WorldWideScience

Sample records for test detection ensuring

  1. Ensuring US National Aeronautics Test Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Timothy J.

    2010-01-01

    process; and the reductions in wind tunnel testing requirements within the largest consumer of ATP wind tunnel test time, the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). Retirement of the Space Shuttle Program and recent perturbations of NASA's Constellation Program will exacerbate this downward trend. Therefore it is crucial that ATP periodically revisit and determine which of its test capabilities are strategically important, which qualify as low-risk redundancies that could be put in an inactive status or closed, and address the challenges associated with both sustainment and improvements to the test capabilities that must remain active. This presentation will provide an overview of the ATP vision, mission, and goals as well as the challenges and opportunities the program is facing both today and in the future. We will discuss the strategy ATP is taking over the next five years to address the National aeronautics test capability challenges and what the program will do to capitalize on its opportunities to ensure a ready, robust and relevant portfolio of National aeronautics test capabilities.

  2. Detection of alloimmunization to ensure safer transfusion practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sood

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Serological safety is an integral part of overall safety for blood banks. Emphasis is on the use of routinue Red Blood Cell (RBC antibody screen test, at set time intervals, to reduce risks related to alloantibodies. Also emphasis is on importance of issuing antigen negative blood to alloantibody positive patients. Effect of using leucodepleted blood on the rate of alloimmunization is highlighted. The concept of provision of phenotypically matched blood is suggested. Materials and Methods: Antibody screen test is important to select appropriate blood for transfusion. Repeat antibody screen testing, except if time interval between the earlier and subsequent transfusion was less than 72 hours, followed by antibody identification, if required, was performed in patients being treated with repeat multiple blood transfusions. Between February 2008 and June 2009, repeat samples of 306 multi-transfused patients were analyzed. Search for irregular antibodies and reading of results was conducted using RBC panels (three-cell panel of Column Agglutination Technology (CAT and two cell panel of the Solid Phase Red Cell Adherence Technology (SPRCAT. Specificities of antibodies were investigated using appropriate panels, 11 cell panel of CAT and 16 cell panel of SPRCA. These technologies, detecting agglutination in columns and reactions in solid phase, evaluate the attachment of irregular incomplete antibody to antigen in the first phase of immunological reaction more directly and hence improve the reading of agglutination. Three to four log leuco reduced red blood cells were transfused to patients in the study using blood collection bags with integral filters. Results: Alloimmunization rate of 4.24% was detected from 306 multiply transfused patients tested and followed up. The Transfusion therapy may become significantly complicated. Conclusion: Red cell antibody screening and identification and subsequent issue of antigen negative blood have a

  3. The role of laboratory in ensuring appropriate test requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Simona; Panteghini, Mauro

    2017-07-01

    This review highlights the role of laboratory professionals and the strategies to be promoted in strict cooperation with clinicians for auditing, monitoring and improving the appropriateness of test request. The introduction of local pathways and care maps in agreement with international and national guidelines as well as the implementation of reflex testing and algorithms have a central role in guiding test request and in correcting the overuse/misuse of tests. Furthermore, removing obsolete tests from laboratory menu and vetting of restricted tests is recommended to increase cost-effectiveness. This saves costs and permits to introduce new biomarkers with increased diagnostic accuracy with a better impact on patient outcome. An additional issue is concerning the periodicity of (re)testing, accounting that only a minority of tests may be ordered as often as necessary. In the majority of cases, a minimum retesting interval should be introduced. The availability of effective computerised order entry systems is relevant in ensuring appropriate test requests and in providing an aid by automated rules that may stop inappropriate requests before they reach the laboratory. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Testing laboratories, its function in ensuring industrial safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez Fernandez, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses and justifies the development of industrial laboratories (testing and calibration) in Spain, since its embryo, its creation and development, to the present day. Likewise, presents its interrelation with other agents, as well as the legislative and technical framework is application along to the years. Within this development of the sector, highlights the period of the conformity assessment, and consequently its relationship with Industrial safety. Finally, describes the organizational situation of the sector both nationally and internationally. (Author)

  5. Spatial regression test for ensuring temperature data quality in southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, J.; Gavilán, P.; García-Marín, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    Quality assurance of meteorological data is crucial for ensuring the reliability of applications and models that use such data as input variables, especially in the field of environmental sciences. Spatial validation of meteorological data is based on the application of quality control procedures using data from neighbouring stations to assess the validity of data from a candidate station (the station of interest). These kinds of tests, which are referred to in the literature as spatial consistency tests, take data from neighbouring stations in order to estimate the corresponding measurement at the candidate station. These estimations can be made by weighting values according to the distance between the stations or to the coefficient of correlation, among other methods. The test applied in this study relies on statistical decision-making and uses a weighting based on the standard error of the estimate. This paper summarizes the results of the application of this test to maximum, minimum and mean temperature data from the Agroclimatic Information Network of Andalusia (southern Spain). This quality control procedure includes a decision based on a factor f, the fraction of potential outliers for each station across the region. Using GIS techniques, the geographic distribution of the errors detected has been also analysed. Finally, the performance of the test was assessed by evaluating its effectiveness in detecting known errors.

  6. Tools to Ensure Safe Medicines: New Monograph Tests in USP-NF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Sheehan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes USP-NF compendial updates to six ‘high-priority” excipient monographs: Glycerin, Propylene Glycol, Sorbitol Solution, Sorbitol Sorbitan Solution, Noncrystallizing Sorbitol Solution and Maltitol Solution. The USP-NF revisions arose from the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s requests to include, as part of each monograph’s Identification test, a limit test to detect the presence of Diethylene Glycol (DEG, a toxic adulterant. These revisions align with the 2007 FDA Guidance for Industry: Testing of Glycerin for Diethylene Glycol (1, that drug product manufacturers perform a specific identity test for DEG on all containers of all lots of glycerin before glycerin is used in the manufacture and preparation of drug products. This paper describes several risk factors due to a complex global excipient supply chain, nonspecific specifications, inadequate supply chain qualification, and poor understanding of regulations. Strengthening and conformance to compendial specifications is one of the tools necessary to mitigate risk and help prevent the next DEG adulteration that is part of USP’s efforts to ensure safe medicines.

  7. Standard Practice for Ensuring Test Consistency in Neutron-Induced Displacement Damage of Electronic Parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice sets forth requirements to ensure consistency in neutron-induced displacement damage testing of silicon and gallium arsenide electronic piece parts. This requires controls on facility, dosimetry, tester, and communications processes that affect the accuracy and reproducibility of these tests. It provides background information on the technical basis for the requirements and additional recommendations on neutron testing. In addition to neutrons, reactors are used to provide gamma-ray pulses of intensities and durations that are not achievable elsewhere. This practice also provides background information and recommendations on gamma-ray testing of electronics using nuclear reactors. 1.2 Methods are presented for ensuring and validating consistency in neutron displacement damage testing of electronic parts such as integrated circuits, transistors, and diodes. The issues identified and the controls set forth in this practice address the characterization and suitability of the radiation environm...

  8. Use of animals for toxicology testing is necessary to ensure patient safety in pharmaceutical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangipudy, Raja; Burkhardt, John; Kadambi, Vivek J

    2014-11-01

    There is an active debate in toxicology literature about the utility of animal testing vis-a-vis alternative in vitro paradigms. To provide a balanced perspective and add to this discourse it is important to review the current paradigms, explore pros and cons of alternatives, and provide a vision for the future. The fundamental goal of toxicity testing is to ensure safety in humans. In this article, IQ Consortium DruSafe, while submitting the view that nonclinical testing in animals is an important and critical component of the risk assessment paradigm in developing new drugs, also discusses its views on alternative approaches including a roadmap for what would be required to enhance the utilization of alternative approaches in the safety assessment process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Measures ensuring safety of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    JAERI has conducted research and development of an HTGR type reactor since 1969 under the project of the multi-purpose high-temperate gas-cooled experimental reactor, whose design was changed to the HTTR in 1985. The reactor license was granted by the Government in 1990 and the construction started next year. Various functions and performances have been tested since 1996 and the initial criticality achieved in 1998. This document consists of six chapters, describing safety matters examined in several development phases. The first chapter deals with succession of the multi-purpose experimental reactor technology and its exchange between JAERI and domestic industries. Chapter 2 reviews new technical findings after the licensing which were reflected to the current safety assessment. These technical items are given in the table form of extensive pages. Chapter 3 and 4 describe the performance tests and the criticality access, respectively. Chapter 5 and 6 deal with the detection of fuel failures and helium gas leaks, respectively. (H.Y.)

  10. Ensuring production-worthy OPC recipes using large test structure arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cork, Christopher; Zimmermann, Rainer; Mei, Xin; Shahin, Alexander

    2007-03-01

    The continual shrinking of design rules as the industry follows Moore's Law and the associated need for low k1 processes, have resulted in more layout configurations becoming difficult to print within the required tolerances. OPC recipes have needed to become more complex as tolerances decreased and acceptable corrections harder to find with simple algorithms. With this complexity comes the possibility of coding errors and ensuring the solutions are truly general. OPC Verification tools can check the quality of a correction based on pre-determined specifications for CD variation, line-end pullback and Edge Placement Error and then highlight layout configuration where violations are found. The problem facing a Mask Tape-Out group is that they usually have little control over the Design Styles coming in. Different approaches to eliminating problematic layouts have included highly restrictive Design Rules [1], whereby certain pitches or orientations are disallowed. Now these design rules are either becoming too complex or they overly restrict the designer from benefiting from the reduced pitch of the new node. The tight link between Design and Mask Tape-Out found in Integrated Device Manufacturers [2] (IDMs) i.e. companies that control both design and manufacturing can do much to dictate manufacturing friendly layout styles, and push ownership of problem resolution back to design groups. In fact this has been perceived as such an issue that a new class of products for designers that perform Lithographic Compliance Check on design layout is an emerging technology [3]. In contrast to IDMs, Semiconductor Foundries are presented with a much larger variety of design styles and a set of Fabless customers who generally are less knowledgeable in terms of understanding the impact of their layout on manufacturability and how to correct issues. The robustness requirements of a foundry's OPC correction recipe, therefore needs to be greater than that for an IDM's tape-out group

  11. Improved ASTM G72 Test Method for Ensuring Adequate Fuel-to-Oxidizer Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Alfredo; Harper, Susana Tapia

    2016-01-01

    The ASTM G72/G72M-15 Standard Test Method for Autogenous Ignition Temperature of Liquids and Solids in a High-Pressure Oxygen-Enriched Environment is currently used to evaluate materials for the ignition susceptibility driven by exposure to external heat in an enriched oxygen environment. Testing performed on highly volatile liquids such as cleaning solvents has proven problematic due to inconsistent test results (non-ignitions). Non-ignition results can be misinterpreted as favorable oxygen compatibility, although they are more likely associated with inadequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios. Forced evaporation during purging and inadequate sample size were identified as two potential causes for inadequate available sample material during testing. In an effort to maintain adequate fuel-to-oxidizer ratios within the reaction vessel during test, several parameters were considered, including sample size, pretest sample chilling, pretest purging, and test pressure. Tests on a variety of solvents exhibiting a range of volatilities are presented in this paper. A proposed improvement to the standard test protocol as a result of this evaluation is also presented. Execution of the final proposed improved test protocol outlines an incremental step method of determining optimal conditions using increased sample sizes while considering test system safety limits. The proposed improved test method increases confidence in results obtained by utilizing the ASTM G72 autogenous ignition temperature test method and can aid in the oxygen compatibility assessment of highly volatile liquids and other conditions that may lead to false non-ignition results.

  12. Algorithm implementation and testing to ensure consistency of Gauss's law in OSIRIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kyle; Elias, Paul; Fonseca, Ricardo; Winjum, Benjamin; Tsung, Frank; Decyk, Viktor; Mori, Warren

    2017-10-01

    Electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations compute the trajectories of particles as they interact via fields calculated by numerically solving Maxwell's equations on a grid using currents (and charge densities) from the particles. Within PICKSC, UCLA maintains a variety of open-source and open-access codes. These include OSIRIS-developed in partnership with IST-and UPIC-EMMA. Standard OSIRIS uses a rigorous charge-conserving current deposit to ensure the consistency of Gauss's law together with a finite-difference (FD) solution to Maxwell's equations. It also contains options for spectral (FFT) and hybrid (FFT and FD) field solvers, as well as a customized, higher-order FD field solver to help mitigate the numerical Cerenkov instability. The standard charge conserving current deposit is only valid for second-order accurate FD solvers. Another option for maintaining the consistency of Gauss's law is the Boris correction, where a ``direct'' current deposit is used and the electric field is corrected through the use of a Poisson solve. The Boris correction-with both exact and iterative multigrid Poisson solves-has been implemented into OSIRIS. Preliminary analyses of timing and fluctuations levels will be presented, including the effects of different particle orders. Work supported by NSF and DOE.

  13. Testing Chemical Safety: What Is Needed to Ensure the Widespread Application of Non-animal Approaches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Burden

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientists face growing pressure to move away from using traditional animal toxicity tests to determine whether manufactured chemicals are safe. Numerous ethical, scientific, business, and legislative incentives will help to drive this shift. However, a number of hurdles must be overcome in the coming years before non-animal methods are adopted into widespread practice, particularly from regulatory, scientific, and global perspectives. Several initiatives are nevertheless underway that promise to increase the confidence in newer alternative methods, which will support the move towards a future in which less data from animal tests is required in the assessment of chemical safety.

  14. Standards for Radiation Effects Testing: Ensuring Scientific Rigor in the Face of Budget Realities and Modern Device Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, J M.

    2015-01-01

    An overview is presented of the space radiation environment and its effects on electrical, electronic, and electromechanical parts. Relevant test standards and guidelines are listed. Test standards and guidelines are necessary to ensure best practices, minimize and bound systematic and random errors, and to ensure comparable results from different testers and vendors. Test standards are by their nature static but exist in a dynamic environment of advancing technology and radiation effects research. New technologies, failure mechanisms, and advancement in our understanding of known failure mechanisms drive the revision or development of test standards. Changes to standards must be weighed against their impact on cost and existing part qualifications. There must be consensus on new best practices. The complexity of some new technologies exceeds the scope of existing test standards and may require development of a guideline specific to the technology. Examples are given to illuminate the value and limitations of key radiation test standards as well as the challenges in keeping these standards up to date.

  15. Ensuring the Quality of Point-of-Care Testing in a Large and Decentralized Ambulatory Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda, Valerie A; Garner, Omai B

    2017-10-01

    In this project, we assessed the breadth, quality, trends, and outcomes of point-of-care (POC) testing and regulatory compliance in 200 University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) Health system outpatient clinics. We retrospectively extracted clinic POC test orders, results, and e-prescription data from the UCLA electronic health record over a 1-year period. Over 100,000 total tests were performed, encompassing 10 POC tests. Initially, 40% of clinics did not have complete licensure, but after implementation of the POC team, this metric improved to 100% licensure within 6 months. Most clinics used two or fewer POC tests, resulted fewer than 200 tests per year, and performed little to no external quality control measures. Our data analytics approach showed that peak POC testing occurred in January 2015, driven by influenza and urinalysis testing, and that both the testing and resulting clinical decision making do not routinely follow society guidelines. This decentralization of laboratory testing presents challenges to ensuring quality POC testing. Optimization and analysis of informatics data allow for the identification of POC test utilization trends, areas of improvement for clinical workflows, and increased education on national guidelines. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  16. Selection of tests for outlier detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossers, H.C.M.; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    Integrated circuits are tested thoroughly in order to meet the high demands on quality. As an additional step, outlier detection is used to detect potential unreliable chips such that quality can be improved further. However, it is often unclear to which tests outlier detection should be applied and

  17. Noninvasive Test Detects Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), NASA-developed Video Imaging Communication and Retrieval (VICAR) software laid the groundwork for analyzing images of all kinds. A project seeking to use imaging technology for health care diagnosis began when the imaging team considered using the VICAR software to analyze X-ray images of soft tissue. With marginal success using X-rays, the team applied the same methodology to ultrasound imagery, which was already digitally formatted. The new approach proved successful for assessing amounts of plaque build-up and arterial wall thickness, direct predictors of heart disease, and the result was a noninvasive diagnostic system with the ability to accurately predict heart health. Medical Technologies International Inc. (MTI) further developed and then submitted the technology to a vigorous review process at the FDA, which cleared the software for public use. The software, patented under the name Prowin, is being used in MTI's patented ArterioVision, a carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) test that uses ultrasound image-capturing and analysis software to noninvasively identify the risk for the major cause of heart attack and strokes: atherosclerosis. ArterioVision provides a direct measurement of atherosclerosis by safely and painlessly measuring the thickness of the first two layers of the carotid artery wall using an ultrasound procedure and advanced image-analysis software. The technology is now in use in all 50 states and in many countries throughout the world.

  18. Laser Obstacle Detection System Flight Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    ...). The Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) was contracted to mount the HELLAS sensor on the nose of a UH-60L Blackhawk helicopter and to conduct flight tests to evaluate the HELLAS obstacle detection sensor...

  19. Ensuring safe operation and assessing the condition underground structures by the method of acoustic resonance flaw detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhi, Besarion; Pleshko, Mikhail; Buligin, Yuriy; Alexeenko, Lyudmila; Molev, Mikhail

    2017-10-01

    In the article the main results of theoretical and experimental research in the field of nondestructive testing and forecasting of the geomechanical state of the dome part of transport tunnels. It is shown that for this purpose it is possible to apply the acoustic resonance defectoscopy method. The method of mine measurements consisted in fixing the forced oscillations of a multilayer carbon-rock massif with the shock initiation of a seismoacoustic signal. The excitation and reception of acoustic standing waves were carried out in the lower rock layer. The actual characteristics of the efficiency of the acoustic assessment of the state of the geoenvironment provide the authors the opportunity to recommend the described methodology for mass practical application in the transport tunnels.

  20. Damage Detection in Grid Structures Using Limited Modal Test Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei-dou Ding

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The detection of potentially damaged elements in grid structures is a challenging topic. By using limited measured test data, damage detection for grid structures is developed by the modal strain energy (MSE method. Two critical problems are considered in this paper in developing the MSE method to detect potential damage to the grid structure by using limited modal test data. First, an updated mode shape expansion method based on the modal assurance criterion is adopted to ensure that the modal shape obtained from the reference baseline model is reliable and has explicit physical meanings. Second, after identifying the location of the element damage by the element MSE method with expanded mode shapes, multivariable parameters denoting element damage severity are simultaneously determined. These parameters are included in the column vector and matched with the corresponding element stiffness matrix while the error tolerance value of the Frobenius norm of the column vector is undercontrolled. Finally, a three-dimension numerical model of the grid structure is used to represent different damage cases and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the present method. The application of the three-dimension physical model to a full-scale grid structure is also verified. Analysis results demonstrate that the presented damage detection method effectively locates and quantifies single- and multimember damage in grid structures and can be applied in engineering practice.

  1. The arm motion detection (AMD) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtson, Maria C; Mrotek, Leigh A; Stoeckmann, Tina; Ghez, Claude; Scheidt, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Stroke can lead to sensory deficits that impair functional control of arm movements. Here we describe a simple test of arm motion detection (AMD) that provides an objective, quantitative measure of movement perception related proprioceptive capabilities in the arm. Seven stroke survivors and thirteen neurologically intact control subjects performed the AMD test. In a series of ten trials that took less than 15 minutes to complete, participants used a two-button user interface to adjust the magnitude of hand displacements produced by a horizontal planar robot until the motions were just perceptible (i.e. on the threshold of detection). The standard deviation of movement detection threshold was plotted against the mean and a normative range was determined from the data collected with control subjects. Within this normative space, subjects with and without intact proprioception could be discriminated on a ratio scale that is meaningful for ongoing studies of degraded motor function. Thus, the AMD test provides a relatively fast, objective and quantitative measure of upper extremity proprioception of limb movement (i.e. kinesthesia).

  2. Advances in Significance Testing for Cluster Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Deidra Andrea

    Over the past two decades, much attention has been given to data driven project goals such as the Human Genome Project and the development of syndromic surveillance systems. A major component of these types of projects is analyzing the abundance of data. Detecting clusters within the data can be beneficial as it can lead to the identification of specified sequences of DNA nucleotides that are related to important biological functions or the locations of epidemics such as disease outbreaks or bioterrorism attacks. Cluster detection techniques require efficient and accurate hypothesis testing procedures. In this dissertation, we improve upon the hypothesis testing procedures for cluster detection by enhancing distributional theory and providing an alternative method for spatial cluster detection using syndromic surveillance data. In Chapter 2, we provide an efficient method to compute the exact distribution of the number and coverage of h-clumps of a collection of words. This method involves defining a Markov chain using a minimal deterministic automaton to reduce the number of states needed for computation. We allow words of the collection to contain other words of the collection making the method more general. We use our method to compute the distributions of the number and coverage of h-clumps in the Chi motif of H. influenza.. In Chapter 3, we provide an efficient algorithm to compute the exact distribution of multiple window discrete scan statistics for higher-order, multi-state Markovian sequences. This algorithm involves defining a Markov chain to efficiently keep track of probabilities needed to compute p-values of the statistic. We use our algorithm to identify cases where the available approximation does not perform well. We also use our algorithm to detect unusual clusters of made free throw shots by National Basketball Association players during the 2009-2010 regular season. In Chapter 4, we give a procedure to detect outbreaks using syndromic

  3. Field Test Kit for Gun Residue Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WALKER, PAMELA K.; RODACY, PHILIP J.

    2002-01-01

    One of the major needs of the law enforcement field is a product that quickly, accurately, and inexpensively identifies whether a person has recently fired a gun--even if the suspect has attempted to wash the traces of gunpowder off. The Field Test Kit for Gunshot Residue Identification based on Sandia National Laboratories technology works with a wide variety of handguns and other weaponry using gunpowder. There are several organic chemicals in small arms propellants such as nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, dinitrotoluene, and nitrites left behind after the firing of a gun that result from the incomplete combustion of the gunpowder. Sandia has developed a colorimetric shooter identification kit for in situ detection of gunshot residue (GSR) from a suspect. The test kit is the first of its kind and is small, inexpensive, and easily transported by individual law enforcement personnel requiring minimal training for effective use. It will provide immediate information identifying gunshot residue.

  4. Application of microagglutination test for detection of antibodies to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of microagglutination test for detection of antibodies to Salmonella gallinarum in commercial layer chickens Application du test de microagglutination pour la detection des anticorps a Salmonella gallinarum chez les pondeuses commerciales.

  5. Spot test kit for explosives detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagoria, Philip F; Whipple, Richard E; Nunes, Peter J; Eckels, Joel Del; Reynolds, John G; Miles, Robin R; Chiarappa-Zucca, Marina L

    2014-03-11

    An explosion tester system comprising a body, a lateral flow membrane swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body, a first explosives detecting reagent, a first reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the first reagent holder and dispenser containing the first explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the first explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body, a second explosives detecting reagent, and a second reagent holder and dispenser operatively connected to the body, the second reagent holder and dispenser containing the second explosives detecting reagent and positioned to deliver the second explosives detecting reagent to the lateral flow membrane swab unit when the lateral flow membrane swab unit is connected to the body.

  6. Sequential Analysis: Hypothesis Testing and Changepoint Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-11

    ones are the P-wave and the S-wave. The P-wave is polarized in the source-to-receiver direction, namely from the epicenter of the earth - quake to the...a bound on the average frequency of false alarms. The theoretical study of quickest changepoint detection has been initiated in two different direc...detection techniques to run at high speeds and with low delay, combined with the generally low frequency of intrusion attempts, presents an interesting

  7. Joint Detect and Avoid Flight Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliska, Heather; Estrada, Ramon; Euteneuer, Eric; Gong, Chester; Arthur, Keith

    2015-01-01

    This presentation gives insight into a joint flight testing effort that included participation from NASA, Honeywell, and General Atomics. The presentation includes roles and responsibilities, test flow, and encounter requirements and summary.

  8. Water Pollution Detection Based on Hypothesis Testing in Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Luo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pollution detection is of great importance in water conservation. In this paper, the water pollution detection problems of the network and of the node in sensor networks are discussed. The detection problems in both cases of the distribution of the monitoring noise being normal and nonnormal are considered. The pollution detection problems are analyzed based on hypothesis testing theory firstly; then, the specific detection algorithms are given. Finally, two implementation examples are given to illustrate how the proposed detection methods are used in the water pollution detection in sensor networks and prove the effectiveness of the proposed detection methods.

  9. Ensuring Software IP Cleanliness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshad Koohgoli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available At many points in the life of a software enterprise, determination of intellectual property (IP cleanliness becomes critical. The value of an enterprise that develops and sells software may depend on how clean the software is from the IP perspective. This article examines various methods of ensuring software IP cleanliness and discusses some of the benefits and shortcomings of current solutions.

  10. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultze, Anna; Phillips, Andrew N.; Paredes, Roger; Battegay, Manuel; Rockstroh, Jürgen K.; Machala, Ladislav; Tomazic, Janez; Girard, Pierre M.; Januskevica, Inga; Gronborg-Laut, Kamilla; Lundgren, Jens D.; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Losso, M.; Kundro, M.; Vetter, N.; Zangerle, R.; Karpov, I.; Vassilenko, A.; Mitsura, V. M.; Paduto, D.; Clumeck, N.; de Wit, S.; Delforge, M.; Florence, E.; Vandekerckhove, L.; Hadziosmanovic, V.; Kostov, K.; Begovac, J.; Machala, L.; Jilich, D.; Sedlacek, D.; Nielsen, J.; Kronborg, G.; Benfield, T.; Larsen, M.; Gerstoft, J.; Katzenstein, T.; Pedersen, C.; Møller, N. F.; Ostergaard, L.; Dragsted, U. B.; Nielsen, L. N.; Zilmer, K.; Smidt, Jelena; Ristola, M.; Katlama, C.; Pradier, C.; Dabis, F.; Neau, D.; Duvivier, C.; Rockstroh, J.; Schmidt, R.; van Lunzen, J.; Degen, O.; Stefan, C.; Bogner, J.; Fatkenheuer, G.; Chkhartishvili, N.; Kosmidis, J.; Gargalianos, P.; Xylomenos, G.; Perdios, J.; Sambatakou, H.; Banhegyi, D.; Gottfredsson, M.; Mulcahy, F.; Yust, I.; Turner, D.; Burke, M.; Shahar, E.; Hassoun, G.; Elinav, H.; Haouzi, M.; Sthoeger, Z. M.; d'Arminio, A.; Esposito, R.; Mazeu, I.; Mussini, C.; Pristera, R.; Mazzotta, F.; Gabbuti, A.; Vullo, V.; Lichtner, M.; Zaccarelli, M.; Reiss, P.; Ormaasen, V.; Maeland, A.; Bruun, J.; Knysz, B.; Gasiorowski, J.; Inglot, M.; Horban, A.; Bakowska, E.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Flisiak, R.; Parczewski, M.; Pynka, M.; Maciejewska, K.; Beniowski, M.; Mularska, E.; Smiatacz, T.; Jablonowska, E.; Malolepsza, E.; Wojcik, K.; Mozer-Lisewska, I.; Doroana, M.; Caldeira, L.; Mansinho, K.; Maltez, F.; Radoi, R.; Oprea, C.; Babes, Victor; Rakhmanova, A.; Trofimora, T.; Khromova, I.; Kuzovatova, E.; Jevtovic, D.; Shunnar, A.; Stanekova, D.; Tomazic, J.; Moreno, S.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Clotet, B.; Jou, A.; Paredes, R.; Tural, C.; Puig, J.; Bravo, I.; Gatell, J. M.; Miro, J. M.; Domingo, P.; Gutierrez, M.; Mateo, G.; Sambeat, M. A.; Laporte, J. M.; Blaxhult, A.; Flamholc, L.; Thalme, A.; Sonnerborg, A.; Ledergerber, B.; Weber, R.; Cavassini, M.; Calmy, A.; Furrer, H.; Battegay, M.; Elzi, L.; Schmid, P.; Kravchenko, E.; Chentsova, N.; Frolov, V.; Kutsyna, G.; Baskakov, I.; Kuznetsova, A.; Kyselyova, G.; Gazzard, B.; Johnson, A. M.; Simons, E.; Edwards, S.; Phillips, A.; Johnson, M. A.; Mocroft, A.; Orkin, C.; Weber, J.; Scullard, G.; Fisher, M.; Leen, C.; Gatell, J.; Monforte, A. d'Arminio; Lundgren, J.; DeWit, S.; Kirk, O.; Grarup, J.; Cozzi-Lepri, A.; Thiebaut, R.; Burger, D.; Peters, L.; Podlekareva, D.; Nielsen, J. E.; Matthews, C.; Fischer, A. H.; Bojesen, A.; Raben, D.; Kristensen, D.; Laut, K. Grønborg; Larsen, J. F.; Grint, D.; Shepherd, L.; Schultze, A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To describe regional differences and trends in resistance testing among individuals experiencing virological failure and the prevalence of detected resistance among those individuals who had a genotypic resistance test done following virological failure. Design: Multinational cohort

  11. Detecting memory performance validity with DETECTS: A computerized performance validity test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Rui; Albuquerque, Pedro B

    2017-09-18

    Evaluating performance validity is essential in neuropsychological and forensic assessments. Nonetheless, most psychological assessment tests are unable to detect performance validity and other methods must be used for this purpose. A new Performance Validity Test (DETECTS - Memory Performance Validity Test) was developed with several characteristics that enhance test utility. Moreover, precise response time measurement was added to DETECTS. Two groups of participants (normative and simulator group) completed DETECTS and three memory tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale III. Simulators achieved considerably lower scores (hits) and higher response times in DETECTS compared with the normative group. All participants in the normative group were classified correctly and no simulator was classified as having legitimate memory deficits. Thus, DETECTS seems to be a valuable computerized Performance Validity Test with reduced application time and effective cut-off scores as well as high sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive power values. Lastly, response time may be a very useful measure for detecting memory malingering.

  12. Duality ensures modular covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Miao; Yu Ming

    1989-11-01

    We show that the modular transformations for one point functions on the torus, S(n), satisfy the polynomial equations derived by Moore and Seiberg, provided the duality property of the model is ensured. The formula for S(n) is derived by us previously and should be valid for any conformal field theory. As a consequence, the full consistency conditions for modular invariance at higher genus are completely guaranteed by duality of the theory on the sphere. (orig.)

  13. Ensuring food security

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriy Valentinovich Patsiorkovskiy

    2011-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the questions of further development of agricultural and food policy in the Russian Federation. The subject of in-depth consideration is the problem related to ensuring food safety. A critical review and analysis of major regulations in the field of food safety is made, including in the implementation of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance. The necessity of the expansion of measures to improve the statistics of food poisoning is grounded. The basic reasons for t...

  14. WORKSTATION SECURITY ENSURANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Hudoklin, Alenka; Stadler, Alenka

    1998-01-01

    A methodology for the ensured security of a workstation connected in a computer network with in an organization is presented. A technique for the determination of the required security level for a workstation's tangible and intangible components is described. A set of security measures for each security level of the workstation's tangible and intangible components is selected. The methodology is applied to workstations in the computer network of a Slovenian state agency. The required security...

  15. Kepler Planet Detection Metrics: Statistical Bootstrap Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jon M.; Burke, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes the data produced by the Statistical Bootstrap Test over the final three Threshold Crossing Event (TCE) deliveries to NExScI: SOC 9.1 (Q1Q16)1 (Tenenbaum et al. 2014), SOC 9.2 (Q1Q17) aka DR242 (Seader et al. 2015), and SOC 9.3 (Q1Q17) aka DR253 (Twicken et al. 2016). The last few years have seen significant improvements in the SOC science data processing pipeline, leading to higher quality light curves and more sensitive transit searches. The statistical bootstrap analysis results presented here and the numerical results archived at NASAs Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI) bear witness to these software improvements. This document attempts to introduce and describe the main features and differences between these three data sets as a consequence of the software changes.

  16. Design and test of a capacitance detection circuit based on a transimpedance amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Linfeng; Zhang Wendong; He Changde; Zhang Rui; Song Jinlong; Xue Chenyang

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) capacitance detection circuit aimed at detecting micro-capacitance, which is caused by ultrasonic stimulation applied to the capacitive micro-machined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT). In the capacitance interface, a TIA is adopted to amplify the received signal with a center frequency of 400 kHz, and finally detect ultrasound pressure. The circuit has a strong anti-stray property and this paper also studies the calculation of compensation capacity in detail. To ensure high resolution, noise analysis is conducted. After optimization, the detected minimum ultrasound pressure is 2.1 Pa, which is two orders of magnitude higher than the former. The test results showed that the circuit was sensitive to changes in ultrasound pressure and the distance between the CMUT and stumbling block, which also successfully demonstrates the functionality of the developed TIA of the analog-front-end receiver. (paper)

  17. Toward Ensuring Health Equity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petkovic, Jennifer; Epstein, Jonathan; Buchbinder, Rachelle

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 12 (2014) equity working group was to determine whether and how comprehensibility of patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) should be assessed, to ensure suitability for people with low literacy and differing cultures. METHODS......: The English, Dutch, French, and Turkish Health Assessment Questionnaires and English and French Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life questionnaires were evaluated by applying 3 readability formulas: Flesch Reading Ease, Flesch-Kincaid grade level, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook; and a new tool......, the Evaluative Linguistic Framework for Questionnaires, developed to assess text quality of questionnaires. We also considered a study assessing cross-cultural adaptation with/without back-translation and/or expert committee. The results of this preconference work were presented to the equity working group...

  18. Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows Using Likelihood Ratio Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Björgvinssin, Trausti; Blanke, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    were identified for the ensemble and for the individual cows. A diurnal filter was adapted to remove the daily variation of the individual. Change detection algorithms were designed for the actual probability densities, which were Rayleigh distributed with individual parameters for each cow....... A generalized likelihood ratio algorithm was derived for the compensated activity signal and detection algorithm was tested on 2323 days of activity, which contained 42 oestruses on 12 cows in total. The application of statistical change detection methods is a new approach for detecting oestrus in dairy cows...... and the results are shown to outperform earlier approaches in respect to combined statistics of false alarms and missed detections...

  19. Application of Bayesian Methods for Detecting Fraudulent Behavior on Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip

    2018-01-01

    Producers and consumers of test scores are increasingly concerned about fraudulent behavior before and during the test. There exist several statistical or psychometric methods for detecting fraudulent behavior on tests. This paper provides a review of the Bayesian approaches among them. Four hitherto-unpublished real data examples are provided to…

  20. Evaluation of hydrogen sulphide test for detection of fecal coliform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-03-19

    Mar 19, 2007 ... The assessment of H2S field test for detection of potability of drinking water was evaluated by analysing. 1050 water samples from various sources at room temperature and at 37ºC after 18, 24, and 48 h of incubation. The H2S test showed 100, 84 and 89% correlation with Eijkman test, Membrane Filter.

  1. A field-test for detecting organopmosphorus compounds in water

    OpenAIRE

    Reiner, E.; Simeon, V.; Šimaga, Š.; Cizl, S.; Jeličić, D.; Šumanović, V.; Batinić, D.

    1993-01-01

    An enzyme test has been worked out for detecting organophosphorus compounds in water. The lest is based on the inhibition of cholinesterase. The detection limits for the »nerve gases« are (µg/L): Soman 0.12, VX 5.9, Sarin 9.9 and Tabun 26. The detection limit for the organophosphorus pesticide dichlorvos is 50 µg/L.

  2. Collision Detection Modelling for Store Release Testing at AMRL

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leung, Sunny

    2000-01-01

    ... of stores from aircraft. A computer program called CDM, written in Java and Java 3D programming language has been developed to visualise, model, and provide collision detection, for an aerodynamic grid test...

  3. Ensuring food security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Valentinovich Patsiorkovskiy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the questions of further development of agricultural and food policy in the Russian Federation. The subject of in-depth consideration is the problem related to ensuring food safety. A critical review and analysis of major regulations in the field of food safety is made, including in the implementation of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance. The necessity of the expansion of measures to improve the statistics of food poisoning is grounded. The basic reasons for the spread of management practices of production and sale of food products that pose a threat to human life are revealed. The factors of unhindered penetration of local markets in the cities and the surrounding countrysides with counterfeiting, smuggling and production of global junk food manufacturers and consumer goods are defined. A systematic view is put on the problems of food production in the private farms, ways to limit direct access to the market of food and food raw materials, which production was not controlled and who have not passed state registration, are suggested. One of these problems is creation of independent industrial structures that link production and sales of small-scale sector goods.

  4. Hermetic Seal Leak Detection Apparatus with Variable Size Test Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention is a versatile hermetic seal leak detection apparatus for testing hermetically sealed containers and devices for leaks without the need to create a custom or specially manufactured testing chamber conforming to the dimensions of the specific object under test. The size of the testing chamber may be mechanically adjusted by the novel use of bellows to reduce and optimize the amount of gas space in a test chamber which surrounds the hermetically sealed object under test. The present invention allows the size of the test chamber to be selectively adjusted during testing to provide an optimum test chamber gas space. The present invention may be further adapted to isolate and test specific portions of the hermetically sealed object under test for leaks.

  5. HIV resistance testing and detected drug resistance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultze, Anna; Phillips, Andrew N; Paredes, Roger

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe regional differences and trends in resistance testing among individuals experiencing virological failure and the prevalence of detected resistance among those individuals who had a genotypic resistance test done following virological failure. DESIGN: Multinational cohort...... study. METHODS: Individuals in EuroSIDA with virological failure (>1 RNA measurement >500 on ART after >6 months on ART) after 1997 were included. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for resistance testing following virological failure and aORs for the detection of resistance among those who had a test were...... calculated using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Compared to 74.2% of ART-experienced individuals in 1997, only 5.1% showed evidence of virological failure in 2012. The odds of resistance testing declined after 2004 (global P Resistance was detected in 77...

  6. Ensuring the CTBT's implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, W.

    1997-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) bans all nuclear-weapon test explosions and all other nuclear explosions. It was opened for signature on 24 September 1996 at the United Nations in New York. Two weeks earlier, on 10 September 1996 it was endorsed by 158 votes to 3, with 5 abstentions in the United Nations General Assembly. As of October 1997, the Treaty has been signed by 148 States, including China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States. It has been ratified by seven States. History and the future of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty is discussed

  7. ANOLE Portable Radiation Detection System Field Test and Evaluation Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, Chris A.

    2007-01-01

    Handheld, backpack, and mobile sensors are elements of the Global Nuclear Detection System for the interdiction and control of illicit radiological and nuclear materials. They are used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other government agencies and organizations in various roles for border protection, law enforcement, and nonproliferation monitoring. In order to systematically document the operational performance of the common commercial off-the-shelf portable radiation detection systems, the DHS Domestic Nuclear Detection Office conducted a test and evaluation campaign conducted at the Nevada Test Site from January 18 to February 27, 2006. Named 'Anole', it was the first test of its kind in terms of technical design and test complexities. The Anole test results offer users information for selecting appropriate mission-specific portable radiation detection systems. The campaign also offered manufacturers the opportunity to submit their equipment for independent operationally relevant testing to subsequently improve their detector performance. This paper will present the design, execution, and methodologies of the DHS Anole portable radiation detection system test campaign

  8. A robust hypothesis test for the sensitive detection of constant speed radiation moving sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumazert, Jonathan, E-mail: jonathan.dumazert@cea.fr [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs Architectures Electroniques, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Coulon, Romain; Kondrasovs, Vladimir; Boudergui, Karim; Moline, Yoann; Sannié, Guillaume; Gameiro, Jordan; Normand, Stéphane [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs Architectures Electroniques, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Méchin, Laurence [CNRS, UCBN, Groupe de Recherche en Informatique, Image, Automatique et Instrumentation de Caen, 14050 Caen (France)

    2015-09-21

    Radiation Portal Monitors are deployed in linear networks to detect radiological material in motion. As a complement to single and multichannel detection algorithms, inefficient under too low signal-to-noise ratios, temporal correlation algorithms have been introduced. Test hypothesis methods based on empirically estimated mean and variance of the signals delivered by the different channels have shown significant gain in terms of a tradeoff between detection sensitivity and false alarm probability. This paper discloses the concept of a new hypothesis test for temporal correlation detection methods, taking advantage of the Poisson nature of the registered counting signals, and establishes a benchmark between this test and its empirical counterpart. The simulation study validates that in the four relevant configurations of a pedestrian source carrier under respectively high and low count rate radioactive backgrounds, and a vehicle source carrier under the same respectively high and low count rate radioactive backgrounds, the newly introduced hypothesis test ensures a significantly improved compromise between sensitivity and false alarm. It also guarantees that the optimal coverage factor for this compromise remains stable regardless of signal-to-noise ratio variations between 2 and 0.8, therefore allowing the final user to parametrize the test with the sole prior knowledge of background amplitude.

  9. A robust hypothesis test for the sensitive detection of constant speed radiation moving sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumazert, Jonathan; Coulon, Romain; Kondrasovs, Vladimir; Boudergui, Karim; Moline, Yoann; Sannié, Guillaume; Gameiro, Jordan; Normand, Stéphane; Méchin, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    Radiation Portal Monitors are deployed in linear networks to detect radiological material in motion. As a complement to single and multichannel detection algorithms, inefficient under too low signal-to-noise ratios, temporal correlation algorithms have been introduced. Test hypothesis methods based on empirically estimated mean and variance of the signals delivered by the different channels have shown significant gain in terms of a tradeoff between detection sensitivity and false alarm probability. This paper discloses the concept of a new hypothesis test for temporal correlation detection methods, taking advantage of the Poisson nature of the registered counting signals, and establishes a benchmark between this test and its empirical counterpart. The simulation study validates that in the four relevant configurations of a pedestrian source carrier under respectively high and low count rate radioactive backgrounds, and a vehicle source carrier under the same respectively high and low count rate radioactive backgrounds, the newly introduced hypothesis test ensures a significantly improved compromise between sensitivity and false alarm. It also guarantees that the optimal coverage factor for this compromise remains stable regardless of signal-to-noise ratio variations between 2 and 0.8, therefore allowing the final user to parametrize the test with the sole prior knowledge of background amplitude

  10. Trichomonas spp. in pigeons: detection by OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valek, Petr; Kunca, Tomas; Langrova, Iva; Hartlova, Helena; Brozova, Adela; Jankovska, Ivana; Kudrnacova, Marie; Sloup, Vladislav

    2013-12-01

    The efficacy of the OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test (developed for rapid diagnosis of human Trichomonas vaginalis) in detection of Trichomonas spp. in pigeons (Columba livia) was investigated. Two oral cavity swabs were taken from 50 farm pigeons. Cultivation in Diamond Trichomonas medium was used as a reference method. According to a morphological determination, Trichomonas gallinae was the only protozoan found; however, no further molecular analysis was conducted. The OSOM Trichomonas test was positive in 39 oral swabs. In comparison with the cultivation method three samples were identified as false negative and one as false positive. Test specificity and sensitivity were established as 93% and 90%, respectively. Using Cohen's Kappa, the concordance between the two testing methods was found to be strong (kappa = 0.7506, 95% CI = 0.5162-0.9850). The OSOM Trichomonas test is not able to distinguish between Trichomonas species; however, results suggest that the test is suitable for the rapid detection of Trichomonas spp. infection in pigeons.

  11. Hypothesis tests for the detection of constant speed radiation moving sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumazert, Jonathan; Coulon, Romain; Kondrasovs, Vladimir; Boudergui, Karim; Sannie, Guillaume; Gameiro, Jordan; Normand, Stephane [CEA, LIST, Laboratoire Capteurs Architectures Electroniques, 99 Gif-sur-Yvette, (France); Mechin, Laurence [CNRS, UCBN, Groupe de Recherche en Informatique, Image, Automatique et Instrumentation de Caen, 4050 Caen, (France)

    2015-07-01

    Radiation Portal Monitors are deployed in linear network to detect radiological material in motion. As a complement to single and multichannel detection algorithms, inefficient under too low signal to noise ratios, temporal correlation algorithms have been introduced. Test hypothesis methods based on empirically estimated mean and variance of the signals delivered by the different channels have shown significant gain in terms of a tradeoff between detection sensitivity and false alarm probability. This paper discloses the concept of a new hypothesis test for temporal correlation detection methods, taking advantage of the Poisson nature of the registered counting signals, and establishes a benchmark between this test and its empirical counterpart. The simulation study validates that in the four relevant configurations of a pedestrian source carrier under respectively high and low count rate radioactive background, and a vehicle source carrier under the same respectively high and low count rate radioactive background, the newly introduced hypothesis test ensures a significantly improved compromise between sensitivity and false alarm, while guaranteeing the stability of its optimization parameter regardless of signal to noise ratio variations between 2 to 0.8. (authors)

  12. Testing laboratories, its function in ensuring industrial safety; Los laboratorios de ensayo, su funcion en el aseguramiento de la seguridad industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Fernandez, M.

    2015-07-01

    This article discusses and justifies the development of industrial laboratories (testing and calibration) in Spain, since its embryo, its creation and development, to the present day. Likewise, presents its interrelation with other agents, as well as the legislative and technical framework is application along to the years. Within this development of the sector, highlights the period of the conformity assessment, and consequently its relationship with Industrial safety. Finally, describes the organizational situation of the sector both nationally and internationally. (Author)

  13. Quench detection electronics testing protocol for SST-1 magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaudha, Moni; Varmora, Pankaj; Parghi, Bhadresh; Prasad, Upendra

    2017-01-01

    Quench Detection (QD) system consisting 204 signal channels has been successfully installed and working well during plasma experiment of SST-1 Tokamak. QD system requires testing, validation and maintenance in every SST-1 campaign for better reliability and maintainability of the system. Standalone test of each channel of the system is essential for hard-ware validation. The standard Testing Protocol follow in every campaign which validate each section of QD electronics as well as voltage tap signal cables which are routed inside the cryostat and then extended outside of the SST-1 machine up-to the magnet control room. Fiber link for Quench signal transmission to the SST-1 magnet power supply is also test and validate before every plasma campaign. Precise instrument used as a dummy source of quench signal and for manual quench generation to test the each channel and Master Quench Logic. Each signal Integrated with the magnet DAQ system, signal observed at 1Hz and 50Hz configuration to validate the logging data, compare with actual and previous test data. This paper describes the testing protocol follow in every campaign to validate functionality of QD electronics, limitation of testing, test results and overall integration of the quench detection system for SST-1 magnet. (author)

  14. A versatile omnibus test for detecting mean and variance heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ying; Wei, Peng; Bailey, Matthew; Kauwe, John S K; Maxwell, Taylor J

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has revealed loci that display variance heterogeneity through various means such as biological disruption, linkage disequilibrium (LD), gene-by-gene (G × G), or gene-by-environment interaction. We propose a versatile likelihood ratio test that allows joint testing for mean and variance heterogeneity (LRT(MV)) or either effect alone (LRT(M) or LRT(V)) in the presence of covariates. Using extensive simulations for our method and others, we found that all parametric tests were sensitive to nonnormality regardless of any trait transformations. Coupling our test with the parametric bootstrap solves this issue. Using simulations and empirical data from a known mean-only functional variant, we demonstrate how LD can produce variance-heterogeneity loci (vQTL) in a predictable fashion based on differential allele frequencies, high D', and relatively low r² values. We propose that a joint test for mean and variance heterogeneity is more powerful than a variance-only test for detecting vQTL. This takes advantage of loci that also have mean effects without sacrificing much power to detect variance only effects. We discuss using vQTL as an approach to detect G × G interactions and also how vQTL are related to relationship loci, and how both can create prior hypothesis for each other and reveal the relationships between traits and possibly between components of a composite trait.

  15. Memory detection 2.0: the first web-based memory detection test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, Bennett; Verschuere, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that reaction times (RTs) can be used to detect recognition of critical (e.g., crime) information. A limitation of this research base is its reliance upon small samples (average n = 24), and indications of publication bias. To advance RT-based memory detection, we report upon the development of the first web-based memory detection test. Participants in this research (Study1: n = 255; Study2: n = 262) tried to hide 2 high salient (birthday, country of origin) and 2 low salient (favourite colour, favourite animal) autobiographical details. RTs allowed to detect concealed autobiographical information, and this, as predicted, more successfully so than error rates, and for high salient than for low salient items. While much remains to be learned, memory detection 2.0 seems to offer an interesting new platform to efficiently and validly conduct RT-based memory detection research.

  16. Memory detection 2.0: the first web-based memory detection test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett Kleinberg

    Full Text Available There is accumulating evidence that reaction times (RTs can be used to detect recognition of critical (e.g., crime information. A limitation of this research base is its reliance upon small samples (average n = 24, and indications of publication bias. To advance RT-based memory detection, we report upon the development of the first web-based memory detection test. Participants in this research (Study1: n = 255; Study2: n = 262 tried to hide 2 high salient (birthday, country of origin and 2 low salient (favourite colour, favourite animal autobiographical details. RTs allowed to detect concealed autobiographical information, and this, as predicted, more successfully so than error rates, and for high salient than for low salient items. While much remains to be learned, memory detection 2.0 seems to offer an interesting new platform to efficiently and validly conduct RT-based memory detection research.

  17. MAFF sponsored research: detection tests for irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, C.M.; Holley, P.A.; Pryke, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    In their 1986 report on the safety and wholesomeness of irradiated food the UK Advisory Committee on Irradiated and Novel Foods (ACINF) recognised that a generally applicable test to determine if a food had been irradiated was not available. The committee considered that, although not a pre-requisite, the existence of a detection test would be a useful supplement to a control system and do much to reassure consumers; with this in mind ACINF recommended that detection methods should be kept under review. As a consequence, in 1987 the Ministry initiated a comprehensive R and D detection test programme. Over fifty papers have been published to date as a result of this programme. MAFF (Ministry Of Agriculture Fisheries and Food) has also been involved in other research associated with irradiation and food safety, some of which is described in this paper. This paper aims to give an overview of recent work funded under the food irradiation programme. Twelve projects have been supported over the last two years, ten of which involved the development of detection tests for irradiated food. A summary of these projects is presented: - Thermoluminescence; - Electron Spin Resonance; - 2-alkylcyclobutanones; -Determination Of Hydrogen; - Differential Scanning Calorimetry; - Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate; - DNA; - Pesticide Breakdown; - Neutron Irradiation; -Future Plans. (orig./vhe)

  18. Reliability of agglutination test to detect alloantibodies in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study has been conducted for detection of allo-antibodies in patient with sickle cell anaemia and hemophilia who received repeated blood transfusions using newly introduced test system; the DiaMed-Immuno-Diffusion microtyping system. Methods: Samples were collected randomly from 60 patients with ...

  19. Executive cognitive impairment detected by simple bedside testing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims. Cognitive impairment in people with type 2 diabetes is a barrier to successful disease management. We sought to determine whether impaired executive function as detected by a battery of simple bedside cognitive tests of executive function was associated with inadequate glycaemic control. Methods. People with ...

  20. CONFU: Configuration Fuzzing Testing Framework for Software Vulnerability Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Huning; Murphy, Christian; Kaiser, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Many software security vulnerabilities only reveal themselves under certain conditions, i.e., particular configurations and inputs together with a certain runtime environment. One approach to detecting these vulnerabilities is fuzz testing. However, typical fuzz testing makes no guarantees regarding the syntactic and semantic validity of the input, or of how much of the input space will be explored. To address these problems, we present a new testing methodology called Configuration Fuzzing. Configuration Fuzzing is a technique whereby the configuration of the running application is mutated at certain execution points, in order to check for vulnerabilities that only arise in certain conditions. As the application runs in the deployment environment, this testing technique continuously fuzzes the configuration and checks "security invariants" that, if violated, indicate a vulnerability. We discuss the approach and introduce a prototype framework called ConFu (CONfiguration FUzzing testing framework) for implementation. We also present the results of case studies that demonstrate the approach's feasibility and evaluate its performance.

  1. Radioimmunoassay test system for detection of anti-insulin antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudko, N.V.; Piven', N.V.; Ibragimova, G.V.; Kasatkin, Yu.N.

    1995-01-01

    A radiodiagnostic test system has been developed and commercial kit for radioimmunoassay of anti-insulin antibodies in human blood serum created. Clinical trials of the kit in patients (150 diabetics with types 1 and 2 condition) and normal subjects (n=100) demonstrated the possibility of using this kit for the detection of preclinical forms of diabetes and for distinguishing groups at risk of diabetes among children and adults, for the detection of insulin resistance, for the differential diagnosis of diabetes, and for monitoring the efficacy of insulin therapy. 9 refs.; 1 tab

  2. Hydrogen peroxide test for intraoperative bile leak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trehan, V; Rao, Pankaj P; Naidu, C S; Sharma, Anuj K; Singh, A K; Sharma, Sanjay; Gaur, Amit; Kulkarni, S V; Pathak, N

    2017-07-01

    Bile leakage (BL) is a common complication following liver surgery, ranging from 3 to 27% in different series. To reduce the incidence of post-operative BL various BL tests have been applied since ages, but no method is foolproof and every method has their own limitations. In this study we used a relatively simpler technique to detect the BL intra-operatively. Topical application of 1.5% diluted hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was used to detect the BL from cut surface of liver and we compared this with conventional saline method to know the efficacy. A total of 31 patients included all patients who underwent liver resection and donor hepatectomies as part of Living Donor Liver Transplantation. After complete liver resection, the conventional saline test followed by topical diluted 1.5% H 2 O 2 test was performed on all. A BL was demonstrated in 11 patients (35.48%) by the conventional saline method and in 19 patients (61.29%) by H 2 O 2 method. Statistically compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank test showed significant difference ( P  = 0.014) for minor liver resections group and ( P  = 0.002) for major liver resections group. The topical application of H 2 O 2 is a simple and effective method of detection of BL from cut surface of liver. It is an easy, non-invasive, cheap, less time consuming, reproducible, and sensitive technique with no obvious disadvantages.

  3. Fault detection by surface seismic scanning tunneling macroscope: Field test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2014-08-05

    The seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) is proposed for detecting the presence of near-surface impedance anomalies and faults. Results with synthetic data are consistent with theory in that scatterers closer to the surface provide brighter SSTM profiles than those that are deeper. The SSTM profiles show superresolution detection if the scatterers are in the near-field region of the recording line. The field data tests near Gulf of Aqaba, Haql, KSA clearly show the presence of the observable fault scarp, and identify the subsurface presence of the hidden faults indicated in the tomograms. Superresolution detection of the fault is achieved, even when the 35 Hz data are lowpass filtered to the 5-10 Hz band.

  4. Rapid Visual Tests: Fast and Reliable Detection of Ochratoxin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Lopez-Ferber

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the early detection strategies that have been employed for the rapid monitoring of ochratoxin A (OTA contamination of food. OTA, a mycotoxin mainly produced by some Aspergillus and Penicillium species, is found in cereals, coffee, wine, pork and grapes. To minimize the entry of this mycotoxin into the food chain, rapid diagnostic tools are required. To this end, the potential use of lateral flow devices has also been developed. In this study, we analyze the robustness of test strips using published methods for colorimetric detection. Different test formats are discussed, and challenges in the development of lateral flow devices for on-site determination of OTA, with requirements such as robustness, speed, and cost-effectiveness, are discussed.

  5. Detection of antibiotic residues in food by Charm II test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addali, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotics are used in food to: -therapy and prophylaxis, -increase the productivity of the food producing animals. The presence of antimicrobial residues: -constitutes a potential human health hazard. has significant impact on international food trade. has implications on technological process in dairy industry. Detection of antibiotic residues is of great interest. It helps protect humans against the effects of such residues, the more it can support the participation of our country in international trade. Charm II test is one of the methods of detection of antimicrobial residues. The tests utilize microbial or antibody receptor assay technology. The sample is incubated with a binding agent (microbial cells with specific receptor sites or with specific antibodies attached) and a tracer (the radio-labeled version of the antibiotic to be detected). The amount of tracer on the binding agent is measured using a scintillation counter and is compared to a pre-determined cut-off or control point. If contaminating antibiotic is present, it will prevent the binding of the tracer by occupying the receptors on the binding agent. The less labeled tracer detected, the more contaminating antibiotic there is present in the sample. This work, carried out at the Radiochemical Laboratory of the National Centre of Nuclear Science and Technology, has two parts: 1/ The first is reserved to a literature review provides an overview on antibiotics and the charm II method. 2/ The second is devoted to the experimental study and presentation of results.

  6. Sensors for breath testing: from nanomaterials to comprehensive disease detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konvalina, Gady; Haick, Hossam

    2014-01-21

    The analysis of volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath samples represents a new frontier in medical diagnostics because it is a noninvasive and potentially inexpensive way to detect illnesses. Clinical trials with spectrometry and spectroscopy techniques, the standard volatile-compound detection methods, have shown the potential for diagnosing illnesses including cancer, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, tuberculosis, diabetes, and more via breath tests. Unfortunately, this approach requires expensive equipment and high levels of expertise to operate the necessary instruments, and the tests must be done quickly and use preconcentration techniques, all of which impede its adoption. Sensing matrices based on nanomaterials are likely to become a clinical and laboratory diagnostic tool because they are significantly smaller, easier-to-use, and less expensive than spectrometry or spectroscopy. An ideal nanomaterial-based sensor for breath testing should be sensitive at very low concentrations of volatile organic compounds, even in the presence of environmental or physiological confounding factors. It should also respond rapidly and proportionately to small changes in concentration and provide a consistent output that is specific to a given volatile organic compound. When not in contact with the volatile organic compounds, the sensor should quickly return to its baseline state or be simple and inexpensive enough to be disposable. Several reviews have focused on the methodological, biochemical, and clinical aspects of breath analysis in attempts to bring breath testing closer to practice for comprehensive disease detection. This Account pays particular attention to the technological gaps and confounding factors that impede nanomaterial-sensor-based breath testing, in the hope of directing future research and development efforts towards the best possible approaches to overcome these obstacles. We discuss breath testing as a complex process involving numerous

  7. Failed MTR Fuel Element Detect in a Sipping Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeituni, C.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; Silva, J.E.R. da

    2004-01-01

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes 131 I and 133 I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for 137 Cs. The nuclear fuels U 3 O 8 - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of 137 Cs

  8. Failed MTR Fuel Element Detect in a Sipping Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeituni, C.A.; Terremoto, L.A.A.; da Silva, J.E.R.

    2004-10-06

    This work describes sipping tests performed on Material Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel elements of the IEA-R1 research reactor, in order to find out which one failed in the core during a routine operation. Radioactive iodine isotopes {sup 131}I and {sup 133}I, employed as failure monitors, were detected in samples corresponding to the failed fuel element. The specific activity of each sample, as well as the average leaking rate, were measured for {sup 137}Cs. The nuclear fuels U{sub 3}O{sub 8} - Al dispersion and U - Al alloy were compared concerning their measured average leaking rates of {sup 137}Cs.

  9. Detection of underclad defects by non destructive testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Launay, J.-P.; Lecomte, J.-C.; Martin, P.; Thomas, A.

    1980-05-01

    Discovery of underclad cold cracking phenomenon in steam generator tube sheets and under the cladding of reactor vessel nozzles led FRAMATOME to study, develop and qualify non destructive examination methods capable of detecting and characterizing these types of defects. To reach this objective, FRAMATOME started by studying the possibilities of various NDT methods, after which the following two techniques were retained: a) ultrasonic testing for examination of tube sheet before drilling and of reactor vessel nozzles; b) Eddy current testing by internal probe for examination of drilled tube sheets with tubes installed

  10. [Rapid test for detection of susceptibility to cefotaxime in Enterobacteriaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Guerra, Gemma; Hoyos-Mallecot, Yannik; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; Navarro-Marí, José María; Gutiérrez-Fernández, José

    In this work an "in house" rapid test based on the change in pH that is due to hydrolysis for detecting Enterobacteriaceae susceptible to cefotaxime is evaluated. The strains of Enterobacteriaceae from 1947 urine cultures were assessed using MicroScan panels and the "in house" test. This rapid test includes red phenol solution and cefotaxime. Using MicroScan panels, 499 Enterobacteriaceae isolates were evaluated, which included 27 isolates of Escherichia coli producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL), 16 isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae ESBL and 1 isolate of Klebsiella oxytoca ESBL. The "in house" test offers the following values: sensitivity 98% and specificity 97%, with negative predictive value 100% and positive predictive value 78%. The "in house" test based on the change of pH is useful in our area for detecting presumptively cefotaxime-resistant Enterobacteriaceae strains. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Disk Crack Detection for Seeded Fault Engine Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huageng; Rodriguez, Hector; Hallman, Darren; Corbly, Dennis; Lewicki, David G. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    Work was performed to develop and demonstrate vibration diagnostic techniques for the on-line detection of engine rotor disk cracks and other anomalies through a real engine test. An existing single-degree-of-freedom non-resonance-based vibration algorithm was extended to a multi-degree-of-freedom model. In addition, a resonance-based algorithm was also proposed for the case of one or more resonances. The algorithms were integrated into a diagnostic system using state-of-the- art commercial analysis equipment. The system required only non-rotating vibration signals, such as accelerometers and proximity probes, and the rotor shaft 1/rev signal to conduct the health monitoring. Before the engine test, the integrated system was tested in the laboratory by using a small rotor with controlled mass unbalances. The laboratory tests verified the system integration and both the non-resonance and the resonance-based algorithm implementations. In the engine test, the system concluded that after two weeks of cycling, the seeded fan disk flaw did not propagate to a large enough size to be detected by changes in the synchronous vibration. The unbalance induced by mass shifting during the start up and coast down was still the dominant response in the synchronous vibration.

  12. Likelihood ratio tests in rare variant detection for continuous phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ping; Zhao, Yang; Liu, Jin; Liu, Liya; Zhang, Liwei; Wang, Ting; Huang, Shuiping; Chen, Feng

    2014-09-01

    It is believed that rare variants play an important role in human phenotypes; however, the detection of rare variants is extremely challenging due to their very low minor allele frequency. In this paper, the likelihood ratio test (LRT) and restricted likelihood ratio test (ReLRT) are proposed to test the association of rare variants based on the linear mixed effects model, where a group of rare variants are treated as random effects. Like the sequence kernel association test (SKAT), a state-of-the-art method for rare variant detection, LRT and ReLRT can effectively overcome the problem of directionality of effect inherent in the burden test in practice. By taking full advantage of the spectral decomposition, exact finite sample null distributions for LRT and ReLRT are obtained by simulation. We perform extensive numerical studies to evaluate the performance of LRT and ReLRT, and compare to the burden test, SKAT and SKAT-O. The simulations have shown that LRT and ReLRT can correctly control the type I error, and the controls are robust to the weights chosen and the number of rare variants under study. LRT and ReLRT behave similarly to the burden test when all the causal rare variants share the same direction of effect, and outperform SKAT across various situations. When both positive and negative effects exist, LRT and ReLRT suffer from few power reductions compared to the other two competing methods; under this case, an additional finding from our simulations is that SKAT-O is no longer the optimal test, and its power is even lower than that of SKAT. The exome sequencing SNP data from Genetic Analysis Workshop 17 were employed to illustrate the proposed methods, and interesting results are described. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/University College London.

  13. Simple Diagnostic Tests to Detect Toxic Alcohol Intoxications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jai Moo; Sachs, George; Kraut, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Methanol, ethylene glycol, and diethylene glycol intoxications can produce visual disturbances, neurological disturbances, acute renal failure, pulmonary dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, and death. Metabolic acidosis and an increased serum osmolality are important clues to their diagnosis. The former reflects the organic acids produced by metabolism of the parent alcohol, while the latter is due to accumulation of the offending alcohol. However, neither the clinical nor the laboratory findings are specific for toxic alcohol ingestions. The definitive diagnosis of the alcohol intoxications is commonly based on detection of the alcohol or its metabolites in blood. Early diagnosis is important, because initiation of appropriate treatment can markedly lessen their morbidity and mortality. At present detection of the parent alcohol in body fluids is inferred from its measurement in blood. This measurement is often performed by specialty laboratories using expensive equipment, and a long delay between obtaining the specimen and getting the results is not unusual. In this report, we describe liquid- based tests that detect methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and ethanol in saliva. The tests are sensitive and they have different specificity for each of the alcohols facilitating distinction among them. The relatively high sensitivity and specificity of the tests as a whole will facilitate the rapid diagnosis of each of these alcohol intoxications. PMID:18940722

  14. Simple diagnostic tests to detect toxic alcohol intoxications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jai Moo; Sachs, George; Kraut, Jeffrey A

    2008-10-01

    Methanol, ethylene glycol, and diethylene glycol intoxications can produce visual disturbances, neurologic disturbances, acute renal failure, pulmonary dysfunction, cardiac dysfunction, metabolic acidosis, and death. Metabolic acidosis and an increased serum osmolality are important clues to their diagnosis. The former reflects the organic acids produced by metabolism of the parent alcohol, whereas the latter is caused by accumulation of the offending alcohol. However, neither the clinical nor the laboratory findings are specific for toxic alcohol ingestions. The definitive diagnosis of the alcohol intoxications is commonly based on detection of the alcohol or its metabolites in blood. Early diagnosis is important, because initiation of appropriate treatment can markedly decrease their rates of morbidity and mortality. Currently, detection of the parent alcohol in body fluids is inferred from its measurement in blood. This measurement is often performed by specialty laboratories using expensive equipment, and a long delay between obtaining the specimen and getting the results is not unusual. In this report, we describe liquid-based tests that detect methanol, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, and ethanol in saliva. The tests are sensitive, and they have different specificity for each of the alcohols facilitating distinction among them. The relatively high sensitivity and specificity of the tests as a whole will facilitate the rapid diagnosis of each of these alcohol intoxications.

