence. Laguncularia racemosa, a mangrove species, occurs in naturally contrasting habitats where it is subjected daily to salinity and nutrient variations leading to morphological differences. This work aims at unraveling how CpG-methylation variation is distributed among individuals from two nearby habitats, at a riverside (RS) or near a salt marsh (SM), with different environmental pressures and how this variation is correlated with the observed morphological variation. Significant differences were observed in morphological traits such as tree height, tree diameter, leaf width and leaf area between plants from RS and SM locations, resulting in smaller plants and smaller leaf size in SM plants. Methyl-Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) was used to assess genetic and epigenetic (CpG-methylation) variation in L. racemosa genomes from these populations. SM plants were hypomethylated (14.6% of loci had methylated samples) in comparison to RS (32.1% of loci had methylated samples). Within-population diversity was significantly greater for epigenetic than genetic data in both locations, but SM also had less epigenetic diversity than RS. Frequency-based (G(ST)) and multivariate (beta(ST)) methods that estimate population structure showed significantly greater differentiation among locations for epigenetic than genetic data. Co-Inertia analysis, exploring jointly the genetic and epigenetic data, showed that individuals with similar genetic profiles presented divergent epigenetic profiles that were characteristic of the population in a particular environment, suggesting that CpG-methylation changes may be associated with environmental heterogeneity. In spite of significant morphological dissimilarities, individuals of L. racemosa from salt marsh and riverside presented little

  16. Systematic review of neurocognition in people with co-occurring alcohol misuse and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Sally A; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J; Baker, Amanda L; Michie, Patricia T

    2015-07-01

    Alcohol misuse and depression represent two major social and health problems globally. These conditions commonly co-occur and both are associated with significant cognitive impairment. Despite this, few studies have examined the impact on cognitive functioning of co-occurring alcohol misuse and depression. This study aims to critically review findings from peer-reviewed published articles examining neuropsychological test performance among samples of people with co-occurring alcohol misuse and depression. A comprehensive literature search was conducted, yielding six studies reporting neuropsychological profiles of people with co-occurring alcohol misuse and depression. Results comparing cognitive functioning of people with this comorbidity to those with alcohol misuse alone, depression alone, healthy controls and published norms were examined as well as those describing the correlation between depressive symptoms and cognitive functioning in people with alcohol use disorders. In the majority of instances, the comorbid groups did not differ significantly from those with depression only or alcohol misuse only, nor from healthy controls or published norms. In the cases where a difference in neuropsychological test scores between groups was found, it was not consistently identified across studies. However, visual memory was identified in two studies as being impaired in comorbid samples and is worthy of inclusion in future studies. Due to the small number of included studies and the large variation in inclusion criteria as well as differing assessment tools and methodologies between studies, the review did not include a quantitative synthesis. Research into cognitive deficits among people with singly occurring versus co-occurring alcohol misuse and depression is accumulating. Evidence suggests that the neuropsychological performance among samples with this comorbidity is generally not severely impaired and is unlikely to preclude benefit from treatment. Copyright

  17. Trapped in a tight spot: Scaling effects occur when, according to the action-specific account, they should not, and fail to occur when they should.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Elizabeth S; Lawson, Rebecca

    2018-01-16

    The action-specific account of perception claims that what we see is perceptually scaled according to our action capacity. However, it has been argued that this account relies on an overly confirmatory research strategy-predicting the presence of, and then finding, an effect (Firestone & Scholl, 2014). A comprehensive approach should also test disconfirmatory predictions, in which no effect is expected. In two experiments, we tested one such prediction based on the action-specific account, namely that scaling effects should occur only when participants intend to act (Witt, Proffitt, & Epstein, 2005). All participants wore asymmetric gloves in which one glove was padded with extra material, so that one hand was wider than the other. Participants visually estimated the width of apertures. The action-specific account predicts that the apertures should be estimated as being narrower for the wider hand, but only when participants intend to act. We found this scaling effect when it should not have occurred (Exp. 1, for participants who did not intend to act), as well as no effect when it should have occurred (Exp. 2, for participants who intended to act but were given a cover story for the visibility and position of their hands). Thus, the cover story used in Experiment 2 eliminated the scaling effect found in Experiment 1. We suggest that the scaling effect observed in Experiment 1 likely resulted from demand characteristics associated with using a salient, unexplained manipulation (e.g., telling people which hand to use to do the task). Our results suggest that the action-specific account lacks predictive power.

  18. Effect of Microbial and Other Naturally Occurring Polymers on Mineral Dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, S. A.; Vandevivere, P.

    1994-11-21

    Several naturally occurring polymers were tested for their effect on mineral dissolution. Polymers composed primarily of neutral sugars had no effect on dissolution, even at concentrations 1000 times greater than average dissolved organic carbon concentrations found in groundwater. In contrast, alginate, a polysaccharide composed of two uronic acids, inhibited dissolution by 80% at the highest concentration used. A high-molecular-weight polyaspartate also inhibited dissolution, though a lower-molecular-weight polyaspartate had no affect.

  19. High pressure electrical conductivity in naturally occurring silicate liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburczy, James A.; Waff, Harve S.

    of Jambon's (1982) semiempirical activation energy theory, this fact indicates that under all conditions studied ionic conduction is due to transport of cations of similar size, and that these conducting ions are small relative to the size of an oxygen anion. The changes in activation volume occur at roughly the same pressures that changes in liquidus mineral assemblage occur. Changes in melt polymerization may or may not be reflected in changes in liquidus phase degree of polymerization.

  20. Discernible but limited introgression has occurred where Trichinella nativa and the T6 genotype occur in sympatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunams-Morel, Detiger B; Reichard, Mason V; Torretti, Luigi; Zarlenga, Dante S; Rosenthal, Benjamin M

    2012-04-01

    The genetic diversity within and among parasite populations provides clues to their evolutionary history. Here, we sought to determine whether mitochondrial and microsatellite DNA variation could be used to evaluate the extent of differentiation, gene flow and historical reproductive isolation among the freeze resistant parasites Trichinella nativa and the Trichinella T6 genotype infecting wolverines (Gulo gulo) in Nunavut, Canada. To this end, we genotyped Trichinella isolates derived from the diaphragms of 39 wolverines from this locale to reference strains of T. nativa and the Trichinella T6 genotype. Results showed that among a subset of 13 isolates examined, individuals resembled T. nativa in their mitochondrial DNA, but resembled the Trichinella T6 genotype when assayed at expansion segment V and the internal transcribed spacer of the nuclear rDNA. To adjudicate among these conflicting diagnoses, we further characterized each isolate at several nuclear microsatellite loci and again compared these to data from reference strains. Statistical assignment established that the nuclear genomes of most Nunavut isolates corresponded to those of the Trichinella T6 genotype; however, two isolates corresponded to T. nativa, and one isolate exhibited equal similarity to both reference strains. Taken as a whole, the evidence suggests that these isolates derive from the T. nativa matrilineage, but that their nuclear genomes resemble individuals previously designated as Trichinella T6. Assuming distinct lineages, this argues for cross-hybridization among these genotypes. Although introgression has occurred, recognizable genetic distinctions persist. One possibility is that selection disfavors the survival of hybrid offspring in most instances. Alternatively, the recent disappearance of glacial barriers might have increased contact, and therefore introgression. Broader geographic sampling will be required to determine the extent to which hybridization occurs beyond this

  1. Effect of insulin on naturally occurring gingivitis rats with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, A; Shinohara, M; Ohura, K

    1999-04-01

    It is well known that diabetes mellitus aggravates both the severity and progression of periodontal disease. We sought to further explore biologic mechanisms of this relationship using naturally occurring gingivitis rats (ODUS/Odu) rendered diabetic by 65 mg/kg intravenous injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Insulin was administered daily to one group of the rats beginning 4 weeks after STZ injection (STZ-insulin group). Others received no insulin (STZ group). A third group that received no STZ was kept as controls. Eight weeks after STZ injection, sterilized liquid paraffin was injected peritoneally into all three groups, and peritoneal macrophages were collected 4 days later. Macrophage chemotaxis was measured by the membrane filter method using a 48-well microchemotaxis chamber with zymosan activated serum used as a chemotactic stimulant. Blood glucose levels, body weight, plaque indices, pocket depths, serum triglyceride and hemoglobin A1C levels were also determined. We found that blood glucose levels, body weight and triglycerides recovered to normal values in the STZ-insulin group. Further, control of blood glucose resulted in diminished plaque indices, and pocket depths returned to values seen in the controls. Chemotaxis and phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages improved slightly in the STZ-insulin group, but did not return to levels seen in the pretreatment state. Although insulin resulted in some improvement in leukocyte function damaged by induced diabetes mellitus, recovery was incomplete.

  2. Water use patterns of four co-occurring chaparral shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S D; Mooney, H A

    1986-09-01

    Mixed stands of chaparral in California usually contain several species of shrubs growing close to each other so that aerial branches and subterranean roots overlap. There is some evidence that roots are stratified relative to depth. It may be that root stratification promotes sharing of soil moisture resources. We examined this possibility by comparing seasonal water use patterns in a mixed stand of chaparral dominated by four species of shrubs: Quercus durata, Heteromeles arbutifolia, Adenostoma fasciculatum, and Rhamnus californica. We used a neutron probe and soil phychrometers to follow seasonal depletion and recharging of soil moisture and compared these patterns to seasonal patterns of predawn water potentials, diurnal leaf conductances, and diurnal leaf water potentials. Our results indicated that 1) Quercus was deeply rooted, having high water potentials and high leaf conductances throughout the summer drought period, 2) Heteromeles/Adenostoma were intermediate in rooting depth, water potentials, and leaf conductances, and 3) Rhamnus was shallow rooted, having the lowest water potentials and leaf conductances. During the peak of the drought, predawn water potentials for Quercus corresponded to soil water potentials at or below a depth of 2 m, predawn water potentials of Heteromeles/ Adenostoma corresponded to a depth of 0.75 m, and predawn water potentials of Rhamnus corresponded to a depth of 0.5 m. This study supports the concept that co-occurring shrubs of chaparral in California utilize a different base of soil moisture resources.

  3. Franckeite as a naturally occurring van der Waals heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J.; Giovanelli, Emerson; Paz, Wendel S.; Niño, Miguel Angel; Island, Joshua O.; Evangeli, Charalambos; Aballe, Lucía; Foerster, Michael; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Palacios, J. J.; Pérez, Emilio M.; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-01-01

    The fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures, artificial materials assembled by individual stacking of 2D layers, is among the most promising directions in 2D materials research. Until now, the most widespread approach to stack 2D layers relies on deterministic placement methods, which are cumbersome and tend to suffer from poor control over the lattice orientations and the presence of unwanted interlayer adsorbates. Here, we present a different approach to fabricate ultrathin heterostructures by exfoliation of bulk franckeite which is a naturally occurring and air stable van der Waals heterostructure (composed of alternating SnS2-like and PbS-like layers stacked on top of each other). Presenting both an attractive narrow bandgap (<0.7 eV) and p-type doping, we find that the material can be exfoliated both mechanically and chemically down to few-layer thicknesses. We present extensive theoretical and experimental characterizations of the material's electronic properties and crystal structure, and explore applications for near-infrared photodetectors. PMID:28194037

  4. Hip damage occurs at the zone of femoroacetabular impingement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannast, M; Goricki, D; Beck, M; Murphy, S B; Siebenrock, K A

    2008-02-01

    Although current concepts of anterior femoroacetabular impingement predict damage in the labrum and the cartilage, the actual joint damage has not been verified by computer simulation. We retrospectively compared the intraoperative locations of labral and cartilage damage of 40 hips during surgical dislocation for cam or pincer type femoroacetabular impingement (Group I) with the locations of femoroacetabular impingement in 15 additional hips using computer simulation (Group II). We found no difference between the mean locations of the chondrolabral damage of Group I and the computed impingement zone of Group II. The standard deviation was larger for measures of articular damage from Group I in comparison to the computed values of Group II. The most severe hip damage occurred at the zone of highest probability of femoroacetabular impact, typically in the anterosuperior quadrant of the acetabulum for both cam and pincer type femoroacetabular impingements. However, the extent of joint damage along the acetabular rim was larger intraoperatively than that observed on the images of the 3-D joint simulations. We concluded femoroacetabular impingement mechanism contributes to early osteoarthritis including labral lesions. Level II, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  5. Characteristics of Watermelon Mosaic Virus Transmission Occurring in Korean Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kook Choi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng is the most popular herb for medical purpose in Korea. Recently, viral diseases from Korean ginseng showing various degrees of severe mottling, variegation and mosaic symptoms have caused quantity losses of Korean ginseng in a large number of farms. Watermelon mosaic virus (named WMVgin was identified as a causal agent for the disease of Korean ginseng. Interestingly, WMV-gin failed to infect both Korean ginseng plant and susceptible host species including cucurbitaceous plants by mechanical inoculation. However, WMV-gin could successfully infect Korean ginseng by transmission of two aphid species (Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii. It is likely that transmission of WMV-gin was done by both the aphid species during feeding behavior of the two aphid species on Korean ginseng, though the aphids dislike feeding in Korea ginseng. Similarly, a strain of WMV (WMV-wm isolated from watermelon was transmitted successfully to Korean ginseng plant by the two aphid species, but not by mechanical inoculations. Transmission assays using M. persicae and A. gossypii clearly showed both WMV-gin and WMV-wm were not transmitted from infected Korean ginseng plant to cucurbit species that are good host species for WMV. These results suggest WMV disease occurring in Korean ginseng plant can be controlled by ecological approaches.

  6. Naturally occurring allele diversity allows potato cultivation in northern latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloosterman, Bjorn; Abelenda, José A; Gomez, María del Mar Carretero; Oortwijn, Marian; de Boer, Jan M; Kowitwanich, Krissana; Horvath, Beatrix M; van Eck, Herman J; Smaczniak, Cezary; Prat, Salomé; Visser, Richard G F; Bachem, Christian W B

    2013-03-14

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) originates from the Andes and evolved short-day-dependent tuber formation as a vegetative propagation strategy. Here we describe the identification of a central regulator underlying a major-effect quantitative trait locus for plant maturity and initiation of tuber development. We show that this gene belongs to the family of DOF (DNA-binding with one finger) transcription factors and regulates tuberization and plant life cycle length, by acting as a mediator between the circadian clock and the StSP6A mobile tuberization signal. We also show that natural allelic variants evade post-translational light regulation, allowing cultivation outside the geographical centre of origin of potato. Potato is a member of the Solanaceae family and is one of the world's most important food crops. This annual plant originates from the Andean regions of South America. Potato develops tubers from underground stems called stolons. Its equatorial origin makes potato essentially short-day dependent for tuberization and potato will not make tubers in the long-day conditions of spring and summer in the northern latitudes. When introduced in temperate zones, wild material will form tubers in the course of the autumnal shortening of day-length. Thus, one of the first selected traits in potato leading to a European potato type is likely to have been long-day acclimation for tuberization. Potato breeders can exploit the naturally occurring variation in tuberization onset and life cycle length, allowing varietal breeding for different latitudes, harvest times and markets.

  7. Bladder uptake of liposomes after intravesical administration occurs by endocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharathi Raja Rajaganapathy

    Full Text Available Liposomes have been used therapeutically and as a local drug delivery system in the bladder. However, the exact mechanism for the uptake of liposomes by bladder cells is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of endocytosis in the uptake of liposomes by cultured human UROtsa cells of urothelium and rat bladder. UROtsa cells were incubated in serum-free media with liposomes containing colloidal gold particles for 2 h either at 37°C or at 4°C. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM images of cells incubated at 37°C found endocytic vesicles containing gold inside the cells. In contrast, only extracellular binding was noticed in cells incubated with liposomes at 4°C. Absence of liposome internalization at 4°C indicates the need of energy dependent endocytosis as the primary mechanism of entry of liposomes into the urothelium. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the uptake of liposomes at 37°C occurs via clathrin mediated endocytosis. Based on these observations, we propose that clathrin mediated endocytosis is the main route of entry for liposomes into the urothelial layer of the bladder and the findings here support the usefulness of liposomes in intravesical drug delivery.

  8. Conformational Flexibility Differentiates Naturally Occurring Bet v 1 Isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grutsch, Sarina; Fuchs, Julian E; Ahammer, Linda; Kamenik, Anna S; Liedl, Klaus R; Tollinger, Martin

    2017-06-03

    The protein Bet v 1 represents the main cause for allergic reactions to birch pollen in Europe and North America. Structurally homologous isoforms of Bet v 1 can have different properties regarding allergic sensitization and Th2 polarization, most likely due to differential susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage. Using NMR relaxation experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, we demonstrate that the initial proteolytic cleavage sites in two naturally occurring Bet v 1 isoforms, Bet v 1.0101 (Bet v 1a) and Bet v 1.0102 (Bet v 1d), are conformationally flexible. Inaccessible cleavage sites in helices and strands are highly flexible on the microsecond-millisecond time scale, whereas those located in loops display faster nanosecond-microsecond flexibility. The data consistently show that Bet v 1.0102 is more flexible and conformationally heterogeneous than Bet v 1.0101. Moreover, NMR hydrogen-deuterium exchange measurements reveal that the backbone amides in Bet v 1.0102 are significantly more solvent exposed, in agreement with this isoform's higher susceptibility to proteolytic cleavage. The differential conformational flexibility of Bet v 1 isoforms, along with the transient exposure of inaccessible sites to the protein surface, may be linked to proteolytic susceptibility, representing a potential structure-based rationale for the observed differences in Th2 polarization and allergic sensitization.

  9. Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Robert L; Lupyan, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The very expertise with which psychologists wield their tools for achieving laboratory control may have had the unwelcome effect of blinding psychologists to the possibilities of discovering principles of behavior without conducting experiments. When creatively interrogated, a diverse range of large, real-world data sets provides powerful diagnostic tools for revealing principles of human judgment, perception, categorization, decision-making, language use, inference, problem solving, and representation. Examples of these data sets include patterns of website links, dictionaries, logs of group interactions, collections of images and image tags, text corpora, history of financial transactions, trends in twitter tag usage and propagation, patents, consumer product sales, performance in high-stakes sporting events, dialect maps, and scientific citations. The goal of this issue is to present some exemplary case studies of mining naturally existing data sets to reveal important principles and phenomena in cognitive science, and to discuss some of the underlying issues involved with conducting traditional experiments, analyses of naturally occurring data, computational modeling, and the synthesis of all three methods. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  10. Does denitrification occur within porous carbonate sand grains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miall Cook, Perran Louis; Kessler, Adam John; Eyre, Bradley David

    2017-09-01

    Permeable carbonate sands form a major habitat type on coral reefs and play a major role in organic matter recycling. Nitrogen cycling within these sediments is likely to play a major role in coral reef productivity, yet it remains poorly studied. Here, we used flow-through reactors and stirred reactors to quantify potential rates of denitrification and the dependence of denitrification on oxygen concentrations in permeable carbonate sands at three sites on Heron Island, Australia. Our results showed that potential rates of denitrification fell within the range of 2-28 µmol L-1 sediment h-1 and were very low compared to oxygen consumption rates, consistent with previous studies of silicate sands. Denitrification was observed to commence at porewater oxygen concentrations as high as 50 µM in stirred reactor experiments on the coarse sediment fraction (2-10 mm) and at oxygen concentrations of 10-20 µM in flow-through and stirred reactor experiments at a site with a median sediment grain size of 0.9 mm. No denitrification was detected in sediments under oxic conditions from another site with finer sediment (median grain size: 0.7 mm). We interpret these results as confirmation that denitrification may occur within anoxic microniches present within porous carbonate sand grains. The occurrence of such microniches has the potential to enhance denitrification rates within carbonate sediments; however further work is required to elucidate the extent and ecological significance of this effect.