  15. Detectability of single and plural flaws by ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, K.

    1985-01-01

    An outline and up-to-date test results of an eight year project of proving tests on the effectiveness of in-service inspection is described in the first part of the present paper. Effects on the detectability of such testing parameters as refraction angle, thickness of stainless steel cladding, inspectors, standard flaws in reference specimens, stress state subjected to defects are discussed. This is followed by a discussion of detection reproducibility, resolution and accuracy of inspected size of a defects. The latter part of the paper deals with up-to-date results of tests on resolution and shape determination of propagating adjacent and co-linear fatigue cracks by ultrasonic examination. It was found that real lengths of fatigue crack and EDM surface notch will be roughly estimated by 12 dB and 8 dB down methods, respectively. It is also concluded that the 10 dB down method is available for estimation of the inside distance of two co-linear surface cracks

  16. [The advance of detection technology of HIV self-testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L; Xiao, P P; Yan, H J; Huan, X P; Fu, G F; Li, J J; Yang, H T

    2017-11-06

    At present, China's AIDS testing increased rapidly, but there are still many people living with HIV do not recognize their status, thus postponing the antiviral treatment time. HIV self-testing (HST) is an effective method to expand the testing, not only simple operation, easy to get a result, effectively protect the detection privacy, expand the selection of testers, suit to the entire population, but also the premise and basis of other AIDS comprehensive prevention measures, all over the world are promoting it. Because the HST has controversies in the window period, price and before and after controversial, and our country is in the initial stage of HST, so it is not to develop related policies, but more and more countries are in accordance with their own situations are modified or developed to allow to use rapid detection of AIDS policy to regulate the field. This paper analyzed and summarized the advantage and influence factors of HST promotion, HST believes that in the long term, the advantages outweigh the disadvantages, we need to formulate relevant policies, and improve the sensitivity of the kit, shorten the window period of time, production and promotion of operation standard of video, specification and testing the operating practices, preventing and reporting the possible social harm, investigation and understanding of the needs of the people of the crowd, to maximize the advantages of HST, find more infection, so as to curb the epidemic of AIDS.

  17. Design and test of a capacitance detection circuit based on a transimpedance amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linfeng, Mu; Wendong, Zhang; Changde, He; Rui, Zhang; Jinlong, Song; Chenyang, Xue

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) capacitance detection circuit aimed at detecting micro-capacitance, which is caused by ultrasonic stimulation applied to the capacitive micro-machined ultrasonic transducer (CMUT). In the capacitance interface, a TIA is adopted to amplify the received signal with a center frequency of 400 kHz, and finally detect ultrasound pressure. The circuit has a strong anti-stray property and this paper also studies the calculation of compensation capacity in detail. To ensure high resolution, noise analysis is conducted. After optimization, the detected minimum ultrasound pressure is 2.1 Pa, which is two orders of magnitude higher than the former. The test results showed that the circuit was sensitive to changes in ultrasound pressure and the distance between the CMUT and stumbling block, which also successfully demonstrates the functionality of the developed TIA of the analog-front-end receiver. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61127008) and the Subsidized Program of the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (No. 2011AA040404).

  18. The Arm Movement Detection (AMD) test: a fast robotic test of proprioceptive acuity in the arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrotek, Leigh Ann; Bengtson, Maria; Stoeckmann, Tina; Botzer, Lior; Ghez, Claude P; McGuire, John; Scheidt, Robert A

    2017-06-28

    We examined the validity and reliability of a short robotic test of upper limb proprioception, the Arm Movement Detection (AMD) test, which yields a ratio-scaled, objective outcome measure to be used for evaluating the impact of sensory deficits on impairments of motor control, motor adaptation and functional recovery in stroke survivors. Subjects grasped the handle of a horizontal planar robot, with their arm and the robot hidden from view. The robot applied graded force perturbations, which produced small displacements of the handle. The AMD test required subjects to respond verbally to queries regarding whether or not they detected arm motions. Each participant completed ten, 60s trials; in five of the trials, force perturbations were increased in small increments until the participant detected motion while in the others, perturbations were decreased until the participant could no longer detect motion. The mean and standard deviation of the 10 movement detection thresholds were used to compute a Proprioceptive Acuity Score (PAS). Based on the sensitivity and consistency of the estimated thresholds, the PAS quantifies the likelihood that proprioception is intact. Lower PAS scores correspond to higher proprioceptive acuity. Thirty-nine participants completed the AMD test, consisting of 25 neurologically intact control participants (NIC), seven survivors of stroke with intact proprioception in the more affected limb (HSS+P), and seven survivors of stroke with impaired or absent proprioception in the more affected limb (HSS-P). Significant group differences were found, with the NIC and HSS+P groups having lower (i.e., better) PAS scores than the HSS-P group. A subset of the participants completed the AMD test multiple times and the AMD test was found to be reliable across repetitions. The AMD test required less than 15 min to complete and provided an objective, ratio-scaled measure of proprioceptive acuity in the upper limb. In the future, this test could be

  19. Generalized Information Matrix Tests for Detecting Model Misspecification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Golden

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Generalized Information Matrix Tests (GIMTs have recently been used for detecting the presence of misspecification in regression models in both randomized controlled trials and observational studies. In this paper, a unified GIMT framework is developed for the purpose of identifying, classifying, and deriving novel model misspecification tests for finite-dimensional smooth probability models. These GIMTs include previously published as well as newly developed information matrix tests. To illustrate the application of the GIMT framework, we derived and assessed the performance of new GIMTs for binary logistic regression. Although all GIMTs exhibited good level and power performance for the larger sample sizes, GIMT statistics with fewer degrees of freedom and derived using log-likelihood third derivatives exhibited improved level and power performance.

  20. MTG infrared sounder detection chain: first radiometric test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumestier, D.; Pistone, F.; Dartois, T.; Blazquez, E.

    2017-11-01

    Europe's next fleet of geostationary meteorological satellites, MeteoSat Third Generation, will introduce new functions in addition to continuity of high-resolution meteorological data. The atmosphere Infrared Sounder (IRS), as high -end instrument, is part of this challenging program. IRS principle is a Fourier Transform Interferometer, which allows recomposing atmospheric spectrum after infrared photons detection. Transmission spectrums will be used to support numerical weather prediction. IRS instrument is able to offer full disk coverage in one hour, an on-ground resolution of 4 by 4 km, in two spectral bands (MWIR: 1600 to 2175cm-1 and LWIR: 700 to 1210cm-1) with a spectral resolution of 0.6cm-1. Among critical technologies and processes, IRS detection chain shall offer outstanding characteristics in terms of radiometric performance like Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR), dynamic range and linearity. Selected detectors are HgCdTe two-dimensions arrays, cooled at 55 Kelvins, hybridized on snapshot silicon read-out circuit at 160x160 format. Video electronics present 16 bits resolution, and the whole detection chain (Detectors and electronics) permits to reach SNR between 2 000 and 10 000 as requested by the application. Radiometric onground test results performed on design representative detection chains are presented and are confirming the challenging phase A design choices.

  1. Detection of IgE insulin antibody with radioallergosorbent test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, S.; Nakayama, H.; Sasaki, T.; Watanabe, T.; Aoki, S.; Saito, N.

    1978-01-01

    An in vitro method for detecting IgE insulin antibody using the principle of the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) is described. In six patients with insulin allergy, the RAST values were higher than in normal persons or insulin-treated diabetics without insulin allergy. No differences were observed between normal persons and insulin-treated diabetics without insulin allergy. Moreover, it was observed that in one patient treated with highly purified insulin, there was a gradual decrease of RAST value parallel to the radioinsulin binding activity and clinical allergic symptoms. The RAST value of insulin is slightly inhibited by non-IgE antibodies and is, therefore, a semiquantitative value. However, the RAST is simple to perform and reproducible; it is therefore very useful in the detection of IgE insulin antibodies. (orig.) [de

  2. Detection measures in real-life criminal guilty knowledge tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elaad, E; Ginton, A; Jungman, N

    1992-10-01

    The present study provides a first attempt to compare the validity of the respiration line length (RLL) and skin resistance response (SRR) amplitude in real-life criminal guilty knowledge tests (GKTs). GKT records of 40 innocent and 40 guilty Ss, for whom actual truth was established by confession, were assessed for their accuracy. When a predefined decision rule was used and inconclusive decisions were excluded, 97.4% of the innocent Ss and 53.3% of the guilty Ss were correctly classified with the SRR measure. For the RLL measure, the respective results were 97.2% and 53.1%. The combination of both measures improved detection of guilty Ss to 75.8% and decreased detection of innocent Ss to 94.1%. The combined measure seems to be a more useful means of identifying guilty suspects than each physiological measure alone. The results elaborate and extend those obtained in a previous field study conducted by Elaad (1990).

  3. Prospective detection of large prediction errors: a hypothesis testing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Real-time motion management is important in radiotherapy. In addition to effective monitoring schemes, prediction is required to compensate for system latency, so that treatment can be synchronized with tumor motion. However, it is difficult to predict tumor motion at all times, and it is critical to determine when large prediction errors may occur. Such information can be used to pause the treatment beam or adjust monitoring/prediction schemes. In this study, we propose a hypothesis testing approach for detecting instants corresponding to potentially large prediction errors in real time. We treat the future tumor location as a random variable, and obtain its empirical probability distribution with the kernel density estimation-based method. Under the null hypothesis, the model probability is assumed to be a concentrated Gaussian centered at the prediction output. Under the alternative hypothesis, the model distribution is assumed to be non-informative uniform, which reflects the situation that the future position cannot be inferred reliably. We derive the likelihood ratio test (LRT) for this hypothesis testing problem and show that with the method of moments for estimating the null hypothesis Gaussian parameters, the LRT reduces to a simple test on the empirical variance of the predictive random variable. This conforms to the intuition to expect a (potentially) large prediction error when the estimate is associated with high uncertainty, and to expect an accurate prediction when the uncertainty level is low. We tested the proposed method on patient-derived respiratory traces. The 'ground-truth' prediction error was evaluated by comparing the prediction values with retrospective observations, and the large prediction regions were subsequently delineated by thresholding the prediction errors. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to describe the performance of the proposed hypothesis testing method. Clinical implication was represented by miss

  4. [The PRRSV-serumneutralization test detects gaps in herd immunity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttcher, Jens; Alex, Michaela; Janowetz, Britta; Müller, Silvia; Schuh, Christina; Niemeyer, Hermann

    2014-01-01

    Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) appears in two genotypes (EU and US), for both genotypes attenuated live-vaccines are available. A cross-sectional study in 38 Bavarian sow herds was performed to assess the level of neutralizing antibodies. Per herd 38 blood samples were collected (10 weaned piglets, 10 gilts and 6 sows of 1./2., 3J4. and 5/6. parity, respectively). Sera were tested by ELISA, serumneutralization test (SNT) against EU- and US-vaccine virus, and pooled sera were tested by real-time RT-PCR. Herds were classified by the last vaccination of sows as "Vacc EU" "Vacc US"and "nv (non-vaccinated) and by detection of PRRSV-US and vaccination of piglets were not included as variables. Sows of group (2) Vacc EU/EU- showed the highest EU-SNT-titers irrespective of parity. Groups (5) Vacc US/EU+ and (1) Vacc EU/EU+ followed in descending order. Significantly lower SNT-titers in (1) Vacc EU/EU+ were especially observed in sows of 1/2. Parity (Kruskal-Wallis, p vaccinated herds detection of PRRSV-EU coincided with strong ELISA-reactivity in all animal groups. In EU-vaccinated herds this was only observed for weaned piglets. Sows showed a strong ELISA-reactivity irrespective of detection of PRRSV-EU. The value of the ELISA is restricted to the certification of PRRSV-free herds. The EU-SNT reflects the level of herd immunity at least against vaccine virus; it indicates gaps in herd immunity.

  5. NASA-STD-6001B Test 7: Impact of Test Methodology and Detection Advancements on the Obsolescence of Historical Offgas Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Vanessa D.; Woods, Brenton; Harper, Susana A.; Beeson, Harold D.; Perez, Horacio; Ryder, Valerie; Tapia, Alma S.; Pedley, Michael D.

    2017-01-01

    NASA-STD-6001B states "all nonmetals tested in accordance with NASA-STD-6001 should be retested every 10 years or as required by the responsible program/project." The retesting of materials helps ensure the most accurate data are used in material selection. Manufacturer formulas and processes can change over time, sometimes without an update to product number and material information. Material performance in certain NASA-STD-6001 tests can be particularly vulnerable to these changes, such as material offgas (Test 7). In addition, Test 7 analysis techniques at NASA White Sands Test Facility were dramatically enhanced in the early 1990s, resulting in improved detection capabilities. Low level formaldehyde identification was improved again in 2004. Understanding the limitations in offgas analysis data prior to 1990 puts into question the validity and current applicability of that data. Case studies on Super Koropon (Registered trademark) and Aeroglaze (Registered trademark) topcoat highlight the importance of material retesting.

  6. Evaluation of a New and Rapid Serologic Test for Detecting Brucellosis: Brucella Coombs Gel Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanci, Hayrunisa; Igan, Hakan; Uyanik, Muhammet Hamidullah

    2017-01-01

    Many serological tests have been used for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. A new serological method is identified as Brucella Coombs gel test based on the principle of centrifugation gel system similar to the gel system used in blood group determination. In this system, if Brucella antibodies were present in the serum, antigen and antibody would remain as a pink complex on the gel. Otherwise, the pink Brucella antigens would precipitate at the bottom of the gel card system. In this study, we aimed to compare the Brucella Coombs gel test, a new, rapid screen and titration method for detection of non-agglutinating IgG with the Brucella Coombs test. For this study, a total of 88 serum samples were obtained from 45 healthy persons and 43 individuals who had clinical signs and symptoms of brucellosis. For each specimen, Rose Bengal test, standard agglutination test, Coombs test and Brucella Coombs gel test were carried out. Sensitivity and specificity of Brucella Coombs gel test were found as 100.0 and 82.2%, respectively. Brucella Coombs gel test can be used as a screening test with high sensitivity. By the help of pink Brucella antigen precipitation, the tests' evaluation is simple and objective. In addition, determination of Brucella antibody by rapid titration offers another important advantage.

  7. Data Reconciliation and Gross Error Detection: A Filtered Measurement Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himour, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Measured process data commonly contain inaccuracies because the measurements are obtained using imperfect instruments. As well as random errors one can expect systematic bias caused by miscalibrated instruments or outliers caused by process peaks such as sudden power fluctuations. Data reconciliation is the adjustment of a set of process data based on a model of the process so that the derived estimates conform to natural laws. In this paper, we will explore a predictor-corrector filter based on data reconciliation, and then a modified version of the measurement test is combined with the studied filter to detect probable outliers that can affect process measurements. The strategy presented is tested using dynamic simulation of an inverted pendulum

  8. An Improved Test for Detecting Multiplicative Homeostatic Synaptic Scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jimok; Tsien, Richard W.; Alger, Bradley E.

    2012-01-01

    Homeostatic scaling of synaptic strengths is essential for maintenance of network “gain”, but also poses a risk of losing the distinctions among relative synaptic weights, which are possibly cellular correlates of memory storage. Multiplicative scaling of all synapses has been proposed as a mechanism that would preserve the relative weights among them, because they would all be proportionately adjusted. It is crucial for this hypothesis that all synapses be affected identically, but whether or not this actually occurs is difficult to determine directly. Mathematical tests for multiplicative synaptic scaling are presently carried out on distributions of miniature synaptic current amplitudes, but the accuracy of the test procedure has not been fully validated. We now show that the existence of an amplitude threshold for empirical detection of miniature synaptic currents limits the use of the most common method for detecting multiplicative changes. Our new method circumvents the problem by discarding the potentially distorting subthreshold values after computational scaling. This new method should be useful in assessing the underlying neurophysiological nature of a homeostatic synaptic scaling transformation, and therefore in evaluating its functional significance. PMID:22615990

  9. Tests of FARICH prototype with precise photon position detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnyakov, A.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Barnyakov, M.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Basok, I.Yu. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Blinov, V.E. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Borodenko, A.A.; Buzykaev, A.R. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Danilyuk, A.F. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Degenhardt, C.; Dorscheid, R. [Philips Digital Photon Counting, Aachen (Germany); Finogeev, D.A. [Institute of Nuclear Research RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Frach, T. [Philips Digital Photon Counting, Aachen (Germany); Gulevich, V.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Karavicheva, T.L. [Institute of Nuclear Research RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kasyanenko, P.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kononov, S.A. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Korda, D.V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kravchenko, E.A., E-mail: E.A.Kravchenko@inp.nsk.su [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kudryavtsev, V.N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Kurepin, A.B. [Institute of Nuclear Research RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); and others

    2014-12-01

    In June 2012 a FARICH prototype from Philips Digital Photon Counting (PDPC) based on a photon camera with dimensions of 200×200 mm has been tested at CERN. Remarkable particle separation has been achieved with a 4-layer aerogel sample: the π/K separation at a 6 GeV/c momentum is 3.5σ, the μ/π separation is 5.3σ at 1 GeV/c. The analysis of the data has shown that the main contribution to the accuracy of the ring radius measurement comes from aerogel. The development of focusing aerogels is proceeding in two main directions: tuning of production technology of multilayer blocks and development of a new production method with continuous density (refractive index) gradient along the block depth. The beam test was carried out in December 2012–January 2013 at the electron beam test facility at the VEPP-4 M e{sup +}e{sup −} collider. The goal of this test was to measure different single layer and focusing aerogel samples, both multilayer and gradient. Aerogel samples were tested with a PDPC FARICH prototype. A part of DPC SPADs in each pixel was disabled to form an active area of 1×1 mm{sup 2}. The collected data proved that gradient aerogel samples focus Cherenkov light. - Highlights: • The first aerogel tiles with specified profile of refractive index along the block depth are produced. • To get 300 μm photon position resolution 92% of individual micro-cells were inhibited in a DPC pixel. • The first tests with ‘gradient’ radiators and DPC detector working in precise detection mode were done.

  10. Biochemical principle of Limulus test for detecting bacterial endotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Sadaaki

    2007-05-01

    A hemocyte lysate from horseshoe crab (Limulus) produced a gel, when exposed to Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins, lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This gelation reaction of the lysate, so-called Limulus test, has been widely employed as a simple and very sensitive assay method for endotoxins. Recent biochemical studies on the principle of Limulus test indicate that the hemocytes contain several serine protease zymogens, which constitute a coagulation cascade triggered by endotoxins, and that there is a (1,3)-β-D-glucan-mediated coagulation pathway which also results in the formation of gel. Up to now, six protein components, designated coagulogen, proclotting enzyme, factor B, factor C, and factor G, all of which are closely associated with the endotoxin-mediated coagulation pathway, have been purified and biochemically characterized. The molecular structures of these proteins have also been elucidated. Moreover, the reconstitution experiments using the isolated clotting factors, factor C, factor B, proclotting enzyme and coagulogen in the presence of endotoxin, leads to the formation of coagulin gel. Here, I will focus on the biochemical principle of Limulus test for detecting bacterial endotoxins, and its activation and regulation mechanism on the LPS-mediated coagulation cascade.

  11. Ensuring a healthy power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Paul

    2012-11-01

    Paul Moore, managing director of standby power specialist, Dieselec Thistle, explains the business-critical nature of standby power systems in a hospital setting, and the specification criteria that should be considered to ensure that the installation meets the needs of the building, and takes account of its surroundings.

  12. [The functional tests in clinical diagnostic laboratory: the detection of magnesium deficiency in the loading test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakov, A V; Kobylianskiĭ, A G; Tishchenkov, V G; Titov, V N

    2012-06-01

    The article deals with the value and role of functional tests in practice of clinical diagnostic laboratories. The possibilities of evaluation of biological function of homeostasis according the changes of magnesium ions or calcium concentration in urine or blood hence reflecting the deficiency of these ions in vivo. The magnesium tolerant test is described It is demonstrated that it can be applied both in curative preventive institutions and ambulatories. In the examined group of patients, 78% had physiologic parameters of magnesium concentration, 17% suffered from hypermagnesiumuria and 5%--from hypermagnesiumuria. The magnesium deficiency of different degree was detected in 87% of patients. In the most part of patients with magnesium deficiency normomagnesiumuria was detected. Only in one case with normomagnesiumuria the magnesium deficiency was absent. In 30% of patients with magnesium deficiency the concentration of cation in day urine decreased up to 2.2 times after load dose. In absence of deficiency the monotony of cation's excretion was noted. Under the magnesium deficiency the character of process changed but velocity of excretion of magnesium after load probe slightly decreased relative to values before the load. The impact of alcohol under established magnesium deficiency results in increasing of velocity of excretion of this analyte. In patient with diabetes mellitus type II six months before the diagnosis of this disease the hidden deficiency of magnesium was detected. The magnesium deficiency was not detected after the antidiabetic treatment was applied The results permit to postulate the possibility of application oral load test with magnesium to assess the impact of various stress, physical, emotional and psychological factors. The detection of magnesium deficiency permit to broad the complex treatment, to accelerate and to enhance the results of treatment of diseases. Besides, the evaluation of patient's condition according the reaction of the

  13. Direct testing of blood cultures for detection of streptococcal antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetkowski, M A; Peterson, E M; de la Maza, L M

    1982-07-01

    A direct, rapid, and simple method for the detection of streptococcal antigens of Lancefield groups A, B, C, D, and G from blood cultures was developed by using a coagglutination test. Fifty-five clinical specimens and 117 simulated blood cultures containing gram-positive cocci were tested. Out of 6,261 clinical blood cultures screened, 55 cultures from 53 patients were positive, with organisms resembling streptococci, by Gram stain. Of these cultures, 78% (43 of 55) were pure cultures of streptococci, and 22% (12 of 55) were mixed with at least one other organism. Of the 43 pure cultures only, correct reactions were obtained (grouping correctly or giving no cross-reactions, or both) with 86% (37 of 43) of the isolates, 12% (5 of 43) exhibited cross-reactions, and 2% (1 of 43) gave false-negative reactions. All of the cross-reacting isolates were Streptococcus pneumoniae, which reacted with the group C reagent, and the false-negative reaction occurred with a Streptococcus bovis isolate. However, by using a direct modified bile solubility test, the correct identification of the S. pneumoniae isolates was obtained. Therefore, by using the modified bile solubility test in conjunction with the direct grouping method, 98% (42 of 43) of the isolates in pure culture could be identified accurately and rapidly after the detection of a positive Gram stain. Correct grouping reactions were obtained with 83% (10 of 12) of the mixed blood cultures, and false-negative results occurred with 17% (2 of 12) of them. Both cultures contained an enterococcus and a gram-negative rod. Of the 117 simulated blood cultures, there was only one incorrect grouping reaction; this occurred with an S. bovis isolate that cross-reacted with the group C reagent. The direct grouping reaction was positive when blood cultures contained a minimum of 1 x 10(8) to 8 x 10(8) colony-forming units per ml. In general, this procedure provided information on the identification of the organism 24 h earlier than

  14. Ensuring a Safe Technological Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Defense AT&L: November-December 2016 14 Ensuring a Safe Technological Revolution William E. Frazier, Ph.D. n Elizabeth L. McMichael n Jennifer...agility for increased innovation and performance capabilities, is the cusp of the AM technology revolution . AM provides the opportunity to truly...develops strategic plans for the research, development and transition of naval aviation technologies . He is a graduate of Drexel University, the Naval

  15. Standard Test Procedures for Evaluating Various Leak Detection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about protocols that testers could use to demonstrate that an individual release detection equipment type could meet the performance requirements noted in the federal UST requirements for detecting leaks.

  16. Detection of thrombocytic antibodies with the direct and indirect haemolysis inhibition test and the radioimmuno-Coombs test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mettenboerger, D.; Vith, E.

    1982-01-01

    Methods of application of the direct and indirect haemolysis inhibition test were studied in order to optimise the test parameters: The ultimate aim was to standardize the test method and compare its sensitivity in detecting various platelet antibodies with platelet indirect radioactive Coombs-test and the platelet immunofluorescence test. (orig.) [de

  17. DipTest: A litmus test for E. coli detection in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, Naga Siva Kumar; Dasgupta, Saumyadeb; Mitra, Sushanta K

    2017-01-01

    We have developed a new litmus paper test (DipTest) for detecting Escherichia coli (E. coli) in water samples by performing enzymatic reactions directly on the porous paper substrate. The paper strip consists of a long narrow piece of cellulose blotting paper coated with chemoattractant (at bottom edge), wax hydrophobic barrier (at the top edge), and custom formulated chemical reagents (at reaction zone immediately below the wax hydrophobic barrier). When the paper strip is dipped in water, E. coli in the water sample is attracted toward the paper strip due to a chemotaxic mechanism followed by the ascent along the paper strip toward the reaction zone due to a capillary wicking mechanism, and finally the capillary motion is arrested at the top edge of the paper strip by the hydrophobic barrier. The E. coli concentrated at the reaction zone of the paper strip will react with custom formulated chemical reagents to produce a pinkish-red color. Such a color change on the paper strip when dipped into water samples indicates the presence of E. coli contamination in potable water. The performance of the DipTest device has been checked with different known concentrations of E. coli contaminated water samples using different dip and wait times. The DipTest device has also been tested with different interfering bacteria and chemical contaminants. It has been observed that the different interfering contaminants do not have any impact on the DipTest, and it can become a potential solution for screening water samples for E. coli contamination at the point of source.

  18. Detecting decay fungi with antibody-based tests and immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol A. Clausen

    2003-01-01

    Early detection of wood decay can prolong the service life of wood. Antibodies are the ideal probe for detecting fungi that cause biodeterioration because they are highly specific and can quantitatively determine the fungal antigen concentration from highly complex structures, such as wood. Polyclonal antibodies recognize multiple chemical sites of the targeted...

  19. Comparing statistical tests for detecting soil contamination greater than background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, J.W.; Gilbert, R.O.

    1993-12-01

    The Washington State Department of Ecology (WSDE) recently issued a report that provides guidance on statistical issues regarding investigation and cleanup of soil and groundwater contamination under the Model Toxics Control Act Cleanup Regulation. Included in the report are procedures for determining a background-based cleanup standard and for conducting a 3-step statistical test procedure to decide if a site is contaminated greater than the background standard. The guidance specifies that the State test should only be used if the background and site data are lognormally distributed. The guidance in WSDE allows for using alternative tests on a site-specific basis if prior approval is obtained from WSDE. This report presents the results of a Monte Carlo computer simulation study conducted to evaluate the performance of the State test and several alternative tests for various contamination scenarios (background and site data distributions). The primary test performance criteria are (1) the probability the test will indicate that a contaminated site is indeed contaminated, and (2) the probability that the test will indicate an uncontaminated site is contaminated. The simulation study was conducted assuming the background concentrations were from lognormal or Weibull distributions. The site data were drawn from distributions selected to represent various contamination scenarios. The statistical tests studied are the State test, t test, Satterthwaite's t test, five distribution-free tests, and several tandem tests (wherein two or more tests are conducted using the same data set)

  20. Oral-Fluid Thiol-Detection Test Identifies Underlying Active Periodontal Disease Not Detected by the Visual Awake Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queck, Katherine E; Chapman, Angela; Herzog, Leslie J; Shell-Martin, Tamara; Burgess-Cassler, Anthony; McClure, George David

    2018-03-20

    Periodontal disease in dogs is highly prevalent but can only be accurately diagnosed by performing an anesthetized oral examination with periodontal probing and dental radiography. In this study, 114 dogs had a visual awake examination of the oral cavity and were administered an oral-fluid thiol-detection test prior to undergoing a a full-mouth anesthetized oral examination and digital dental radiographs. The results show the visual awake examination underestimated the presence and severity of active periodontal disease. The thiol-detection test was superior to the visual awake examination at detecting the presence and severity of active periodontal disease and was an indicator of progression toward alveolar bone loss. The thiol-detection test detected active periodontal disease at early stages of development, before any visual cues were present, indicating the need for intervention to prevent periodontal bone loss. Early detection is important because without intervention, dogs with gingivitis (active periodontal disease) progress to irreversible periodontal bone loss (stage 2+). As suggested in the current AAHA guidelines, a thiol-detection test administered in conjunction with the visual awake examination during routine wellness examinations facilitates veterinarian-client communication and mitigates under-diagnosis of periodontal disease and underutilization of dental services. The thiol-detection test can be used to monitor the periodontal health status of the conscious patient during follow-up examinations based on disease severity.

  1. The notion and role of "detection tests" in the Danish upper secondary "maths counsellor" programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niss, Mogens Allan; Jankvist, Uffe Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses a specific aspect of the Danish “maths counsellor” programme for upper secondary school, namely that of detection tests. More precisely, the purpose and designof a detection test is presented, as is the prospective counsellors’ use of the test. In the description......, emphasis is placed on the ways in which detection tests assist in informing the maths counsellors in their work with students experiencing learning difficulties in mathematics....

  2. Defect detection in conducting materials using eddy current testing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brauer Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lorentz force eddy current testing (LET is a novel nondestructive testing technique which can be applied preferably to the identification of internal defects in nonmagnetic moving conductors. The LET is compared (similar testing conditions with the classical eddy current testing (ECT. Numerical FEM simulations have been performed to analyze the measurements as well as the identification of internal defects in nonmagnetic conductors. The results are compared with measurements to test the feasibility of defect identification. Finally, the use of LET measurements to estimate of the electrical conductors under test are described as well.

  3. Quantitative Ischemia Detection During Cardiac MR Stress Testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kraitchman, D

    2001-01-01

    .... During a second ischemic episode, conventional cine wall motion images were acquired. The time from occlusion to the detection of ischemia by each MR technique, as well as ECG ischemic alterations, was determined...

  4. Detection of differential item functioning using Lagrange multiplier tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract: In the present paper it is shown that differential item functioning can be evaluated using the Lagrange multiplier test or Rao’s efficient score test. The test is presented in the framework of a number of IRT models such as the Rasch model, the OPLM, the 2-parameter logistic model, the

  5. Detection of differential item functioning using Lagrange multiplier tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that differential item functioning can be evaluated using the Lagrange multiplier test or C. R. Rao's efficient score test. The test is presented in the framework of a number of item response theory (IRT) models such as the Rasch model, the one-parameter logistic model, the

  6. Evaluation of hydrogen sulphide test for detection of fecal coliform ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Membrane Filter Technique (MFT) and Most Probable Number (MPN) test for coliform, respectively. In comparisons with MPN the H2S test showed 84% correlation with open well water, 80% with tube well water and 94% with hotels and restaurants water at room temperature, indicating decrease in efficacy of this test with ...

  7. Two pathways ensuring social harmony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Matthias; Pamminger, Tobias; Foitzik, Susanne

    2012-08-01

    Reproductive division of labour is a characteristic trait of social insects. The dominant reproductive individual, often the queen, uses chemical communication and/or behaviour to maintain her social status. Queens of many social insects communicate their fertility status via cuticle-bound substances. As these substances usually possess a low volatility, their range in queen-worker communication is potentially limited. Here, we investigate the range and impact of behavioural and chemical queen signals on workers of the ant Temnothorax longispinosus. We compared the behaviour and ovary development of workers subjected to three different treatments: workers with direct chemical and physical contact to the queen, those solely under the influence of volatile queen substances and those entirely separated from the queen. In addition to short-ranged queen signals preventing ovary development in workers, we discovered a novel secondary pathway influencing worker behaviour. Workers with no physical contact to the queen, but exposed to volatile substances, started to develop their ovaries, but did not change their behaviour compared to workers in direct contact to the queen. In contrast, workers in queen-separated groups showed both increased ovary development and aggressive dominance interactions. We conclude that T. longispinosus queens influence worker ovary development and behaviour via two independent signals, both ensuring social harmony within the colony.

  8. Fault Detection Coverage Quantification of Automatic Test Functions of Digital I and C System in NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jong Gyun; Lee, Seung Jun; Hur, Seop; Lee, Young Jun; Jang, Seung Cheol

    2011-01-01

    Recently, analog instrument and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been replaced with digital systems for safer and more efficient operations. Digital I and C systems have adopted various fault-tolerant techniques that help the system correctly and safely perform the specific required functions in spite of the presence of faults. Each fault-tolerant technique has a different inspection period from real-time monitoring to monthly testing. The range covered by each fault-tolerant technique is also different. The digital I and C system, therefore, adopts multiple barriers consisting of various fault-tolerant techniques to increase total fault detection coverage. Even though these fault-tolerant techniques are adopted to ensure and improve the safety of a system, their effects have not been properly considered yet in most PSA models. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an evaluation method that can describe these features of a digital I and C system. Several issues must be considered in the fault coverage estimation of a digital I and C system, and two of them were handled in this work. The first is to quantify the fault coverage of each fault-tolerant technique implemented in the system, and the second is to exclude the duplicated effect of fault-tolerant techniques implemented simultaneously at each level of the system's hierarchy, as a fault occurring in a system might be detected by one or more fault-tolerant techniques. For this work, fault injection experiment was used to obtain the exact relations between faults and multiple barriers of fault-tolerant techniques. This experiment was applied to a bistable processor (BP) of a reactor protection system

  9. Pathogen detection, testing, and control in fresh broccoli sprouts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahey Jed W

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent increased interest in consuming green vegetable sprouts has been tempered by the fact that fresh sprouts can in some cases be vehicles for food-borne illnesses. They must be grown according to proper conditions of sanitation and handled as a food product rather than as an agricultural commodity. When sprouts are grown in accordance with the criteria proposed from within the sprout industry, developed by regulatory agencies, and adhered to by many sprouters, green sprouts can be produced with very low risk. Contamination may occur when these guidelines are not followed. Methods A one year program of microbial hold-and-release testing, conducted in concert with strict seed and facility cleaning procedures by 13 U.S. broccoli sprout growers was evaluated. Microbial contamination tests were performed on 6839 drums of sprouts, equivalent to about 5 million consumer packages of fresh green sprouts. Results Only 24 (0.75% of the 3191 sprout samples gave an initial positive test for Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella spp., and when re-tested, 3 drums again tested positive. Composite testing (e.g., pooling up to 7 drums for pathogen testing was equally sensitive to single drum testing. Conclusion By using a "test-and-re-test" protocol, growers were able to minimize crop destruction. By pooling drums for testing, they were also able to reduce testing costs which now represent a substantial portion of the costs associated with sprout growing. The test-and-hold scheme described herein allowed those few batches of contaminated sprouts to be found prior to packaging and shipping. These events were isolated, and only safe sprouts entered the food supply.

  10. Nonhomogeneity Detection in CFAR Reference Windows Using the Mean-to-Mean Ratio Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Nonhomogeneity Detection in CFAR Reference Windows Using the Mean-to-Mean Ratio Test T.V. Cao Electronic Warfare and Radar Division...detection of nonhomogeneities in a radar’s Constant False Alarm Rate ( CFAR ) reference window. No a priori knowledge of the nonhomogeneity topol- ogy is...seriously degrade the detection performance of the cell-averaging CFAR detector can be detected with a higher probability by the MMR test. APPROVED FOR

  11. Development of Failed Fuel Detection System for HANARO Fuel Test Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sung Ho; Sim, Bong Sik; Park, Su Ki; Chi, Dae Young; Park, Kook Nam; Lee, Chung Young; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Hark Rho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    FTL (Fuel Test Loop) is a test facility which could conduct fuel irradiation test at HANARO reactor. The FFDS (Failed Fuel Detection System) is installed in the FTL for detection of test fuel failure. The signals from the FFDS are interconnected with HANARO reactor protection system via FTL protection panels for reactor trip. In this paper, a design, manufacturing and functional test results of the FFDS are introduced.

  12. Relevant test set using feature selection algorithm for early detection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of feature selection is to find the most relevant features for classification. Thus, the dimensionality of the information will be reduced and may improve classification's accuracy. This paper proposed a minimum set of relevant questions that can be used for early detection of dyslexia. In this research, we ...

  13. Empirical assessment of VoIP overload detection tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Żuraniewski, P.; Mandjes, M.; Mellia, M.

    2010-01-01

    The control of communication networks critically relies on procedures capable of detecting unanticipated load changes. In this paper we explore such techniques, in a setting in which each connection consumes roughly the same amount of bandwidth (with VoIP as a leading example). We focus on

  14. Rao and Wald tests for adaptive detection in partially homogeneous environment with a diversely polarized antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chaozhu; Zhang, Jing; Liu, Chengyuan

    2013-01-01

    This study considers Rao test and Wald test for adaptive detection based on a diversely polarized antenna (DPA) in partially homogeneous environment. The theoretical expressions for the probability of false alarm and detection are derived, and constant false alarm rate (CFAR) behaviour is remarked on. Furthermore, the monotonicities of detection probability of the two detectors are proved, and a polarization optimization detection algorithm to enhance the detection performance is proposed. The numerical simulations are conducted to attest to the validity of the above theoretical analysis and illustrate the improvement in the detection performance of the proposed optimization algorithm.

  15. Rao and Wald Tests for Adaptive Detection in Partially Homogeneous Environment with a Diversely Polarized Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaozhu Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study considers Rao test and Wald test for adaptive detection based on a diversely polarized antenna (DPA in partially homogeneous environment. The theoretical expressions for the probability of false alarm and detection are derived, and constant false alarm rate (CFAR behaviour is remarked on. Furthermore, the monotonicities of detection probability of the two detectors are proved, and a polarization optimization detection algorithm to enhance the detection performance is proposed. The numerical simulations are conducted to attest to the validity of the above theoretical analysis and illustrate the improvement in the detection performance of the proposed optimization algorithm.

  16. Inter-laboratory proficiency tests to detect viral fish diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kahns, Søren; Nicolajsen, Nicole; Skall, Helle Frank

    An inter-laboratory proficiency test has ben provided by the European Community Laboratory (CRL) for Fish Diseases every year since 1996. The test is provided to all European National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) that are obliged to participate and to a limited number of non-European NRLs, making...

  17. Discordancy tests for outlier detection in multi-item questionnaires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, W.P.; van der Ark, L.A.; Sijtsma, K.

    2013-01-01

    The sensitivity and the specificity of four outlier scores were studied for four different discordancy tests. The outlier scores were the Mahalanobis distance, a robust version of the Mahalanobis distance, and two measures tailored to discrete data, known as O+ and G+. The discordancy tests were

  18. Automated detection of test fixture strategies and smells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greiler, M.S.; Van Deursen, A.; Storey, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Paper accepted for publication in the Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, IEEE Computer Society, 18-22 March 2013, ISBN 978-1-4673-5961-0, doi: 10.1109/ICST.2013.45 Designing automated tests is a challenging task. One important concern

  19. False-positive urine pregnancy tests clinicians as detectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reliably diagnosing pregnancy in women presenting with nonspecific abdominal pain can be lifesaving. If diagnostic tests are unreliable, however, valuable time and resources can be wasted pursuing unnecessary and potentially harmful interventions. After four false positive-urine pregnancy tests in one week, we began ...

  20. Vaginal swab specimen processing methods influence performance of rapid semen detection tests: a cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Marcia M; Steiner, Markus J; Rich, Kimberly D; Gallo, Maria F; Warner, Lee; Macaluso, Maurizio

    2010-09-01

    Detection of semen biomarkers in vaginal fluid can be used to assess women's recent exposure to semen. Quantitative tests for detection of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) perform well, but are expensive and require specialized equipment. We assessed two rapid immunochromatographic strip tests for identification of semen in vaginal swabs. We tested 581 vaginal swabs collected from 492 women. Vaginal secretions were eluted into saline, and PSA was measured using the quantitative IMx (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USA) assay. Specimens were also tested using the ABAcard p30 test (Abacus Diagnostics, West Hills, CA, USA) for detection of PSA and RSID-Semen test (Independent Forensics, Hillside, IL, USA) for detection of semenogelin (Sg). Vaginal swab extraction using saline was compatible with direct assessment of vaginal swab eluates using ABAcard for PSA detection, but not for Sg detection using RSID. The rapid PSA test detected 91% of specimens containing semen compared to 74% by the rapid Sg test. Investigators are urged to optimize vaginal swab specimen preparation methods for performance of RSID or other tests to detect semen components other than PSA. Previously described methods for PSA testing are not uniformly applicable to other tests. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of an ATP assay for rapid onboard testing to detect living microorganisms in ballast water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Bonggil; Cha, Hyung-Gon; Lee, Nayoung; Yum, Seungshic; Baek, Seung Ho; Shin, Kyoungsoon

    2018-03-01

    Ballast water is a principal pathway for the introduction of pathogens and non-indigenous species to ports worldwide. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) and the United States Coast Guard (USCG) have adopted ballast water management regulations that require, e.g., the installation of shipboard ballast water management systems (BWMS). Rapid and simple analytical methods are needed to monitor whether ballast water disinfection ensures compliance with the discharge standards. In this study laboratory and full scale land-based testing was used to investigate the suitability of an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assay for quantifying living organisms (≥ 10 and < 50 μm minimum dimension) in ballast water. In laboratory experiments the ATP assay was highly sensitive, with a detection limit of < 5 cells 0.1 mL- 1. Diatom species (Chaetoceros simplex and Skeletonema costatum) had low ATP concentrations compared with dinoflagellate, Raphidophyceae, and Chrysophyceae species. This was because of differences in cell volume, as the ATP concentration increased exponentially with increasing cell volume. Using a regression model between ATP concentration and cell volume, an estimated the pass and fail ATP concentration in this study (788-98,610 pg mL- 1) was developed for the discharge of ballast water. In land-based testing the ATP assay also showed a good correlation with the presence of living natural plankton cells in control samples, but the ATP concentration (137 pg mL- 1) was much lower than the ATP guideline. The low ATP concentration in natural plankton cells may reflect a decline in their biological activity because of extended exposure to dark conditions. Although our results need further validation, the ATP assay is a suitable tool for monitoring compliance of ballast water treatment.

  2. An alternative test battery in detecting ocular irritancy of agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavaszi, J; Budai, P; Pálovics, A; Kismányoki, A

    2008-01-01

    Using animals in toxicological screening is a controversial issue. To get knowledge about eye irritation, recently only the in vivo Draize-test is accepted, which is one of the most criticized methods because of the injuries inflicted on the test animals. In recent years various in vitro methods have been developed to replace the primary irritation test. Most of these tests are in process of validation. The Draize rabbit eye test, or some modification of this test is essentially the only method for determining ocular irritation that is accepted by authorities. Several in vitro methods have been used to investigate the toxicity of potential eye irritants with the aim of replacing in vitro eye irritation testing. This study reports the results of an alternative approach for predicting irritation potential of agrochemicals. The approach was a two-stage test battery in vitro. The first stage was a cytotoxicity test, the MTT assay. The second stage was the HET-CAM test. The chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), being a connective tissue sheet with a visible blood supply, has been proposed as a substrate to identify the eye irritation potential of chemicals. During the HET-CAM test the chemicals are placed directly onto the chorioallantoic membrane. The changes of the vascular injury (haemorrhage, lysis or coagulation) are indications of the potential of the chemical to damage mucous membranes in vivo. MTT assay is a simple method to determine the viability of cells in the presence of a chemical. Cells are cultured with several concentrations of a substance or product, then the ratio of cell destruction is determined. LCC50 (concentration lethal for the 50 % of the cells) is assessed. This is in correlation of the eye irrigative potential of the chemical. In our studies comparative screening was performed with 6 agrochemicals to establish parallel data on alternative test battery (HET-CAM, MTT) and in vivo (Draize) results. In most cases, this study showed a good

  3. Direct gram stain and urease test to detect Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, K G; Dworkin, B M

    1990-01-01

    Antral biopsies were obtained by gastrointestinal endoscopy on 143 adult patients with dyspeptic symptoms of gastritis or peptic ulcer disease. A direct Gram stain and a direct urease test were performed on each biopsy in addition to culture. Forty-three biopsies (30%) were considered positive for Helicobacter pylori based on culture or histologic examination, or both. Thirty-one biopsies (72% sensitivity) were positive for both direct tests, whereas 95 of 100 negative cultures were negative for both tests. Thirty-eight of the 43 positive biopsies were Gram stain positive (sensitivity, 88%; specificity, 100%). The direct urease test alone was positive at 4 hr for 29 biopsies (sensitivity, 67%; specificity, 100%) and at 24 hr for 38 biopsies (sensitivity, 74%; specificity, 95%). Rapid presumptive diagnosis of H. pylori in antral biopsies was obtained when at least one direct test, Gram stain or urease, was positive.

  4. Memory detection 2.0: The first web-based memory detection test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinberg, B.; Verschuere, B.

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that reaction times (RTs) can be used to detect recognition of critical (e.g., crime) information. A limitation of this research base is its reliance upon small samples (average n = 24), and indications of publication bias. To advance RT-based memory detection, we

  5. Reliability of genetic bottleneck tests for detecting recent population declines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peery, M. Zachariah; Kirby, Rebecca; Reid, Brendan N.; Stoelting, Ricka; Doucet-Beer, Elena; Robinson, Stacie; Vasquez-Carrillo, Catalina; Pauli, Jonathan N.; Palsboll, Per J.

    The identification of population bottlenecks is critical in conservation because populations that have experienced significant reductions in abundance are subject to a variety of genetic and demographic processes that can hasten extinction. Genetic bottleneck tests constitute an appealing and

  6. Biochemical principle of Limulus test for detecting bacterial endotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanaga, Sadaaki

    2007-01-01

    A hemocyte lysate from horseshoe crab (Limulus) produced a gel, when exposed to Gram-negative bacterial endotoxins, lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This gelation reaction of the lysate, so-called Limulus test, has been widely employed as a simple and very sensitive assay method for endotoxins. Recent biochemical studies on the principle of Limulus test indicate that the hemocytes contain several serine protease zymogens, which constitute a coagulation cascade triggered by endotoxins, and that ther...

  7. Destructive examination of test plates 3 and test piece 4 of the defects detection trials (DDT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buegers, W.; Crutzen, S.; Pisoni, A.; Violin, F.; Di Piazza, L.; Lock, D.; Sargent, T.

    1984-01-01

    The evaluation of NDT exercises results has been based on destructive examination of the plates or test blocks used during the exercise. The PISC I Programme has shown that in all cases the indications given by the NDT instrumentation were corresponding to some particular defects or structure aspects in the steel or were explained by particular positions of reflectors. Generally the introduction of defects using techniques such as: - implantation of modules, - introduction of non metallic material, - introduction of poison in the weld, do not produce a final ''detective zone or area'' which is strictly corresponding to the intended defect. The DDT exercise management has thus decided to perform a complete destructive examination of the four plates involved in this exercise because of its experience (the PISC I exercise) and independance of commercial interest, the JRC of the CEC, Ispra Establishment, has been asked to do the work in collaboratione with the Risley Nuclear Power development Laboratories (RNL). A collaboration agreement has been signed between RNL and JRC. Operating Agent of the PISC II programme, is interested in having a direct access to data to be added to those furnished by PISC. The present report describes the results of the destructive examination of the DDT plates 3 and 4

  8. [Development of molecular tests for rapid detection of enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavzori, M; Uriel, N; Porat, N; Dagan, R; Ambar, R; Shpilberg, O; Cohen, D

    2000-05-01

    Amplification of specific DNA sequences by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), enables rapid, sensitive and direct, specific identification of pathogens at very low concentrations in clinical samples. Studies in recent years have reported identification of several enteropathogens directly from stool samples by PCR. The amplification process includes the use of primers complementary to the DNA sequences specific to the pathogen, thus relying on the pathogen's genotype, rather than its phenotype on which identification by the methods of classical microbiology were based. We have developed PCR protocols for the differential identification of enteropathogens resembling the normal flora (enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), E. coli O-157), Shigella spp, and the detection of enteropathogens that can not be grown on classic growth media (Norwalk virus). The amplification process is inhibited by several substrates present in fecal material (phenol, hemoglobin), limiting DNA extraction by phenol. The protocols we have developed for direct detection of Shigella spp and ETEC in stools circumvent inhibition of PCR by the use of a 4-hour pre-enrichment step in brain-heart infusion broth. Rapid and accurate identification of enteropathogens is important for prompt and focused intervention to stop the chain of transmission in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in military and civilian populations.

  9. The Computerized Table Setting Test for Detecting Unilateral Neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Jong Chung

    Full Text Available Patients with unilateral neglect fail to respond normally to stimuli on the left side. To facilitate the evaluation of unilateral spatial neglect, we developed a new application that runs on a tablet device and investigated its feasibility in stroke patients.We made the computerized table setting test (CTST to run on the tablet computer. Forty acute ischemic stroke patients (20 patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect, 10 patients with right hemispheric infarction without neglect, and 10 patients with left hemispheric infarction and 10 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled to validate the CTST. The test requires subjects to set a table by dragging 12 dishes located below the table on the tablet screen. The horizontal deviation of the 12 dishes from the midline of the table, the selection tendency measured by the sequence of the dish selection, and the elapsed time for table setting were calculated automatically.Parameters measured by the CTST were correlated with the results of conventional neglect tests. The horizontal deviation was significantly higher in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the other groups. The selection tendency and elapsed time also were significantly different in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the left hemispheric infarction and control groups, but were similar to those with right hemispheric infarction without neglect.The CTST is feasible to administer and comparable with conventional neglect tests. This new application may be useful for the initial diagnosis and follow-up of neglect patients.

  10. The Computerized Table Setting Test for Detecting Unilateral Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Byoung Seok; Lee, Hye Sun; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Song, Dongbeom; Kim, Young Dae; Heo, Ji Hoe; Nam, Hyo Suk

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with unilateral neglect fail to respond normally to stimuli on the left side. To facilitate the evaluation of unilateral spatial neglect, we developed a new application that runs on a tablet device and investigated its feasibility in stroke patients. Methods We made the computerized table setting test (CTST) to run on the tablet computer. Forty acute ischemic stroke patients (20 patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect, 10 patients with right hemispheric infarction without neglect, and 10 patients with left hemispheric infarction) and 10 healthy controls were prospectively enrolled to validate the CTST. The test requires subjects to set a table by dragging 12 dishes located below the table on the tablet screen. The horizontal deviation of the 12 dishes from the midline of the table, the selection tendency measured by the sequence of the dish selection, and the elapsed time for table setting were calculated automatically. Results Parameters measured by the CTST were correlated with the results of conventional neglect tests. The horizontal deviation was significantly higher in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the other groups. The selection tendency and elapsed time also were significantly different in patients with right hemispheric infarction with neglect compared with the left hemispheric infarction and control groups, but were similar to those with right hemispheric infarction without neglect. Conclusions The CTST is feasible to administer and comparable with conventional neglect tests. This new application may be useful for the initial diagnosis and follow-up of neglect patients. PMID:26771512

  11. Testing of Hand-Held Mine Detection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-08

    participants (user population). Sufficient data will be acquired to establish the demographics, anthropometry , skills, grades, experience, gender...the operators (e.g., Operator A, Operator B, etc.), and correlate the demographics, anthropometry , and other information to the operator’s code ID...Record demographics and anthropometry elements of test participants, to include corresponding apparel (Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP

  12. Detecting Different Types of Reading Difficulties: A Comparison of Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Danielle M.; Porter, Melanie A.; Kohnen, Saskia; Castles, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on the assessment of the two main processes that children must acquire at the single word reading level: word recognition (lexical) and decoding (nonlexical) skills. Guided by the framework of the dual route model, this study aimed to (1) investigate the impact of item characteristics on test performance, and (2)…

  13. Laboratory evaluation of the improved tube test detection limits for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Kenya there is currently no screening of antimicrobial drug residues in milk. This study evaluated the improved tube test as a possible screening method using seven representatives of the β-lactam antibiotics. The group comprises antimicrobials most frequently used to treat bacterial infections in dairy cows.

  14. Tracer Interaction Effects During Partitioning Tracer Tests for NAPL Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, P. T.; Pirestani, K.; Jafarpour, Y.; Spivey, K. M.

    2002-05-01

    Partitioning tracer tests have been used in laboratory and field investigations to quantify the amount of nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) within porous media. In these tests multiple chemical tracers are typically injected into flowing groundwater: conservative tracers react minimally with the NAPL, while non-conservative tracers partition into the NAPL and exhibit retarded transport. The mean travel times of the conservative and partitioning tracers can be used to estimate the NAPL saturation in the swept zone. When multiple tracers are injected in the system, the tracers themselves change the chemical composition of the NAPL, which may affect partitioning behavior. Although co-tracer interactions have been considered by others, there are no reports of such effects during actual partitioning tracer tests. In this study tracer partitioning was examined in static batch systems and dynamic column experiments using 2,3-dimethyl-2-butanol and 1-hexanol as partitioning tracers and trichloroethylene as the NAPL. Co-tracer effects resulted in nonlinear partitioning of 2,3-dimethyl-2-butanol in batch tests, which increased with increasing tracer concentrations. The UNIFAC model was used to predict tracer activities in the NAPL, and the resulting predictions of tracer partitioning matched the data trends. Column experiments were conducted with these same tracers, and nonlinear tracer partitioning associated with co-tracer effects resulted in underestimation of NAPL mass in some systems. If linear partitioning were assumed, a priori analysis suggested that nonlinear partitioning would result in an overestimation of NAPL saturation. We discuss these observations and suggest guidelines for avoiding co-tracer effects during partitioning tracer tests.

  15. 9 CFR 113.36 - Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...,000 doses. (b) At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and obtained from...

  16. KAtex antigen-detection test as a diagnostic tool for latent visceral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tests have disadvantages. Parasitological diagnosis tools are accurate but invasive, while molecular tools are expensive and not commonly used. We report that the newly developed kAtex test is a rapid, non invasive and simple tool for the detection of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), capable of detecting and distinguishing ...

  17. Evaluation of accuracy of OraQuick ® rapid test in detecting HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The accuracy of OraQuick® rapid test in detecting HIV 1 & 2 antibodies in saliva is evaluated against the blood EIA benchmark tests with confirmatory testing, against which OraQuick® accuracy is determined. Method: Paired samples of saliva and blood from 281 Nigerians were tested for HIV antibodies, and ...

  18. Evaluation of the KEMRI Hep-cell II test kit for detection of hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the Hep-cell II test, blood samples were collected from blood donors and processed for detection of HBsAg using Hep-cell II based on the test principle and procedure outlined by the manufacturer. ELISA Axsym HBsAg test was used as golden standard. Of the 400 samples tested, 287 (71.8%) were positive by ...

  19. [Detection of anti-Leptospira antibodies in sera of patients in the latex agglutination test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volina, E G; Sarukhanova, L E; Iashina, N V; Prokopov, N I; Shkarlat, P E; Barysheva, I V

    2001-01-01

    The results of the preliminary evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed diagnostic test based on the determination of genus-specific antibodies to leptospires in the latex agglutination test, are presented. This test makes it possible to detect anti-Leptospira antibodies of any serogroup. The advantages of the developed test have been determined.

  20. In-core fuel motion detection for large scale tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, S.A.; Dupree, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program to test the feasibility of making and unfolding in-core measurements of fuel motion has been initiated at Sandia. The experiment calls for instrumenting a 37-pin fuel bundle and exposing it to neutron pulses in the Sandia Pulsed Reactor SPR-III. Fuel motion will be simulated by mechanically adjusting the fuel pins to create voids within the center of the bundle. A preliminary design of the experiment has been completed and analyses have been conducted on the application of 238 U and 235 U fission couple detectors to the experiment. Formulation of the unfolding problem has pointed out the necessity of carefully instrumenting the experiment to maximize the resolution of the mass measurement. Ultimately a measurement resolution of 100-200 g of fuel should be possible for this experiment. The experiment will provide a realistic test bed for obtaining practical experience in detector design and data reduction

  1. Likelihood Ratio Test Polarimetric SAR Ship Detection Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    probabilite de fausse alarme voulue. D’autres grandeurs statistiques sont aussi calcul~es, comme la covariance et [a correlation des canaux ...diffusion sont caract6ris~s par une distribution gaussienne, le meilleur algorithme de dt~tection ponctuelle est bas6 sur un test du rapport des...probability distributions in the pixel space of S are complicated functions. As a first approximation, S is considered to have a multivariate Gaussian

  2. ESBL Detection: Comparison of a Commercially Available Chromogenic Test for Third Generation Cephalosporine Resistance and Automated Susceptibility Testing in Enterobactericeae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ramadan El-Jade

    Full Text Available Rapid detection and reporting of third generation cephalosporine resistance (3GC-R and of extended spectrum betalactamases in Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E is a diagnostic and therapeutic priority to avoid inefficacy of the initial antibiotic regimen. In this study we evaluated a commercially available chromogenic screen for 3GC-R as a predictive and/or confirmatory test for ESBL and AmpC activity in clinical and veterinary Enterobacteriaceae isolates. The test was highly reliable in the prediction of cefotaxime and cefpodoxime resistance, but there was no correlation with ceftazidime and piperacillin/tazobactam minimal inhibitory concentrations. All human and porcine ESBL-E tested were detected with exception of one genetically positive but phenotypically negative isolate. By contrast, AmpC detection rates lay below 30%. Notably, exclusion of piperacillin/tazobactam resistant, 3GC susceptible K1+ Klebsiella isolates increased the sensitivity and specificity of the test for ESBL detection. Our data further imply that in regions with low prevalence of AmpC and K1 positive E. coli strains chromogenic testing for 3GC-R can substitute for more time consuming ESBL confirmative testing in E. coli isolates tested positive by Phoenix or VITEK2 ESBL screen. We, therefore, suggest a diagnostic algorithm that distinguishes 3GC-R screening from primary culture and species-dependent confirmatory ESBL testing by βLACTATM and discuss the implications of MIC distribution results on the choice of antibiotic regimen.

  3. Non-destructive vacuum decay method for pre-filled syringe closure integrity testing compared with dye ingress testing and high-voltage leak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Andrea; Amari, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    In reaction to the limitations of the traditional sterility test methods, in 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration issued the guidance "Container and Closure System Integrity Testing in Lieu of Sterility Testing as a Component of the Stability Protocol for Sterile Products" encouraging sterile drug manufacturers to use properly validated physical methods, apart from conventional microbial challenge testing, to confirm container closure integrity as part of the stability protocol. The case study presented in this article investigated the capability of four container closure integrity testing methods to detect simulated defects of different sizes and types on glass syringes, prefilled both with drug product intended for parenteral administration and sterile water. The drug product was a flu vaccine (Agrippal, Novartis Vaccines, Siena, Italy). Vacuum decay, pharmacopoeial dye ingress test, Novartis specific dye ingress test, and high-voltage leak detection were, in succession, the methods involved in the comparative studies. The case study execution was preceded by the preparation of two independent sets of reference prefilled syringes, classified, respectively, as examples of conforming to closure integrity requirements (negative controls) and as defective (positive controls). Positive controls were, in turn, split in six groups, three of with holes laser-drilled through the prefilled syringe glass barrel, while the other three with capillary tubes embedded in the prefilled syringe plunger. These reference populations were then investigated by means of validated equipment used for container closure integrity testing of prefilled syringe commercial production; data were collected and analyzed to determine the detection rate and the percentage of false results. Results showed that the vacuum decay method had the highest performance in terms of detection sensitivity and also ensured the best reliability and repeatability of measurements. An innovative technical

  4. Segmentation by Large Scale Hypothesis Testing - Segmentation as Outlier Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    We propose a novel and efficient way of performing local image segmentation. For many applications a threshold of pixel intensities is sufficient but determine the appropriate threshold value can be difficult. In cases with large global intensity variation the threshold value has to be adapted...... locally. We propose a method based on large scale hypothesis testing with a consistent method for selecting an appropriate threshold for the given data. By estimating the background distribution we characterize the segment of interest as a set of outliers with a certain probability based on the estimated...

  5. Early Damage Detection in Composites during Fabrication and Mechanical Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandarana, Neha; Sanchez, Daniel Martinez; Soutis, Constantinos; Gresil, Matthieu

    2017-06-22

    Fully integrated monitoring systems have shown promise in improving confidence in composite materials while reducing lifecycle costs. A distributed optical fibre sensor is embedded in a fibre reinforced composite laminate, to give three sensing regions at different levels through-the-thickness of the plate. This study follows the resin infusion process during fabrication of the composite, monitoring the development of strain in-situ and in real time, and to gain better understanding of the resin rheology during curing. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors and electrical strain gauges are bonded to the plate after fabrication. This is followed by progressive loading/unloading cycles of mechanical four point bending. The strain values obtained from the optical fibre are in good agreement with strain data collected by surface mounted strain gauges, while the sensing regions clearly indicate the development of compressive, neutral, and tensile strain. Acoustic emission event detection suggests the formation of matrix (resin) cracks, with measured damage event amplitudes in agreement with values reported in published literature on the subject. The Felicity ratio for each subsequent loading cycle is calculated to track the progression of damage in the material. The methodology developed here can be used to follow the full life cycle of a composite structure, from manufacture to end-of-life.

  6. Artificial intelligence and ultrasonic tests in detection of defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrera Cardiel, G.; Fabian Alvarez, M. a.; Velez Martinez, M.; Villasenor, L.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most serious problems in the quality control of welded unions is the location, identification and classification of defects. As a solution to this problem, a technique for classification, applicable to welded unions done by electric arc welding as well as by friction, is proposed; it is based on ultrasonic signals. The neuronal networks proposed are Kohonen and Multilayer Percept ron, all in a virtual instrument environment. Currently the techniques most used in this field are: radiological analysis (X-rays) and ultrasonic analysis (ultrasonic waves). The X-ray technique in addition to being dangerous requires highly specialized personnel and equipment, therefore its use is restricted. The ultrasonic technique, in spite of being one of the most used for detection of discontinuities, requires personnel with wide experience in the interpretation of ultrasonic signals, this is a time-consuming process which necessarily increases its operation cost. The classification techniques that we propose turn out to be safe, reliable, inexpensive and easy to implement for the solution of this important problem. (Author) 8 refs

  7. Summary of accidental releases of radioactivity detected off the Nevada Test Site, 1963--1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patzer, R.G.; Phillips, W.G.; Grossman, R.F.; Black, S.C.; Costa, C.F.

    1988-08-01

    Of the more than 450 underground nuclear explosives tests conducted at the Nevada Test Site from August 1963 (signing of the Limited Test Ban Treaty) through the end of 1986, only 23 accidentally released radioactivity that was detectable beyond the boundary of the NTS. Of these 23, 4 were detectable off the NTS only by aircraft while the remainder were detectable by ground monitoring instruments. Since the Baneberry venting of December 1970, only two tests released radioactivity that was detectable off the NTS, and this was a seepage of radioactive noble gases. None of these releases from underground tests designed for complete containment caused exposure of the population living in the area that exceeded standards recommended by national and international radiation protection agencies. This report summarizes the releases from each of the tests, describes the monitoring that was conducted, and lists the location of the maximum exposure

  8. The use of serological tests in combination with the intradermal tuberculin test maximizes the detection of tuberculosis infected goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezos, Javier; Roy, Álvaro; Infantes-Lorenzo, José Antonio; González, Isabel; Venteo, Ángel; Romero, Beatriz; Grau, Anna; Mínguez, Olga; Domínguez, Lucas; de Juan, Lucía

    2018-05-01

    The diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in goats is based mainly on the single and comparative intradermal tuberculin (SIT and CIT) tests and, exceptionally, on the interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) assay, however they are not perfect in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Nevertheless, various serological assays that provide a potential cost-effective approach for the control of TB are also available or under development, and a variety of results have been reported regarding the ability of these tests to detect infected animals, particularly in the early stages of infection. In the present study, SIT/CIT and IFN-γ tests and three different serological assays were evaluated during two consecutive herd testing events in a recently infected caprine herd (n = 447) with a high prevalence of infection in order to evaluate their performance and provide field data with which to improve the TB control programs in this species. The proportion of infected animals that tested positive among all the infected goats (T+/I+ value) in the last herd testing event ranged from 26.2% (IC95%; 19.3-34.5) to 85.7% (IC95%; 78.5-90.7) using cell-based diagnostic tests. The SIT/SCIT tests detected more infected goats than the IFN-γ test, regardless of the interpretation criteria. The T+/I+ value of serology was 83.2 (IC95%; 75.2-89), although it increased significantly (P < 0.05) when using samples collected 15 days after the intradermal test (100%, IC95%; 97-100). In general, a parallel interpretation of intradermal tests with serology maximized the detection of infected goats. These results demonstrate that serological tests are valuable diagnostic tools to maximize the detection of TB infected goats, even in recent outbreaks, accelerating the eradication process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. MULTIPLE TESTING OF LOCAL MAXIMA FOR DETECTION OF PEAKS IN CHIP-SEQ DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartzman, Armin; Jaffe, Andrew; Gavrilov, Yulia; Meyer, Clifford A.

    2013-01-01

    A topological multiple testing approach to peak detection is proposed for the problem of detecting transcription factor binding sites in ChIP-Seq data. After kernel smoothing of the tag counts over the genome, the presence of a peak is tested at each observed local maximum, followed by multiple testing correction at the desired false discovery rate level. Valid $p$-values for candidate peaks are computed via Monte Carlo simulations of smoothed Poisson sequences, whose background Poisson rates...

  10. Commercial test kits for detection of Lyme borreliosis: a meta-analysis of test accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cook MJ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Michael J Cook,1 Basant K Puri2 1Independent researcher, Dorset, UK; 2Department of Medicine, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: The clinical diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis can be supported by various test methodologies; test kits are available from many manufacturers. Literature searches were carried out to identify studies that reported characteristics of the test kits. Of 50 searched studies, 18 were included where the tests were commercially available and samples were proven to be positive using serology testing, evidence of an erythema migrans rash, and/or culture. Additional requirements were a test specificity of ≥85% and publication in the last 20 years. The weighted mean sensitivity for all tests and for all samples was 59.5%. Individual study means varied from 30.6% to 86.2%. Sensitivity for each test technology varied from 62.4% for Western blot kits, and 62.3% for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests, to 53.9% for synthetic C6 peptide ELISA tests and 53.7% when the two-tier methodology was used. Test sensitivity increased as dissemination of the pathogen affected different organs; however, the absence of data on the time from infection to serological testing and the lack of standard definitions for “early” and “late” disease prevented analysis of test sensitivity versus time of infection. The lack of standardization of the definitions of disease stage and the possibility of retrospective selection bias prevented clear evaluation of test sensitivity by “stage”. The sensitivity for samples classified as acute disease was 35.4%, with a corresponding sensitivity of 64.5% for samples from patients defined as convalescent. Regression analysis demonstrated an improvement of 4% in test sensitivity over the 20-year study period. The studies did not provide data to indicate the sensitivity of tests used in a clinical setting since the effect of recent use of antibiotics or steroids or other

  11. Advantages and disadvantages of current diagnostic tests for the detection of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mégraud, F

    1996-01-01

    Current tests used to detect Helicobacter pylori are either invasive (histological detection, culture, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), smear examination) or non-invasive (serology, 13C-urea breath test). These tests vary in their sensitivity and specificity, and the choice of test will depend on the situation, for example, whether the test is to detect infection or the success of eradication treatment. The accuracy of histological tests depends, to a large degree, on the expertise of the pathologist, while the accuracy of culture can depend on the conditions in which the specimen is transported and processed. When performed under optimal conditions, both techniques give very good results. The PCR test has similar sensitivity and specificity to histological and culture tests but a strict protocol must be followed to avoid contamination with H. pylori DNA. The rapid urease test (with a reading taken 1 hour later) is suitable for diagnosis before treatment but its sensitivity decreases after treatment. Smear examination has limited sensitivity. The urea breath test and serology (specific IgG detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with purified antigens) have sensitivities close to those using the best of the biopsy methods. Other points to consider when selecting a test are its availability, the rapidity of the results (which can range from a few minutes to 2 weeks), possibilities for retrospective analysis, quantification and the detection of pathogenic properties, the globality of certain tests that present an overall picture of the stomach, thus avoiding errors in sampling, and the cost of the test. Important added value can be gained from certain tests: histology allows evaluation of the status of the mucosa, culture allows strain typing and tests for antibiotic susceptibility, and the breath test can confirm successful eradication without endoscopy. When the diagnostic tests are performed correctly, most of them are highly accurate.

  12. Mine-detection test facilities at TNO-FEL test location "Waalsdorp"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, J.B.; Zwamborn, A.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the TNO-FEL Ultra-Wide-Band Ground-Penetrating-Radar (UWB-GPR) project, a test facility for controlled GPR experiments was planned. Construction of this sand-box test facility has recently been completed. At the same site another test facility, for evaluating various commercial of the

  13. Integration and road tests of a self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system for traffic detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Baoguo; Zhang, Kun; Burnham, Tom; Kwon, Eil; Yu, Xun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a self-sensing carbon nanotube (CNT) concrete pavement system for traffic detection is proposed and tested in a roadway. Pre-cast and cast-in-place self-sensing CNT concrete sensors were simultaneously integrated into a controlled pavement test section at the Minnesota Road Research Facility (MnROAD), USA. Road tests of the system were conducted by using an MnROAD five-axle semi-trailer tractor truck and a van, respectively, both in the winter and summer. Test results show that the proposed self-sensing pavement system can accurately detect the passing of different vehicles under different vehicular speeds and test environments. These findings indicate that the developed self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system can achieve real-time vehicle flow detection with a high detection rate and a low false-alarm rate.

  14. Integration and road tests of a self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system for traffic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Baoguo; Zhang, Kun; Yu, Xun; Burnham, Tom; Kwon, Eil

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a self-sensing carbon nanotube (CNT) concrete pavement system for traffic detection is proposed and tested in a roadway. Pre-cast and cast-in-place self-sensing CNT concrete sensors were simultaneously integrated into a controlled pavement test section at the Minnesota Road Research Facility (MnROAD), USA. Road tests of the system were conducted by using an MnROAD five-axle semi-trailer tractor truck and a van, respectively, both in the winter and summer. Test results show that the proposed self-sensing pavement system can accurately detect the passing of different vehicles under different vehicular speeds and test environments. These findings indicate that the developed self-sensing CNT concrete pavement system can achieve real-time vehicle flow detection with a high detection rate and a low false-alarm rate. (paper)

  15. Fault detection in multiply-redundant measurement systems via sequential testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, A.

    1988-01-01

    The theory and application of a sequential test procedure for fault detection and isolation. The test procedure is suited for development of intelligent instrumentation in strategic processes like aircraft and nuclear plants where redundant measurements are usually available for individual critical variables. The test procedure consists of: (1) a generic redundancy management procedure which is essentially independent of the fault detection strategy and measurement noise statistics, and (2) a modified version of sequential probability ratio test algorithm for fault detection and isolation, which functions within the framework of this redundancy management procedure. The sequential test procedure is suitable for real-time applications using commercially available microcomputers and its efficacy has been verified by online fault detection in an operating nuclear reactor. 15 references

  16. Optical Production and Detection of Ultrasonic Waves in Metals for Nondestructive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    Ultrasonic waves were produced by striking the surface of a metal with the focused one-joule pulse of a Q-switched ruby laser. Rayleigh (surface) waves and longitudinal waves were detected with conventional transducers. Optical methods of detection were tested and developed. Rayleigh waves were produced with an oscillator and transducer. They were optically detected on curved polished surfaces, and on unpolished surfaces. The technique uses a knife edge to detect small angle changes of the surface as the wave pulse passes the illuminated spot. Optical flaw detection using pulse echo and attenuation is demonstrated.

  17. Test/QA Plan for Verification of Leak Detection and Repair Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the leak detection and repair (LDAR) test and quality assurance plan is to specify procedures for a verification test applicable to commercial LDAR technologies. The purpose of the verification test is to evaluate the performance of participating technologies in b...

  18. Sensitivity of the improved Dutch tube diffusion test for detection of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sensitivity of the improved two-tube test for detection of antimicrobial residues in Kenyan milk was investigated by comparison with the commercial Delvo test SP. Suspect positive milk samples (n =244) from five milk collection centers, were analyzed with the improved two-tube and the commercial Delvo SP test as per ...

  19. An Improved Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase Detection Test Utilizing Aztreonam plus Clavulanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Gina K; Ayaz, Maaz; Lutes, Kelli; Thomson, Kenneth S

    2018-01-01

    Clinical laboratories test for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) for epidemiological and infection control purposes and also for the potential of cephalosporins to cause therapeutic failures. Testing can be problematic, because the CLSI does not recommend the testing of all producers of ESBLs and also falsely negative results may occur with isolates that coproduce AmpC. Boronic acid-supplemented tests can enhance ESBL detection in AmpC producers. Because aztreonam inhibits AmpCs, a study was designed to compare ESBL detection by the CLSI disk test (CLSI), a boronic acid-supplemented CLSI disk test (CLSI plus BA), and an aztreonam plus clavulanate disk test (ATM plus CA). The study tested 100 well-characterized Enterobacteriaceae , Acinetobacter baumannii , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates. Seventy produced TEM, SHV, or CTX-M ESBLs, with 15 coproducing an AmpC and 11 coproducing a metallo-β-lactamase. Thirty ESBL-negative isolates were also tested. Tests were inoculated by CLSI methodology and interpreted as positive if an inhibitor caused a zone diameter increase of ≥5 mm. The percentages of ESBL producers detected were as follows: ATM plus CA, 95.7%; CLSI plus BA, 88.6%; and CLSI, 78.6%. When AmpC was coproduced, the sensitivities of the tests were as follows: ATM plus CA, 100%; CLSI plus BA, 93.3%; and CLSI, 60%. ATM plus CA also detected an ESBL in 90.1% of isolates that coproduced a metallo-β-lactamase. Falsely positive tests occurred only with the CLSI and CLSI plus BA tests. Overall, the ATM plus CA test detected ESBLs more accurately than the CLSI and CLSI plus BA tests, especially with isolates coproducing an AmpC or metallo-β-lactamase. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  20. Test module development to detect the flase call probe pins on microeprocessor test equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L. W.; Ong, N. R.; Mohamad, I. S. B.; Alcain, J. B.; Retnasamy, V.

    2017-09-01

    Probe pins are useful for electrical testing of microelectronic components, printed circuit board assembly (PCBA), microprocessors and other electronic devices due to it provides the conductivity test based on specific device circuit design. During the repeatable test runs, the load of test modules, contact failures and the current conductivity induces layer wear off all the tip of probe pins contact. Contamination will be build-up on probe pins and increased contact resistivity which results of cost loss and time loss for rectifying programs, rectifying testers and exchanging new probe pins. In this study, a resistivity approach will be developed to provide "Testing of Test Probes". The test module based on "Four-wire Ohm measurement" method with two alternative ways of applying power supply, that are 9V from a single power supply and 5V from Arduino UNO power supply were demonstrated to measure the small resistance value of microprocessor probe pin. A microcontroller with VEE Pro software was used to record the measurement data. The accuracy of both test modules were calibrated under different temperature conditions and result shows that 9V from a single power supply test module has higher measurement accuracy.

  1. [Blood Test Patterns for Blood Donors after Nucleic Acid Detection in the Blood Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Men, Shou-Shan; Lv, Lian-Zhi; Chen, Yuan-Feng; Han, Chun-Hua; Liu, Hong-Yu; Yan, Yan

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the blood test patterns for blood donors after nucleic acid detection in blood center. The collected blood samples after voluntary blood donors first were detected by conventional ELISA, then 31981 negative samples were detected via HBV/HCV/HIV combined nucleic acid test of 6 mixed samples(22716 cases) or single samples(9265 cases) by means of Roche cobas s201 instrument. The combined detection method as follows: the blood samples were assayed by conventional nucleic acid test of 6 mixed samples, at same time, 6 mixed samples were treated with polyethylene glycol precipitation method to concentrate the virus, then the nucleic acid test of blood samples was performed; the single detection method as follows: firstly the conventional nucleic acid test of single sample was performed, then the positive reactive samples after re-examination were 6-fold diluted to simulate the nucleic acid test of 6-mixed samples. The positive rate of positive samples detected by combined nucleic acid test, positive samples detected by nucleic acid test of mixed virus concentration and positive samples detected by single nucleic acid test was statistically analyzed. In addition, for HBV + persons the serological test yet should be performed. In 22 716 samples detected by nucleic acid test of 6 mixed samples (MP-6-NAT) , 9 cases were HBV + (0.40‰, 9/22716); at same time, the detection of same samples by nucleic acid test of mixed sample virus concentration showed 29 cases of HBV + (1.28‰, 29/22716). In 9265 samples detected by single nucleic acid test(ID-NAT) 12 cases showed HBV + (1.30‰, 12/9265), meanwhile the detection of these 12 samples with HBV + by 6-fold dilution for virus concentration found only 4 samples with HBV + . In serological qualified samples, ID-NAT unqualified rate was 1.28‰, which was higher than that of MP-6-NAT(0.4‰) (χ 2 =8.11, P0.05). In 41 samples with HBsAg - HBV DNA + detected by ELISA, 36 samples were confirmed to be occult HBV

  2. Manufacturing and testing flexible microfluidic devices with optical and electrical detection mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan, M.G.; Vivet, F.; Meinders, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Flexible microfluidic devices made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) were manufactured by soft lithography, and tested in detection of ionic species using optical absorption spectroscopy and electrical measurements. PDMS was chosen due to its flexibility and ease of surface modification by exposure to plasma and UV treatment, its transparency in UV-Vis regions of the light spectrum, and biocompatibility. The dual-detection mechanism allows the user more freedom in choosing the detection tool, ...

  3. NSMRL See/Rescue Project Target Detectability Testing, Modeling, and Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anderson, E; Greenbaum, H; McClay, T; Wilson, D

    2006-01-01

    ...), evaluated the detectability of the See/Rescue (S-R) streamer distress signal device in scenarios relevant to Navy search and rescue operations using data collected during two sea test exercises with the following technical objectives. 1...

  4. Development and testing of incident detection algorithms. Vol. 2, research methodology and detailed results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    The development and testing of incident detection algorithms was based on Los Angeles and Minneapolis freeway surveillance data. Algorithms considered were based on times series and pattern recognition techniques. Attention was given to the effects o...

  5. Research Note The reliability of a field test kit for the detection and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note The reliability of a field test kit for the detection and the persistence of Synergistes jonesii bacteria in the rumens of sheep through winter drought in the Highveld of South Africa without Leucaena in the diet.

  6. Earlier stages of colorectal cancer detected with immunochemical faecal occult blood tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, L. G. M.; van Rijn, A. F.; van Munster, I. P.; Jansen, J. B. M. J.; Fockens, P.; Laheij, R. J. F.; Dekker, E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The aim of colorectal cancer screening is to improve prognosis by the detection of early cancer and precursor stages. We compared the stage distribution of asymptomatic colorectal cancer patients detected by a positive immunochemical or guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (FOBT) with

  7. Test/QA Plan for Verification of Coliform Detection Technologies for Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coliform detection technologies to be tested use chromatogenic and fluorogenic growth media to detect coliforms and E. coli based on the enzymatic activity of these organisms. The systems consist of single-use sample containers that contain pre-measured reagents and can be u...

  8. General Multidecision Theory: Hypothesis Testing and Changepoint Detection with Applications to Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Manuscript, 1977. [4] I. V. Pavlov . Sequential procedure of testing composite hypotheses with applications to the Kiefer-Weiss problem. Theory of...SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The objective was to develop general theories of sequential hypothesis testing and quickest change detection for complex...multi-population stochastic models, as well as to apply these theories to automatic threat detection and classification with low false alarm and miss

  9. Proof-testing strategies induced by dangerous detected failures of safety-instrumented systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yiliu; Rausand, Marvin

    2016-01-01

    Some dangerous failures of safety-instrumented systems (SISs) are detected almost immediately by diagnostic self-testing as dangerous detected (DD) failures, whereas other dangerous failures can only be detected by proof-testing, and are therefore called dangerous undetected (DU) failures. Some items may have a DU- and a DD-failure at the same time. After the repair of a DD-failure is completed, the maintenance team has two options: to perform an insert proof test for DU-failure or not. If an insert proof test is performed, it is necessary to decide whether the next scheduled proof test should be postponed or performed at the scheduled time. This paper analyzes the effects of different testing strategies on the safety performance of a single channel of a SIS. The safety performance is analyzed by Petri nets and by approximation formulas and the results obtained by the two approaches are compared. It is shown that insert testing improves the safety performance of the channel, but the feasibility and cost of the strategy may be a hindrance to recommend insert testing. - Highlights: • Identify the tests induced by detected failures. • Model the testing strategies following DD-failures. • Propose analytical formulas for effects of strategies. • Simulate and verify the proposed models.

  10. Test performance of faecal occult blood testing for the detection of bowel cancer in people with chronic kidney disease (DETECT protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Narelle

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. In patients without kidney disease, screening is a major strategy for reducing the risk of cancer and improving the health outcomes for those who developed cancers by detecting treatable cancers at an early stage. Among those with CKD, the effectiveness, the efficacy and patients' preferences for cancer screening are unknown. Methods/Design This work describes the protocol for the DETECT study examining the effectiveness, efficiency and patient's perspectives of colorectal cancer screening using immunochemical faecal occult blood testing (iFOBT for people with CKD. The aims of the DETECT study are 1 to determine the test performance characteristics of iFOBT screening in individuals with CKD, 2 to estimate the incremental costs and health benefits of iFOBT screening in CKD compared to no screening and 3 to elicit patients' perspective for colorectal cancer screening in the CKD population. Three different study designs will be used to explore the uncertainties surrounding colorectal cancer screening in CKD. A diagnostic test accuracy study of iFOBT screening will be conducted across all stages of CKD in patients ages 35-70. Using individually collected direct healthcare costs and outcomes from the diagnostic test accuracy study, cost-utility and cost-effective analyses will be performed to estimate the costs and health benefits of iFOBT screening in CKD. Qualitative in-depth interviews will be undertaken in a subset of participants from the diagnostic test accuracy study to investigate the perspectives, experiences, attitudes and beliefs about colorectal cancer screening among individuals with CKD. Discussion The DETECT study will target the three major unknowns about early cancer detection in CKD. Findings from our study will provide accurate and definitive estimates of screening efficacy and efficiency for colorectal cancer, and

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Four Presumptive Tests for Blood to Detect Epithelial Injury on Fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colotelo, Alison HA; Smokorowski, Karen; Haxton, Tim; Cooke, Steven J.

    2014-06-01

    Current methods of fish epithelial injury detection are limited to gross macroscopic examination that has a subjective bias as well as an inability to reliably quantify the degree of injury. Fluorescein, a presumptive test for blood, has been shown to have the capability to detect and quantify fish epithelial injury. However, there are several other presumptive tests for blood (Bluestar*, phenolphthalein, and HemastixH) that may have benefits over the use of fluorescein, particularly for field research on wild fish. This study investigated the capabilities of these four tests to detect and quantify a variety of injuries commonly encountered by fish (abrasion, cuts, fin frays, and punctures) using the freshwater bluegill Lepomis macrochirus as a model. Fluorescein was consistently found to be the most reliable (i.e., detected the highest proportion of true positive results and rarely detected false positive reactions) of the four presumptive tests for blood compared. Further testing was conducted to examine the reliability of fluorescein. By 24 h after an injury was inflicted, the injury was no longer detectable by fluorescein, and when fluorescein was applied to an injured fish, the fluorescein was no longer detectable 3 h after application. In a comparison of two common anaesthetics used in fisheries research, there was no significant difference in the proportion of injury detected when 3- aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester methanesulfate (tricaine) was used compared with a clove oil and ethanol (1:9) solution. In summary, fluorescein was the most reliable presumptive test for blood examined in this study for the detection and quantification of recent (hours) fish epithelial injury.

  12. Internal factors influencing the knowledge continuity ensuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Urbancová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the systematic ensuring of knowledge continuity is the continuity of an organisation’s development, the quality of managerial positions and the continuity of decision-making. By ensuring knowledge continuity, organisations may gain a performance-enhancing factor. The objective of the article is to identify the level of impact of decisive internal factors determining knowledge continuity ensuring and contributing to the efficiency of the organisations. Knowledge continuity ensuring as an internal force, however, can together with the right employees, help adapt more quickly to external conditions that organisations can hardly control. Monitoring and ensuring knowledge continuity can contribute to a higher quality of processes in general, in particular processes exploiting knowledge, and thus help improve the level of management. The first part of the article presents theoretical views on the aspects of knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations while the second part analyses the findings of the surveys carried out among managers in organisations in the Czech Republic. Based on the summary of the outcomes obtained it is possible to say that internal factors influence knowledge continuity ensuring in organisations, however, the level of impact of individual factors is determined by their size. The findings regarding the impact of each of the factors show that the most significant barriers to knowledge continuity ensuring are those associated with the human factor.

  13. CUSUM-Logistic Regression analysis for the rapid detection of errors in clinical laboratory test results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Maureen L; Gounden, Verena; van Deventer, Hendrik E; Remaley, Alan T

    2016-02-01

    The main drawback of the periodic analysis of quality control (QC) material is that test performance is not monitored in time periods between QC analyses, potentially leading to the reporting of faulty test results. The objective of this study was to develop a patient based QC procedure for the more timely detection of test errors. Results from a Chem-14 panel measured on the Beckman LX20 analyzer were used to develop the model. Each test result was predicted from the other 13 members of the panel by multiple regression, which resulted in correlation coefficients between the predicted and measured result of >0.7 for 8 of the 14 tests. A logistic regression model, which utilized the measured test result, the predicted test result, the day of the week and time of day, was then developed for predicting test errors. The output of the logistic regression was tallied by a daily CUSUM approach and used to predict test errors, with a fixed specificity of 90%. The mean average run length (ARL) before error detection by CUSUM-Logistic Regression (CSLR) was 20 with a mean sensitivity of 97%, which was considerably shorter than the mean ARL of 53 (sensitivity 87.5%) for a simple prediction model that only used the measured result for error detection. A CUSUM-Logistic Regression analysis of patient laboratory data can be an effective approach for the rapid and sensitive detection of clinical laboratory errors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. PageFocus: Using paradata to detect and prevent cheating on online achievement tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedenhofen, Birk; Musch, Jochen

    2017-08-01

    Cheating threatens the validity of unproctored online achievement tests. To address this problem, we developed PageFocus, a JavaScript that detects when participants abandon test pages by switching to another window or browser tab. In a first study, we aimed at testing whether PageFocus could detect and prevent cheating. We asked 115 lab and 186 online participants to complete a knowledge test comprising items that were difficult to answer but easy to look up on the Internet. Half of the participants were invited to look up the solutions, which significantly increased their test scores. The PageFocus script detected test takers who abandoned the test page with very high sensitivity and specificity, and successfully reduced cheating by generating a popup message that asked participants not to cheat. In a second study, 510 online participants completed a knowledge test comprising items that could easily be looked up and a reasoning task involving matrices that were impossible to look up. In a first group, a performance-related monetary reward was promised to the top scorers; in a second group, participants took part in a lottery that provided performance-unrelated rewards; and in a third group, no incentive was offered. PageFocus revealed that participants cheated more when performance-related incentives were offered. As expected, however, this effect was limited to items that could easily be looked up. We recommend that PageFocus be routinely employed to detect and prevent cheating on online achievement tests.

  15. "Good versus Good Enough?" Empirical Tests of Methane Leak Detection Sensitivity of a Commercial Infrared Camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Arvind P; Wang, Jingfan; McGuire, Mike; Bell, Clay S; Zimmerle, Daniel; Brandt, Adam R

    2018-02-20

    Methane, a key component of natural gas, is a potent greenhouse gas. A key feature of recent methane mitigation policies is the use of periodic leak detection surveys, typically done with optical gas imaging (OGI) technologies. The most common OGI technology is an infrared camera. In this work, we experimentally develop detection probability curves for OGI-based methane leak detection under different environmental and imaging conditions. Controlled single blind leak detection tests show that the median detection limit (50% detection likelihood) for FLIR-camera based OGI technology is about 20 g CH 4 /h at an imaging distance of 6 m, an order of magnitude higher than previously reported estimates of 1.4 g CH 4 /h. Furthermore, we show that median and 90% detection likelihood limit follows a power-law relationship with imaging distance. Finally, we demonstrate that real-world marginal effectiveness of methane mitigation through periodic surveys approaches zero as leak detection sensitivity improves. For example, a median detection limit of 100 g CH 4 /h is sufficient to detect the maximum amount of leakage that is possible through periodic surveys. Policy makers should take note of these limits while designing equivalence metrics for next-generation leak detection technologies that can trade sensitivity for cost without affecting mitigation priorities.

  16. Minimum detection efficiencies for a loophole-free observable-asymmetric Bell-type test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbarino, G.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the problem of finding the most favorable conditions for closing the detection loophole in a test of local realism with a Bell inequality. For a generic nonmaximally entangled two-qubit state and two incompatible bases to be adopted for alternative measurements of two observables a and b on each party, we apply Hardy's proof of nonlocality without inequality and derive an Eberhard-like inequality. For an infinity of nonmaximally entangled states we find that it is possible to refute local realism by requiring perfect detection efficiency for only one of the two observables, say b, to be measured on each party: The test is free from the detection loophole for any value of the detection efficiency corresponding to the other observable a. The maximum tolerable noise in such a loophole-free observable-asymmetric test is also evaluated.

  17. The sensitivity of tests to detect in vivo platelet activation induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No influence on the results of the platelet function tests was found. Tile only test capable of detecting limited injury to the endothelium was the measurement of plasma PF4: The mean platelet life-span (MPLS) shortened, mean platelet density decreased, the circulating platelet aggregate ratio decreased, and plasma levels ...

  18. A Review of Methods for Detection of Test and Item Bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Nancy A.

    Few issues have provoked as much controversy as the methods for detecting item and test bias. A recent illustration of the controversy surrounding this issue could be seen in the emotional reactions to the publication of "The Bell Curve." This paper reviews methods of evaluating both item and test bias. Small heuristic data sets are…

  19. A Test for Cluster Bias: Detecting Violations of Measurement Invariance across Clusters in Multilevel Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jak, Suzanne; Oort, Frans J.; Dolan, Conor V.

    2013-01-01

    We present a test for cluster bias, which can be used to detect violations of measurement invariance across clusters in 2-level data. We show how measurement invariance assumptions across clusters imply measurement invariance across levels in a 2-level factor model. Cluster bias is investigated by testing whether the within-level factor loadings…

  20. The Micral-Test as a screening tool to detect micro- albuminuria in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. Eighty children aged 5 -15 years with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) (HbSS) in a steady state attending the Lagos State University ... The sensitivity and specificity of the Micral-Test make it a good screening tool to detect MA in children with SCA. The Micral- .... The average cost of performing the Micral-Test was USD5.

  1. Application of functional IDDQ testing in a VLIW processor towards detection of aging degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Zhao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, functional IDDQ testing has been applied for a 90nm VLIW processor to effectively detect aging degradation. This technique can provide health data for reliability evaluation as used in e.g. prognostic software for lifetime prediction. The test environment for validation, implementing

  2. Evaluation of seed health testing methods for the detection of seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of four seed health testing techniques namely the blotter, deep- freezing blotter, ragdoll and agar plate methods in detecting seed-borne fungi of African yam bean, Sphenostylis stenocarpa (Hochst ex. A. Rich) Harms seeds was evaluated. The blotter method was found to be the most suitable testing technique ...

  3. An Optical Test Strip for the Detection of Benzoic Acid in Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Abu Bakar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of a test strip for detection of benzoic acid was successfully implemented by immobilizing tyrosinase, phenol and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH onto filter paper using polystyrene as polymeric support. The sensing scheme was based on the decreasing intensity of the maroon colour of the test strip when introduced into benzoic acid solution. The test strip was characterized using optical fiber reflectance and has maximum reflectance at 375 nm. It has shown a highly reproducible measurement of benzoic acid with a calculated RSD of 0.47% (n = 10. The detection was optimized at pH 7. A linear response of the biosensor was obtained in 100 to 700 ppm of benzoic acid with a detection limit (LOD of 73.6 ppm. At 1:1 ratio of benzoic acid to interfering substances, the main interfering substance is boric acid. The kinetic analyses show that, the inhibition of benzoic is competitive inhibitor and the inhibition constant (Ki is 52.9 ppm. The activity of immobilized tyrosinase, phenol, and MBTH in the test strip was fairly sustained during 20 days when stored at 3 °C. The developed test strip was used for detection of benzoic acid in food samples and was observed to have comparable results to the HPLC method, hence the developed test strip can be used as an alternative to HPLC in detecting benzoic acid in food products.

  4. Final report on the UKAEA defect detection trials on test pieces 3 and 4. December 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lock, D.L.; Cowburn, K.J.

    1983-03-01

    The report follows ND-R-845(R) which described the scope, inspection procedures and results of the defect detection trials on test pieces 3 and 4. The work has been aimed at assessing the ability of non-destructive testing techniques, to detect and size defects near the clad/base metal interface of a flat piece and the inner radius of a PWR inlet nozzle. Following the destructive examination of the test pieces at Ispra, the true sizes of the intended defects are now known. These sizes are compared with that intended and the performance of the inspection teams reviewed. (author)

  5. A modified tibial compression test for the detection of meniscal injury in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valen, S; McCabe, C; Maddock, E; Bright, S; Keeley, B

    2017-02-01

    To assess diagnostic efficacy of a modified tibial compression test in predicting medial meniscal injury in dogs with cranial cruciate ligament failure. Dogs admitted for surgical stabilisation of stifles with cranial cruciate ligament failure were examined by five preoperative physical tests to assess medial meniscal injury. Results of each physical test were compared with findings at arthrotomy and used to calculate sensitivities, specificities, positive and negative predictive values. None of the physical tests were accurate in reflecting meniscal integrity for dogs with cranial cruciate failure. Out of the five tests, the modified tibial compression test exhibited the highest concordance and sensitivity for the detection of medial meniscal tears. A palpable click during the modified tibial compression test had a sensitivity and specificity up to 63 and 77%, respectively, for the detection of medial meniscal lesions. Concordance values were up to 40% for the modified tibial compression test, followed by the range of motion test (up to 25%), while all other physical tests had concordance values below 10%. Physical tests are highly available, affordable and can be easily performed, but their efficacy in diagnosing medical meniscal injury is low. Meniscal clicks associated with meniscal tears were more frequently elicited during the modified tibial compression test when compared with other traditional tests. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  6. An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM based on local CD4 testing demands can improve turn-around times and save costs whilst ensuring accessible and scalable CD4 services across a national programme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah K Glencross

    Full Text Available The South African National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS responded to HIV treatment initiatives with two-tiered CD4 laboratory services in 2004. Increasing programmatic burden, as more patients access anti-retroviral therapy (ART, has demanded extending CD4 services to meet increasing clinical needs. The aim of this study was to review existing services and develop a service-model that integrated laboratory-based and point-of-care testing (POCT, to extend national coverage, improve local turn-around/(TAT and contain programmatic costs.NHLS Corporate Data Warehouse CD4 data, from 60-70 laboratories and 4756 referring health facilities was reviewed for referral laboratory workload, respective referring facility volumes and related TAT, from 2009-2012.An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM is proposed. Tier-1/POCT delivers CD4 testing at single health-clinics providing ART in hard-to-reach areas (350-1500 tests/day, serving ≥ 200 health-clinics. Tier-6 provides national support for standardisation, harmonization and quality across the organization.The ITSDM offers improved local TAT by extending CD4 services into rural/remote areas with new Tier-3 or Tier-2/POC-Hub services installed in existing community laboratories, most with developed infrastructure. The advantage of lower laboratory CD4 costs and use of existing infrastructure enables subsidization of delivery of more expensive POC services, into hard-to-reach districts without reasonable access to a local CD4 laboratory. Full ITSDM implementation across 5 service tiers (as opposed to widespread implementation of POC testing to extend service can facilitate sustainable 'full service coverage' across South Africa, and save>than R125 million in HIV/AIDS programmatic costs. ITSDM hierarchical parental-support also assures laboratory/POC management, equipment maintenance, quality control and on-going training between tiers.

  7. An Integrated Tiered Service Delivery Model (ITSDM) Based on Local CD4 Testing Demands Can Improve Turn-Around Times and Save Costs whilst Ensuring Accessible and Scalable CD4 Services across a National Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glencross, Deborah K.; Coetzee, Lindi M.; Cassim, Naseem

    2014-01-01

    Background The South African National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS) responded to HIV treatment initiatives with two-tiered CD4 laboratory services in 2004. Increasing programmatic burden, as more patients access anti-retroviral therapy (ART), has demanded extending CD4 services to meet increasing clinical needs. The aim of this study was to review existing services and develop a service-model that integrated laboratory-based and point-of-care testing (POCT), to extend national coverage, improve local turn-around/(TAT) and contain programmatic costs. Methods NHLS Corporate Data Warehouse CD4 data, from 60–70 laboratories and 4756 referring health facilities was reviewed for referral laboratory workload, respective referring facility volumes and related TAT, from 2009–2012. Results An integrated tiered service delivery model (ITSDM) is proposed. Tier-1/POCT delivers CD4 testing at single health-clinics providing ART in hard-to-reach areas (350–1500 tests/day, serving ≥200 health-clinics). Tier-6 provides national support for standardisation, harmonization and quality across the organization. Conclusion The ITSDM offers improved local TAT by extending CD4 services into rural/remote areas with new Tier-3 or Tier-2/POC-Hub services installed in existing community laboratories, most with developed infrastructure. The advantage of lower laboratory CD4 costs and use of existing infrastructure enables subsidization of delivery of more expensive POC services, into hard-to-reach districts without reasonable access to a local CD4 laboratory. Full ITSDM implementation across 5 service tiers (as opposed to widespread implementation of POC testing to extend service) can facilitate sustainable ‘full service coverage’ across South Africa, and save>than R125 million in HIV/AIDS programmatic costs. ITSDM hierarchical parental-support also assures laboratory/POC management, equipment maintenance, quality control and on-going training between tiers. PMID:25490718

  8. The detection of sensitivity of proprioception by a new clinical test: the dual joint position test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Yesim Yetimalar; Çiftçi, Yeliz; Ertekin, Cumhur

    2013-07-01

    To date, very few studies have paid attention to the joint sense (proprioception) of toes other than the big toe. We evaluated the sensitivity of joint position sense at the joint of the great toe in comparison to other digits, and with that determined by the dual digit stimulation test, in a sample of healthy normal controls and patients with clinical diagnosis of the lemniscal system dysfunction. Seventy-two patients with lemniscal system dysfunction (55 clinically definitive multiple sclerosis, 17 vasculitis) and 110 healthy volunteers participated in the study. All subjects underwent the joint position sense test of all digits of upper and lower extremities. The position sense resulting from the combined operation of the joints of the second and the fourth digits (simultaneous two digits position sense) was also measured and subsequently compared with the results of the great toe position sense. Upper extremities: no difference was found in recognition of the position sense in the single digits of the upper extremities between patients and healthy volunteers. There was a significant difference in the dual joint position test of the right upper extremity between patients and the case group (pproprioception of the great toe neither in the right and nor in the left side between patients and normal subjects. However, the joint position sense of other single digits was deteriorated in the patients, a difference that was significant compared to normal controls (pproprioception of simultaneous dual digits is diminished in patients when compared to a single digit position sense. Moreover, the great toe proprioception is less sensitive than other digits. Taken together, these observations lend evidence for a new clinical method which we named as dual joint position test. We suggest this novel method offers clinical utility to demonstrate lemniscal system dysfunction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation and comparison of tests to detect methicillin resistant S. aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathews Anila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Phenotypic methods for detection of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA have been compared with the gold standard which, as of now, is by the detection of mecA gene and femA gene by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Discrepancies in detection have an adverse effect on patient management, thereby highlighting the importance of accuracy in detection. Our study aims to evaluate the efficacy of cefoxitin disk diffusion test to detect MRSA and compare it with other phenotypic and molecular methods. Methodology; The study was conducted from June 2006 to December 2007 and included 610 Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus isolates obtained from clinical samples. All isolates were tested for MRSA using oxacillin screen agar plates with 6 µg/ml of oxacillin, cefoxitin disk diffusion using 30 µg disk and MIC of oxacillin. Selected isolates (55 were tested for presence of mecA gene and Fem A gene by PCR. Results: Out of 610 isolates, MRSA was identified in 34.09% by cefoxitin disk diffusion, 34.9% by oxacillin screen agar, 34.4% by MIC and 37.3% by oxacillin disk diffusion. When selected isolates were tested with molecular methods, the cefoxitin disk diffusion and PCR tests were comparable. Discussion: Prevalence of MRSA (34.09% is quite high as in other studies. The oxacillin disk diffusion test which was used routinely earlier is showing low specificity (56%. Among all phenotypic methods, cefoxitin disk diffusion and PCR alone have similar sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion: Results of cefoxitin disk diffusion test are in concordance with the PCR for mecA gene. Thus, the test can be an alternative to PCR for detection of MRSA in resource constraint settings.

  10. A novel technique for detecting antibiotic-resistant typhoid from rapid diagnostic tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Fhogartaigh, Caoimhe; Dance, David A B; Davong, Viengmon; Tann, Pisey; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Turner, Paul; Dittrich, Sabine; Newton, Paul N

    2015-05-01

    Fluoroquinolone-resistant typhoid is increasing. An antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic test (RDT) can rapidly diagnose typhoid from blood cultures. A simple, inexpensive molecular technique performed with DNA from positive RDTs accurately identified gyrA mutations consistent with phenotypic susceptibility testing results. Field diagnosis combined with centralized molecular resistance testing could improve typhoid management and surveillance in low-resource settings. Copyright © 2015, Nic Fhogartaigh et al.

  11. Detection of antibody against limax amoebae by means of the indirect haemagglutination test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerva, L

    1977-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the procuedure of the indirect haemagglutination test employed in the detection of specific antibodies against pathogenic amoebae of the genera Naegleria and Acanthamoeba. The preservation of all ingredients obtained by lyophilisation provide for a standard pattern of the test. The results of the test with experimentally prepared immune rabbit sera demonstrate an antigenic uniformity of the various isolates of Naegleria fowleri, and their marked difference from Acanthamoeba.

  12. Detection limits of the strip test and PCR for genetically modified corn in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, V E; Von Pinho, É V R; Von Pinho, R G; do Nascimento, A D

    2012-08-16

    Brazilian legislation establishes a labeling limit for products that contain more than 1% material from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). We assessed the sensitivity of the lateral flow strip test in detection of the GMO corn varieties Bt11 and MON810 and the specificity and sensitivity of PCR techniques for their detection. For the strip test, the GMO seeds were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 0.2, 0.4 and 0.8% for Bt11, and 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6% for MON810. Three different methodologies were assessed and whole seeds, their endosperm and embryonic axis were used. For the PCR technique, the GMO seeds of each of the two varieties were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 20, 10, 5, 2, 1, and 0.5%. The seeds were ground and the DNA extracted. For detection of the GMO material, specific primers were used for MON810 and Bt11 and maize zein as an endogenous control. The sensitivity of the strip test varied for both maize varieties and methodologies. The test was positive for Bt11 only at 0.8%, in contrast with the detection limit of 0.4% indicated by the manufacturer. In the multiplex PCR, the primers proved to be specific for the different varieties. These varieties were detected in samples with one GMO seed in 100. Thus, this technique proved to be efficient in detecting contaminations equal to or greater than 1%.

  13. Labeling the lines: A test of a six-mechanism model of chromatic detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Timothy G; Lahlaf, Safiya I; Eskew, Rhea T

    2017-11-01

    Six linear chromatic mechanisms are sufficient to account for the pattern of threshold elevations produced by chromatic noise masking in the (L,M) plane of cone space (Shepard, Swanson, McCarthy, & Eskew, 2016). Here, we report results of asymmetric color matching of the threshold-level tests from that detection study and use those matches to test the detection model. We assume the mechanisms are univariant labeled lines (Rushton, 1972; Watson & Robson, 1981), implying that the chromaticities of physically different stimuli that are detected by a single mechanism should all be the same-they are postreceptoral metamers-but the chromaticities of two stimuli detected by different mechanisms should be different. The results show that color matches fall into six clusters in CIE (u',v') space (across all the noise conditions) and that these clusters correspond closely to the six mechanisms in the model. Most importantly, where the detection model determines that a given test angle is detected by different mechanisms under different noise conditions, the hue of that test angle changes in a consistent way. These color matches allow us to apply a color label to each of the mechanisms, confirm the six-mechanism model, and quantify the hue signaled by each mechanism.

  14. Flight Testing of an Advanced Airborne Natural Gas Leak Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawn Lenz; Raymond T. Lines; Darryl Murdock; Jeffrey Owen; Steven Stearns; Michael Stoogenke

    2005-10-01

    ITT Industries Space Systems Division (Space Systems) has developed an airborne natural gas leak detection system designed to detect, image, quantify, and precisely locate leaks from natural gas transmission pipelines. This system is called the Airborne Natural Gas Emission Lidar (ANGEL) system. The ANGEL system uses a highly sensitive differential absorption Lidar technology to remotely detect pipeline leaks. The ANGEL System is operated from a fixed wing aircraft and includes automatic scanning, pointing system, and pilot guidance systems. During a pipeline inspection, the ANGEL system aircraft flies at an elevation of 1000 feet above the ground at speeds of between 100 and 150 mph. Under this contract with DOE/NETL, Space Systems was funded to integrate the ANGEL sensor into a test aircraft and conduct a series of flight tests over a variety of test targets including simulated natural gas pipeline leaks. Following early tests in upstate New York in the summer of 2004, the ANGEL system was deployed to Casper, Wyoming to participate in a set of DOE-sponsored field tests at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). At RMOTC the Space Systems team completed integration of the system and flew an operational system for the first time. The ANGEL system flew 2 missions/day for the duration for the 5-day test. Over the course of the week the ANGEL System detected leaks ranging from 100 to 5,000 scfh.

  15. Anion-intercalated layered double hydroxides modified test strips for detection of heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Sun, Jianchao; Fan, Hai; Ai, Shiyun

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a novel approach for facile and rapid detection of heavy metal ions using anion-intercalated layered double hydroxides (LDHs) modified test strips is demonstrated. By intercalating Fe(CN)6(4-) or S(2-) anions into the interlayers of LDHs on the filter paper, various heavy metal ions can be easily detected based on the color change before and after reaction between the anions and the heavy metal ions. Upon the dropping of heavy metal ions solutions to the test strips, the colors of the test strips changed instantly, which can be easily observed by naked eyes. With the decrease of the concentration, the color depth changed obviously. The lowest detection concentration can be up to 1×10(-6) mol L(-1). Due to the easily intercalation of anions into the interlayer of the LDHs on test trips, this procedure provides a general method for the construction of LDHs modified test strips for detection of heavy metal ions. The stability of the prepared test strips is investigated. Furthermore, all the results were highly reproducible. The test strips may have potential applications in environmental monitoring fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chromium(VI) release from leather and metals can be detected with a diphenylcarbazide spot test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Johansen, Jeanne D.; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2015-01-01

    Along with chromium, nickel and cobalt are the clinically most important metal allergens. However, unlike for nickel and cobalt, there is no validated colorimetric spot test that detects chromium. Such a test could help both clinicians and their patients with chromium dermatitis to identify culprit...... exposures. To evaluate the use of diphenylcarbazide (DPC) as a spot test reagent for the identification of chromium(VI) release. A colorimetric chromium(VI) spot test based on DPC was prepared and used on different items from small market surveys. The DPC spot test was able to identify chromium(VI) release...

  17. Single-well "push-pull" partitioning tracer test for NAPL detection in the subsurface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istok, Jonathan D; Field, Jennifer A; Schroth, Martin H; Davis, Brian M; Dwarakanath, Varadarajan

    2002-06-15

    Previous environmental applications of partitioning tracer tests to detect and quantify nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) contamination in the subsurface have been limited to well-to-well tests. However, theory and numerical modeling suggests that single-well injection-extraction ("push-pull") partitioning tracer tests can also potentially detect and quantify NAPL contamination. In this type of test, retardation factors for injected partitioning tracers are estimated from the increase in apparent dispersion observed in extraction-phase breakthrough curves in the presence of NAPL. A series of laboratory push-pull tests was conducted in physical aquifer models (PAMs) packed with natural aquifer sediment prepared with and without the presence of trichloroethene (TCE) NAPL. Field tests were conducted in an aquifer contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon NAPL. Injected test solutions contained a suite of partitioning and conservative (nonpartitioning) alcohol tracers. Laboratory push-pull partitioning tracer tests were able to detect and quantify sorption of partitioning tracers to aquifer sediment (in the absence of NAPL) and to detect NAPL when it was present. NAPL saturations computed from estimated retardation factors bracketed those computed from known volumes of emplaced NAPL in the sediment pack. However, numerical modeling with assumed homogeneous NAPL distribution and linear equilibrium partitioning of tracers between aqueous and NAPL phases was unable to reproduce all features of observed breakthrough curves. Excavation of the sediment pack after all tests indicated that a portion of the emplaced NAPL had sunk to the bottom of the PAM invalidating the modeling assumption of homogeneous NAPL distribution. Moreover, the apparent dispersion in extraction-phase breakthrough curves decreased when the injection-extraction pumping rate was decreased, suggesting that mass transfer limitations existed during laboratory tests. Field push-pull partitioning tracer tests were

  18. Rapid detection of CWD PrP: comparison of tests designed for the detection of BSE or scrapie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasche, T; Schenck, E V; Balachandran, A; Miller, M W; Langenberg, J; Frölich, K; Steinbach, F

    2012-10-01

    Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) mainly affecting cervids in North America. The accumulation of an abnormal form of host-encoded prion protein (PrP(CWD) ) in the CNS and lymphoid tissues is characteristic of the disease and known to be caused by pathogenic prion proteins (PrP(res) ), which are thought to be transmitted mainly by contact with body fluids, such like saliva. Species known to be naturally infected by CWD include Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus). Recently, large-scale disease eradication or control programs have been attempted to curtail the spread of disease. But reports of diseased free-ranging and farmed cervids in many locations in the USA and Canada are still continuing. The goal of this study was to find sensitive rapid test systems that are reliably able to detect CWD-associated PrP(CWD) in cervids, thereby reviewing an important control tool in case the disease spreads further and reaches Europe. Seven tests, originally developed for the detection of other TSE diseases such as Scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy, including two Western blots, four enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), and one lateral flow device, were included in this study. All seven tests evaluated were able to detect pathogenic prion proteins (PrP(CWD) ) in Northern American infected animals and distinguish physiologic prion protein (PrP(c) ) in brainstem (obex region) and lymph node samples from North American and European cervids, respectively. However, the specificity and sensitivity of the tests differed significantly. Highly sensitive tests for the detection of prion proteins are an important tool both for the design of effective disease surveillance and control strategies and the safety of the food chain. Thus, this study contributes to the emergency preparedness against CWD. © 2011 Crown Copyright. Reproduced with

  19. Neck Pain and Proprioception Revisited Using the Proprioception Incongruence Detection Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Daniel S; Hillier, Susan; Madden, Victoria J; Smith, Ross T; Broecker, Markus; Meulders, Ann; Moseley, G Lorimer

    2016-05-01

    Proprioceptive imprecision is believed to contribute to persistent pain. Detecting imprecision in order to study or treat it remains challenging given the limitations of current tests. The aim of this study was to determine whether proprioceptive imprecision could be detected in people with neck pain by testing their ability to identify incongruence between true head motion and a false visual reference using the Proprioception Incongruence Detection (PID) Test. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Twenty-four people with neck pain and 24 matched controls repeatedly rotated to specific markers within a virtual world and indicated if their true head rotation was more or less than the rotation suggested by the visual feedback. Visual feedback was manipulated at 6 corrections, ranging from 60% of true movement to 140% of true movement. A standard repositioning error (RPE) test as undertaken for comparison. Healthy controls were better able to detect incongruence between vision and true head rotation (X̅=75.6%, SD=8.5%) than people with neck pain were (X̅=69.6%, SD=12.7%). The RPE test scores were not different between groups. The PID Test score related to self-reported pain intensity but did not relate to RPE test score. Causality cannot be established from this cross-sectional study, and further work refining the PID Test is needed for it to offer clinical utility. Proprioceptive precision for neck movement appears worse in people with neck pain than in those without neck pain, and the extent of the deficit appears to be related to usual pain severity. The PID Test appears to be a more sensitive test than the RPE test and is likely to be useful for assessment of proprioceptive function in research and clinical settings. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  20. Performance test of SKIROC II ASIC chip for the radiation detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, W. J.; Namgoong, H.; Kim, B. K.; Song, H. S.; Kim, H. S.; Lee, S. H.; Choi, H. J.; Ghergherehchi, M.; Chai, J. S. [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    There is a PCB board called FEV8 board which can readout analog signal from any energy source, and amplify it for signal processing. For precise detection, the board had been designed to operate in wide range of energy condition, with high-resolutive detection performance. This function has the possibility of the utilization for the radiation detection. The channels of the prototype board must be evaluated to make sure that the board is perfect or not. This research had made an progress for the radiation detection as well as the electronics of the intricate combination of the measurement instrumentations. The number of the noisy channels had been measured for threshold scan, and every channels in the board had been evaluated. By improving the experimental conditions such as test script in Linux system or well designed ground condition of the test bench, much more clean data will be able to be acquisited.

  1. Testing the system detection unit for measuring solid minerals bulk density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytyuk, I. N.; Kopteva, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The paper provides a brief description of the system for measuring flux per volume of solid minerals via example of mineral coal. The paper discloses the operational principle of the detection unit. The paper provides full description of testing methodology, as well as practical implementation of the detection unit testing. This paper describes the removal of two data arrays via the channel of scattered anddirect radiation for the detection units of two generations. This paper describes Matlab software to determine the statistical characteristics of the studied objects. The mean value of pulses per cycles, and pulse counting inaccuracy relatively the mean value were determined for the calculation of the stability account of the detection units.

  2. Evolution of Testing Algorithms at a Tertiary Care Hospital for the Detection of Clostridium difficile Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qutub, Mohammed; Govindan, Parasanth; Vattappillil, Anupama

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is the commonest cause of nosocomial diarrhea. Methods for C.difficle detection include toxins or enzyme detection by immunoassays, cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA) or FDA approved PCR. Due to the tedious and time consuming nature of the CCNA and the suboptimal specificity and sensitivity of EIAs, these assays cannot be used as stand-alone tests. One approach of combining these assays, is by two-step algorithm, where Ag-EIAs is used as screening test and confirmation of positives either by a toxin detection enzyme immunoassays or by CCNA. Another approach is a three-step algorithm, where Ag-EIAs is used as screening test, and all positives are tested by a toxin detection EIA and if toxin detection negative, further tested either by PCR or by CCNA. Therefore we aimed to evaluate a new two-step algorithm for the detection of toxigenic CD and its role in improvement of turn-around-time. Methods A total of 3518 nonformed stool specimens from suspected cases of CDAD were collected. Specimens were tested either by GDH-toxin A/B ICA; or by GeneXpert C. diificile PCR as per the algorithm (Figure 1). Results Of 3518 stool specimens tested; 130 (3.70%) were positive and 2989 (84.96%) were negative by GDH-toxin A/B ICA while 399 (11.34%) required PCR. None of the negative GDH and positive toxin A/B samples tested positive by PCR. Also, none of the negative GDH and negative toxin A/B samples tested positive by PCR (Figure 2). Conclusion Study indicates that when the GDH-toxin A/B ICA is used, almost 89 % of the results could be reported within 30 minutes; about 3.7 % of them being positive results and 84.96 % being negative. Confirmation of the discrepant GDH and Toxin A/B results was by PCR. The new algorithm offered rapid detection of C.difficile by ICA, judicious use of PCR and effectively reduced turnaround time. Figure-1: Two-step algorithm for C difficile testing. Figure-2: Results of two

  3. 14C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S.J.; Tytgat, K.M.; Hollingsworth, J.; Jalali, S.; Rshid, F.A.; Bowen, B.M.; Goldie, J.; Goodacre, R.L.; Riddell, R.H.; Hunt, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    The high urease activity of Helicobacter pylori can be used to detect this bacterium by noninvasive breath tests. We have developed a 14 C-urea breath test which uses 5 microCi 14 C with 50 mg nonradioactive urea. Breath samples are collected at baseline and every 30 min for 2 h. Our study compared the outcome of the breath test to the results of histology and culture of endoscopically obtained gastric biopsies in 84 patients. The breath test discriminated well between the 50 positive patients and the 34 patients negative for Helicobacter pylori: the calculated sensitivity was 100%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 93%, and negative predictive value 100%. Treatment with bismuth subsalicylate and/or ampicillin resulted in lower counts of exhaled 14 CO 2 which correlated with histological improvement in gastritis. The 14 C-urea breath test is a better gold standard for the detection of Helicobacter pylori than histology and/or culture

  4. [To detect teenagers' suicide behaviour (I). Elaboration of a test and its validation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Philippe; Chabaud, Francis

    2007-06-15

    General practitioner is used to be consulted by teenagers who have already had suicide ideas or attempted suicide and who were not been taking care for. The most of the time the GP doesn't know their antecedents; but as they are at risk to do it again, it's important to detect them. To elaborate and to validate a test to detect teenagers' suicide behaviour. After participating to a survey (Lycoll) which included 3 872 teenagers, 17 GPs and 3 psychiatrists (ADOC) created a screening test to be used by GPs. It was a questionnaire, named TSTS, with 4 questions completed by 5 items to explore the troubles' severity. Then, this test has been experienced among 38 GPs who didn't know it before. This study has been done as a clinical audit. Each physician has been visited by a research clinical assistant who had been taught for it, to estimate the screening of suicide ideas or attempted suicide before and after taking knowledge of the test. Results indicate a very good acceptability of this screening tool which has been used for 60% of teenagers' office visits. It allowed to guide a large number of visits towards preoccupations which were different from the initial one and to detect suicide antecedents among 13% teenagers "tested" among whom 2/3 had already seen a GP. This test is recommended to GPs in usual practice to detect teenagers at suicide risk.

  5. Comparison of three serological tests to detect Paragonimus mexicanus infections in infected cats

    OpenAIRE

    Cornejo, William R.; Departamento de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Alva, Pilar F.; Departamento de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Sevilla, Carlos R.; Departamento de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.; Huiza, Alina F.; Departamento de Microbiología Médica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Instituto de Medicina Tropical “Daniel A. Carrión”, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Paragonimiasis is a lung disease caused by Paragonimus trematodes genus. Human infection laboratory diagnosis is usually done by detection of parasite eggs in sputum or feces; however, findings may be negative and alternative diagnostic methods are required. Objectives: To compare three serologic tests for detection of Paragonimus mexicanus somatic antigen (PmAS) antibodies in serum samples of cats infected experimentally. Design: Experimental study. Setting: Instituto de Medicina...

  6. Aptamer-Based Lateral Flow Test Strip for Rapid Detection of Zearalenone in Corn Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shijia; Liu, Lihong; Duan, Nuo; Li, Qian; Zhou, You; Wang, Zhouping

    2018-02-28

    An aptamer-based lateral flow test strip was developed for the detection of zearalenone (ZEN). This assay was based on the competition for the aptamer between ZEN and its complementary sequence. Several experimental conditions that could influence sensitivity have been investigated, including the concentration of aptamer and NaCl used in the probe preparation, the mole ratio of streptavidin and biotinylated DNA used in the preparation of test line and control line, and the loading quantity of gold nanoparticles-aptamer conjugates (AuNPs-Apt). Under the optimal experimental conditions, we successfully detected ZEN within a detection range of 5-200 ng/mL and the visual limit of detection of 20 ng/mL. This aptamer-based strip was successfully applied to the determination of ZEN in spiked corn samples, and the recoveries were from 93.4% to 114.2%. All detections can be achieved within 5 min. The results demonstrated that the developed aptamer-based lateral flow test strip is a potential alternative tool for the rapid and sensitive detection of ZEN.

  7. An Approach for Network Outage Detection from Drive-Testing Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Turkka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A data-mining framework for analyzing a cellular network drive testing database is described in this paper. The presented method is designed to detect sleeping base stations, network outage, and change of the dominance areas in a cognitive and self-organizing manner. The essence of the method is to find similarities between periodical network measurements and previously known outage data. For this purpose, diffusion maps dimensionality reduction and nearest neighbor data classification methods are utilized. The method is cognitive because it requires training data for the outage detection. In addition, the method is autonomous because it uses minimization of drive testing (MDT functionality to gather the training and testing data. Motivation of classifying MDT measurement reports to periodical, handover, and outage categories is to detect areas where periodical reports start to become similar to the outage samples. Moreover, these areas are associated with estimated dominance areas to detected sleeping base stations. In the studied verification case, measurement classification results in an increase of the amount of samples which can be used for detection of performance degradations, and consequently, makes the outage detection faster and more reliable.

  8. [Validation of three screening tests used for early detection of cervical cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Reyes, Esperanza Rosalba; Cerda-Flores, Ricardo M; Quiñones-Pérez, Juan M; Cortés-Gutiérrez, Elva I

    2008-01-01

    to evaluate the validity (sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy) of three screening methods used in the early detection of the cervical carcinoma versus the histopathology diagnosis. a selected sample of 107 women attended in the Opportune Detection of Cervicouterine Cancer Program in the Hospital de Zona 46, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social in Durango, during the 2003 was included. The application of Papa-nicolaou, acetic acid test, and molecular detection of human papillomavirus, and histopatholgy diagnosis were performed in all the patients at the time of the gynecological exam. The detection and tipification of the human papillomavirus was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and analysis of polymorphisms of length of restriction fragments (RFLP). Histopathology diagnosis was considered the gold standard. The evaluation of the validity was carried out by the Bayesian method for diagnosis test. the positive cases for acetic acid test, Papanicolaou, and PCR were 47, 22, and 19. The accuracy values were 0.70, 0.80 and 0.99, respectively. since the molecular method showed a greater validity in the early detection of the cervical carcinoma we considered of vital importance its implementation in suitable programs of Opportune Detection of Cervicouterino Cancer Program in Mexico. However, in order to validate this conclusion, cross-sectional studies in different region of country must be carried out.

  9. A highly accurate inclusive cancer screening test using Caenorhabditis elegans scent detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Hirotsu

    Full Text Available Early detection and treatment are of vital importance to the successful eradication of various cancers, and development of economical and non-invasive novel cancer screening systems is critical. Previous reports using canine scent detection demonstrated the existence of cancer-specific odours. However, it is difficult to introduce canine scent recognition into clinical practice because of the need to maintain accuracy. In this study, we developed a Nematode Scent Detection Test (NSDT using Caenorhabditis elegans to provide a novel highly accurate cancer detection system that is economical, painless, rapid and convenient. We demonstrated wild-type C. elegans displayed attractive chemotaxis towards human cancer cell secretions, cancer tissues and urine from cancer patients but avoided control urine; in parallel, the response of the olfactory neurons of C. elegans to the urine from cancer patients was significantly stronger than to control urine. In contrast, G protein α mutants and olfactory neurons-ablated animals were not attracted to cancer patient urine, suggesting that C. elegans senses odours in urine. We tested 242 samples to measure the performance of the NSDT, and found the sensitivity was 95.8%; this is markedly higher than that of other existing tumour markers. Furthermore, the specificity was 95.0%. Importantly, this test was able to diagnose various cancer types tested at the early stage (stage 0 or 1. To conclude, C. elegans scent-based analyses might provide a new strategy to detect and study disease-associated scents.

  10. A highly accurate inclusive cancer screening test using Caenorhabditis elegans scent detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirotsu, Takaaki; Sonoda, Hideto; Uozumi, Takayuki; Shinden, Yoshiaki; Mimori, Koshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Ueda, Naoko; Hamakawa, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Early detection and treatment are of vital importance to the successful eradication of various cancers, and development of economical and non-invasive novel cancer screening systems is critical. Previous reports using canine scent detection demonstrated the existence of cancer-specific odours. However, it is difficult to introduce canine scent recognition into clinical practice because of the need to maintain accuracy. In this study, we developed a Nematode Scent Detection Test (NSDT) using Caenorhabditis elegans to provide a novel highly accurate cancer detection system that is economical, painless, rapid and convenient. We demonstrated wild-type C. elegans displayed attractive chemotaxis towards human cancer cell secretions, cancer tissues and urine from cancer patients but avoided control urine; in parallel, the response of the olfactory neurons of C. elegans to the urine from cancer patients was significantly stronger than to control urine. In contrast, G protein α mutants and olfactory neurons-ablated animals were not attracted to cancer patient urine, suggesting that C. elegans senses odours in urine. We tested 242 samples to measure the performance of the NSDT, and found the sensitivity was 95.8%; this is markedly higher than that of other existing tumour markers. Furthermore, the specificity was 95.0%. Importantly, this test was able to diagnose various cancer types tested at the early stage (stage 0 or 1). To conclude, C. elegans scent-based analyses might provide a new strategy to detect and study disease-associated scents.

  11. Fast microwave detection system for coherent synchrotron radiation study at KEK: Accelerator test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aryshev, A.; Araki, S.; Karataev, P.; Naito, T.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.

    2007-01-01

    A fast room temperature microwave detection system based on the Schottky Barrier-diode detector was created at the KEK ATF (Accelerator Test Facility). It was tested using Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) generated by the 1.28 GeV electron beam in the damping ring. The speed performance of the detection system was checked by observing the CSR from a multi-bunch (2.8 ns bunch separation time) beam. The theoretical estimations of CSR power yield from an edge of bending magnet as well as new injection tuning method are presented. A very high sensitivity of CSR power yield to the longitudinal electron distribution in a bunch is discussed

  12. Detectability Measurement of GPR for Buried Target in Self-Designed Test Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Soo Jung; Shin, Byoung Chul

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we were investigated the detectability on various specimen in self-designed test field using the GPR system with three antenna elements. The GPR system was constantly radiated 730MHz frequency. To examine the detectability on various condition, the test were experimented using different materials, size and buried depth. As an adjusted wave-propagation velocity, the location of hyperbolic curve pattern were displayed B-scan CRT. And the pattern was exactly positioned when it was compared to the real buried-depth. Therefore, we can confirm similarity between the wave-propagation velocity and previous results

  13. Detection of plating defects using ultrasonic and eddy current test methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waidele, H.; Knoch, P.; Gersinska, R.; Brenner, W.; Seidenkranz, T.; Csapo, G.; Just, T.; Weiss, R.; Rathgeb, W.

    2004-01-01

    The validity of ultrasonic and eddy current testing of austenitic platings of reactor pressure vessels was investigated in the context of a project funded by the Federal Radiation Protection Office (Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz). In the first phase, test specimens with natural defects were fabricated at MPA Stuttgart; in the second phase, plating defects were introduced in a MPA large-size vessel. Measurements showed that most plating defects will be detected by standard ultrasonic testing. The highest accuracy was achieved by a combination of ultrasonic and eddy current testing. (orig.) [de

  14. Gait velocity in senior people. An easy test for detecting mobility impairment in community elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero-Odasso, M; Schapira, M; Varela, C; Pitteri, C; Soriano, E R; Kaplan, R; Camera, L A; Mayorga, L M

    2004-01-01

    Functional assessment is an important part of the evaluation of elderly patients. Mobility problems detected by functional tests predict the development of more severe disability and injurious events such as falls and hip fractures. Several tests to evaluate mobility have been described, but most of them are difficult to perform by a primary care physicians or take much time in the ambulatory setting. To evaluate different mobility test to detect mobility impairment in community senior people. Select an easier test to perform on the ambulatory ward by a GP with the hypothesis that gait velocity could be an easier test to detect early mobility impairment. A cohort of 100 elderly subjects of 75 year and older were selected from our database and contacted by phone. The subjects were appointed and assessed by three geriatricians from January to May 2000. The measures including MMSE, Yesavage Test, ADL (Barhtel) and IADL (Lawton), the Get Up and Go test, the POMA, one leg balance test and the Gait Velocity (GV). A gait velocity of 0.8 m/s or lower was defined as a pathological gait velocity (PGV). 95 subjects, mean age 79.63 (+/- 4) ranged form 75 to 95. Women in 71.3%. The ADLs were normal on 85% of the patients and the MMSE was normal on 78%. There was a significant association between pathological gait velocity (gait velocity reported recurrent falls in the previous 6 months while 35% of subjects with pathological gait velocity did. (OR 0.32 CI95% 010-099 p gait velocity (gait velocity could be a test easy to perform, no time consuming, and an operative tool to apply in the ambulatory care to detect elderly patients with mobility impairment.