  11. Pulsed light inactivation of naturally occurring moulds on wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron Maftei, Nicoleta; Ramos-Villarroel, Ana Y; Nicolau, Anca I; Martín-Belloso, Olga; Soliva-Fortuny, Robert

    2014-03-15

    Pulsed light (PL) is emerging as a non-thermal technology with excellent prospects for the decontamination of foods and food contact surfaces. Its application for mould inactivation on cereal grains would allow a reduction of storage losses as well as the prevention of mycotoxin contamination at a post-harvest level. The potential of PL for the decontamination of naturally occurring moulds on wheat grain was investigated in this study. Treatments of up to 40 flashes of a fluence of 0.4 J cm⁻² per pulse were applied to both sides of the grain, with an overall energy release ranging from 6.4 to 51.2 J g⁻¹. The most powerful treatment applied to wheat in this study (51.2 J g⁻¹) resulted in a mould reduction of approximately 4 log cycles on samples displaying an initial mould contamination level of 2.2 × 10⁵ CFU g⁻¹. At the same time, the seed germination percentage was only slightly affected. For PL treatments causing an inactivation of 3-4 log cycles, only 14-15% of the germination power of the wheat seeds was lost. The PL treatments attained greater microbial reductions for higher treatment times and lower initial mould loads. The absence of the UV portion of the radiation spectrum was found to significantly reduce the treatment effectiveness. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Analysis of coal slag for naturally occurring radioactive material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, H B; Rajaretnam, G

    1998-07-01

    Samples of aerosolized coal slag were collected during an abrasive blasting operation to determine the concentration of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the respirable and nonrespirable fractions. Each slag fraction was analyzed using alpha and gamma spectrometry. Since the slag is insoluble, it was necessary to dissolve samples completely by fusion with potassium fluoride and, after additional transposing and separation, mount the precipitate containing radium (Ra), the main radioactive component in NORM, on a membrane filter for alpha counting. The concentration of 226Ra in coal slag was independent of the particle size fraction and equal to 2.28 picocuries/gram (pCi/g) +/- 0.43 pCi/g, which is approximately twice the typical concentration of NORM in uncontaminated soil. Analysis of NORM by gamma spectrometry identified low concentrations of uranium, thorium, and potassium, all primordial radioactive materials that are commonly encountered in normal background soil. Integral exposure to workers from inhalation of NORM during abrasive blasting with coal slag is extremely low and could be essentially eliminated by use of appropriate respiratory protection. External radiation exposure to workers handling large quantities of NORM-contaminated coal slag during shipping or storage is also low, but would vary depending on the concentration of NORM in the slag.

  13. GROWTH OF NATURALLY OCCURING Listeria innocua IN COPPA DI TESTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Merialdi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Coppa di testa is a traditional cooked pork salami produced in different Italian regions. The main raw material is deboned meat of pork head with the addition of tongue and rind. After a long (3-5 h high temperature (97°C cooking, additives and flavourings are added and the salami is prepared. After cooling the salami is often portioned and vacuum- packaged. In this study the growth of naturally occurring contamination of Listeria innocua in three batches of vacuum packaged Coppa di testa, stored at 4°C for 80 days, is described. The average max was 0.24 (days-1 and the average doubling time was 2.87 days. The maximum growth level ranged from 4.90 to 8.17 (log10 cfu/g. These results indicate that Coppa di testa definitely supports the growth of Listeria innocua in the considered storage conditions. Taking into account that at 4°C Listeria monocytogenes strains are associated with higher grow rates than L. innocua, these results emphasize the importance of preventing Listeria monocytogenes contamination in the production stages following cooking.

  14. Neurobiology of mammalian olfactory learning that occurs during sensitive periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideto KABA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This review examines the organizational principles underlying olfactory learning in three specialized contexts that occur during sensitive periods of enhanced neural plasticity and emphasizes some of their common features. All three forms of olfactory learning are associated with neural changes in the olfactory bulb (OB at the first stage of sensory processing. These changes require the association of the olfactory and somatosensory signals in the OB. They all depend on somatosensory stimulation-induced release of noradrenaline that induces structural and functional changes at mitral-granule cell reciprocal synapses in the OB, resulting in increases in inhibitory transmission. In the accessory olfactory bulb, this represents the enhanced self-inhibition of mitral cells, which selectively disrupts the transmission of the mating male’s pregnancy-blocking signal at this level. In contrast, an extensive network of secondary dendrites of mitral cells in the main olfactory bulb probably results in a sharpening of the odor-induced pattern of activity, due to increases in lateral inhibition, leading to offspring recognition in sheep and neonatal learning in rats and rabbits. These findings show that inhibitory interneurons play a critical role in olfactory learning. Further work on how these neurons shape olfactory circuit function could provide important clues to understand memory functions of interneurons in other systems. Moreover, recent research has suggested that three forms of olfactory learning are controlled by synergistic, redundant, and distributed neural mechanisms. This has general implications regarding the mechanisms that may contribute to the robustness of memories [Current Zoology 56 (6: 819–833, 2010].

  15. Haemostatic abnormalities in cats with naturally occurring liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dircks, Brigitte; Nolte, Ingo; Mischke, Reinhard

    2012-07-01

    Alterations in the haemostatic system were characterized in cats with different naturally occurring liver diseases. The study looked at 44 healthy cats and 45 cats with different liver diseases confirmed histologically or cytologically (neoplasia, n=9; inflammation, n=12; hepatic lipidosis, n=13; other degenerative liver diseases, n=11). The following parameters were evaluated: platelet count; prothrombin time; activated partial thromboplastin time; thrombin time; factor (F) II, FV, FVII, FX, and FXIII activities; fibrinogen concentration; activities of antithrombin, protein C, plasminogen, and α(2)-plasmin inhibitor, and D-dimer concentration. In cats with liver diseases, 44/45 (98%) had one or more abnormalities of the coagulation parameters measured. In cats with inflammatory liver diseases, increased D-dimer concentrations and decreased FXIII activity were the most consistent abnormalities and were found in 83% and 75% of cats, respectively. The most common abnormality in cats with neoplastic liver disease was FXIII deficiency (78%). The most consistent abnormalities in cats with hepatic lipidosis were increased FV activity and D-dimer concentration with 54% of cats having values above the reference range for both parameters. Cats with miscellaneous degenerative liver disease most frequently showed FXIII deficiency (64%). The results of this study show that alterations of single haemostatic components are a frequent finding in cats with liver disease. Activation of haemostasis with subsequent consumptive coagulopathy (rather than decreased synthesis) seems to be responsible for these alterations. Increased blood levels of different haemostatic components in cats with inflammatory lesions may be related to an acute phase reaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Kidney Damage in Hemorrhagic Vasculitis Occurring in Childhood and Adulthood

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    O.V. Syniachenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nephropathy is diagnosed in 30–60 % of patients with hemorrhagic vasculitis (HV (Schönlein Henoch puprupa and occurred in each fourth of them in the onset of the disease and with the same incidence at first recurrence of the patho­logical process. In recent years, the relative and absolute number of patients with this form of glomerular disease significantly increased. According to the results of the kidney biopsy in children, Henoch glomerulonephritis (HGN is the most common variant of the secondary immunoglobulin (Ig A nephritis. The nature of the clinical course and morphological manifestations of the HGN in patients with HV, which began in childhood and adulthood, remains unexplored. This was the purpose and objectives of this study. Materials and methods. The study included 174 patients with HV (83 % of men and 47 % of women. In 92 cases, vasculitis debuted in children (on average in 12 years, and in 82 — in the adults (on average in 25 years. I, II and III degree of activity of pathological process are set at a ratio of 1 : 2 : 2. Seropositivity for high levels of IgA occurred in 40 % of cases, by the presence of rheumatoid factor — in 27 %. At the time of the survey, cutaneous syndrome was diagnosed in 68 % of patients in the form of urticarial, hemorrhagic, papule-nodular, papule-necro­tic, pustular-ulcerative, necrotic-ulcerative, nodose-ulcerative and polymorphic forms, and articular syndrome — in 48 %. In 24 cases, kidney biopsy was performed. Results. Renal disease was revealed in 71 % of patients with HV, while on the background of nephropathy the integral index of the severity of extrarenal patho­logy was significantly higher. According to the characteristics of the articular syndrome, patients with nephropathy and without it differed little among themselves. The severity of muscle syndrome has the impact on the development of the HV. In turn, renal pathology significantly influenced the development

  17. PRIMARY TEACHERS KNOWLEDGE ABOUT PSYCHOMOTOR DISTURBANCES OCCURING IN CHILDREN

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    Agata Nowak

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: An attempt to determine the level of knowledge of teachers in the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of psychomotor disorders of schoolchildren. Materials and methods: 174 teachers of physical education and integrated education in primary schools were tested. The study used questionnaire technique. Results: As the most common disorders in the population of school-age children surveyed teachers list ADHD (30% and dyslexia (30%. Only 34% of respondents correctly determined epidemiology of psychomotor disorders and listed their symptoms. Over 80% of respondents claimed that they had never worked with children exhibiting psychomotor disorders. The majority of respondents (98% did not participate in training on working with children with developmental disabilities. Results: The state of knowledge of psychomotor disorders of the surveyed teachers is low. Teachers have difficulty not only in defining the epidemiology of various disorders but also in correct definition of symptoms full spectrum.

  18. Pathological and Molecular Based Study of Naturally Occurring Lentivirus Infection

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    Fazal Mahmood*, Ahrar Khan, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Riaz Hussain1, Shafia Tehseen Gul and Abu Baker Siddique2

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the multicentric lymphosarcoma associated with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia in indigenous breeds of sheep and goats in Pakistan. Serum samples from sheep (n=93 and goats (n=129 were screened for ovine lentivirus using agar gel immunodiffusion test. Overall, 7.52 and 3.87% seroprevalence was recorded in sheep and goat, respectively. During necropsy of sheep (n=3 and goats (n=4, gross lesions including dark color liver with multifocal whitish areas, unilaterally lungs consolidation with granular appearance of cut surface were observed. Mediastinal lymph nodes were swollen and arranged in chain like fashion. Histopathologically, liver parenchyma exhibited extensive proliferation of neoplastic cells of lymphocytic series. Metastatic cells in the form of follicular pattern in the lungs, spleen and mediastinal lymph nodes were also observed. Brain tissue exhibited degenerative changes in the neuron and perivascular cuffing. The PCR product size approximately 300 bp from lung tissue confirmed viral infection.

  19. Naturally Occurring Human Antiglobulins with Specificity for γE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ralph C.; Griffiths, Robert W.; Emmons, Jean D.; Field, Richard C.

    1972-01-01

    Human sera have been examined for antibodies with specific reactivity for γE using the tanned cell hemagglutination test. Cells tanned with three different γE myeloma proteins provided a reproducible test system. Inhibition of agglutination reactions by γE proteins, but not by γG, γA, γM, or γD confirmed the specificity of these reactions. 8.5% of 304 serial serum samples obtained from miscellaneous hospitalized patients showed clear-cut anti-γ-globulins with specificity for γE. In most of these instances no definite clinical history of concomitant allergic disorders could be obtained. 53% of 73 patients with well-established allergic disorders (hay fever, extrinsic asthma) showed serum anti-γ-globulins with reactivity for γE. Some patients studied before and after desensitization to Bermuda grass allergen showed an increase in titer or a conversion from negative to positive reactions for anti-γE antibodies following several month courses of progressive desensitization. Gradient and gel filtration studies indicated that anti-γE globulins were 19S γM in all instances. No clear correlation was noted between quantitative serum γE levels and titer of anti-γE antibodies. 19S serum fractions with anti-γE antibody activity did not release histamine from normal human peripheral blood leukocytes, whereas specific rabbit anti-γE antisera consistently induced leukocytic histamine release. Moreover, macroglobulin fractions with anti-γE activity did not block allergen-specific leukocyte histamine release induced by in vitro leukocyte challenge with allergens such as Bermuda grass and leukocytes from allergic donors. In some instances 19S human serum fractions with anti-γE activity appeared to potentiate histamine release when incubated concomitantly with specific allergen and leukocytes from allergic individuals. PMID:4111367

  20. p53 mutations occur in aggressive breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazars, R; Spinardi, L; BenCheikh, M; Simony-Lafontaine, J; Jeanteur, P; Theillet, C

    1992-07-15

    Using a polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism approach we analyzed 96 human primary breast tumors for the presence of mutations in exons 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 of the p53 gene. These exons have been shown to comprise highly conserved sequences and the portion including exons 5 through 9 is believed to be the target for over 90% of the acquired mutations in human cancer. Eighteen tumors of the 96 (18.7%) tested showed reproducibly a variant band indicative of a mutation. Most (15 tumors) of the mutations were single nucleotide substitutions and G:C to A:T transitions were prevalent (6 tumors), G:C to T:A transversions came next (4 tumors), and guanines were always on the nontranscribed strand. Concomitant loss of the wild type allele and mutation of the other copy was observed in only 3 of 18 mutated cases; this is consistent with the heterogeneous cellular composition of breast tumors. Furthermore p53 mutations were correlated to estrogen and/or progesterone receptor negative tumors, thus indicating their relationships to aggressive breast cancer. No association could be observed with DNA amplification events in these tumors.

  1. Naturally Occurring Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Tomato Pomace Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing-jing; Du, Rui-ping; Gao, Min; Sui, Yao-qiang; Xiu, Lei; Wang, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Silage making has become a significant method of forage conservation worldwide. To determine how tomato pomace (TP) may be used effectively as animal feed, it was ensilaged for 90 days and microbiology counts, fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of tomato pomace silage (TPS) were evaluated at the 30th, 60th, and 90th days, respectively. In addition, 103 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from TPS. Based on the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence and carbohydrate fermentation tests, the isolates were identified as 17 species namely: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens (0.97%), Lactobacillus pontis (0.97%), Lactobacillus hilgardii (0.97%), Lactobacillus pantheris (0.97%), Lactobacillus amylovorus (1.9%), Lactobacillus panis (1.9%), Lactobacillus vaginalis (1.9%), Lactobacillus rapi (1.9%), Lactobacillus buchneri (2.9%), Lactobacillus parafarraginis (2.9%), Lactobacillus helveticus (3.9%), Lactobacillus camelliae (3.9%), Lactobacillus fermentum (5.8%), Lactobacillus manihotivorans (6.8%), Lactobacillus plantarum (10.7%), Lactobacillus harbinensis (16.5%) and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (35.0%). This study has shown that TP can be well preserved for 90 days by ensilaging and that TPS is not only rich in essential nutrients, but that physiological and biochemical properties of the isolates could provide a platform for future design of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants aimed at improving the fermentation quality of silage. PMID:25049999

  2. Naturally Occurring Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Tomato Pomace Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-jing Wu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Silage making has become a significant method of forage conservation worldwide. To determine how tomato pomace (TP may be used effectively as animal feed, it was ensilaged for 90 days and microbiology counts, fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of tomato pomace silage (TPS were evaluated at the 30th, 60th, and 90th days, respectively. In addition, 103 lactic acid bacteria were isolated from TPS. Based on the phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, 16S rDNA sequence and carbohydrate fermentation tests, the isolates were identified as 17 species namely: Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens (0.97%, Lactobacillus pontis (0.97%, Lactobacillus hilgardii (0.97%, Lactobacillus pantheris (0.97%, Lactobacillus amylovorus (1.9%, Lactobacillus panis (1.9%, Lactobacillus vaginalis (1.9%, Lactobacillus rapi (1.9%, Lactobacillus buchneri (2.9%, Lactobacillus parafarraginis (2.9%, Lactobacillus helveticus (3.9%, Lactobacillus camelliae (3.9%, Lactobacillus fermentum (5.8%, Lactobacillus manihotivorans (6.8%, Lactobacillus plantarum (10.7%, Lactobacillus harbinensis (16.5% and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (35.0%. This study has shown that TP can be well preserved for 90 days by ensilaging and that TPS is not only rich in essential nutrients, but that physiological and biochemical properties of the isolates could provide a platform for future design of lactic acid bacteria (LAB inoculants aimed at improving the fermentation quality of silage.

  3. Solubilisation of some naturally occurring metal-bearing minerals, limescale and lead phosphate by Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, J A; Kierans, M; Gadd, G M

    1997-09-01

    The ability of the soil fungus Aspergillus niger to tolerate and solubilise seven naturally occurring metal-bearing minerals, limescale and lead phosphate was investigated. A. niger was able to solubilise four of the test insoluble compounds when incorporated into solid medium: cuprite (CuO2), galena (PbS), rhodochrosite (Mn(CO3)x) and limescale (CaCO3). A. niger was able to grow on all concentrations of all the test compounds, whether solubilisation occurred or not, with no reduction in growth rate from the control. In some cases, stimulation of growth occurred, most marked with the phosphate-containing mineral, apatite. Precipitation of insoluble copper and manganese oxalate crystals under colonies growing on agar amended with cuprite and rhodochrosite was observed after 1-2 days growth at 25 degrees C. This process of oxalate formation represents a reduction in bioavailability of toxic cations, and could represent an important means of toxic metal immobilisation of physiological and environmental significance.

  4. Naturally occurring spinal hyperostosis in dogs as a model for human spinal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranenburg, Hendrik-Jan C; Hazewinkel, Herman A W; Meij, Björn P

    2014-01-01

    Both spondylosis and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) are prevalent in humans and are considered distinct entities. Nowadays, the term spondylosis is in the biomedical literature mostly used when concurrently degenerative disc disease is present. In companion animals, many reports on spondylosis, often without intervertebral disc degeneration, are described. The nomenclature and the definitions of both spondylosis and DISH in biomedical and veterinary literature should be more in line to facilitate comparison. Spondylosis and DISH occur in dogs spontaneously and can co-occur in one animal. Specifically, Boxers may serve as translational disease models for the elucidation of the gene(s) involved in the (etio)pathogenesis of spondylosis and DISH or serve as a test population for newly developed treatment options. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Bubble Proliferation in Shock Wave Lithotripsy Occurs during Inertial Collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishchalnikov, Yuri A.; McAteer, James A.; Pishchalnikova, Irina V.; Williams, James C.; Bailey, Michael R.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.