  15. Quantum dot-based immunochromatography test strip for rapid, quantitative and sensitive detection of alpha fetoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiuhua; Gong, Xiaoqun; Song, Tao; Yang, Jiumin; Zhu, Shengjiang; Li, Yunhong; Cui, Ye; Li, Yingxin; Zhang, Bingbo; Chang, Jin

    2011-12-15

    Rapid, quantitative detection of tumor markers with high sensitivity and specificity is critical to clinical diagnosis and treatment of cancer. We describe here a novel portable fluorescent biosensor that integrates quantum dot (QD) with an immunochromatography test strip (ICTS) and a home-made test strip reader for detection of tumor markers in human serum. Alpha fetoprotein (AFP), which is valuable for diagnosis of primary hepatic carcinoma, is used as a model tumor marker to demonstrate the performance of the proposed immunosensor. The principle of this sensor is on the basis of a sandwich immunoreaction that was performed on an ICTS. The fluorescence intensity of captured QD labels on the test line and control line served as signals was determined by the home-made test strip reader. The strong luminescence and robust photostability of QDs combined with the promising advantages of an ICTS and sensitive detection with the test strip reader result in good performance. Under optimal conditions, this biosensor is capable of detecting as low as 1 ng/mL AFP standard analyte in 10 min with only 50 μL sample volume. Furthermore, 1000 clinical human serum samples were tested by both the QD-based ICTS and a commercial electrochemiluminescence immunoassay AFP kit simultaneously to estimate the sensitivity, specificity and concordance of the assays. Results showed high consistency except for 24 false positive cases (false positive rate 3.92%) and 17 false negative cases (false negative rate 4.38%); the error rate was 4.10% in all. This demonstrates that the QD-based ICTS is capable of rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of AFP and shows a great promise for point-of-care testing of other tumor markers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reveal Salmonella 2.0 test for detection of Salmonella spp. in foods and environmental samples. Performance Tested Method 960801.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoerner, Rebecca; Feldpausch, Jill; Gray, R Lucas; Curry, Stephanie; Islam, Zahidul; Goldy, Tim; Klein, Frank; Tadese, Theodros; Rice, Jennifer; Mozola, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Reveal Salmonella 2.0 is an improved version of the original Reveal Salmonella lateral flow immunoassay and is applicable to the detection of Salmonella enterica serogroups A-E in a variety of food and environmental samples. A Performance Tested Method validation study was conducted to compare performance of the Reveal 2.0 method with that of the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service or U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference culture methods for detection of Salmonella spp. in chicken carcass rinse, raw ground turkey, raw ground beef, hot dogs, raw shrimp, a ready-to-eat meal product, dry pet food, ice cream, spinach, cantaloupe, peanut butter, stainless steel surface, and sprout irrigation water. In a total of 17 trials performed internally and four trials performed in an independent laboratory, there were no statistically significant differences in performance of the Reveal 2.0 and reference culture procedures as determined by Chi-square analysis, with the exception of one trial with stainless steel surface and one trial with sprout irrigation water where there were significantly more positive results by the Reveal 2.0 method. Considering all data generated in testing food samples using enrichment procedures specifically designed for the Reveal method, overall sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture methods was 99%. In testing environmental samples, sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to the reference culture method was 164%. For select foods, use of the Reveal test in conjunction with reference method enrichment resulted in overall sensitivity of 92%. There were no unconfirmed positive results on uninoculated control samples in any trials for specificity of 100%. In inclusivity testing, 102 different Salmonella serovars belonging to serogroups A-E were tested and 99 were consistently positive in the Reveal test. In exclusivity testing of 33 strains of non

  17. Sequential detection of influenza epidemics by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Closas Pau

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Influenza is a well known and common human respiratory infection, causing significant morbidity and mortality every year. Despite Influenza variability, fast and reliable outbreak detection is required for health resource planning. Clinical health records, as published by the Diagnosticat database in Catalonia, host useful data for probabilistic detection of influenza outbreaks. Methods This paper proposes a statistical method to detect influenza epidemic activity. Non-epidemic incidence rates are modeled against the exponential distribution, and the maximum likelihood estimate for the decaying factor λ is calculated. The sequential detection algorithm updates the parameter as new data becomes available. Binary epidemic detection of weekly incidence rates is assessed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test on the absolute difference between the empirical and the cumulative density function of the estimated exponential distribution with significance level 0 ≤ α ≤ 1. Results The main advantage with respect to other approaches is the adoption of a statistically meaningful test, which provides an indicator of epidemic activity with an associated probability. The detection algorithm was initiated with parameter λ0 = 3.8617 estimated from the training sequence (corresponding to non-epidemic incidence rates of the 2008-2009 influenza season and sequentially updated. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test detected the following weeks as epidemic for each influenza season: 50−10 (2008-2009 season, 38−50 (2009-2010 season, weeks 50−9 (2010-2011 season and weeks 3 to 12 for the current 2011-2012 season. Conclusions Real medical data was used to assess the validity of the approach, as well as to construct a realistic statistical model of weekly influenza incidence rates in non-epidemic periods. For the tested data, the results confirmed the ability of the algorithm to detect the start and the end of epidemic periods. In general, the proposed test could

  18. A rapid ultrasound particle agglutination method for HIV antibody detection: Comparison with conventional rapid HIV tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bystryak, Simon; Ossina, Natalya

    2017-11-01

    We present the results of the feasibility and preliminary studies on analytical performance of a rapid test for detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in human serum or plasma that is an important advance in detecting HIV infection. Current methods for rapid testing of antibodies against HIV are qualitative and exhibit poor sensitivity (limit of detection). In this paper, we describe an ultrasound particle agglutination (UPA) method that leads to a significant increase of the sensitivity of conventional latex agglutination tests for HIV antibody detection in human serum or plasma. The UPA method is based on the use of: 1) a dual mode ultrasound, wherein a first single-frequency mode is used to accelerate the latex agglutination process, and then a second swept-frequency mode of sonication is used to disintegrate non-specifically bound aggregates; and 2) a numerical assessment of results of the agglutination process. The numerical assessment is carried out by optical detection and analysis of moving patterns in the resonator cell during the swept-frequency mode. The single-step UPA method is rapid and more sensitive than the three commercial rapid HIV test kits analyzed in the study: analytical sensitivity of the new UPA method was found to be 510-, 115-, and 80-fold higher than that for Capillus™, Multispot™ and Uni-Gold™ Recombigen HIV antibody rapid test kits, respectively. The newly developed UPA method opens up additional possibilities for detection of a number of clinically significant markers in point-of-care settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Viral RNA testing and automation on the bead-based CBNE detection microsystem.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galambos, Paul C.; Bourdon, Christopher Jay; Farrell, Cara M.; Rossito, Paul (University of California at Davis); McClain, Jaime L.; Derzon, Mark Steven; Cullor, James Sterling (University of California at Davis); Rahimian, Kamayar

    2008-09-01

    We developed prototype chemistry for nucleic acid hybridization on our bead-based diagnostics platform and we established an automatable bead handling protocol capable of 50 part-per-billion (ppb) sensitivity. We are working towards a platform capable of parallel, rapid (10 minute), raw sample testing for orthogonal (in this case nucleic acid and immunoassays) identification of biological (and other) threats in a single sensor microsystem. In this LDRD we developed the nucleic acid chemistry required for nucleic acid hybridization. Our goal is to place a non-cell associated RNA virus (Bovine Viral Diarrhea, BVD) on the beads for raw sample testing. This key pre-requisite to showing orthogonality (nucleic acid measurements can be performed in parallel with immunoassay measurements). Orthogonal detection dramatically reduces false positives. We chose BVD because our collaborators (UC-Davis) can supply samples from persistently infected animals; and because proof-of-concept field testing can be performed with modification of the current technology platform at the UC Davis research station. Since BVD is a cattle-prone disease this research dovetails with earlier immunoassay work on Botulinum toxin simulant testing in raw milk samples. Demonstration of BVD RNA detection expands the repertoire of biological macromolecules that can be adapted to our bead-based detection. The resources of this late start LDRD were adequate to partially demonstrate the conjugation of the beads to the nucleic acids. It was never expected to be adequate for a full live virus test but to motivate that additional investment. In addition, we were able to reduce the LOD (Limit of Detection) for the botulinum toxin stimulant to 50 ppb from the earlier LOD of 1 ppm. A low LOD combined with orthogonal detection provides both low false negatives and low false positives. The logical follow-on steps to this LDRD research are to perform live virus identification as well as concurrent nucleic acid and

  20. Multianalyte Tests for the Early Detection of Cancer: Speedbumps and Barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Tainsky

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has become very clear that a single molecular event is inadequate to accurately predict the biology (or pathophysiology of cancer. Furthermore, using any single molecular event as a biomarker for the early detection of malignancy may not comprehensively identify the majority of individuals with that disease. Therefore, the fact that technologies have arisen that can simultaneously detect several, possibly hundreds, of biomarkers has propelled the field towards the development of multianalyte-based in vitro diagnostic early detection tests for cancer using body fl uids such as serum, plasma, sputum, saliva, or urine. These multianalyte tests may be based on the detection of serum autoantibodies to tumor antigens, the presence of cancer-related proteins in serum, or the presence of tumor-specific genomic changes that appear in plasma as free DNA. The implementation of non-invasive diagnostic approaches to detect early stage cancer may provide the physician with evidence of cancer, but the question arises as to how the information will affect the pathway of clinical intervention. The confirmation of a positive result from an in vitro diagnostic cancer test may involve relatively invasive procedures to establish a true cancer diagnosis. If in vitro diagnostic tests are proven to be both specific, i.e. rarely produce false positive results due to unrelated conditions, and sufficiently sensitive, i.e. rarely produce false negative results, then such screening tests offer the potential for early detection and personalized therapeutics using multiple disease-related targets with convenient and non-invasive means. Here we discuss the technical and regulatory barriers inherent in development of clinical multianalyte biomarker assays.

  1. CANTAB object recognition and language tests to detect aging cognitive decline: an exploratory comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral Soares, Fernanda; de Oliveira, Thaís Cristina Galdino; de Macedo, Liliane Dias e Dias; Tomás, Alessandra Mendonça; Picanço-Diniz, Domingos Luiz Wanderley; Bento-Torres, João; Bento-Torres, Natáli Valim Oliver; Picanço-Diniz, Cristovam Wanderley

    2015-01-01

    Objective The recognition of the limits between normal and pathological aging is essential to start preventive actions. The aim of this paper is to compare the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) and language tests to distinguish subtle differences in cognitive performances in two different age groups, namely young adults and elderly cognitively normal subjects. Method We selected 29 young adults (29.9±1.06 years) and 31 older adults (74.1±1.15 years) matched by educational level (years of schooling). All subjects underwent a general assessment and a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Mini Mental State Examination, visuospatial learning, and memory tasks from CANTAB and language tests. Cluster and discriminant analysis were applied to all neuropsychological test results to distinguish possible subgroups inside each age group. Results Significant differences in the performance of aged and young adults were detected in both language and visuospatial memory tests. Intragroup cluster and discriminant analysis revealed that CANTAB, as compared to language tests, was able to detect subtle but significant differences between the subjects. Conclusion Based on these findings, we concluded that, as compared to language tests, large-scale application of automated visuospatial tests to assess learning and memory might increase our ability to discern the limits between normal and pathological aging. PMID:25565785

  2. Use of Medical Metered Dose Inhalers for Functionality Testing of Bioaerosol Detection and Identification Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    testing of two near-real-time UV bioaerosol detectors. Aerosol generated from one actuation of a bioMDD containing 1 µm fluorescently tagged PSLs...resulted in complete alarming. 26 5. RECOMMENDATIONS In general , bioMDDs should be suitable for testing functionality of bioaerosol ... BIOAEROSOL DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION SYSTEMS ECBC-TR-964 Jana Kesavan Deborah R. Schepers Jerold R. Bottiger RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY

  3. Detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory LLLW active tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, D.G.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1993-03-01

    This document provides a detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for leak testing many of the tanks that comprise the active portion of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and two other agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC)

  4. [Micron]ADS-B Detect and Avoid Flight Tests on Phantom 4 Unmanned Aircraft System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Ricardo; Dandachy, Mike; Truong, Hong; Aruljothi, Arun; Vedantam, Mihir; Epperson, Kraettli; McCartney, Reed

    2018-01-01

    Researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California and Vigilant Aerospace Systems collaborated for the flight-test demonstration of an Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast based collision avoidance technology on a small unmanned aircraft system equipped with the uAvionix Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast transponder. The purpose of the testing was to demonstrate that National Aeronautics and Space Administration / Vigilant software and algorithms, commercialized as the FlightHorizon UAS"TM", are compatible with uAvionix hardware systems and the DJI Phantom 4 small unmanned aircraft system. The testing and demonstrations were necessary for both parties to further develop and certify the technology in three key areas: flights beyond visual line of sight, collision avoidance, and autonomous operations. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Vigilant Aerospace Systems have developed and successfully flight-tested an Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Detect and Avoid system on the Phantom 4 small unmanned aircraft system. The Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Detect and Avoid system architecture is especially suited for small unmanned aircraft systems because it integrates: 1) miniaturized Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast hardware; 2) radio data-link communications; 3) software algorithms for real-time Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast data integration, conflict detection, and alerting; and 4) a synthetic vision display using a fully-integrated National Aeronautics and Space Administration geobrowser for three dimensional graphical representations for ownship and air traffic situational awareness. The flight-test objectives were to evaluate the performance of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Detect and Avoid collision avoidance technology as installed on two small unmanned aircraft systems. In December 2016, four flight tests

  5. A Novel Computerized Test for Detecting and Monitoring Visual Attentional Deficits and Delirium in the ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Cameron; Hendry, Kirsty; Wilson, Elizabeth S; Walsh, Timothy; Allerhand, Mike; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Tieges, Zoë

    2017-07-01

    Delirium in the ICU is associated with poor outcomes but is under-detected. Here we evaluated performance of a novel, graded test for objectively detecting inattention in delirium, implemented on a custom-built computerized device (Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU). A pilot study was conducted, followed by a prospective case-control study. Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh General ICU. A pilot study was conducted in an opportunistic sample of 20 patients. This was followed by a validation study in 30 selected patients with and without delirium (median age, 63 yr; range, 23-84) who were assessed with the Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU on up to 5 separate days. Presence of delirium was assessed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. The Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU involves a behavioral assessment and a computerized test of attention, requiring patients to count slowly presented lights. Thirty patients were assessed a total of 79 times (n = 31, 23, 15, 8, and 2 for subsequent assessments; 38% delirious). Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU scores (range, 0-11) were lower for patients with delirium than those without at the first (median, 0 vs 9.5), second (median, 3.5 vs 9), and third (median, 0 vs 10.5) assessments (all p Delirium Test Box-ICU score less than or equal to 5 was 100% sensitive and 92% specific to delirium across assessments. Longitudinally, participants' Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU performance was associated with delirium status. These findings suggest that the Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU has diagnostic utility in detecting ICU delirium in patients with Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale Score greater than -3. The Edinburgh Delirium Test Box-ICU has potential additional value in longitudinally tracking attentional deficits because it provides a range of scores and is sensitive to change.

  6. Detection of genotypic clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori by string tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jeng-Yih; Wang, Sophie S W; Lee, Yi-Chern; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Graham, David Y; Jan, Chang-Ming; Wang, Wen-Ming; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2014-03-28

    To evaluate the utility of the string test to detect genotypic clarithromycin-resistant Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Patients undergoing endoscopic examinations were enrolled in the present study. String tests were done on the next day of endoscopy. Segments of 23S rRNA were amplified from DNA obtained from string tests. PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism was accomplished by restriction enzymes BbsI and BsaI recognizing the mutation site A to G at 2143 or at 2142 of 23S rRNA domain V, respectively. One hundred and thirty-four patients with H. pylori infection underwent string tests. To compare phenotypic resistance, 43 isolates were successfully cultured in 79 patients in whom 23S rRNA was successfully amplified. Of five patients with clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori, 23S rRNA of H. pylori isolates from four patients could be digested by BsaI. In 38 susceptible isolates, 23S rRNA of H. pylori isolates from 36 patients could not be digested by either BsaI or BbsI. The sensitivity and specificity of the string test to detect genotypic clarithromycin resistance were 66.7% and 97.3%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 80% and 94.7%, respectively. String test with molecular analysis is a less invasive method to detect genotypic resistance before treatment. Further large-scale investigations are necessary to confirm our results.

  7. The Walking Trail-Making Test is an early detection tool for mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrochon, Anaick; Kemoun, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Executive function impairment (in particular, mental flexibility) in the elderly, and in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), is strongly correlated with difficulties in performing complex walking tasks. The aim of this study was to determine if the adaptation of a neuropsychological test (the Trail-Making Test), to evaluate executive functions during walking, can be an early detection tool for cognitive impairment. Fifty subjects (15 young, 20 older, presumably healthy, and 15 MCI) were first evaluated for cognitive functions (Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery, and Trail-Making Test) and motor functions (10-meter walking test). All subjects then performed a spatial navigation, or a complex walking test (the Walking Trail-Making Test: [WTMT]), and their spatiotemporal walking variables were analyzed using cluster analysis. Following evaluation of WTMT locomotor performance, cluster analysis revealed three groups that were distinctly different in age and cognitive abiliTIES: a group of young subjects, a group of healthy older subjects, MCI subjects with amnestic impairment, and a group of MCI subjects with executive function impairment. The WTMT enabled early detection, (ie, borderline MCI) of dysexecutive impairment, with 78% sensitivity and 90% specificity. The WTMT is of interest in that it can help provide early detection of dysexecutive cognitive impairment.

  8. [Choice of media for detection of Streptococcus faecalis in routine water testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogulska, B; Szlachta, R

    1996-01-01

    The aim the study was to find a medium for routine water testing for detection of Streptococcus faecalis which could be used by water supply laboratories and sanitary services. In the study dry ready Merck media were used: Mf-enterococcus agar, MF-enterococcus agar base, K-F-streptococcus agar, and Azide Nutrient Pad Sets (of Sartorius). The Slanetz-Bartley medium prepared in our laboratory National Institute of Hygiene (PZH). Method served as control. The usefulness of media for the isolation of Str. faecalis was tested in waters of household wells in the environs of Warsaw. Water from 50 wells was tested; from each well two samples of 10 ml and 100 ml were filtered. The filters were placed on the tested media and incubated at 37 degrees C for 48 hours. Colonies with characteristic pink or orange brown colour were counted. From each plate 3-5 colonies were taken for verification tests. For verification tests 609 bacterial colonies showing characteristic growth on tested media were taken. For the statistical analysis of the results variance analysis was used which showed no significant differences between the control Slanetz-Bartley medium and the ready Merck media. These media can be used alternatively for routine water testing for detection of Str. faecalis. The Azide medium is not recommended since 96% of colonies showing in this test the growth characteristic of Str. faecalis were negative in verification tests. In routine water testing in case of growth of characteristic colonies on isolation media, it is recommended to carry out verification tests including, at least, a test for catalyse production, and culture on Litsky liquid medium or agar medium with bile salts and aesculin.

  9. Comparison of diagnostic tests for the detection of Brucella spp. in camel sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwida Mayada M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brucellosis in livestock causes enormous losses for economies of developing countries and poses a severe health risk to consumers of dairy products. Little information is known especially on camel brucellosis and its impact on human health. For surveillance and control of the disease, sensitive and reliable detection methods are needed. Although serological tests are the mainstay of diagnosis in camel brucellosis, these tests have been directly transposed from cattle without adequate validation. To date, little information on application of real-time PCR for detection of Brucella in camel serum is available. Therefore, this study was performed to compare the diagnostic efficiency of different serological tests and real-time PCR in order to identify the most sensitive, rapid and simple combination of tests for detecting Brucella infection in camels. Findings A total of 895 serum samples collected from apparently healthy Sudanese camels was investigated. Sudan is a well documented endemic region for brucellosis with cases in humans, ruminants, and camels. Rose Bengal Test (RBT, Complement Fixation Test (CFT, Slow Agglutination Test (SAT, Competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (cELISA and Fluorescence Polarization Assay (FPA as well as real-time PCR were used. Our findings revealed that bcsp31 kDa real-time PCR detected Brucella DNA in 84.8% (759/895 of the examined samples, of which 15.5% (118/759 were serologically negative. Our results show no relevant difference in sensitivity between the different serological tests. FPA detected the highest number of positive cases (79.3% followed by CFT (71.4%, RBT (70.7%, SAT (70.6% and cELISA (68.8%. A combination of real-time PCR with one of the used serological tests identified brucellosis in more than 99% of the infected animals. 59.7% of the examined samples were positive in all serological tests and real-time PCR. A subpopulation of 6.8% of animals was positive in all

  10. Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit. AOAC Performance Tested Method(SM) 021203.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Cheung, Win Den; Opdyke, Jason; Harvey, John; Chong, Songchun; Moon, Cheol Gon

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella, one of the most common causes of foodborne illness, is a significant public health concern worldwide. There is a need in the food industry for methods that are simple, rapid, and sensitive for the detection of foodborne pathogens. In this study, the Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit, a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Salmonella, was evaluated according to the current AOAC guidelines. The validation consisted of lot-to-lot consistency, stability, robustness, and inclusivity/exclusivity studies, as well as a method comparison of 10 different food matrixes. In the validation, the Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit was used in conjunction with the Applied Biosystems StepOnePlus PCR system and the Samsung Food Testing Software for the detection of Salmonella species. The performance of the assays was compared to the U.S. Department of Agriculture/Food Safety and Inspection Service-Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook (USDA/FSIS-MLG) 4.05: Isolation and Identification of Salmonella from Meat, Poultry, Pasteurized Egg, and Catfish and the and U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM) Chapter 5 Salmonella reference methods. The validation was conducted using an unpaired study design for detection of Salmonella spp. in raw ground beef, raw pork, raw ground pork, raw chicken wings, raw salmon, alfalfa sprouts, pasteurized orange juice, peanut butter, pasteurized whole milk, and shell eggs. The Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit demonstrated lot-to-lot consistency among three independent lots as well as ruggedness with minor modifications to changes in enrichment incubation time, enrichment incubation temperature, and DNA sample volume for PCR reaction. Stability was observed for 13 months at -20 degrees C and 3 months at 5 degrees C. For the inclusivity/exclusivity study, the Samsung Salmonella Detection Kit correctly identified 147 Salmonella species isolates out of 147 isolates tested from each of three different enrichment

  11. Improved anomaly detection using multi-scale PLS and generalized likelihood ratio test

    KAUST Repository

    Madakyaru, Muddu

    2017-02-16

    Process monitoring has a central role in the process industry to enhance productivity, efficiency, and safety, and to avoid expensive maintenance. In this paper, a statistical approach that exploit the advantages of multiscale PLS models (MSPLS) and those of a generalized likelihood ratio (GLR) test to better detect anomalies is proposed. Specifically, to consider the multivariate and multi-scale nature of process dynamics, a MSPLS algorithm combining PLS and wavelet analysis is used as modeling framework. Then, GLR hypothesis testing is applied using the uncorrelated residuals obtained from MSPLS model to improve the anomaly detection abilities of these latent variable based fault detection methods even further. Applications to a simulated distillation column data are used to evaluate the proposed MSPLS-GLR algorithm.

  12. Urine and bladder washing cytology for detection of urothelial carcinoma: standard test with new possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flezar, Margareta Strojan

    2010-01-01

    Light microscopic evaluation of cell morphology in preparations from urine or bladder washing containing exfoliated cells is a standard and primary method for the detection of bladder cancer and also malignancy from other parts of the urinary tract. The cytopathologic examination is a valuable method to detect an early recurrence of malignancy or new primary carcinoma during the follow-up of patients after the treatment of bladder cancer. Characteristic cellular and nuclear signs of malignancy indicate invasive or in situ urothelial carcinoma or high-grade papillary urothelial carcinoma. However, low sensitivity of the method reflects the unreliable cytopathologic diagnosis of low-grade urothelial neoplasms as cellular and nuclear signs of malignancy in these neoplasms are poorly manifested. Many different markers were developed to improve the diagnosis of bladder carcinoma on urinary samples. UroVysion™ test is among the newest and most promising tests. By the method of in situ hybridization one can detect specific cytogenetic changes of urothelial carcinoma

  13. Manufacturing and testing flexible microfluidic devices with optical and electrical detection mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivan, M.G.; Vivet, F.; Meinders, E.R.

    2010-01-01

    Flexible microfluidic devices made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) were manufactured by soft lithography, and tested in detection of ionic species using optical absorption spectroscopy and electrical measurements. PDMS was chosen due to its flexibility and ease of surface modification by exposure

  14. Omnibus test for change detection in a time sequence of polarimetric SAR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Skriver, Henning

    2016-01-01

    in the covariance matrix representation is carried out. The omnibus test statistic and its factorization detect if and when change(s) occur. The technique is demonstrated on airborne EMISAR C-band data but may be applied to ALOS, COSMO-SkyMed, RadarSat-2, Sentinel-1, TerraSAR-X, and Yoagan or other dual- and quad...

  15. Detection of Answer Copying Based on the Structure of a High-Stakes Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, Dmitry I.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the Variable Match Index (VM-Index), a new statistic for detecting answer copying. The power of the VM-Index relies on two-dimensional conditioning as well as the structure of the test. The asymptotic distribution of the VM-Index is analyzed by reduction to Poisson trials. A computational study comparing the VM-Index with the…

  16. Destructive examination of test plates 1 and 2 of the defects detection trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crutzen, S.; Buergers, W.; Violin, F.; Di Piazza, L.; Cowburn, K.; Sargent, T.

    1983-01-01

    A further phase of the UKAEA defect detection trials (described previously) with PWR pressure vessel steels is reported. The evaluation of NDT exercise results must be based on destructive examination of the plates used during the exercise. Tests are described and results given. (U.K.)

  17. Comparison of IRT Likelihood Ratio Test and Logistic Regression DIF Detection Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Burcu; Kamata, Akihito

    2011-01-01

    The Type I error rates and the power of IRT likelihood ratio test and cumulative logit ordinal logistic regression procedures in detecting differential item functioning (DIF) for polytomously scored items were investigated in this Monte Carlo simulation study. For this purpose, 54 simulation conditions (combinations of 3 sample sizes, 2 sample…

  18. 14C-urea breath test as a method to detect Campylobacter pylori colonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rauws, E. A.; van Royen, E. A.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1989-01-01

    Campylobacter pylori may cause type B gastritis. C. pylori produces urease, and the presence of this enzyme in gastric mucosal biopsies is a marker for colonization with the microorganism. The value of a breath test to detect C. pylori colonization in non-ulcer dyspepsia patients was investigated.

  19. Evaluation of the dimethylglyoxime stick test for the detection of nickel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Kaaber, K

    1987-01-01

    The value of the dimethylglyoxime stick test for the detection of nickel was determined for 54 randomly purchased metal objects designed for prolonged skin contact, and for 15 metal alloys of known composition. Surface nickel content was determined by EDAX analysis (energy dispersive X...

  20. On the infrasound detected from the 2013 and 2016 DPRK's underground nuclear tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, J. D.; Averbuch, G.; Smets, P.S.M.; Evers, L.G.

    2016-01-01

    The underground nuclear tests by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) generated atmospheric infrasound both in 2013 and 2016. Clear detections were made in the Russian Federation (I45RU) and Japan (I30JP) in 2013 at stations from the International Monitoring System. Both tropospheric

  1. Detection of person misfit in computerized adaptive tests with polytomous items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krimpen-Stoop, Edith; Meijer, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    Item scores that do not fit an assumed item response theory model may cause the latent trait value to be estimated inaccurately. For computerized adaptive tests (CAT) with dichotomous items, several person-fit statistics for detecting nonfitting item score patterns have been proposed. Both for

  2. Evaluation of three commercial rapid tests for detecting antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K P; Saw, T L; Baki, A; Kamarudin, R

    2003-08-01

    Determine HIV-1/2, Chembio HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK and PenTest are simple/rapid tests for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 in human whole blood, serum and plasma samples. The assay is one step and the result is read visually within 15 minutes. Using 92 known HIV-1 reactive sera and 108 known HIV-1 negative sera, the 3 HIV tests correctly identified all the known HIV-1 reactive and negative samples. The results indicated that Determine HIV-1/2, Chembio HIV-1/2 STAT-PAK and PenTest HIV are as sensitive and specific (100% concordance) as Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay. The data indicated that these 3 HIV tests are effective testing systems for diagnosis of HIV infection in a situation when the conventional Enzyme Immunoassay is not suitable.

  3. Detection of nuclear testing from surface concentration measurements: Analysis of radioxenon from the February 2013 underground test in North Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzeja, R. J.; Buckley, R. L.; Werth, D. W.; Chiswell, S. R.

    2018-03-01

    A method is outlined and tested to detect low level nuclear or chemical sources from time series of concentration measurements. The method uses a mesoscale atmospheric model to simulate the concentration signature from a known or suspected source at a receptor which is then regressed successively against segments of the measurement series to create time series of metrics that measure the goodness of fit between the signatures and the measurement segments. The method was applied to radioxenon data from the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) collection site in Ussuriysk, Russia (RN58) after the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) underground nuclear test on February 12, 2013 near Punggye. The metrics were found to be a good screening tool to locate data segments with a strong likelihood of origin from Punggye, especially when multiplied together to a determine the joint probability. Metrics from RN58 were also used to find the probability that activity measured in February and April of 2013 originated from the Feb 12 test. A detailed analysis of an RN58 data segment from April 3/4, 2013 was also carried out for a grid of source locations around Punggye and identified Punggye as the most likely point of origin. Thus, the results support the strong possibility that radioxenon was emitted from the test site at various times in April and was detected intermittently at RN58, depending on the wind direction. The method does not locate unsuspected sources, but instead, evaluates the probability of a source at a specified location. However, it can be extended to include a set of suspected sources. Extension of the method to higher resolution data sets, arbitrary sampling, and time-varying sources is discussed along with a path to evaluate uncertainty in the calculated probabilities.

  4. The Walking Trail-Making Test is an early detection tool for mild cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrochon A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaick Perrochon, Gilles Kemoun Laboratoire Mobilité, Vieillissement, Exercice (MOVE, EA 6314, Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Université de Poitiers, 8 Allée Jean Monnet, 86000 Poitiers, France; ISIS, Research Institute on Handicap and Aging, Paris, France Background: Executive function impairment (in particular, mental flexibility in the elderly, and in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI, is strongly correlated with difficulties in performing complex walking tasks. The aim of this study was to determine if the adaptation of a neuropsychological test (the Trail-Making Test, to evaluate executive functions during walking, can be an early detection tool for cognitive impairment. Methods: Fifty subjects (15 young, 20 older, presumably healthy, and 15 MCI were first evaluated for cognitive functions (Mini-Mental State Examination, Frontal Assessment Battery, and Trail-Making Test and motor functions (10-meter walking test. All subjects then performed a spatial navigation, or a complex walking test (the Walking Trail-Making Test: [WTMT], and their spatiotemporal walking variables were analyzed using cluster analysis. Results: Following evaluation of WTMT locomotor performance, cluster analysis revealed three groups that were distinctly different in age and cognitive abilities: a group of young subjects, a group of healthy older subjects, MCI subjects with amnestic impairment, and a group of MCI subjects with executive function impairment. The WTMT enabled early detection, (ie, borderline MCI of dysexecutive impairment, with 78% sensitivity and 90% specificity. Conclusion: The WTMT is of interest in that it can help provide early detection of dysexecutive cognitive impairment. Keywords: spatial navigation, walking, trail making test, detection, mild cognitive impairment

  5. Performance of immunochromatographic and ELISA tests for detecting fallow deer infected with Mycobacterium bovis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boadella, M; Barasona, J A; Diaz-Sanchez, S; Lyashchenko, K P; Greenwald, R; Esfandiari, J; Gortazar, C

    2012-04-01

    Fallow deer (Dama dama) are widely distributed as natural or naturalised populations, as well as in game parks and deer farms. We used 157 fallow deer sampled in populations considered to be Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) free and 73 Mycobacterium bovis-infected fallow deer confirmed postmortem by culture to evaluate the diagnostic performance of two tests for the detection of anti-mycobacterial antibodies: the dual path platform (DPP) VetTB assay and the bovine purified protein derivative (bPPD) ELISA. We also compared their sensitivity with that of the skin test, analyzed the effect of haemolysis degree on the antibody detection and described the relationship between the test readings and presence/absence of gross tuberculosis (TB) compatible lesions. Sensitivity of bPPD ELISA was 51% at a specificity of 96%. Depending on the cut-off value selected, the sensitivity of DPP VetTB ranged from 62 to 71%, while its specificity was 88-95%. In the subgroup of M. bovis-infected deer for which the skin test data were available (33 of 73); this method detected 76% of culture-positive animals, although the specificity of the intradermal test was not determined in this study. When the DPP VetTB and skin test data were combined, the resulting sensitivity obtained in this sub-group of M. bovis-infected deer increased to 97%. Gross pathology identified TB compatible lesions (TBL) in 89% culture-confirmed fallow deer. The infected animals with visible lesions had significantly higher readings in the DPP VetTB, but not in the bPPD ELISA. Only high levels of haemolysis decreased antibody test sensitivity and this effect was more evident for the bPPD ELISA. The results allowed inferring a number of management recommendations for rapid detection of MTC infection in live fallow deer and in surveys on hunter-harvested cervids. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 76 FR 29752 - Nomination of In Vitro Test Methods for Detection and Quantification of Botulinum Neurotoxins and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Nomination of In Vitro Test Methods for Detection and Quantification of Botulinum Neurotoxins and Detection of Non-Endotoxin Pyrogens; Data Request for Substances... detecting and quantifying botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), and (2) an in vitro test method proposed for...

  7. Development of an Immunochromatographic Test Strip for Detection of Cholera Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiki Yamasaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because cholera toxin (CT is responsible for most of the symptoms induced by Vibrio cholerae infection, detection of CT is critical for diagnosis of the disease. In this study, we constructed an immunochromatographic test strip for detection of CT (CT-IC with polyclonal antibodies developed against purified recombinant whole CT protein. The detection limit of the CT-IC was 10 ng/mL of purified recombinant CT, and it could detect the CT in culture supernatant of all 15 toxigenic V. cholerae isolates examined, whereas no false-positive signal was detected in all 5 nontoxigenic V. cholerae isolates examined. The specificity of the CT-IC was examined with recombinant heat-labile toxin (LT, which shares high homology with CT, and it was revealed that the minimum detection limit for LT was 100 times higher than that for CT. In addition, lt gene-positive enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC was examined by CT-IC. The false-positive signals were observed in 3 out of 12 ETEC isolates, but these signals were considerably faint. The CT-IC did not develop false-positive signals with all 7 V. parahaemolyticus isolates. These results showed the high specificity of CT-IC and the feasible use of it for the detection and surveillance of toxigenic V. cholerae.

  8. Clinical usefulness of multiplex PCR lateral flow in MRSA detection: a novel, rapid genetic testing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihonyanagi, Shin; Kanoh, Yuhsaku; Okada, Kiyomi; Uozumi, Toshiki; Kazuyama, Yukumasa; Yamaguchi, Tokiko; Nakazaki, Nobuhiko; Sakurai, Keizou; Hirata, Yasuyoshi; Munekata, Shinichi; Ohtani, Shinichi; Takemoto, Tsuyoshi; Bandoh, Yuki; Akahoshi, Tohru

    2012-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with exogenous cassette DNA containing the methicillin-resistant gene mecA (SCCmec) poses a problem as a drug-resistant bacterium responsible for hospital- and community-acquired infections. The frequency of MRSA detection has recently been increasing rapidly in Japan, and SCCmec has also been classified more diversely into types I-V. A rapid test is essential for early diagnosis and treatment of MRSA infections, but detection by conventional methods requires at least two days. The newly developed multiplex PCR lateral flow method allows specific amplification of femA to detect S. aureus, mecA to detect SCCmec, and kdpC to detect SCCmec type II; moreover, PCR products can be evaluated visually in about 3 h. In the present study, we developed a PCR lateral flow method for MRSA using this method and investigated its clinical usefulness in the detection of MRSA. The results showed a diagnostic concordance rate of 91.7% for MRSA and methicillin-susceptible S. aureus between bacteriological examination and PCR lateral flow, and a high level of specificity in PCR lateral flow. In addition, a higher detection rate for S. aureus using the same sample was observed for PCR lateral flow (70.2%) than for bacteriological tests (48.6%). The above results show that PCR lateral flow for MRSA detection has high sensitivity, specificity, and speed, and its clinical application as a method for early diagnosis of MRSA infections appears to be feasible.

  9. Analysis of brief language tests in the detection of cognitive decline and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Radanovic

    Full Text Available Abstract Lexical access difficulties are frequent in normal aging and initial stages of dementia. Verbal fluency tests are valuable to detect cognitive decline, evidencing lexico-semantic and executive dysfunction. Objectives: To establish which language tests can contribute in detecting dementia and to verify schooling influence on subject performance. Method: 74 subjects: 33 controls, 17 Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR 0.5 and 24 (Brief Cognitive Battery - BCB e Boston Naming Test - BNT 1 were compared in tests of semantic verbal fluency (animal and fruit, picture naming (BCB and BNT and the language items of Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE. Results: There were significant differences between the control group and both CDR 0.5 and CDR 1 in all tests. Cut-off scores were: 11 and 10 for animal fluency, 8 for fruit fluency (in both, 8 and 9 for BCB naming. The CDR 0.5 group performed better than the CDR 1 group only in animal fluency. Stepwise multiple regression revealed fruit fluency, animal fluency and BCB naming as the best discriminators between patients and controls (specificity: 93.8%; sensitivity: 91.3%. In controls, comparison between illiterates and literates evidenced schooling influence in all tests, except for fruit fluency and BCB naming. In patients with dementia, only fruit fluency was uninfluenced by schooling. Conclusion: The combination of verbal fluency tests in two semantic categories along with a simple picture naming test is highly sensitive in detecting cognitive decline. Comparison between literate and illiterate subjects shows a lesser degree of influence of schooling on the selected tests, thus improving discrimination between low performance and incipient cognitive decline.

  10. Clinical value of the thallium-201 stress test: sensitivity and specificity in the detection of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.; Raessler, K.L.; Woolfenden, J.M.; Groves, B.M.; Patton, D.; Goldman, S.; Hager, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    Rest and exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy ( 201 Tl stress test), 90% submaximal treadmill exercise test (ECG stress test), and coronary angiography were performed on 49 patients with suspected coronary artery disease. When technically unsatisfactory and uninterpretable scintiphotos were excluded, the sensitivity (true positives/true positives + false negatives) of the 201 Tl stress test in detecting coronary artery stenosis >= 70% was 81%. The sensitivity of the 201 Tl stress test in detecting coronary artery stenosis >= 50% was 84%. However, when technically unsatisfactory and uninterpretable studies were considered as failures of the test to detect disease, the sensitivity of the 201 Tl stress test in detecting coronary artery stenosis >= 50% was 71%. The sensitivity of the ECG stress test was 92% in detecting stenosis >= 70% and 85% in detecting stenosis >= 50% when non-diagnostic tests were excluded. However, when 11 non-diagnostic ECG stress tests were considered as a failure of the test to detect disease, the sensitivity of the ECG stress test in detecting coronary artery stenosis >= 50% was 64%. The sensitivity of the combined stress test in detecting coronary artery stenosis >= 50% was high whether or not technically unsatisfactory and uninterpretable studies were (89%) or were not (94%) included in the analysis. The specificity (true negatives/true negatives + false positives) for >= 50% coronary artery stenosis was 90% for the 201 Tl stress test, 75% for the ECG stress test and 80% for the combined stress test. Combined ECG and 201 Tl stress testing detects a number of patients with significant coronary artery disease missed by ECG stress testing alone, primarily in those cases where the ECG stress test is non-diagnostic. (author)

  11. Ensuring Academic Literacy for ELL Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Della; Holmes, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Ensuring that English language learning (ELL) students have equal access to content-area curriculum continues to be a challenge for many secondary educators. Although efforts to develop students' English skills are well intentioned, they frequently fall short of addressing each of the four interrelated dimensions of the culturally and…

  12. Gel-test: interpretation and value of a new technique for the detection of irregular antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottier, C; Quillet, P; Baufine-Ducrocq, H

    1992-01-01

    Here we report on our experience with the use of a 'Gel-Test' (DiaMed-ID Micro Typing System) technique for the detection and identification of irregular antibodies in a general hospital. This easy-to-use, standardized technique poses the question of the impact of its sensitivity on the specificity of the results. Of the 10% of observed positive reactions, 3.7% were irregular antibodies, 3.8% papain auto-antibodies, 1% cold antibodies and 2% not elucidated. Two hundred and eighteen irregular antibodies identified and titred with the 'gel-test' system were tested in parallel by 'tube' method. Sixty-three of these antibodies (29%) were not detected by the 'tube' method. While anti-Kell was always detected by both methods, we found the following false natives with the tube method: 15% anti-D, 32% anti-E, 42% anti-Cw and 58% anti-Lea. 68% of these false negatives had a low titre. The immunoglobulin class of the anti-E was studied; the sensitivity of the 'gel-test' system was associated with IgM in the anti-E. The sensitivity and standardization of the 'gel-test' technique guarantee greater safety in blood transfusion and increase efficiency in the prevention of foeto-maternal stimulation of anti-D.

  13. [Rapid microdose 14C-urea breath test for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, A; Liang, Z; Tan, T; Chen, D; Ma, H; Si, K; Ouyang, Q

    1998-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a rapid microdose 14C-urea breath test (14C-UBT) with a simplified protocol for detecting the infection of hilicobacter pylori (HP). 157 fasting patients who underwent endoscopy with histological examination and rapid urease test (RUT) were given a drink of 37 kBq of 14C-urea. Samples of breath carbon dioxide (1 mmol) were collected at baseline and 10, 20 and 30 min after administration by trapping in hyamine solution. 14C activity was measured by liquid scintillation counting. Results were expressed as cpm. Histolal examination and RUT were used as gold standard for the detection of HP infection. The cutoff value was selected as 200 cpm at 10 min. The results showed that the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 94.79%, 90.16%, 93.81%, 91.60% and 92.99% respectively. In this study, a 10 min, single sample, 37 kBq 14C-urea breath test for detection HP was developed. The test has good diagnostic accuracy with minimal radiation exposure and low cost. Thus, the authors considered the test to be reliable, safe, convenient and cost-effective to clinical use.

  14. Are species-specifi antigen detection tests needed in the diagnosis of Giardia duodenalis infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Fernandes de Mendonça Uchôa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the diagnostic performance in human stool samples of a rapid, qualitative, solid-phase immunochromatographic test (Alere® originally developed to detect Giardia duodenalis antigens in fecal samples of dogs. Methods: Samples from 54 patients with a previous diagnosis of giardiasis were tested by the microscopic examination to assess the performance of an immunochromatographic kit developed to detect Giardia duodenalis coproantigen in dog feces. Results: The agreement between the microscopic and the immunological methods was 83.3%. These findings are consistent with those of other studies using human specific kits. Conclusions: It is suggested that the same immunochromatographic test could be used for Giardia diagnosis in both species.

  15. Test-Retest Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change of the D2 Test of Attention in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Posen; Lu, Wen-Shian; Liu, Chin-Hsuan; Lin, Hung-Yu; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2017-12-08

    The d2 Test of Attention (D2) is a commonly used measure of selective attention for patients with schizophrenia. However, its test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) are unknown in patients with schizophrenia, limiting its utility in both clinical and research settings. The aim of the present study was to examine the test-retest reliability and MDC of the D2 in patients with schizophrenia. A rater administered the D2 on 108 patients with schizophrenia twice at a 1-month interval. Test-retest reliability was determined through the calculation of the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). We also carried out Bland-Altman analysis, which included a scatter plot of the differences between test and retest against their mean. Systematic biases were evaluated by use of a paired t-test. The ICCs for the D2 ranged from 0.78 to 0.94. The MDCs (MDC%) of the seven subscores were 102.3 (29.7), 19.4 (85.0), 7.2 (94.6), 21.0 (69.0), 104.0 (33.1), 105.0 (35.8), and 7.8 (47.8), which represented limited-to-acceptable random measurement error. Trends in the Bland-Altman plots of the omissions (E1), commissions (E2), and errors (E) were noted, presenting that the data had heteroscedasticity. According to the results, the D2 had good test-retest reliability, especially in the scores of TN, TN-E, and CP. For the further research, finding a way to improve the administration procedure to reduce random measurement error would be important for the E1, E2, E, and FR subscores.

  16. Detection of chikungunya virus antigen by a novel rapid immunochromatographic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Tamaki; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Masrinoul, Promsin; Chantawat, Nantarat; Yoksan, Sutee; Nitatpattana, Narong; Chusri, Sarunyou; Morales Vargas, Ronald E; Grandadam, Marc; Brey, Paul T; Soegijanto, Soegeng; Mulyantno, Kris Cahyo; Churrotin, Siti; Kotaki, Tomohiro; Faye, Oumar; Faye, Ousmane; Sow, Abdourahmane; Sall, Amadou Alpha; Puiprom, Orapim; Chaichana, Panjaporn; Kurosu, Takeshi; Kato, Seiji; Kosaka, Mieko; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2015-02-01

    Chikungunya fever is a mosquito-borne disease of key public health importance in tropical and subtropical countries. Although severe joint pain is the most distinguishing feature of chikungunya fever, diagnosis remains difficult because the symptoms of chikungunya fever are shared by many pathogens, including dengue fever. The present study aimed to develop a new immunochromatographic diagnosis test for the detection of chikungunya virus antigen in serum. Mice were immunized with isolates from patients with Thai chikungunya fever, East/Central/South African genotype, to produce mouse monoclonal antibodies against chikungunya virus. Using these monoclonal antibodies, a new diagnostic test was developed and evaluated for the detection of chikungunya virus. The newly developed diagnostic test reacted with not only the East/Central/South African genotype but also with the Asian and West African genotypes of chikungunya virus. Testing of sera from patients suspected to have chikungunya fever in Thailand (n = 50), Laos (n = 54), Indonesia (n = 2), and Senegal (n = 6) revealed sensitivity, specificity, and real-time PCR (RT-PCR) agreement values of 89.4%, 94.4%, and 91.1%, respectively. In our study using serial samples, a new diagnostic test showed high agreement with the RT-PCR within the first 5 days after onset. A rapid diagnostic test was developed using mouse monoclonal antibodies that react with chikungunya virus envelope proteins. The diagnostic accuracy of our test is clinically acceptable for chikungunya fever in the acute phase. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Real-world particulate explosives test coupons for optical detection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Viet; Papantonakis, Michael; Furstenberg, Robert; Kendziora, Christopher; McGill, R. Andrew

    2013-05-01

    Trace or residue explosives detection typically involves examining explosives found as solid particles on a solid substrate. Different optical spectroscopy techniques are being developed to detect these explosives in situ by probing how light interacts with the surface bound particles of explosives. In order to evaluate these technologies it is important to have available suitable test coupons coated with particles of explosives. When fabricating test coupons to evaluate detection performance or help train a detection algorithm, it is important to use realistic test coupons and consider how the physicochemical properties of the explosives particles, related chemicals, and substrate may affect the spectra produced or signal intensities observed. Specific features of interest include surface fill factor, particle sizes, areal density, degree of particle contact with a substrate and any other chemicals in addition to the explosives and substrate. This level of complexity highlights the need to fabricate test coupons which mimic "real world" particle coated surfaces. With respect to metrics derived from fingerprints, we compare the properties of test coupons fabricated by sieving and inkjetting for ammonium nitrate, TNT, RDX, and sucrose on stainless steel, automotive painted steel, glass and polyethylene substrates. Sieving provides a random distribution of particles, allows fractionation of relevant particle sizes and allows relevant surface fill factors to be achieved. Inkjetting provides precise control of aerial density but because of complications related to solvent-substrate interactions, relevant fill factors and particle sizes are difficult to achieve. In addition, we introduce a custom image analysis technique, NRL ParticleMath, developed to characterize and quantify particle loadings on test coupons.

  18. Signal-Amplified Lateral Flow Test Strip for Visual Detection of Cu2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Wang

    Full Text Available A signal-amplified lateral flow test strip (SA-LFTS for the detection of Cu2+ in aqueous solution was constructed based on Cu+-catalyzed click chemistry and hybridization of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA. Alkyne and azide modified ssDNA acted as specific elements for Cu2+ recognition, and a chemical ligation product formed through Cu+-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition. Hybridization of ssDNA-labeled gold nanoparticles resulted in high sensitivity, and the output signal could be observed directly by the naked eye. Using the developed SA-LFTS under optimal conditions, Cu2+ could be detected rapidly with limit of detections of 5 nM and 4.2 nM by visual observation and quantitative analysis, respectively. The sensitivity (i.e. the visual limit of detection of the SA-LFTS was 80-times higher than that of traditional LFTS. The SA-LFTS was applied to the determination of Cu2+ in municipal water and river water samples with the results showing good recovery and accuracy. The developed test strip is promising for point-of-care applications and detection of Cu2+ in the field.

  19. Manufacturing and testing flexible microfluidic devices with optical and electrical detection mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Marius G.; Vivet, Frédéric; Meinders, Erwin R.

    2010-06-01

    Flexible microfluidic devices made of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) were manufactured by soft lithography, and tested in detection of ionic species using optical absorption spectroscopy and electrical measurements. PDMS was chosen due to its flexibility and ease of surface modification by exposure to plasma and UV treatment, its transparency in UV-Vis regions of the light spectrum, and biocompatibility. The dual-detection mechanism allows the user more freedom in choosing the detection tool, and a functional device was successfully tested. Optical lithography was employed for manufacturing templates, which were subsequently used for imprinting liquid PDMS by thermal curing. Gold electrodes having various widths and distances among them were patterned with optical lithography on the top part which sealed the microchannels, and the devices were employed for detection of ionic species in aqueous salt solutions as well as micro-electrolysis cells. Due to the transparency of PDMS in UV-Vis the microfluidics were also used as photoreactors, and the in-situ formed charged species were monitored by applying a voltage between electrodes. Upon addition of a colorimetric pH sensor, acid was detected with absorption spectroscopy.

  20. Test Report for Cricket Radiation Detection System Used In EPA Port Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shourbaji, AA

    2004-08-11

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducted field radiological measurements at two port locations at the request of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The radiological measurements were performed on five radiation detection systems at the port of Darrow, Louisiana and three systems at the port of Charleston, South Carolina. Darrow was visited on January 20-23, 2004 and Charleston on May 25, 2004. All tested systems are designed to detect radioactive material that might be present in scrap metals as the scrap is being unloaded from ships. All eight systems are commercially known as the Cricket and manufactured by RAD/COMM Systems. Each radiation detection system consists of a detector with two channels and a wireless transmitter, both mounted on the grapple, and a controller located in the crane cab. The cranes at both locations are operated by the Cooper T. Smith Company. The purpose of the radiological measurements was to evaluate the performance of the radiation detection systems in terms of their ability to detect elevated radiation levels, and to develop a routine testing method for all EPA Cricket systems.

  1. Enzyme-Based Test Strips for Visual or Photographic Detection and Quantitation of Gaseous Sulfur Mustard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidmanova, Sarka; Steiner, Mark-Steven; Stepan, Martin; Vymazalova, Kamila; Gruber, Michael A; Duerkop, Axel; Damborsky, Jiri; Prokop, Zbynek; Wolfbeis, Otto S

    2016-06-07

    Sulfur mustard is a chemical agent of high military and terroristic significance. No effective antidote exists, and sulfur mustard can be fairly easily produced in large quantity. Rapid field testing of sulfur mustard is highly desirable. Existing analytical devices for its detection are available but can suffer from low selectivity, laborious sample preparation, and/or the need for complex instrumentation. We describe a new kind of test strip for rapid detection of gaseous sulfur mustard that is based on its degradation by the enzyme haloalkane dehalogenase that is accompanied by a change of local pH. This change can be detected using pH indicators contained in the strips whose color changes from blue-green to yellow within 10 min. In addition to visual read-out, we also demonstrate quantitative reflectometric readout by using a conventional digital camera based on red-green-blue data acquisition. Organic haloalkanes, such as 1,2-dichloroethane, have a negligible interfering effect. The visual limit of detection is 20 μg/L, and the one for red-green-blue read-out is as low as 3 μg/L. The assays have good reproducibility ±6% and ±2% for interday assays and intraday assays, respectively. The strips can be stored for at least 6 months without loss of function. They are disposable and can be produced fairly rapidly and at low costs. Hence, they represent a promising tool for in-field detection of sulfur mustard.

  2. Signal-Amplified Lateral Flow Test Strip for Visual Detection of Cu2+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Juanjuan; Dong, Jinbo; Cai, Jia; Hua, Xiude; Wang, Minghua; Zhang, Cunzheng; Liu, Fengquan

    2017-01-01

    A signal-amplified lateral flow test strip (SA-LFTS) for the detection of Cu2+ in aqueous solution was constructed based on Cu+-catalyzed click chemistry and hybridization of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Alkyne and azide modified ssDNA acted as specific elements for Cu2+ recognition, and a chemical ligation product formed through Cu+-catalyzed alkyne–azide cycloaddition. Hybridization of ssDNA-labeled gold nanoparticles resulted in high sensitivity, and the output signal could be observed directly by the naked eye. Using the developed SA-LFTS under optimal conditions, Cu2+ could be detected rapidly with limit of detections of 5 nM and 4.2 nM by visual observation and quantitative analysis, respectively. The sensitivity (i.e. the visual limit of detection) of the SA-LFTS was 80-times higher than that of traditional LFTS. The SA-LFTS was applied to the determination of Cu2+ in municipal water and river water samples with the results showing good recovery and accuracy. The developed test strip is promising for point-of-care applications and detection of Cu2+ in the field. PMID:28072878

  3. An empirical Bayes test for allelic-imbalance detection in ChIP-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Keles, Sündüz

    2017-11-03

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) has enabled discovery of genomic regions enriched with biological signals such as transcription factor binding and histone modifications. Allelic-imbalance (ALI) detection is a complementary analysis of ChIP-seq data for associating biological signals with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). It has been successfully used in elucidating functional roles of non-coding SNPs. Commonly used statistical approaches for ALI detection are often based on binomial testing and mixture models, both of which rely on strong assumptions on the distribution of the unobserved allelic probability, and have significant practical shortcomings. We propose Non-Parametric Binomial (NPBin) test for ALI detection and for modeling Binomial data in general. NPBin models the density of the unobserved allelic probability non-parametrically, and estimates its empirical null distribution via curve fitting. We demonstrate the advantages of NPBin in terms of interpretability of the estimated density and the accuracy in ALI detection using simulations and analysis of several ChIP-seq data sets. We also illustrate the generality of our modeling framework beyond ALI detection by an application to a baseball batting average prediction problem. This article has supplementary material available at Biostatistics online. The code and the sample input data have been also deposited to github https://github.com/QiZhangStat/ALIdetection. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Predicament in detection and reporting of extended spectrum beta lactamase production in routine antibiotic susceptibility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, T.; Butt, E.; Raza, S.

    2017-01-01

    This descriptive and cross-sectional study was planned to determine the dilemma of inadvertent detection of extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) production in Enterobacteriaceaewhen using inhibition zone size of antibiotic disks of Cefotaxime or Aztreonam in routine antibiotic susceptibility testing as recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Screening and double disk tests were adopted as per CLSI. Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was used as control strain. Among total specimens of 5346, there were 348 isolates of Escherichia coli(n=235), Klebsiella pneumonia (n=92), Klebsiella oxytoca(n=3) or Proteus mirabilus(n=18). The screening method recommended by CLSI significantly falsely detected ESBL production in 79 (32.3%) isolates (p<0.0001). ESBL detection is important as its frequency is high and treatment of the infection varies with the presence and absence of ESBL. To avoid false reporting, proper phenotypic detection of ESBL confirmatory method-like double-disk synergy test, should be used routinely. (author)

  5. A multistage testing strategy for detection of quantitative trait Loci affecting disease resistance in Atlantic salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Thomas; Fjalestad, Kjersti T; Munck, Hege; Gomez-Raya, Luis

    2004-01-01

    A multistage testing strategy to detect QTL for resistance to infectious salmon anemia (ISA) in Atlantic salmon is proposed. First, genotyping of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and a transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) were carried out using dead offspring from a disease resistance challenge test. Second, AFLP genotyping among survivors followed by a Mendelian segregation test was performed. Third, within-family survival analyses using all offspring were developed and applied to significant TDT markers with Mendelian inheritance. Maximum-likelihood methodology was developed for TDT with dominant markers to exploit linkage disequilibrium within families. The strategy was tested with two full-sib families of Atlantic salmon sired by the same male and consisting of 79 offspring in total. All dead offspring from the two families were typed for 64 primer combinations, resulting in 340 scored markers. There were 26 significant results out of 401 TDTs using dead offspring. In the second stage, only 17 marker families showed Mendelian segregation and were tested in survival analysis. A permutation test was performed for all survival analyses to compute experimentwise P-values. Two markers, aaccac356 and agccta150, were significant at P < 0.05 when accounting for multiple testing in the survival analyses. The proposed strategy might be more powerful than current mapping strategies because it reduces the number of tests to be performed in the last testing stage. PMID:15238533

  6. A miniaturised image based fluorescence detection system for point-of-care-testing of cocaine abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walczak, Rafał; Krüger, Jan; Moynihan, Shane

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we describe a miniaturised image-based fluorescence detection system and demonstrate its viability as a highly sensitive tool for point-of-care-analysis of drugs of abuse in human sweat with a focus on monitor individuals for drugs of abuse. Investigations of miniaturised and low power optoelectronic configurations and methodologies for real-time image analysis were successfully carried out. The miniaturised fluorescence detection system was validated against a reference detection system under controlled laboratory conditions by analysing spiked sweat samples in dip stick and then strip with sample pad. As a result of the validation studies, a 1 ng mL-1 limit of detection of cocaine in sweat and full agreement of test results with the reference detection system can be reported. Results of the investigations open the way towards a detection system that integrates a hand-held fluorescence reader and a wearable skinpatch, and which can collect and in situ analyse sweat for the presence of cocaine at any point for up to tenths hours.

  7. Validation of serological tests for the detection of antibodies against Treponema pallidum in nonhuman primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Sascha; Dahlmann, Franziska; Batamuzi, Emmanuel K; Frischmann, Sieghard; Liu, Hsi

    2015-03-01

    There is evidence to suggest that the yaws bacterium (Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue) may exist in non-human primate populations residing in regions where yaws is endemic in humans. Especially in light of the fact that the World Health Organizaiton (WHO) recently launched its second yaws eradication campaign, there is a considerable need for reliable tools to identify treponemal infection in our closest relatives, African monkeys and great apes. It was hypothesized that commercially available serological tests detect simian anti-T. pallidum antibody in serum samples of baboons, with comparable sensitivity and specificity to their results on human sera. Test performances of five different treponemal tests (TTs) and two non-treponemal tests (NTTs) were evaluated using serum samples of 57 naturally T. pallidum-infected olive baboons (Papio anubis) from Lake Manyara National Park in Tanzania. The T. pallidum particle agglutination assay (TP-PA) was used as a gold standard for comparison. In addition, the overall infection status of the animals was used to further validate test performances. For most accurate results, only samples that originated from baboons of known infection status, as verified in a previous study by clinical inspection, PCR and immunohistochemistry, were included. All tests, TTs and NTTs, used in this study were able to reliably detect antibodies against T. pallidum in serum samples of infected baboons. The sensitivity of TTs ranged from 97.7-100%, while specificity was between 88.0-100.0%. The two NTTs detected anti-lipoidal antibodies in serum samples of infected baboons with a sensitivity of 83.3% whereas specificity was 100%. For screening purposes, the TT Espline TP provided the highest sensitivity and specificity and at the same time provided the most suitable format for use in the field. The enzyme immune assay Mastblot TP (IgG), however, could be considered as a confirmatory test.

  8. Detecting High Hyperopia: The Plus Lens Test and the Spot Vision Screener.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Samuel; Peterseim, Mae Millicent W; Trivedi, Rupal H; Edward Wilson, M; Cheeseman, Edward W; Papa, Carrie E

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of the Plus Lens (Goodlite Company, Elgin, IL) test and the Spot Vision Screener (Welch Allyn, Skaneateles Falls, NY) in detecting high hyperopia in a pediatric population. Between June and August 2015, patients were screened with the Spot Vision Screener and the Plus Lens test prior to a scheduled pediatric ophthalmology visit. The following data were analyzed: demographic data, Plus Lens result, Spot Vision Screener result, cycloplegic refraction, and examination findings. Sensitivity/specificity and positive/negative predictive values were calculated for the Plus Lens test and Spot Vision Screener in detecting hyperopia as determined by the "gold-standard" cycloplegic refraction. A total of 109 children (average age: 82 months) were included. Compared to the ophthalmologist's cycloplegic refraction, the Spot Vision Screener sensitivity for +3.50 diopters (D) hyperopia was 31.25% and the specificity was 100%. The Plus Lens sensitivity for +3.50 D hyperopia was 43.75% and the specificity was 89.25%. Spot Vision Screener sensitivity increased with higher degrees of hyperopia. In this preliminary study, the Plus Lens test and the Spot Vision Screener demonstrated moderate sensitivity with good specificity in detecting high hyperopia. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54(3):163-167.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. The lateral flow card test: an alternative method for the detection of Trichinella infection in swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrascu I.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel lateral flow card (TS-Card pork test was developed for the serological detection of Trichinella infected pigs. Based on extensive studies performed in Romania during 1 999-2000 this test proved to be highly specific, sensitive, rapid (3-12 minutes and easy to use (no need for laboratory facilities. It can be used both for the detection of Trichinella infection in carcasses and for epizootiological studies using a variety of samples including whole or dried blood, serum, or tissue fluids. The TS-Card pork test, used as a screening test, can be the foundation of an on-farm or field based inspection system to significantly improve food safety in countries with a high prevalence of Trichinella in pigs or other food animal species. The results presented are also promising for application of the test in an on-line laboratory based inspection system since the speed of the test allows sufficient time to rail out suspected hog carcasses during the slaughter process.

  10. Efficacy of immunoassay chromatography test for hepatitis-C antibodies detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batool, A.; Khan, M.I.; Bano, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    To asses the efficacy of commercially available tests device method for anti HCV detection. Methods: Total 2000 blood samples for detection of anti HCV were screened initially by immuno chromatographic method. Those found positive on initial screening were re-tested by ELISA method at the Biochemistry Laboratory of the Pakistan Medical Research Council, Fatima Jinnah Medical College, Lahore. Results: Out of a total of 2,000 blood samples, 177 were found to be initially reactive/positive for anti-HCV with immuno chromatographic method. When these reactive/positive samples were retested for confirmation with ELISA, 47 blood samples were found to have tested falsely positive for anti-HCV. Overall 2.35% of blood samples were found to be tested false positive for anti-HCV by immuno chromatographic device method. Conclusions: Immuno chromatographic device method test is rapid and simple, which can be used in setting with limited facility when rapid testing is required. However it should not be used as sole criteria for diagnosis but should serve the purpose of initial screening only. Further research is required to establish the reliability of such devices for their specificity and sensitivity. (author)

  11. Validity of Point-of-Care Testing with Mission Plus Hemoglobin in Detecting Anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Maria Awaluddin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Point-of-care testing, POCT, was widely used to assess hemoglobin status before proceeding with the confirmation test. Our study aimed to assess the validity of Mission® Plus Hb in detecting hemoglobin levels in a general population compared with a standard laboratory hematology analyser as the gold standard. Methods: Two types of samples, capillary and venous blood, were collected from all respondents by trained nurses. Both blood samples were tested using Mission® Plus while the remaining venous blood in EDTA test tubes was sent to the reference laboratory. Results: A total of 622 respondents participated in this study, 75% of them females. The mean Hb tested from capillary blood using Mission® Plus Hb was 11.80±2.02g/dl. For venous blood, the mean Hb concentrations using Mission® Plus Hb and Sysmex XE-2100 hematology analyser were 12.16±1.84g/dl and 13.07±1.87g/dl, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity in detecting anemia from venous samples were 98.8% and 73.4% respectively. Positive Predictive Value (PPV was 58.5%, while Negative Predictive Value (NPV was 99.4%. Conclusion: The findings of moderate PPV should alert the programme managers to the importance of a confirmatory test following screening using Mission® Plus Hb.

  12. Review: Diagnostic accuracy of PCR-based detection tests for Helicobacter Pylori in stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadangi, Fatemeh; Yassi, Maryam; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2017-12-01

    Although different methods have been established to detect Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, identifying infected patients is an ongoing challenge. The aim of this meta-analysis was to provide pooled diagnostic accuracy measures for stool PCR test in the diagnosis of H. pylori infection. In this study, a systematic review and meta-analysis were carried out on various sources, including MEDLINE, Web of Sciences, and the Cochrane Library from April 1, 1999, to May 1, 2016. This meta-analysis adheres to the guidelines provided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses report (PRISMA Statement). The clinical value of DNA stool PCR test was based on the pooled false positive, false negative, true positive, and true negative of different genes. Twenty-six of 328 studies identified met the eligibility criteria. Stool PCR test had a performance of 71% (95% CI: 68-73) sensitivity, 96% (95% CI: 94-97) specificity, and 65.6 (95% CI: 30.2-142.5) diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) in diagnosis of H. pylori. The DOR of genes which showed the highest performance of stool PCR tests was as follows: 23S rRNA 152.5 (95% CI: 55.5-418.9), 16S rRNA 67.9 (95%CI: 6.4-714.3), and glmM 68.1 (95%CI: 20.1-231.7). The sensitivity and specificity of stool PCR test are relatively in the same spectrum of other diagnostic methods for the detection of H. pylori infection. In descending order of significance, the most diagnostic candidate genes using PCR detection were 23S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and glmM. PCR for 23S rRNA gene which has the highest performance could be applicable to detect H. pylori infection. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of a microbiological indicator test for antibiotic detection in ewe and goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comunian, R; Paba, A; Dupré, I; Daga, E S; Scintu, M F

    2010-12-01

    Antibiotics are widely used for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes in dairy animals. The presence of residual antibiotics in milk could cause potentially serious problems in human health and have technological implication in the manufacturing of dairy products. The aim of this study was to evaluate Delvotest Accelerator (DSM Food Specialties, Delft, the Netherlands), a new system for a fully automated microbial test to detect antibiotic residues in ewe and goat milk. Forty-three samples of raw, whole, refrigerated bulk-tank milk samples (22 of ewe milk and 21 of goat milk) were analyzed during the whole lactation period. Four concentrations of 4 antibiotics were diluted in milk: penicillin G at 1, 2, 3, and 4 μg/L; sulfadiazine at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/L; tetracycline at 50, 100, 200, and 400 μg/L; and gentamicin at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/L. The detection limit of the Delvotest Accelerator was calculated as the range of antibiotic concentrations within which 95% of positive result lie. The range of detection limit of penicillin G and sulfadiazine was easily detected by Delvotest Accelerator at or below the European Union maximum residue limits, both for ewe and goat milk samples. In contrast, the system showed a lower ability to detect tetracycline and gentamicin both for ewe and goat milk samples. Very low percentages of false-positive outcomes were obtained. Lactation phase did not seem to be a crucial factor affecting the ability of the Delvotest Accelerator to detect spiked milk samples. A higher detection ability was observed for goat milk samples compared with ewe milk samples. A negative correlation between the percentage of positive milk samples detected and milk fat, protein, and lactose contents was observed for gentamicin only. Copyright © 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Pattern recognition techniques for failure trend detection in SSME ground tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudry, A.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a complex power plant. To evaluate its performance 1200 hot-wire ground tests have been conducted, varying in duration from 0 to 500 secs. During the test some 500 sensors are sampled every 20 ms. The sensors are generally bounded by red lines so that an excursion beyond could lead to premature shutdown. In 27 tests it was not possible to effect an orderly premature shutdown, resulting in major incidents with serious damage to the SSME and test stand. The application of pattern recognition are investigated to detect SSME performance trends that may lead to major incidents. Based on the sensor data a set of (n) features is defined. At any time during the test, the state of the SSME is given by a point in the n-dimensional feature space. The history of a test can now be represented as a trajectory in the n-dimensional feature space. Portions of the normal trajectories and failed test trajectories would lie in different regions of the n-dimensional feature space. The latter can now be partitioned into regions of normal and failed tests. Thus, it is possible to examine the trajectory of a test in progress and predict if it is going into the normal or failure region.

  15. Development and validation of an immunoperoxidase antigen detection test for improved diagnosis of rabies in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadane, Ibnu; Certoma, Andrea F; Peck, Grantley R; Fitria, Yul; Payne, Jean; Colling, Axel; Shiell, Brian J; Beddome, Gary; Wilson, Susanne; Yu, Meng; Morrissy, Chris; Michalski, Wojtek P; Bingham, John; Gardner, Ian A; Allen, John D

    2017-11-01

    Rabies continues to pose a significant threat to human and animal health in regions of Indonesia. Indonesia has an extensive network of veterinary diagnostic laboratories and the 8 National laboratories are equipped to undertake diagnostic testing for rabies using the commercially-procured direct fluorescent antibody test (FAT), which is considered the reference (gold standard) test. However, many of the Indonesian Provincial diagnostic laboratories do not have a fluorescence microscope required to undertake the FAT. Instead, certain Provincial laboratories continue to screen samples using a chemical stain-based test (Seller's stain test, SST). This test has low diagnostic sensitivity, with negative SST-tested samples being forwarded to the nearest National laboratory resulting in significant delays for completion of testing and considerable additional costs. This study sought to develop a cost-effective and diagnostically-accurate immunoperoxidase antigen detection (RIAD) test for rabies that can be readily and quickly performed by the resource-constrained Provincial laboratories. This would reduce the burden on the National laboratories and allow more rapid diagnoses and implementation of post-exposure prophylaxis. The RIAD test was evaluated using brain smears fixed with acetone or formalin and its performance was validated by comparison with established rabies diagnostic tests used in Indonesia, including the SST and FAT. A proficiency testing panel was distributed between Provincial laboratories to assess the reproducibility of the test. The performance of the RIAD test was improved by using acetone fixation of brain smears rather than formalin fixation such that it was of equivalent accuracy to that of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-recommended FAT, with both tests returning median diagnostic sensitivity and specificity values of 0.989 and 0.993, respectively. The RIAD test and FAT had higher diagnostic sensitivity than the SST (median = 0

  16. A new efficient statistical test for detecting variability in the gene expression data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Sunil; Dolo, Samuel

    2008-08-01

    DNA microarray technology allows researchers to monitor the expressions of thousands of genes under different conditions. The detection of differential gene expression under two different conditions is very important in microarray studies. Microarray experiments are multi-step procedures and each step is a potential source of variance. This makes the measurement of variability difficult because approach based on gene-by-gene estimation of variance will have few degrees of freedom. It is highly possible that the assumption of equal variance for all the expression levels may not hold. Also, the assumption of normality of gene expressions may not hold. Thus it is essential to have a statistical procedure which is not based on the normality assumption and also it can detect genes with differential variance efficiently. The detection of differential gene expression variance will allow us to identify experimental variables that affect different biological processes and accuracy of DNA microarray measurements.In this article, a new nonparametric test for scale is developed based on the arctangent of the ratio of two expression levels. Most of the tests available in literature require the assumption of normal distribution, which makes them inapplicable in many situations, and it is also hard to verify the suitability of the normal distribution assumption for the given data set. The proposed test does not require the assumption of the distribution for the underlying population and hence makes it more practical and widely applicable. The asymptotic relative efficiency is calculated under different distributions, which show that the proposed test is very powerful when the assumption of normality breaks down. Monte Carlo simulation studies are performed to compare the power of the proposed test with some of the existing procedures. It is found that the proposed test is more powerful than commonly used tests under almost all the distributions considered in the study. A

  17. Additional molecular testing of saliva specimens improves the detection of respiratory viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Kelvin Kw; Lu, Lu; Yip, Cyril Cy; Poon, Rosana Ws; Fung, Ami My; Cheng, Andrew; Lui, Daniel Hk; Ho, Deborah Ty; Hung, Ivan Fn; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2017-06-07

    Emerging infectious diseases in humans are often caused by respiratory viruses such as pandemic or avian influenza viruses and novel coronaviruses. Microbiological testing for respiratory viruses is important for patient management, infection control and epidemiological studies. Nasopharyngeal specimens are frequently tested, but their sensitivity is suboptimal. This study evaluated the incremental benefit of testing respiratory viruses in expectorated saliva using molecular assays. A total of 258 hospitalized adult patients with suspected respiratory infections were included. Their expectorated saliva was collected without the use of any special devices. In the first cohort of 159 patients whose nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) tested positive for respiratory viruses during routine testing, the viral load was measured using quantitative reverse transcription PCR. Seventeen percent of the patients (27/159) had higher viral loads in the saliva than in the NPA. The second cohort consisted of 99 patients whose NPAs tested negative for respiratory viruses using a direct immunofluorescence assay. Their NPA and saliva specimens were additionally tested using multiplex PCR. In these patients, the concordance rate by multiplex PCR between NPA and saliva was 83.8%. Multiplex PCR detected viruses in saliva samples from 16 patients, of which nine (56.3%) had at least one virus that was not detected in the NPA. Decisions on antiviral or isolation precautions would be affected by salivary testing in six patients. Although NPAs have high viral loads and remain the specimen of choice for most patients with respiratory virus infections, supplementary molecular testing of saliva can improve the clinical management of these patients.

  18. Comparative Evaluation of RUT, PCR and ELISA Tests for Detection of Infection with Cytotoxigenic H. pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalypour, Farzaneh; Farajnia, Safar; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Hojabri, Zoya; Yousefzadeh, Rana; Saeedi, Nazli

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most prevalent infectious agents in the world which causes a variety of gastrointestinal diseases including gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma. The objective of this study was to comparatively evaluate invasive (rapid urease test and polymerase chain reaction) and non-invasive (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) tests in diagnosis of infection with cytotoxigenic H. pylori. Biopsy specimens and sera were collected from 105 patients with gastric disorders. The presence of H. pylori infection in gastric biopsies was evaluated by RUT and PCR methods using chemotaxis signal transduction protein gene (CSTP), Urea C and HP-16srRNA primers. Serum samples were used for the ELISA test. Detection of infection with cag A-positive strains was performed by PCR and cag A-IgG ELISA kit. Patients with at least two out of three positive results were regarded as infected. The sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and accuracy of the three different methods were evaluated. Of the 105 gastric biopsies, H. pylori were positive in 51 patients (48.57%). The best sensitivity (92.16%) belonged to RUT. The sensitivities of other tests including PCR and ELISA test were 88.24% and 90.20%, respectively. PCR showed the best specificity (94.44%), and the specificities of the other tests including RUT and ELISA test, were 90.74 % and 61.11%, respectively. Furthermore, results of PCR and cag A-IgG ELISA showed high prevalence of cag A-positive strain in the study population. Based on our findings, serum ELISA is a rapid noninvasive test for screening of H. pylori infection in the absence of endoscopy indication. In addition, considering the high prevalence of cytotoxigenic H. pylori strains, cag A is suggested as a promising target for PCR and non- invasive ELISA tests for detection of infection with toxigenic strains.

  19. Structure Detection of Nonlinear Aeroelastic Systems with Application to Aeroelastic Flight Test Data. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.; Brenner, martin J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the 1. Motivation for the study 2. Nonlinear Model Form 3. Structure Detection 4. Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) 5. Objectives 6. Results 7. Assess LASSO as a Structure Detection Tool: Simulated Nonlinear Models 8. Applicability to Complex Systems: F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing Flight Test Data. The authors conclude that 1. this is a novel approach for detecting the structure of highly over-parameterised nonlinear models in situations where other methods may be inadequate 2. that it is a practical significance in the analysis of aircraft dynamics during envelope expansion and could lead to more efficient control strategies and 3. this could allow greater insight into the functionality of various systems dynamics, by providing a quantitative model which is easily interpretable

  20. A martingale framework for detecting changes in data streams by testing exchangeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shen-Shyang; Wechsler, Harry

    2010-12-01

    In a data streaming setting, data points are observed sequentially. The data generating model may change as the data are streaming. In this paper, we propose detecting this change in data streams by testing the exchangeability property of the observed data. Our martingale approach is an efficient, nonparametric, one-pass algorithm that is effective on the classification, cluster, and regression data generating models. Experimental results show the feasibility and effectiveness of the martingale methodology in detecting changes in the data generating model for time-varying data streams. Moreover, we also show that: 1) An adaptive support vector machine (SVM) utilizing the martingale methodology compares favorably against an adaptive SVM utilizing a sliding window, and 2) a multiple martingale video-shot change detector compares favorably against standard shot-change detection algorithms.

  1. Laboratory Tests of Multiplex Detection of PCR Amplicons Using the Luminex 100 Flow Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkateswaran, K.S.; Nasarabadi, S.; Langlois, R.G.

    2000-05-05

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) demonstrated the power of flow cytometry in detecting the biological agents simulants at JFT III. LLNL pioneered in the development of advanced nucleic acid analyzer (ANM) for portable real time identification. Recent advances in flow cytometry provide a means for multiplexed nucleic acid detection and immunoassay of pathogenic microorganisms. We are presently developing multiplexed immunoassays for the simultaneous detection of different simulants. Our goal is to build an integrated instrument for both nucleic acid analysis and immuno detection. In this study we evaluated the Luminex LX 100 for concurrent identification of more than one PCR amplified product. ANAA has real-time Taqman fluorescent detection capability for rapid identification of field samples. However, its multiplexing ability is limited by the combination of available fluorescent labels. Hence integration of ANAA with flow cytometry can give the rapidity of ANAA amplification and the multiplex capability of flow cytometry. Multiplexed flow cytometric analysis is made possible using a set of fluorescent latex microsphere that are individually identified by their red and infrared fluorescence. A green fluorochrome is used as the assay signal. Methods were developed for the identification of specific nucleic acid sequences from Bacillus globigii (Bg), Bacillus thuringensis (Bt) and Erwinia herbicola (Eh). Detection sensitivity using different reporter fluorochromes was tested with the LX 100, and also different assay formats were evaluated for their suitability for rapid testing. A blind laboratory trial was carried out December 22-27, 1999 to evaluate bead assays for multiplex identification of Bg and Bt PCR products. This report summarizes the assay development, fluorochrome comparisons, and the results of the blind trial conducted at LLNL for the laboratory evaluation of the LX 100 flow analyzer.

  2. Highly sensitive multianalyte immunochromatographic test strip for rapid chemiluminescent detection of ractopamine and salbutamol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Hongfei; Han, Jing; Yang, Shijia; Wang, Zhenxing; Wang, Lin; Fu, Zhifeng, E-mail: fuzf@swu.edu.cn

    2014-08-11

    Graphical abstract: A multianalyte immunochromatographic test strip was developed for the rapid detection of two β{sub 2}-agonists. Due to the application of chemiluminescent detection, this quantitative method shows much higher sensitivity. - Highlights: • An immunochromatographic test strip was developed for detection of multiple β{sub 2}-agonists. • The whole assay process can be completed within 20 min. • The proposed method shows much higher sensitivity due to the application of CL detection. • It is a portable analytical tool suitable for field analysis and rapid screening. - Abstract: A novel immunochromatographic assay (ICA) was proposed for rapid and multiple assay of β{sub 2}-agonists, by utilizing ractopamine (RAC) and salbutamol (SAL) as the models. Owing to the introduction of chemiluminescent (CL) approach, the proposed protocol shows much higher sensitivity. In this work, the described ICA was based on a competitive format, and horseradish peroxidase-tagged antibodies were used as highly sensitive CL probes. Quantitative analysis of β{sub 2}-agonists was achieved by recording the CL signals of the probes captured on the two test zones of the nitrocellulose membrane. Under the optimum conditions, RAC and SAL could be detected within the linear ranges of 0.50–40 and 0.10–50 ng mL{sup −1}, with the detection limits of 0.20 and 0.040 ng mL{sup −1} (S/N = 3), respectively. The whole process for multianalyte immunoassay of RAC and SAL can be completed within 20 min. Furthermore, the test strip was validated with spiked swine urine samples and the results showed that this method was reliable in measuring β{sub 2}-agonists in swine urine. This CL-based multianalyte test strip shows a series of advantages such as high sensitivity, ideal selectivity, simple manipulation, high assay efficiency and low cost. Thus, it opens up new pathway for rapid screening and field analysis, and shows a promising prospect in food safety.

  3. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using three different faecal occult blood tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB. The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal worm egg count (FEC. A total of 29 Corriedale lambs were experimentally infected with 10.000 larvae of H. contortus. Stool samples were recorded for FEC and FOB tests (Hexagon, Hematest® and Multistix®, blood for packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count (RBC, and FAMACHA© for scoring anaemia. At the end of the experiment lambs were slaughtered to worm burden count. Field infection was achieved in 309 Merino lambs under natural parasite challenge. FEC data were normalized through logarithmic transformation (LnFEC. Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three tests were able to detect the presence of FOB at day 11. FEC, PCV and RBC decreased to sub-normal values from day 18. FAMACHA© score 3 was considered to be indicative of anaemia. Most of the correlations were of high magnitude, with the exception of Multistix® test that was moderately correlated with haematological parameters, LnFEC and FEC. In field infection, most samples were negative to FOB tests and the correlations were lower than those calculated under experimental infection. In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge. However, they were not able to detect FOB under natural mixed parasite challenge. FAMACHA© and PCV demonstrated to be good indicators of Haemonchosis, having moderate to high correlations with FEC.

  4. Gold nanoparticle-enabled blood test for early stage cancer detection and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianyu; Pierre-Pierre, Nickisha; Yan, Xin; Huo, Qun; Almodovar, Alvin J O; Valerio, Felipe; Rivera-Ramirez, Inoel; Griffith, Elizabeth; Decker, David D; Chen, Sixue; Zhu, Ning

    2015-04-01

    When citrate ligands-capped gold nanoparticles are mixed with blood sera, a protein corona is formed on the nanoparticle surface due to the adsorption of various proteins in the blood to the nanoparticles. Using a two-step gold nanoparticle-enabled dynamic light scattering assay, we discovered that the amount of human immunoglobulin G (IgG) in the gold nanoparticle protein corona is increased in prostate cancer patients compared to noncancer controls. Two pilot studies conducted on blood serum samples collected at Florida Hospital and obtained from Prostate Cancer Biorespository Network (PCBN) revealed that the test has a 90-95% specificity and 50% sensitivity in detecting early stage prostate cancer, representing a significant improvement over the current PSA test. The increased amount of human IgG found in the protein corona is believed to be associated with the autoantibodies produced in cancer patients as part of the immunodefense against tumor. Proteomic analysis of the nanoparticle protein corona revealed molecular profile differences between cancer and noncancer serum samples. Autoantibodies and natural antibodies produced in cancer patients in response to tumorigenesis have been found and detected in the blood of many cancer types. The test may be applicable for early detection and risk assessment of a broad spectrum of cancer. This new blood test is simple, low cost, requires only a few drops of blood sample, and the results are obtained within minutes. The test is well suited for screening purpose. More extensive studies are being conducted to further evaluate and validate the clinical potential of the new test.

  5. Development and Testing of an Air Fluorescence Imaging System for the Detection of Radiological Contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inrig, Elizabeth; Koslowsky, Vern; Andrews, Bob; Dick, Michael; Forget, Patrick; Ing, Harry; Hugron, Roger; Wong, Larry

    2011-01-01

    Detection of radionuclides emitting short-range radiation, such as α and low-energy β particles, has always presented a challenge, particularly when such radionuclides are dispersed over a wide area. In this situation, conventional detection methods require the area of interest to be surveyed using a fragile probe at very close range--a slow, error-prone, and potentially dangerous process that may take many hours for a single room. The instrument under development uses a novel approach by imaging radiation-induced fluorescence in the air surrounding a contaminated area, rather than detecting the radiation directly. A robust and portable system has been designed and built that will allow contaminated areas to be rapidly detected and delineated. The detector incorporates position-sensitive photo-multiplier tubes, UV filters, a fast electronic shutter and an aspherical phase mask that significantly increases the depth-of-field. Preliminary tests have been conducted using sealed 241 Am sources of varying activities and surface areas. The details of the instrument design will be described and the results of recent testing will be presented.

  6. Detecting Malaria Hotspots: A Comparison of Rapid Diagnostic Test, Microscopy, and Polymerase Chain Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogeni, Polycarp; Williams, Thomas N; Omedo, Irene; Kimani, Domtila; Ngoi, Joyce M; Mwacharo, Jedida; Morter, Richard; Nyundo, Christopher; Wambua, Juliana; Nyangweso, George; Kapulu, Melissa; Fegan, Gregory; Bejon, Philip

    2017-11-27

    Malaria control strategies need to respond to geographical hotspots of transmission. Detection of hotspots depends on the sensitivity of the diagnostic tool used. We conducted cross-sectional surveys in 3 sites within Kilifi County, Kenya, that had variable transmission intensities. Rapid diagnostic test (RDT), microscopy, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to detect asymptomatic parasitemia, and hotspots were detected using the spatial scan statistic. Eight thousand five hundred eighty-one study participants were surveyed in 3 sites. There were statistically significant malaria hotspots by RDT, microscopy, and PCR for all sites except by microscopy in 1 low transmission site. Pooled data analysis of hotspots by PCR overlapped with hotspots by microscopy at a moderate setting but not at 2 lower transmission settings. However, variations in degree of overlap were noted when data were analyzed by year. Hotspots by RDT were predictive of PCR/microscopy at the moderate setting, but not at the 2 low transmission settings. We observed long-term stability of hotspots by PCR and microscopy but not RDT. Malaria control programs may consider PCR testing to guide asymptomatic malaria hotspot detection once the prevalence of infection falls. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  7. A spot test for detection of cobalt release – early experience and findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P.; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: It is often difficult to establish clinical relevance of metal exposure in cobalt-allergic patients. Dermatologists and patients may incorrectly assume that many metallic items release cobalt at levels that may cause cobalt dermatitis. Cobalt-allergic patients may be unaware...... also be used as a gel test if combined with an agar preparation. We found no false-positive reactions when testing metals and alloys known not to contain cobalt. However, one cobalt-containing alloy, which elicited cobalt dermatitis in cobalt-allergic patients, was negative upon cobalt gel testing....... Conclusions: The cobalt test detects amounts of cobalt release that approximate the elicitation concentration seen in cobalt-allergic patients. It may serve as a useful tool in dermatology offices and workplaces....

  8. Detection of ductile crack initiation by acoustic emission testing; Detektion von duktiler Rissinitiierung durch Schallemissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, H.; Boehmert, J.; Viehrig, H.W. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR) (Germany). Inst. fuer Sicherheitsforschung; Valo, M. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Materials and Structural Integrity, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    A Charpy impact test equipment is described permitting simultaneous measurement of impact force, crack tip opening, acoustic emissions and magnetic emissions. The core of the equipment is an inverted pendulum ram impact testing machine and the tests have been performed with laterally notched, pre-fatigue ISO-V specimens made of steels of various strength and tougness properties. The tests are intended to ascertain whether the acoustic emission method is suitable for detecting steady crack initiation in highly ductile steels. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Es wird eine Kerbschlagbiegeanordnung vorgestellt, mit der simultan Schlagkraft, Rissoeffnung, Schallemission und magnetische Emission gemessen werden koennen. Grundbaustein der Anordnung ist ein invertiertes Pendelschlagwerk. Mit dieser Anordnung wurden seitgekerbte, vorermuedete ISO-V Proben aus Staehlen mit unterschiedlichen Festigkeits-Zaehigkeitseigenschaften geprueft. Die Untersuchung soll aufzeigen, ob Schallemission zur Detektion der stabilen Rissinitierung an hochzaehen Staehlen geeignet ist. (orig./CB)

  9. Development of an auditory situation awareness test battery for advanced hearing protectors and TCAPS: detection subtest of DRILCOM (detection-recognition/identification-localization-communication).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kichol; Casali, John G

    2017-01-01

    To design a test battery and conduct a proof-of-concept experiment of a test method that can be used to measure the detection performance afforded by military advanced hearing protection devices (HPDs) and tactical communication and protective systems (TCAPS). The detection test was conducted with each of the four loudspeakers located at front, right, rear and left of the participant. Participants wore 2 in-ear-type TCAPS, 1 earmuff-type TCAPS, a passive Combat Arms Earplug in its "open" or pass-through setting and an EB-15LE™ electronic earplug. Devices with electronic gain systems were tested under two gain settings: "unity" and "max". Testing without any device (open ear) was conducted as a control. Ten participants with audiometric requirements of 25 dBHL or better at 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000 Hz in both ears. Detection task performance varied with different signals and speaker locations. The test identified performance differences among certain TCAPS and protectors, and the open ear. A computer-controlled detection subtest of the Detection-Recognition/Identification-Localisation-Communication (DRILCOM) test battery was designed and implemented. Tested in a proof-of-concept experiment, it showed statistically-significant sensitivity to device differences in detection effects with the small sample of participants (10). This result has important implications for selection and deployment of TCAPS and HPDs on soldiers and workers in dynamic situations.

  10. Test-day records as a tool for subclinical ketosis detection

    OpenAIRE

    Gantner Vesna; Potočnik K.; Jovanovac Sonja

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence, as well as the effect of subclinical ketosis on daily milk yield, was observed using 1.299,630 test-day records collected from January 2000 to December 2005 on 73,255 Slovenian Holstein cows. Subclinical ketosis was indicated by the fat to protein ratio (F/P ratio) higher than 1.5 in cows that yielded between 33 to 50 kg of milk per day (Eicher, 2004). The ketosis index was defined in relation to the timing of subclinical ketosis detection to the subsequent measures of test-da...

  11. Relative Navigation Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) Sensor Development Test Objective (DTO) Performance Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) received a request from the NASA Associate Administrator (AA) for Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD), to quantitatively evaluate the individual performance of three light detection and ranging (LIDAR) rendezvous sensors flown as orbiter's development test objective on Space Transportation System (STS)-127, STS-133, STS-134, and STS-135. This document contains the outcome of the NESC assessment.

  12. Inclusion Fluorescent-Antibody Test as a Screening Assay for Detection of Antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Tapia, Olga; Slepenkin, Anatoly; Sevrioukov, Evgueni; Hamor, Kathi; de la Maza, Luis M.; Peterson, Ellena M.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the ability of the inclusion immunofluorescence assay (inclusion IFA) to act as a screening test to detect samples with antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae; microimmunofluorescence (MIF) was used as the “gold standard.” In addition, the inclusion IFA was compared using HEp-2 cells infected with either C. pneumoniae CM-1 or Chlamydia trachomatis serovar E. A total of 331 serum samples representing a range of MIF titers were evaluated. The sensitivities of the ...

  13. Transition Detection for Low Speed Wind Tunnel Testing Using Infrared Thermography

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Liselle AnnMarie

    2014-01-01

    Transition is an important phenomenon in large scale, commercial, wind tunnel testing at low speeds because it is an excellent indicator of an airfoil performance. It is difficult to estimate transition through numerical techniques because of the complex nature of viscous flow. Therefore experimental techniques can be essential. Over the transition region the rate of heat transfer shows significant increases which can be detected using infrared thermography. This technique has been used predo...

  14. Preferences and satisfaction towards a screening program with self-administered human papilloma virus detection tests

    OpenAIRE

    Morán, Flavia; Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Perú. Estudiante de Medicina; Cárcamo, César; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico, doctor en Epidemiología; Valderrama, María; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. obstetra, magister en Obstetricia; García, Patricia J.; Facultad de Salud Pública y Administración, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia. Lima, Perú. médico, doctora en Medicina

    2017-01-01

    Cross-sectional study describing preferences and satisfaction towards a cervical cancer screening program with selfadministered rapid tests for the detection of human papillomavirus (HPV). Of 2 090 users picked by the program in Ventanilla Callao - Peru, 97 were randomly selected to be surveyed. In addition, interviews were conducted with women leaders of the community, in charge of providing the evidence. 74.2% of the users felt, at least, satisfied with the program. 68% of women prefer to t...

  15. Albendazole residues in goat's milk: Interferences in microbial inhibitor tests used to detect antibiotics in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, Tamara; Althaus, Rafael; Moya, Vicente Javier; Beltrán, María del Carmen; Reybroeck, Wim; Molina, María Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) residues in goat's milk and their effect on the response of microbial inhibitor tests used for screening antibiotics were evaluated. A total of 18 Murciano-Granadina goats were treated with ABZ and individually milked once a day over a 7-day period. ABZ quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. The ABZ parent drug was not detected. The maximum concentration of its metabolites (ABZ sulfoxide, ABZ sulfone, and ABZ 2-aminosulfone) was reached on th...

  16. BMVC test, an improved fluorescence assay for detection of malignant pleural effusions

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, I-Ting; Tsai, Yu-Lin; Kang, Chi-Chih; Huang, Wei-Chun; Wang, Chiung-Lin; Lin, Mei-Ying; Lou, Pei-Jen; Shih, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Hao-Chien; Wu, Huey-Dong; Tsai, Tzu-Hsiu; Jan, I-Shiow; Chang, Ta-Chau

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of malignant pleural effusions is an important issue in the management of malignancy patients. Generally, cytologic examination is a routine diagnostic technique. However, morphological interpretation of cytology is sometimes inconclusive. Here an ancillary method named BMVC test is developed for rapid detection of malignant pleural effusion to improve the diagnostic accuracy at low cost. A simple assay kit is designed to collect living cells from clinical pleural effusion and a...

  17. sup 14 C-urea breath test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S.J.; Tytgat, K.M.; Hollingsworth, J.; Jalali, S.; Rshid, F.A.; Bowen, B.M.; Goldie, J.; Goodacre, R.L.; Riddell, R.H.; Hunt, R.H. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-04-01

    The high urease activity of Helicobacter pylori can be used to detect this bacterium by noninvasive breath tests. We have developed a {sup 14}C-urea breath test which uses 5 microCi {sup 14}C with 50 mg nonradioactive urea. Breath samples are collected at baseline and every 30 min for 2 h. Our study compared the outcome of the breath test to the results of histology and culture of endoscopically obtained gastric biopsies in 84 patients. The breath test discriminated well between the 50 positive patients and the 34 patients negative for Helicobacter pylori: the calculated sensitivity was 100%, specificity 88%, positive predictive value 93%, and negative predictive value 100%. Treatment with bismuth subsalicylate and/or ampicillin resulted in lower counts of exhaled {sup 14}CO{sub 2} which correlated with histological improvement in gastritis. The {sup 14}C-urea breath test is a better gold standard for the detection of Helicobacter pylori than histology and/or culture.

  18. Evaluation of a rapid IgM detection test for diagnosis of acute leptospirosis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizer, J; Grahlmann, M; Hapke, H; Velineni, S; Lin, D; Kohn, B

    2017-05-27

    Recently, a lateral flow assay (LFA) for detection of Leptospira -specific IgM in canine sera became commercially available in Europe. The present study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of this assay using canine sera from a collection of diagnostic accessions. Diagnostic sensitivity was assessed by testing 37 acute-phase and 9 corresponding convalescent-phase sera from dogs with a confirmed diagnosis of leptospirosis. Specificity was determined by testing sera from sick dogs with non-leptospiral infections (n=15) and healthy dogs with incomplete history of vaccination (n=45). During acute phase of illness, LFA scored positive for 28/37 sera with a sensitivity of 75.7 per cent while only 9/37 (24.3 per cent) samples were positive on microscopic agglutination test. The specificity of the LFA was 98.3 per cent (59/60). This test showed 89.7 and 100 per cent overall agreements with clinical diagnosis for acute-phase and convalescent-phase sera, respectively. The impact of vaccination on the LFA was also determined and vaccine-stimulated IgM responses were negative in 19/25 (76 per cent) dogs at 12 weeks post vaccination. In conclusion, the LFA is a rapid and reliable test for early detection of Leptospira -specific IgM during acute phase of canine leptospirosis. However, interpretation of a positive result must be made in the context of clinical signs and vaccination history. British Veterinary Association.

  19. Familiarization, validity and smallest detectable difference of the isometric squat test in evaluating maximal strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, David; Kennedy, Rodney; Wallace, Eric

    2018-02-06

    Isometric multi-joint tests are considered reliable and have strong relationships with 1RM performance. However, limited evidence is available for the isometric squat in terms of effects of familiarization and reliability. This study aimed to assess, the effect of familiarization, stability reliability, determine the smallest detectible difference, and the correlation of the isometric squat test with 1RM squat performance. Thirty-six strength-trained participants volunteered to take part in this study. Following three familiarization sessions, test-retest reliability was evaluated with a 48-hour window between each time point. Isometric squat peak, net and relative force were assessed. Results showed three familiarizations were required, isometric squat had a high level of stability reliability and smallest detectible difference of 11% for peak and relative force. Isometric strength at a knee angle of ninety degrees had a strong significant relationship with 1RM squat performance. In conclusion, the isometric squat is a valid test to assess multi-joint strength and can discriminate between strong and weak 1RM squat performance. Changes greater than 11% in peak and relative isometric squat performance should be considered as meaningful in participants who are familiar with the test.

  20. Evaluation of reference values for phenotypic tests to detect oxacillin resistance in coagulase-negative staphylococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Luiza; Mello, Priscila L; Abraão, Ligia M; Corrente, José Eduardo; Lourdes Rs Cunha, Maria de

    2018-03-09

    To evaluate the adequacy of the disc-diffusion test and E-test ® compared with detection of mecA for coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from blood cultures, nasal swabs and wounds. Agreement between all techniques was observed in 65.7% of cases. The greatest discrepancy between mecA/susceptible E-test was observed for non-epidermidis species. A resistance breakpoint ≤19 mm using the oxacillin disc was found to best classify all coagulase-negative staphylococci isolates; Staphylococcus epidermidis, ≤19 mm (oxacillin) and ≤27 mm (cefoxitin); Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus capitis, ≤21 mm (oxacillin) and ≤18 mm (cefoxitin); Staphylococcus warneri, MICs ≥0.75 mg/l. Although no longer recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute, we observed some cases in which only the oxacillin disc-diffusion test detected resistance. The discrepancy between phenotypic tests and mecA is probably due to heterogeneity and borderline resistance.

  1. GPs views and understanding of PSA testing, screening and early detection; survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, J; Melia, J; Kirby, M; Graffy, J; Moss, S

    2016-05-01

    There is currently no national prostate cancer screening programme in the UK. However, patients 50 years and older are entitled to a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test, if informed on the advantages and disadvantages of testing and their risk of cancer. The Prostate Cancer Risk Management Programme (PCRMP) provides this guidance. The aim of this study was to access GPs' views and understanding of PSA testing, prostate cancer screening and early detection. A total of 708 questionnaires were returned by GPs across two English regions in 2013 and the GP questionnaire responses were quantitatively analysed. In the 699 completed questionnaires, the majority of GPs were well informed about PSA testing, screening and early detection. Only 32% used guidelines for referral, 14% knew all age-specific PSA referral levels, 71% that Black men have a higher prostate cancer risk than White men (22% correctly answered threefold increase) and 82% that family history is a risk factor. A further 78% thought electronic prompts during consultation would encourage PCRMP guideline usage and 75% had never been offered a PSA test and prostate cancer educational course, of which 73% would like to attend a course. Only 23% were aware of the latest PSA screening evidence and 94% would like an update. Participating GPs seem to be well informed but need more information and tools to help follow recommended guidance. In particular, increased awareness of PCRMP guidelines especially by automated methods, further educational courses and evidence updates would be beneficial. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Bronchial provocation testing does not detect exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hull, James H; Sverrild, Asger; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Backer, Vibeke

    2017-01-02

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is a key differential diagnosis for asthma in the presence of exertional respiratory symptoms. Continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (CLE), the current gold standard diagnostic test for EILO, has practical limitations. We aimed to establish if inspiratory flow data obtained during standard bronchoprovocation testing, to establish the presence of extra-thoracic hyper-responsiveness, may prove diagnostic for EILO and thus preclude requirement for CLE testing. We consecutively evaluated 37 adult subjects with exertional dyspnea and possible asthma referred over 6 months. All subjects received comprehensive assessment including a detailed clinical evaluation; pulmonary function testing, indirect and direct bronchial provocation testing, and CLE testing. Out of 37 subjects, moderate or severe EILO was diagnosed in 8 subjects (22%, all female) while 5 (14%) had both asthma and EILO. There was no correlation between degree of EILO during CLE and mean decrease in forced inspiratory flow (%FIF 50 ) obtained during neither the Methacholine (r = -0.15; p = 0.38) nor Mannitol (r = 0.04; p = 0.84) provocation tests. Inspiratory flow parameters obtained during bronchoprovocation tests did not reliably detect EILO. It remains that CLE is an important and key investigation modality in establishing a secure diagnosis of EILO.

  3. Using Signal Envelope Detection for Online and Offline RF MEMS Switch Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Simeu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The test of radiofrequency (RF integrated circuits at their ever-increasing operating frequency range requires sophisticated test equipment and is time-consuming and, therefore, very expensive. This paper introduces a new method combining low-frequency actuation signal as test stimuli and signal envelope detection applied on the RF output signal in order to provide a low-cost mean for production testing of RF MEMS switches embedded in system-in-package (SiP devices. The proposed approach uses the principle of alternate test that replaces conventional specification-based testing procedures. The basic idea is to extract the high-frequency characteristics of the switch from the signal envelope of the response. Output parameters like “on” and “off” transition time are extracted at low frequency and used in a regression process to predict RF conventional specifications like S-parameters. The paper also provides a set of recursive estimation algorithms suitable for online testing. In this context, “on” and “off” transition time estimated from the output low-frequency envelope is used as test metrics and is concurrently updated using recursive algorithms. Validation results obtained on a capacitive RF switch model are presented.

  4. Rapid and quantitative detection of C-reactive protein using quantum dots and immunochromatographic test strips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng X

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Xianglin Cheng,1,* Xu Pu,2,* Pen Jun,3 XiaoBo Zhu,3 Di Zhu,4 Ming Chen1 1Department of Laboratory Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Yangtze University, Jingzhou, 2Department of Laboratory Medicine, RenMin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, 3Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Molecular Sciences, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 4Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this study and share first authorship Background: Rapid immunochromatographic tests can detect disease markers in 10–15 minutes, which facilitates clinical diagnosis and treatment programs. However, most immunochromatographic tests employ gold nanoparticles as reporters, and these have only moderate sensitivity and act as qualitative methods for analyzing high biomarker concentrations. Methods: In this study, we introduce quantum dots (QDs as fluorescent probes and immunochromatographic strips to develop quantitative fluorescence point-of-care tests (QF-POCT to analyze C-reactive protein (CRP levels. Goat anti-rabbit IgG and rabbit IgG were used as control antibodies, and mouse monoclonal CRP antibody pairs were used for disease marker detection. One monoclonal CRP antibody was conjugated with QDs and served as a signal antibody, and the other monoclonal CRP antibody was dispensed onto the nitrocellulose membrane and served as a capturing antibody. In the presence of CRP, the fluorescence intensity of the monoclonal antibody-CRP-monoclonal antibody sandwich complex captured on the nitrocellulose membrane was determined using the fluorescence strip reader. Results: QF-POCT assays could quantitatively analyze the concentration of CRP in 15 minutes had a detection limit of 0.25 mg/L, and had a wide detection linearity range (0.5–300 mg/L. The intra-assay and interassay

  5. UBC®Rapid Test for detection of carcinoma in situ for bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecke, Thorsten H; Weiß, Sarah; Stephan, Carsten; Hallmann, Steffen; Barski, Dimitri; Otto, Thomas; Gerullis, Holger

    2017-05-01

    UBC ® Rapid Test is a test that detects fragments of cytokeratins 8 and 18 in urine. We present results of a multicentre study measuring UBC ® Rapid Test in bladder cancer patients and healthy controls with focus on carcinoma in situ (CIS) and high-grade bladder cancer. From our study with N = 452 patients, we made a stratified sub-analysis for carcinoma in situ of the urinary bladder. Clinical urine samples were used from 87 patients with tumours of the urinary bladder (23 carcinoma in situ, 23 non-muscle-invasive low-grade tumours, 21 non-muscle-invasive high-grade tumours and 20 muscle-invasive high-grade tumours) and from 22 healthy controls. The cut-off value was defined at 10.0 µg/L. Urine samples were analysed by the UBC ® Rapid Test point-of-care system (concile Omega 100 POC reader). Pathological levels of UBC Rapid Test in urine are higher in patients with bladder cancer in comparison to the control group (p Rapid Test using the optimal threshold obtained by receiveroperated curve analysis was 0.75. Pathological values of UBC ® Rapid Test in urine are higher in patients with high-grade bladder cancer in comparison to low-grade tumours and the healthy control group. UBC ® Rapid Test has potential to be more sensitive and specific urinary protein biomarker for accurate detection of high-grade patients and could be added especially in the diagnostics for carcinoma in situ and non-muscle-invasive high-grade tumours of urinary bladder cancer.

  6. Field Tests of a Tractor Rollover Detection and Emergency Notification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, B; Koc, A B

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this research was to assess the feasibility of a rollover detection and emergency notification system for farm tractors using field tests. The emergency notification system was developed based on a tractor stability model and implemented on a mobile electronic device with the iOS operating system. A complementary filter was implemented to combine the data from the accelerometer and gyroscope sensors to improve their accuracies in calculating the roll and pitch angles and the roll and pitch rates. The system estimates a stability index value during tractor operation, displays feedback messages when the stability index is lower than a preset threshold value, and transmits emergency notification messages when an overturn happens. Ten tractor rollover tests were conducted on a field track. The developed system successfully monitored the stability of the tractor during all of the tests. The iOS application was able to detect rollover accidents and transmit emergency notifications in the form of a phone call and email when an accident was detected. The system can be a useful tool for training and education in safe tractor operation. The system also has potential for stability monitoring and emergency notification of other on-road and off-road motorized vehicles.

  7. Strategies for detection of transfusion-transmitted viruses eluding identification by conventional serologic tests. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neurath, A.R.; Strick, N.

    1983-01-01

    The unavailability of serological tests for detection of several not yet characterized infectious agents transmitted by blood transfusion or by blood products prompted the development of alternative tests based on utilization of labeled nucleic acid probes specific for genomes of each of these agents. The prerequisite for the preparation of such probes is the demonstration in human plasma of nucleic acid sequences distinct from those present in host DNA or in genes of already characterized viruses occurring in plasma of infected individuals. To accomplish this, ultrasensitive tests for nucleic acids not dependent on their base sequence are needed. The authors describe a radioimmunoassay (RIA) for picogram quantities of DNA. Plasma (serum) specimens are treated with proteinase K in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and extracted with phenol. Nucleic acids are precipitated with ethanol in the presence of dextran (mol.wt. approx. 5X10 5 ) as carrier. Subsequently, DNA from the redissolved samples is adsorbed onto polylysine-coated wells of microtiter plates and detected by a double-antibody RIA using anti-DNA autoantibodies from NZB/NZW mice and 125 I-labelled antibodies to mouse immunoglobulins. DNA which did not hybridize with human DNA was detected by this method in sera containing hepatitis B virus used as a model system. (Auth.)

  8. False star detection and isolation during star tracking based on improved chi-square tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Niu, Yanxiong; Lu, Jiazhen; Yang, Yanqiang; Su, Guohua

    2017-08-01

    The star sensor is a precise attitude measurement device for a spacecraft. Star tracking is the main and key working mode for a star sensor. However, during star tracking, false stars become an inevitable interference for star sensor applications, which may result in declined measurement accuracy. A false star detection and isolation algorithm in star tracking based on improved chi-square tests is proposed in this paper. Two estimations are established based on a Kalman filter and a priori information, respectively. The false star detection is operated through adopting the global state chi-square test in a Kalman filter. The false star isolation is achieved using a local state chi-square test. Semi-physical experiments under different trajectories with various false stars are designed for verification. Experiment results show that various false stars can be detected and isolated from navigation stars during star tracking, and the attitude measurement accuracy is hardly influenced by false stars. The proposed algorithm is proved to have an excellent performance in terms of speed, stability, and robustness.

  9. Comparison of rapid diagnostic tests to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis disseminated infection in bovine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Mehdi; Ghorbanpour, Masoud; Tajbakhsh, Samaneh; Mosavari, Nader

    2017-08-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease, a chronic enteritis in cattle and other domestic and wild ruminants. The presence of MAP in tissues other than intestines and associated lymph nodes, such as meat and liver, is a potential public health concern. In the present study, the relationship between the results of rapid diagnostic tests of the Johne's disease, such as serum ELISA, rectal scraping PCR, and acid-fast staining, and the presence of MAP in liver was evaluated. Blood, liver, and rectal scraping samples were collected from 200 slaughtered cattle with unknown Johne's disease status. ELISA was performed to determine the MAP antibody activity in the serum. Acid-fast staining was performed on rectal scraping samples, and PCR was performed on rectal scraping and liver samples. PCR-positive liver samples were used for mycobacterial culture. Overall, the results of this study demonstrated that MAP can be detected and cultured from liver of slaughtered cattle and rapid diagnostic tests of Johne's disease have limited value in detecting cattle with MAP infection in liver. These findings show that the presence of MAP in liver tissue may occur in cows with negative results for rapid diagnostic tests and vice versa. Hence, liver might represent another possible risk of human exposure to MAP. Given concerns about a potential zoonotic role for MAP, these results show the necessity to find new methods for detecting cattle with MAP disseminated infection.

  10. Development of sputter ion pump based SG leak detection system for Fast Breeder Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, B.; Sureshkumar, K.V.; Srinivasan, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Development and commissioning of SG leak detection system for FBTR. ► Development of Robust method of using sputter ion pump based system. ► Modifications for improving reliability and availability. ► On line injection of hydrogen in sodium during reactor operation. ► Triplication of the SG leak detection system. - Abstract: The Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is a 40 MWt, loop type sodium cooled fast reactor built at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam as a fore-runner to the second stage of Indian nuclear power programme. The reactor design is based on the French reactor Rapsodie with several modifications which include the provision of a steam-water circuit and turbo-generator. FBTR uses sodium as the coolant in the main heat transport medium to transfer heat from the reactor core to the feed water in the tertiary loop for producing superheated steam, which drives the turbo-generator. Sodium and water flow in shell and tube side respectively, separated by thin-walls of the ferritic steel tubes of the once-through steam generator (SG). Material defects in these tubes can lead to leakage of water into sodium, resulting in sodium water reactions leading to undesirable consequences. Early detection of water or steam leaks into sodium in the steam generator units of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) is an important requirement from safety and economic considerations. The SG leak in FBTR is detected by Sputter Ion Pump (SIP) based Steam Generator Leak Detection (SGLD) system and Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD) based Hydrogen in Argon Detection (HAD) system. Many modifications were carried out in the SGLD system for the reactor operation to improve the reliability and availability. This paper details the development and the acquired experience of SIP based SGLD system instrumentation for real time hydrogen detection in sodium for FBTR.

  11. Disk Diffusion Testing for Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci: Does Moxalactam Improve upon Cefoxitin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonjean, Marie; Hodille, Elisabeth; Dumitrescu, Oana; Dupieux, Céline; Nkoud Mongo, Christina; Allam, Camille; Beghin, Mathilde; Paris, Mickael; Borrel, Ophelie; Chardon, Hubert; Laurent, Fréderic; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Lina, Gerard

    2016-12-01

    Disk diffusion testing is widely used to detect methicillin resistance in staphylococci, and cefoxitin is currently considered the best marker for mecA-mediated methicillin resistance. In low-inoculum diffusion testing (colony suspension at 10 6 CFU/ml), the addition of moxalactam in combination with cefoxitin has been reported to improve on cefoxitin alone for the detection of methicillin-heteroresistant staphylococci. However, moxalactam is absent from EUCAST and CLSI guidelines, which use high-inoculum diffusion testing (colony suspension at 10 8 CFU/ml), calling into question the potential interest of including moxalactam in their recommendations. The inhibition zone diameters of cefoxitin and moxalactam, alone and in combination, were evaluated for concordance with mecA and mecC positivity in a large collection of clinical Staphylococcus isolates (611 Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolates and 307 coagulase-negative staphylococci other than S. lugdunensis and S. saprophyticus isolates, of which 22% and 53% were mecA-positive, respectively) and in 25 mecC-positive S. aureus isolates using high-inoculum diffusion testing. Receiver operating characteristic, sensitivity, and specificity analyses indicated that the detection of mecA- and mecC-positive and negative isolates did not improve with moxalactam, either alone or in combination with cefoxitin, compared to cefoxitin alone. These findings were similar in both the S. aureus/S. lugdunensis/S. saprophyticus group and in the coagulase-negative staphylococci group. Our results do not support the use of moxalactam as an additional marker of methicillin resistance when testing with high-inoculum disk diffusion. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing and second-line pulmonary function tests to detect obstructive pattern in symptomatic smokers with borderline spirometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Marco, Fabiano; Terraneo, Silvia; Job, Sara; Rinaldo, Rocco Francesco; Sferrazza Papa, Giuseppe Francesco; Roggi, Maria Adelaide; Santus, Pierachille; Centanni, Stefano

    2017-06-01

    The need for additional research on symptomatic smokers with normal spirometry has been recently emphasized. Albeit not meeting criteria for Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis, symptomatic smokers may experience activity limitation, evidence of airway disease, and exacerbations. We, therefore, evaluated whether symptomatic smokers with borderline spirometry (post-bronchodilator FEV 1 /FVC ratio between 5th to 20th percentile of predicted values) have pulmonary function abnormalities at rest and ventilatory constraints during exercise. 48 subjects (aged 60 ± 8 years, mean ± SD, 73% males, 16 healthy, and 17 symptomatic smokers) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), body plethysmography, nitrogen single-breath washout test (N 2 SBW), lung diffusion for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and forced oscillation technique (FOT). Compared to healthy subjects, symptomatic smokers showed: 1) reduced breathing reserve (36 ± 17 vs. 49 ± 12%, P = 0.050); 2) exercise induced dynamic hyperinflation (-0.20 ± 0.17 vs. -0.03 ± 0.21 L, P = 0.043); 3) higher residual volume (158 ± 22 vs. 112 ± 22%, P spirometry, CPET and second-line pulmonary function tests may detect obstructive pattern. These subjects should be referred for second line testing, to obtain a diagnosis, or at least to clarify the mechanisms underlying symptoms. Whether the natural history of these patients is similar to COPD, and they deserve a similar therapeutic approach is worth investigating. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Specimen Validity Testing SVT) - Effects of Oxidizing Agents on Drugs in Urine and Procedures for Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, B D; Dunkley, C S

    2007-07-01

    Since the inception of the drug-testing program in the U.S. Armed Forces in 1982, urine adulteration with the intent to conceal drug use has been a serious problem to forensic scientists. Initially, drug users tried almost anything that was available at the collection sites. Soon they recognized that certain chemicals could be used to destroy some drugs and interfere with the testing procedures. Some drug analytes, in particular morphine and 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid, a metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, could not be detected in presence of some oxidizing agents. As the use of adulterants increased, specimen validity testing was introduced by the Department of Health and Human Services in 2004. While specific reagents could be used to test nitrite, chromate, and iodine, test procedures for many other oxidizing agents were not available. In an attempt to detect most oxidants, a different approach has been introduced to identify urines adulterated with oxidizing adulterants. In this approach, the oxidizing property of normal urine is compared with that of urine containing oxidizing agents. In the procedure, samples are allowed to interact with excess ferrous (Fe2+) ions and then with chromogenic compounds. In the presence of oxidants, Fe2+ ions with low reduction potential (E0 0.771 V) are immediately oxidized to ferric (Fe3+) ions, which then change the chromogenic compounds to colored chromogens. Specific spectral pattern and intensity are the keys in quantification of oxidants in urine (milliEquivalent/liter, mE/L). The method appeared to be promising in differentiating normal urine from urine adulterated with oxidizing agents. Some oxidizing adulterants in urine are unstable. If reduced, it could be reconverted to the oxidizing agents and tested by the general oxidant test. Copyright © 2007 Central Police University.

  14. Ten years experience of isotopic breath test with special reference to Helicobacter pylori detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhas, M.; Tricht, L.Van; Verschaeren, A.; Delmotte, E.; Martin, P.

    1997-01-01

    The use of the carbon 14 urea breath test by comparison with culture for campylobacter of gastric endoscopic biopsies is studied in 91 patients. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group consisted of 53 patients examined by gastric endoscopy and carbon 14 urea breath test. In this population, gastric biopsies were taken at different regions of the stomach and duodenum. The breath test was performed within 3 hours after endoscopy. The second group consisted of 38 asymptomatic patients whom 23 were parent of children with campylobacter positive gastritis. For the whole population, neither antibiotic therapy nor bismuth medication was administrated within the 15 days before the realization of the test. Results were expressed in % of injected dose/mmole of CO 2 after correction of endogenous production of CO 2 . In conclusion, carbon 14 urea breath test is a reliable noninvasive test for detection and follow-up of gastritis caused by a widespread microorganism. Also, the precision of both tests, 14 C-UBT and 13 C-UBT, are compared simultaneously in 84 adults patients. The results were expressed as % of administered dose expired in 30 minutes. A better precision is observed with the 13 C-UBT

  15. Ten years experience of isotopic breath test with special reference to Helicobacter pylori detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhas, M.; Tricht, L.Van; Verschaeren, A.; Delmotte, E.; Martin, P

    1997-12-31

    The use of the carbon 14 urea breath test by comparison with culture for campylobacter of gastric endoscopic biopsies is studied in 91 patients. They were divided into 2 groups. The first group consisted of 53 patients examined by gastric endoscopy and carbon 14 urea breath test. In this population, gastric biopsies were taken at different regions of the stomach and duodenum. The breath test was performed within 3 hours after endoscopy. The second group consisted of 38 asymptomatic patients whom 23 were parent of children with campylobacter positive gastritis. For the whole population, neither antibiotic therapy nor bismuth medication was administrated within the 15 days before the realization of the test. Results were expressed in % of injected dose/mmole of CO{sub 2} after correction of endogenous production of CO{sub 2}. In conclusion, carbon 14 urea breath test is a reliable noninvasive test for detection and follow-up of gastritis caused by a widespread microorganism. Also, the precision of both tests, {sup 14} C-UBT and {sup 13} C-UBT, are compared simultaneously in 84 adults patients. The results were expressed as % of administered dose expired in 30 minutes. A better precision is observed with the {sup 13} C-UBT

  16. Evaluation of an inhouse rapid ELISA test for detection of giardia in domestic sheep (Ovis aries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jolaine M; Hankenson, F Claire

    2010-11-01

    Sheep (Ovis aries) are increasingly used at our institution as models of human disease. Within the research environment, routine husbandry and handling of sheep has potential for transmission of zoonotic agents, including Giardia. The prevalence of Giardia in sheep may approach 68%. Classic diagnostic testing involves microscopic examination for fecal cysts or trophozoites; however, limitations of microscopy include time, labor, and potential false-negative results due to intermittent shedding. We wished to determine whether a commercial rapid ELISA used for Giardia detection in dogs and cats could be used in sheep. Fecal samples collected from sheep (n = 93) were tested with a combination of 6 methods: reference laboratory fecal flotation, reference laboratory ELISA, inhouse fecal flotation, and commercially available tests (enzyme immunoassay, direct fluorescence antibody assay, and rapid ELISA). Prevalence of Giardia infection in facility sheep was 11.8% (11 of 93 animals). Of the 11 samples considered positive, 3 were confirmed by multiple testing methods, and 5 were positive by microscopy alone. Inhouse fecal flotation for 8 samples was positive on only 1 of 2 consecutive testing days. The rapid ELISA test exhibited 0% sensitivity for sheep giardiasis. Overall, the examined methods had low sensitivities and low positive predictive values. Despite limitations, microscopic analysis of repeat fecal samples remained the most accurate diagnostic method for ovine giardiasis among the methods tested.

  17. Is the 15∆ Base in Prism Test Reliable for Detection of Amblyopia in Anisometropic Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burggraaf, F; Verkaik-Rijneveld, M C; Wubbels, R J; de Jongh, E

    2017-09-01

    The 15∆ base in prism test (15∆BIPT) introduced by Gobin is often used in The Netherlands to detect fixation preference, especially in young and preverbal children in whom a reliable measurement of the visual acuity (VA) is difficult. It is assumed that the fixation preference detected by the 15∆BIPT can be used to predict the presence of amblyopia. The aim of this retrospective case note review was to investigate the accuracy of the 15∆BIPT in detection of amblyopia in anisometropic patients. Four hundred and twelve files of anisometropic patients visiting the orthoptic department of The Rotterdam Eye Hospital were analyzed. Amblyopia was defined as an intraocular difference in VA of 2 or more Snellen lines. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the 15∆BIPT were calculated and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted. One hundred and fifty-two patients ranging from 3.3-13.1 years of age (median 5.4 years) met the inclusion criteria. One hundred and two patients were diagnosed with amblyopia. Best-corrected median VA of the best eye was 1.0 (range 0.5-1.2) and the worst eye 0.70 (range 0.05-1.2). Sensitivity of the 15∆BIPT (based on detecting amblyopia) was 34.3%. Specificity was 88.0%. The positive predictive value was 85.4% versus a negative predictive value of 39.6%. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) was 0.65 (95% CI 0.56-0.74). The low sensitivity, large number of false negatives and the AUC show that the 15∆BIPT can be considered a poor test for detecting amblyopia in anisometropic patients.

  18. Detection of aflatoxin B₁ with immunochromatographic test strips: Enhanced signal sensitivity using gold nanoflowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yanwei; Ren, Meiling; Li, Yanping; Huang, Zhibing; Shu, Mei; Yang, Hongwei; Xiong, Yonghua; Xu, Yang

    2015-09-01

    Immunochromatographic test strips (ICTS) are commonly limited to higher concentrations of analytes. This limitation stems from the relatively low sensitivity of conventional gold nanospheres (AuNSs with a diameter of 20 nm) to emit detectable brightness values. The larger multi-branched gold nanoflowers (AuNFs) with a higher optical brightness as well as good colloidal stability exhibit significant improvements over conventional AuNSs for enhanced sensitivity of ICTS. In this study, blue AuNFs with an average diameter of 75±5 nm were synthetized and employed as a signal amplification probe for ultrasensitive and quantitative detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in rice. A portable optical strip reader was used to record the optical densities of test and control lines of the strip. Under the optimal conditions, the AuNF based ICTS system accurately detected AFB1 linearly and dynamically over the range of 0.5-25 pg/mL with a half maximal inhibitory concentration at 4.17 pg/mL. The inhibitory concentration was achieved 10 times lower than that of the traditional AuNS based ICTS systems (41.25 pg/mL). The limit of detection for AFB1 in rice extract was achieved at 0.32 pg/mL. In summary, AuNFs are a novel probe that exhibited excellent sensitivity in the ICTS system and could be used for ultrasensitive detection of other analytes in food safety monitoring, and even medical diagnostics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ensuring N-representability: Coleman's algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beste, A.; Runge, K.; Bartlett, R.

    2002-04-01

    The energy of a system which is described by a Hamiltonian which includes at most two-particle interactions can be expressed in terms of the second order reduced density matrix. However, for the 2-matrix to have proper symmetry is a weaker condition than requiring that the wavefunction be antisymmetric, which is called the N-representability problem, a problem of long term interest. Coleman [Reduced Density Matrices: Coulson's Challenge, Springer, New York, 2000] however, proposed an algorithm which ensures N-representability. In this Letter we examine the algorithm and show its connection to the full configuration interaction method and the contracted Schroedinger equation.

  20. Passive hemagglutination test for detection of antibodies against Taylorella (Haemophilus) equigenitalis in sera of mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, M; Kuniyasu, C; Kishima, M

    1988-10-01

    The passive hemagglutination (PHA) test was improved to enable the detection of antibodies to Taylorella (Haemophilus) equigenitalis in the sera of mares. Horse red blood cells (RBC) fixed with glutaraldehyde were compared with similarly treated RBC of a cow, pig and sheep for the PHA test. The horse RBC were superior to those of the other animals tested in detecting mares affected with contagious equine metritis (CEM). A PHA test using these cells as indicator and an antigen prepared from T. equigenitalis by sonication following treatment with hyaluronidase was the most satisfactory in terms of sensitivity and specificity. None of the 156 serum samples from clinically healthy mares without a history of contact with T. equigenitalis-infected stallions or mares showed PHA titers greater than 1:32 and only a few samples (7.1%) showed PHA titers of 1:32. Four of the 50 serum samples from mares affected with CEM showed PHA titers of 1:32, while most of the samples (92.0%) showed PHA titers greater than 1:32. The glutaraldehyde-fixed horse RBC sensitized with the antigen had the advantage of being reproducible for at least 7 months when preserved at 4 degrees C.

  1. Albendazole residues in goat's milk: Interferences in microbial inhibitor tests used to detect antibiotics in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Romero

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Albendazole (ABZ residues in goat's milk and their effect on the response of microbial inhibitor tests used for screening antibiotics were evaluated. A total of 18 Murciano-Granadina goats were treated with ABZ and individually milked once a day over a 7-day period. ABZ quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. The ABZ parent drug was not detected. The maximum concentration of its metabolites (ABZ sulfoxide, ABZ sulfone, and ABZ 2-aminosulfone was reached on the 1st day post treatment (260.0 ± 70.1 μg/kg, 112.8 ± 28.7 μg/kg, 152.0 ± 23.6 μg/kg, respectively, decreasing to lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL, 100 μg/kg on the 3rd day post treatment. Milk samples were also analyzed by microbial tests [Brilliant Black Reduction Test (BRT MRL, Delvotest SP-NT MCS and Eclipse 100], and only one positive result was found for Delvotest SP-NT MCS and Eclipse 100. However, a high occurrence of positive outcomes was obtained for BRT MRL during 6 days post treatment, whereas ABZ residues were not detected from the 4th day post administration, suggesting that factors other than the antiparasitic agent might affect the microbial test response.