    2008-06-01

    In shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), firing shock pulses at slow pulse repetition frequency (0.5 Hz) is more effective at breaking kidney stones than firing shock waves (SWs) at fast rate (2 Hz). Since at fast rate the number of cavitation bubbles increases, it appears that bubble proliferation reduces the efficiency of SWL. The goal of this work was to determine the basis for bubble proliferation when SWs are delivered at fast rate. Bubbles were studied using a high-speed camera (Imacon 200). Experiments were conducted in a test tank filled with nondegassed tap water at room temperature. Acoustic pulses were generated with an electromagnetic lithotripter (DoLi-50). In the focus of the lithotripter the pulses consisted of a ˜60 MPa positive-pressure spike followed by up to -8 MPa negative-pressure tail, all with a total duration of about 7 μs. Nonlinear propagation steepened the shock front of the pulses to become sufficiently thin (˜0.03 μm) to impose differential pressure across even microscopic bubbles. High-speed camera movies showed that the SWs forced preexisting microbubbles to collapse, jet, and break up into daughter bubbles, which then grew rapidly under the negative-pressure phase of the pulse, but later coalesced to re-form a single bubble. Subsequent bubble growth was followed by inertial collapse and, usually, rebound. Most, if not all, cavitation bubbles emitted micro-jets during their first inertial collapse and re-growth. After jetting, these rebounding bubbles could regain a spherical shape before undergoing a second inertial collapse. However, either upon this second inertial collapse, or sometimes upon the first inertial collapse, the rebounding bubble emerged from the collapse as a cloud of smaller bubbles rather than a single bubble. These daughter bubbles could continue to rebound and collapse for a few cycles, but did not coalesce. These observations show that the positive-pressure phase of SWs fragments preexisting bubbles but this initial

  6. Automatic NMR-based identification of chemical reaction types in mixtures of co-occurring reactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo A R S Latino

    Full Text Available The combination of chemoinformatics approaches with NMR techniques and the increasing availability of data allow the resolution of problems far beyond the original application of NMR in structure elucidation/verification. The diversity of applications can range from process monitoring, metabolic profiling, authentication of products, to quality control. An application related to the automatic analysis of complex mixtures concerns mixtures of chemical reactions. We encoded mixtures of chemical reactions with the difference between the (1H NMR spectra of the products and the reactants. All the signals arising from all the reactants of the co-occurring reactions were taken together (a simulated spectrum of the mixture of reactants and the same was done for products. The difference spectrum is taken as the representation of the mixture of chemical reactions. A data set of 181 chemical reactions was used, each reaction manually assigned to one of 6 types. From this dataset, we simulated mixtures where two reactions of different types would occur simultaneously. Automatic learning methods were trained to classify the reactions occurring in a mixture from the (1H NMR-based descriptor of the mixture. Unsupervised learning methods (self-organizing maps produced a reasonable clustering of the mixtures by reaction type, and allowed the correct classification of 80% and 63% of the mixtures in two independent test sets of different similarity to the training set. With random forests (RF, the percentage of correct classifications was increased to 99% and 80% for the same test sets. The RF probability associated to the predictions yielded a robust indication of their reliability. This study demonstrates the possibility of applying machine learning methods to automatically identify types of co-occurring chemical reactions from NMR data. Using no explicit structural information about the reactions participants, reaction elucidation is performed without structure

  7. Automatic NMR-Based Identification of Chemical Reaction Types in Mixtures of Co-Occurring Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latino, Diogo A. R. S.; Aires-de-Sousa, João

    2014-01-01

    The combination of chemoinformatics approaches with NMR techniques and the increasing availability of data allow the resolution of problems far beyond the original application of NMR in structure elucidation/verification. The diversity of applications can range from process monitoring, metabolic profiling, authentication of products, to quality control. An application related to the automatic analysis of complex mixtures concerns mixtures of chemical reactions. We encoded mixtures of chemical reactions with the difference between the 1H NMR spectra of the products and the reactants. All the signals arising from all the reactants of the co-occurring reactions were taken together (a simulated spectrum of the mixture of reactants) and the same was done for products. The difference spectrum is taken as the representation of the mixture of chemical reactions. A data set of 181 chemical reactions was used, each reaction manually assigned to one of 6 types. From this dataset, we simulated mixtures where two reactions of different types would occur simultaneously. Automatic learning methods were trained to classify the reactions occurring in a mixture from the 1H NMR-based descriptor of the mixture. Unsupervised learning methods (self-organizing maps) produced a reasonable clustering of the mixtures by reaction type, and allowed the correct classification of 80% and 63% of the mixtures in two independent test sets of different similarity to the training set. With random forests (RF), the percentage of correct classifications was increased to 99% and 80% for the same test sets. The RF probability associated to the predictions yielded a robust indication of their reliability. This study demonstrates the possibility of applying machine learning methods to automatically identify types of co-occurring chemical reactions from NMR data. Using no explicit structural information about the reactions participants, reaction elucidation is performed without structure elucidation of the

  8. Why Does Amphibian Chytrid (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) Not Occur Everywhere? An Exploratory Study in Missouri Ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Alex; Smith, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is a globally emerging pathogen that has caused widespread amphibian population declines, extirpations, and extinctions. However, Bd does not occur in all apparently suitable amphibian populations, even within regions where it is widespread, and it is often unclear why Bd occurs in some habitats but not others. In this study, we rigorously surveyed the amphibian and invertebrate biodiversity of 29 ponds in Missouri, screened resident amphibian larvae (Rana (Lithobates) sp.) for Bd infection, and characterized the aquatic physiochemical environment of each pond (temperature pH, conductivity, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chlorophyll-a). Our goal was to generate hypotheses toward answering the question, “Why does Bd not occur in all apparently suitable habitats?” Bd occurred in assayed amphibians in 11 of the 29 ponds in our study area (38% of ponds). We found no significant relationship between any single biotic or abiotic variable and presence of Bd. However, multivariate analyses (nonmetric multidimensional scaling and permutational tests of dispersion) revealed that ponds in which Bd occurred were a restricted subset of all ponds in terms of amphibian community structure, macroinvertebrate community structure, and pond physiochemistry. In other words, Bd ponds from 6 different conservation areas were more similar to each other than would be expected based on chance. The results of a structural equation model suggest that patterns in the occurrence of Bd among ponds are primarily attributable to variation in macroinvertebrate community structure. When combined with recent results showing that Bd can infect invertebrates as well as amphibians, we suggest that additional research should focus on the role played by non-amphibian biota in determining the presence, prevalence, and pathogenicity of Bd in amphibian populations. PMID:24086681

  9. Why does Amphibian Chytrid (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis not occur everywhere? An exploratory study in Missouri ponds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Strauss

    Full Text Available The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, is a globally emerging pathogen that has caused widespread amphibian population declines, extirpations, and extinctions. However, Bd does not occur in all apparently suitable amphibian populations, even within regions where it is widespread, and it is often unclear why Bd occurs in some habitats but not others. In this study, we rigorously surveyed the amphibian and invertebrate biodiversity of 29 ponds in Missouri, screened resident amphibian larvae (Rana (Lithobates sp. for Bd infection, and characterized the aquatic physiochemical environment of each pond (temperature pH, conductivity, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chlorophyll-a. Our goal was to generate hypotheses toward answering the question, "Why does Bd not occur in all apparently suitable habitats?" Bd occurred in assayed amphibians in 11 of the 29 ponds in our study area (38% of ponds. We found no significant relationship between any single biotic or abiotic variable and presence of Bd. However, multivariate analyses (nonmetric multidimensional scaling and permutational tests of dispersion revealed that ponds in which Bd occurred were a restricted subset of all ponds in terms of amphibian community structure, macroinvertebrate community structure, and pond physiochemistry. In other words, Bd ponds from 6 different conservation areas were more similar to each other than would be expected based on chance. The results of a structural equation model suggest that patterns in the occurrence of Bd among ponds are primarily attributable to variation in macroinvertebrate community structure. When combined with recent results showing that Bd can infect invertebrates as well as amphibians, we suggest that additional research should focus on the role played by non-amphibian biota in determining the presence, prevalence, and pathogenicity of Bd in amphibian populations.

  10. Why does Amphibian Chytrid (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) not occur everywhere? An exploratory study in Missouri ponds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Alex; Smith, Kevin G

    2013-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is a globally emerging pathogen that has caused widespread amphibian population declines, extirpations, and extinctions. However, Bd does not occur in all apparently suitable amphibian populations, even within regions where it is widespread, and it is often unclear why Bd occurs in some habitats but not others. In this study, we rigorously surveyed the amphibian and invertebrate biodiversity of 29 ponds in Missouri, screened resident amphibian larvae (Rana (Lithobates) sp.) for Bd infection, and characterized the aquatic physiochemical environment of each pond (temperature pH, conductivity, nitrogen, phosphorus, and chlorophyll-a). Our goal was to generate hypotheses toward answering the question, "Why does Bd not occur in all apparently suitable habitats?" Bd occurred in assayed amphibians in 11 of the 29 ponds in our study area (38% of ponds). We found no significant relationship between any single biotic or abiotic variable and presence of Bd. However, multivariate analyses (nonmetric multidimensional scaling and permutational tests of dispersion) revealed that ponds in which Bd occurred were a restricted subset of all ponds in terms of amphibian community structure, macroinvertebrate community structure, and pond physiochemistry. In other words, Bd ponds from 6 different conservation areas were more similar to each other than would be expected based on chance. The results of a structural equation model suggest that patterns in the occurrence of Bd among ponds are primarily attributable to variation in macroinvertebrate community structure. When combined with recent results showing that Bd can infect invertebrates as well as amphibians, we suggest that additional research should focus on the role played by non-amphibian biota in determining the presence, prevalence, and pathogenicity of Bd in amphibian populations.

  11. Host range of symptomatology of Pepino mosaic virus strains occurring in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blystad, Dag-Ragnar; van der Vlugt, René; Alfaro-Fernández, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) has caused great concern in the greenhouse tomato industry after it was found causing a new disease in tomato in 1999. The objective of this paper is to investigate alternative hosts and compare important biological characteristics of the three PepMV strains occurring...... for the three strains tested at 10 different European locations with both international and local cultivars showed that eggplant is an alternative host of PepMV. Sweet pepper is not an important host of PepMV, but potato can be infected when the right isolate is matched with a specific cultivar. Nicotiana...

  12. Leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activities of extracts and naturally-occurring compounds from two Lauraceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Suárez, Jeysson; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Cuca, Luis Enrique; Delgado, Gabriela

    2011-02-01

    The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of ethanolic extracts and fifteen naturally-occurring compounds (five lignans, eight neolignans, a diterpene and a dihydrochalcone), obtained from Pleurothyrium cinereum and Ocotea macrophylla, were evaluated on promastigotes of Leishmania panamensis and L. braziliensis. In addition, in order to determine the selective action on Leishmania species as a safety principle, in vitro cytotoxicity on J774 cells was also evaluated for test compounds and extracts. One extract and seven compounds showed activity against Leishmania parasites at different levels. Dihydroflavokawin B (8) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial compound on both parasites, whilst (+)-otobaphenol (14), was found to be the most selective compound on L. panamensis.

  13. Radiation doses to local populations near nuclear weapons test sites worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steven L; Bouville, André

    2002-05-01

    Nuclear weapons testing was conducted in the atmosphere at numerous sites worldwide between 1946 and 1980, which resulted in exposures to local populations as a consequence of fallout of radioactive debris. The nuclear tests were conducted by five nations (United States, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France, and China) primarily at 16 sites. The 16 testing sites, located in nine different countries on five continents (plus Oceania) contributed nearly all of the radioactive materials released to the environment by atmospheric testing; only small amounts were released at a fewother minor testing sites. The 16 sites discussed here are Nevada Test Site, USA (North American continent), Bikini and Enewetak, Marshall Islands (Oceania); Johnston Island, USA (Oceania), Christmas and Malden Island, Kiribati (Oceania); Emu Field, Maralinga, and Monte Bello Islands, Australia (Australian continent); Mururoa and Fangataufa, French Polynesia (Oceania), Reggane, Algeria (Africa), Novaya Zemlya and Kapustin Yar, Russia (Europe), Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan (Asia), and Lop Nor, China (Asia). There were large differences in the numbers of tests conducted at each location and in the total explosive yields. Those factors, as well as differences in population density, lifestyle, environment, and climate at each site, led to large differences in the doses received by local populations. In general, the tests conducted earliest led to the highest individual and population exposures, although the amount of information available for a few of these sites is insufficient to provide any detailed evaluation of radiation exposures. The most comprehensive information for any site is for the Nevada Test Site. The disparities in available information add difficulty to determining the radiation exposures of local populations at each site. It is the goal of this paper to summarize the available information on external and internal doses received by the public living in the regions near each of the

  14. Adolescent Pathways to Co-Occurring Problem Behavior: The Effects of Peer Delinquency and Peer Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kathryn C.; Rhew, Isaac C.; Hawkins, J. David; Brown, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    Delinquency and substance use are more likely to co-occur in adolescence compared to earlier and later developmental periods. The present study examined developmental pathways to co-occurring problem behavior from 6th-10th grade (N=2,002), testing how peer delinquency and substance use were linked to transitioning between abstaining, delinquency, substance use, and co-occurring problem behavior. Developmentally, most youth transition from abstinence to delinquent behavior, and then escalate to co-occurring problem behavior. Once co-occurring problem behavior onsets, remitting to single problem behavior or abstinence is unlikely. The impact of peers on problem behavior are domain specific when individuals transition from abstaining to a single problem behavior, but are more general with respect to escalation of and desistance from problem behavior. PMID:25506186

  15. Naturally occurring BRCA2 alternative mRNA splicing events in clinically relevant samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fackenthal, James D; Yoshimatsu, Toshio; Zhang, Bifeng

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 are the two principal tumour suppressor genes associated with inherited high risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Genetic testing of BRCA1/2 will often reveal one or more sequence variants of uncertain clinical significance, some of which may affect normal splicing...... patterns and thereby disrupt gene function. mRNA analyses are therefore among the tests used to interpret the clinical significance of some genetic variants. However, these could be confounded by the appearance of naturally occurring alternative transcripts unrelated to germline sequence variation...... or defects in gene function. To understand which novel splicing events are associated with splicing mutations and which are part of the normal BRCA2 splicing repertoire, a study was undertaken by members of the Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles (ENIGMA) consortium...

  16. Topical voriconazole therapy of Purpureocillium lilacinum keratitis that occurred in disposable soft contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todokoro, Daisuke; Yamada, Norihiro; Fukuchi, Mariko; Kishi, Shoji

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to describe 2 cases of keratitis caused by Purpureocillium lilacinum (formerly Paecilomyces lilacinus) that occurred in disposable contact lens users, which were successfully treated with topical voriconazole. Case 1 was a healthy 44-year-old woman, who wore weekly disposable contact lenses and had developed a superficial corneal infection in her right eye. For diagnosis, corneal scraping and molecular identification of the cultured pathogen were performed. A corneal smear revealed the presence of fungi. The pathogen was identified as P. lilacinum by traditional morphological identification of fungal culture, and this identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence. Therapy with topical fluconazole, topical pimaricin (natamycin), and oral itraconazole were ineffective. Topical voriconazole showed a significant effect, and the keratitis was successfully treated. Case 2 was a 43-year-old woman with bilateral recurrent peripheral corneal ulcers by meibomian gland dysfunction, who used therapeutic bandage contact lenses on her left eye. However, a corneal abscess with hypopyon occurred in the eye after 3 months. The microbial smear examination showed the presence of fungi and the fungal culture, and the DNA sequence of ITS region revealed that the causative agent was P. lilacinum. The susceptibility testing against antifungal agents showed that voriconazole was effective. The lesion improved gradually by topical voriconazole. As a conclusion, P. lilacinum keratitis can occur in disposable soft contact lens wearer. Early and accurate detection of the pathogenic organism is essential. Topical voriconazole was effective against P. lilacinum keratitis.

  17. Substance Use and Mental Health Stigma in Veterans With Co-Occurring Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnish, Autumn; Corrigan, Patrick; Byrne, Thomas; Pinals, Debra A; Rodrigues, Stephanie; Smelson, David

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study examined whether substance use or mental illness was more stigmatizing among individuals with co-occurring mental health and substance abuse problems. This study included 48 individuals with co-occurring substance use and mental health problems enrolled in a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services funded treatment program. Subjects received a baseline assessment that included addiction, mental health, and stigma measures. The sample consisted primarily of White males with an average age of 38 years. Substance abuse was found to be more stigmatizing than mental illness, F(1, 47) = 14.213, p stigma varied across four different levels of stigma (Aware, Agree, Apply, and Harm), F(2.099, 98.675) = 117.883, p stigma was also significant, F(2.41, 113.284) = 20.250, p stigma between types varied across levels of stigma. Post hoc tests found a significant difference between all levels of stigma except for the comparison between Apply and Harm. Reported stigma was significantly higher for substance abuse than mental illness at the Aware and Agree levels. In addition, pairwise comparisons found significant differences between all levels of stigma with the exception of the comparison between Apply and Harm, indicating a pattern whereby reported stigma generally decreased from the first level (Aware stage) to subsequent levels. These results have important implications for treatment, suggesting the need to incorporate anti-stigma interventions for individuals with co-occurring disorders with a greater focus on substance abuse.

  18. Biomechanical gait characteristics of naturally occurring unsuccessful foot clearance during swing in individuals with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burpee, Jessica L; Lewek, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    Altered gait mechanics are common following stroke and may increase the risk of falls. Paretic gait impairments have been previously compared to the non-paretic limb or control participants. Unfortunately, the biomechanical parameters underlying instances of naturally occurring unsuccessful foot clearance (trips) have yet to be examined in individuals with chronic stroke. Gait data from 26 participants with chronic stroke were obtained on a dual-belt instrumented treadmill. Instances of successful and unsuccessful foot swing were identified. Temporal, kinematic, and kinetic measures of the paretic limb occurring during late stance, toe-off, and swing were compared between trip and non-trip steps using paired samples t-tests. An α = 0.004 was used to adjust for multiple comparisons. In the paretic limb, the ankle angle at toe off (P = 0.003; d = 0.64), knee flexion velocity at toe off (P biomechanical changes occurring in the paretic limb during unsuccessful foot clearance result in a functionally longer limb. Thus, interventions targeting multiple joints in the paretic limb may be needed to reduce the risk of trips following stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Naturally occurring circadian rhythm and sleep duration are related to executive functions in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuula, Liisa; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar; Andersson, Sture; Lano, Aulikki; Lahti, Jari; Wolke, Dieter; Räikkönen, Katri

    2017-07-20

    Experimental sleep deprivation studies suggest that insufficient sleep and circadian misalignment associates with poorer executive function. It is not known whether this association translates to naturally occurring sleep patterns. A total of 512 of full-term-born members of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study [mean age = 25.3, standard deviation (SD) = 0.65] (44.3% men) wore actigraphs to define sleep duration, its irregularity and circadian rhythm (sleep mid-point) during a 1-week period (mean 6.9 nights, SD = 1.7). Performance-based executive function was assessed with the Trail-Making Test, Conners' Continuous Performance Test and Stroop. The self-rated adult version of Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function was used to assess trait-like executive function. We found that performance-based and self-reported trait-like executive function correlated only modestly (all correlations ≤0.17). Shorter sleep duration associated with more commission errors. Later circadian rhythm associated with poorer trait-like executive function, as indicated by the Brief Metacognitive Index and the Behavior Regulation Index. Those belonging to the group with the most irregular sleep duration performed slower than others in the Trail-Making Test Part A. All associations were adjusted for sex, age, socioeconomic status and body mass index. In conclusion, naturally occurring insufficient sleep and later circadian rhythm showed modest associations with poorer executive function. Shorter habitual sleep duration was associated with lower scores of performance-based tests of executive function, and later circadian rhythm was associated mainly with poorer trait-like executive function characteristics. Our findings suggest additionally that sleep duration and circadian rhythm associate with different domains of executive function, and there are no additive effects between the two. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Pertubation in the 240Pu/239Pu global fallout ratio in local sediments following the nuclear accidents at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, P.I.; León Vintró, L.; Dahlgaard, H.

    1997-01-01

    in samples of sediment (and soil) collected at Thule (Greenland) and Palomares (Spain), where accidents involving the release and dispersion of plutonium from fractured nuclear weapons occurred in 1968 and 1966, respectively. The Pu-240/Pu-239 ratio was measured by high-resolution alpha spectrometry...... with those reported for weapons-grade plutonium. It is noteworthy that the mean Pu-238/Pu-239 activity ratio in the Thule samples, at 0.0150 +/- 0.0017 (n = 4), was also lower than that measured in the Palomares samples, namely, 0.0275 +/- 0.0012 (n = 4). The Pu-241/Pu-239 ratios were similarly different...