  2. Albendazole residues in goat's milk: Interferences in microbial inhibitor tests used to detect antibiotics in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Tamara; Althaus, Rafael; Moya, Vicente Javier; Beltrán, María Del Carmen; Reybroeck, Wim; Molina, María Pilar

    2017-04-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) residues in goat's milk and their effect on the response of microbial inhibitor tests used for screening antibiotics were evaluated. A total of 18 Murciano-Granadina goats were treated with ABZ and individually milked once a day over a 7-day period. ABZ quantification was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. The ABZ parent drug was not detected. The maximum concentration of its metabolites (ABZ sulfoxide, ABZ sulfone, and ABZ 2-aminosulfone) was reached on the 1 st day post treatment (260.0 ± 70.1 μg/kg, 112.8 ± 28.7 μg/kg, 152.0 ± 23.6 μg/kg, respectively), decreasing to lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL, 100 μg/kg) on the 3 rd day post treatment. Milk samples were also analyzed by microbial tests [Brilliant Black Reduction Test (BRT) MRL, Delvotest SP-NT MCS and Eclipse 100], and only one positive result was found for Delvotest SP-NT MCS and Eclipse 100. However, a high occurrence of positive outcomes was obtained for BRT MRL during 6 days post treatment, whereas ABZ residues were not detected from the 4 th day post administration, suggesting that factors other than the antiparasitic agent might affect the microbial test response. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Detection of nickel and palladium contact hypersensitivity by a flow cytometric lymphocyte proliferation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerri, I; Scherer, K; Michel, S; Link, S; Bircher, A J; Heijnen, I A F M

    2015-03-01

    We established a flow cytometric lymphocyte proliferation test (LPT) for the detection of nickel (Ni) and palladium (Pd) sensitization. Eighty-one consecutive patients with an indication for patch test (PT) were tested by LPT with Ni (NiSO4 ) and Pd (Na2 PdCl4 and PdCl2 ) salts. The imprecision of the LPT was low (coefficient of variation 7.2%). Using PT as a diagnostic reference, the sensitivity and specificity of LPT were 74.4% and 80% for NiSO4 , 74.4% and 78.3% for Na2 PdCl4 , and 57.2% and 85.4% for PdCl2 , respectively. For both Ni and Pd, the likelihood ratio for a positive PT markedly increased with increasing LPT value. With medical history as a reference, the sensitivity and specificity were 40.6% and 82.1% for LPT and 59.4% and 89.7% for PT, respectively. Combination of LPT and PT resulted in a higher specificity of 95%, albeit lower sensitivity of 34.4%. In conclusion, flow cytometric LPT represents a reliable and useful method for the detection of Ni and Pd sensitization. LPT values correlate with PT results and, when used in combination with PT, increase test specificity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. A combination test for detection of gene-environment interaction in cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, Brandon; Basu, Saonli; McGue, Matt

    2017-07-01

    Identifying gene-environment (G-E) interactions can contribute to a better understanding of disease etiology, which may help researchers develop disease prevention strategies and interventions. One big criticism of studying G-E interaction is the lack of power due to sample size. Studies often restrict the interaction search to the top few hundred hits from a genome-wide association study or focus on potential candidate genes. In this paper, we test interactions between a candidate gene and an environmental factor to improve power by analyzing multiple variants within a gene. We extend recently developed score statistic based genetic association testing approaches to the G-E interaction testing problem. We also propose tests for interaction using gene-based summary measures that pool variants together. Although it has recently been shown that these summary measures can be biased and may lead to inflated type I error, we show that under several realistic scenarios, we can still provide valid tests of interaction. These tests use significantly less degrees of freedom and thus can have much higher power to detect interaction. Additionally, we demonstrate that the iSeq-aSum-min test, which combines a gene-based summary measure test, iSeq-aSum-G, and an interaction-based summary measure test, iSeq-aSum-I, provides a powerful alternative to test G-E interaction. We demonstrate the performance of these approaches using simulation studies and illustrate their performance to study interaction between the SNPs in several candidate genes and family climate environment on alcohol consumption using the Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research dataset. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  5. Rate of detection of advanced neoplasms in proximal colon by simulated sigmoidoscopy vs fecal immunochemical tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, Antoni; Quintero, Enrique; Álvarez, Cristina; Bujanda, Luis; Cubiella, Joaquín; Salas, Dolores; Lanas, Angel; Carballo, Fernando; Morillas, Juan Diego; Hernández, Cristina; Jover, Rodrigo; Hijona, Elizabeth; Portillo, Isabel; Enríquez-Navascués, José M; Hernández, Vicent; Martínez-Turnes, Alfonso; Menéndez-Villalva, Carlos; González-Mao, Carmen; Sala, Teresa; Ponce, Marta; Andrés, Mercedes; Teruel, Gloria; Peris, Antonio; Sopeña, Federico; González-Rubio, Francisca; Seoane-Urgorri, Agustín; Grau, Jaume; Serradesanferm, Anna; Pozo, Àngels; Pellisé, Maria; Balaguer, Francesc; Ono, Akiko; Cruzado, José; Pérez-Riquelme, Francisco; Alonso-Abreu, Inmaculada; Carrillo-Palau, Marta; de la Vega-Prieto, Mariola; Iglesias, Rosario; Amador, Javier; Blanco, José Manuel; Sastre, Rocio; Ferrándiz, Juan; González-Hernández, Ma José; Andreu, Montserrat; Bessa, Xavier

    2014-10-01

    We compared the ability of biennial fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and one-time sigmoidoscopy to detect colon side-specific advanced neoplasms in a population-based, multicenter, nationwide, randomized controlled trial. We identified asymptomatic men and women, 50-69 years old, through community health registries and randomly assigned them to groups that received a single colonoscopy examination or biennial FIT. Sigmoidoscopy yield was simulated from results obtained from the colonoscopy group, according to the criteria proposed in the UK Flexible Sigmoidoscopy Trial for colonoscopy referral. Patients who underwent FIT and were found to have ≥75 ng hemoglobin/mL were referred for colonoscopy. Data were analyzed from 5059 subjects in the colonoscopy group and 10,507 in the FIT group. The main outcome was rate of detection of any advanced neoplasm proximal to the splenic flexure. Advanced neoplasms were detected in 317 subjects (6.3%) in the sigmoidoscopy simulation group compared with 288 (2.7%) in the FIT group (odds ratio for sigmoidoscopy, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.93-2.70; P = .0001). Sigmoidoscopy also detected advanced distal neoplasia in a higher percentage of patients than FIT (odds ratio, 2.61; 95% confidence interval, 2.20-3.10; P = .0001). The methods did not differ significantly in identifying patients with advanced proximal neoplasms (odds ratio, 1.17; 95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.76; P = .44). This was probably due to the lower performance of both strategies in detecting patients with proximal lesions (sigmoidoscopy detected these in 19.1% of patients and FIT in 14.9% of patients) vs distal ones (sigmoidoscopy detected these in 86.8% of patients and FIT in 33.5% of patients). Sigmoidoscopy, but not FIT, detected proximal lesions in lower percentages of women (especially those 50-59 years old) than men. Sigmoidoscopy and FIT have similar limitations in detecting advanced proximal neoplasms, which depend on patients' characteristics

  6. From Ground Truth to Space: Surface, Subsurface and Remote Observations Associated with Nuclear Test Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, A. J.; Anderson, D.; Burt, C.; Craven, J.; Kimblin, C.; McKenna, I.; Schultz-Fellenz, E. S.; Miller, E.; Yocky, D. A.; Haas, D.

    2016-12-01

    Underground nuclear explosions (UNEs) result in numerous signatures that manifest on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. Currently, prompt signals, such as the detection of seismic waves provide only generalized locations and the timing and amplitude of non-prompt signals are difficult to predict. As such, research into improving the detection, location, and identification of suspect events has been conducted, resulting in advancement of nuclear test detection science. In this presentation, we demonstrate the scalar variably of surface and subsurface observables, briefly discuss current capabilities to locate, detect and characterize potential nuclear explosion locations, and explain how emergent technologies and amalgamation of disparate data sets will facilitate improved monitoring and verification. At the smaller scales, material and fracture characterization efforts on rock collected from legacy UNE sites and from underground experiments using chemical explosions can be incorporated into predictive modeling efforts. Spatial analyses of digital elevation models and orthoimagery of both modern conventional and legacy nuclear sites show subtle surface topographic changes and damage at nearby outcrops. Additionally, at sites where such technology cannot penetrate vegetative cover, it is possible to use the vegetation itself as both a companion signature reflecting geologic conditions and showing subsurface impacts to water, nutrients, and chemicals. Aerial systems based on RGB imagery, light detection and ranging, and hyperspectral imaging can allow for combined remote sensing modalities to perform pattern recognition and classification tasks. Finally, more remote systems such as satellite based synthetic aperture radar and satellite imagery are other techniques in development for UNE site detection, location and characterization.

  7. [Detection of genetic modification in maize and maize products by ELISA-test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek-Karłowska, Bogumiła; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, Dorota; Jedra, Małgorzata; Badowski, Paweł

    2003-01-01

    Enzyme immunoassay methods--TRAIT Test--was applied for detection of genetic modification in maize seeds and foodstuffs, which have been produced from this crop. TRAIT Test is based on the identification GMO protein Cry 1Ab produced by a gene derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) incorporated into insect resistant corn grain. The experiment was carried out on maize standards and foodstuffs from Warsaw market. The positive result was obtained for one maize product, which was not labelled as GMO. The presence of GMO material was approximately equal to 1%. In conclusion, this test is proper for fast routine qualitative (yes/no) determination GMO material in maize seeds and unprocessed food products.

  8. USE OF-EPR-DL FIELD TEST EQUIPMENT FOR DETECTION OF SIGMA PHASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraão Danilo Gomes Barreto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work has objective to correlate the intergranular corrosion susceptibility test named EPR-DL (Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation of Double Loop with the sigma phase formation and other phases. It has been used samples from a UNS S32760 steel pipe for conducting various aging heat treatments. Held isothermal heat treatment at 850°C for 1 min, 10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 1h30min and 10 h. Each heat treated sample and as received were tested using the electrochemical polarization reactivation of double loop technique (EPR-DL. It was possible the detection of deleterious phases with DL-EPR portable cell. The EPR-DL test of some samples showed a second peak of reactivation in which the results showed that this peak might be associated with ferrite or be related to the presence of chi phase

  9. Directed Design of Experiments for Validating Probability of Detection Capability of a Testing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method of validating a probability of detection (POD) testing system using directed design of experiments (DOE) includes recording an input data set of observed hit and miss or analog data for sample components as a function of size of a flaw in the components. The method also includes processing the input data set to generate an output data set having an optimal class width, assigning a case number to the output data set, and generating validation instructions based on the assigned case number. An apparatus includes a host machine for receiving the input data set from the testing system and an algorithm for executing DOE to validate the test system. The algorithm applies DOE to the input data set to determine a data set having an optimal class width, assigns a case number to that data set, and generates validation instructions based on the case number.

  10. Indirect immunofluorescence test using polyclonal antibodies for the detection of Taylorella equigenitalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuil, M F; Duquesne, F; Sévin, C; Laugier, C; Petry, S

    2010-06-01

    Contagious equine metritis is a horse disease that causes endometrial inflammation due to Taylorella equigenitalis. Since Taylorella asinigenitalis was characterized, genital swab culture has proved to be an insufficient method for distinguishing between the two Taylorella species. Here, we developed an indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) test using polyclonal antibodies. Specificity, sensitivity, and detection limit were assessed using isolated bacteria (55 T. equigenitalis strains, 46 T. asinigenitalis strains and 18 other bacterial species), experimental and genital swabs in comparison to bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Our results indicated that IIF using polyclonal antibodies allows T. equigenitalis to be discriminated from T. asinigenitalis. This test constitutes a rapid, sensitive and specific tool for confirming presumptive colonies of T. equigenitalis. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid Aminoglycoside NP Test for Rapid Detection of Multiple Aminoglycoside Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmann, Patrice; Jayol, Aurélie; Dobias, Jan; Poirel, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    The rapid aminoglycoside NP (Nordmann/Poirel) test was developed to rapidly identify multiple aminoglycoside (AG) resistance in Enterobacteriaceae It is based on the detection of the glucose metabolism related to enterobacterial growth in the presence of a defined concentration of amikacin plus gentamicin. Formation of acid metabolites was evidenced by a color change (orange to yellow) of the red phenol pH indicator. The rapid aminoglycoside NP test was evaluated by using bacterial colonies of 18 AG-resistant isolates producing 16S rRNA methylases, 20 AG-resistant isolates expressing AG-modifying enzymes (acetyl-, adenyl-, and phosphotransferases), and 10 isolates susceptible to AG. Its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 97%, respectively, compared to the broth dilution method, which was taken as the gold standard for determining aminoglycoside resistance. The test is inexpensive, rapid (<2 h), and implementable worldwide. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  12. Measuring corporate culture to ensure mission fulfillment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsebus-Fong, C

    1988-11-01

    Ancilla Systems, Inc., Elk Grove Village, Il, developed a mission-based performance evaluation program to provide tangible evidence of mission fulfillment and ensure the provision of high-quality healthcare. the program--Characteristics of Service--translates the language of healthcare action and evaluates corporate culture to ensure that it fulfills the expectations of its sponsor. The nine Characteristics of Service are: Respect for the dignity of all persons. Orientation toward the family unit. Quality and personalized services. Local health systems with a spectrum of services responsive to the unique needs of the community. Formal and informal partnerships with physicians. Active participation and collaboration with related community service agencies and other healthcare providers. Faithfulness to Catholic identity through close relationships with Church and religious institute resources. Effective political advocacy through education. Research and development of innovative approaches to healthcare. In establishing the behavior standards that would exemplify the characteristics, program developers used terms that correspond to specific, observable, measurable performance. All healthcare facilities are evaluated on how well they meet the behavior standards. The evaluation process includes data collection, analysis, and a final report. Data collection begins with a review of regular hospital-conducted surveys, which provide quantifiable information to measure performance against key expected behaviors. Additional data are derived from medical staff development plans and the monthly quality assurance audit. On-site surveys fill information gaps that remain after all written reports are collected.

  13. Communication skills to ensure patient satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shendurnikar, Niranjan; Thakkar, Pareshkumar A

    2013-11-01

    Every pediatrician would want to satisfy their patients and their parents to sustain good practice, earn name and fame and simultaneously to avoid litigation in this era of consumer protection act. This can be achieved only by use of good communication skills. Today the patients demand time, information and want their questions to be answered. They expect politeness, empathy and human touch from doctors. Time constraints, arrogance, telephone calls, language barriers and cultural insensitivity are the important barriers to good communication. Research has shown that doctor, who undergoes training to acquire good communication skills, can better satisfy his patients. Good communication skill is an art which can be acquired or improved by putting conscious efforts in day to day practice. Such skills should also be incorporated as part of medical teaching curriculum. Asking open ended questions, effective listening, appropriate praise, providing enough information as part of advice and finally checking their understanding, are the key areas of communication during medical interview. During this process pediatrician should ensure to address the parental concerns, should empathize with parents and involve parents in decision making. This will not only ensure satisfaction of parents but also their adherence to the therapy and to the pediatrician.

  14. Comparison of PCR, Culture, and Direct Fluorescent-Antibody Testing for Detection of Bordetella pertussis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffelholz, Mike J.; Thompson, Curt J.; Long, Karla S.; Gilchrist, Mary J. R.

    1999-01-01

    We prospectively compared the performance of culture, direct fluorescent-antibody testing (DFA), and an in-house-developed PCR test targeting the repeated insertion sequence IS481 for the detection of Bordetella pertussis in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. We tested 319 consecutive paired specimens on which all three tests were performed. A total of 59 specimens were positive by one or more tests. Of these, 5 were positive by all three tests, 2 were positive by culture and PCR, 16 were positive by PCR and DFA, 28 were positive by PCR only, and 8 were positive by DFA only. Any specimen positive by culture was considered to be a true positive, as were specimens positive by both PCR and DFA. Specimens positive only by PCR or DFA were considered discrepant, and their status was resolved by review of patient histories. Patients with symptoms meeting the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical case definition for pertussis and who had a specimen positive by PCR or DFA were considered to have true B. pertussis infections. Of the 28 patients positive by PCR only, 20 met the clinical case definition for pertussis, while 3 of the 8 patients positive by DFA only met the clinical case definition. After resolution of the status of discrepant specimens, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 15.2, 100, 100, and 87.5%, respectively, for culture; 93.5, 97.1, 84.3, and 98.9%, respectively, for PCR; and 52.2, 98.2, 82.8, and 92.4%, respectively, for DFA. The actual positive predictive value of PCR was probably greater, as several PCR-positive patients who did not meet the clinical case definition had symptoms consistent with typical or atypical pertussis. PCR is a sensitive and specific method for the detection of B. pertussis. PMID:10449467

  15. Testing the applicability of rapid on-site enzymatic activity detection for surface water monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Vogl, Wolfgang; Juri, Koschelnik; Markus, Epp; Maximilian, Lackner; Markus, Oismüller; Monika, Kumpan; Peter, Strauss; Regina, Sommer; Gabriela, Ryzinska-Paier; Farnleitner Andreas, H.; Matthias, Zessner

    2015-04-01

    On-site detection of enzymatic activities has been suggested as a rapid surrogate for microbiological pollution monitoring of water resources (e.g. using glucuronidases, galactosidases, esterases). Due to the possible short measuring intervals enzymatic methods have high potential as near-real time water quality monitoring tools. This presentation describes results from a long termed field test. For twelve months, two ColiMinder devices (Vienna Water Monitoring, Austria) for on-site determination of enzymatic activity were tested for stream water monitoring at the experimental catchment HOAL (Hydrological Open Air Laboratory, Center for Water Resource Systems, Vienna University of Technology). The devices were overall able to follow and reflect the diverse hydrological and microbiological conditions of the monitored stream during the test period. Continuous data in high temporal resolution captured the course of enzymatic activity in stream water during diverse rainfall events. The method also proofed sensitive enough to determine diurnal fluctuations of enzymatic activity in stream water during dry periods. The method was able to capture a seasonal trend of enzymatic activity in stream water that matches the results gained from Colilert18 analysis for E. coli and coliform bacteria of monthly grab samples. Furthermore the comparison of ColiMinder data with measurements gained at the same test site with devices using the same method but having different construction design (BACTcontrol, microLAN) showed consistent measuring results. Comparative analysis showed significant differences between measured enzymatic activity (modified fishman units and pmol/min/100ml) and cultivation based analyses (most probable number, colony forming unit). Methods of enzymatic activity measures are capable to detect ideally the enzymatic activity caused by all active target bacteria members, including VBNC (viable but nonculturable) while cultivation based methods cannot detect VBNC

  16. Wide area change detection with satellite imagery for locating underground nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canty, M.J.; Jasani, B.; Schlittenhardt, J.

    2001-01-01

    With the advent of high resolution optical imagery from commercial earth observation satellites, the use of remote sensing data for verification of nuclear non-proliferation agreements is becoming increasingly attractive. Non-governmental organizations are routinely publishing high-quality imagery of sensitive nuclear installations round the world, and international verification authorities, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), will also want to make use, directly or indirectly, of this additional open source of information. Exact location of the sites of underground nuclear explosions is a task eminently suited to satellite imagery. Here both moderate resolutions for detecting signals in very large testing ranges as well as high resolution images for exact interpretation play important roles. We describe in our paper a particularly sensitive change detection procedure for bitemporal, multispectral satellite imagery which can be used to locate the spall zone of underground nuclear explosions with commercial satellite imagery. The method is based on the multivariate alteration detection (MAD) technique of Nielsen et al. Linear combinations of the spectral channels in two images of the same scene are chosen so as to minimize their positive correlation. This leads to a series of difference images - the so-called MAD components - which are mutually orthogonal (uncorrelated) and ordered according to decreasing variance in their pixel intensities. Since interesting changes in man-made structures may contribute minimally to the overall variance (as the latter may be dominated for instance by seasonal vegetation differences) it is often the case that such changes turn up in a higher order MAD component. This is because they will be uncorrelated with seasonal vegetation changes, stochastic image noise or other major contributions to the overall change signal. This in fact is one of the

  17. Effect of vibration excitation locations on structural damage detection using the CSLDV technique: simulation and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, D.; Zampognaro, N.; Zang, C.; Ewins, D. J.

    2006-06-01

    In recent years, the CSLDV (Continuing Scanning LDV) technique has been developed to obtain the ODS (Operational Deflection Shape) of a structure within a very short period of time. The ability to predict and to measure the ODS of a vibrating structure suggests its use to increase the potential for structural damage detection, localization and severity assessment. Previous research based on simulation of some simple test cases showed the effect of excitation locations on structural damage detection. Four steel plates were acquired and a FEM model of that structure was produced. Modal analysis, theoretical and experimental, was performed on the plate to obtain eigenvalues and eigenvectors and to update the FEM model. This time, the damage was simulated either using two permanent magnets which could be attached and de-attached easily without compromise the integrity of the structure or reducing the thickness of some elements. Hence, 4 damaged plates were modelled in FE software upon the position of the damage. The simulation and testing of the ODSs and the MSE (Mean Square Error) of the 4 plate structures in the damaged and the undamaged cases were performed based on CSLDV measurement method and compared respectively. Results show effect of vibration excitation location in the damage detection.

  18. Rapid detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates by the MRSA-screen latex agglutination test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. van Leeuwen (Willem); C. van Pelt (Cindy); A. Luijendijk (Ad); H.A. Verbrugh (Henri); W.H.F. Goessens (Wil)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe slide agglutination test MRSA-Screen (Denka Seiken Co., Niigata, Japan) was compared with the mecA PCR ("gold standard") for the detection of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. The MRSA-Screen test detected the penicillin-binding protein 2a

  19. CANTAB object recognition and language tests to detect aging cognitive decline: an exploratory comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabral Soares F

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda Cabral Soares,1 Thaís Cristina Galdino de Oliveira,1 Liliane Dias e Dias de Macedo,1 Alessandra Mendonça Tomás,1 Domingos Luiz Wanderley Picanço-Diniz,2 João Bento-Torres,1,3 Natáli Valim Oliver Bento-Torres,1,3 Cristovam Wanderley Picanço-Diniz1 1Universidade Federal do Pará, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Hospital Universitário João de Barros Barreto, Laboratório de Investigações em Neurodegeneração e Infecção Belém, Pará, Brazil; 2Universidade Federal do Oeste do Pará, Núcleo Universitário de Oriximiná, Oriximiná, Pará, Brazil; 3Faculdade de Fisioterapia e Terapia Ocupacional, Universidade Federal do Pará, Belém, Pará, BrazilObjective: The recognition of the limits between normal and pathological aging is essential to start preventive actions. The aim of this paper is to compare the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB and language tests to distinguish subtle differences in cognitive performances in two different age groups, namely young adults and elderly cognitively normal subjects.Method: We selected 29 young adults (29.9±1.06 years and 31 older adults (74.1±1.15 years matched by educational level (years of schooling. All subjects underwent a general assessment and a battery of neuropsychological tests, including the Mini Mental State Examination, visuospatial learning, and memory tasks from CANTAB and language tests. Cluster and discriminant analysis were applied to all neuropsychological test results to distinguish possible subgroups inside each age group.Results: Significant differences in the performance of aged and young adults were detected in both language and visuospatial memory tests. Intragroup cluster and discriminant analysis revealed that CANTAB, as compared to language tests, was able to detect subtle but significant differences between the subjects.Conclusion: Based on these findings, we concluded that, as compared to language tests, large-scale application

  20. Evaluation of a PCR test for detection of treponema pallidum in swabs and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, P A; Gressier, L; Dion, P L; Farhi, D; Benhaddou, N; Gerhardt, P; Morini, J P; Deleuze, J; Pantoja, C; Bianchi, A; Lassau, F; Avril, M F; Janier, M; Dupin, N

    2012-03-01

    Syphilis diagnosis is based on clinical observation, serological analysis, and dark-field microscopy (DFM) detection of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the etiological agent of syphilis, in skin ulcers. We performed a nested PCR (nPCR) assay specifically amplifying the tpp47 gene of T. pallidum from swab and blood specimens. We studied a cohort of 294 patients with suspected syphilis and 35 healthy volunteers. Eighty-seven of the 294 patients had primary syphilis, 103 had secondary syphilis, 40 had latent syphilis, and 64 were found not to have syphilis. The T. pallidum nPCR results for swab specimens were highly concordant with syphilis diagnosis, with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 95%. Reasonable agreement was observed between the results obtained with the nPCR and DFM methods (kappa = 0.53). No agreement was found between the nPCR detection of T. pallidum in blood and the diagnosis of syphilis, with sensitivities of 29, 18, 14.7, and 24% and specificities of 96, 92, 93, and 97% for peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), plasma, serum, and whole-blood fractions, respectively. HIV status did not affect the frequency of T. pallidum detection in any of the specimens tested. Swab specimens from mucosal or skin lesions seemed to be more useful than blood for the efficient detection of the T. pallidum genome and, thus, for the diagnosis of syphilis.

  1. Binomial Test Method for Determining Probability of Detection Capability for Fracture Critical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R.

    2011-01-01

    The capability of an inspection system is established by applications of various methodologies to determine the probability of detection (POD). One accepted metric of an adequate inspection system is that for a minimum flaw size and all greater flaw sizes, there is 0.90 probability of detection with 95% confidence (90/95 POD). Directed design of experiments for probability of detection (DOEPOD) has been developed to provide an efficient and accurate methodology that yields estimates of POD and confidence bounds for both Hit-Miss or signal amplitude testing, where signal amplitudes are reduced to Hit-Miss by using a signal threshold Directed DOEPOD uses a nonparametric approach for the analysis or inspection data that does require any assumptions about the particular functional form of a POD function. The DOEPOD procedure identifies, for a given sample set whether or not the minimum requirement of 0.90 probability of detection with 95% confidence is demonstrated for a minimum flaw size and for all greater flaw sizes (90/95 POD). The DOEPOD procedures are sequentially executed in order to minimize the number of samples needed to demonstrate that there is a 90/95 POD lower confidence bound at a given flaw size and that the POD is monotonic for flaw sizes exceeding that 90/95 POD flaw size. The conservativeness of the DOEPOD methodology results is discussed. Validated guidelines for binomial estimation of POD for fracture critical inspection are established.

  2. Bootstrap Restricted Likelihood Ratio Test for the Detection of Rare Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ping; Wang, Ting

    2015-01-01

    In this paper the detection of rare variants association with continuous phenotypes of interest is investigated via the likelihood-ratio based variance component test under the framework of linear mixed models. The hypothesis testing is challenging and nonstandard, since under the null the variance component is located on the boundary of its parameter space. In this situation the usual asymptotic chisquare distribution of the likelihood ratio statistic does not necessarily hold. To circumvent the derivation of the null distribution we resort to the bootstrap method due to its generic applicability and being easy to implement. Both parametric and nonparametric bootstrap likelihood ratio tests are studied. Numerical studies are implemented to evaluate the performance of the proposed bootstrap likelihood ratio test and compare to some existing methods for the identification of rare variants. To reduce the computational time of the bootstrap likelihood ratio test we propose an effective approximation mixture for the bootstrap null distribution. The GAW17 data is used to illustrate the proposed test. PMID:26069459

  3. Validation of pre-coated ELISA tests to detect antibodies against T. congolense and T. vivax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumba, W.

    2000-01-01

    The anti-trypanosomal antibody detecting enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was first described in 1977 and was further developed for use in large scale surveys in Zimbabwe. More recently, the IAEA initiated a programme to improve the robustness and standardisation of the assay. The IAEA supplied plates pre-coated with either a crude T. congolense or T. vivax antigen and the reagents necessary for analysing samples. Parasitologically positive and negative sera were used to validate and determine the cut-off values of the two tests. The samples were tested and results analysed using a variety of cut-off values. The tests provided similar information although the T. congolense pre-coated plates gave significantly higher optical density values than the plates coated with T. vivax. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated using the different cut-off points. Results indicate that the test using T. congolense antigen had the highest specificity and sensitivity for a given cut-off value. Although the test could distinguish positive from negative sera, it was quite difficult to provide a suitable cut-off value, but the value should be dictated by the use of the test. (author)

  4. A comparison of three tests to detect feigned amnesia: The effects of feedback and the measurement of response latency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolan, Barbara; Foster, Jonathan K.; Schmand, Ben; Bolan, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments provided validation data for an English language version of the Amsterdam Short Term Memory Test (ASTM test) developed to detect feigned memory impairment. Using a simulation design, the ASTM test compared favourably with the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and appeared better

  5. Development of a fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schallig, H. D. F. H.; Schoone, G. J.; Beijer, E. G. M.; Kroon, C. C. M.; Hommers, M.; Ozbel, Y.; Ozensoy, S.; da Silva, E. S.; Cardoso, L. M.; da Silva, E. D.

    2002-01-01

    A fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of anti-Leishinania antibodies in serum samples from dogs with visceral leishmamosis was developed. The test is based on the direct agglutination test (DAT), but combines a higher parasite concentration with a smaller test volume. In

  6. Impact of a Routine, Opt-Out HIV Testing Program on HIV Testing and Case Detection in North Carolina Sexually-Transmitted Disease Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Pamela W.; Messer, Lynne C.; Myers, Evan R.; Weber, David J.; Leone, Peter A.; Miller, William C.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of routine, opt-out HIV testing programs in clinical settings is inconclusive. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of an expanded, routine HIV testing program in North Carolina sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics on HIV testing and case detection.

  7. On the importance of developing a new generation of breath tests for Helicobacter pylori detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushch, Ievgeniia; Korenev, Nikolai; Kamarchuk, Lyudmila; Pospelov, Alexander; Kravchenko, Andrey; Bajenov, Leonid; Kabulov, Mels; Amann, Anton; Kamarchuk, Gennadii

    2015-12-15

    State-of-the-art methods for non-invasive detection of the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been considered. A reported global tendency towards a non-decreasing prevalence of H. pylori worldwide could be co-influenced by the functional limitations of urea breath tests (UBTs), currently preferred for the non-invasive recognition of H. pylori in a clinical setting. Namely, the UBTs can demonstrate false-positive or false-negative results. Within this context, limitations of conventional clinically exploited H. pylori tests have been discussed to justify the existing need for the development of a new generation of breath tests for the detection of H. pylori and the differentiation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of the bacterium. This paper presents the results of a pilot clinical study aimed at evaluating the development and diagnostic potential of a new method based on the detection of the non-urease products of H. pylori vital activity in exhaled gas. The characteristics of breath of adolescents with H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative functional dyspepsia, together with a consideration of the cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) status of H. pylori-positive subjects, have been determined for the first time using innovative point-contact nanosensor devices based on salts of the organic conductor tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). The clinical and diagnostic relevance of the response curves of the point-contact sensors was assessed. It was found that the recovery time of the point-contact sensors has a diagnostic value for differentiation of the H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease. The diagnostically significant elongation of the recovery time was even more pronounced in patients infected with CagA-positive H. pylori strains compared to the CagA-negative patients. Taking into account the operation of the point-contact sensors in the real-time mode, the obtained results are essential prerequisites for the development of a fast and

  8. Assessing Minimal Detectable Changes and Test-Retest Reliability of the Timed Up and Go Test and the 2-Minute Walk Test in Patients With Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Ertugrul; Kalkan, Serpil; Cekmece, Senol; Unver, Bayram; Karatosun, Vasfi

    2017-02-01

    Two-minute walk test (2MWT) and the Timed Up and Go test (TUG) are simple, quick, and can be applied in a short time as part of the routine medical examination. They were shown to be reliable and valid tests in many patient groups. The aims of the present study were: (1) to determine test-retest reliability of data for the TUG and 2MWT and (2) to determine minimal detectable change (MDC) scores for the TUG and 2MWT in patients with TKA. Forty-eight patients with total knee arthroplasty, operated by the same surgeon, were included in this study. Patients performed trials for TUG and 2MWT twice on the same day. Between the first and second trials, patients waited for an hour on sitting position to prevent fatigue. The TUG and 2MWT showed an excellent test-retest reliability in this study. Intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC(2,1)] for TUG and 2MWT were 0.98 and 0.97, respectively. Standard error of measurement and MDC 95 for TUG were 0.82 and 2.27, respectively. Standard error of measurement and MDC 95 for 2MWT were 5.40 and 14.96, respectively. The TUG and 2MWT have an excellent test-retest reliability in patients with TKA. Clinicians and researchers can be confident that changes in TUG time above 2.27 seconds and changes in 2MWT distances above 14.96 meters, represent a "real" clinical change in an individual patient with TKA. We, therefore, recommend the use of these 2 tests as complementary outcome measures for functional evaluation in patients TKA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Structure Detection of Nonlinear Aeroelastic Systems with Application to Aeroelastic Flight Test Data. Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreja, Sunil L.; Brenner, Martin J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the applicability of NARMAX structure detection to aeroelastic systems. In conclusion, the simulation results demonstrate bootstrap approach for structure computation of aircraft structural stiffness provided a high rate of true model selection: 1. T-test and stepwise regression methods had difficulty providing accurate results 2. Work contributes to understanding of the use of structure detection for modelling and identification of aerospace systems. 3. Limitation of model complexity that can be studied with these structure computation techniques 4. Result of the large number of candidate terms, for a given model order, and the data length required to guarantee convergence 5. Another approach to structure computation problem uses a least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO)

  10. Detection of anti neutrophil antibodies by radio-iodinated protein A binding test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartron, J.; Muller, J.Y.; Tchernia, G.; Paule, B.; Varet, B.

    1983-01-01

    The granulocyte associated IgG in normal and neutropenic subjects has been determined by a direct quantitative assay using radiolabeled staphylococcal protein A. This assay allows to postulate an immunological mechanism to explain the neutropenia in 19 cases of neutropenias associated with malfunctions of the immune system and in 4 cases of idiopathic neutropenias. Discussed in this report is the possible interaction of immune complexes bound in vivo to the granulocytes. By an immunofluorescence test, it has been possible to detect IgG or IgM antibodies in only 52% of patients with a positive direct assay. The determination of granulocyte-associated IgG is therefore a better indicator for defining an auto-immune neutropenia than the detection of free antibodies in the sera [fr

  11. [Pap test used for detection of cellular changes associated with human papillomavirus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino; Carrillo-Pacheco, Adia; Hernández-Quijano, Tomás; Zárate, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Human papilloma virus can infect any mucous of the body and can cause cancer of the uterine cervix. This suggests recommending the Papanicolaou smear combined with a test for detection of human papillomavirus with a frequency interval of 3 years, since it grants greater information and fidelity to the result. The detection studies should begin at the age of 21 years and should stop at 65 years age. Until recently specific treatments did not exist to treat human papilloma virus, but recently some drugs that have demonstrated good effectiveness in curing the infection of human papilloma virus. One example is glycirrhicinic acid, which has demonstrated fewer adverse effects, as well as the possibility that its systemic employment allows treatment of lesions that are difficult to approach. The medical recommendations should be in constant revision, since a clinical trial can modify the interpretation of what is necessary to individualize each patient's treatment.

  12. Ensuring the Validity of the Micro Foundation in DSGE Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    & Primiceri (American Economic Review, forth- coming) and Fernández-Villaverde & Rubio-Ramírez (Review of Economic Studies, 2007) do not satisfy these sufficient conditions, or any other known set of conditions ensuring finite values for the objective functions. Thus, the validity of the micro foundation......The presence of i) stochastic trends, ii) deterministic trends, and/or iii) stochastic volatil- ity in DSGE models may imply that the agents' objective functions attain infinite values. We say that such models do not have a valid micro foundation. The paper derives sufficient condi- tions which...... ensure that the objective functions of the households and the firms are finite even when various trends and stochastic volatility are included in a standard DSGE model. Based on these conditions we test the validity of the micro foundation in six DSGE models from the literature. The models of Justiniano...

  13. Random Gap Detection Test (RGDT) performance of individuals with central auditory processing disorders from 5 to 25 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Karin Ziliotto; Jutras, Benoît; Acrani, Isabela Olszanski; Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the auditory temporal resolution ability in individuals with central auditory processing disorders, to examine the maturation effect and to investigate the relationship between the performance on a temporal resolution test with the performance on other central auditory tests. Participants were divided in two groups: 131 with Central Auditory Processing Disorder and 94 with normal auditory processing. They had pure-tone air-conduction thresholds no poorer than 15 dB HL bilaterally, normal admittance measures and presence of acoustic reflexes. Also, they were assessed with a central auditory test battery. Participants who failed at least one or more tests were included in the Central Auditory Processing Disorder group and those in the control group obtained normal performance on all tests. Following the auditory processing assessment, the Random Gap Detection Test was administered to the participants. A three-way ANOVA was performed. Correlation analyses were also done between the four Random Gap Detection Test subtests data as well as between Random Gap Detection Test data and the other auditory processing test results. There was a significant difference between the age-group performances in children with and without Central Auditory Processing Disorder. Also, 48% of children with Central Auditory Processing Disorder failed the Random Gap Detection Test and the percentage decreased as a function of age. The highest percentage (86%) was found in the 5-6 year-old children. Furthermore, results revealed a strong significant correlation between the four Random Gap Detection Test subtests. There was a modest correlation between the Random Gap Detection Test results and the dichotic listening tests. No significant correlation was observed between the Random Gap Detection Test data and the results of the other tests in the battery. Random Gap Detection Test should not be administered to children younger than 7 years old because

  14. The diagnostic value and performance evaluation of five serological tests for the detection of Treponema pallidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Can; Ou, Qishui; Chen, Huijuan; Chen, Jing; Lin, Sheng; Jiang, Ling; Yang, Bin

    2014-05-01

    Syphilis is caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum (TP). The aim of this study was to establish a clinical approach for serodiagnosis of syphilis by evaluating the performance and diagnostic value of five serological tests for the detection of TP. Five tests were used to test the serum from syphilis patients and control patients, namely rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, toluidine red unheated serum test (TRUST), TP passive particle agglutination assay (TPPA), TP-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TP-ELISA), and TP-specific chemiluminescent immunoassay (TP-CMIA). The sensitivity and diagnostic efficiency of TPPA (96.25%/98.38%), TP-ELISA (100%/95.41%), and TP-CMIA (100%/94.86%) were significantly higher than that of RPR (73.13%/86.22%) and TRUST (73.75%/86.49%) (P < 0.05). The minimum detectable concentrations for the five tests were 30 mIU/ml, 20 mIU/ml, 15 mIU/ml, 150 mIU/ml, and 150 mIU/ml, respectively. According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the optimal cut-off values for syphilis diagnosis by TP-CMIA and TP-ELISA were 2.2 and 2.0 S/CO (where S/CO = Sample/calibrator cut off), and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) were 0.998 for TP-CMIA and 0.999 for TP-ELISA. The titers/positive rates for RPR and TRUST dropped from 1:4 (100%) to 1:1 (23.3%) (both P < 0.05) after treatment. However, there were no significant differences when we compared the positive rate of syphilis patients before and after treatment by TPPA, TP-ELISA, and TP-CMIA. Treponemal tests, such as TPPA, TP-ELISA, and TP-CMIA, are recommended for clinical routine screening of syphilis. However, nontreponemal tests, for example, RPR and TRUST, perform better in therapy response assessment. Serological test should be tailored to respective facilities and clinical demands. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Complexity-Measure-Based Sequential Hypothesis Testing for Real-Time Detection of Lethal Cardiac Arrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Szi-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach that employs a complexity-based sequential hypothesis testing (SHT technique for real-time detection of ventricular fibrillation (VF and ventricular tachycardia (VT is presented. A dataset consisting of a number of VF and VT electrocardiogram (ECG recordings drawn from the MIT-BIH database was adopted for such an analysis. It was split into two smaller datasets for algorithm training and testing, respectively. Each ECG recording was measured in a 10-second interval. For each recording, a number of overlapping windowed ECG data segments were obtained by shifting a 5-second window by a step of 1 second. During the windowing process, the complexity measure (CM value was calculated for each windowed segment and the task of pattern recognition was then sequentially performed by the SHT procedure. A preliminary test conducted using the database produced optimal overall predictive accuracy of . The algorithm was also implemented on a commercial embedded DSP controller, permitting a hardware realization of real-time ventricular arrhythmia detection.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of xpert test in tuberculosis detection: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravdeep Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: World Health Organization (WHO recommends the use of Xpert MTB/RIF assay for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB and detection of rifampicin resistance. This systematic review was done to know about the diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in following databases: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, PUBMED, Scopus, Science Direct and Google Scholar for relevant studies for studies published between 2010 and December 2014. Studies given in the systematic reviews were accessed separately and used for analysis. Selection of studies, data extraction and assessment of quality of included studies was performed independently by two reviewers. Studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF assay among adult or predominantly adult patients (≥14 years, presumed to have pulmonary TB with or without HIV infection were included in the review. Also, studies that had assessed the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF assay using sputum and other respiratory specimens were included. Results: The included studies had a low risk of any form of bias, showing that findings are of high scientific validity and credibility. Quantitative analysis of 37 included studies shows that Xpert MTB/RIF is an accurate diagnostic test for TB and detection of rifampicin resistance. Conclusion: Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a robust, sensitive and specific test for accurate diagnosis of tuberculosis as compared to conventional tests like culture and microscopic examination.

  17. Comet assay in the detection of irradiated garlic; Teste do cometa na deteccao de alho irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H.; Marin-Huachaca, Nelida Simona; Romanelli, Maria Fernanda [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: villavic@net.ipen.br; Delincee, Henry [Federal Research Centre for Nutrition - BFE, Karlsruhe (Germany)]. E-mail: henry.delincee@bfe.uni-karlsruhe.de

    2002-07-01

    The increased claim for fresh produce has forced a consensus between nations to pay more attention to the phytosanitary regulations. Inhibition of sprouting of bulbs and tubers by applying ionising radiation is authorised by the National Food Codes in Brazil. The availability of methods for detection of irradiated food will contribute to increase consumers' confidence. A quick and simple screening test to indicate whether a food product has been irradiated or not was utilised in this study. The DNA comet assay was applied to verify whether garlic imported from China had been irradiated or not. This test has already been adopted as a European Standard (EN 13784), for detection of irradiated food. Non-irradiated control samples of garlic and garlic treated with maleic hydrazide were compared with garlic samples irradiated in our department. The unirradiated samples exhibited only limited DNA migration. If samples were irradiated, an increased DNA fragmentation was observed which permitted the discrimination between non-irradiated and irradiated samples. Since the garlic samples from China showed only very limited DNA fragmentation, they were deemed non-irradiated. Thus, this simple screening test was shown to be successful for identification of an irradiation treatment. (author)

  18. A network based covariance test for detecting multivariate eQTL in saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huili; Li, Zhenye; Tang, Nelson L S; Deng, Minghua

    2016-01-11

    Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis has been widely used to understand how genetic variations affect gene expressions in the biological systems. Traditional eQTL is investigated in a pair-wise manner in which one SNP affects the expression of one gene. In this way, some associated markers found in GWAS have been related to disease mechanism by eQTL study. However, in real life, biological process is usually performed by a group of genes. Although some methods have been proposed to identify a group of SNPs that affect the mean of gene expressions in the network, the change of co-expression pattern has not been considered. So we propose a process and algorithm to identify the marker which affects the co-expression pattern of a pathway. Considering two genes may have different correlations under different isoforms which is hard to detect by the linear test, we also consider the nonlinear test. When we applied our method to yeast eQTL dataset profiled under both the glucose and ethanol conditions, we identified a total of 166 modules, with each module consisting of a group of genes and one eQTL where the eQTL regulate the co-expression patterns of the group of genes. We found that many of these modules have biological significance. We propose a network based covariance test to identify the SNP which affects the structure of a pathway. We also consider the nonlinear test as considering two genes may have different correlations under different isoforms which is hard to detect by linear test.

  19. Evaluation of serological tests for detecting tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) antibodies in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Christine; Beer, Martin; Saier, Regine; Schubert, Harald; Bischoff, Sabine; Süss, Jochen

    2011-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in animals is not well understood yet. TBE virus (TBEV) serology in several host species could be valuable for epidemiological analyses in the field as well as for the detection of clinical cases. However, performance and suitability of the available test systems are not well assessed. Therefore, we evaluated two commercial TBEV-ELISA kits in a pilot study and compared them for their suitability in veterinary applications. For this purpose, we tested 163 field collected goat sera and evaluated the results by serum neutralization test (SNT) as "gold standard". Twenty-eight SNT positive sera (17.2%) were detected. The best suited ELISA kit was used for determination of a species-specific cutoff for horses, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, mice, dogs, rabbits and monkeys with defined sera from animals without known or with improbable contact to TBEV. The level of non-specific ELISA results does not only differ between animal species but may also be influenced by the age of the tested animals. The number of sera which tested false positive by ELISA was higher in older than in young sheep. In order to obtain defined polyclonal sera as references, two dogs, cattle, goats, sheep, rabbits and pigs each, as well as one horse and 90 mice were immunized four times with a commercially available TBEV vaccine. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that commercial TBEV-ELISA kits are suitable for application in veterinary medicine for both, verification of clinical TBE cases and epidemiological screening. However, positive ELISA results should be verified by SNT. Only a very low number of false negative ELISA-results were found.

  20. A Non-Parametric Surrogate-based Test of Significance for T-Wave Alternans Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemati, Shamim; Abdala, Omar; Bazán, Violeta; Yim-Yeh, Susie; Malhotra, Atul; Clifford, Gari

    2010-01-01

    We present a non-parametric adaptive surrogate test that allows for the differentiation of statistically significant T-Wave Alternans (TWA) from alternating patterns that can be solely explained by the statistics of noise. The proposed test is based on estimating the distribution of noise induced alternating patterns in a beat sequence from a set of surrogate data derived from repeated reshuffling of the original beat sequence. Thus, in assessing the significance of the observed alternating patterns in the data no assumptions are made about the underlying noise distribution. In addition, since the distribution of noise-induced alternans magnitudes is calculated separately for each sequence of beats within the analysis window, the method is robust to data non-stationarities in both noise and TWA. The proposed surrogate method for rejecting noise was compared to the standard noise rejection methods used with the Spectral Method (SM) and the Modified Moving Average (MMA) techniques. Using a previously described realistic multi-lead model of TWA, and real physiological noise, we demonstrate the proposed approach reduces false TWA detections, while maintaining a lower missed TWA detection compared with all the other methods tested. A simple averaging-based TWA estimation algorithm was coupled with the surrogate significance testing and was evaluated on three public databases; the Normal Sinus Rhythm Database (NRSDB), the Chronic Heart Failure Database (CHFDB) and the Sudden Cardiac Death Database (SCDDB). Differences in TWA amplitudes between each database were evaluated at matched heart rate (HR) intervals from 40 to 120 beats per minute (BPM). Using the two-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, we found that significant differences in TWA levels exist between each patient group at all decades of heart rates. The most marked difference was generally found at higher heart rates, and the new technique resulted in a larger margin of separability between patient populations than

  1. Immunochromatographic lateral flow test for detection of antibodies to Equine infectious anemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, I; Gutierrez, G; Barrandeguy, M; Trono, K

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a simple immunochromatographic lateral flow (ICLF) test for specific detection of Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) antibodies in equine sera. Viral recombinant p26 capsid protein (rp26) was used as the capture protein in the test line and as the detector reagent conjugated to colloidal gold. The performance of rp26-ICLF was evaluated, and the results obtained were compared with a commercially available agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test used as a standard of comparison according to international guidelines. The values obtained for comparative diagnostic sensitivity (98.3%), diagnostic specificity (87.4%) and concordance (92.4%) were similar to those reported for other ICLF tests for animal infectious diseases. Very good repeatability and reproducibility, as well as a total agreement with blind previous results from three proficiency test panels, were obtained, thus indicating that rp26-ICLF is a precise test. The end point of the twofold serial dilution of serum samples was the same as, and even better than, the AGID test, thus demonstrating the same analytical sensitivity as that of the reference method for EIA diagnosis. No cross-reactivity was observed when serum samples from horses with other infectious diseases were analyzed. rp26-ICLF proved to be a precise and rapid test suitable for field screening in veterinary practice, since minimal equipment and operator expertise are required. However, further research should be carried out to increase the level of sensitivity. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A blind test of nondestructive underground void detection by ground penetrating radar (GPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wallace W. L.; Chang, Ray K. W.; Sham, Janet F. C.

    2018-02-01

    Blind test/experiment is widely adopted in various scientific disciplines like medicine drug testing/clinical trials/psychology, but not popular in nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDTE) nor near-surface geophysics (NSG). This paper introduces a blind test of nondestructive underground void detection in highway/pavement using ground penetrating radar (GPR). Purpose of which is to help the Highways Department (HyD) of the Hong Kong Government to evaluate the feasibility of large-scale and nationwide application, and examine the ability of appropriate service providers to carry out such works. In the past failure case of such NDTE/NSG based on lowest bid price, it is not easy to know which part(s) in SWIMS (S - service provider, i.e. people; W - work procedure; I - instrumentation; M - materials in the complex underground; S - specifications by client) fails, and how it/they fail(s). This work attempts to carry out the blind test by burying fit balls (as voids) under a site with reinforced concrete road and paving block by PolyU team A. The blind test about the void centroid, spread and cover depth was then carried out by PolyU team B without prior information given. Then with this baseline, a marking scheme, acceptance criteria and passing mark were set to test six local commercial service providers, determine their scores and evaluate the performance. A pass is a prerequisite of the award of a service contract of similar nature. In this first attempt of the blind test, results were not satisfactory and it is concluded that 'S-service provider' and 'W-work procedure' amongst SWIMS contributed to most part of the unsatisfactory performance.+

  3. Trace Contraband Detection Field-Test by the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannum, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection Dept.; Shannon, Gary W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Contraband Detection Dept.

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the collaboration between the South Texas Specialized Crimes and Narcotics Task Force (STSCNTF) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in a field test that provided prototype hand-held trace detection technology for use in counter-drug operations. The National Institute of Justice (NIJ)/National Law Enforcement and Corrections Technology Center (NLECTC)/Border Research and Technology Center (BRTC) was contacted by STSCNTF for assistance in obtaining cutting-edge technology. The BRTC created a pilot project for Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the STSCNTF for the use of SNL’s Hound, a hand-held sample collection and preconcentration system that, when combined with a commercial chemical detector, can be used for the trace detection of illicit drugs and explosives. The STSCNTF operates in an area of high narcotics trafficking where methods of concealment make the detection of narcotics challenging. Sandia National Laboratories’ (SNL) Contraband Detection Department personnel provided the Hound system hardware and operational training. The Hound system combines the GE VaporTracer2, a hand-held commercial chemical detector, with an SNL-developed sample collection and preconcentration system. The South Texas Task force reported a variety of successes, including identification of a major shipment of methamphetamines, the discovery of hidden compartments in vehicles that contained illegal drugs and currency used in drug deals, and the identification of a suspect in a nightclub shooting. The main advantage of the hand-held trace detection unit is its ability to quickly identify the type of chemical (drugs or explosives) without a long lag time for laboratory analysis, which is the most common analysis method for current law enforcement procedures.

  4. Non invasive blood flow measurement in cerebellum detects minimal hepatic encephalopathy earlier than psychometric tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipo, Vicente; Urios, Amparo; Giménez-Garzó, Carla; Cauli, Omar; Andrés-Costa, Maria-Jesús; González, Olga; Serra, Miguel A; Sánchez-González, Javier; Aliaga, Roberto; Giner-Durán, Remedios; Belloch, Vicente; Montoliu, Carmina

    2014-09-07

    To assess whether non invasive blood flow measurement by arterial spin labeling in several brain regions detects minimal hepatic encephalopathy. Blood flow (BF) was analyzed by arterial spin labeling (ASL) in different brain areas of 14 controls, 24 cirrhotic patients without and 16 cirrhotic patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). Images were collected using a 3 Tesla MR scanner (Achieva 3T-TX, Philips, Netherlands). Pulsed ASL was performed. Patients showing MHE were detected using the battery Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Score (PHES) consisting of five tests. Different cognitive and motor functions were also assessed: alterations in selective attention were evaluated using the Stroop test. Patients and controls also performed visuo-motor and bimanual coordination tests. Several biochemical parameters were measured: serum pro-inflammatory interleukins (IL-6 and IL-18), 3-nitrotyrosine, cGMP and nitrates+nitrites in plasma, and blood ammonia. Bivariate correlations were evaluated. In patients with MHE, BF was increased in cerebellar hemisphere (P = 0.03) and vermis (P = 0.012) and reduced in occipital lobe (P = 0.017). BF in cerebellar hemisphere was also increased in patients without MHE (P = 0.02). Bimanual coordination was impaired in patients without MHE (P = 0.05) and much more in patients with MHE (P battery and with CFF. BF in cerebellar hemisphere correlates with plasma cGMP and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites. BF in vermis cerebellar also correlates with NO metabolites and with 3-nitrotyrosine. IL-18 in plasma correlates with BF in thalamus and occipital lobe. Non invasive BF determination in cerebellum using ASL may detect MHE earlier than the PHES. Altered NO-cGMP pathway seems to be associated to altered BF in cerebellum.

  5. Ensuring Economic Security in Lending Sphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Vadimovich Kochikin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Relevance of the topic is determined by the need for sustainable development of the country’s banking system, capable of ensuring the process of raising funds to producers and the public for their projects. One of the implementation of this objective is to discourage unfair behavior in financial markets. Trust is a key factor in the development of financial markets, therefore it is necessary to suppress the appearance of unfair practices and participants – black creditors, falsification of financial statements, trading on insider information and market manipulation. It requires a whole range of activities, and above all ensuring the inevitability and proportionality of punishment for unscrupulous players, the introduction of requirements for the business reputation of the management of financial institutions.The article is devoted to structuring legal violations in the lending sphere. The analysis of indicators of credit organizations in Russia was conducted to fulfill this aim. This analysis revealed the causes of sustainable growth of overdue accounts payable – job cuts in enterprises, violations in the financial sector, various errors in the credit granting / raising. The authors carry out the systematization and classification of offenses in the area of lending, provide examples, as well as factual material illustrating the violations in the lending process having the characteristics of a fraud. The article substantiates the obligations of employees of the credit institution, in the result of which risks of granting credit to fraudsters can be reduced. The methods of fraud prevention should include the identified methods of protection against fraud in the area under consideration – exchange of information by banks associated with the criminal intentions of customers; technology development and technical support, training, and personnel responsibilities.

  6. A simple and robust statistical test for detecting the presence of recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruen, Trevor C; Philippe, Hervé; Bryant, David

    2006-04-01

    Recombination is a powerful evolutionary force that merges historically distinct genotypes. But the extent of recombination within many organisms is unknown, and even determining its presence within a set of homologous sequences is a difficult question. Here we develop a new statistic, phi(w), that can be used to test for recombination. We show through simulation that our test can discriminate effectively between the presence and absence of recombination, even in diverse situations such as exponential growth (star-like topologies) and patterns of substitution rate correlation. A number of other tests, Max chi2, NSS, a coalescent-based likelihood permutation test (from LDHat), and correlation of linkage disequilibrium (both r2 and /D'/) with distance, all tend to underestimate the presence of recombination under strong population growth. Moreover, both Max chi2 and NSS falsely infer the presence of recombination under a simple model of mutation rate correlation. Results on empirical data show that our test can be used to detect recombination between closely as well as distantly related samples, regardless of the suspected rate of recombination. The results suggest that phi(w) is one of the best approaches to distinguish recurrent mutation from recombination in a wide variety of circumstances.

  7. 2D adaptive prediction-based Gaussianity tests in microcalcification detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurcan, Metin N.; Yardimci, Yasemin C.; Cetin, Enis A.

    1998-01-01

    With increasing use of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems, computer-aided diagnosis methods will be more widely utilized. In this paper, we develop a CAD method for the detection of microcalcification clusters in mammograms, which are an early sign of breast cancer. The method we propose makes use of 2D adaptive filtering and a Gaussianity test recently developed by Ojeda et al. for causal invertible time series. The first step of this test is adaptive linear prediction. It is assumed that the prediction error sequence has a Gaussian distribution as the mammogram images do not contain sharp edges. Since microcalcifications appear as isolated bright spots, the prediction error sequence contains large outliers around microcalcification locations on the second step of the algorithm is the computation of a test statistic from the prediction error values to determine whether the samples are from a Gaussian distribution. The Gaussianity test is applied over small, overlapping square regions. The regions, in which the Gaussianity test fails, are marked as suspicious regions. Experimental results obtained from a mammogram database are presented.

  8. Specificity tests of an oligonucleotide probe against food-outbreak salmonella for biosensor detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-H.; Horikawa, S.; Xi, J.; Wikle, H. C.; Barbaree, J. M.; Chin, B. A.

    2017-05-01

    Phage based magneto-elastic (ME) biosensors have been shown to be able to rapidly detect Salmonella in various food systems to serve food pathogen monitoring purposes. In this ME biosensor platform, the free-standing strip-shaped magneto-elastic sensor is the transducer and the phage probe that recognizes Salmonella in food serves as the bio-recognition element. According to Sorokulova et al. at 2005, a developed oligonucleotide probe E2 was reported to have high specificity to Salmonella enterica Typhimurium. In the report, the specificity tests were focused in most of Enterobacterace groups outside of Salmonella family. Here, to understand the specificity of phage E2 to different Salmonella enterica serotypes within Salmonella Family, we further tested the specificity of the phage probe to thirty-two Salmonella serotypes that were present in the major foodborne outbreaks during the past ten years (according to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). The tests were conducted through an Enzyme linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) format. This assay can mimic probe immobilized conditions on the magnetoelastic biosensor platform and also enable to study the binding specificity of oligonucleotide probes toward different Salmonella while avoiding phage/ sensor lot variations. Test results confirmed that this oligonucleotide probe E2 was high specific to Salmonella Typhimurium cells but showed cross reactivity to Salmonella Tennessee and four other serotypes among the thirty-two tested Salmonella serotypes.

  9. Sensitivity and specificity of parallel or serial serological testing for detection of canine Leishmania infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Maciel de Arruda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, human and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL caused byLeishmania infantum has undergone urbanisation since 1980, constituting a public health problem, and serological tests are tools of choice for identifying infected dogs. Until recently, the Brazilian zoonoses control program recommended enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence assays (IFA as the screening and confirmatory methods, respectively, for the detection of canine infection. The purpose of this study was to estimate the accuracy of ELISA and IFA in parallel or serial combinations. The reference standard comprised the results of direct visualisation of parasites in histological sections, immunohistochemical test, or isolation of the parasite in culture. Samples from 98 cases and 1,327 noncases were included. Individually, both tests presented sensitivity of 91.8% and 90.8%, and specificity of 83.4 and 53.4%, for the ELISA and IFA, respectively. When tests were used in parallel combination, sensitivity attained 99.2%, while specificity dropped to 44.8%. When used in serial combination (ELISA followed by IFA, decreased sensitivity (83.3% and increased specificity (92.5% were observed. Serial testing approach improved specificity with moderate loss in sensitivity. This strategy could partially fulfill the needs of public health and dog owners for a more accurate diagnosis of CVL.

  10. On the Infrasound Detected From The 2013 and 2016 DPRK's Underground Nuclear Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assink, J. D.; Averbuch, G.; Smets, P. S. M.; Evers, L. G.

    2016-12-01

    The underground nuclear tests by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) generated atmospheric infrasound both in 2013 and 2016. Clear detections were made in the Russian Federation (I45RU) and Japan (I30JP) in 2013 at stations from the International Monitoring System. Both tropospheric and stratospheric refractions arrived at the stations. In 2016, only a weak return was potentially observed at I45RU. Data analysis and propagation modeling show that the noise level at the stations and the stratospheric circumpolar vortex were different in 2016 compared to 2013. A seismo-acoustic analysis of the 2013 and 2016 DPRK tests, in combination with atmospheric propagation modeling, motivates the hypothesis that the 2016 test was at a greater depth than the 2013 test. In such a case, less seismic energy would couple through the lithosphere-atmosphere interface, leading to less observable infrasound. A preliminary analysis suggests that the 2016 test occurred at least 1.5 times deeper. Since explosion depth is difficult to estimate from seismic data alone, this motivates a synergy between seismics and infrasonics.

  11. Detection of the onset of galling in strip reduction testing using acoustic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghadam, Marcel; Christiansen, Peter; Bay, Niels Oluf

    2017-01-01

    to detect, since it is either based on the operator's personal judgement or indirect measuring techniques. The application of acoustic emission measuring technique for characterization of onset of galling in sheet metal forming is discussed in the presented paper. The strip reduction test, which emulates......Galling is an important issue in metal forming of tribologically severe materials such as high strength steel, stainless steel, Al- or Ti-alloys, since it leads to poor surface quality of the formed components, production stops and possibly deterioration of tools. The onset of galling is difficult...... of galling in metal forming processes....

  12. Design, construction and tests of well type ionization chamber for beta and gamma radiation detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breda, F.J.; Banados Perez, H.E.; Vieira, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the design, construction and tests of well type ionization chamber, with parallel plate electrodes, which is used in the measurements of radiopharmacous activities, by means of beta and/or gamma radiations detection. Its response was studied utilizing Tc-99, I-131, Co-60, Am-241 and Sr-90 sources. The results obtained show that, due to to the very low leakage current from the chamber and the linearity of response, its possible to measure activities in the range from 20KBq up to 10GBq, whith a precision better than 1%. (author) [pt

  13. Present trends in the detection of myocardial viability using nuclear cardiology tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peix Gonzalez, Amalia; Garcia Barreto, David

    1999-01-01

    The myocardial viability diagnosis is important for those who will undergo myocardial revascularization whether by surgery or coronary angioplasty. Our purpose is to present some of the present trends in the detection of myocardial viability using nuclear cardiology tests. Emphasis is made on the estimation of radiopharmaceutical uptake and the use of vasodilators in perfusion scintigraphy mainly with technetium-labeled compounds. Also, the current possibilities for a myocardial metabolism study using single-photon emission-computed tomography as well as some clinical implications of myocardial viability are set forth

  14. Instrumentation measurement and testing complex for detection and identification of radioactive materials using the emitted radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samossadny, V.T.; Dmitrenko, V.V.; Kadlin, V.V.; Kolesnikov, S.V.; Ulin, S.E.; Grachev, V.M.; Vlasik, K.F.; Dedenko, G.L.; Novikov, D.V.; Uteshev, Z.M.

    2006-01-01

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron and gamma radiation is a very usefull method for effective nuclear materials identification and control. The gamma-ray-neutron complex described in the paper is based on two multi-layer 3 He neutrons detectors and two High Pressure Xenon gamma-ray spectrometers assembled in one unit. All these detectors were callibrated on neutron and gamma-ray sources. The main characteristics of the instrumentation , its testing results and gamma-ray and neutron radiation parameters, which have been measured are represented in the paper. The gamma-neutron sources and fissile materials reliable detection and identification capability was demonstrated

  15. Isothermal Amplification for MicroRNA Detection: From the Test Tube to the Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ruijie; Zhang, Kaixiang; Li, Jinghong

    2017-04-18

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that act as pivotal post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, thus involving in many fundamental cellular processes such as cell proliferation, migration, and canceration. The detection of miRNAs has attracted significant interest, as abnormal miRNA expression is identified to contribute to serious human diseases such as cancers. Particularly, miRNAs in peripheral blood have recently been recognized as important biomarkers potential for liquid biopsy. Furthermore, as miRNAs are expressed heterogeneously in different cells, investigations into single-cell miRNA expression will be of great value for resolving miRNA-mediated regulatory circuits and the complexity and heterogeneity of miRNA-related diseases. Thus, the development of miRNA detection methods, especially for complex clinic samples and single cells is in great demand. In this Account, we will present recent progress in the design and application of isothermal amplification enabling miRNA detection transition from the test tube to the clinical sample and single cell, which will significantly advance our knowledge of miRNA functions and disease associations, as well as its translation in clinical diagnostics. miRNAs present a huge challenge in detection because of their extremely short length (∼22 nucleotides) and sequence homology (even with only single-nucleotide variation). The conventional golden method for nucleic acid detection, quantitative PCR (qPCR), is not amenable to directly detecting short RNAs and hardly enables distinguishing between miRNA family members with very similar sequences. Alternatively, isothermal amplification has emerged as a powerful method for quantification of nucleic acids and attracts broad interest for utilization in developing miRNA assays. Compared to PCR, isothermal amplification can be performed without precise control of temperature cycling and is well fit for detecting short RNA or DNA. We and other

  16. A change in the Navy's drug testing policy: how will it affect costs and the probability of detecting drug users?

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, John R.

    1995-01-01

    This thesis analyzes changes in the Navy's drug testing policy as they relate to costs and the probability of detecting a gaming or non-gaming drug user. Additionally, this thesis considers actual command level testing policies showing how a policy change would affect the commands' probability of detecting a drug user. The Navy's zero tolerance policy for drug use has significantly reduced drug use within the Navy. This zero tolerance policy is primarily enforced with the drug testing prog...

  17. The lateralized smell test for detecting Alzheimer's disease: failure to replicate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Richard L; Bayona, Edgardo A; Leon-Ariza, Daniel S; Cuadros, Juan; Chung, Inna; Vazquez, Britney; Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E

    2014-05-15

    A widely publicized study by Stamps, Bartoshuk and Heilman (2013) reported that a simple measure of left:right naris differences in the ability to detect the odor of peanut butter is a sensitive marker of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD patients were said to have abnormal smell function on the left side of the nose and normal function on right side of the nose. In light of its implications for medical practice and the world-wide publicity that it engendered, we sought to replicate and expand this work. Two studies were performed. In the first, 15 AD patients were tested according to the procedures described by Stamps et al. in which the nostril contralateral to the tested side was occluded by the patient using lateral pressure from the index finger. Since this can potentially distort the contralateral naris, we repeated the testing using tape for naris occlusion. In the second, 20 AD patients were administered 20 odors of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) to each side of the nose, with the contralateral naris being closed with tape. In both studies, the order of the side of testing was systematically counterbalanced. No evidence of a left:right asymmetry on any test measure was observed. Although hyposmia is well-established in AD, no meaningful asymmetry in smell perception is apparent. If olfactory function on the right side of the nose was normal as claimed, then AD patients should exhibit normal function when tested bilaterally, a phenomenon not seen in dozens of AD-related olfactory studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [A modified guaiac test for the early detection of tumors of the intestinal tract (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warm, K; Blazek, Z; Weithofer, G; Bloch, R

    1977-03-04

    Of 1400 patients who were submitted to the Haemoccult test, 46 showed a postive result. Among other things there were 29 polyps, of which 3 already showed a focal carcinoma, and 5 carcinomata of the large intestine and 3 gastric carcinomata were also diagnosed. Over 70% of the tumor hosts had observed bleeding per anum at some time. In order to detect the number of false nagative results, patients were investigated in the same way even when the Haemoccult test had been negative three times. In this way 55 polyps were found as well as 7 partly advanced carcinomata of the large intestine. 35% of the Haemoccult-negative patients stated bleeding per anum in their history. The number of false negative findings must be considerably higher than previously estimated.

  19. Detection of ultraviolet Cherenkov light from high energy cosmic ray atmospheric showers: A field test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, B.; Peruzzo, L.; Sartori, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Bertolucci, E.; Mariotti, M.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Stefanini, A.; Zetti, F.; Scribano, A.; Budinich, M.; Liello, F.

    1991-01-01

    We present the results of a test with a prototype apparatus aimed to detect the ultraviolet Cherenkov light in the wavelenght range 2000-2300A, emitted by high energy cosmic ray showers. The system consists of a gas proportional chamber, with TMAE vapour as the photosensitive element, placed on the focal plane of a 1.5 m diameter parabolic mirror. The test was done during the summer of 1989 with cosmic ray showers seen in coincidence with the EAS-TOP experiment, an extended atmospheric shower charged particle array now being exploited at Campo Imperatore, 1900 m above sea level, on top of the Gran Sasso underground Laboratory of INFN. The results were positive and show that a full scale ultraviolet Cherenkov experiment with good sensitivity, angular resolution and virtually no background from moonlight or even daylight can be envisaged. (orig.)