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorder and Co-occurring Substance Use Disorder – A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espen Ajo Arnevik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Patients with co-occurring autism spectrum disorders (ASD and substance use disorder (SUD require special attention from clinical services. Screening for this co-occurrence is not generally an integral part of routine clinical assessments, and failure to identify and understand this group of patients may contribute to a worsening of their symptoms and/or an increase in drug abuse. Thus, there is a need to review the evidence base on patients with co-occurring ASD and SUD in order to enhance clinical practice and future research. Methods We reviewed all identified papers on patients with co-occurring ASD and SUD. The focus of the review was on epidemiology, patient characteristics, function of drug use, and the effect of current interventions. Results A total of 18 papers were included in the analysis. Eleven papers were based on epidemiological studies, although only one study reported the prevalence of ASD in an SUD population. Two papers explored the role of personality, three papers studied subgroups of individuals serving prison for violent or sexual crimes, and one paper explored the function of drugs in the ASD patient group. There were no studies testing specific treatment interventions. Conclusions In most of the treatment settings studied, there were relatively few patients with co-occurring ASD and SUD, but due to differences in study samples it was difficult to establish a general prevalence rate. The one consistent finding was the lack of focused treatment studies. There is clearly a need for research on interventions that take account of the special needs of this patient group.

  2. Gastrointestinal and Nutritional Problems Occur Frequently Throughout Life in Girls and Women with Rett Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motil, Kathleen J.; Caeg, Erwin; Barrish, Judy O.; Geerts, Suzanne; Lane, Jane B.; Percy, Alan K.; Annese, Fran; McNair, Lauren; Skinner, Steven A.; Lee, Hye-Seung; Neul, Jeffrey L.; Glaze, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We conducted a nationwide survey to determine the prevalence of common gastrointestinal and nutritional disorders in Rett syndrome (RTT) based on parental reporting and related the occurrence of these problems to age and methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) status. Methods We designed a questionnaire that probed symptoms, diagnoses, diagnostic tests, and treatment interventions related to gastrointestinal and nutritional problems in RTT. The International Rett Syndrome Foundation distributed the questionnaire to 1666 family-based members and forwarded their responses for our review. We interrogated the Rare Disease Clinical Research Network database to supplement findings related to medications used to treat gastrointestinal problems in RTT. Results Parents of 983 RTT females (59%) responded and identified symptoms and diagnoses associated with gastrointestinal dysmotility (92%); chewing and swallowing difficulties (81%); weight deficits or excess (47%); growth deficits (45%); low bone mineral content or fractures (37%); biliary tract disorders (3%). Height, weight, and BMI z-scores decreased significantly with age; height and weight, but not BMI, z-scores were significantly lower in females with MECP2 mutations than those without. Vomiting, nighttime awakening, gastroesophageal reflux, chewing difficulty, and choking with feeding were significantly less likely to occur with increasing age. Short stature, low bone mineral content, fractures, and gastrostomy placement were significantly more likely to occur with increasing age. Chewing difficulty, choking with feeding, and nighttime awakening were significantly less likely to occur, whereas short stature was significantly more likely to occur, in females with MECP2 mutations than those without. Diagnostic evaluations and therapeutic interventions were utilized less frequently than the occurrence of symptoms or diagnoses in the RTT cohort. Conclusion Gastrointestinal and nutritional problems perceived by

  3. Follow-Up Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follow-up Testing Follow-up testing is conducted to ensure that antibody levels are returning to normal, indicating that the intestine is healing on the ... has entered the diet. How often should follow-up testing occur? New celiacs should receive follow-up ...

  4. Analysts examine implications of U.S. Senate defeat of Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    The U.S. Senate's October 14 vote against the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) came in the wake of the October 12 military coup in Pakistan—the first-ever coup in a nuclear state. Shortly beforehand, representatives from 92 nations attending an October 6-8 conference in Vienna, Austria, had urged laggards to speed their ratification of the CTBT On October 6, AGU and the Seismological Society of America (SSA) issued a joint position statement expressing confidence that the combined worldwide nuclear test monitoring resources, when implemented, would meet the verification goals of the CTBT.In the aftermath of the Senate vote, politicians and analysts are examining the potential fallout from that action, including the international reaction, the possibility of achieving the accord's goal of halting the proliferation and testing of nuclear weapons, and the future of the treaty itself.

  5. Speech Abilities in Preschool Children with Speech Sound Disorder with and without Co-Occurring Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, Toby; Tyler, Ann A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors compared preschool children with co-occurring speech sound disorder (SSD) and language impairment (LI) to children with SSD only in their numbers and types of speech sound errors. Method: In this post hoc quasi-experimental study, independent samples t tests were used to compare the groups in the standard score from different…

  6. Rheumatoid arthritis and polymyalgia rheumatica occurring after immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhir, Rakiba; Burel, Sébastien Le; Dunogeant, Laetitia; Marabelle, Aurélien; Hollebecque, Antoine; Besse, Benjamin; Leary, Alexandra; Voisin, Anne-Laure; Pontoizeau, Clémence; Coutte, Laetitia; Pertuiset, Edouard; Mouterde, Gaël; Fain, Olivier; Lambotte, Olivier; Mariette, Xavier

    2017-10-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) have demonstrated improved survival for multiple cancers. However, these new drug classes have led to increased immune-related adverse events (IrAE). Rheumatic IrAEs have not been well described in clinical trials. We report here cases of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) occurring after ICI treatment. This was a retrospective study of patients receiving an ICI in whom symptoms of arthritis or arthralgia developed and revealed a diagnosis of RA or PMR. In 10 patients who received ICI therapy (all anti-PD-1 or anti-PDL1 antibodies), RA or PMR developed at a median of 1 month (1 to 9) after exposure. No patient had pre-existing rheumatic or autoimmune disease. RA developed in six patients; all six were positive for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies and four for rheumatoid factor. Anti-CCP antibodies were detected in two out of three patients tested before immunotherapy. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs were needed for three patients; the three others received corticosteroids or non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. PMR was diagnosed in four patients, all responded to corticosteroids. Despite these IrAEs, immunotherapy was pursued for all but one patient until cancer progression. This is the first description of RA occurring after ICI therapy for cancer. PMR can also occur after ICI, particularly after anti-PD-1 therapy. All cases responded to corticosteroids or with immunosuppressive therapy. Collaboration between rheumatologists and oncologists is crucial and could lead to better recognition and care of these patients. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Quantitative and qualitative leukocyte abnormalities in dogs with experimental and naturally occurring acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianopoulos, Athena; Mylonakis, Mathios E; Theodorou, Konstantina; Christopher, Mary M

    2016-06-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) is one of the most important tick-borne diseases worldwide. Cytopenias have been observed in both acute (nonmyelosuppressive) and chronic (myelosuppressive) CME; however, leukocyte abnormalities and indices have been incompletely described in dogs with acute CME. The aims of this study were to analyze temporal changes in differential leukocyte counts, leukocyte morphology, myeloperoxidase index (MPXI), and lobularity index (LI) in dogs with experimental and naturally occurring acute CME. Differential leukocyte counts and morphology were evaluated in archived blood smears from 13 Beagle dogs experimentally infected with Ehrlichia canis and evaluated weekly for 42 days postinfection (DPI); 20 dogs with naturally occurring acute CME also were evaluated. MPXI and LI were obtained from ADVIA reports. Wilcoxon tests were used to assess changes over time; leukogram results in natural cases were assessed in comparison with reference intervals. In experimental dogs, significant decreases in neutrophil, monocyte, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts, and a mild left shift occurred within 14 DPI. The MPXI decreased significantly between 14 and 21 DPI and remained low, while LI increased from 14 to 35 DPI. Lymphocyte counts rebounded at 21 DPI, normalizing total WBC counts. Neutrophil toxicity was seen rarely, but reactive lymphocytes were observed frequently. Dogs with natural infection had variable patterns of leukocyte changes. Acute CME is associated with several discrete quantitative and qualitative leukogram changes indicative of concurrent inflammation, antigenic stimulation, and stress. Changes in MPXI and LI warrant further investigation in dogs with CME and other diseases. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  8. Naturally occurring human urinary peptides for use in diagnosis of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, David M; Zürbig, Petra; Argilés, Angel; Bauer, Hartwig W; Behrens, Georg; Coon, Joshua J; Dakna, Mohammed; Decramer, Stéphane; Delles, Christian; Dominiczak, Anna F; Ehrich, Jochen H H; Eitner, Frank; Fliser, Danilo; Frommberger, Moritz; Ganser, Arnold; Girolami, Mark A; Golovko, Igor; Gwinner, Wilfried; Haubitz, Marion; Herget-Rosenthal, Stefan; Jankowski, Joachim; Jahn, Holger; Jerums, George; Julian, Bruce A; Kellmann, Markus; Kliem, Volker; Kolch, Walter; Krolewski, Andrzej S; Luppi, Mario; Massy, Ziad; Melter, Michael; Neusüss, Christian; Novak, Jan; Peter, Karlheinz; Rossing, Kasper; Rupprecht, Harald; Schanstra, Joost P; Schiffer, Eric; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe; Tarnow, Lise; Theodorescu, Dan; Thongboonkerd, Visith; Vanholder, Raymond; Weissinger, Eva M; Mischak, Harald; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe

    2010-11-01

    Because of its availability, ease of collection, and correlation with physiology and pathology, urine is an attractive source for clinical proteomics/peptidomics. However, the lack of comparable data sets from large cohorts has greatly hindered the development of clinical proteomics. Here, we report the establishment of a reproducible, high resolution method for peptidome analysis of naturally occurring human urinary peptides and proteins, ranging from 800 to 17,000 Da, using samples from 3,600 individuals analyzed by capillary electrophoresis coupled to MS. All processed data were deposited in an Structured Query Language (SQL) database. This database currently contains 5,010 relevant unique urinary peptides that serve as a pool of potential classifiers for diagnosis and monitoring of various diseases. As an example, by using this source of information, we were able to define urinary peptide biomarkers for chronic kidney diseases, allowing diagnosis of these diseases with high accuracy. Application of the chronic kidney disease-specific biomarker set to an independent test cohort in the subsequent replication phase resulted in 85.5% sensitivity and 100% specificity. These results indicate the potential usefulness of capillary electrophoresis coupled to MS for clinical applications in the analysis of naturally occurring urinary peptides.

  9. AAV-mediated cone rescue in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3-achromatopsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-jing Pang

    Full Text Available Achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which shows color blindness, severely impaired visual acuity, and extreme sensitivity to bright light. Mutations in the alpha subunits of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA3 are responsible for about 1/4 of achromatopsia in the U.S. and Europe. Here, we test whether gene replacement therapy using an AAV5 vector could restore cone-mediated function and arrest cone degeneration in the cpfl5 mouse, a naturally occurring mouse model of achromatopsia with a CNGA3 mutation. We show that gene therapy leads to significant rescue of cone-mediated ERGs, normal visual acuities and contrast sensitivities. Normal expression and outer segment localization of both M- and S-opsins were maintained in treated retinas. The therapeutic effect of treatment lasted for at least 5 months post-injection. This study is the first demonstration of substantial, relatively long-term restoration of cone-mediated light responsiveness and visual behavior in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3 achromatopsia. The results provide the foundation for development of an AAV5-based gene therapy trial for human CNGA3 achromatopsia.

  10. Co-occurring nonnative woody shrubs have additive and non-additive soil legacies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuebbing, Sara E.; Patterson, Courtney M.; Classen, Aimee Taylor

    2016-01-01

    . Whether co-occurring nonnative plants alter soil properties additively or non-additively relative to their effects on soils when they grow in monoculture is rarely addressed. We use a greenhouse plant-soil feedback experiment to test for non-additive soil impacts of two common invasive nonnative woody...... will not necessarily lead to a predictable reduction in the impact or growth of the other nonnative plant. Nonnative plants are frequently associated with changes in soil biotic and abiotic characteristics, which lead to plant-soil interactions that influence the performance of other species grown in those soils...... shrubs, Lonicera maackii and Ligustrum sinense, in deciduous forests of the southeastern United States. We measured the performance of each nonnative shrub, a native herbaceous community, and a nonnative woody vine in soils conditioned by each shrub singly or together in polyculture. Soils conditioned...

  11. Characterization of naturally-occurring humoral immunity to AAV in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Joseph; Van Vliet, Kim; Tseng, Yu-Shan; Finn, Jonathan D; Tschernia, Nick; Almeida-Porada, Graça; Arruda, Valder R; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Porada, Christopher D

    2013-01-01

    AAV vectors have shown great promise for clinical gene therapy (GT), but pre-existing human immunity against the AAV capsid often limits transduction. Thus, testing promising AAV-based GT approaches in an animal model with similar pre-existing immunity could better predict clinical outcome. Sheep have long been used for basic biological and preclinical studies. Moreover, we have re-established a line of sheep with severe hemophilia A (HA). Given the impetus to use AAV-based GT to treat hemophilia, we characterized the pre-existing ovine humoral immunity to AAV. ELISA revealed naturally-occurring antibodies to AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, AAV6, AAV8, and AAV9. For AAV2, AAV8, and AAV9 these inhibit transduction in a luciferase-based neutralization assay. Epitope mapping identified peptides that were common to the capsids of all AAV serotypes tested (AAV2, AAV5, AAV8 and AAV9), with each animal harboring antibodies to unique and common capsid epitopes. Mapping using X-ray crystallographic AAV capsid structures demonstrated that these antibodies recognized both surface epitopes and epitopes located within regions of the capsid that are internal or buried in the capsid structure. These results suggest that sheep harbor endogenous AAV, which induces immunity to both intact capsid and to capsid epitopes presented following proteolysis during the course of infection. In conclusion, their clinically relevant physiology and the presence of naturally-occurring antibodies to multiple AAV serotypes collectively make sheep a unique model in which to study GT for HA, and other diseases, and develop strategies to circumvent the clinically important barrier of pre-existing AAV immunity.

  12. Characterization of naturally-occurring humoral immunity to AAV in sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Tellez

    Full Text Available AAV vectors have shown great promise for clinical gene therapy (GT, but pre-existing human immunity against the AAV capsid often limits transduction. Thus, testing promising AAV-based GT approaches in an animal model with similar pre-existing immunity could better predict clinical outcome. Sheep have long been used for basic biological and preclinical studies. Moreover, we have re-established a line of sheep with severe hemophilia A (HA. Given the impetus to use AAV-based GT to treat hemophilia, we characterized the pre-existing ovine humoral immunity to AAV. ELISA revealed naturally-occurring antibodies to AAV1, AAV2, AAV5, AAV6, AAV8, and AAV9. For AAV2, AAV8, and AAV9 these inhibit transduction in a luciferase-based neutralization assay. Epitope mapping identified peptides that were common to the capsids of all AAV serotypes tested (AAV2, AAV5, AAV8 and AAV9, with each animal harboring antibodies to unique and common capsid epitopes. Mapping using X-ray crystallographic AAV capsid structures demonstrated that these antibodies recognized both surface epitopes and epitopes located within regions of the capsid that are internal or buried in the capsid structure. These results suggest that sheep harbor endogenous AAV, which induces immunity to both intact capsid and to capsid epitopes presented following proteolysis during the course of infection. In conclusion, their clinically relevant physiology and the presence of naturally-occurring antibodies to multiple AAV serotypes collectively make sheep a unique model in which to study GT for HA, and other diseases, and develop strategies to circumvent the clinically important barrier of pre-existing AAV immunity.

  13. Phenomenological Description of Acoustic Emission Processes Occurring During High-Pressure Sand Compaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Martín, Jordi; Muñoz-Ibáñez, Andrea; Grande-García, Elisa; Rodríguez-Cedrún, Borja

    2016-04-01

    Compaction, pore collapse and grain crushing have a significant impact over the hydrodynamic properties of sand formations. The assessment of the crushing stress threshold constitutes valuable information in order to assess the behavior of these formations provided that it can be conveniently identified. Because of the inherent complexities of the direct observation of sand crushing, different authors have developed several indirect methods, being acoustic emission a promising one. However, previous researches have evidenced that there are different processes triggering acoustic emissions which need to be carefully accounted. Worth mentioning among them are grain bearing, grain to container friction, intergranular friction and crushing. The work presented here addresses this purpose. A broadband acoustic emission sensor (PA MicroHF200) connected to a high-speed data acquisition system and control software (AeWIN for PCI1 2.10) has been attached to a steel ram and used to monitor the different processes occurring during the oedometric compaction of uniform quartz sand up to an axial load of about 110 MPa and constant temperature. Load was stepwise applied using a servocontrolled hydraulic press acting at a constant load rate. Axial strain was simultaneously measured with the aid of a LDT device. Counts, energy, event duration, rise time and amplitude were recorded along each experiment and after completion selected waveforms were transformed from the time to the frequency domain via FFT transform. Additional simplified tests were performed in order to isolate the frequency characteristics of the dominant processes occurring during sand compaction. Our results show that, from simple tests, it is possible to determine process-dependent frequency components. When considering more complex experiments, many of the studied processes overlap but it is still possible to identify when a particular one dominates as well as the likely onset of crushing.

  14. Analysis of deaths occurring within the Nottingham trial of faecal occult blood screening for colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whynes, D K; Mangham, C M; Balfour, T W; Scholefield, J H

    2010-08-01

    To report the causes of, and ages at, death of subjects in an English colorectal cancer screening trial. Analysis of 78 708 deaths occurring between 1981 and 2008, within the Nottingham randomised controlled trial of biennial faecal occult blood testing. Cause of death, age at death by sex and by cause. Significantly more subjects died from verified colorectal cancer in the trial's control group than in the intervention group (3.2% vs 2.9%). For no other major cause of death was the difference in proportion across the two groups statistically significant. Age at death was lower for cancer than for other principal causes, except for ischaemic heart disease among women. However, mean age at death was higher for colorectal cancer than for other cancers, except for prostate cancer among men. Increasing levels of material deprivation significantly lowered the expected ages at death, independently of cause. For both men and women, the mean age at death from all causes for screening participants was higher than that of controls and non-participants. Mean deprivation was lowest among participants. Of those participating in screening, and dying from colorectal cancer, subjects receiving negative test results lived significantly longer than those who received positive test results. However, if dying from other causes, they died at an earlier age. The age at death from colorectal cancer is higher than that of most other cancers. Those accepting a screening invitation live longer than non-participants. In part, this difference is explained by relative deprivation. Among screening participants, the receipt of a positive, as opposed to a negative, test result is associated with a later age at death.