  20. Lack of detection of human papillomavirus infection by hybridization test in prostatic biopsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazzaz, Faten S; Mosli, Hisham A

    2009-01-01

    To explore the possibility of finding human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the prostate tissue of a cohort of Saudi men presenting with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate cancer. A cohort study on prospectively collected tissue samples was conducted at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH), Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from March 2007 to December 2008 on a total of 56 male patients, age range 50-93 years (average 68), diagnosed as having BPH or prostate cancer. The HPV DNA hybridization by hybrid capture 2 technology was performed on prostate biopsies of these patients to detect 18 types of HPV infection, and differentiate between 2 HPV DNA groups, the low-risk types, and the high/intermediate risk types.The tissues of all the prostatic biopsies were negative for HPV DNA. Our results, using the hybridization test, indicate that it is unlikely that HPV-16 or HPV-18, or the other tested subtypes, enhance the risk of prostate cancer. (author)

  1. On the effect of test head sound fields on the ability to detect faults in plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erhard, A.; Seidel, A.; Boehm, R.; Wuestenberg, H.; Bidois, H.

    1995-01-01

    Ferritic reactor pressure vessels and some ferritic pipelines are protected by Austentic plating. In connection with discussions on possible corrosive attack on this plating, the occurrence and growth of cracks, processes for testing this plating have come to the fore again. Apart from the qualification of eddy current processes, such as the pulse eddy current process for example, ultrasonic test techniques are also required. In order to be able to compare measured results from different platings with one another, running time rosettes wer measured. Characteristic sound field data can be determined from this. One tried to derive criteria for the detectability of groove-like faults from this information and to examine them for their applicability in practice. This evaluation of results was supported by statistical methods. (orig.) [de

  2. Detection of recent holding of firearms: improving the sensitivity of the PDT test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almog, Joseph; Bar-Or, Karni L; Leifer, Amihud; Delbar, Yair; Harush-Brosh, Yinon

    2014-08-01

    Despite the significant improvement of the PDT test for detecting recent contact with firearms, there are still many occasions in which the modified reagent (Ferrotrace™) shows insufficient sensitivity. Two techniques have been devised and tested for the enhancement of the sensitivity of this process: exposure to water vapors and accelerated sweating. Exposure of the hand to water vapors after spraying with the reagent significantly improved the quality of the colored impressions. The average increase was by 1 quality-grade (on an arbitrary scale of 4 grades). The technique is very simple and does not require any particular skill or equipment. Mechanistic aspects of the process are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Current guidelines for BRCA testing of breast cancer patients are insufficient to detect all mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindedal, Eli Marie; Heramb, Cecilie; Karsrud, Inga; Ariansen, Sarah Louise; Mæhle, Lovise; Undlien, Dag Erik; Norum, Jan; Schlichting, Ellen

    2017-06-21

    Identification of BRCA mutations in breast cancer (BC) patients influences treatment and survival and may be of importance for their relatives. Testing is often restricted to women fulfilling high-risk criteria. However, there is limited knowledge of the sensitivity of such a strategy, and of the clinical aspects of BC caused by BRCA mutations in less selected BC cohorts. The aim of this report was to address these issues by evaluating the results of BRCA testing of BC patients in South-Eastern Norway. 1371 newly diagnosed BC patients were tested with sequencing and Multi Ligation Probe Amplification (MLPA). Prevalence of mutations was calculated, and BC characteristics among carriers and non-carriers compared. Sensitivity and specificity of common guidelines for BRCA testing to identify carriers was analyzed. Number of identified female mutation positive relatives was evaluated. A pathogenic BRCA mutation was identified in 3.1%. Carriers differed from non-carriers in terms of age at diagnosis, family history, grade, ER/PR-status, triple negativity (TNBC) and Ki67, but not in HER2 and TNM status. One mutation positive female relative was identified per mutation positive BC patient. Using age of onset below 40 or TNBC as criteria for testing identified 32-34% of carriers. Common guidelines for testing identified 45-90%, and testing all below 60 years identified 90%. Thirty-seven percent of carriers had a family history of cancer that would have qualified for predictive BRCA testing. A Variant of Uncertain Significance (VUS) was identified in 4.9%. Mutation positive BC patients differed as a group from mutation negative. However, the commonly used guidelines for testing were insufficient to detect all mutation carriers in the BC cohort. Thirty-seven percent had a family history of cancer that would have qualified for predictive testing before they were diagnosed with BC. Based on our combined observations, we suggest it is time to discuss whether all BC patients

  4. Improving Detection of Prediabetes in Children and Adults: Using Combinations of Blood Glucose Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ike Solomon Okosun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine combinations of blood glucose tests: oral glucose tolerance (OGT, fasting plasma glucose (FBG and hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C that are associated with highest diagnostic rates of prediabetes in non-diabetic American children and adults.Methods: The 2007-2008 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys data were used for this study. Overall and specific prevalence of prediabetes (defined using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were determined across age, race/ethnicity, sex and BMI categories.Results: FPG+HbA1C test was associated with significantly higher diagnostic rates of prediabetes across age, race/ethnicity and BMI. Estimates of overall prevalence of prediabetes using OGT+FPG, OGT+HbA1C, HbA1C+FPG and OGT+FPG+HbA1C tests were 20.3%, 24.2%, 33% and 34.3%, respectively. Compared to OGT+FPG, the use of HbA1C+FPG test in screening was associated with 44.8%, 135%, 38.6% and 35.9% increased prevalence of prediabetes in non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, Mexican-American and other racial/ethnic men, respectively. The corresponding values in women were 67.8%, 140%, 37.2% and 42.6%, respectively. Combined use of all blood glucose tests did not improve the overall and gender-specific prediabetes prevalence beyond what was observed using HbA1C+FPG test.Conclusions: HbA1C criteria were associated with higher diagnosis rates of prediabetes than FPG and OGT tests in non-diabetic American children and adults. Using a combination of HbA1C and FPG test in screening for prediabetes reduces intrinsic systematic bias in using just HbA1C testing and offers the benefits of each test. A well-defined HbA1C that takes into consideration race/ethnicity, gender, age and body mass index may improve detection of prediabetes in population and clinical settings.

  5. Alkaline peptone water enrichment with a dipstick test to quickly detect and monitor cholera outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwire, Godfrey; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Abdallah, Dauda; Debes, Amanda Kay; Kagirita, Atek; Ram, Malathi; Sack, David A

    2017-11-21

    Detection, confirmation and monitoring of cholera outbreaks in many developing countries including Uganda is a big challenge due to lack of the required resources and the time the test takes. Culture method which takes 24-48 h to get the feedback and requires highly skilled laboratory staff plus other complex resources is the standard test. This study evaluated the new cholera rapid detection method that relies on Crystal VC dipsticks after enrichment with alkaline peptone water (APW) against the culture method for monitoring the progress of cholera outbreaks in rural setting. We conducted the study between March and June 2015. Fresh stool samples and rectal swabs were incubated in 1% APW for 6 h at room temperature before testing with RDT following the manufacturer's instruction. The same stool sample was cultured to isolate V. cholerae in the standard manner. We also reviewed patient registers to epidemiologically describe the cholera epidemic. We tested stool from 102 consenting suspected cholera patients reporting during daytime at Bwera Hospital (n = 69), Kilembe Mines Hospital (n = 4) and Kinyabwama Health Centre (n = 29). Ninety one (91) samples were positive and nine samples were negative according to both methods. One (1) sample was positive only by dipstick and one sample was positive only by culture (sensitivity of 99%, specificity of 90%, Positive Predictive Value of 99% and Negative Predictive Value of 90%). Overall, 146 suspected cholera cases and two deaths, (case fatality rate of 1.36%) were recorded during the study period. Among the cases aged 1-9 years, 63% (50/79) were males while in those aged 20-49 years, 76% (34/45) were females. Our findings showed that the modified dipstick test after enrichment with 1% APW had high level of accuracy in detection of V. cholerae and is quick, affordable alternative cholera outbreak monitoring tool in resource constrained settings. However, culture method should remain for cholera epidemic

  6. Alkaline peptone water enrichment with a dipstick test to quickly detect and monitor cholera outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Bwire

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection, confirmation and monitoring of cholera outbreaks in many developing countries including Uganda is a big challenge due to lack of the required resources and the time the test takes. Culture method which takes 24–48 h to get the feedback and requires highly skilled laboratory staff plus other complex resources is the standard test. This study evaluated the new cholera rapid detection method that relies on Crystal VC dipsticks after enrichment with alkaline peptone water (APW against the culture method for monitoring the progress of cholera outbreaks in rural setting. Methods We conducted the study between March and June 2015. Fresh stool samples and rectal swabs were incubated in 1% APW for 6 h at room temperature before testing with RDT following the manufacturer’s instruction. The same stool sample was cultured to isolate V. cholerae in the standard manner. We also reviewed patient registers to epidemiologically describe the cholera epidemic. Results We tested stool from 102 consenting suspected cholera patients reporting during daytime at Bwera Hospital (n = 69, Kilembe Mines Hospital (n = 4 and Kinyabwama Health Centre (n = 29. Ninety one (91 samples were positive and nine samples were negative according to both methods. One (1 sample was positive only by dipstick and one sample was positive only by culture (sensitivity of 99%, specificity of 90%, Positive Predictive Value of 99% and Negative Predictive Value of 90%. Overall, 146 suspected cholera cases and two deaths, (case fatality rate of 1.36% were recorded during the study period. Among the cases aged 1–9 years, 63% (50/79 were males while in those aged 20–49 years, 76% (34/45 were females. Conclusions Our findings showed that the modified dipstick test after enrichment with 1% APW had high level of accuracy in detection of V. cholerae and is quick, affordable alternative cholera outbreak monitoring tool in resource constrained

  7. Simultaneous Quantitative Detection of Helicobacter Pylori Based on a Rapid and Sensitive Testing Platform using Quantum Dots-Labeled Immunochromatiographic Test Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Wang, Kan; Zhang, Jingjing; Qin, Weijian; Yan, Xinyu; Shen, Guangxia; Gao, Guo; Pan, Fei; Cui, Daxiang

    2016-02-01

    Quantum dots-labeled urea-enzyme antibody-based rapid immunochromatographic test strips have been developed as quantitative fluorescence point-of-care tests (POCTs) to detect helicobacter pylori. Presented in this study is a new test strip reader designed to run on tablet personal computers (PCs), which is portable for outdoor detection even without an alternating current (AC) power supply. A Wi-Fi module was integrated into the reader to improve its portability. Patient information was loaded by a barcode scanner, and an application designed to run on tablet PCs was developed to handle the acquired images. A vision algorithm called Kmeans was used for picture processing. Different concentrations of various human blood samples were tested to evaluate the stability and accuracy of the fabricated device. Results demonstrate that the reader can provide an easy, rapid, simultaneous, quantitative detection for helicobacter pylori. The proposed test strip reader has a lighter weight than existing detection readers, and it can run for long durations without an AC power supply, thus verifying that it possesses advantages for outdoor detection. Given its fast detection speed and high accuracy, the proposed reader combined with quantum dots-labeled test strips is suitable for POCTs and owns great potential in applications such as screening patients with infection of helicobacter pylori, etc. in near future.

  8. Accuracy of Clinical Tests in Detecting Disk Herniation and Nerve Root Compression in Subjects With Lumbar Radicular Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekedahl, Harald; Jönsson, Bo; Annertz, Mårten; Frobell, Richard B

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the accuracy of 3 commonly used neurodynamic tests (slump test, straight-leg raise [SLR] test, femoral neurodynamic test) and 2 clinical assessments to determine radiculopathy (radiculopathy I, 1 neurologic sign; radiculopathy II, 2 neurologic signs corresponding to 1 specific nerve root) in detecting magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings (extrusion, subarticular nerve root compression, and foraminal nerve root compression). Validity study. Secondary care. We included subjects (N=99; mean age, 58y; 54% women) referred for epidural steroid injection because of lumbar radicular symptoms who had positive clinical and MRI findings. Positive clinical findings included the slump test (n=67), SLR test (n=50), femoral neurodynamic test (n=7), radiculopathy I (n=70), and radiculopathy II (n=33). Positive MRI findings included extrusion (n=27), subarticular nerve compression (n=14), and foraminal nerve compression (n=25). Not applicable. Accuracy of clinical tests in detecting MRI findings was evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, and receiver operating characteristics analysis with area under the curve (AUC). The slump test had the highest sensitivity in detecting extrusion (.78) and subarticular nerve compression (1.00), but the respective specificity was low (.36 and .38). Radiculopathy I was most sensitive in detecting foraminal nerve compression (.80) but with low specificity (.34). Only 1 assessment had a concurrent high sensitivity and specificity (ie, radiculopathy II) in detecting subarticular nerve compression (.71 and .73, respectively). The AUC for all tests in detecting extrusion, subarticular nerve compression, and foraminal nerve compression showed ranges of .48 to .60, .63 to .82, and .33 to .57, respectively. In general, the investigated neurodynamic tests or assessments for radiculopathy lacked diagnostic accuracy. The slump test was the most sensitive test, while radiculopathy II was the most specific test. Most interestingly, no

  9. Testing the robustness of the anthropogenic climate change detection statements using different empirical models

    KAUST Repository

    Imbers, J.

    2013-04-27

    This paper aims to test the robustness of the detection and attribution of anthropogenic climate change using four different empirical models that were previously developed to explain the observed global mean temperature changes over the last few decades. These studies postulated that the main drivers of these changes included not only the usual natural forcings, such as solar and volcanic, and anthropogenic forcings, such as greenhouse gases and sulfates, but also other known Earth system oscillations such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). In this paper, we consider these signals, or forced responses, and test whether or not the anthropogenic signal can be robustly detected under different assumptions for the internal variability of the climate system. We assume that the internal variability of the global mean surface temperature can be described by simple stochastic models that explore a wide range of plausible temporal autocorrelations, ranging from short memory processes exemplified by an AR(1) model to long memory processes, represented by a fractional differenced model. In all instances, we conclude that human-induced changes to atmospheric gas composition is affecting global mean surface temperature changes. ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Toothpick test: a methodology for the detection of RR soybean plants1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Mota da Silva

    Full Text Available Due to the large increase in the area cultivated with genetically modified soybean in Brazil, it has become necessary to determine methods that are fast and efficient for detecting these cultivars. The aim of this work was to test the efficiency of the toothpick method in the detection of RR soybean plants, as well as to distinguish between cultivars, for sensitivity caused by herbicide. Ten transgenic soybean cultivars, resistant to the active ingredient glyphosate, and ten conventional soybean cultivars were used. Toothpicks soaked in glyphosate were applied to all the plants at stage V6 and evaluations were made at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days after application (DAA. The effects of the glyphosate on the cultivars, and the symptoms of phytotoxicity caused in the transgenic plants were evaluated by means of grading scales. The toothpick test is effective in identifying RR soybean cultivars and also in separating them into groups by sensitivity to the symptoms caused by the glyphosate.

  11. Multiplexed Detection of Tumor Markers with Multicolor Polymer Dot-Based Immunochromatography Test Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chia-Chia; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Yang, Yong-Quan; Wei-Kai, Tsai; Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Chan, Yang-Hsiang

    2018-02-06

    There have been ongoing efforts to develop more sensitive and fast quantitative screening of cancer markers by use of fluorometric immunochromatographic test strips (ICTS) since the remarkable advances in fluorescent nanomaterials. Semiconducting polymer dots (Pdots) have recently emerged as a new type of biocompatible fluorescent probe with extraordinary brightness which is suitable for biological and clinical use. Here, we developed Pdot-based ICTS for quantitative rapid screening of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), α-fetoprotein (AFP), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) in 10 min. Through use of the ultrahigh fluorescence brightness of Pdots, this immunosensor enabled much better detection sensitivity (2.05, 3.30, and 4.92 pg/mL for PSA, AFP, and CEA, respectively), in which the detection limit is at least 2 orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional fluorometric ICTS. Furthermore, we performed proof-of-concept experiments for simultaneous determination of multiple tumor markers in a single test strip. These results demonstrated that this Pdot-based ICTS platform is a promising candidate for developing new generations of point-of-care diagnostics. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example of Pdot-based ICTS with multiplexing capability.

  12. Laser-induced fluorescence detection platform for point-of-care testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Marcel; Hilbig, Urs; Schubert, Markus B.; Gauglitz, Günter

    2017-08-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) devices for continuous low-cost monitoring of critical patient parameters require miniaturized and integrated setups for performing quick high-sensitivity analyses, away from central clinical laboratories. This work presents a novel and promising laser-induced fluorescence platform for measurements in direct optical test formats that leads towards such powerful POCT devices based on fluorescence-labeled immunoassays. Ultimate sensitivity of thin film photodetectors, integrated with microfluidics, and a comprehensive optimization of all system components aim at low-level signal detection in the targeted biosensor application. The setup acquires fluorescence signals from the volume of a microfluidic channel. An innovative sandwiching process forms a flow channel in the microfluidic chips by embedding laser-cut double-sided adhesive tapes. The custom fit of amorphous silicon based photodiode arrays to the geometry of the flow channel enables miniaturization, fully adequate for POCT devices. A free-beam laser excitation with line focus provides excellent alignment stability, allows for easy and reliable swapping of the disposable microfluidic chips, and therewith greatly improves the ease of use of the resulting integrated device. As a proof-of-concept of this novel in-volume measurement approach, the limit of detection for the dye DY636-COOH in pure water as a model fluorophore is examined and found to be 26 nmol l-1 .

  13. FRET on lateral flow test strip to enhance sensitivity for detecting cancer biomarker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jidong; Cao, Fengjing; He, Songliang; Xia, Yong; Liu, Xinyu; Jiang, Wenxiao; Yu, Yangyang; Zhang, Huisheng; Chen, Wenwen

    2018-01-01

    Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is introduced in the lateral flow strip to detect cancer biomarker CEA with the color and fluorescence dual-readout. Anti-CEA monoclonal antibody coated Au NPs were on the conjugate pad and FITC labelled antibody (FITC-Ab) for CEA was coated on the test line. All the reagents were general in the lateral flow strip or commercially available and no new materials or technique were involved, which make our proposal a more universal method and easier to operate. With the addition of CEA on the sample pad, anti-CEA monoclonal antibody coated Au NPs-CEA-FITC-Ab complex formed on the test line, leading to a megascopic red line and simultaneous quenched fluorescence of FITC via FRET. The visual limit of detection (LOD) through distinguishing red color change was 10ng/mL and the LOD by differentiating fluorescence intensity was 0.1ng/mL, which was two orders of magnitude lower than that without considering fluorescence in the strip. And the linear range changed from 10-80ng/mL to 5-80ng/mL with the analysis of fluorescence change. Meanwhile, the feasibility of our method applied in real clinical samples was also confirmed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A Highly Sensitive Immunochromatographic Strip Test for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Saikosaponin d

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative lateral-flow immunoassay using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs conjugated with a monoclonal antibody (MAb against saikosaponin d (SSd was developed for the analysis of SSd. The AuNPs were prepared in our laboratory. The AuNPs were polyhedral, with an average diameter of approximately 18 nm. We used the conjugation between AuNPs and MAbs against SSd to prepare immunochromatographic strips (ICSs. For the quantitative experiment, the strips with the test results were scanned using a membrane strip reader, and a detection curve (regression equation, y = −0.113ln(x + 1.5451, R2 = 0.983, representing the averages of the scanned data, was obtained. This curve was linear from 96 ng/mL to 150 μg/mL, and the IC50 value was 10.39 μg/mL. In this study, we bring the concept of POCT (point-of-care testing to the measurement of TCM compounds, and this is the first report of quantitative detection of SSd by an ICS.

  15. Circulating immune complexes detected by 125I-Clq deviation test in sera of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, H; Wanebo, H; Pinsky, C; Day, N K

    1977-06-01

    The presence of circulating immune complexes in freshly drawn sera of patients with various forms of malignancies was detected by the 125I-Clq deviation test of Sobel et al. More than 50% of the 459 cancer sera showed a high inhibition of 125I-Clq uptake by sensitized sheep erythrocytes when compared with sera of 50 healthy laboratory personnel. The levels were compared with levels of total hemolytic complement and immunochemical determinations of Cl1 and C3. A correlation between high levels of circulating immune complexes and low levels of Clq was suggested. These immune complexes were separated by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation at low pH and were found to be heavier than 19S. Fluctuation of levels of immune complexes was evident when serial samples from the same patient were tested. Decrease of levels of immune complexes and a concomitant increase of Clq were detected after Calmette-Gueérin bacillus and autologous tumor cell treatment in some melanoma patients.

  16. Ensuring Sustainable Development through Urban Planning in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Qasim

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban planning includes land use management and environmental change. It makes arrangement for community facilities and services. Since, sustainable development has been included as a vital end product of all planning goals it also provides for balanced use of land, housing and transportation and better quality of life. Present urban planning in Pakistan is not ensuring sustainable development in Pakistan. This is tested through the case study of master planning in Rawalpindi and its implementation through housing schemes in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Large portions of provisions of master plans are not implemented. This paper explains how the urban planning will be made enabled to ensure sustainable development in Pakistan. Six numbers of housing schemes and two squatter settlements have been surveyed through questionnaires, secondary data, the opinions of the experts from related fields and site observations. Amenities and social services at far distance, very less green area, Less quantity and bad quality of water, absence of comprehensive solid waste management and sewage disposal system and nontreatment of solid waste, effluent and sewage, prevalent unhygienic conditions and air and water pollution are the existing factors effecting the sustainability. There is a need to revisit the urban planning and a comprehensive Urban and Environment Planning Law at national level and at provincial level is recommended to enable the urban planning to ensure the sustainable development in Pakistan

  17. Ensuring sustainable development through urban planing in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, M.; Zaidi, S.S.U.

    2013-01-01

    Urban planning includes land use management and environmental change. It makes arrangement for community facilities and services. Since, sustainable development has been included as a vital end product of all planning goals it also provides for balanced use of land, housing and transportation and better quality of life. Present urban planning in Pakistan is not ensuring sustainable development in Pakistan. This is tested through the case study of master planning in Rawalpindi and its implementation through housing schemes in Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Large portions of provisions of master plans are not implemented. This paper explains how the urban planning will be made enabled to ensure sustainable development in Pakistan. Six numbers of housing schemes and two squatter settlements have been surveyed through questionnaires, secondary data, the opinions of the experts from related fields and site observations. Amenities and social services at far distance, very less green area, Less quantity and bad quality of water, absence of comprehensive solid waste management and sewage disposal system and non- treatment of solid waste, effluent and sewage, prevalent unhygienic conditions and air and water pollution are the existing factors effecting the sustainability. There is a need to revisit the urban planning and a comprehensive Urban and Environment Planning Law at national level and at provincial level is recommended to enable the urban planning to ensure the sustainable development in Pakistan. (author)

  18. 15NH4+ excretion test: a new method for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, J C; Liu, G L; Zhang, Z H; Mou, Y L; Chen, Q A; Wu, J C; Yang, S L

    1992-01-01

    A noninvasive test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection that uses [15N]urea as a tracer has been established. The principle the test is based on is the strong urease activity of H. pylori. After oral ingestion, [15N]urea is broken down into ammonia and carbon dioxide by H. pylori urease in the stomach. The ammonia is absorbed into the blood and excreted in the urine. The amount of [15N]urea, reflecting the magnitude of H. pylori infection, is evaluated by measuring the abundance and excretion rate of 15N in ammonia in the urine. Thirty-six patients were examined in our study. The 15N excretion rates in urine ammonia of patients who were H. pylori positive were significantly higher than those of H. pylori-negative patients (P less than 0.05). Twenty-three patients were H. pylori positive by Gram stain and culture. The sensitivity of the 15NH4 excretion test compared with these techniques was 96%, and no false positives were obtained. The 15NH4+ excretion rates of 13 H. pylori-negative subjects were all in the normal range (less than 0.3%). This method is a simple, precise, highly sensitive, noninvasive, nonradioactive test. It could be used for diagnosis as well as for the followup of patients receiving H. pylori eradication therapy, especially children and pregnant women. It could also be used in epidemiological investigation of H. pylori infection in a general population.

  19. [The application of dysarthria profile tests in ALS patients for the detection of speech disturbances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomik, B; Głodzik-Sobańska, L; Lechwacka, A; Bała-Słodowska, M; Kolasa, M; Szczudlik, A

    2000-01-01

    Dysarthria is an invalidating disability in ALS patients with motor neuron degeneration in the bulbar region. The methods to assess dysarthric disorders in ALS are seldom described in publications. This study was performed in 43 patients who had definite (n = 23) or probable (n = 20) ALS (of the bulbar group n = 15, of the limb group n = 28, mean age = 57.07 (range: 36-69 yr.)) according to WFN criteria. The method based on quantitative tests of dysarthria profile (by Robertson, 1986) was used and the results were compared with 37 age, sex-matched, healthy control subjects. Our study showed the existence of disturbances in all dysarthria profile tests which were of the statistic significance and more frequent as compared to the control subjects (p profile tests (5 out of 8) might be useful in clinical practice to detect dysarthria in ALS patients. Using the dysarthria profile tests we also demonstrated that preclinical dysarthric processes occur among the limb ALS group.

  20. Detection of cut-off point for rapid automized naming test in good readers and dyslexics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rapid automized naming test is an appropriate tool to diagnose learning disability even before teaching reading. This study aimed to detect the cut-off point of this test for good readers and dyslexics.Methods: The test has 4 parts including: objects, colors, numbers and letters. 5 items are repeated on cards randomly for 10 times. Children were asked to name items rapidly. We studied 18 dyslexic students and 18 age-matched good readers between 7 and 8 years of age at second and third grades of elementary school; they were recruited by non-randomize sampling into 2 groups: children with developmental dyslexia from learning disabilities centers with mean age of 100 months, and normal children with mean age of 107 months from general schools in Tehran. Good readers selected from the same class of dyslexics.Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849 for letter naming, 0.892 for color naming, 0.971 for number naming, 0.887 for picture naming, and 0.965 totally. The overall sensitivity and specificity was 1 and was 0.79, respectively. The highest sensitivity and specificity were related to number naming (1 and 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: Findings showed that the rapid automized naming test could diagnose good readers from dyslexics appropriately.

  1. In vitro developmental toxicity test detects inhibition of stem cell differentiation by silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Margriet V.D.Z.; Annema, Wijtske; Salvati, Anna; Lesniak, Anna; Elsaesser, Andreas; Barnes, Clifford; McKerr, George; Howard, C. Vyvyan; Lynch, Iseult; Dawson, Kenneth A.; Piersma, Aldert H.; Jong, Wim H. de

    2009-01-01

    While research into the potential toxic properties of nanomaterials is now increasing, the area of developmental toxicity has remained relatively uninvestigated. The embryonic stem cell test is an in vitro screening assay used to investigate the embryotoxic potential of chemicals by determining their ability to inhibit differentiation of embryonic stem cells into spontaneously contracting cardiomyocytes. Four well characterized silica nanoparticles of various sizes were used to investigate whether nanomaterials are capable of inhibition of differentiation in the embryonic stem cell test. Nanoparticle size distributions and dispersion characteristics were determined before and during incubation in the stem cell culture medium by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering. Mouse embryonic stem cells were exposed to silica nanoparticles at concentrations ranging from 1 to 100 μg/ml. The embryonic stem cell test detected a concentration dependent inhibition of differentiation of stem cells into contracting cardiomyocytes by two silica nanoparticles of primary size 10 (TEM 11) and 30 (TEM 34) nm while two other particles of primary size 80 (TEM 34) and 400 (TEM 248) nm had no effect up to the highest concentration tested. Inhibition of differentiation of stem cells occurred below cytotoxic concentrations, indicating a specific effect of the particles on the differentiation of the embryonic stem cells. The impaired differentiation of stem cells by such widely used particles warrants further investigation into the potential of these nanoparticles to migrate into the uterus, placenta and embryo and their possible effects on embryogenesis.

  2. Standardization of serological tests for detecting anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lauricella

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the standardization of four serological reactions currently used in human serodiagnosis for the detection of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in naturally and experimentally infected dogs. Indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT and hemagglutination test (IHAT were standardized, and complement fixation test (CFT and direct agglutination test (DAT were used for diagnostic confirmation. Four hundred and eighty one mongrel dogs that were studied by xenodiagnosis were used: (1 parasitemic dogs of two localities of endemic area (EA of Santiago del Estero province in Argentina (n = 134; (2 non-parasitemic dogs of the same area (n = 285; (3 dogs experimentally infected with T. cruzi in the patent period (n = 6; (4 non-infected dogs (n = 56 which were born in the city of Buenos Aires (BA, one non-EA for Chagas' disease. For IFAT, parasitemic dogs EA showed 95% of reactive sera. Non parasitemic dogs EA showed 77% of non reactive sera. None sera from BA were reactive for dilutions higher than four. For IHAT, 84% of sera of parasitemic dogs EA showed serological reactivity and among non parasitemic dogs BA, 61% were non reactive, while the remainder showed at most titres of 1/16. The cut-off titres for IFAT and IHAT were 1/16 and 1/32 respectively, and for CFT and DAT 1/1 and 1/128 respectively. Sensitivity for IFAT, IHAT, CF and DAT were 95%, 84%, 97% and 95% respectively.

  3. Detection of Babesia divergens in southern Norway by using an immunofluorescence antibody test in cow sera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Røed Knut H

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of bovine babesiosis, caused by Babesia divergens (Apicomplexa: Piroplasmida has decreased markedly since the 1930 s, but may re-emerge as a consequence of climate change and changes in legislation and pasturing practices. This is a potentially serious disease, with both economical and animal welfare consequences. Therefore, there is a need to survey the distribution of B. divergens. Methods We tested sera from 306 healthy pastured cows from 24 farms along the southern Norwegian coast by using an indirect immunofluorescence IgG antibody test (IFAT. Fractions of seropositive cows were compared by calculating 95% CI. Results The results of this test showed that 27% of the sera were positive for B. divergens antibodies. The fraction of antibody-positive sera that we detected showed a two-humped distribution, with a high fraction of positives being found in municipalities in the western and eastern parts of the study area, while the municipalities between these areas had few or no positive serum samples. Conclusions Neither the farmers' observations nor the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System give an adequate picture of the distribution of bovine babesiosis. Serological testing of cows by using IFAT is a convenient way of screening for the presence of B. divergens in an area.

  4. Arm exercise-thallium imaging testing for the detection of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balady, G.J.; Weiner, D.A.; Rothendler, J.A.; Ryan, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    Patients with lower limb impairment are often unable to undergo a standard bicycle or treadmill test for the evaluation of coronary artery disease. To establish an alternative method of testing, 50 subjects (aged 56 +/- 10 years) performed arm ergometry testing in conjunction with myocardial thallium scintigraphy. All underwent coronary angiography; significant coronary artery disease (greater than or equal to 70% stenosis) in at least one vessel was present in 41 (82%) of the 50 patients. Thallium scintigraphy was found to have an 83% sensitivity and 78% specificity for detecting coronary disease, compared with a sensitivity and specificity of 54% (p less than 0.01) and 67% (p = NS), respectively, for exercise electrocardiography. In the subgroup of 23 patients who had no prior myocardial infarction or left bundle branch block and were not taking digitalis, thallium scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 80% versus 50% for exercise electrocardiography. Scintigraphy yielded a sensitivity of 84, 74 and 90% for one, two and three vessel disease, respectively. Noninvasive arm ergometry exercise-thallium imaging testing appears to be reliable and useful and should be considered in the evaluation of coronary artery disease in patients with lower limb impairment

  5. Detection of antigens of allergic diseases in children by radioallergosorbent test (RAST), 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirooka, Junko

    1977-01-01

    Detection of antigens mainly by RAST, measurement of immunoglobulin, and investigation of clinical history were performed on children with intractable bronchial asthma. The results were compared with those in cases of mild or moderate degree, and they were discussed. The obtained results were as follows: 1) Cases, of which the occurrence age of disease was under 2 years old, hold a majority in intractable cases, and the ratio was twice that of the control group. 2) A result of skin test was generally lower positive rate in the intractable group as compared to the control group. However, a result of prick test for buckwheat antigen in the intractable group showed higher positive rate than that in the control group. The intractable group tended to be separated into two extreme groups, one which showed positive to most of inhaled antigens in skin test, and another which showed negative to all antigens. 3) As a result of RAST, 13% of the intractable group showed positive to egg white out of food antigens, and it was three times the ratio of positive in the control group. One case showed strong positive to rice. 4) Two thirds of cases which showed positive in RAST for food antigens showed negative in prick test. 5) Total IgE in the serum of the intractable group was clearly lower in values than that of the control group. (Tsunoda, M.)

  6. A harmful-intrusion detection method based on background reconstruction and two-dimensional K-S test in an optical fiber pre-warning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Fukun; Zheng, Tong; Qu, Hongquan; Pang, Liping

    2016-06-01

    The key technology and main difficulty for optical fiber intrusion pre-warning systems (OFIPS) is the extraction of harmful-intrusion signals. After being processed by a phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometer (Φ-OTDR), vibration signals can be preliminarily extracted. Generally, these include noises and intrusions. Here, intrusions can be divided into harmful and harmless intrusions. With respect to the close study of signal characteristics, an effective extraction method of harmful intrusion is proposed in the paper. Firstly, in the part of the background reconstruction, all intrusion signals are first detected by a constant false alarm rate (CFAR). We then reconstruct the backgrounds by extracting two-part information of alarm points, time and amplitude. This ensures that the detection background consists of intrusion signals. Secondly, in the part of the two-dimensional Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test, in order to extract harmful ones from all extracted intrusions, we design a separation method. It is based on the signal characteristics of harmful intrusion, which are shorter time interval and higher amplitude. In the actual OFIPS, the detection method is used in some typical scenes, which includes a lot of harmless intrusions, for example construction sites and busy roads. Results show that we can effectively extract harmful intrusions.

  7. Detection of transgenic events in maize using immunochromatographic strip test and conventional PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjara Fonseca Cantelmo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With the growth in the transgenic market, fast and economically viable methodologies are necessary for undertaking transgene detection tests, both for identification of contamination in seeds and in grain. Seeds from commercial conventional GNZ 2004, and transgenic VT-Pro (MON89034, Roundup Ready (NK603 and Herculex (TC1507 maize cultivars were used. In order to simulate different levels of contamination, the transgenic seeds were mixed with conventional seeds at levels of 0.2%, 0.4%, 1.0% and 1.6% for VT-Pro, and 0.2%, 0.5%, 0.8% and 1.2% for Roundup Ready and Herculex. The lateral flow membrane strip test was performed in the whole seed, endosperm and embryo. For evaluation of the specificity of the technique in detection of the TC1507 event by means of the conventional PCR technique, seeds of the commercial maize hybrid GNZ 2004 were used as negative control, and the maize hybrid 2B655Hx as positive control. In order to simulate different levels of contamination, transgenic seeds were mixed with conventional seeds at the levels of 10%, 5%, 1%, 0.5% and 0.1%. Seeds from each sample were crushed, and then DNA extraction was performed by the CTAB 2% method. Using the immunochromatographic strip, it was possible to evaluate the expression of proteins related to the VT-Pro, Roundup Ready and Herculex events when whole seeds were used at the 0.2% level of contamination, whereas by the conventional PCR technique, it was possible to detect the TC1507 event in samples with 1% contamination.

  8. Associated technologies ensures complete loop mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Having developed and validated LAMP method for the detection of an isolated pathogen, Escherichia coli O157:H7, an attempt was made to progress the LAMP platform to realistic point of care for resource-poor endemic areas. Reaction time of the LAMP method was only 1 h and also, the amplification products of O157, ...

  9. Associated technologies ensures complete loop mediated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assay could be a useful adjunct diagnostic assay along with the conventional methods that would preclude the requirement of continuous maintenance of pure cultures. Moreover, LAMP assay is simple, rapid, specific and sensitive for the detection of pathogens. Having ...

  10. Testing seismic amplitude source location for fast debris-flow detection at Illgraben, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Fabian; Burtin, Arnaud; McArdell, Brian W.; Hovius, Niels; Weder, Bianca; Turowski, Jens M.

    2017-06-01

    Heavy precipitation can mobilize tens to hundreds of thousands of cubic meters of sediment in steep Alpine torrents in a short time. The resulting debris flows (mixtures of water, sediment and boulders) move downstream with velocities of several meters per second and have a high destruction potential. Warning protocols for affected communities rely on raising awareness about the debris-flow threat, precipitation monitoring and rapid detection methods. The latter, in particular, is a challenge because debris-flow-prone torrents have their catchments in steep and inaccessible terrain, where instrumentation is difficult to install and maintain. Here we test amplitude source location (ASL) as a processing scheme for seismic network data for early warning purposes. We use debris-flow and noise seismograms from the Illgraben catchment, Switzerland, a torrent system which produces several debris-flow events per year. Automatic in situ detection is currently based on geophones mounted on concrete check dams and radar stage sensors suspended above the channel. The ASL approach has the advantage that it uses seismometers, which can be installed at more accessible locations where a stable connection to mobile phone networks is available for data communication. Our ASL processing uses time-averaged ground vibration amplitudes to estimate the location of the debris-flow front. Applied to continuous data streams, inversion of the seismic amplitude decay throughout the network is robust and efficient, requires no manual identification of seismic phase arrivals and eliminates the need for a local seismic velocity model. We apply the ASL technique to a small debris-flow event on 19 July 2011, which was captured with a temporary seismic monitoring network. The processing rapidly detects the debris-flow event half an hour before arrival at the outlet of the torrent and several minutes before detection by the in situ alarm system. An analysis of continuous seismic records furthermore

  11. Reference set for performance testing of pediatric vaccine safety signal detection methods and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauchli Pernus, Yolanda; Nan, Cassandra; Verstraeten, Thomas; Pedenko, Mariia; Osokogu, Osemeke U; Weibel, Daniel; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Bonhoeffer, Jan

    2016-12-12

    Safety signal detection in spontaneous reporting system databases and electronic healthcare records is key to detection of previously unknown adverse events following immunization. Various statistical methods for signal detection in these different datasources have been developed, however none are geared to the pediatric population and none specifically to vaccines. A reference set comprising pediatric vaccine-adverse event pairs is required for reliable performance testing of statistical methods within and across data sources. The study was conducted within the context of the Global Research in Paediatrics (GRiP) project, as part of the seventh framework programme (FP7) of the European Commission. Criteria for the selection of vaccines considered in the reference set were routine and global use in the pediatric population. Adverse events were primarily selected based on importance. Outcome based systematic literature searches were performed for all identified vaccine-adverse event pairs and complemented by expert committee reports, evidence based decision support systems (e.g. Micromedex), and summaries of product characteristics. Classification into positive (PC) and negative control (NC) pairs was performed by two independent reviewers according to a pre-defined algorithm and discussed for consensus in case of disagreement. We selected 13 vaccines and 14 adverse events to be included in the reference set. From a total of 182 vaccine-adverse event pairs, we classified 18 as PC, 113 as NC and 51 as unclassifiable. Most classifications (91) were based on literature review, 45 were based on expert committee reports, and for 46 vaccine-adverse event pairs, an underlying pathomechanism was not plausible classifying the association as NC. A reference set of vaccine-adverse event pairs was developed. We propose its use for comparing signal detection methods and systems in the pediatric population. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Early detection of dementia in multilingual populations: Visual Cognitive Assessment Test (VCAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiah, Nagaendran; Zhang, Angeline; Bautista, Dianne Carol; Silva, Eveline; Ting, Simon Kang Seng; Ng, Adeline; Assam, Pryseley

    2016-02-01

    Early diagnosis of cognitive impairment allows timely intervention with pharmacological and non-pharmacological measures. However, current cognitive evaluation tools do not cater for multilingual populations. To develop and validate a visual-based cognitive evaluation tool, the Visual Cognitive Assessment Test (VCAT), which can be administered to multilingual populations without the need for translation or adaptation. We designed a battery of tests to evaluate the domains of memory, executive function, visuospatial function, language and attention. Pilot testing of individual test items, followed by test refinement and development of a field version was performed. We subsequently validated VCAT for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). Diagnostic performance was assessed by the area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp). VCAT was validated in a sample of 206 participants. The sample comprised 53.9% males; mean age (SD) was 67.8 (8.86) years; mean years of education was 10.5(6.0). AUC of VCAT for detection of cognitive impairment was found to be 93.3 (95% CI 90.1 to 96.4). Also, the Se and Sp of VCAT for the diagnosis of cognitive impairment (MCI and mild AD) were 85.6% and 81.1%, respectively. VCAT's diagnostic Se and Sp comparable to those of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in the same cohort. Mean time-to-complete VCAT was 15.7 ± 7.3 min. The VCAT has good Se and Sp for the diagnosis of MCI and mild AD. The visual-based test paradigm allows easy application to multilingual populations without the need for translation or adaptation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. A core in vitro genotoxicity battery comprising the Ames test plus the in vitro micronucleus test is sufficient to detect rodent carcinogens and in vivo genotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkland, David; Reeve, Lesley; Gatehouse, David; Vanparys, Philippe

    2011-03-18

    In vitro genotoxicity testing needs to include tests in both bacterial and mammalian cells, and be able to detect gene mutations, chromosomal damage and aneuploidy. This may be achieved by a combination of the Ames test (detects gene mutations) and the in vitro micronucleus test (MNvit), since the latter detects both chromosomal aberrations and aneuploidy. In this paper we therefore present an analysis of an existing database of rodent carcinogens and a new database of in vivo genotoxins in terms of the in vitro genotoxicity tests needed to detect their in vivo activity. Published in vitro data from at least one test system (most were from the Ames test) were available for 557 carcinogens and 405 in vivo genotoxins. Because there are fewer publications on the MNvit than for other mammalian cell tests, and because the concordance between the MNvit and the in vitro chromosomal aberration (CAvit) test is so high for clastogenic activity, positive results in the CAvit test were taken as indicative of a positive result in the MNvit where there were no, or only inadequate data for the latter. Also, because Hprt and Tk loci both detect gene-mutation activity, a positive Hprt test was taken as indicative of a mouse-lymphoma Tk assay (MLA)-positive, where there were no data for the latter. Almost all of the 962 rodent carcinogens and in vivo genotoxins were detected by an in vitro battery comprising Ames+MNvit. An additional 11 carcinogens and six in vivo genotoxins would apparently be detected by the MLA, but many of these had not been tested in the MNvit or CAvit tests. Only four chemicals emerge as potentially being more readily detected in MLA than in Ames+MNvit--benzyl acetate, toluene, morphine and thiabendazole--and none of these are convincing cases to argue for the inclusion of the MLA in addition to Ames+MNvit. Thus, there is no convincing evidence that any genotoxic rodent carcinogens or in vivo genotoxins would remain undetected in an in vitro test battery

  14. The prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection in western China detected by PCR and serological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Hai-Tang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine leishmaniasis (CanL is endemic in western China, resulting in important public health problem. It is essential to evaluate the prevalence of canine Leishmania infantum infection for designing control policy. In the present study we report for the first time prevalence of Leishmania infection in dogs living in Jiuzhaigou County (Sichuan Provence, China, which is not only an important endemic area of CanL but also a tourism scenic spot, detected by PCR, ELISA and dipstick test. The results could provide key information for designing control programs against canine and human leishmaniasis. In addition, the complete sequence of the Leishmania isolate from Sichuan Province has not been reported to date and we present the sequences of 116 base-pair (bp fragment of the conserved region in the minicircle kinetoplast DNA (kDNA and the results of phylogenetic analyses based on the sequence of the amplified fragment. Results The proportion of dogs infected with Leishmania in Jiuzhaigou County was 36.79%, 9.43%, and 51.88% detected by ELISA, dipstick test, and PCR, respectively. The ELISA and PCR tests were more sensitive than dipstick test. The PCR method is the most sensitive way to detect dogs infected with Leishmania parasites. The total positive rate for infected dogs in the area was 59.43% by the three methods. The PCR products of 116-bp fragment amplified from the kDNA conserved region of dog blood samples and laboratory maintained L. infantum were DNA sequenced and the variation of the sequences was observed. The phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of 116-bp fragment reveals that L. infantum is more genetically related to visceralizing species L. donovani than to the Leishmania species associated with cutaneous disease. Conclusions More than half of dogs living in the endemic Jiuzhaigou County were infected by L. infantum. Control measures, such as treatment or eradication of infected dogs, or prohibition of

  15. Ensuring Machine and Tractor Aggregates Operability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redreev, G. V.

    2016-08-01

    the operability of the machine and tractor aggregates is ensured by processes which occur in machine units and considered as technical systems. In order to develop theoretical understanding of the processes in technical systems as the basis and purpose of the repairserving actions, the author's concept is presented which relies on on the basic concepts of "processes in technical systems", "maintenance and repair of performers", "maintenance and repair of technology" "objectives of the maintenance and repair". Analysis of the basic concepts of "processes in technical systems" made possible to distinguishing four types of relations: of order, stipulation, exactingness, and non-contradiction. It is shown that the implementation of maintenance and repair of technology should be conducted according to the assessment of the effectiveness of processes in technical systems, revealed in complex diagnosis. The perfection of the design of the machine in terms of its technical operation can be estimated according to the degree of consistency of processes in technical systems, purposes of maintenance and repair. In order to increase the efficiency of the lubrication system,the modernised design of the centrifugal oil filter with permanent control of its cleaning power is offered, which allows changing the technology of the maintenance of engine lubrication system by separating the operations of crankcase oil replacement and the rotor filter cleaning.

  16. Surgical treatment for obesity: ensuring success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andris, Deborah A

    2005-01-01

    In the United States, obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Serious medical complications, impaired quality of life, and premature mortality are all associated with obesity. Medical conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or sleep apnea can improve or be cured with weight loss. Medical treatment programs focused on diet, behavior modification, and/or pharmacologic intervention have met with limited long-term success. Although surgical treatments for obesity have become popular in recent years, they should only be used as a last resort for weight loss. Not all patients can be considered appropriate candidates for surgery; therefore, guidelines based on criteria from the National Institutes of Health should be used preoperatively to help identify suitable persons. Most individuals who opt for weight-loss surgery have usually struggled for many years with losing weight and keeping it off, but surgery alone will not ensure successful weight loss. Patient education is imperative for long-term success. Moreover, any such educational regimen should include information on diet, vitamin and mineral supplementation, and lifestyle changes, as well as expected weight-loss results and improvements in comorbid conditions. Patients must be willing to commit to a long-term follow-up program intended to promote successful weight loss and weight maintenance and to prevent metabolic and nutritional complications.

  17. Immunochromatographic Lateral-flow test strip for the rapid detection of added bovine rennet whey in milk and milk powder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin-Hernandez, C.; Munoz, M.; Daury, C.; Weymuth, H.; Kemmers-Voncken, A.; Corbation, V.; Toribo, T.; Bremer, M.G.E.G.

    2009-01-01

    An immunochromatographic lateral-flow test dipstick test was developed for the fast detection of bovine rennet whey in liquid milk and milk powder. The test is based on the binding of casein glycomacropeptide (cGMP) by two specific anti-bovine ¿-casein monoclonal antibodies and has a visual

  18. A comparison of three tests to detect feigned amnesia: The effects of feedback and the measurement of response latency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolan, B.; Foster, J.K.; Schmand, B.; Bolan, S.

    2002-01-01

    Three experiments provided validation data for an English language version of the Amsterdam Short Term Memory Test (ASTM test) developed to detect feigned memory impairment. In all 3 experiments a total of 91 Ss (aged 17-66 yrs) participated. Using a simulation design, the ASTM test compared

  19. Detecting Randomness: the Sensitivity of Statistical Tests to Deviations from a Constant Rate Poisson Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    Detecting trends in the rate of sporadic events is a problem for earthquakes and other natural hazards such as storms, floods, or landslides. I use synthetic events to judge the tests used to address this problem in seismology and consider their application to other hazards. Recent papers have analyzed the record of magnitude ≥7 earthquakes since 1900 and concluded that the events are consistent with a constant rate Poisson process plus localized aftershocks (Michael, GRL, 2011; Shearer and Stark, PNAS, 2012; Daub et al., GRL, 2012; Parsons and Geist, BSSA, 2012). Each paper removed localized aftershocks and then used a different suite of statistical tests to test the null hypothesis that the remaining data could be drawn from a constant rate Poisson process. The methods include KS tests between event times or inter-event times and predictions from a Poisson process, the autocorrelation function on inter-event times, and two tests on the number of events in time bins: the Poisson dispersion test and the multinomial chi-square test. The range of statistical tests gives us confidence in the conclusions; which are robust with respect to the choice of tests and parameters. But which tests are optimal and how sensitive are they to deviations from the null hypothesis? The latter point was raised by Dimer (arXiv, 2012), who suggested that the lack of consideration of Type 2 errors prevents these papers from being able to place limits on the degree of clustering and rate changes that could be present in the global seismogenic process. I produce synthetic sets of events that deviate from a constant rate Poisson process using a variety of statistical simulation methods including Gamma distributed inter-event times and random walks. The sets of synthetic events are examined with the statistical tests described above. Preliminary results suggest that with 100 to 1000 events, a data set that does not reject the Poisson null hypothesis could have a variability that is 30% to

  20. Validation of the shake test for detecting freeze damage to adsorbed vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgüler, Nejat Kenan; Wolfson, Lara J; Kurzatkowski, Wiesław

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the validity of the shake test for detecting freeze damage in aluminium-based, adsorbed, freeze-sensitive vaccines. Methods A double-blind crossover design was used to compare the performance of the shake test conducted by trained health-care workers (HCWs) with that of phase contrast microscopy as a “gold standard”. A total of 475 vials of 8 different types of World Health Organization prequalified freeze-sensitive vaccines from 10 different manufacturers were used. Vaccines were kept at 5 °C. Selected numbers of vials from each type were then exposed to −25 °C and −2 °C for 24-hour periods. Findings There was complete concordance between HCWs and phase-contrast microscopy in identifying freeze-damaged vials and non-frozen samples. Non-frozen samples showed a fine-grain structure under phase contrast microscopy, but freeze-damaged samples showed large conglomerates of massed precipitates with amorphous, crystalline, solid and needle-like structures. Particles in the non-frozen samples measured from 1 μm (vaccines against diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis; Haemophilus influenzae type b; hepatitis B; diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis–hepatitis B) to 20 μm (diphtheria and tetanus vaccines, alone or in combination). By contrast, aggregates in the freeze-damaged samples measured up to 700 μm (diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis) and 350 μm on average. Conclusion The shake test had 100% sensitivity, 100% specificity and 100% positive predictive value in this study, which confirms its validity for detecting freeze damage to aluminium-based freeze-sensitive vaccines. PMID:20680128

  1. The DNA comet assay and the germination test in detection of food treated by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huachaca, Nelida Simona Marin

    2002-01-01

    Two methods of irradiated food detection, one biochemical, the comet assay and, other biological, the germination test, were applied in bovine meat and fruit samples. The comet assay detects the damage on DNA caused by ionizing radiation. The germination test evaluates the sensitivity to radiation of seeds as for germination ability, shooting and, rooting. The samples were irradiated in gamma font and electron accelerator. For bovine meat samples, the doses were 0.0; 2.5; 4.5 e 7.0 kGy at chilled condition and, 0.0; 2.5; 4.5; 7.0 e 8.5 kGy at frozen conditions. For fruit samples such as melon, watermelon, apple, orange, papaya and, tomato, the doses were: 0.0; 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; 2.0 e 4.0 kGy. The differences between the gamma rays and the electron beam effects on extent of DNA migration and, on shooting and rooting, showed to be similar. The comet assay, under neutral conditions, permitted to discriminate between irradiated and unirradiated bovine meat samples, until one month of storage. Also, it was possible to distinguish, by the comet assay, the control sample with regard to irradiated fruit, at doses as low as 0,5 kGy. In the germination test, the root length was the best parameter to discriminate irradiated and unirradiated samples of melon, watermelon and tomato, while the germination percent was the best parameter for apple and orange. (author)

  2. Modified forelimb grip strength test detects aging-associated physiological decline in skeletal muscle function in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Hikari; Yamamoto, Koichi; Nozato, Satoko; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Yamamoto, Ryohei; Imaizumi, Yuki; Hongyo, Kazuhiro; Yokoyama, Serina; Takeda, Masao; Oguro, Ryosuke; Takami, Yoichi; Itoh, Norihisa; Takeya, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Ken; Fukada, So-Ichiro; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2017-02-08

    The conventional forelimb grip strength test is a widely used method to assess skeletal muscle function in rodents; in this study, we modified this method to improve its variability and consistency. The modified test had lower variability among trials and days than the conventional test in young C57BL6 mice, especially by improving the variabilities in male. The modified test was more sensitive than the conventional test to detect a difference in motor function between female and male mice, or between young and old male mice. When the modified test was performed on male mice during the aging process, reduction of grip strength manifested between 18 and 24 months of age at the group level and at the individual level. The modified test was similar to the conventional test in detecting skeletal muscle dysfunction in young male dystrophic mice. Thus, the modified forelimb grip strength test, with its improved validity and reliability may be an ideal substitute for the conventional method.

  3. Statistical Hypothesis Testing using CNN Features for Synthesis of Adversarial Counterexamples to Human and Object Detection Vision Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, Sunny [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Jha, Sumit Kumar [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Pullum, Laura L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ramanathan, Arvind [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Validating the correctness of human detection vision systems is crucial for safety applications such as pedestrian collision avoidance in autonomous vehicles. The enormous space of possible inputs to such an intelligent system makes it difficult to design test cases for such systems. In this report, we present our tool MAYA that uses an error model derived from a convolutional neural network (CNN) to explore the space of images similar to a given input image, and then tests the correctness of a given human or object detection system on such perturbed images. We demonstrate the capability of our tool on the pre-trained Histogram-of-Oriented-Gradients (HOG) human detection algorithm implemented in the popular OpenCV toolset and the Caffe object detection system pre-trained on the ImageNet benchmark. Our tool may serve as a testing resource for the designers of intelligent human and object detection systems.

  4. Preventive testing and leakage detection in pipe-lines of steam condensers and generators of a PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canalini, A.; Carvalho, N.C. de

    1985-01-01

    The non-destructive methods: Spum, Helium and Hydrostatic used in leakage detection in condenser pipelines for PWR type reactors are presented. The time, costs, sensitivity, resources necessary and personnel development factors are considered to choose adequated method, in function of nuclear power plant conditions. The leakage tests are applied in pressurized systems or vacuum. Eddy Current testing is used in condensers and steam generators aiming to avoid leakage in these equipments. The spume testing for leakage detection in condenser pipelines - which operation - and hydrostatic testing for leakage detection through reaming with shutdown - were most efficients. The Helium testing applied in pressurized systems or submitted to vacuum systems presented satisfactory results. The Eddy Current testing in condenser and steam generator pipelines reached desired objective, reducing leakage in the first and preserving the integrity in the second. (M.C.K.) [pt

  5. [Professional socialization of nurses ensuring practice activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankauskiene, Zymante; Kubiliene, Erika; Juozulynas, Algirdas; Venalis, Algirdas

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate professional socialization of nurses and its association with assurance of practice activity. The study was carried out in randomly selected Lithuanian health care institutions from January to June 2007. A total of 1300 nurses, enrolled in the study, were divided into three groups according to the position held by participants: general practice nurses, 77.8%; senior nurses and leaders, 10.7%; and 4th-year students of general nurse education program, 11.5%. A questionnaire-based survey was carried out. The data were processed with SPSS 15.0 statistical software. Descriptive and multidimensional statistical methods were applied in the study. The matrix model, integrating characteristics of nurses' professional socialization and dimensions of practice activity and disclosing parameters and indicators of assurance of these processes, was applied for data analysis. The respondents favorably evaluated the aspects ensuring professional socialization and practice activity such as "professional activity," "motivators of professional activity," "professional characteristic," "system of professional values," and "professional behavior." The respondents unfavorably evaluated the following parameters: "security of professional self-expression and self-education," "professional development," "professional expectations," and "implementation of institution strategies." For the evaluation of nurses' professional socialization and practice activity, a theoretical model was created, and nine diagnostic criteria, integrating the characteristics of professional socialization and dimensions of practice activity, were formulated. A significant positive correlation was determined among the majority of the diagnostic criteria of the intercorrelation matrix of theoretical model. Having summarized the attitude of nurses toward professional socialization and the provision of practice activity, both favorable and unfavorable aspects of assessment

  6. Nucleic Acid Amplification Test For Detection Of West Nile Virus Infection In Pakistani Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Saifullah Khan; Alam, Maqbool; Yazdani, Muhammad Sajid; Ghani, Eijaz; Rathore, Muhammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT). The blood donors for study were selected on the basis of the standard questionnaire and routine screening results. Six donors were pooled using an automated pipettor and NAT for WNV was performed on Roche Cobas s 201 NAT system. The reactive pools were resolved in Individual Donation-NAT (ID-NAT) format and a sample from FFP bags of reactive donations was retrieved. NAT was again performed on retrieved plasma bag (RPB) sample to confirm the reactive donations. The donors were also recalled and interviewed about history of illness related to recent WNV infection. After serological screening of 1929 donors during the study period, 1860 donors were selected for NAT test for WNV detection. The mean age of the donors was 28±8.77 (range: 18-57 years). 1847 (99.3%) donors were male and 13 (0.7%) were female. NAT for WNV identified six initially reactive pools (0.32%). On follow-up testing with RPB samples, 4 donors (0.21%) were found confirmed reactive for WNV RNA (NAT yield of 1 in 465 blood donors). WNV is a threat to safety of blood products in Pakistan. A screening strategy can be implemented after a large-scale study and financial considerations. One of the reduced cost screening strategies is seasonal screening of blood donors for WNV, with pooling of samples.

  7. Fixation preference test: reliability for the detection of amblyopia in patients with strabismus and interexaminer agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan Turan, Kadriye; Taylan Sekeroglu, Hande; Karahan, Sevilay; Sanac, Ali Sefik

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the reliability of the fixation preference test (FPT) in the detection of amblyopia, and to determine interexaminer agreement. Eighty patients whose visual acuity could be tested objectively and had a horizontal misalignment of more than 10 prism diopters were enrolled. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and orthoptic findings were all recorded. Non-preferred eye in primary position and fixation preference grade were assessed independently by two masked experienced examiners. The primary outcome measures were reliability of FPT in terms of its correlation with BCVA and interexaminer agreement. There was no significant correlation between fixation preference grades and interocular visual acuity difference as well as the type and amount of deviation, the presence of fusion, stereopsis, anisometropia, and previous strabismus surgery for none of the examiners (p > 0.05 for all). Sensitivity was 52.0% for examiner 1 and 54.0% for examiner 2 while specificity was 50.0 and 46.7%, respectively. Interexaminer agreement was 76.7% (p amblyopia and also in predicting the visual acuity difference between both eyes, even though it was found to show a high degree of agreement between examiners. In conclusion, it should be kept in mind that the reliability of FPT may be limited and the results should be interpreted with caution and be supported by other tests.

  8. Association between use of rapid antigen detection tests and adherence to antibiotics in suspected streptococcal pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llor, Carl; Hernández, Silvia; Sierra, Nuria; Moragas, Ana; Hernández, Marta; Bayona, Carolina

    2010-03-01

    Few studies have analysed adherence to antibiotic treatment in pharyngitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of rapid antigen detection tests (RADT) and treatment adherence among patients 18 years of age or over with pharyngitis treated with different antibiotic regimens. Prospective study from 2003 to 2008. Office-based physician practices. Intervention. The adherence of patients prior to the use of RADTs - no test was available until mid-2006 - was compared with the adherence associated with the use of RADTs. Patients with suspected streptococcal pharyngitis. Patient adherence was assessed by electronic monitoring. The adherence outcomes considered were antibiotic-taking adherence, correct dosing, and good timing adherence during at least 80% of the antibiotic course. A total of 196 patients were recruited. The percentage of container openings was 77.9%+/-17.7%, being significantly higher for patients in whom the RADTs were performed compared with those in whom this test was not undertaken (80.1% vs. 70.8% for thrice-daily antibiotic regimens and 88.1% vs. 76.5% for twice-daily regimens; p pills (71.3% vs. 42.2%; p dosing was always greater when the patient had undergone an RADT. Adherence to antibiotic treatment is higher when an RADT is carried out at the consultation prior to administration of antibiotic treatment.

  9. Detection and analysis of xenon isotopes for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty international monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, T.W.; Schlosser, C.; Abel, K.H.; Auer, M.; Hayes, J.C.; Heimbigner, T.R.; McIntyre, J.I.; Panisko, M.E.; Reeder, P.L.; Satorius, H.; Schulze, J.; Weiss, W.

    2002-01-01

    The use of the xenon isotopes for detection of nuclear explosions is of great interest for monitoring compliance with the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT). Recently, the automated radioxenon sampler-analyzer (ARSA) was tested at the Institute for Atmospheric Radioactivity (IAR) in Freiburg, Germany to ascertain its use for the CTBT by comparing its results to laboratory-based analyses, determining its detection sensitivity and analyzing its results in light of historical xenon isotope levels and known reactor operations in the area. Xe-133 was detected nearly every day throughout the test at activity concentrations ranging between approximately 0.1 mBq/m 3 to as high as 120 mBq/m 3 . Xe-133m and 135 Xe were also detected occasionally during the test at concentrations of less than 1 to a few mBq/m 3

  10. Detection and analysis of xenon isotopes for the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty international monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, T W; Schlosser, C; Abel, K H; Auer, M; Hayes, J C; Heimbigner, T R; McIntyre, J I; Panisko, M E; Reeder, P L; Satorius, H; Schulze, J; Weiss, W

    2002-01-01

    The use of the xenon isotopes for detection of nuclear explosions is of great interest for monitoring compliance with the comprehensive nuclear-test-ban treaty (CTBT). Recently, the automated radioxenon sampler-analyzer (ARSA) was tested at the Institute for Atmospheric Radioactivity (IAR) in Freiburg, Germany to ascertain its use for the CTBT by comparing its results to laboratory-based analyses, determining its detection sensitivity and analyzing its results in light of historical xenon isotope levels and known reactor operations in the area. Xe-133 was detected nearly every day throughout the test at activity concentrations ranging between approximately 0.1 mBq/m3 to as high as 120 mBq/m3. Xe-133m and 135Xe were also detected occasionally during the test at concentrations of less than 1 to a few mBq/m3.

  11. Evaluation of molecular markers for Phytophthora ramorum detection and identification: Testing for specificity using a standardized library of isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    F.N. Martin; M.D. Coffey; K. Zeller; R.C. Hamelin; P. Tooley; M. Garbelotto; K.J.D. Hughes; T. Kubisiak; G.J. Bilodeau; L. Levy; C. Blomquist; P.H. Berger

    2009-01-01

    Given the importance of Phytophthora ramorum from a regulatory standpoint, it is imperative that molecular markers for pathogen detection are fully tested to evaluate their specificity in detection of the pathogen. In an effort to evaluate 11 reported diagnostic techniques, we assembled a standardized DNA library using accessions from the World...

  12. Detection of explosive as an indicator of landmines: BIOSENS project methodology and field tests in Southeast Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabbe, Stephen; Eng, Lars; Gardhagen, Peter; Berg, Anders

    2005-06-01

    The IST-2000-25348-BIOSENS project carried out a number of studies to assess the use of explosive detection technology for humanitarian demining. This paper presents sampling/collection technology developed, test methodology and results including comparisons with dogs and soil sampling. Findings are presented in terms of the detection of explosive from mines in the environment and demining.

  13. Yield of Stool Culture with Isolate Toxin Testing versus a Two-Step Algorithm Including Stool Toxin Testing for Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile▿

    OpenAIRE

    Reller, Megan E.; Lema, Clara A.; Perl, Trish M.; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L.; Speck, Kathleen A.; Carroll, Karen C.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) C...

  14. Impact of a routine, opt-out HIV testing program on HIV testing and case detection in North Carolina sexually transmitted disease clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Pamela W; Messer, Lynne C; Myers, Evan R; Weber, David J; Leone, Peter A; Miller, William C

    2014-06-01

    The impact of routine, opt-out HIV testing programs in clinical settings is inconclusive. The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of an expanded, routine HIV testing program in North Carolina sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics on HIV testing and case detection. Adults aged 18 to 64 years who received an HIV test in a North Carolina STD clinic from July 1, 2005, through June 30, 2011, were included in this analysis, dichotomized at the date of implementation on November 1, 2007. HIV testing and case detection counts and rates were analyzed using interrupted time series analysis and Poisson and multilevel logistic regression. Preintervention, 426 new HIV-infected cases were identified from 128,029 tests (0.33%), whereas 816 new HIV-infected cases were found from 274,745 tests postintervention (0.30%). Preintervention, HIV testing increased by 55 tests per month (95% confidence interval [CI], 41-72), but only 34 tests per month (95% CI, 26-42) postintervention. Increases in HIV testing rates were most pronounced in women and non-Hispanic whites. A slight preintervention decline in case detection was mitigated by the intervention (mean difference, 0.01; 95% CI, -0.02 to 0.05). Increases in case detection rates were observed among women and non-Hispanic blacks. The impact of a routine HIV screening in North Carolina STD clinics was marginal, with the greatest benefit among persons not traditionally targeted for HIV testing. The use of a preintervention comparison period identified important temporal trends that otherwise would have been ignored.