  15. Mirror-Touch Synaesthesia Is Not Associated with Heightened Empathy, and Can Occur with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; Robson, Emma; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Allison, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Research has linked Mirror-Touch (MT) synaesthesia with enhanced empathy. We test the largest sample of MT synaesthetes to date to examine two claims that have been previously made: that MT synaesthetes (1) have superior empathy; and (2) only ever experience their MT synaesthesia in response to viewing a person being touched. Given that autism has been suggested to involve deficits in cognitive empathy, we also test two predictions: that MT synaesthetes should (3) be less likely than general population individuals without MT synaesthesia to have an autism spectrum condition (ASC), if MT is characterized by superior empathy; and (4) have fewer autistic traits. We selected three groups: a pure MT synaesthesia group (N = 46), a pure grapheme-colour (GC) synaesthesia group (N = 36), and a typical control group without synaesthesia (N = 46). Participants took three measures of empathy and one measure of autistic traits. MT synaesthetes did not show enhanced empathy. In addition, 30% of all MT synaesthetes recruited into this study (N = 135) reported also having ASC, and MT synaesthetes showed higher autistic trait scores than controls. Finally, some MT experiences were reported in response to viewing objects being touched. Our findings dispute the views that MT synaesthesia is linked with enhanced empathy, is less likely to occur with ASC or elevated autistic traits, and is specific to seeing a person being touched. PMID:27490947

  16. Mirror-Touch Synaesthesia Is Not Associated with Heightened Empathy, and Can Occur with Autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Baron-Cohen

    Full Text Available Research has linked Mirror-Touch (MT synaesthesia with enhanced empathy. We test the largest sample of MT synaesthetes to date to examine two claims that have been previously made: that MT synaesthetes (1 have superior empathy; and (2 only ever experience their MT synaesthesia in response to viewing a person being touched. Given that autism has been suggested to involve deficits in cognitive empathy, we also test two predictions: that MT synaesthetes should (3 be less likely than general population individuals without MT synaesthesia to have an autism spectrum condition (ASC, if MT is characterized by superior empathy; and (4 have fewer autistic traits. We selected three groups: a pure MT synaesthesia group (N = 46, a pure grapheme-colour (GC synaesthesia group (N = 36, and a typical control group without synaesthesia (N = 46. Participants took three measures of empathy and one measure of autistic traits. MT synaesthetes did not show enhanced empathy. In addition, 30% of all MT synaesthetes recruited into this study (N = 135 reported also having ASC, and MT synaesthetes showed higher autistic trait scores than controls. Finally, some MT experiences were reported in response to viewing objects being touched. Our findings dispute the views that MT synaesthesia is linked with enhanced empathy, is less likely to occur with ASC or elevated autistic traits, and is specific to seeing a person being touched.

  17. Diagnostic features in 10 naturally occurring cases of acute fatal canine leptospirosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissi, Daniel R; Brown, Cathy A

    2014-11-01

    The current report describes the diagnostic features in 10 cases of acute fatal canine leptospirosis with minimal renal and hepatic changes that may present a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. Most affected dogs were less than 6 months of age and had a biochemical profile consistent with hepatorenal dysfunction. Clinical signs consisted of vomiting, depression, icterus, dehydration, diarrhea, and anorexia. All dogs died or were humanely euthanized within 3-7 days after the onset of clinical disease. Necropsy findings included pulmonary edema with hemorrhages, icterus, renal and hepatic pallor and swelling, and gastric edema with hemorrhage. Despite severe azotemia, histological changes in the kidneys were subtle in all dogs, and included mild renal tubular simplification, with single-cell necrosis and attenuation, along with minimal interstitial lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, edema, and hemorrhage. Hepatic lesions included scattered hepatocellular single-cell necrosis and hepatocellular dissociation. Prominent extrarenal lesions typically associated with uremia including vascular fibrinoid necrosis in multiple organs, pulmonary mineralization with occasional fibrinosuppurative exudation, and gastric mineralization were also present. Postmortem diagnostic confirmation was based on the detection of leptospiral antigen on fresh renal samples by fluorescent antibody test and on the demonstration of intact spirochetes in sections of kidneys using immunohistochemical staining. Acute fatal canine leptospirosis occurred as a fulminant hepatorenal disease affecting mainly young dogs, and the diagnosis was dependent on the recognition of the subtle renal changes with confirmation via fluorescent antibody testing or immunohistochemical staining. © 2014 The Author(s).

  18. Performance measurement for co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pincus Harold A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders (COD are the norm rather than the exception. It is therefore critical that performance measures are developed to assess the quality of care for individuals with COD irrespective of whether they seek care in mental health systems or substance abuse systems or both. Methods We convened an expert panel and asked them to rate a series of structure, process, and outcomes measures for COD using a structured evaluation tool with domains for importance, usefulness, validity, and practicality. Results We chose twelve measures that demonstrated promise for future pilot testing and refinement. The criteria that we applied to select these measures included: balance across structure, process, and outcome measures, quantitative ratings from the panelists, narrative comments from the panelists, and evidence the measure had been tested in a similar form elsewhere. Conclusion To be successful performance measures need to be developed in such a way that they align with needs of administrators and providers. Policymakers need to work with all stakeholders to establish a concrete agenda for developing, piloting and implementing performance measures that include COD. Future research could begin to consider strategies that increase our ability to use administrative coding in mental health and substance use disorder systems to efficiently capture quality relevant clinical data.

  19. Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Nonvolatile Residue (NVR) in Environmentally Controlled Areas for Spacecraft

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of nonvolatile residue (NVR) fallout in environmentally controlled areas used for the assembly, testing, and processing of spacecraft. 1.2 The NVR of interest is that which is deposited on sampling plate surfaces at room temperature: it is left to the user to infer the relationship between the NVR found on the sampling plate surface and that found on any other surfaces. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. 1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

  20. Test Architecture, Test Retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…

  1. Efficiency of organic acid preparations for the elimination of naturally occurring Salmonella in feed material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, Sonja; Kolar, Veronika; Adler, Andreas; Strnad, Irmengard

    2017-11-01

    Salmonella can enter animal stocks via feedstuffs, thus posing not only an infection risk for animals, but also threatening to contaminate food of animal origin and finally humans. Salmonella contamination in feedstuffs is still a recurring and serious issue in animal production (especially for the poultry sector), and is regularly detected upon self-monitoring by feed companies (self-checks) and official inspections authorities. Operators within the feed chain in certain cases need to use hygienic condition enhancers, such as organic acids, to improve the quality of feed for animal nutrition, providing additional guarantees for the protection of animal and public health. The present study investigated the efficiencies of five organic acid preparations. The acid products were added to three different feed materials contaminated with Salmonella (contamination occurred by recontamination in the course of the production process) at seven different inclusion rates (1-7%) and analysed after 1, 2, and 7 days' exposure time using culture method (tenfold analysis). A reliable standard was established for defining a successful decontamination under the prevailing test conditions: 10 Salmonella-negative results out of 10 tested samples (0/10: i.e. 0 positive samples and 10 negative samples). The results demonstrated that the tested preparations showed significant differences with regard to the reduction in Salmonella contamination. At an inclusion rate of 7% of the feed materials, two out of five acid preparations showed an insufficient, very small, decontamination effect, whereas two others had a relatively large partial effect. Reliable decontamination was demonstrated only for one acid preparation, however, subject to the use of the highest acid concentration.

  2. Absorption of irrigation fluid occurs frequently during high power 532 nm laser vaporization of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanns, Thomas; Grossmann, Nico C; Wettstein, Marian S; Fankhauser, Christian D; Capol, Janine C; Poyet, Cédric; Hefermehl, Lukas J; Zimmermann, Matthias; Sulser, Tullio; Müller, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Absorption of irrigation fluid was not detected during GreenLight™ laser vaporization of the prostate using the first generation 80 W laser. However, data are lacking on intraoperative irrigation fluid absorption using the second generation 120 W high power laser. We assessed whether fluid absorption occurs during high power laser vaporization of the prostate. We performed this prospective investigation at a tertiary referral center in patients undergoing 120 W laser vaporization for prostatic bladder outlet obstruction. Normal saline containing 1% ethanol was used for intraoperative irrigation. The expired breath ethanol concentration was measured periodically during the operation using an alcometer. The volume of saline absorption was calculated from these concentrations. Intraoperative changes in hematological and biochemical blood parameters were also recorded. Of 50 investigated patients 22 (44%) had a positive breath ethanol test. Median absorption volume in the absorber group was 725 ml (range 138 to 3,452). Ten patients absorbed more than 1,000 ml. Absorbers had a smaller prostate, more capsular perforation, higher bleeding intensity and more laser energy applied during the operation. Three patients (13%) had symptoms potentially related to fluid absorption. Hemoglobin, hematocrit and serum chloride were the only blood parameters that changed significantly in the absorber group. The changes were significantly different than those in nonabsorbers. Fluid absorption occurs frequently during high power laser vaporization of the prostate. This should be considered in patients who present with cardiopulmonary or neurological symptoms during or after the procedure. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiparametric statistical investigation of seismicity occurred at El Hierro (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, Luciano; Lovallo, Michele; Lopez, Carmen; Marti Molist, Joan

    2016-03-01

    A detailed statistical investigation of the seismicity occurred at El Hierro volcano (Canary Islands) from 2011 to 2014 has been performed by analysing the time variation of four parameters: the Gutenberg-Richter b-value, the local coefficient of variation, the scaling exponent of the magnitude distribution and the main periodicity of the earthquake sequence calculated by using the Schuster's test. These four parameters are good descriptors of the time and magnitude distributions of the seismic sequence, and their variation indicate dynamical changes in the volcanic system. These variations can be attributed to the causes and types of seismicity, thus allowing to distinguish between different host-rock fracturing processes caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and overpressures. The statistical patterns observed among the studied unrest episodes and between them and the eruptive episode of 2011-2012 indicate that the response of the host rock to the deformation imposed by magma intrusion did not differ significantly from one episode to the other, thus suggesting that no significant local stress changes induced by magma intrusion occurred when comparing between all them. Therefore, despite the studied unrest episodes were caused by intrusions of magma at different depths and locations below El Hierro island, the mechanical response of the lithosphere was similar in all cases. This suggests that the reason why the first unrest culminated in an eruption while the other did not, may be related to the role of the regional/local tectonics acting at that moment, rather than to the forceful of magma intrusion.

  4. Amplification of the 20q Chromosomal Arm Occurs Early in Tumorigenic Transformation and May Initiate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buganim, Yosef; Solomon, Hilla; Goldfinger, Naomi; Hovland, Randi; Ke, Xi-Song; Oyan, Anne M.; Kalland, Karl-H.; Rotter, Varda; Domany, Eytan

    2011-01-01

    Duplication of chromosomal arm 20q occurs in prostate, cervical, colon, gastric, bladder, melanoma, pancreas and breast cancer, suggesting that 20q amplification may play a causal role in tumorigenesis. According to an alternative view, chromosomal imbalance is mainly a common side effect of cancer progression. To test whether a specific genomic aberration might serve as a cancer initiating event, we established an in vitro system that models the evolutionary process of early stages of prostate tumor formation; normal prostate cells were immortalized by the over-expression of human telomerase catalytic subunit hTERT, and cultured for 650 days till several transformation hallmarks were observed. Gene expression patterns were measured and chromosomal aberrations were monitored by spectral karyotype analysis at different times. Several chromosomal aberrations, in particular duplication of chromosomal arm 20q, occurred early in the process and were fixed in the cell populations, while other aberrations became extinct shortly after their appearance. A wide range of bioinformatic tools, applied to our data and to data from several cancer databases, revealed that spontaneous 20q amplification can promote cancer initiation. Our computational model suggests that 20q amplification induced deregulation of several specific cancer-related pathways including the MAPK pathway, the p53 pathway and Polycomb group factors. In addition, activation of Myc, AML, B-Catenin and the ETS family transcription factors was identified as an important step in cancer development driven by 20q amplification. Finally we identified 13 "cancer initiating genes", located on 20q13, which were significantly over-expressed in many tumors, with expression levels correlated with tumor grade and outcome suggesting that these genes induce the malignant process upon 20q amplification. PMID:21297939

  5. Amplification of the 20q chromosomal arm occurs early in tumorigenic transformation and may initiate cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval Tabach

    Full Text Available Duplication of chromosomal arm 20q occurs in prostate, cervical, colon, gastric, bladder, melanoma, pancreas and breast cancer, suggesting that 20q amplification may play a causal role in tumorigenesis. According to an alternative view, chromosomal imbalance is mainly a common side effect of cancer progression. To test whether a specific genomic aberration might serve as a cancer initiating event, we established an in vitro system that models the evolutionary process of early stages of prostate tumor formation; normal prostate cells were immortalized by the over-expression of human telomerase catalytic subunit hTERT, and cultured for 650 days till several transformation hallmarks were observed. Gene expression patterns were measured and chromosomal aberrations were monitored by spectral karyotype analysis at different times. Several chromosomal aberrations, in particular duplication of chromosomal arm 20q, occurred early in the process and were fixed in the cell populations, while other aberrations became extinct shortly after their appearance. A wide range of bioinformatic tools, applied to our data and to data from several cancer databases, revealed that spontaneous 20q amplification can promote cancer initiation. Our computational model suggests that 20q amplification induced deregulation of several specific cancer-related pathways including the MAPK pathway, the p53 pathway and Polycomb group factors. In addition, activation of Myc, AML, B-Catenin and the ETS family transcription factors was identified as an important step in cancer development driven by 20q amplification. Finally we identified 13 "cancer initiating genes", located on 20q13, which were significantly over-expressed in many tumors, with expression levels correlated with tumor grade and outcome suggesting that these genes induce the malignant process upon 20q amplification.

  6. Physiological reactivity to spontaneously occurring seizure activity in dogs with epilepsy and their carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, R M A; Volk, H A; Fowkes, R C

    2017-08-01

    There is a complex bidirectional relationship between stress and epilepsy. Stressful stimuli and subsequent cortisol release act as a trigger for seizure activity in some individuals with epilepsy, and seizure activity itself may act as a stressor to the affected individual. Epilepsy is the most common chronic neurological condition in domestic dogs and requires chronic management by their human carers, impacting upon the quality of life of both dog and carer. Seizures occur unpredictably and may be stressful for carers to witness and manage. In the present study we investigated the role of seizure activity as a stressor, measuring the effect of spontaneously occurring seizure activity in dogs with epilepsy upon their own cortisol levels and that of their carers. Furthermore, we tested whether individual differences in HPA reactivity were associated with owner personality characteristics and the quality of the dog-carer relationship. Saliva samples were obtained from sixteen dog-carer dyads in the home setting 20 and 40minute post-seizure, and at time-matched points on the following (non-seizure) day. Significant differences in cortisol levels were found in dogs at 40minute post-seizure (265.1% increase), and at 20minute post-seizure in their carers (40.5% increase). No associations were found between cortisol reactivity and the strength of the dog-carer bond. Carers with higher neuroticism scores exhibited higher cortisol levels at both post-seizure sampling points. As there was a gender bias in the carer sample (15/16 were female), and there are known sex differences in cortisol reactivity in response to psychological stress, the conclusions of this study may be limited to female carers. These findings are the first to objectively demonstrate the acutely stressful effects of seizures in dogs with epilepsy and their carers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Risk and protective factors for cats with naturally occurring chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyarungsri, Kakanang; Pusoonthornthum, Rosama

    2017-04-01

    Objectives Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant disease in cats. Identifying risk and protective factors may help to prevent this significant disease. Methods An age-matched case-control study was performed to determine the risk factors in cats with naturally occurring CKD. Twenty-nine clinically normal cats aged ⩾5 years and 101 cats with naturally occurring CKD were studied. Risk factors were determined by interviewing cat owners from the Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, and veterinary hospitals in the Bangkok Metropolitan area, through questionnaires completed between June 2004 and November 2014. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed using two independent proportional test methods and logistic regression analysis with backward elimination. Results Male sex (odd ratios [OR] 2.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02-8.87; P = 0.02), tap water (OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.08-11.45; P = 0.03) and an outdoor lifestyle (OR 3.77, 95% CI 1.03-17.99; P = 0.04) were associated with an increased risk for CKD. Commercial dry cat food (OR 0.06, 95% CI 0.02-0.17; P = 0.00), filtered water (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03-0.52; P = 0.01) and an indoor lifestyle (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.07-0.98; P = 0.02) were associated with a decreased risk. Logistic regression analysis using backward elimination demonstrated that cats fed commercial dry cat food (OR 0.042, 95% CI 0.01-0.17; P = 0.00) had a decreased risk for CKD compared with cats on other types of diet. Conclusions and relevance Multivariable analysis found only feeding commercial dry cat food to be significant, suggesting that commercial dry cat food may be a potential protective factor for CKD in cats.

  8. How Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders Co-Occur with Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FASD) who may also have a co-occurring mental illness. A co-occurring disorder exists simultaneously with another ... term used when an individual has both a mental illness as well as a drug or alcohol abuse- ...

  9. Studies of radioactive deposition on farm buildings and testing of some methods for decontamination; Studier av radioaktiv belaeggning paa lantbruksbyggnader och utprovning av laempliga dekontamineringsmetoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Inger [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Nutrition and Management; Erlandsson, B. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Hansson, J.; Dolby, C.M. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Lund (Sweden). Dept. of Farm Buildings

    1993-12-31

    Studies were made of radioactive fallout on roofs of farm buildings and of some methods of decontamination. The aim was to find ways of reducing the external radiation dose to farmers working and farm animals housed in stables in a fallout situation. The roof material studied was steel plate (A) and tile (B,C, D), each with four sample areas of ca. 1 m{sup 2}. The roof samples were collected at three places and from totally four building in regions which in 1986 (after the Chernobyl fallout) has a {sup 137}Cs ground depositions of 3040 kBq/m{sup 2} (A, B, C) and > 100 kBq/m{sup 2} (D). Four different decontamination methods were tested: 1. High pressure washing with water. 2. Repeated high pressure washing with water. 3. Application of foam of a sanitizing chemical for livestock buildings followed by high pressure washing with water. 4. Application of a solution of KCl followed by high pressure washing with water. In C, the effect of decontamination expressed as the percentage decrease of the {sup 137}Cs activity was on average for all methods, 55%. This material was coated before the decontamination by a marked growth of algae or moss, which was effectively washed off during the sanitizing procedure. In B, the average activity decontamination effect was 25%, while in D (with the highest original activity, but without growth of organic material) the effect was very small, 3%. In A, the activity level before decontamination was so low that measurements after decontamination were considered unnecessary. Method number 4 was the most effective in B and C, 32% and 64%, respectively, while method number 3 was the most effective in D, 5.7%. The results indicate that good effects can be achieved in radioactivity decontamination of roof material with equipment and chemicals which are normally available on farms.

  10. Morphologic appearance of inclusion bodies and their association with the antigenic composition of naturally occurring rabies viruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Loretu, K; Blenden, D.C.; Torres-Anjel, M J; Satalowich, F T

    1988-01-01

    A total of 112 rabies virus-infected skunk brain samples from naturally occurring cases (64 from Missouri, 48 from Kentucky) were code labeled and grouped into two morphologic categories according to the appearance and size of the discrete particles observed by immunofluorescent-antibody staining. The reactivity of the blind-labeled samples was then determined using a panel of 23 antinucleocapsid monoclonal antibodies to test whether morphologic appearance was associated with antigenicity. Tw...

  11. Dynamic testing of adhesive joints using a shock testing machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aanhold, J.E. van; Weersink, A.F.J.; Ludolphy, J.W.L.

    1998-01-01

    A light-weight shock testing machine, designed for type approval testing of naval equipment up to 300 kg mass, has been modified into a dynamic tensile test rig. This enables to test structural details for high rate dynamic tensile loadings such as occur during underwater shock. The maximum capacity

  12. Rubemamine and Rubescenamine, Two Naturally Occurring N-Cinnamoyl Phenethylamines with Umami-Taste-Modulating Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backes, Michael; Obst, Katja; Bojahr, Juliane; Thorhauer, Anika; Roudnitzky, Natacha; Paetz, Susanne; Reichelt, Katharina V; Krammer, Gerhard E; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Ley, Jakob P

    2015-10-07

    Sensory screening of a series of naturally occurring N-cinnamoyl derivatives of substituted phenethylamines revealed that rubemamine (9, from Chenopodium album) and rubescenamine (10, from Zanthoxylum rubsecens) elicit strong intrinsic umami taste in water at 50 and 10 ppm, respectively. Sensory tests in glutamate- and nucleotide-containing bases showed that the compounds influence the whole flavor profile of savory formulations. Both rubemamine (9) and rubescenamine (10) at 10-100 ppm dose-dependently positively modulated the umami taste of MSG (0.17-0.22%) up to threefold. Among the investigated amides, only rubemamine (9) and rubescenamine (10) are able to directly activate the TAS1R1-TAS1R3 umami taste receptor. Moreover, both compounds also synergistically modulated the activation of TAS1R1-TAS1R3 by MSG. Most remarkably, rubemamine (9) was able to further positively modulate the IMP-enhanced TAS1R1-TAS1R3 response to MSG ∼ 1.8-fold. Finally, armatamide (11), zanthosinamide (13), and dioxamine (14), which lack intrinsic umami taste in vivo and direct receptor response in vitro, also positively modulated receptor activation by MSG about twofold and the IMP-enhanced MSG-induced TAS1R1-TAS1R3 responses approximately by 50%. In sensory experiments, dioxamine (14) at 25 ppm in combination with 0.17% MSG exhibited a sensory equivalent to 0.37% MSG.

  13. Clostridium botulinum type E occurs and grows in the alga Cladophora glomerata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byappanahalli, M.N.; Whitman, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, massive avian die-offs from Clostridium botulinum type E infection have occurred in the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (SLBE) area of Lake Michigan. These outbreaks have been coincidental with massive blooms of the green algae Cladophora, mostly Cladophora glomerata. We tested the hypothesis that Clostridium botulinum type E can grow under suitable conditions in these algal mats. In a lab mesocosm study, Cladophora from four outbreak-impacted beaches from SLBE were compared with four unimpacted beaches in the Milwaukee–Racine area for bontE gene of Clostridium botulinum. Frequency of the bontE gene was higher after incubation (25 °C for up to 6 weeks) of Cladophora from impacted vs. the unimpacted area. Since no type E gene was detected initially in Cladophora from any of the eight locations, we infer that the increased occurrence of type E gene arose from spore germination or vegetative Clostridium growth within the existing algal mats of SLBE. Moreover, we found that the congener Clostridium perfringens readily grows in mesocosms containing Cladophora.

  14. Characterization and occurence of eairly softening disorder in 'golden' papaya fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Pedro Jacomino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of green skin and soft pulp in 'Golden' papaya fruit during certain seasons has been reported by farmers in the northern of the state of Espirito Santo, Brazil. The objective of this study was to characterize and determine the occurrence of this disorder, which was referred as "early softening disorder". Fruits were harvested weekly for 11 months (from September to July. The fruits were stored at 10°C, and then fruit flesh firmness and skin color were analyzed. The results of the firmness test were submitted to regression analysis assuming a linear trendline. The slope of the curve was called the 'softening index' (SI. Fruits with early softening are characterized by a loss of firmness in less than 10 days, even when stored under refrigeration. Although softened, the skin of the fruit remains partially green. Fruits with the disorder occurred more frequently from mid-summer to mid-autumn (February to May. It is not possible to distinguish early softening disorder fruits from those without the disorder by skin color and flesh firmness analysis at the time of the harvest.

  15. Increased determinism in brain electrical activity occurs in association with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrubba, Simona; Minagar, Alireza; Chesson, Andrew L; Frilot, Clifton; Marino, Andrew A

    2012-04-01

    Increased determinism (decreased complexity) of brain electrical activity has been associated with some brain diseases. Our objective was to determine whether a similar association occurred for multiple sclerosis (MS). Ten subjects with a relapsing-remitting course of MS who were in remission were studied; the controls were age- and gender-matched clinically normal subjects. Recurrence plots were calculated using representative electroencephalogram (EEG) epochs (1-7 seconds) from six derivations; the plots were quantified using the nonlinear variables percent recurrence (%R) and percent determinism (%D). The results were averaged over all derivations for each participant, and the means were compared between the groups. As a linear control procedure the groups were also compared using spectral analysis. The mean±SD of %R for the MS subjects was 6·6±1·3%, compared with 5·1±1·3% in the normal group (P = 0·017), indicating that brain activity in the subjects with MS was less complex, as hypothesized. The groups were not distinguishable using %D or spectral analysis. Taken together with our earlier report that %R could be used to discriminate between MS and normal subjects based on the ability to exhibit evoked potentials, the evidence suggests that complexity analysis of the EEG has potential for development as a diagnostic test for MS.

  16. Prevalence of traffic rule infractions in Cali, Colombia, at sites where injury crashes occurred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Salazar, G S; Bonilla-Escobar, F J; Morales-Quintero, F J; Fandiño-Losada, A; Santaella, J; Gonzalez, G; Gutierrez, M I

    2017-06-01

    This study aim to determine the proportion of traffic rule infractions in Cali, Colombia, in places where a road traffic injury (RTI) occurred. Description of videotaping of sites where a person was injured in an RTI in 2009. Counts of road users and infractions were established for each road user group and were compared using a Z-test. They were found 13,491 users, distributed as follow: 8.9% were pedestrians, 4.6% cyclists, 24.6% motorcyclists, and 61.8% were automobile drivers. The most frequent traffic violation among motorcyclists was transiting on lines designated for other vehicles (55.2%). Among cyclists, the most frequent violations were transiting without a helmet (99.2%) and not wearing the designated vest (100%). Among pedestrians, crossing streets at prohibited places (77.3%), even at sites where a pedestrian bridge was present (72.7%), represented two common violations. Vulnerable road users committed more traffic infractions than automobile drivers (p < 0.001). High rates of traffic rule infractions among vulnerable road users were observed. Studies to better understand the occurrence of these behaviours and the promotion of effective interventions are warranted.

  17. Aluminum-chloride-phthalocyanine encapsulated in liposomes: activity against naturally occurring dog breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Martha S T; Lucci, Carolina M; Longo, João Paulo F; Galera, Paula D; Simioni, Andreza R; Lacava, Zulmira G M; Tedesco, Antônio C; Azevedo, Ricardo B

    2012-04-01

    Breast tumors represent the most common malignant tumors. Current treatments for humans and pets rely on tumor excision and adjuvant chemotherapy, which may affect both cancer cells and normal cells. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an approved treatment modality for a variety of cancers and was recently recommended as a first-line treatment for non-melanoma skin cancers for humans. The main purpose of the present study was to determine the efficacy of PDT using aluminum-chloride-phthalocyanine that is encapsulated in liposomes and LED as a light source to kill naturally occurring female dog breast cancer in vitro. The cytotoxicity behavior of the encapsulated photosensitizer in the dark and under irradiation using the 670 nm laser were investigated using classical trypan blue and MTT cell viability tests, acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining to label organelles, and cell morphology. Cell morphology was evaluated using light and electron microscopy. Our results demonstrate a reduced cell viability that is associated with morphologic alterations. The neoplasic cell destruction was predominantly mediated via a necrotic process, which was assayed using acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining. These findings were confirmed using light and electronic microscopy. The photosensitizer or laser irradiation alone did not induce cytotoxicity or morphological alterations, indicating the safety and efficacy of PDT with chloro-aluminum-phthalocyanine that was encapsulated in liposomes for the treatment of breast cancer cells in vitro.

  18. Spatial and temporal variation of cultivable communities of co-occurring endophytes and pathogens in wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane eComby

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the diversity of endogenous microbes from wheat (Triticum aestivum and to study the structure of its microbial communities, with the ultimate goal to provide candidate strains for future evaluation as potential biological control agents against wheat diseases. We sampled plants from two wheat cultivars, Apache and Caphorn, showing different levels of susceptibility to Fusarium head blight, a major disease of wheat, and tested for variation in microbial diversity and assemblages depending on the host cultivar, host organ (aerial organs versus roots or host maturity. Fungi and bacteria were isolated using a culture dependent method. Isolates were identified using ribosomal DNA sequencing and we used diversity analysis to study the community composition of microorganisms over space and time. Results indicate great species diversity in wheat, with endophytes and pathogens co-occurring inside plant tissues. Significant differences in microbial communities were observed according to host maturity and host organs but we did not find clear differences between host cultivars. Some species isolated have not yet been reported as wheat endophytes and among all species recovered some might be good candidates as biological control agents, given their known effects towards plant pathogens.

  19. Firefighters' cardiovascular health and fitness: An observation of adaptations that occur during firefighter training academies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnacinski, Stacy L; Ebersole, Kyle T; Cornell, David J; Mims, Jason; Zamzow, Aaron; Meyer, Barbara B

    2016-03-09

    Firefighters' cardiovascular fitness remains a foremost concern among fire departments and organizations, yet very little research has been conducted to examine the cardiovascular fitness adaptations that occur during firefighter training academies. To describe the cardiovascular adaptations observed among firefighter recruits during firefighter training academies using measures of estimated maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and heart rate recovery (ΔHR). Firefighter recruits (n = 41) enrolled in a 16-week firefighter training academy completed a 5-minute step test during the first, eighth, and sixteenth week of training. Repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) calculations were conducted to determine changes in estimated VO2max and ΔHR. Results of the RM ANOVA calculations revealed that mean estimated VO2max and mean ΔHR differed significantly between time points: F(2, 80) = 75.525, p firefighter recruits' estimated VO2max and ΔHR change significantly over the course of the firefighter training academy, the measures may not be equal predictors of cardiovascular fitness.

  20. Commercial Parts Radiation Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-13

    performing Total Ionizing Dose ( TID ) testing. The project was to be led by the researchers at the Configurable Space Microsystems Innovations and...platform that will allow electrical and physical interconnection to them during the test phase. The way the Total Ionizing Dose ( TID ) testing occurs is...be quite robust in its TID response and is under consideration for several CubeSat missions. Total ionizing dose exposures at high and low dose rates

  1. Radioactive fallout and neural tube defects

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nejat Akar

    2015-07-10

    Jul 10, 2015 ... Neural tube defects;. Anencephaly;. Spina bifida. Abstract Possible link between radioactivity and the occurrence of neural tube defects is a long lasting debate ... Neural tube defects, are one of the common congenital mal- formations ... ent cities of Turkey (˙Izmir/Aegean Region; Trabzon/Black Sea region ...

  2. The fall-out from Brexit

    OpenAIRE

    Young, S.; Antill, P; Fisher, R

    2017-01-01

    On 23rd June 2016, the British electorate voted to leave the European Union (EU) [i], in what can only be described as a surprise result that has sent shockwaves through not only the British political establishment but across both Europe and the world. As far as UK defence acquisition was concerned, a strategic environment that was already in a state of dynamic flux due to the publication of a new National Security Strategy (NSS) and Strategic Defence and Security Review (SDSR) in late 2015, ...

  3. Fallout Patterns from Operation HARDTACK, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1960-05-01

    before sunset . While the reversal is taking place the winds usually re- main very light and variable for five or ten minutes. When available, pertinent... Crater %s begn in December 1958. About hall of the area etS 1959. Ipi l h etr(lcws)btwt ornso bu 3 220 d r= o orcetored, The ACttty In this Area my

  4. Testing "Compatibility Testing."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Elliot; Huston, Ted L.

    Most models of marital choice are attempts to explain choices within the field of available eligibles. The essence of compatibility testing is that people select their mates by evaluating the match between psychological characteristics after sorting the available field on the basis of social characteristics. A compatibility model seems to require…

  5. Dog erythrocyte antigens (DEA) 1, 4, 7 and suspected naturally occurring anti-DEA 7 antibodies in Italian Corso dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, E; Proverbio, D; Priolo, V; Ippolito, D; Baggiani, L; Perego, R; Pennisi, M G

    2017-04-01

    We sought to determine the prevalence of dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1, 4 and 7 and naturally occurring anti-DEA7 antibodies in Italian Corso dogs. In addition, we correlated DEAs with different epidemiologic variables, compared the prevalence of DEAs against other canine populations and assessed the risk of sensitisation and transfusion reactions (TRs) following unmatched transfusion. Blood samples from 100 Corso dogs were evaluated for DEA 1, 4, 7 and naturally occurring anti-DEA 7 antibodies. Seventy-one percent of samples were DEA 1-negative, 100% tested DEA 4-positive, and 95% tested DEA 7-negative. Suspected anti-DEA7 antibodies were found in 32% dogs. The DEA 1 and 7-negative phenotypes were significantly more common than in most canine populations. When a previously tested Italian canine population was considered as blood donors for Corso dogs, the risk of DEA 1 sensitisation using DEA 1 untyped blood was 29%, and of acute haemolytic TRs after a second untyped DEA 1-incompatible transfusion was 8%. The potential for delayed TRs between DEA 7-negative Corso dogs with suspected naturally occurring anti-DEA 7 antibodies receiving untyped DEA 7-positive blood was 11%. Conversely, when Corso dogs were blood donors for the same population, the risk of DEA 1 sensitisation was 17% and the risk of an acute haemolytic TR after a second DEA 1-incompatible blood transfusion was 3%. Corso dogs can be suitable blood donors. Additional studies are needed to clarify whether the high prevalence of naturally occurring anti-DEA 7 antibodies in this breed could increase their risk of delayed TRs when they are blood recipients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Test plan :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-05-01

    This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

  7. Beneficial effects of autologous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in naturally occurring tendinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Kenneth Whealands Smith

    Full Text Available Tendon injuries are a common age-related degenerative condition where current treatment strategies fail to restore functionality and normal quality of life. This disease also occurs naturally in horses, with many similarities to human tendinopathy making it an ideal large animal model for human disease. Regenerative approaches are increasingly used to improve outcome involving mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, supported by clinical data where injection of autologous bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs suspended in marrow supernatant into injured tendons has halved the re-injury rate in racehorses. We hypothesized that stem cell therapy induces a matrix more closely resembling normal tendon than the fibrous scar tissue formed by natural repair. Twelve horses with career-ending naturally-occurring superficial digital flexor tendon injury were allocated randomly to treatment and control groups. 1X10(7 autologous BM-MSCs suspended in 2 ml of marrow supernatant were implanted into the damaged tendon of the treated group. The control group received the same volume of saline. Following a 6 month exercise programme horses were euthanized and tendons assessed for structural stiffness by non-destructive mechanical testing and for morphological and molecular composition. BM-MSC treated tendons exhibited statistically significant improvements in key parameters compared to saline-injected control tendons towards that of normal tendons and those in the contralateral limbs. Specifically, treated tendons had lower structural stiffness (p<0.05 although no significant difference in calculated modulus of elasticity, lower (improved histological scoring of organisation (p<0.003 and crimp pattern (p<0.05, lower cellularity (p<0.007, DNA content (p<0.05, vascularity (p<0.03, water content (p<0.05, GAG content (p<0.05, and MMP-13 activity (p<0.02. Treatment with autologous MSCs in marrow supernatant therefore provides significant benefits compared to untreated tendon repair

  8. Pinworm test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... lay their eggs at night. Steps for the test are: Firmly press the sticky side of a ...

  9. Predictive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Predictive testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... you make the decision. What Is Predictive Genetic Testing Predictive genetic testing searches for genetic changes, or ...

  10. Pharmacogenomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Pharmacogenomic testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to fit your genetic makeup What Is Pharmacogenomic Testing? Pharmacogenomic testing is done before your healthcare provider ...

  11. Mono Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heterophile Test Heterophile Antibody Test Monospot Formal Name Infectious Mononucleosis Rapid Test This article was last reviewed on ... Why Get Tested? To detect and help diagnose infectious mononucleosis (mono) When To Get Tested? When a person, ...

  12. The human sex odds at birth after the atmospheric atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen; Voigt, Kristina

    2011-06-01

    Ever since the discovery of the mutagenic properties of ionizing radiation, the possibility of birth sex odds shifts in exposed human populations was considered in the scientific community. Positive evidence, however weak, was obtained after the atomic bombing of Japan. We previously investigated trends in the sex odds before and after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In a pilot study, combined data from the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Sweden between 1982 and 1992 showed a downward trend in the sex odds and a significant jump in 1987, the year immediately after Chernobyl. Moreover, a significant positive association of the sex odds between 1986 and 1991 with Chernobyl fallout at the district level in Germany was observed. Both of these findings, temporality (effect after exposure) and dose response association, yield evidence of causality. The primary aim of this study was to investigate longer time periods (1950-2007) in all of Europe and in the USA with emphasis on the global atmospheric atomic bomb test fallout and on the Chernobyl accident. To obtain further evidence, we also analyze sex odds data near nuclear facilities in Germany and Switzerland. DATA AND STATISTICAL METHODS: National gender-specific annual live births data for 39 European countries from 1975 to 2007 were compiled using the pertinent internet data bases provided by the World Health Organization, United Nations, Council of Europe, and EUROSTAT. For a synoptic re-analysis of the period 1950 to 1990, published data from the USA and from a predominantly western and less Chernobyl-exposed part of Europe were studied additionally. To assess spatial, temporal, as well as spatial-temporal trends in the sex odds and to investigate possible changes in those trends after the atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities, we applied ordinary linear logistic regression. Region-specific and eventually changing spatial

  13. New Nuclear Weapons and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert A.

    2003-04-01

    Some U.S. politicians and members of U.S. weapon laboratories are urging the United States to develop a new generation of precision low-yield nuclear weapons "mininukes," with equivalent yields of a few kilotons of TNT or less. Small nuclear weapons are necessary, they argue, to fill the gap between large conventional munitions and our existing high-yield nuclear weapons. They argue that low-yield earth penetrating nuclear weapons could destroy hardened underground command bunkers and storage sites for chemical or biological weapons while "limiting collateral damage." We have shown, however, that even a small nuclear weapon with a yield of 1 kiloton (less than 10% of the Hiroshima bomb) would produce a fatal dose of radioactive fallout over a radius of several kilometers. Moreover, low-yield nuclear weapons are unlikely to destroy buried stockpiles of chemical and biological weapons and may actually disperse active agents over the countryside. If new nuclear weapons require full underground testing, this would end the nuclear testing moratorium that the United States and Russia have maintained since 1992 and would likely destroy prospects for eventual entry into force of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  14. Biocompatibility study of a biological tissue fixed with a naturally occurring crosslinking reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L L; Sung, H W; Tsai, C C; Huang, D M

    1998-12-15

    A recognized disadvantage of the currently available chemical reagents used to fix bioprostheses is the potential toxic effects a recipient may be exposed to from residues. It is therefore desirable to provide a crosslinking reagent that is of low cytotoxicity and can form stable and biocompatible crosslinked products. To achieve this goal, a naturally occurring crosslinking reagent-genipin-was used by our group to fix biological tissues. Genipin can be obtained from its parent compound geniposide, which can be isolated from the fruits of Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS. In our previous feasibility study, it was found that the cytotoxicity of genipin is significantly lower than both glutaraldehyde and an epoxy compound. Additionally, it was shown that genipin can form stable crosslinked products. The present study further investigates the biocompatibility of a genipin-fixed porcine pericardium implanted subcutaneously in a growing rat model. The fresh, glutaraldehyde-, and epoxy-fixed counterparts were used as controls. It was noted that the inflammatory reaction of the genipin-fixed tissue was significantly less than its glutaraldehyde- and epoxy-fixed counterparts. Also, the genipin-fixed tissue has tensile strength and resistance against in vivo degradation comparable to the glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue. Additionally, the calcium content of the genipin-fixed tissue measured throughout the entire course of the study was minimal. Nevertheless, further study in calcification for the genipin-fixed tissue should be conducted in a blood-contact environment. The results obtained in this subcutaneous study indicate that genipin is a promising crosslinking reagent for biological tissue fixation. However, further durability testing in vitro and in vivo are needed to determine the relative functional merits of this new crosslinker.