  15. TESTING BAYESIAN ALGORITHMS TO DETECT GENETIC STRUCTURE IN TWO CLOSELY RELATED OAK TAXA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Mihai Enescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the Bayesian algorithm implemented in the software STRUCTURE in order to detect the number of clusters, by using microsatellite data from four oak species. Several assignment models, with or without a priori grouping of individuals to species, were proposed. Better results were obtained by using the sampling location information and when only two taxa were analyzed. Particularly, pedunculate oak and sessile oak formed distinct clusters whatever the assignment model we use. By contrast, no separation between the two oaks from series Lanuginosae was observed. This can be explained, on one hand, by the small sampling size for Italian oak, or by the genetic similarities of the two pubescent oaks, namely Quercus pubescens and Q. virgiliana, on the other hand. Our findings support the hypothesis according which Italian oak is an intraspecific taxonomic unit of pubescent oak.

  16. Evaluation of a rapid immunochromatographic test for detection of distinct variants of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) in Enterobacteriaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Ana C; Gales, Ana C; Monteiro, Jussimara; Silbert, Suzane; Chagas-Neto, Thomás; Machado, Antonia M O; Carvalhaes, Cecilia G

    2017-11-01

    The rapid detection of KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae by microbiology laboratories has been required for infectious control programs. Herein we evaluated the performance of a novel immunochromatographic test for detecting KPC-2-, KPC-3-, KPC-4-, KPC-6-, KPC-7-, KPC-8-, and KPC-11-producing isolates and the influence of different growth media on the test performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Latex agglutination testing directly from throat swabs for rapid detection of beta-hemolytic streptococci from Lancefield serogroup C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, G F; Turner, J C; Kiselica, D; Dunn, M; Hendley, J O

    1992-01-01

    A latex agglutination method for the rapid detection of beta-hemolytic streptococci from Lancefield serogroup C in throat swabs from 403 university students with symptomatic pharyngitis was evaluated. Compared with culture, the rapid test was poorly sensitive (34.4%) but very specific (98.4%) in detecting group C beta-hemolytic streptococci. The sensitivity of the rapid test improved with an increasing quantity of growth on culture. PMID:1551989

  18. Yield of Stool Culture with Isolate Toxin Testing versus a Two-Step Algorithm Including Stool Toxin Testing for Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reller, Megan E.; Lema, Clara A.; Perl, Trish M.; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L.; Speck, Kathleen A.; Carroll, Karen C.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) CCNA and conventional PCR if the direct CCNA was negative. The “gold standard” for toxigenic C. difficile was detection of C. difficile by the GDH screen or by culture and toxin production by direct or indirect CCNA. We tested 439 specimens from 439 patients. GDH screening detected all culture-positive specimens. The sensitivity of the two-step algorithm was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 84%), and that of culture was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 92%). PCR results correlated completely with those of CCNA testing on isolates (29/29 positive and 32/32 negative, respectively). We conclude that GDH is an excellent screening test and that culture with isolate CCNA testing detects an additional 23% of toxigenic C. difficile missed by direct CCNA. Since culture is tedious and also detects nontoxigenic C. difficile, we conclude that culture is most useful (i) when the direct CCNA is negative but a high clinical suspicion of toxigenic C. difficile remains, (ii) in the evaluation of new diagnostic tests for toxigenic C. difficile (where the best reference standard is essential), and (iii) in epidemiologic studies (where the availability of an isolate allows for strain typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing). PMID:17804652

  19. Yield of stool culture with isolate toxin testing versus a two-step algorithm including stool toxin testing for detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reller, Megan E; Lema, Clara A; Perl, Trish M; Cai, Mian; Ross, Tracy L; Speck, Kathleen A; Carroll, Karen C

    2007-11-01

    We examined the incremental yield of stool culture (with toxin testing on isolates) versus our two-step algorithm for optimal detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile. Per the two-step algorithm, stools were screened for C. difficile-associated glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen and, if positive, tested for toxin by a direct (stool) cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). In parallel, stools were cultured for C. difficile and tested for toxin by both indirect (isolate) CCNA and conventional PCR if the direct CCNA was negative. The "gold standard" for toxigenic C. difficile was detection of C. difficile by the GDH screen or by culture and toxin production by direct or indirect CCNA. We tested 439 specimens from 439 patients. GDH screening detected all culture-positive specimens. The sensitivity of the two-step algorithm was 77% (95% confidence interval [CI], 70 to 84%), and that of culture was 87% (95% CI, 80 to 92%). PCR results correlated completely with those of CCNA testing on isolates (29/29 positive and 32/32 negative, respectively). We conclude that GDH is an excellent screening test and that culture with isolate CCNA testing detects an additional 23% of toxigenic C. difficile missed by direct CCNA. Since culture is tedious and also detects nontoxigenic C. difficile, we conclude that culture is most useful (i) when the direct CCNA is negative but a high clinical suspicion of toxigenic C. difficile remains, (ii) in the evaluation of new diagnostic tests for toxigenic C. difficile (where the best reference standard is essential), and (iii) in epidemiologic studies (where the availability of an isolate allows for strain typing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing).

  20. Utility of Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test for detection of Chlamydia trachomatis and its detection in male patients with non gonococcal urethritis in New Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was assessment of prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and utility of Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA test for its detection in male patients with non gonococcal urethritis in New Delhi , India Thirty male patients with symptoms of dysuria showing polymorphs in their gram stained urethral smears with no evidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and negative for Trichomonas vaginalis and Candida albicans by wet mount were subjected to DFA test for detection of C. trachomatis in urethral samples. Microscopic examination of gram stained urethral smears revealed 5-7 polymorphs / HPF in 90% of the patients. Evidence of C. trachomatis with DFA (MicroTrak was detected in 11 cases (36.67% when a cut off of 10 elementary bodies was considered essential. It is concluded that C. trachomatis is an important cause of non gonococcal urethritis in male patients in New Delhi and DFA test is a useful diagnostic tool in its detection. Where facilities are not available for its detection antichlamydial therapy should be recommended emperically.

  1. Evaluation of the enzyme test for the detection of clinically significant red blood cell antibodies during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundrić-Haspl, Z; Juraković-Loncar, N; Grgicević, D

    1999-01-01

    In the Croatian transfusion medicine, no general agreement has yet been achieved whether red blood cell (RBC) Rhesus (Rh) antibodies detected during pregnancy only by enzyme tests can cause hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN). Results of the detection of clinically significant RBC antibodies by low-ionic-strength additive solution antiglobulin test (LISS-IAT) and trypsin enzyme test in 22,947 pregnant women are presented. All pregnant women in whom clinically significant RBC antibodies (RBC-CSA) were detected by LISS-IAT and/or enzyme tests were followed and observed during pregnancy. The women who had enzyme-only anti-D antibodies in their serum were followed up during subsequent pregnancies. Out of 302 positive results obtained by both techniques, irregular clinically significant enzyme-only antibodies (anti-RhD and anti-RhE specificity) were detected in 14 (4.6%) pregnant women. None of 11 RhD positive newborns whose mothers had enzyme-only anti-D antibodies, had signs of HDN after delivery. In these 11 women, anti-D antibodies were detected by LISS-IAT in the first trimenon of subsequent pregnancy. Nine infants born from subsequent pregnancies to women who had previously had enzyme-only anti-D, had clinical signs of HDN. The authors concluded that there is no need for enzyme tests in prenatal testing because enzyme tests are not reliable in the prediction of HDN.

  2. Development and evaluation of PCR test for detection of Taylorella equigenitalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleumink-Pluym, N M; Werdler, M E; Houwers, D J; Parlevliet, J M; Colenbrander, B; van der Zeijst, B A

    1994-04-01

    A PCR for the detection of Taylorella equigenitalis, the causative agent of contagious equine metritis, was developed and evaluated. A genus-specific primer-probe set was derived from the 16S ribosomal DNA sequences. The PCR was specific and amplified a 585-bp product from all 64 available T. equigenitalis isolates. This PCR product hybridized with a specific probe in a dot spot assay. A variety of microorganisms from the genital tracts of horses or with a close phylogenetic relationship to T. equigenitalis did not yield a visible PCR product and were all negative in the dot spot hybridization assay. The results of the PCR assay were compared with those of culture by using 191 genital swabs from horses of several breeds. We demonstrate that the sensitivity of the PCR assay is superior to that of culture. The assay is most sensitive when DNA from culture plates incubated for at least 2 days is used. Of the tested samples, 1.5% were positive in the culture assay, whereas 35% were positive in the culture PCR assay. PCR-positive samples were obtained from all breeds tested. This means that many T. equigenitalis-carrying horses go unidentified by the current culturing technique. This affects current views about the spread and control of T. equigenitalis.

  3. Validation of Urine Test for Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Indonesian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Fahrial Syam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We measured the accuracy of the urine test (RAPIRUN for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia (Jakarta, Pontianak, and Jayapura using histology confirmed by immunohistochemistry and/or culture as gold standards. We also used immunohistochemistry to identify CagA phenotype and analyzed H. pylori CagA diversity in Indonesia. The overall prevalence of H. pylori infection in 88 consecutive dyspeptic patients based on the urine test was 15.9% (14/88, 38.1% for patients in Jayapura that had higher prevalence of H. pylori infection than that in Jakarta (9.7%, P=0.02 and Pontianak (8.3%, P=0.006. Overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of RAPIRUN were 83.3%, 94.7%, 71.4%, 97.3%, and 93.2%, respectively. All of the H. pylori-positive patients were immunoreactive for anti-CagA antibody but not immunoreactive for East Asian specific anti-CagA antibody in all H. pylori-positive subjects. We confirmed the high accuracy of RAPIRUN in Indonesian population. In general, we found less virulent type of H. pylori in Indonesia, which partly explained the low incidence gastric cancer in Indonesia.

  4. Temperature Trend Detection in Upper Indus Basin by Using Mann-Kendall Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateeq Ur Rauf

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and Climate change are commonly acknowledged as the most noteworthy environmental quandary the world is undergoing today. Contemporary studies have revealed that the Earth’s surface air temperature has augmented by 0.6°C – 0.8°C in the course of the 20th century, together with alterations in the hydrological cycle. This study focuses on detecting trends in seasonal temperature for the five selected stations in the Upper Indus Basin. The Mann-Kendall test was run at 5% significance level on time series data for each of the five stations during the time period, 1985 to 2014. The Standard Test Statistic (Zs indicates the presence of trend and whether it is increasing or decreasing. The analysis showed an increasing trend in mean monthly temperature at Astore, Gilgit and Gupiz in March and a decreasing trend for Astore, Drosh, Gilgit and Skardu in September. Gilgit and Gupiz showed unexpected increasing trend in October. This study concludes that the temperature starts increasing in March and stays elevated till the month of June and starts rising again in October thus resulting in expansion of summer season and prolonged glacial melting.

  5. Expanding the scope of noninvasive prenatal testing: detection of fetal microdeletion syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapner, Ronald J; Babiarz, Joshua E; Levy, Brynn; Stosic, Melissa; Zimmermann, Bernhard; Sigurjonsson, Styrmir; Wayham, Nicholas; Ryan, Allison; Banjevic, Milena; Lacroute, Phil; Hu, Jing; Hall, Megan P; Demko, Zachary; Siddiqui, Asim; Rabinowitz, Matthew; Gross, Susan J; Hill, Matthew; Benn, Peter

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the performance of a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based noninvasive prenatal test for 5 microdeletion syndromes. Four hundred sixty-nine samples (358 plasma samples from pregnant women, 111 artificial plasma mixtures) were amplified with the use of a massively multiplexed polymerase chain reaction, sequenced, and analyzed with the use of the Next-generation Aneuploidy Test Using SNPs algorithm for the presence or absence of deletions of 22q11.2, 1p36, distal 5p, and the Prader-Willi/Angelman region. Detection rates were 97.8% for a 22q11.2 deletion (45/46) and 100% for Prader-Willi (15/15), Angelman (21/21), 1p36 deletion (1/1), and cri-du-chat syndromes (24/24). False-positive rates were 0.76% for 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (3/397) and 0.24% for cri-du-chat syndrome (1/419). No false positives occurred for Prader-Willi (0/428), Angelman (0/442), or 1p36 deletion syndromes (0/422). SNP-based noninvasive prenatal microdeletion screening is highly accurate. Because clinically relevant microdeletions and duplications occur in >1% of pregnancies, regardless of maternal age, noninvasive screening for the general pregnant population should be considered. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. SARM-S4 and metabolites detection in sports drug testing: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grata, Elia; Perrenoud, Laurent; Saugy, Martial; Baume, Norbert

    2011-12-10

    Recently, pharmaceutical industry developed a new class of therapeutics called Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator (SARM) to substitute the synthetic anabolic drugs used in medical treatments. Since the beginning of the anti-doping testing in sports in the 1970s, steroids have been the most frequently detected drugs mainly used for their anabolic properties. The major advantage of SARMs is the reduced androgenic activities which are the main source of side effects following anabolic agents' administration. In 2010, the Swiss laboratory for doping analyses reported the first case of SARMs abuse during in-competition testing. The analytical steps leading to this finding are described in this paper. Screening and confirmation results were obtained based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analyses. Additional information regarding the SARM S-4 metabolism was investigated by ultra high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (UHPLC-QTOF-MS). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Fatigue in the military: towards a fatigue detection test based on the saccadic velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Piedra, Carolina; Rieiro, Héctor; Suárez, Juan; Rios-Tejada, Francisco; Catena, Andrés; Di Stasi, Leandro Luigi

    2016-09-01

    Fatigue is a major contributing factor to operational errors. Therefore, the validation of objective and sensitive indices to detect fatigue is critical to prevent accidents and catastrophes. Whereas tests based on saccadic velocity (SV) have become popular, their sensitivity in the military is not yet clear, since most research has been conducted in laboratory settings using not fully validated instruments. Field studies remain scarce, especially in extreme conditions such as real flights. Here, we investigated the effects of real, long flights on SV. We assessed five newly commissioned military helicopter pilots during their aviation training. Pilots flew Sikorsky S-76C helicopters, under instrumental flight rules, for more than 2 h (ca. 150 min). Eye movements were recorded before and after the flight with an eye tracker using a standard guided-saccade task. We also collected subjective ratings of fatigue. SV significantly decreased from the Pre-Flight to the Post-Flight session in all pilots by around 3% (range: 1-4%). Subjective ratings showed the same tendency. We provide conclusive evidence about the high sensitivity of fatigue tests based on SV in real flight conditions, even in small samples. This result might offer military medical departments a valid and useful biomarker of warfighter physiological state.

  8. A microcosting study of diagnostic tests for the detection of coronary artery disease in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, S.S. [Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: s.s.tan@erasmusmc.nl; Oppe, M. [Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.oppe@erasmusmc.nl; Zoet-Nugteren, S.K. [Ikazia Hospital Rotterdam, Department of Cardiology, P.O. Box 5009, 3008 AA Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: sk.zoet@ikazia.nl; Niezen, R.A. [Medical Center Rijnmond-Zuid, Department of Radiology, P.O. Box 9100, 3007 AC Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: niezenr@mcrz.nl; Kofflard, M.J.M. [Albert Schweitzer Hospital, Department of Cardiology, P.O. Box 444, 3300 AK Dordrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.j.m.kofflard@asz.nl; Ten Cate, F.J. [Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Department of Cardiology, P.O. Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: f.j.tencate@erasmusmc.nl; Roijen, L. Hakkaart-van [Erasmus MC University Medical Center, Institute for Medical Technology Assessment, P.O. Box 1738, 3000 DR Rotterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: l.hakkaart-vanroijen@erasmusmc.nl

    2009-10-15

    Objective: The primary aim of the present study was to calculate the actual costs of four diagnostic tests for the detection of coronary artery disease in the Netherlands using a microcosting methodology. As a secondary objective, the cost effectiveness of eight diagnostic strategies was examined, using microcosting and reimbursement fees subsequently as the cost estimate. Design: A multicenter, retrospective cost analysis from a hospital perspective. Setting: The study was conducted in three general hospitals in the Netherlands for 2006. Interventions: Exercise electrocardiography (exECG), stress echocardiography (sECHO), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and coronary angiography (CA). Results: The actual costs of exECG, sECHO, SPECT and CA were Euro 33, 216, 614 and 1300 respectively. For all diagnostic tests, labour and indirect cost components (overheads and capital) together accounted for over 75% of the total costs. Consumables played a relatively important role in SPECT (14%). Hotel and nutrition were only applicable to SPECT and CA. Diagnostic services were solely performed for CA, but their costs were negligible (2%). Using microcosting estimates, exECG-sECHO-SPECT-CA was the most and CA the least cost effective strategy ( Euro 397 and 1302 per accurately diagnosed patient). Using reimbursement fees, exECG-sECHO-CA was most and SPECT-CA least cost effective ( Euro 147 and 567 per accurately diagnosed patient). Conclusions: The use of microcosting estimates instead of reimbursement fees led to different conclusions regarding the relative cost effectiveness of alternative strategies.

  9. Seed Germination inhibition test for pregnancy detection in Malnad Gidda Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Narayana Swamy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the seed germination inhibition technique was applied to diagnose pregnancy in Malnad Gidda cattle breed, a dwarf breed found in coastal and neighboring heavy rainfall areas in Karnataka. The urine samples collected from six inseminated Malnad Gidda cows at two months of post insemination served as positive group and the urine from six non inseminated Malnad Gidda cows served as negative group. In both the cases, the urine was diluted at the ratio of 1:4 with distilled water. In each sterile Petri dish fifteen wheat seeds were taken on the blotting paper and 15 ml of diluted urine was added. For each cow the test was conducted with a replica of six tests in six Petri dishes. Control test was also carried out with the addition of water only to the wheat seeds. The Petri dishes were covered with the trays to avoid evaporation. After three days, the seeds were examined for germination inhibition percentage in positive, negative and control groups, wherein the mean germination inhibition percentage was 73.65 ± 2.81, 27.90 ± 2.56 and 21.48 ± 2.69, respectively. The mean shoot length of the germinated wheat seeds on fifth day was 0.95 ± 0.47, 3.62 ± 0.51 and 5.54 ± 0.68 cm in positive, negative and control groups, respectively. Mean germination inhibition percent and reduced shoot length in positive group of Malnad Gidda cattle was indicative of pregnancy state. It was concluded that the seed germination inhibition technique is useful to detect pregnancy in Malnad Gidda cattle as a simple, non-invasive and economical method. [Vet. World 2010; 3(3.000: 107-108

  10. The five-times-sit-to-stand test: validity, reliability and detectable change in older females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Allon; Chavis, Martina; Watkins, Johnny; Wilson, Tyler

    2012-08-01

    The five-times-sit-to-stand test (FTSST) is a physical performance test commonly-used in clinical geriatric studies. The relationship between FTSST times and dynamic balance has not been widely investigated in older adults. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the validity of the FTSST as a measure of dynamic balance in older adults. A second objective was to quantify relative and absolute reliability, as well as minimum detectable change (MDC) of the FTSST in older adults. Twenty-nine females (mean age, 73.6 years) performed two trials of the FTSST, timed up and go (TUG), and functional reach (FR) tests. Validity of the FTSST as a measure of dynamic balance was evaluated by quantifying strength of relationships between the FTSST and two measures of dynamic balance, TUG and FR, using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Measures of relative [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)] and absolute [standard error of measurement (SEM)] reliability, as well as the MDC at the 95% confidence level (MDC 95 ) were computed for the FTSST. The Pearson's correlation coefficient between FTSST and TUG (r=0.64, p<0.001) indicates that FTSST is a valid measure of dynamic balance and functional mobility in older adults. The ICC 2,1 of 0.95 is indicative of excellent relative reliability of the FTSST. SEM was 0.9 seconds and MDC 95 was 2.5 seconds for the FTSST. SEM (6.3% of mean FTSST) and MDC (17.5% of mean FTSST) percent values were low. The FTSST is a valid measure of dynamic balance and functional mobility in older adults. The high ICC and low SEM and SEM% suggest excellent relative and absolute reliability and reproducibility of the FTSST in older adults. Change in FTSST performance should exceed 2.5 seconds to be considered real change beyond measurement error.

  11. Nucleic acid amplification test for detection of west nile virus infection in pakistani blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niazi, S.K.; Alam, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT). Methods: The blood donors for study were selected on the basis of the standard questionnaire and routine screening results. Six donors were pooled using an automated pipettor and NAT for WNV was performed on Roche Cobas s 201 NAT system. The reactive pools were resolved in Individual Donation-NAT (ID-NAT) format and a sample from FFP bags of reactive donations was retrieved. NAT was again performed on retrieved plasma bag (RPB) sample to confirm the reactive donations. The donors were also recalled and interviewed about history of illness related to recent WNV infection. Results: After serological screening of 1929 donors during the study period, 1860 donors were selected for NAT test for WNV detection. The mean age of the donors was 28±8.77 (range: 18–57 years). 1847 (99.3%) donors were male and 13 (0.7%) were female. NAT for WNV identified six initially reactive pools (0.32%). On follow-up testing with RPB samples, 4 donors (0.21%) were found confirmed reactive for WNV RNA (NAT yield of 1 in 465 blood donors). Conclusion: WNV is a threat to safety of blood products in Pakistan. A screening strategy can be implemented after a large-scale study and financial considerations. One of the reduced cost screening strategies is seasonal screening of blood donors for WNV, with pooling of samples. (author)

  12. Reverse-Transcriptase PCR Detection of Leptospira: Absence of Agreement with Single-Specimen Microscopic Agglutination Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner, Jesse J; Balassiano, Ilana; Mohamed-Hadley, Alisha; Vital-Brazil, Juliana Magalhães; Sahoo, Malaya K; Pinsky, Benjamin A

    2015-01-01

    Reference diagnostic tests for leptospirosis include nucleic acid amplification tests, bacterial culture, and microscopic agglutination testing (MAT) of acute and convalescent serum. However, clinical laboratories often do not receive paired specimens. In the current study, we tested serum samples using a highly sensitive real-time nucleic acid amplification test for Leptospira and compared results to MAT performed on the same specimens. 478 serum samples from suspected leptospirosis cases in Rio de Janeiro were tested using a real-time RT-PCR for the diagnosis of leptospirosis, malaria and dengue (the Lepto-MD assay). The Lepto-MD assay detects all species of Leptospira (saprophytic, intermediate, and pathogenic), and in the current study, we demonstrate that this assay amplifies both Leptospira RNA and DNA. Dengue virus RNA was identified in 10 patients, and no cases of malaria were detected. A total of 65 samples (13.6%) were positive for Leptospira: 35 samples (7.3%) in the Lepto-MD assay, 33 samples (6.9%) by MAT, and 3 samples tested positive by both (kappa statistic 0.02). Poor agreement between methods was consistent regardless of the titer used to define positive MAT results or the day of disease at sample collection. Leptospira nucleic acids were detected in the Lepto-MD assay as late as day 22, and cycle threshold values did not differ based on the day of disease. When Lepto-MD assay results were added to the MAT results for all patients in 2008 (n=818), the number of detected leptospirosis cases increased by 30.4%, from 102 (12.5%) to 133 (16.3%). This study demonstrates a lack of agreement between nucleic acid detection of Leptospira and single-specimen MAT, which may result from the clearance of bacteremia coinciding with the appearance of agglutinating antibodies. A combined testing strategy for acute leptospirosis, including molecular and serologic testing, appears necessary to maximize case detection.

  13. SIMPLIT: Ensuring technology usability for the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    DURÁ-GIL, JUAN V.; Laparra Hernandez, Jose; POVEDA PUENTE, RAKEL; Marzo Rosello, Raquel; López Vicente, Mª Amparo; Bollain Pastor, Clara

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this work is to establish a reliable methodology to test if a product is simple, practical, and user-friendly for the elderly. We pursue a twofold objective: (i) to respond to companies that want to be responsive to this increasingly demanding group; (ii) to guarantee that the certified products are easy to use for the elderly. The methodol-ogy will consist of reliable protocols according to the quality required by the recognised certification bodies-in the Spanish case AEN...

  14. A novel automatic molecular test for detection of multidrug resistance tuberculosis in sputum specimen: A case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Ou, Xi C; Pang, Yu; Xia, Hui; Huang, Hai R; Zhao, Bing; Wang, Sheng F; Zhao, Yan L

    2017-07-01

    MiniLab tuberculosis (ML TB) assay is a new automatic diagnostic tool for diagnosis of multidrug resistance tuberculosis (MDR-TB). This study was conducted with aims to know the performance of this assay. Sputum sample from 224 TB suspects was collected from tuberculosis suspects seeking medical care at Beijing Chest hospital. The sputum samples were directly used for smear and ML TB test. The left sputum sample was used to conduct Xpert MTB/RIF, Bactec MGIT culture and drug susceptibility test (DST). All discrepancies between the results from DST, molecular and phenotypic methods were confirmed by DNA Sequencing. The sensitivity and specificity of ML TB test for detecting MTBC from TB suspects were 95.1% and 88.9%, respectively. The sensitivity for smear negative TB suspects was 64.3%. For detection of RIF resistance, the sensitivity and specificity of ML TB test were 89.2% and 95.7%, respectively. For detection of INH resistance, the sensitivity and specificity of ML TB test were 78.3% and 98.1%, respectively. ML TB test showed similar performance to Xpert MTB/RIF for detection of MTBC and RIF resistance. In addition, ML TB also had good performance for INH resistance detection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. In-practice evaluation of whole-blood Helicobacter pylori test: its usefulness in detecting peptic ulcer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartero, A O; Numans, M E; de Melker, R A; de Wit, N J

    2000-01-01

    Approximately 10% of patients presenting with dyspepsia to the general practitioner have peptic ulcers; the large majority of which are related to infection with Helicobactor pylori. Office-based tests for H. pylori detection are generally validated and evaluated in selected patient groups. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a whole-blood serology test for infection with Helicobacter pylori in detecting peptic ulcer disease (PUD) in daily general practice. A descriptive study of 171 primary care dyspepsia patients selected for open-access endoscopy in primary care and aged between 18 and 75 years, in 92 general practices in central, southern, and eastern parts of the Netherlands. H. pylori status was assessed using the BM-test Helicobacter pylori, which is identical to the Helisal test. Dyspepsia severity score was measured using a validated symptom score. Symptom characteristics and probability of relevant disease were assessed by the general practitioner. Endoscopy was carried out in local hospitals. Diagnostic outcome of both endoscopy and H. pylori reference test was supplied by local specialists. The BM-test was evaluated against endoscopic results. A high number (61.8%) of false-negative BM-tests resulted in a low sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI] = 48-75%) for detection of H. pylori infection. Only 12 out of 32 patients with PUD had a positive BM-test, resulting in a positive likelihood ratio (LR) for PUD of 1.41 and a negative LR of 0.85. This study confirms the relatively poor performance of the BM-test in daily general practice, and shows the limited diagnostic value of H. pylori office-tests for detecting PUD in primary care. The discriminative value of the test result is too small to support either a 'test-and-endoscope' of a 'test-and-treat' strategy in general practice.

  16. Visualization of and Software for Omnibus Test Based Change Detected in a Time Series of Polarimetric SAR Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Skriver, Henning

    2017-01-01

    Based on an omnibus likelihood ratio test statistic for the equality of several variance-covariance matrices following the complex Wishart distribution and a factorization of this test statistic with associated p-values, change analysis in a time series of multilook polarimetric SAR data...... in the covariance matrix representation is carried out. The omnibus test statistic and its factorization detect if and when change occurs. Using airborne EMISAR and spaceborne RADARSAT-2 data this paper focuses on change detection based on the p-values, on visualization of change at pixel as well as segment level......, and on computer software....

  17. Ensuring a High Quality Digital Device through Design for Testability

    OpenAIRE

    Ngene, Christopher Umerah

    2012-01-01

    An electronic device is reliable if it is available for use most of the times throughout its life. The reliability can be affected by mishandling and use under abnormal operating conditions. High quality product cannot be achieved without proper verification and testing during the product development cycle. If the design is difficult to test, then it is very likely that most of the faults will not be detected before it is shipped to the customer. This paper describes how product quality can b...

  18. [Usefulness of an immunoassay test TRAIT for detection of genetically modified Roundup ready soybean in food products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanek-Karłowska, B; Fonberg-Broczek, M; Sawilska-Rautenstrauch, D; Badowski, P; Jedra, M

    2001-01-01

    The test based on immunoassay TRAIT Test for the specific detection of Roundup Ready Soybean was used for reference material in the form of dried powdered soy beans contained 0, 0.3, 1.25, 2.5% of genetically modified material, for soy beans declared as Roundup Ready and for soy products from Warsaw market. The detection limit was approximately 0.1% GMO on dry weight basis. Experiment was also carried out on heated soybeans. The positive results was obtained since temperature was under 65 degrees C during 15 minutes of heating grounded beans; above this temperature specific protein was not recognisable by the antibody. The TRAIT Test should be regarded as a qualitative method and could be recommended for screening purposes. Investigation demonstrated that above mentioned test was useful for detection of protein of genetically modified soybean in unprocessed products.

  19. Kepler Planet Detection Metrics: Pixel-Level Transit Injection Tests of Pipeline Detection Efficiency for Data Release 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Jessie L.

    2017-01-01

    This document describes the results of the fourth pixel-level transit injection experiment, which was designed to measure the detection efficiency of both the Kepler pipeline (Jenkins 2002, 2010; Jenkins et al. 2017) and the Robovetter (Coughlin 2017). Previous transit injection experiments are described in Christiansen et al. (2013, 2015a,b, 2016).In order to calculate planet occurrence rates using a given Kepler planet catalogue, produced with a given version of the Kepler pipeline, we need to know the detection efficiency of that pipeline. This can be empirically determined by injecting a suite of simulated transit signals into the Kepler data, processing the data through the pipeline, and examining the distribution of successfully recovered transits. This document describes the results for the pixel-level transit injection experiment performed to accompany the final Q1-Q17 Data Release 25 (DR25) catalogue (Thompson et al. 2017)of the Kepler Objects of Interest. The catalogue was generated using the SOC pipeline version 9.3 and the DR25 Robovetter acting on the uniformly processed Q1-Q17 DR25 light curves (Thompson et al. 2016a) and assuming the Q1-Q17 DR25 Kepler stellar properties (Mathur et al. 2017).

  20. Three-minute constant rate step test for detecting exertional dyspnea relief after bronchodilation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borel B

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Benoit Borel,1,2 Courtney A Wilkinson-Maitland,3 Alan Hamilton,4 Jean Bourbeau,5 Hélène Perrault,6 Dennis Jensen,3,5,7 François Maltais2 1Laboratoire HAVAE, Université de Limoges, Limoges, France; 2Centre de Recherche, Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et de Pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, 3Clinical Exercise and Respiratory Physiology Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education, McGill University, Montréal, QC, 4Boehringer Ingelheim (Canada Limited, Burlington, ON, 5Respiratory Epidemiology and Clinical Research Unit, Montreal Chest Institute, McGill University Health Center, Montreal, QC, 6Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, 7Translational Research in Respiratory Diseases Program, Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC, Canada Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the 3-minute constant rate step test (3-MST to detect the relief of exertional dyspnea (respiratory discomfort after acute bronchodilation in COPD patients. Patients and methods: A total of 40 patients with moderate-to-severe COPD (mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 45.7 (±14.7, % predicted performed four 3-MSTs at randomly assigned stepping rates of 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min after inhalation of nebulized ipratropium bromide (500 µg/salbutamol (2.5 mg and saline placebo, which were randomized to order. Patients rated their intensity of perceived dyspnea at the end of each 3-MST using Borg 0–10 category ratio scale. Results: A total of 37 (92.5%, 36 (90%, 34 (85% and 27 (67.5% patients completed all 3 minutes of exercise at 14, 16, 20 and 24 steps/min under both treatment conditions, respectively. Compared with placebo, ipratropium bromide/salbutamol significantly decreased dyspnea at the end of the third minute of exercise at 14 steps/min (by 0.6±1.0 Borg 0–10 scale units, P<0.01 and 16 steps/min (by 0.7±1.3 Borg 0–10 scale

  1. Point-Counterpoint: A Nucleic Acid Amplification Test for Streptococcus pyogenes Should Replace Antigen Detection and Culture for Detection of Bacterial Pharyngitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritt, Bobbi S; Patel, Robin; Kirn, Thomas J; Thomson, Richard B

    2016-10-01

    Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) have frequently been the standard diagnostic approach when specific infectious agents are sought in a clinic specimen. They can be applied for specific agents such as S. pyogenes, or commercial multiplex NAATs for detection of a variety of pathogens in gastrointestinal, bloodstream, and respiratory infections may be used. NAATs are both rapid and sensitive. For many years, S. pyogenes testing algorithms used a rapid and specific group A streptococcal antigen test to screen throat specimens, followed, in some clinical settings, by a throat culture for S. pyogenes to increase the sensitivity of its detection. Now S. pyogenes NAATs are being used with increasing frequency. Given their accuracy, rapidity, and ease of use, should they replace antigen detection and culture for the detection of bacterial pharyngitis? Bobbi Pritt and Robin Patel of the Mayo Clinic, where S. pyogenes NAATs have been used for well over a decade with great success, will explain the advantages of this approach, while Richard (Tom) Thomson and Tom Kirn of the NorthShore University HealthSystem will discuss their concerns about this approach to diagnosing bacterial pharyngitis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Design of electronic measurement and quench detection equipment for the Current Lead Test facility Karlsruhe (CuLTKa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollik, Markus, E-mail: markus.hollik@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Technical Physics (ITEP), Karlsruhe (Germany); Fietz, Walter H.; Fink, Stefan; Gehrlein, Mirko; Heller, Reinhard; Lange, Christian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Technical Physics (ITEP), Karlsruhe (Germany); Möhring, Tobias [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    The Current Lead Test facility Karlsruhe (CuLTKa) is under construction at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) to perform acceptance tests of high temperature superconductor (HTS) current leads (CL). CuLTKa is in progress and present planning expects the completion in 2013. The data acquisition system is based on a modular design with electronic measurement and monitoring equipment covering a test voltage of 50 kV DC against ground. It provides plug-in units which enable temperature and voltage measurement at high voltage potential and in addition quench detection units which detect a loss of superconductivity reliably and quickly to avoid damage of the superconducting device under test. Prototype units for quench detection, temperature and voltage measurement have been successfully tested. Six temperature measurement units are already in use in the KIT test facility TOSKA and operated reliably during the acceptance tests of the HTS current leads for Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) in 2011/2012. CuLTKa will be used first for 26 current leads which will be built in KIT for the fusion experiment JT-60SA. The present paper gives an overview of the design of the electronic measurement and quench detection equipment.

  3. A test statistic in the complex Wishart distribution and its application to change detection in polarimetric SAR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conradsen, Knut; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Schou, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    . Based on this distribution, a test statistic for equality of two such matrices and an associated asymptotic probability for obtaining a smaller value of the test statistic are derived and applied successfully to change detection in polarimetric SAR data. In a case study, EMISAR L-band data from April 17...... to HH, VV, or HV data alone, the derived test statistic reduces to the well-known gamma likelihood-ratio test statistic. The derived test statistic and the associated significance value can be applied as a line or edge detector in fully polarimetric SAR data also....

  4. speed related defect detection in a seta 4-ball life testing machine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1987-09-01

    Sep 1, 1987 ... detection of incipient defect in a Seta mechanism is investigated using a number of techniques. It is shown that for-an analysis bandwidth optimum for incipient defect detection, the detection sensitivity is improved if the diagnostic inspection of the mechanism is carried out at lower rather than higher speeds.

  5. The utility of the clock drawing test in detection of delirium in elderly hospitalised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamis, Dimitrios; Meagher, David; O'Neill, Donagh; McCarthy, Geraldine

    2016-09-01

    Delirium is common neuropsychiatric condition among elderly inpatients. The clock drawing test (CDT) has been used widely as bedside screening tool in assessing cognitive impairment in elderly people. Previous studies which evaluate its usefulness in delirium reported conflicting results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the utility of CDT to detect delirium in elderly medical patients. Prospective, observational, longitudinal study. All acute medical admissions 70 years of age and above were approached within 72 hours of admission for recruitment. Patients eligible for inclusion were assessed four times, twice weekly during admission. Assessment included Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), Delirium Rating Scale (DRS-98R), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE) II, and CDT. Data was analysed using a linear mixed effect model. Three hundred and twenty-three assessments with the CDT were performed on 200 subjects (50% male, mean age 81.13; standard deviation: 6.45). The overall rate of delirium (CAM+) during hospitalisation was 23%. There was a significant negative correlation between the CDT and DRS-R98 scores (Pearson correlation r = -0.618, p < 0.001), CDT and CAM (Spearman's rho = -0.402, p < 0.001) and CDT and total MoCA score (Pearson's r = 0.767, p < 0.001). However, when the data were analysed longitudinally controlling for all the factors, we found that cognitive function and age were significant factors associated with CDT scores (p < .0001): neither the presence nor the severity of delirium had an additional significant effect on the CDT. CDT score reflects cognitive impairment, independently of the presence or severity of delirium. The CDT is not a suitable test for delirium in hospitalised elderly patients.

  6. Dual Immunomagnetic Nanobeads-Based Lateral Flow Test Strip for Simultaneous Quantitative Detection of Carcinoembryonic Antigen and Neuron Specific Enolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wenting; Wang, Kan; Xiao, Kun; Qin, Weijian; Hou, Yafei; Xu, Hao; Yan, Xinyu; Chen, Yanrong; Cui, Daxiang; He, Jinghua

    2017-01-01

    A novel immunomagnetic nanobeads -based lateral flow test strip was developed for the simultaneous quantitative detection of neuron specific enolase (NSE) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), which are sensitive and specific in the clinical diagnosis of small cell lung cancer. Using this nanoscale method, high saturation magnetization, carboxyl-modified magnetic nanobeads were successfully synthesized. To obtain the immunomagnetic probes, a covalent bioconjugation of the magnetic nanobeads with the antibody of NSE and CEA was carried out. The detection area contained test line 1 and test line 2 which captured the immune complexes sensitively and formed sandwich complexes. In this assay, cross-reactivity results were negative and both NSE and CEA were detected simultaneously with no obvious influence on each other. The magnetic signal intensity of the nitrocellulose membrane was measured by a magnetic assay reader. For quantitative analysis, the calculated limit of detection was 0.094 ng/mL for NSE and 0.045 ng/mL for CEA. One hundred thirty clinical samples were used to validate the test strip which exhibited high sensitivity and specificity. This dual lateral flow test strip not only provided an easy, rapid, simultaneous quantitative detection strategy for NSE and CEA, but may also be valuable in automated and portable diagnostic applications. PMID:28186176

  7. Simplifying consent for HIV testing is associated with an increase in HIV testing and case detection in highest risk groups, San Francisco January 2003-June 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola M Zetola

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Populations at highest risk for HIV infection face multiple barriers to HIV testing. To facilitate HIV testing procedures, the San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center eliminated required written patient consent for HIV testing in its medical settings in May 2006. To describe the change in HIV testing rates in different hospital settings and populations after the change in HIV testing policy in the SFDH medical center, we performed an observational study using interrupted time series analysis.Data from all patients aged 18 years and older seen from January 2003 through June 2007 at the San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH medical care system were included in the analysis. The monthly HIV testing rate per 1000 had patient-visits was calculated for the overall population and stratified by hospital setting, age, sex, race/ethnicity, homelessness status, insurance status and primary language.By June 2007, the average monthly rate of HIV tests per 1000 patient-visits increased 4.38 (CI, 2.17-6.60, p<0.001 over the number predicted if the policy change had not occurred (representing a 44% increase. The monthly average number of new positive HIV tests increased from 8.9 (CI, 6.3-11.5 to 14.9 (CI, 10.6-19.2, p<0.001, representing a 67% increase. Although increases in HIV testing were seen in all populations, populations at highest risk for HIV infection, particularly men, the homeless, and the uninsured experienced the highest increases in monthly HIV testing rates after the policy change.The elimination of the requirement for written consent in May 2006 was associated with a significant and sustained increase in HIV testing rates and HIV case detection in the SFDPH medical center. Populations facing the higher barriers to HIV testing had the highest increases in HIV testing rates and case detection in response to the policy change.

  8. Perspectives of Security Ensuring within the Framework of Barcelona Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T N Kirabaev

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Barcelona process was aimed to become an important mechanism in the realization of ideas of peace, stability and security ensuring in the Mediterranean Sea region. Cooperation in the sphere of security ensuring means openness of the regional states, social and economic reforms, human rights protection. The article deals with the problem of security ensuring by nonmilitary means.

  9. Detecting Eating Psychopathology in Female Athletes by Asking About Exercise: Use of the Compulsive Exercise Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plateau, Carolyn R; Arcelus, Jon; Meyer, Caroline

    2017-11-01

    The present study assessed the suitability of the Compulsive Exercise Test (athlete version; CET-A) for identifying female athletes with clinically significant features related to or comparable with eating psychopathology. Three hundred and sixty-one female athletes (including 12 with a clinically diagnosed eating disorder) completed the Eating Disorders Examination Questionnaire and the CET-A. Receiver operating curve analysis was employed to identify a cut-off value on the CET-A, which could indicate clinically significant features related to or comparable with eating psychopathology among female athletes. The analysis demonstrated that a CET-A score of 10 successfully discriminated female athletes with a current eating disorder. The results suggest that the CET-A may be a suitable tool for detecting eating psychopathology in female athletes. Additional longitudinal research is needed to evaluate the predictive value of the CET-A. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  10. Rapid screening test for detection of oxytetracycline residues in milk using lateral flow assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Laxmana; Sharma, Rajan; Mann, Bimlesh; Lata, Kiran; Rajput, Y S; Surendra Nath, B

    2017-03-15

    A rapid, semi-quantitative lateral flow assay (LFA) was developed to screen the oxytetracycline (OTC) antibiotics residues in milk samples. In this study a competitive immuno-assay format was established. Colloidal gold nano-particles (GNP) were prepared and used as labelling material in LFA. Polyclonal antibodies were generated against OTC molecule (anti-OTC), purified and the quality was assessed by enzyme linked immuno sorbet assay. For the first time membrane components required for LFA in milk system was optimized. GNP and anti-OTC stable conjugate preparation method was standardized, and then these components were placed over the conjugate pad. OTC coupled with carrier protein was placed on test line; species specific secondary antibodies were placed on the control line of the membrane matrix. Assay was validated by spiking OTC to antibiotic free milk samples and results could be accomplished within 5min. without need of any equipment. The visual detection limit was 30ppb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. STATISTICIAN’S NEW ROLE AS A DETECTIVETESTING DATA FOR FRAUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ely Kossovsky

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to provide the statistician with a method for the challenging task of deciding whether a given data set might have been invented in a fraudulent way or appearing authentic. This is done not by examining the numbers themselves, but surprisingly, rather by investigating the digital language utilized in writing those numbers! What letters are to words, digits are to numbers. The technique relies on Benford’s Law, a statistical law referring to the consistent and predictable relative proportions of digits occurring in typical real-life data, stating that low digits are much more frequent than high digits. The law is immensely useful as a tool to detect fraud, especially tax fraud, since cheaters inventing fake data mistakenly write them with all digits having about the same proportion due to the erroneous intuition that all digits come with equal chances. By comparing theoretical Benford digit distribution to the actual digit distribution within the accounting data provided by companies, the statistician can easily discover fraud relating to fake and invented data. These digital forensic tests are now standard procedures in most of the Tax Revenue Departments of governments worldwide, as well as in large accounting and auditing companies.

  12. Detection of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy using exercise testing in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banthia, Smriti; Bergner, Daniel W; Chicos, Alexandru B; Ng, Jason; Pelchovitz, Daniel J; Subacius, Haris; Kadish, Alan H; Goldberger, Jeffrey J

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated autonomic nervous system function in subjects with diabetes during exercise and recovery. Eighteen type 2 diabetics (age 55±2 years) and twenty healthy controls (age 51±1 years) underwent two 16-min bicycle submaximal ECG stress tests followed by 45 min of recovery. During session #2, atropine (0.04 mg/kg) was administered at peak exercise, and the final two minutes of exercise and entire recovery occurred under parasympathetic blockade. Plasma catecholamines were measured throughout. Parasympathetic effect was defined as the difference between a measured parameter at baseline and after parasympathetic blockade. The parasympathetic effect on the RR interval was blunted (P=.004) in diabetic subjects during recovery. Parasympathetic effect on QT-RR slope during early recovery was diminished in the diabetes group (diabetes 0.13±0.02, control 0.21±0.02, P=.03). Subjects with diabetes had a lower heart rate recovery at 1 min (diabetes 18.5±1.9 bpm, control 27.6±1.5 bpm, Pdiabetes, even with minimal evidence of CAN using current methodology, altered cardiac autonomic balance is present and can be detected through an exercise-based assessment for CAN. The early post-exercise recovery period in diabetes was characterized by enhanced sympathoexcitation, diminished parasympathetic reactivation and delay in heart rate recovery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Detection of memory impairment among community-dwelling elderly by using the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Toyota, Yasutaka; Matsumoto, Teruhisa; Sonobe, Naomi; Adachi, Hiroyoshi; Mori, Takaaki; Ishikawa, Tomohisa; Fukuhara, Ryuji; Ikeda, Manabu

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) to evaluate everyday memory impairment among community-dwelling elderly who had normal cognitive function and performed daily activities normally but displayed memory impairments, and to diagnose the condition as either mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Among the 1,290 community-dwelling elderly persons who participated in the study, 72 subjects scored higher than 24 on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE): these subjects performed daily activities normally, but their family members reported that they showed memory impairments. Fifty-two subjects completed RBMT, Clinical Dementia Rating, and brain computed tomography, and a final diagnosis was established. The mean standard profile score was 15.1±5.0 and mean screening score was 6.4±3.0. RBMT score was correlated with the MMSE score. Nine of the subjects were diagnosed with dementia and 26 of them were found to be normal. RBMT achieved 100% sensitivity and specificity with regard to the differentiation of subjects with Alzheimer's disease. However, some subjects were diagnosed with dementia even though their RBMT score was higher than the cut-off score. RBMT was useful in detecting memory impairments of Alzheimer's disease (AD) subjects in community-based surveys. However, some subjects were diagnosed with dementia because of the existence of other cognitive impairments among community-dwelling elderly. (author)

  14. Simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers with a rapid and sensitive multicolor quantum dots based immunochromatographic test strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunying; Hou, Fei; Ma, Yicai

    2015-06-15

    A novel multicolor quantum dots (QDs) based immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS) was developed for simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers, by utilizing alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as models. The immunosensor could realize simultaneous quantitative detection of tumor markers with only one test line and one control line on the nitrocellulose membrane (NC membrane) due to the introduction of multicolor QDs. In this method, a mixture of mouse anti-AFP McAb and mouse anti-CEA McAb was coated on NC membrane as test line and goat anti-mouse IgG antibody was coated as control line. Anti-AFP McAb-QDs546 conjugates and anti-CEA McAb-QDs620 conjugates were mixed and applied to the conjugate pad. Simultaneous quantitative detection of multiple tumor markers was achieved by detecting the fluorescence intensity of captured QDs labels on test line and control line using a test strip reader. Under the optimum conditions, AFP and CEA could be detected as low as 3 ng/mL and 2 ng/mL in 15 min with a sample volume of 80 μL, and no obvious cross-reactivity was observed. The immunosensor was validated with 130 clinical samples and in which it exhibited high sensitivity (93% for AFP and 87% for CEA) and specificity (94% for AFP and 97% for CEA). The immunosensor also demonstrated high recoveries (87.5-113% for AFP and 90-97.3% for CEA) and low relative standard deviations (RSDs) (2.8-6.2% for AFP and 4.9-9.6% for CEA) when testing spiked human serum. This novel multicolor QDs based ICTS provides an easy and rapid, simultaneous quantitative detecting strategy for point-of-care testing of tumor markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Detection of antibiotic resistance is essential for gonorrhoea point-of-care testing: a mathematical modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingerhuth, Stephanie M; Low, Nicola; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Althaus, Christian L

    2017-07-26

    Antibiotic resistance is threatening to make gonorrhoea untreatable. Point-of-care (POC) tests that detect resistance promise individually tailored treatment, but might lead to more treatment and higher levels of resistance. We investigate the impact of POC tests on antibiotic-resistant gonorrhoea. We used data about the prevalence and incidence of gonorrhoea in men who have sex with men (MSM) and heterosexual men and women (HMW) to calibrate a mathematical gonorrhoea transmission model. With this model, we simulated four clinical pathways for the diagnosis and treatment of gonorrhoea: POC test with (POC+R) and without (POC-R) resistance detection, culture and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). We calculated the proportion of resistant infections and cases averted after 5 years, and compared how fast resistant infections spread in the populations. The proportion of resistant infections after 30 years is lowest for POC+R (median MSM: 0.18%, HMW: 0.12%), and increases for culture (MSM: 1.19%, HMW: 0.13%), NAAT (MSM: 100%, HMW: 99.27%), and POC-R (MSM: 100%, HMW: 99.73%). Per 100 000 persons, NAAT leads to 36 366 (median MSM) and 1228 (median HMW) observed cases after 5 years. Compared with NAAT, POC+R averts more cases after 5 years (median MSM: 3353, HMW: 118). POC tests that detect resistance with intermediate sensitivity slow down resistance spread more than NAAT. POC tests with very high sensitivity for the detection of resistance are needed to slow down resistance spread more than by using culture. POC with high sensitivity to detect antibiotic resistance can keep gonorrhoea treatable longer than culture or NAAT. POC tests without reliable resistance detection should not be introduced because they can accelerate the spread of antibiotic-resistant gonorrhoea.

  16. Microfluidic Chip-based Nucleic Acid Testing using Gingival Crevicular Fluid as a New Technique for Detecting HIV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Willyandre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of HIV-1 infection by individuals in window period who are tested negative in conventional HIV-1 detection would pose the community with serious problems. Several diagnostic tools require specific labora-tory equipment, perfect timing of diagnosis, antibody to HIV-1, and invasive technique to get sample for examination, until high amount of time to process the sample as well as accessibility of remote areas. Many attempts have been made to solve those problems to come to a new detection technique. This review aims to give information about the current development technique for detection of HIV infection. Microfluidic Chip-based Nucleic Acid Testing is currently introduced for detection of HIV-1 infection. This review also cover the possible usage of gingival crevicular fluid as sample specimen that could be taken noninvasively from the individual.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v18i2.63

  17. Stem cell therapy for heart failure: Ensuring regenerative proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzic, Andre; Behfar, Atta

    2016-07-01

    Patient-derived stem cells enable promising regenerative strategies, but display heterogenous cardiac reparative proficiency, leading to unpredictable therapeutic outcomes impeding practice adoption. Means to establish and certify the regenerative potency of emerging biotherapies are thus warranted. In this era of clinomics, deconvolution of variant cytoreparative performance in clinical trials offers an unprecedented opportunity to map pathways that segregate regenerative from non-regenerative states informing the evolution of cardio-regenerative quality systems. A maiden example of this approach is cardiopoiesis-mediated lineage specification developed to ensure regenerative performance. Successfully tested in pre-clinical and early clinical studies, the safety and efficacy of the cardiopoietic stem cell phenotype is undergoing validation in pivotal trials for chronic ischemic cardiomyopathy offering the prospect of a next-generation regenerative solution for heart failure. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Combination of Fecal Immunochemical Test Results and Iron Deficiency Anemia for Detection of Advanced Colorectal Neoplasia in Asymptomatic Men

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Nam Hee; Lee, Mi Yeon; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Sohn, Chong Il; Choi, Kyuyong; Jung, Yoon Suk

    2017-01-01

    Purpose A substantial proportion of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) present with iron deficiency anemia (IDA), and fecal immunochemical test (FIT) has proven to be an effective method for detecting the majority of CRC cases. A combination strategy of FIT results and IDA may be useful for risk stratification for detecting advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACRN). We compared the prevalence of ACRN among four groups stratified by FIT results and the presence of IDA. Materials and Methods A cr...

  19. Diagnostic Value of ELISA Tests for the Detection of Specific Antibodies in Cats and Rabbits with Dermatophytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinka Drobnič-Košorok

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Two indirect ELISA tests developed for the detection of specific IgG in cats and rabbits, infected with M. canis and T. mentagrophytes, respectively, were evaluated and compared. The levels of specific antibodies were determined in sera of 20 cats and 25 rabbits naturally infected with M. canis and T. mentagrophytes, respectively. Infection was confirmed by the results of fungal culture. Blood samples from 12 cats and 17 rabbits, previously unexposed to dermatophytes, served as negative controls. A significant increase in the level of specific antibodies in groups of infected animals was demonstrated. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of a positive and a negative test were determined to evaluate the diagnostic potential. ELISA for the detection of specific antibodies in cats infected with M. canis (ELISA-cats test exhibited 75.0 % of sensitivity at 91.7 % of specificity, whereas the test for the detection of specific antibodies in rabbits, infected with T. mentagrophytes (ELISA-rabbits test is highly sensitive (96.0 % and highly specific (94.1 %, confirming its encouraging diagnostic potential. The cross-reactivity of fungal antigens was tested by performing the assays with antigens M. canis, T. mentagrophytes, M. pachydermatis and A. fumigatus. There were no significant indications of cross-reactions in the test T. mentagrophytes-rabbits, whereas strong cross-reaction between dermatophyte antigens was observed in the test M. canis-cats.

  20. Nuclear Power Plant Thermocouple Sensor-Fault Detection and Classification Using Deep Learning and Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Santhi, B.; Sridhar, S.; Vinolia, K.; Swaminathan, P.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, an online fault detection and classification method is proposed for thermocouples used in nuclear power plants. In the proposed method, the fault data are detected by the classification method, which classifies the fault data from the normal data. Deep belief network (DBN), a technique for deep learning, is applied to classify the fault data. The DBN has a multilayer feature extraction scheme, which is highly sensitive to a small variation of data. Since the classification method is unable to detect the faulty sensor; therefore, a technique is proposed to identify the faulty sensor from the fault data. Finally, the composite statistical hypothesis test, namely generalized likelihood ratio test, is applied to compute the fault pattern of the faulty sensor signal based on the magnitude of the fault. The performance of the proposed method is validated by field data obtained from thermocouple sensors of the fast breeder test reactor.

  1. Change Detection for Remote Monitoring of Underground Nuclear Testing: Comparison with Seismic and Associated Explosion Source Phenomenological Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canty, M.; Jahnke, G.; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of open-source satellite imagery is in process of establishing itself as an important tool for monitoring nuclear activities throughout the world which are relevant to disarmament treaties, like e. g. the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). However, the detection of anthrop......The analysis of open-source satellite imagery is in process of establishing itself as an important tool for monitoring nuclear activities throughout the world which are relevant to disarmament treaties, like e. g. the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). However, the detection...... of conventional multispectral satellite platforms with moderate ground resolution (Landsat TM, ASTER) to detect changes over wide areas.We chose the Nevada Test Site (NTS), USA, for a case study because of the large amount of available ground truth information. The analysis is based on the multivariate alteration...

  2. Photographic and Luminometric Detection of Luciferase Reporter Phages for Drug Susceptibility Testing of Clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazbón, Manzour Hernando; Guarín, Nora; Ferro, Beatriz Eugenia; Rodríguez, Ana Lucía; Labrada, Luz Angela; Tovar, Rafael; Riska, Paul F.; Jacobs, William R.

    2003-01-01

    Luciferase reporter phages (LRPs) have proven to be efficient tools for drug susceptibility testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Luminometric detection of LRP activity offers higher sensitivity and quantitative results, while a Polaroid film detection method offers a “low-tech” inexpensive alternative that is called the Bronx box. In this work we evaluated, improved, and compared the performance of the luminometer and the Bronx box formats for drug susceptibility testing with LRPs by using 51 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis, with the agar proportion method (PM) serving as reference. The sensitivity in detecting resistance to isoniazid and rifampin, antibiotics that define multidrug resistance (MDR), was 100% for both methods. The turnaround time for results was reduced from 3 weeks for PM to 54 or 94 h for luminometry or the Bronx box, respectively. These results support the utility of LRPs as a screening test for the surveillance of MDR tuberculosis. PMID:14532245

  3. Development and initial evaluation of a lateral flow dipstick test for antigen detection of Entamoeba histolytica in stool sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidin, Syazwan; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Othman, Nurulhasanah; Lim, Yvonne Ai-Lian; Mohamed, Zeehaida; Zakaria, Nik Zairi; Noordin, Rahmah

    2017-05-01

    Entamoeba histolytica infection remains a public health concern in developing countries. Early diagnosis of amoebiasis can avoid disease complications, thus this study was aimed at developing a test that can rapidly detect the parasite antigens in stool samples. Rabbits were individually immunized with recombinant pyruvate phosphate dikinase (rPPDK) and E. histolytica excretory-secretory antigens to produce polyclonal antibodies. A rapid dipstick test was produced using anti-rPPDK PAb lined on the dipstick as capture reagent and anti-EhESA PAb conjugated to colloidal gold as the detector reagent. Using E. histolytica-spiked in stool sample of a healthy individual, the detection limit of the dipstick test was found to be 1000 cells ml -1 . Meanwhile when rPPDK was spiked in the stool sample, the minimum concentration detected by the dipstick test was 0.1 μg ml -1 . The performances of the dipstick, commercial Techlab E. histolytica II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and real-time PCR were compared using 70 stool samples from patients infected with Entamoeba species (n = 45) and other intestinal pathogens (n = 25). When compared to real-time PCR, the diagnostic sensitivity of the dipstick for detection of E. histolytica was 65.4% (n = 17/26); while the diagnostic specificity when tested with stool samples containing other intestinal pathogens was 92% (23/25). In contrast, Techlab E. histolytica II ELISA detected 19.2% (5/26) of the E. histolytica-positive samples as compared to real-time PCR. The lateral flow dipstick test produced in this study enabled rapid detection of E. histolytica, thus it showed good potential to be further developed into a diagnostic tool for intestinal amoebiasis.

  4. An integrated electrochemical device based on immunochromatographic test strip and enzyme labels for sensitive detection of disease-related biomarkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Zhexiang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Hua; Li, Yao Q.; Lin, Yuehe

    2012-05-30

    A novel electrochemical biosensing device that integrates an immunochromatographic test strip and a screen-printed electrode (SPE) connected to a portable electrochemical analyzer was presented for rapid, sensitive, and quantitative detection of disease-related biomarker in human blood samples. The principle of the sensor is based on sandwich immunoreactions between a biomarker and a pair of its antibodies on the test strip, followed by highly sensitive square-wave voltammetry (SWV) detection. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was used as a signal reporter for electrochemical readout. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was employed as a model protein biomarker to demonstrate the analytical performance of the sensor in this study. Some critical parameters governing the performance of the sensor were investigated in detail. The sensor was further utilized to detect HBsAg in human plasma with an average recovery of 91.3%. In comparison, a colorimetric immunochromatographic test strip assay (ITSA) was also conducted. The result shows that the SWV detection in the electrochemical sensor is much more sensitive for the quantitative determination of HBsAg than the colorimetric detection, indicating that such a sensor is a promising platform for rapid and sensitive point-of-care testing/screening of disease-related biomarkers in a large population

  5. Detection of the Lactate Threshold in Runners: What is the Ideal Speed to Start an Incremental Test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, José Luiz; Doria, Christian

    2015-03-29

    Incremental tests on a treadmill are used to evaluate endurance athletes; however, no criterion exists to determine the intensity at which to start the test, potentially causing the loss of the first lactate threshold. This study aimed to determine the ideal speed for runners to start incremental treadmill tests. The study consisted of 94 runners who self-reported the average speed from their last competitive race (10-42.195 km) and performed an incremental test on a treadmill. The speeds used during the first three test stages were normalised in percentages of average competition speed and blood lactate concentration was analysed at the end of each stage. The relationship between speed in each stage and blood lactate concentration was analysed. In the first stage, at an intensity corresponding to 70% of the reported average race speed, only one volunteer had blood lactate concentration equal to 2 mmol·L(-1), and in the third stage (90% of the average race speed) the majority of the volunteers had blood lactate concentration ≥2 mmol·L(-1). Our results demonstrated that 70% of the average speed from the subject's last competitive race - from 10 to 42.195 km - was the best option for obtaining blood lactate concentration speed in marathons may be a possibility. Evaluators can use 70% of the average speed in competitive races as a strategy to ensure that the aerobic threshold intensity is not achieved during the first stage of incremental treadmill tests.

  6. Commissioning and field tests of a van-mounted system for the detection of radioactive sources and Special Nuclear Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cester, D.; Lunardon, M.; Stevanato, L.; Viesti, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia dell' Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova, (Italy); Chandra, R.; Davatz, G.; Friederich, H.; Gendotti, U.; Murer, D. [Arktis Radiation Detectors Ltd., (Switzerland); Swiderski, L.; Moszynski, M. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Soltana 7, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk, (Poland); Resnati, F.; Rubbia, A. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, Zurich, (Switzerland); Iovene, A.; Petrucci, S.; Tintori, C. [CAEN S.p.A., Via Vetraia 11, I-55049, Viareggio, LU, (Italy); Caccia, M.; Chmill, V.; Santoro, R.; Martemyianov, A. [Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, Universita dell' Insubria, Como, (Italy); Doherty, M. [Revenue Commissioners Ireland, Ashtowngate, Navan Road, Dublin 15, (Ireland); Christodoulou, G.; Stainer, T.; Touramanis, C. [University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE, (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    MODES SNM project aimed to carry out technical research in order to develop a prototype for a mobile, modular detection system for radioactive sources and Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Its main goal was to deliver a tested prototype of a modular mobile system capable of passively detecting weak or shielded radioactive sources with accuracy higher than that of currently available systems. By the end of the project all the objectives have been successfully achieved. Results from the laboratory commissioning and the field tests will be presented. (authors)

  7. Test and validation of methods to sample and detect human virus from environmental surfaces using norovirus as a model virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibfelt, T.; Frandsen, T.; Permin, Anders

    2016-01-01

    : To validate and test efficient and reliable procedures to detect multiple human pathogenic viruses on surfaces. Methods: The study was divided into two parts. In Part A, six combinations of three different swabs (consisting of cotton, foamed cotton, or polyester head) and two different elution methods (direct...... lysis or immersion in alkaline glycine buffer before lysis) were tested for efficient recovery of human norovirus GII.7 and mengovirus from artificially contaminated surfaces. In Part B we determined the detection limit for norovirus GI.1 and GII.3 using the best procedure found in Part A linked...

  8. Group Testing Based Detection of Web Service DDoS Attackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashat, Dalia; Jiang, Xiaohong; Kameyama, Michitaka

    The Distributed Denial of Service attack (DDoS) is one of the major threats to network security that exhausts network bandwidth and resources. Recently, an efficient approach Live Baiting was proposed for detecting the identities of DDoS attackers in web service using low state overhead without requiring either the models of legitimate requests nor anomalous behavior. However, Live Baiting has two limitations. First, the detection algorithm adopted in Live Baiting starts with a suspects list containing all clients, which leads to a high false positive probability especially for large web service with a huge number of clients. Second, Live Baiting adopts a fixed threshold based on the expected number of requests in each bucket during the detection interval without the consideration of daily and weekly traffic variations. In order to address the above limitations, we first distinguish the clients activities (Active and Non-Active clients during the detection interval) in the detection process and then further propose a new adaptive threshold based on the Change Point Detection method, such that we can improve the false positive probability and avoid the dependence of detection on sites and access patterns. Extensive trace-driven simulation has been conducted on real Web trace to demonstrate the detection efficiency of the proposed scheme in comparison with the Live Baiting detection scheme.

  9. Good performance of rapid prostate-specific antigen test for detection of semen exposure in women: implications for qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Marcia M; Steiner, Markus J; Rich, Kimberly D; Gallo, Maria F; Alam, Anadil; Rahman, Motiur; Menezes, Prema; Chipato, Tsungai; Warner, Lee; Macaluso, Maurizio

    2009-08-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a valid biomarker of semen exposure in women and has been used to assess reliability of self-reported sexual behavior as well as serve as a proxy measure for condom efficacy. Quantitative PSA tests are expensive and require specialized equipment. A simple, rapid, and inexpensive test for PSA would facilitate semen biomarker evaluation in a variety of research settings. This study evaluated the performance of a rapid PSA test compared with a quantitative assay to identify semen in vaginal swab specimens. We tested 581 vaginal swabs collected from 492 women participating in 2 separate research studies in Bangladesh and Zimbabwe. PSA in vaginal secretions was