  15. Nonsynonymous somatic mitochondrial mutations occur in the majority of cutaneous melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mithani, Suhail K; Smith, Ian M; Topalian, Suzanne L; Califano, Joseph A

    2008-06-01

    Earlier studies of mitochondrial mutations in melanoma have focused on analysis of selected mitochondrial genes and the displacement loop (D-loop) region using conventional sequencing. In this study we use data from a whole mitochondria-sequencing array, the MitoChip v2.0, to characterize the mutations that are present throughout the mitochondrial genome. The mitochondrial genome of DNA derived from 14 fresh melanoma specimens and two melanoma cell lines, and autologous lymphocytes or immortalized B cells, respectively, were sequenced using the MitoChip v2.0. Paired comparative sequence analysis was carried out to define somatic mutations. Somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations were identified in 12/16 (75%) melanomas, compared with germline lymphocyte DNA. One hundred mutations were present among these 12 melanomas. A disproportionate number of mutations occurred in the D-loop. Furthermore, 9/16 (56.3%) melanomas carried mutations, which resulted in amino acid substitutions in functional genes. In the 10 samples carrying nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (ND) complex mutations, multiple mutations were present at a rate significantly greater than the expected frequency based on the size of ND complex genes (P=0.028, Fisher's exact test). Mitochondrial mutation is a frequent occurrence in melanoma. The high rate of missense mutations and the propensity for the ND complex implicate a role for alterations in mitochondrial respiratory function in melanoma carcinogenesis. Mutations of the noncoding D-loop are of unclear significance, but may be associated with alterations in transcription or replication. Further studies are needed to delineate the timing and functional significance of these mutations, and their role in the pathogenesis of this disease.

  16. Levels of naturally occurring gamma radiation measured in British homes and their prediction in particular residences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendall, G.M. [University of Oxford, Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Oxford (United Kingdom); Wakeford, R. [University of Manchester, Centre for Occupational and Environmental Health, Institute of Population Health, Manchester (United Kingdom); Athanson, M. [University of Oxford, Bodleian Library, Oxford (United Kingdom); Vincent, T.J. [University of Oxford, Childhood Cancer Research Group, Oxford (United Kingdom); Carter, E.J. [University of Worcester, Earth Heritage Trust, Geological Records Centre, Henwick Grove, Worcester (United Kingdom); McColl, N.P. [Public Health England, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon (United Kingdom); Little, M.P. [National Cancer Institute, DHHS, NIH, Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Gamma radiation from natural sources (including directly ionising cosmic rays) is an important component of background radiation. In the present paper, indoor measurements of naturally occurring gamma rays that were undertaken as part of the UK Childhood Cancer Study are summarised, and it is shown that these are broadly compatible with an earlier UK National Survey. The distribution of indoor gamma-ray dose rates in Great Britain is approximately normal with mean 96 nGy/h and standard deviation 23 nGy/h. Directly ionising cosmic rays contribute about one-third of the total. The expanded dataset allows a more detailed description than previously of indoor gamma-ray exposures and in particular their geographical variation. Various strategies for predicting indoor natural background gamma-ray dose rates were explored. In the first of these, a geostatistical model was fitted, which assumes an underlying geologically determined spatial variation, superimposed on which is a Gaussian stochastic process with Matern correlation structure that models the observed tendency of dose rates in neighbouring houses to correlate. In the second approach, a number of dose-rate interpolation measures were first derived, based on averages over geologically or administratively defined areas or using distance-weighted averages of measurements at nearest-neighbour points. Linear regression was then used to derive an optimal linear combination of these interpolation measures. The predictive performances of the two models were compared via cross-validation, using a randomly selected 70 % of the data to fit the models and the remaining 30 % to test them. The mean square error (MSE) of the linear-regression model was lower than that of the Gaussian-Matern model (MSE 378 and 411, respectively). The predictive performance of the two candidate models was also evaluated via simulation; the OLS model performs significantly better than the Gaussian-Matern model. (orig.)

  17. Clinical, laboratory, and hemostatic findings in cats with naturally occurring sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klainbart, Sigal; Agi, Limor; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Kelmer, Efrat; Aroch, Itamar

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize clinical and laboratory findings in cats with naturally occurring sepsis, emphasizing hemostasis-related findings, and evaluate these variables for associations with patient outcomes. DESIGN Prospective, observational, clinical study. ANIMALS 31 cats with sepsis and 33 healthy control cats. PROCEDURES Data collected included history; clinical signs; results of hematologic, serum biochemical, and hemostatic tests; diagnosis; and outcome (survival vs death during hospitalization or ≤ 30 days after hospital discharge). Differences between cats with and without sepsis and associations between variables of interest and death were analyzed statistically. RESULTS The sepsis group included cats with pyothorax (n = 10), septic peritonitis (7), panleukopenia virus infection (5), bite wounds (5), abscesses and diffuse cellulitis (3), and pyometra (1). Common clinical abnormalities included dehydration (21 cats), lethargy (21), anorexia (18), pale mucous membranes (15), and dullness (15). Numerous clinicopathologic abnormalities were identified in cats with sepsis; novel findings included metarubricytosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and high circulating muscle enzyme activities. Median activated partial thromboplastin time and plasma D-dimer concentrations were significantly higher, and total protein C and antithrombin activities were significantly lower, in the sepsis group than in healthy control cats. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy was uncommon (4/22 [18%] cats with sepsis). None of the clinicopathologic abnormalities were significantly associated with death on multivariate analysis. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Cats with sepsis had multiple hematologic, biochemical, and hemostatic abnormalities on hospital admission, including several findings suggestive of hemostatic derangement. Additional research including larger numbers of cats is needed to further investigate these findings and explore associations with outcome.

  18. Naturally-occurring forelimb lameness in the horse results in significant compensatory load redistribution during trotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliye, Sylvia; Voute, Lance C; Marshall, John F

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to quantify the compensatory response to naturally-occurring forelimb lameness on load redistribution. Data from lameness investigations using an inertial sensor based system to monitor the response to forelimb diagnostic anaesthesia were reviewed. Horses with primary forelimb lameness were grouped for analysis as (1) all horses combined (n= 28), (2) forelimb-only lameness (n= 8/28), (3) forelimb-contralateral hindlimb lameness (n= 14/28), (4) forelimb-ipsilateral hindlimb lameness (n= 6/28). The effect of diagnostic anaesthesia on measures of head and pelvic movement asymmetry was determined using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. Spearman's correlation analysis was performed between forelimb and hindlimb variables. Statistical significance was set at P< 0.05. Forelimb diagnostic anaesthesia resulted in a decrease in pelvic movement asymmetry among all horses and the forelimb-only and forelimb-contralateral hindlimb lameness groups. Pelvic movement asymmetry associated with the contralateral hindlimb decreased by a median of 38% (interquartile range [IQR] 10-65%), 43% (IQR 28-60%) and 28% (IQR 12-67%) in all horses, forelimb-only and forelimb-contralateral hindlimb groups respectively (P< 0.05). Maximum pelvic height difference (PDMax) significantly decreased in all horses combined and the forelimb-contralateral hindlimb lameness group by a median of 66% (IQR 24-100%) and 78% (IQR 27-100%, P< 0.01), respectively. Change in head movement asymmetry and vector sum was significantly positively correlated with PDMax in all horses combined and the forelimb-contralateral hindlimb group (P< 0.05). Forelimb lameness had a significant effect on hindlimb and pelvic movement in horses with clinical lameness resulting in compensatory load redistribution and decreased push-off from the contralateral hindlimb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Further evidence for GHB naturally occurring in common non-alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Simon P; Fais, Paolo

    2017-08-01

    GHB has been implicated in many cases of suspected surreptitious administration with the purpose of increasing victim vulnerability to sexual assault. Low amounts of endogenous (or naturally occurring) GHB, which do not reach pharmacologically active levels, have been detected in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. Due to the continued requirement to obtain data on the presence of endogenous GHB in various beverage types, GHB concentrations were measured in a series of non-alcoholic beverages. Tonic water and lemon flavoured tonic water beverages were analysed at 0, 24 and 96h after the bottle opening using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) on an Agilent 6890/7000C Triple Quadrupole. GHB was detected in all beverages at very low amounts ranging from 89 to 145ng/mL (0.089-0.145mg/L) and did not demonstrate a general trend of variation for concentration along the tested time span (96h). The presented data provide additional evidence for the endogenous nature of GHB in non-alcoholic beverages at very low concentrations, which are many orders of magnitude lower than those described to produce any pharmacological effect on the subject. However, when considering a case of alleged drug-facilitated sexual assault, a low level of GHB detected in a drink may be related both to a surreptitiously GHB administration with subsequent dilution for concealment or to the presence of endogenous GHB. On this basis, a comprehensive analysis of all the available information, including circumstantial data demonstrating possible attempts to conceal GHB administration and an assessment of levels of endogenous GHB in the suspected beverage type, is of the utmost importance for a proper interpretation of the toxicological results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In vitro rumen fermentation characteristics of some naturally occurring and synthetic sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadek Ahmed

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soluble sugars are thought to play an important role in the fermentation processes of the rumen but their actual fermentation rate has not been fully assessed. Some sugars are also used as markers to assess gut permeability in monogastrics but their use in ruminants can be compromised by the hydrolytic activity of rumen microflora. This study aimed to evaluate the fermentability of some naturally occurring and synthetic soluble sugars. The synthetic soluble sugars were included to verify their possible use as markers for studies of gut permeability in ruminants. In vitro gas and volatile fatty acid (VFA production from glucose, fructose, xylose, galactose, sucrose, lactose, arabinose mannitol, lactulose and sucralose were measured in a 24 h-incubation trial using ruminal fluid from heifers adapted or not-adapted to additional sugars in the diet, and with caecal content as inocula. Gas production from the same sugars was further evaluated in a 72 h-incubation trial with not-adapted rumen fluid only. Gas and VFA production were not affected by feeding additional sugars, but significant effects of inocula (ruminal vs caecal, sugars and their interaction were observed. Caecal inoculum produced less gas but higher VFA than ruminal inocula. Fructose and glucose had the highest rates of gas production (10.57% h-1 and 10.42% h-1, respectively, and lactulose and mannitol the lowest (3.47% h-1 and 4.63% h-1, respectively when fermented with ruminal fluid. Sucralose seemed to have a negative effect on microbial fermentations. Our results indicate that lactulose and mannitol might largely escape rumen fermentation, suggesting their possible use as markers to test gut permeability also in ruminants. This needs to be verified in vivo. 

  1. Why Does Rem Sleep Occur? A Wake-Up Hypothesis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, W. R.

    2011-01-01

    Brain activity differs in the various sleep stages and in conscious wakefulness. Awakening from sleep requires restoration of the complex nerve impulse patterns in neuronal network assemblies necessary to re-create and sustain conscious wakefulness. Herein I propose that the brain uses rapid eye movement (REM) to help wake itself up after it has had a sufficient amount of sleep. Evidence suggesting this hypothesis includes the facts that, (1) when first going to sleep, the brain plunges into Stage N3 (formerly called Stage IV), a deep abyss of sleep, and, as the night progresses, the sleep is punctuated by episodes of REM that become longer and more frequent toward morning, (2) conscious-like dreams are a reliable component of the REM state in which the dreamer is an active mental observer or agent in the dream, (3) the last awakening during a night's sleep usually occurs in a REM episode during or at the end of a dream, (4) both REM and awake consciousness seem to arise out of a similar brainstem ascending arousal system (5) N3 is a functionally perturbed state that eventually must be corrected so that embodied brain can direct adaptive behavior, and (6) cortico-fugal projections to brainstem arousal areas provide a way to trigger increased cortical activity in REM to progressively raise the sleeping brain to the threshold required for wakefulness. This paper shows how the hypothesis conforms to common experience and has substantial predictive and explanatory power regarding the phenomenology of sleep in terms of ontogeny, aging, phylogeny, abnormal/disease states, cognition, and behavioral physiology. That broad range of consistency is not matched by competing theories, which are summarized herein. Specific ways to test this wake-up hypothesis are suggested. Such research could lead to a better understanding of awake consciousness. PMID:21922003

  2. Range expansion potential of two co-occurring invasive vines to marginal habitats in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Shahid; Tad, Sonnur; Onen, Huseyin; Gunal, Hikmet; Caldiran, Ugur; Ozaslan, Cumali

    2017-10-01

    Niche distribution models accurately predict the potential distribution range of invasive plants into new habitats based on their climatic requirements in the native regions. However, these models usually ignore the marginal habitats which can limit the distribution of exotic plants. We therefore tested the seedling survival, growth and nutrient acquisition capabilities of two co-occurring invasive vines [Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross and Sicyos angulatus L.] in three different manipulative greenhouse experiments to infer their range expansion potential to marginal habitats in Turkey. First experiment included five different moisture availability regimes (100, 75, 50, 25 and 12.5% available water), second experiment consisted of four different salinity levels (0, 3, 6 and 12 dSm-1 soil salinity) and third experiment had four different soil textures (clay-1, clay-2, sandy loam and silt-clay-loam). Seedling mortality was only observed under extreme moisture deficiency in both plant species, while most of the transplanted seedlings of both species did not survive under 6 and 12 dSm-1 salinity levels. Soil textures had no effect on seedling survival. POLPE better tolerated low moisture availability and high salinity compared to SIYAN. Biomass production in both plant species was linearly reduced with increasing salinity and moisture deficiency. SIYAN invested more resources towards shoot, accumulated higher K and P, whereas POLPE maintained higher root-to-shoot ratio under all experimental conditions. Both plant species employed different strategies to cope with adverse environmental conditions, but failed to persist under high soil salinity and moisture deficiency. Our study suggest that both plant species have limited potential of range expansion to marginal habitats and will be limited to moist and humid areas only. Therefore, further research activities should be concentrated in these regions to develop effective management strategies against both species.

  3. Adaptation of scanning saccades co-occurs in different coordinate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy-Bencheton, Delphine; Pélisson, Denis; Panouillères, Muriel; Urquizar, Christian; Tilikete, Caroline; Pisella, Laure

    2014-06-15

    Plastic changes of saccades (i.e., following saccadic adaptation) do not transfer between oppositely directed saccades, except when multiple directions are trained simultaneously, suggesting a saccadic planning in retinotopic coordinates. Interestingly, a recent study in human healthy subjects revealed that after an adaptive increase of rightward-scanning saccades, both leftward and rightward double-step, memory-guided saccades, triggered toward the adapted endpoint, were modified, revealing that target location was coded in spatial coordinates (Zimmermann et al. 2011). However, as the computer screen provided a visual frame, one alternative hypothesis could be a coding in allocentric coordinates. Here, we questioned whether adaptive modifications of saccadic planning occur in multiple coordinate systems. We reproduced the paradigm of Zimmermann et al. (2011) using target light-emitting diodes in the dark, with and without a visual frame, and tested different saccades before and after adaptation. With double-step, memory-guided saccades, we reproduced the transfer of adaptation to leftward saccades with the visual frame but not without, suggesting that the coordinate system used for saccade planning, when the frame is visible, is allocentric rather than spatiotopic. With single-step, memory-guided saccades, adaptation transferred to leftward saccades, both with and without the visual frame, revealing a target localization in a coordinate system that is neither retinotopic nor allocentric. Finally, with single-step, visually guided saccades, the classical, unidirectional pattern of amplitude change was reproduced, revealing retinotopic coordinate coding. These experiments indicate that the same procedure of adaptation modifies saccadic planning in multiple coordinate systems in parallel-each of them revealed by the use of different saccade tasks in postadaptation. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  4. An EMT-driven alternative splicing program occurs in human breast cancer and modulates cellular phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina M Shapiro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, a mechanism important for embryonic development, plays a critical role during malignant transformation. While much is known about transcriptional regulation of EMT, alternative splicing of several genes has also been correlated with EMT progression, but the extent of splicing changes and their contributions to the morphological conversion accompanying EMT have not been investigated comprehensively. Using an established cell culture model and RNA-Seq analyses, we determined an alternative splicing signature for EMT. Genes encoding key drivers of EMT-dependent changes in cell phenotype, such as actin cytoskeleton remodeling, regulation of cell-cell junction formation, and regulation of cell migration, were enriched among EMT-associated alternatively splicing events. Our analysis suggested that most EMT-associated alternative splicing events are regulated by one or more members of the RBFOX, MBNL, CELF, hnRNP, or ESRP classes of splicing factors. The EMT alternative splicing signature was confirmed in human breast cancer cell lines, which could be classified into basal and luminal subtypes based exclusively on their EMT-associated splicing pattern. Expression of EMT-associated alternative mRNA transcripts was also observed in primary breast cancer samples, indicating that EMT-dependent splicing changes occur commonly in human tumors. The functional significance of EMT-associated alternative splicing was tested by expression of the epithelial-specific splicing factor ESRP1 or by depletion of RBFOX2 in mesenchymal cells, both of which elicited significant changes in cell morphology and motility towards an epithelial phenotype, suggesting that splicing regulation alone can drive critical aspects of EMT-associated phenotypic changes. The molecular description obtained here may aid in the development of new diagnostic and prognostic markers for analysis of breast cancer progression.

  5. An EMT-driven alternative splicing program occurs in human breast cancer and modulates cellular phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Irina M; Cheng, Albert W; Flytzanis, Nicholas C; Balsamo, Michele; Condeelis, John S; Oktay, Maja H; Burge, Christopher B; Gertler, Frank B

    2011-08-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a mechanism important for embryonic development, plays a critical role during malignant transformation. While much is known about transcriptional regulation of EMT, alternative splicing of several genes has also been correlated with EMT progression, but the extent of splicing changes and their contributions to the morphological conversion accompanying EMT have not been investigated comprehensively. Using an established cell culture model and RNA-Seq analyses, we determined an alternative splicing signature for EMT. Genes encoding key drivers of EMT-dependent changes in cell phenotype, such as actin cytoskeleton remodeling, regulation of cell-cell junction formation, and regulation of cell migration, were enriched among EMT-associated alternatively splicing events. Our analysis suggested that most EMT-associated alternative splicing events are regulated by one or more members of the RBFOX, MBNL, CELF, hnRNP, or ESRP classes of splicing factors. The EMT alternative splicing signature was confirmed in human breast cancer cell lines, which could be classified into basal and luminal subtypes based exclusively on their EMT-associated splicing pattern. Expression of EMT-associated alternative mRNA transcripts was also observed in primary breast cancer samples, indicating that EMT-dependent splicing changes occur commonly in human tumors. The functional significance of EMT-associated alternative splicing was tested by expression of the epithelial-specific splicing factor ESRP1 or by depletion of RBFOX2 in mesenchymal cells, both of which elicited significant changes in cell morphology and motility towards an epithelial phenotype, suggesting that splicing regulation alone can drive critical aspects of EMT-associated phenotypic changes. The molecular description obtained here may aid in the development of new diagnostic and prognostic markers for analysis of breast cancer progression.

  6. Consequences of Co-Occurring Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder on Children's Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Sean M.; Ash, Andrea C.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and communication disorders represent a frequently encountered challenge for school-based practitioners. The purpose of the present study was to examine in more detail the clinical phenomenology of co-occurring ADHD and language impairments (LIs). Method: Measures of nonword…

  7. Segregation of naturally occurring mitochondrial DNA variants in a mini-pig model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within cells and tissues, the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is present in multimeric form and can harbour naturally occurring variants. Whilst high variant load can cause mitochondrial disease, naturally occurring mtDNA variants likely persist at low levels across generations of ...

  8. The effect of the sea on hazard assessment for tephra fallout at Campi Flegrei: a preliminary approach through the use of pyPHaz, an open tool to analyze and visualize probabilistic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, Roberto; Sandri, Laura; Costa, Antonio; Selva, Jacopo

    2014-05-01

    Campi Flegrei (CF) is a large volcanic field located west of the Gulf of Naples, characterized by a wide and almost circular caldera which is partially submerged beneath the Gulf of Pozzuoli. It is known that the magma-water interaction is a key element to determine the character of submarine eruptions and their impact on the surrounding areas, but this phenomenon is still not well understood and it is rarely considered in hazard assessment. The aim of the present work is to present a preliminary study of the effect of the sea on the tephra fall hazard from CF on the municipality of Naples, by introducing a variability in the probability of tephra production according to the eruptive scale (defined on the basis of the erupted volume) and the depth of the opening submerged vents. Four different Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) models have been defined through the application of the model BET_VH at CF, by accounting for different modeling procedures and assumptions for the submerged part of the caldera. In particular, we take into account: 1) the effect of the sea as null, i.e. as if the water were not present; 2) the effect of the sea as a cap that totally blocks the explosivity of eruptions and consequently the tephra production; 3) an ensemble model between the two models described at the previous points 1) and 2); 4) a variable probability of tephra production depending on the depth of the submerged vent. The PVHA models are then input to pyPHaz, a tool developed and designed at INGV to visualize, analyze and merge into ensemble models PVHA's results and, potentially, any other kind of probabilistic hazard assessment, both natural and anthropic, in order to evaluate the importance of considering a variability among subaerial and submerged vents on tephra fallout hazard from CF in Naples. The analysis is preliminary and does not pretend to be exhaustive, but on one hand it represents a starting point for future works; on the other hand, it is a good

  9. Ham test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  10. Coombs test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  11. Trichomonas Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Genetic Tests for Targeted Cancer Therapy Glucose Tests Gonorrhea Testing Gram Stain Growth Hormone Haptoglobin hCG Pregnancy ... With some NAATs, samples collected for testing of gonorrhea and chlamydial infections can also be used to ...

  12. Urodynamic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Urinary Tract Imaging Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Urodynamic Testing What is the urinary tract? The urinary tract ... view of the urinary tract What is urodynamic testing? Urodynamic testing is any procedure that looks at ...

  13. Mono Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Mononucleosis (Mono) Test Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic ... Questions Related Content View Sources Also Known As Mononucleosis Spot Test Mononuclear Heterophile Test Heterophile Antibody Test ...

  14. Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0374 TITLE: Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zohreh...SUBTITLE Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...project is to better understand the relationship between autism and obesity. It is not clear if obesity is co-occurring with autism or is related to

  15. Transverse colon cancer occurring at a colostomy site 35 years after colostomy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Maeda, Chiyo; Hidaka, Eiji; Shimada, Mari; Shimada, Shoji; Nakahara, Kenta; Takayanagi, Daisuke; Takehara, Yusuke; Mukai, Shumpei; Sawada, Naruhiko; Ishida, Fumio; Kudo, Shin-Ei

    2015-01-01

    Background Carcinomas occurring at colostomy sites are rare, and most of these are metachronous colorectal cancers. The median time between colostomy and development of a carcinoma at a colostomy site is 22 years, which exceeds the length of the recommended follow-up period. We report a rare case of a carcinoma of the transverse colon occurring at a colostomy site in a patient without a history of colorectal cancer. Case report An 89-year-old woman presented with a tumor occurring at a colost...

  16. From Alamogordo to the Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Michael

    2008-04-01

    After W.W.II., the U.S. continued its program for the development of nuclear weapons. Winds carried radioactive debris far beyond the Nevada test site, and these fission products were deposited by rain, to enter the human food chain. The isotopes of greatest concern were Sr90 and I131, that, after ingestion, become concentrated in bone and thyroid respectively. There was a growing public anxiety about possible heath hazards posed by radiation from this fallout. In March 1958, the Greater St. Louis Citizens' Committee for Nuclear Information (C.N.I.) was formed. Among the leaders of C.N.I. were E. U. Condon and Barry Commoner. The aim of C.N.I. was ``to collect and distribute in the widest possible manner information which the public requires to understand the present and future problems which arise from potential large-scale use of nuclear weapons in war; testing of nuclear weapons; and nonmilitary uses of nuclear energy.'' In accordance with its objectives, members of C.N.I. gave many nontechnical talks, where we described the various forms of radiation and what was then known about the biological effects of radiation. Some of our members testified at Congressional committee hearings. We published a newsletter, initially titled Nuclear Information, and later Scientist and Citizen. In this presentation, I will describe some of the activities of this idealistic organization.

  17. From phenotypic to molecular polymorphisms involved in naturally occurring variation for plant development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso-Blanco, C.; Mendez-Vigo, B.; Koornneef, M.

    2005-01-01

    An enormous amount of naturally occurring genetic variation affecting development is found within wild and domesticated plant species. This diversity is presumably involved in plant adaptation to different natural environments or in human preferences. In addition, such intraspecific variation

  18. DECIPHERING NATURALLY-OCCURRING PB CONTAMINATION IMPACTING DRINKING WATER WELLS: SHAKER VILLAGE CATCHMENT, MAINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace Pb concentrations in groundwater within glacial deposits across Maine fluctuate considerably. Deciphering the distribution and sources of naturally occurring Pb in groundwater with only the use of conventional anomaly identification techniques presents a challenge. In a rep...

  19. Ion-transport Activity of Phenylpentanoic Acids Occurring in the Roots of Athyrium yokoscense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, Y; Kurokawa, M; Guo, J R; Suga, T

    1999-01-01

    5-(3'-Hydroxyphenyl)pentanoic acid (1) and 5-(3'-methoxyphenyl)pentanoic acid (2) occurring in the roots of Athyrium yokoscense showed transport activity to alkaline and alkaline earth metal ions and heavy divalent metal ions.

  20. Epiphyseal Fracture of the Coracoid Process Occurring at the Conjoined Tendon Origin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakama, Kenjiro; Gotoh, Masafumi; Mitsui, Yasuhiro; Okawa, Takahiro; Higuchi, Fujio; Nagata, Kensei

    2011-01-01

    ... (Ada and Miller 1991, Benton and Nelson 1971, Eyres et al. 1995). We present a case in which epiphyseal fracture occurred at the origin of the conjoined tendon following excessive muscle contraction...

  1. APPLICATION OF THE NATURALLY-OCCURRING DEUTERIUM ISOTOPE TO TRACING THE CAPILLARY FRINGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturally-occurring deuterium is a useful tracer of subsurface hydrologic processes. A possible application includes the identification of capillary fringes in the vadose zone. Multiple and discontinuous water tables persist in many temperate regions, under various hydrogeologi...

  2. 30 CFR 254.46 - Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? 254.46... Outer Continental Shelf Facilities § 254.46 Whom do I notify if an oil spill occurs? (a) You must immediately notify the National Response Center (1-800-424-8802) if you observe: (1) An oil spill from your...

  3. Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) in the Oil and Gas Industry: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyi, Israel; Essumang, David Kofi; Dampare, Samuel; Glover, Eric Tetteh

    Radiation is part of the natural environment: it is estimated that approximately 80 % of all human exposure comes from naturally occurring or background radiation. Certain extractive industries such as mining and oil logging have the potential to increase the risk of radiation exposure to the environment and humans by concentrating the quantities of naturally occurring radiation beyond normal background levels (Azeri-Chirag-Gunashli 2004).

  4. Childhood vision impairment, hearing loss and co-occurring autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kancherla, Vijaya; Van Naarden Braun, Kim; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2013-10-01

    Limited population-based data on prevalence of childhood vision impairment (VI) and hearing loss (HL), and their co-occurrence with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exists. To examine prevalence and characteristics of VI, HL and co-occurring ASD among 8-year-olds in metropolitan Atlanta 2000-2008. We used data from the population-based Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Surveillance Program. Prevalence, birth and parental characteristics, presence and severity of other co-occurring developmental disabilities, and age of earliest identification of ASD, were examined for children with VI and HL, by co-occurring ASD. VI and HL prevalences were 1.2 and 1.3 per 1000 8-year-olds, respectively. Approximately 6-7% of children with VI or HL had co-occurring ASD. Children with VI or HL with co-occurring ASD differed from those without co-occurring ASD by select birth characteristics and the presence of other co-occurring DDs. The median age of earliest known ASD diagnosis was significantly later among children with VI and ASD compared to children with ASD without VI (79 vs. 56 months). Children with HL and ASD were first evaluated by a community provider significantly earlier than those with ASD without HL (40 vs. 50 months). The frequency of co-occurring ASD with VI and HL is higher than the population prevalence of ASD. The significant delays in diagnosis of ASD in children with VI and lack of earlier diagnosis of ASD among children with HL despite earlier evaluation highlight the importance of developing screening tools for early identification of ASD among children with VI and HL. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Detection of Naturally Occurring Gear and Bearing Faults in a Helicopter Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Detection of Naturally Occurring Gear and Bearing Faults in a Helicopter Drivetrain by Kelsen E. LaBerge, Eric C. Ames, and Brian D. Dykas...5066 ARL-TR-6795 January 2014 Detection of Naturally Occurring Gear and Bearing Faults in a Helicopter Drivetrain Kelsen E. LaBerge...ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Kelsen E. LaBerge, Eric C. Ames, and Brian D. Dykas 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER

  6. Epiphyseal Fracture of the Coracoid Process Occurring at the Conjoined Tendon Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenjiro Nakama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fracture of the coracoid process is uncommon, and most previous studies have reported this fracture occurring in association with direct trauma to the shoulder or transmission of force from the upper arm or elbow (Ada and Miller 1991, Benton and Nelson 1971, Eyres et al. 1995. We present a case in which epiphyseal fracture occurred at the origin of the conjoined tendon following excessive muscle contraction. We believe this represents the first description of such a method of injury.

  7. Linking express saccade occurance to stimulus properties and sensorimotor integration in the superior colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ron; Munoz, Douglas P.

    2015-01-01

    unaffected. A linear combination model was used to test which SC signals best predicted the likelihood of producing an express saccade. In addition to visual response magnitude and previsual activity of saccade neurons, the model identified presaccadic activity (activity occurring during the 30-ms epoch immediately before saccade initiation) as a third important signal for predicting express saccades. We conclude that express saccades can be predicted by visual, previsual, and presaccadic signals recorded from visuomotor neurons in the intermediate layers of the SC. PMID:26063770

  8. Wave Reflection Model Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Larsen, Brian Juul

    The investigation concerns the design of a new internal breakwater in the main port of Ibiza. The objective of the model tests was in the first hand to optimize the cross section to make the wave reflection low enough to ensure that unacceptable wave agitation will not occur in the port. Secondly...... wave overtopping was studied as well....

  9. THE TRANSFORMATIONAL PROCESSES INVOLVING MOTOR SKILLS THAT OCCUR UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF BASIC PRELIMINARY TRAINING IN YOUNG HANDBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovic Sasa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The population from which we extracted a sample of 76 subjects consisted of elementary school students in Kursumlija, all male, aged 12-13, who were divided into a sub-sample consisting of 38 young handball players who took part in the training sessions of a school of handball and another sub-sample consisting of 38 non-athletes, who only took part in their regular physical education classes. The aim of the research was to determine the transformation processes involving motor skills, which occur under the influence of basic preliminary training in young handball players. The subject matter of the study was to examine whether a statistically significant increase in the level of motor skills would occur under the influence of physical exercise as part of basic preliminary training in the final as compared to the initial state. Six motor tests which define the dimensions of explosive and repetitive strength were used. The results of the research indicate that significant transformational processes involving the motor skills of young handball players occurred in the final as compared to the initial measuring, under the influence of basic preliminary training.

  10. Inhibition and kinetic studies of cellulose and hemicellulose degrading enzymes of Ganoderma boninense by naturally occurring phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surendran, Arthy; Siddiqui, Yasmeen; Ali, Nusaibah Syd; Manickam, Sivakumar

    2018-02-05

    Ganoderma sp, the causal pathogen of the basal stem rot (BSR) disease of oil palm, secrets extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. Which play an important role in the pathogenesis of BSR by nourishing the pathogen through the digestion of cellulose and hemicellulose of the host tissue. Active suppression of hydrolytic enzymes secreted by G.boninense by various naturally occurring phenolic compounds and estimation of their efficacy on pathogen suppression is focused in this study. Ten naturally occurring phenolic compounds were assessed for their inhibitory effect on the hydrolytic enzymes of G. boninense. The enzyme kinetics (Vmax and Km ) and the stability of the hydrolytic enzymes were also characterised. The selected compounds had shown inhibitory effect at various concentrations. Two types of inhibitions namely, uncompetitive and noncompetitive were observed in the presence of phenolic compounds. Amongst all the phenolic compounds tested, benzoic acid was the most effective compound suppressive to the growth and production of hydrolytic enzymes secreted by G.boninsense. The phenolic compounds as inhibitory agents can be a better replacement for the metal ions which are known as conventional inhibitors till date. The three hydrolytic enzymes were stable in a wide range of pH and temperature. These findings highlight the efficacy of the applications of phenolic compounds to control Ganoderma. The study has proved a replacement for chemical controls of G.boninses with naturally occurring phenolic compounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-Platelet Factor 4/Heparin Antibody Formation Occurs Endogenously and at Unexpected High Frequency in Polycythemia Vera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara C. Meyer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN encounter thromboses due to multiple known risk factors. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT is a thrombotic syndrome mediated by anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4/heparin antibodies with undetermined significance for thrombosis in MPN. We hypothesized that anti-PF4/heparin Ab might occur in MPN and promote thrombosis. Methods. Anti-PF4/heparin antibodies were analyzed in 127 MPN patients including 76 PV and 51 ET. Screening, validation testing, and isotype testing of anti-PF4/heparin Ab were correlated with disease characteristics. Results. Anti-PF4/heparin antibodies were detected in 21% of PV and 12% of ET versus 0.3–3% in heparin-exposed patients. Validation testing confirmed anti-PF4/heparin immunoglobulins in 15% of PV and 10% of ET. Isotype testing detected 9.2% IgG and 5.3% IgM in PV and exclusively IgM in ET. IgG-positive PV patients encountered thromboses in 57.1% suggesting anti-PF4/heparin IgG may contribute to higher risk for thrombosis in MPN. Overall, 45% of PV patients experienced thromboses with 11.8% positive for anti-PF4/heparin IgG versus 7.1% in PV without thrombosis. Conclusion. Anti-PF4/heparin antibodies occur endogenously and more frequently in MPN than upon heparin exposure. Thrombotic risk increases in anti-PF4/heparin IgG-positive PV reflecting potential implications and calling for larger, confirmatory cohorts. Anti-PF4/heparin IgG should be assessed upon thrombosis in PV to facilitate avoidance of heparin in anti-PF4/heparin IgG-positive PV.

  12. Demographics and co-occurring conditions in a clinic-based cohort with Down syndrome in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corder, Jennifer Price; Al Ahbabi, Fatima Jaber Sehmi; Al Dhaheri, Hind Saif; Chedid, Fares

    2017-09-01

    The majority of studies describing demographics and co-occurring conditions in cohorts with Down syndrome come from regions outside of the Middle East, mainly from Europe and North America. This paper describes demographics and co-occurring conditions in a hospital-based cohort of individuals with Down syndrome living in the Middle Eastern country of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The first dedicated Down syndrome clinic in the UAE was established in 2012 at Tawam Hospital in Al Ain. This paper describes a clinic-based cohort of 221 participants over 4 years from the Gulf Down Syndrome Registry, a new Down syndrome database and contact registry created at Tawam Hospital. Key demographic findings include mean maternal age of 37 years, among the highest described in the literature. Sixty-two percent of mothers are >35 years. Over 90% of mothers received post-natal diagnosis of Down syndrome. High sex ratio, parental consanguinity, and large family size also characterize the group. The spectrum of many co-occurring conditions mirrors that of previously described populations, with some notable differences. Cardiovascular malformations are well represented, however, atrioventricular canal is not the most common. Genitourinary conditions are common, as evidenced by 12% of males with hypospadias and 15% with undescended testes. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, alpha thalassemia trait, hypovitaminosis D, and dental caries are common in our cohort. This study describes a large hospital-based group with Down syndrome presenting to a new dedicated Down syndrome clinic in the UAE, highlighting unique demographic and co-occurring conditions found in that population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Seed trait-mediated selection by rodents affects mutualistic interactions and seedling recruitment of co-occurring tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmao; Yan, Chuan; Chang, Gang; Zhang, Zhibin

    2016-02-01

    As mutualists, seed dispersers may significantly affect mutualistic interactions and seedling recruitment of sympatric plants that share similar seed dispersers, but studies are rare. Here, we compared seed dispersal fitness in two co-occurring plant species (Armeniaca sibirica and Amygdalus davidiana) that inhabit warm temperate deciduous forest in northern China. We tested the hypothesis that seed trait-mediated selection by rodents may influence mutualistic interactions with rodents and then seedling establishment of co-occurring plant species. A. davidiana seeds are larger and harder (thick endocarps) than A. sibirica seeds, but they have similar levels of nutrients (crude fat, crude protein), caloric value and tannin. More A. sibirica seedlings are found in the field. Semi-natural enclosure tests indicated that the two seed species were both harvested by the same six rodent species, but that A. sibirica had mutualistic interactions (scatter hoarding) with four rodent species (Apodemus peninsulae, A. agrarius, Sciurotamias davidianus, Tamias sibiricus), and A. davidiana with only one (S. davidianus). Tagged seed dispersal experiments in the field indicated that more A. sibirica seeds were scatter-hoarded by rodents, and more A. sibirica seeds survived to the next spring and became seedlings. A. sibirica seeds derive more benefit from seed dispersal by rodents than A. davidiana seeds, particularly in years with limited seed dispersers, which well explained the higher seedling recruitment of A. sibirica compared with that of A. davidiana under natural conditions. Our results suggest that seed dispersers may play a significant role in seedling recruitment and indirect competition between co-occurring plant species.

  14. Temperature buffer test. Dismantling operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden)

    2010-12-15

    function control; and through documentation of the operation through photography. Significant fallout of material from the bentonite rings in the upper package took place soon after the retrieval test. This appears to be a consequence of the removal of the sand shield which implied a radial unloading of the blocks. Traces of another mechanical event were found on the top surface of Ring 12 and the bottom surface of Cylinder 3. Together with results from levelling, these traces suggest that the Ring 12 was pressed against and sheared the outer parts of the Cylinder 3. Finally it can be noted that it was fairly easy to separate large pieces of bentonite from the block surface underneath. The joints between the different blocks therefore only displayed a marginal attachment, even though some of the bentonite blocks were fully water saturated.

  15. Fungal Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prep Fungal Smear, Culture, Antigen and Antibody Tests Mycology Tests Fungal Molecular Tests Potassium Hydroxide Preparation Calcofluor ... February 7, Modified). Calcofluor White with 10% KOH. Mycology Online [On-line information]. Available online at http:// ...

  16. Laboratory Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... age and race What you eat and drink Medicines you take How well you followed pre-test instructions Your doctor may also compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  17. Malnutrition Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LDL-P) Lead Legionella Testing Leptin Levetiracetam Lipase Lipid Profile Lipoprotein (a) Lithium Liver Panel Lp-PLA2 Lupus ... Site Tests: Albumin , CBC , CMP , Electrolytes , Iron Tests , Lipid Profile , Urinalysis , Prealbumin , Vitamin D , Vitamin B12 and Folate , ...

  18. Genetic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is responding to gluten. Unlike antibody testing, the HLA gene testing for celiac disease measures the presence or ... found on the surface of some cells. The HLA gene test for celiac disease can be performed at ...

  19. Genomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Counseling Genomic Testing Pathogen Genomics Epidemiology Resources Genomic Testing Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Fact Sheet: ... Page The Need for Reliable Information on Genetic Testing In 2008, the former Secretary’s Advisory Committee on ...

  20. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani