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Sample records for test compatibility mode

  1. Testing "Compatibility Testing."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Elliot; Huston, Ted L.

    Most models of marital choice are attempts to explain choices within the field of available eligibles. The essence of compatibility testing is that people select their mates by evaluating the match between psychological characteristics after sorting the available field on the basis of social characteristics. A compatibility model seems to require…

  2. Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Thomas F.; Mitra, Atindra K.

    1996-01-01

    This report discusses the results on analytical models and measurement and simulation of statistical properties from a study of microwave reverberation (mode-stirred) chambers performed at Texas Tech University. Two analytical models of power transfer vs. frequency in a chamber, one for antenna-to-antenna transfer and the other for antenna to D-dot sensor, were experimentally validated in our chamber. Two examples are presented of the measurement and calculation of chamber Q, one for each of the models. Measurements of EM power density validate a theoretical probability distribution on and away from the chamber walls and also yield a distribution with larger standard deviation at frequencies below the range of validity of the theory. Measurements of EM power density at pairs of points which validate a theoretical spatial correlation function on the chamber walls and also yield a correlation function with larger correlation length, R(sub corr), at frequencies below the range of validity of the theory. A numerical simulation, employing a rectangular cavity with a moving wall shows agreement with the measurements. The determination that the lowest frequency at which the theoretical spatial correlation function is valid in our chamber is considerably higher than the lowest frequency recommended by current guidelines for utilizing reverberation chambers in EMC testing. Two suggestions have been made for future studies related to EMC testing.

  3. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  4. Automation of electromagnetic compatability (EMC) test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, C. A.

    1986-01-01

    Efforts to automate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center are discussed. The present facility is used to accomplish a battery of nine standard tests (with limited variations) deigned to certify EMC of Shuttle payload equipment. Prior to this project, some EMC tests were partially automated, but others were performed manually. Software was developed to integrate all testing by means of a desk-top computer-controller. Near real-time data reduction and onboard graphics capabilities permit immediate assessment of test results. Provisions for disk storage of test data permit computer production of the test engineer's certification report. Software flexibility permits variation in the tests procedure, the ability to examine more closely those frequency bands which indicate compatibility problems, and the capability to incorporate additional test procedures.

  5. Compatibility and testing of electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Jowett, C E

    2013-01-01

    Compatibility and Testing of Electronic Components outlines the concepts of component part life according to thresholds of failure; the advantages that result from identifying such thresholds; their identification; and the various tests used in their detection. The book covers topics such as the interconnection of miniature passive components; the integrated circuit compatibility and its components; the semiconductor joining techniques; and the thin film hybrid approach in integrated circuits. Also covered are topics such as thick film resistors, conductors, and insulators; thin inlays for el

  6. Oxygen Compatibility Testing of Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Neil A.; Hudgins, Richard J.; McBain, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The development of polymer composite liquid oxygen LO2 tanks is a critical step in creating the next generation of launch vehicles. Future launch vehicles need to minimize the gross liftoff weight (GLOW), which is possible due to the 25%-40% reduction in weight that composite materials could provide over current aluminum technology. Although a composite LO2 tank makes these weight savings feasible, composite materials have not historically been viewed as "LO2 compatible." To be considered LO2 compatible, materials must be selected that will resist any type of detrimental, combustible reaction when exposed to usage environments. This is traditionally evaluated using a standard set of tests. However, materials that do not pass the standard tests can be shown to be safe for a particular application. This paper documents the approach and results of a joint NASA/Lockheed Martin program to select and verify LO2 compatible composite materials for liquid oxygen fuel tanks. The test approach developed included tests such as mechanical impact, particle impact, puncture, electrostatic discharge, friction, and pyrotechnic shock. These tests showed that composite liquid oxygen tanks are indeed feasible for future launch vehicles.

  7. Double Retort System for Materials Compatibility Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Munne; EV Carelli

    2006-02-23

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) there was a need to investigate compatibility between the various materials to be used throughout the SNPP. Of particular interest was the transport of interstitial impurities from the nickel-base superalloys, which were leading candidates for most of the piping and turbine components to the refractory metal alloys planned for use in the reactor core. This kind of contamination has the potential to affect the lifetime of the core materials. This letter provides technical information regarding the assembly and operation of a double retort materials compatibility testing system and initial experimental results. The use of a double retort system to test materials compatibility through the transfer of impurities from a source to a sink material is described here. The system has independent temperature control for both materials and is far less complex than closed loops. The system is described in detail and the results of three experiments are presented.

  8. Electromagnetic compatibility testing of implantable neurostimulators exposed to metal detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Seth J; Kainz, Wolfgang; Casamento, Jon; Witters, Donald

    2010-03-09

    This paper presents results of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) testing of three implantable neurostimulators exposed to the magnetic fields emitted from several walk-through and hand-held metal detectors. The motivation behind this testing comes from numerous adverse event reports involving active implantable medical devices (AIMDs) and security systems that have been received by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). EMC testing was performed using three neurostimulators exposed to the emissions from 12 walk-through metal detectors (WTMDs) and 32 hand-held metal detectors (HHMDs). Emission measurements were performed on all HHMDs and WTMDs and summary data is presented. Results from the EMC testing indicate possible electromagnetic interference (EMI) between one of the neurostimulators and one WTMD and indicate that EMI between the three neurostimulators and HHMDs is unlikely. The results suggest that worst case situations for EMC testing are hard to predict and testing all major medical device modes and setting parameters are necessary to understand and characterize the EMC of AIMDs.

  9. Testing for EMC (electromagnetic compatibility) in the clinical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paperman, D; David, Y; Martinez, M

    1996-01-01

    Testing for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) in the clinical environment introduces a host of complex conditions not normally encountered under laboratory conditions. In the clinical environment, various radio-frequency (RF) sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI) may be present throughout the entire spectrum of interest. Isolating and analyzing the impact from the sources of interference to medical devices involves a multidisciplinary approach based on training in, and knowledge of, the following: operation of medical devices and their susceptibility to EMI; RF propagation modalities and interaction theory; spectrum analysis systems and techniques (preferably with signature analysis capabilities) and calibrated antennas; the investigation methodology of suspected EMC problems, and testing protocols and standards. Using combinations of standard test procedures adapted for the clinical environment with personnel that have an understanding of radio-frequency behavior increases the probability of controlling, proactively, EMI in the clinical environment, thus providing for a safe and more effective patient care environment.

  10. Testing of Some Canine Blood Types in Transfusion Compatibility Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Ognean

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood types were determined using SHIGETA (n=136 and DEA1.1 (n=25 kits, in two groups of dogs, consisting of patients that underwent blood transfusions and healthy donors. The tests were conducted in accordance with the procedures established by the manufacturers, using specific monoclonal antibodies kits, heparinized blood for the tube agglutination (TUBE and slide (SLIDE methods, and EDTA treated blood for the CARD and chromatographic (CHROM methods. The clear expression of tube agglutination reaction in the SHIGETA kit provided a good detection of antigens. Positive reactions with anti-DEA1.1 were clear and evident with the CHROM test. SHIGETA tests revealed a predominance 1.1B (47.05% of blood type, common in Rotweilers (81.81% and Romanian Shepherds (73.68% and group 1(-B (24.26%, frequently found in German Shepherds (54.16%, these also representing an important source of compatible blood. DEA1.1 type test, revealed a high frequency of positive dogs (75%, associated with lower number of potential donors. Extrapolation of SHIGETA groups into the DEA system, confirmed the 1(-B positive dogs as DEA 1.1 negative, and their prevalence in German Shepherds also confirmed their known tendency to be “ideal donors”. The CHROME test showed a good efficiency in auto agglutination control and detecting DEA1.1 positive dogs, including patients with severe forms of anemia.

  11. Response mode, compatibility, and dual-processes in the evaluation of simple gambles: An eye-tracking investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Slovic

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We employed simple gambles to investigate information processing in relation to the compatibility effect. Subjects should be more likely to engage in a deliberative thinking strategy when completing a pricing task rather than a rating task. We used eye-tracking methodology to measure information acquisition and processing in order to test the above hypothesis as well as to show that losses and alternatives with uncertain outcomes are more likely than gains and alternatives with sure outcomes to be processed through a deliberative thinking process. Results showed that pupil dilations, fixation duration and number of fixations increased when subjects evaluated the gambles with a pricing task. Additionally, the number of fixations increased as the gamble outcome became increasingly negative and when the outcome was uncertain (vs. sure. Fixations were also predictive of subjects' final evaluations of the gambles. We discuss our results in light of the cognitive processes underlying different response modes in economic preferences.

  12. Compatibility tests of steels in flowing liquid lead-bismuth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbier, F.; Benamati, G. E-mail: benamati@brasimone.enea.it; Fazio, C.; Rusanov, A

    2001-06-01

    The behaviour of steels exposed to flowing Pb-55Bi was evaluated. The materials tested are the two austenitic steels AISI 316L and 1.4970, and the six martensitic steels Optifer IVc, T91, Batman 27, Batman 28, EP823 and EM10 which were exposed to flowing Pb-55Bi for 1000, 2000 and 3000 h and at two temperatures (573 and 743 K). The corrosion tests were conducted in the non-isothermal loop of IPPE-Obninsk under a controlled oxygen level (10{sup -6} wt%). The compatibility study showed that at a lower temperature, a very thin oxide layer (<1 {mu}m) was formed on the steels. At higher temperature, austenitic steels also exhibited a thin oxide layer sufficient to prevent their dissolution in the melt. A thicker oxide, which grew according to a parabolic law, was observed on the surface of the martensitic steels. The oxidation resistance behaviour of the martensitic steels was correlated with their alloying elements.

  13. Space hardware compatibility tests with hydrogen peroxide gas plasma sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Delphine; Aguila, Alexandre; Debus, Andre; Remaury, Stephanie; Nabarra, Pascale; Darbord, Jacques C.; Soufflet, Caroline; Destrez, Philippe; Coll, Patrice; Coscia, David

    The exploration of the Solar System shall comply with planetary protection requirements handled presently by the Committee of Space Research (COSPAR). The goal of planetary protection is to protect celestial bodies from terrestrial contamination and also to protect the Earth environment from an eventual contamination carried by return samples or by space systems. For project teams, avoiding the biological contamination of other Solar System bodies such as Mars imposes to perform unusual tasks at technical and operational constraints point of view. The main are the reduction of bioburden on space hardware, the sterile integration of landers, the control of the biological cleanliness and the limitation of crash probability. In order to reduce the bioburden on spacecraft, the use of qualified sterilization processes may be envisaged. Since 1992 now, with the Mars96 mission, one of the most often used is the Sterrad(R) process working with hydrogen peroxide gas plasma. In the view of future Mars exploration programs, after tests performed in the frame of previous missions, a new test campaign has been performed on thermal coatings and miscellaneous materials coming from an experiment in order to assess the compatibility of space hardware and material with this sterilization process.

  14. TESTING NEW TYPES OF ROLLING STOCK FOR ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY WITH SIGNALING AND COMMUNICATION DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Havrilyuk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the paper there is the comparative analysis of standards and methods of measurements of electromagnetic interference, those are caused by electrical equipment of new types of rolling stock with AC and DC-current electric traction in accordance with the normative documents are adopted in Ukraine and the EU. The development on this basis the measuring method of current interference in traction network, generated by the electrical equipment of electric rolling stock (ERS applicable to testing the new types of rolling stock for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC with different systems of railway signaling is also needed. Methodology. The testing method has been offered. It includes measurements in power circuits of rolling stock, as well as in track devices of signalization systems. Findings. Norms and methods tests of a rolling stock on electromagnetic compatibility with track circuits (TC were analyzed. It was found that a large variety of electricity supply systems, signalization and link in Europe makes it necessary to test new types of electric rolling stock for electromagnetic compatibility with pick up unit in each country separately, taking into account the features used in its systems. It is greatly increases the cost of introducing new types of rolling stock. The test method of electric rolling stock EMC with track circuits has been developed; it includes measurement in power circuits of rolling stock, as well as in track devices of signalization systems. Measurements in accordance with the proposed methodology for electric rolling stock with asynchronous traction drive when driving on sections electrified at AC and DC have been carried out. The values of the interference current in track circuit to all the frequencies of the signal current have been defined. It is shown that under some modes of the train the interference current exceed the permissible values. Originality. The method for measuring interference current generated

  15. Test plan/procedure for the checkout of the USA cable communications test configuration for the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    A series of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests were conducted in May, 1975 in the Soviet Union. The purpose of the EMC tests was to determine the effects of the operating environment of the Soviet aircraft, Soyuz, upon the electrical performance of the USA's cable communications equipment located in Soyuz. The test procedures necessary to check out the cable communications test configuration in preparation for the EMC tests are presented.

  16. Transfer of learning in choice reactions: The roles of stimulus type, response mode, and set-level compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Motonori; Chen, Jing; Proctor, Robert W

    2015-08-01

    The Simon effect refers to the advantage of responding to spatially compatible stimuli. This effect can be eliminated or even reversed to favor spatially incompatible stimuli after participants practice a choice-reaction task with spatially incompatible mappings (e.g., pressing left and right keys to stimuli on the right and left, respectively). This transfer of incompatible spatial associations has been observed under conditions in which responses were made manually (e.g., keypresses, moving a joystick). The present study used vocal responses to reveal the primary determinants of the transfer effect, dissociating the influences of stimulus type, response mode, and their interaction (set-level compatibility). The results suggest that contextual match between the practice and transfer tasks with respect to stimulus type and response mode determined transfer of incompatible associations to the Simon task, and stimulus type determined the efficiency of acquiring new associations. However, there was little evidence that set-level compatibility plays any major role in either acquisition or transfer of spatial associations.

  17. [Discussion on the electromagnetic compatibility testing and evaluation of radio frequency ablation catheter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuji; Yang, Jiangang

    2014-11-01

    With the enforcement of YY 0505-2012, the testing items and evaluation points of radio frequency ablation catheter in electromagnetic compatibility field should be studied and discussed. Based on the requirements of relevant standards, this paper discusses on the testing items that should be applied and the evaluation points that should be focused on by analyzing the intended use and the structure of radio frequency ablation catheter, when it intends to apply registration individually with the basic knowledge of electromagnetic compatibility field.

  18. Selection of excipients for extended release formulations of glipizide through drug-excipient compatibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajan K; Garg, Sanjay

    2005-07-15

    For the development of extended release formulations of glipizide, techniques of thermal and isothermal stress testing (IST) were used to assess the compatibility of glipizide with selected excipients. Initially, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to evaluate the compatibility. IR spectrum of drug-excipient mixture was also compared with that of pure drug and excipient. Compatibility of excipients defined in the prototype formula was tested using IST. Based on the DSC results alone, magnesium stearate, meglumine, TRIS buffer, and lactose, were found to exhibit interaction with glipizide. Stressed binary mixtures (stored at 50 degrees C for 3 weeks) of glipizide and meglumine showed yellow coloration indicating potential incompatibility. Based on the results of DSC, IR, and/or HPLC, excipients defined in the prototype formula were found to be compatible with glipizide. The optimized formulation developed using the compatible excipients were found to be stable after 3 months of accelerated stability studies (40 degrees C and 75% RH). Overall, compatibility of excipients with glipizide was successfully evaluated using the combination of thermal and IST methods and the formulations developed using the compatible excipients was found to be stable.

  19. Isothermal Microcalorimetric Evaluation of Compatibility of Proposed Injector Materials with High-Test Hydrogen Peroxide Propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gostowski, Rudy

    2003-01-01

    High-test hydrogen peroxide (HTP) is receiving renewed interest as a monopropellant and as the oxidizer for bipropellant systems. HTP is hydrogen peroxide in concentrations ranging from 70 to 98%. All surfaces wetted by HTP must be evaluated for compatibility with the fluid. In the case of tanks, lines and valves compatibility is required to preserve the HTP oxygen and energy content and to avoid overpressurization due to decomposition. With injectors and regenerative cooling passages shorter exposure time reduces these concerns. However, phase changes from fluid to gas impact heat transfer and become the dominant compatibility concern. Isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC) provides a convenient and reproducible means to observe the decomposition of HTP when exposed to structural materials and therefore the compatibility of those materials'. The instrument provides heat flow values in terms of watts that may be converted to a reaction rate given the heat of reaction for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. These values are then converted to percent active oxygen loss per week (%AOL/wk) to preserve an earlier convention for quantifying HTP compatibility. Additionally, qualitative designations of compatibility have been assigned to these values. This scheme consists of four classes with Class 1 being the most compatible. While historical compatibility data is available its current applicability is in question due to subtle changes in the compositions of both HTP and structural materials. Trace levels of molecules can have significant influence on compatibility. Therefore representative samples of materials must be evaluated with current HTP formulations. In this work seven materials were selected for their strength characteristics at high temperature as expected in a HTP injector. The materials were then evaluated by IMC for HTP compatibility.

  20. Device For Testing Compatibility Of An O-Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dennis D.

    1995-01-01

    Fixture designed for use in exposing compressed elastomeric O-ring or other ring seal to test fluid. Made of metal or plastic, with threaded recess into which O-ring placed. Opposite threaded end is opening through which test fluid introduced and placed in contact with O-ring. After exposure, compression set and swell or shrinkage of ring measured. Fixture set to compress ring by selected amount, providing for reproducible compression.

  1. Testing designing an electrical device compliant with the electromagnetic compatibility directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płaczek, M.; Maćkowski, M.; Nowak, P.

    2017-08-01

    The goal of presented work was to build an electronic device in order to test the effectiveness of different EMC-improving solutions. Three EMC tests were done in order to check the created device compliance with the electromagnetic compatibility directive. Each of them was conducted for both industrial and non-industrial parameters (voltage and field strength), according to IEC PN-EN 61000 standards. Three tests were done: conductive immunity test in EM clamp, radiated immunity test in GTEM chamber, radiated emission test in GTEM chamber. Firstly, the device’s conductive immunity was examined. The set of possible solutions was created by examining existing designs, papers, books and producers’ recommendations. In result, different component configurations were chosen to determine the most EMC-effective one. Next, electromagnetic compatibility of proposed device configurations was tested in the GTEM chamber (radiated immunity and radiated emission). Tests results are presented on charts and analysed in order to verify if designed device face requirements of the electromagnetic compatibility directive. It was verify which of proposed electromagnetic compatibility improving solutions can solve problems with electromagnetic compatibility.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging compatibility test of a cranial prosthesis with titanium screws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, R.; Benavides, A.; Flores, D.; Hidalgo, S. S.; Solis, S. E.; Uribe, E.; Rodriguez, A. O.

    2012-10-01

    The follow-up of patients with skull prosthesis is necessary to provide adequate medical care. Skull prostheses for cranioplasty have been developed at the Faculty of Odontology of Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. We built a skull prosthesis phantom and tested for compatibility with standard magnetic resonance imaging procedures. Results showed full compatibility but susceptibility artefacts occurred due to titanium used to fix the prosthesis to the skull.

  3. Development of automated electromagnetic compatibility test facilities at Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Cecil A.

    1986-01-01

    The efforts to automate the electromagentic compatibility (EMC) test facilites at Marshall Flight Center were examined. A battery of nine standard tests is to be integrated by means of a desktop computer-controller in order to provide near real-time data assessment, store the data acquired during testing on flexible disk, and provide computer production of the certification report.

  4. Shuttle communication systems compatibility and performance tests. [transponder, range error, and power amplifier problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromley, L. K.; Travis, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    The compatibility and performance of the Shuttle communications system must be certified prior to operational missions. For this purpose, NASA has established the Electronics Systems Test Laboratory (ESTL) at the Johnson Space Center. This paper discusses the Shuttle communications system compatibility and performance testing being performed in the ESTL. The ESTL system verification test philosophy, including capabilities, procedures, and unique testing equipment are summarized. Summaries of the significant results of compatibility and performance tests of the Orbiter/Space-flight Tracking and Data Network, Orbiter/Air Force Remote Tracking Station, Orbiter/Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System and Orbiter/Shuttle Launch Support System interfaces are presented. The ESTL's unique ability to locate potential communication problems and participate in the resolution of these problems are discussed in detail.

  5. Fatigue mixed-mode delamination testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khourchid, Y. A.

    1993-01-01

    The separation of adjacent plies in a composite laminate (delamination) has been identified as the dominant failure mechanism in which most advanced composite materials fail. The resistance of a material to delamination is quantified in terms of the delamination fracture toughness, G(c), which is also known to change with the ratio of mode mix. The recently developed mixed mode bending (MMB) testing method is unique in that it allows the measurement of G(c) under any combination of mixed Mode I and Mode II loading. This makes it an ideal tool for mapping the interlaminar fracture behavior of the various material systems. The present work is concerned with the use of the MMB apparatus for fatigue testing, from which G(c) Vs N plots are obtained. These allowed the identification of the threshold value G(threshold). Preliminary static and fatigue results are presented for two aerospace type materials, IM7/8320 graphite/thermoplastic and IM7/5260 graphite/bismaleimide specimens, under various GI/GII ratios.

  6. Waste compatibility safety issues and final results for tank 241-T-110 push mode samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuzum, J.L.

    1997-05-15

    This document is the final laboratory report for Tank 241-T-110. Push mode core segments were removed from risers 2 and 6 between January 29, 1997, and February 7, 1997. Segments were received and extruded at 222-S Laboratory. Analyses were performed in accordance with Tank 241-T-110 Push Mode Core Sampling and analysis Plan (TSAP) and Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO). None of the subsamples submitted for total alpha activity (AT) or differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses exceeded the notification limits stated in DQO.

  7. Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and Noise Background Testing for Double Chooz PMT System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cepero, J. R.; Encabo Fernandez, F. J.; Pepe, I.; Verdugo, A.

    2009-05-21

    The Double Chooz PMT system is a HV/signal splitter. In this report is presented an electromagnetic compatibility and background noise testing for the Double Chooz PMT system. It was possible to proceed the EMC testing on different grounding configurations of PMT splitter due to its special PCB design, endowed of jumping points and a metal box ground electrode. (Author)

  8. Assessing a Couple's Relationship and Compatibility Using the MARI[R] Card Test and Mandala Drawings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frame, Phyllis G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of the MARI[R] Card Test, a transpersonal assessment tool which includes archetypal designs and color choices, as well as the drawing of a white and black mandala, or circle picture, for assessing the compatibility of two people in a committed relationship. In an informal pilot research study, 22 couples were given…

  9. Compatibility of Clinical Manifestation with Skin Prick Test Result and Food Provocation Test in Food Cross Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Azwin; Barlianto, Wisnu; Endaryanto, Anang; Harsono, Ariyanto

    2017-01-01

    Background: Subjective diagnostic test of food allergy is hugely biased, resulting in irrational diet avoidance. Additional objective tools by skin prick test following food provocation test resulting more accurate cause and prevalence on population. Purpose: To evaluate the compatibility of clinical symptoms with skin prick test and provocation test for imunoglobulin E (IgE) mediated food allergy in Dr. Soetomo Hospital Surabaya. Methods: Cross sectional observational analytic study. Patient...

  10. Development and evaluation of a test program for Y-site compatibility testing of total parenteral nutrition and intravenous drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Staven, Vigdis; Wang, Siri; Gr?nlie, Ingrid; Tho, Ingunn

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no standardized procedure or consensus to which tests should be performed to judge compatibility/incompatibility of intravenous drugs. The purpose of this study was to establish and evaluate a test program of methods suitable for detection of physical incompatibility in Y-site administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and drugs. Methods Eight frequently used methods (dynam...

  11. Development and evaluation of a test program for Y-site compatibility testing of total parenteral nutrition and intravenous drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staven, Vigdis; Wang, Siri; Grønlie, Ingrid; Tho, Ingunn

    2016-03-22

    There is no standardized procedure or consensus to which tests should be performed to judge compatibility/incompatibility of intravenous drugs. The purpose of this study was to establish and evaluate a test program of methods suitable for detection of physical incompatibility in Y-site administration of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) and drugs. Eight frequently used methods (dynamic light scattering, laser diffraction, light obscuration, turbidimetry, zeta potential, light microscopy, pH-measurements and visual examination using Tyndall beams), were scrutinized to elucidate strengths and weaknesses for compatibility testing. The responses of the methods were tested with samples containing precipitation of calcium phosphate and with heat destabilized TPN emulsions. A selection of drugs (acyclovir, ampicillin, ondansetron and paracetamol) was mixed with 3-in-1 TPN admixtures (Olimel® N5E, Kabiven® and SmofKabiven®) to assess compatibility (i.e. potential precipitates and emulsion stability). The obtained compatibility data was interpreted according to theory and compared to existing compatibility literature to further check the validity of the methods. Light obscuration together with turbidimetry, visual inspection and pH-measurements were able to capture signs of precipitations. For the analysis of emulsion stability, light obscuration and estimation of percent droplets above 5 μm (PFAT5) seemed to be the most sensitive method; however laser diffraction and monitoring changes in pH might be a useful support. Samples should always be compared to unmixed controls to reveal changes induced by the mixing. General acceptance criteria are difficult to define, although some limits are suggested based on current experience. The experimental compatibility data was supported by scattered reports in literature, further confirming the suitability of the test program. However, conflicting data are common, which complicates the comparison to existing literature. Testing of

  12. Fan Performance Testing and Oxygen Compatibility Assessment Results for Future Space Suit Life Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Vogel, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    An advanced portable life support system (PLSS) for the space suit will require a small, robust, and energyefficient system to transport the ventilation gas through the space suit for lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) operations. A trade study identified and compared ventilation transport technologies in commercial, military, and space applications to determine which technologies could be adapted for EVA use. Based on the trade study results, five commercially available, 24-volt fans were selected for performance testing at various pressures and flow rates. Measured fan parameters included fan delta-pressures, input voltages, input electrical currents, and in some cases motor windings electrical voltages and currents. In addition, a follow-on trade study was performed to identify oxygen compatibility issues and assess their impact on fan design. This paper outlines the results of the fan performance characterization testing, as well as the results from the oxygen compatibility assessment.

  13. Dual Mode Inverter Control Test Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, J.M.

    2001-04-25

    Permanent Magnet Motors with either sinusoidal back emf (permanent magnet synchronous motor [PMSM]) or trapezoidal back emf (brushless dc motor [BDCM]) do not have the ability to alter the air gap flux density (field weakening). Since the back emf increases with speed, the system must be designed to operate with the voltage obtained at its highest speed. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) has developed a dual mode inverter controller (DMIC) that overcomes this disadvantage. This report summarizes the results of tests to verify its operation. The standard PEEMRC 75 kW hard-switched inverter was modified to implement the field weakening procedure (silicon controlled rectifier enabled phase advance). A 49.5 hp motor rated at 2800 rpm was derated to a base of 400 rpm and 7.5 hp. The load developed by a Kahn Industries hydraulic dynamometer, was measured with a MCRT9-02TS Himmelstein and Company torque meter. At the base conditions a current of 212 amperes produced the 7.5 hp. Tests were run at 400, 1215, and 2424 rpm. In each run, the current was no greater than 214 amperes. The horsepower obtained in the three runs were 7.5, 9.3, and 8.12. These results verified the basic operation of the DMIC in producing a Constant Power Speed Ratios (CPSR) of six.

  14. Performance Assessment of Internal Quality Control (IQC) Products in Blood Transfusion Compatibility Testing in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Gui-Ping; Wu, Li-Fang; Li, Jing-Jing; Gao, Qi; Liu, Zhi-Dong; Kang, Qiong-Hua; Hou, Yi-Jun; Zhang, Luo-Chuan; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Li, Jie; Zhang, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Internal quality control (IQC) is a critical component of laboratory quality management, and IQC products can determine the reliability of testing results. In China, given the fact that most blood transfusion compatibility laboratories do not employ IQC products or do so minimally, there is a lack of uniform and standardized IQC methods. To explore the reliability of IQC products and methods, we studied 697 results from IQC samples in our laboratory from 2012 to 2014. The results showed that the sensitivity and specificity of the IQCs in anti-B testing were 100% and 99.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the IQCs in forward blood typing, anti-A testing, irregular antibody screening, and cross-matching were all 100%. The reliability analysis indicated that 97% of anti-B testing results were at a 99% confidence level, and 99.9% of forward blood typing, anti-A testing, irregular antibody screening, and cross-matching results were at a 99% confidence level. Therefore, our IQC products and methods are highly sensitive, specific, and reliable. Our study paves the way for the establishment of a uniform and standardized IQC method for pre-transfusion compatibility testing in China and other parts of the world.

  15. The mixed-mode bending method for delamination testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, James R.; Crews, John H., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A mixed-mode bending (MMB) test procedure is presented which combines double cantilever beam mode-I loading and end-notch flexure mode II loading on a split, unidirectional laminate. The MMB test has been analyzed by FEM and by beam theory in order to ascertain the mode I and mode II components' respective strain energy release rates, G(I) and G(II); these analyses indicate that a wide range of G(I)/G(II) ratios can be generated by varying the applied load's position on the loading lever. The MMB specimen analysis and test procedures are demonstrated for the case of AS4/PEEK unidirectional laminates.

  16. Our new tornado-compatible aortic valve prosthesis: notable results of hydrodynamic testing and experimental trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo A. Bockeria

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims A shortcoming common to all existing designs of mechanical cardiac valve prostheses is an increased trombogenicity caused, among other factors, by the lack of hydrodynamic compatibility between the luminal part of the prosthesis and the patterned blood flow. The aim of the study is to design and test our new mechanical aortic valve prosthesis to exclude life-long anticoagulation treatment. Materials and methods Standard hydrodynamic tests of the new prosthetic valve have been carried out for comparing with the other existing valve designs. A new method for the heart valve prosthesis testing in a tornado-like flow has been developed. The valve function has been verified in a swine excluding the anticoagulation treatment during the period of time exceeding six months. Results The significant advantage of the new prosthesis in the standard hydrodynamic tests has been demonstrated. The tests in the tornado-like flow have shown that only this prosthesis allows maintaining the pattern, the head and flow rate characteristics of the tornado-like jet. Upon implanting the new prosthesis in the aortic position in a swine, the good performance of the valve without anticoagulation therapy has been confirmed in the course of more than six months. Conclusion Obtained has been the evidence of the merits of the new mechanical aortic valve owing to the due consideration of the hydrodynamic peculiarities of the aortic blood flow and the creation of the design providing the proper hydrodynamic compatibility.

  17. Gallium-cladding compatibility testing plan: Phase 3 -- Test plan for centrally heated surrogate rodlet test. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R.N.; Baldwin, C.A.; Wilson, D.F.

    1998-07-01

    The Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) is investigating the use of weapons grade plutonium in mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for light-water reactors (LWR). Commercial MOX fuel has been successfully used in overseas reactors for many years; however, weapons derived fuel may differ from the previous commercial fuels because of small amounts of gallium impurities. A concern presently exists that the gallium may migrate out of the fuel, react with and weaken the clad, and thereby promote loss of fuel pin integrity. Phases 1 and 2 of the gallium task are presently underway to investigate the types of reactions that occur between gallium and clad materials. This is a Level-2 document as defined in the Fissile Materials Disposition Program Light-Water Reactor Mixed-Oxide Fuel Irradiation Test Project Plan. This Plan summarizes the projected Phase 3 Gallium-Cladding compatibility heating test and the follow-on post test examination (PTE). This work will be performed using centrally-heated surrogate pellets, to avoid unnecessary complexities and costs associated with working with plutonium and an irradiation environment. Two sets of rodlets containing pellets prepared by two different methods will be heated. Both sets will have an initial bulk gallium content of approximately 10 ppm. The major emphasis of the PTE task will be to examine the material interactions, particularly indications of gallium transport from the pellets to the clad.

  18. Mixed-Mode Bending Method for Delamination Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, James R.; Crews, John R., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    A mixed mode delamination test procedure was developed combining double cantilever beam (DCB) mode I loading and end-notch fixture (ENF) mode II loading on a split unidirectional laminate. By loading with a lever, a single applied load simultaneously produces mode I and mode II bending loads on the specimen. This mixed-mode bending (MMB) test was analyzed using both finite-element procedures and beam theory to calculate the mode I and mode II components of strain-energy release rate G(sub I) and G(sub II), respectively. A wide range of G(sub I)/G(sub II) ratios can be produced by varying the load position on the lever. As the delamination extended, the G(sub I)/G(sub II) ratios varied by less than 5%. Beam theory equations agreed closely with the finite-element results and provide a basis for selection of G(sub I)/G(sub II) test ratios and a basis for computing the mode I and mode II components of measured delamination toughness. The MMB test was demonstrated using AS4/PEEK (APC2) unidirectional laminates. The MMB test introduced in this paper is rather simple and is believed to offer several advantages over most current mixed-mode test.

  19. [Inside quality control for whole blood preservation performed at blood transfusion compatibility testing laboratory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Ma, Chun-Ya; Feng, Qian; Chen, Xin; Guan, Xiao-Zhen; Zhang, Xiao-Juan; Chen, Lin-Feng; Lin, Zi-Lin; Pan, Ji-Chun; Zhang, Ting; Luo, Qun; Wang, De-Qing

    2010-06-01

    This study was aimed to establish the technique for preparation and storage of internal quality control pro-ducts by using existing blood sample resources of blood transfusion compatibility testing laboratory. 24 healthy blood donors with group A and RhD-positive were randomly selected, and 4 ml venous blood from these donors were collected, respectively. Based on the use of anticoagulant type, whether to add red blood cell preservation solution and the samples stored at room temperature for 1 or 2 hours daily, 24 specimens were randomly divided into 8 groups by using factorial design methodology. All samples in tube with cap were stored at 4 degrees C, and placed at room temperature for 1 or 2 hours daily. ABO, RhD blood group (recorded on the agglutination strength of the forward and reverse typing), IgM anti-B antibody titer, and free hemoglobin concentration in the supernatant for all samples were detected at 0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 days of products preservation. The results indicated that the red blood cell damage from the group used anticoagulants ACD-B and added the MAP red blood cell preservation solution and placed at room temperature 1 hour daily (recorded as A2B2C1 group) was kept minimal, and FHb concentration and FHb increments at each time point were the lowest (p 0.05). In conclusion, blood transfusion compatibility testing laboratory can use A2B2C1 program established by this study to prepare relatively stable modified whole blood internal quality control products in the existing conditions, which can be effectively preserved and meet the requirements of internal quality control for blood transfusion compatibility testing.

  20. Oxygen Compatibility and Challenge Testing of the PLSS Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR) for the Advanced EMU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin; Cox, Marlon; Meginnis, Carly; Falconi, Eric

    2017-01-01

    The Variable Oxygen Regulator (VOR), a stepper actuated two-stage mechanical regulator, is being developed for the purpose of serving as the Primary Oxygen Regulator (POR) and Secondary Oxygen Regulator (SOR) within the Advanced EMU PLSS, now referred to as the xEMU and xPLSS. Three prototype designs have been fabricated and tested as part of this development. Building upon the lessons learned from the 35 years of Shuttle/ISS EMU Program operation including the fleet-wide EMU Secondary Oxygen Pack (SOP) contamination failure that occurred in 2000, the VOR is being analyzed, designed, and tested for oxygen compatibility with controlled Non-Volatile Residue (NVR) and a representative worst-case hydro-carbon system contamination event (>100mg/sq ft dodecane). This paper discusses the steps taken in testing of VOR 2.0 with for oxygen compatibility and then discusses follow-on design changes implemented in the VOR 3.0 (3rd prototype) as a result.

  1. Analysis and interpretation of the model of a Faraday cage for electromagnetic compatibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad V. Munić

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the work of the Laboratory for Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing in the Technical Test Center (TTC, we investigated the influence of the Faraday cage on measurement results. The primary goal of this study is the simulation of the fields in the cage, especially around resonant frequencies, in order to be able to predict results of measurements of devices under test in the anechoic chamber or in any other environment. We developed simulation (computer models of the cage step by step, by using the Wipl-D program and by comparing the numerical results with measurements as well as by resolving difficulties due to the complex structure and imperfections of the cage. The subject of this paper is to present these simulation models and the corresponding results of the computations and measurements. Construction of the cage The cage is made of steel plates with the dimensions 1.25 m x 2.5 m. The base of the cage is a square; the footprint interior dimensions are 3.76 m x 3.76 m, and the height is 2.5 m. The cage ceiling is lowered by plasticized aluminum strips. The strips are loosely attached to the carriers which are screwed to the ceiling. The cage has four ventilation openings (two on the ceiling and two on one wall, made of honeycomb waveguide holes. In one corner of the cage, there is a single door with springs made of beryllium bronze. For frequencies of a few tens of MHz, the skin effect is fully developed in the cage walls. By measuring the input impedance of the wire line parallel to a wall of the cage, we calculated the surface losses of the cage plates. In addition, we used a magnetic probe to detect shield discontinuities. We generated a strong current at a frequency of 106 kHz outside the cage and measured the magnetic field inside the cage at the places of cage shield discontinuities. In this paper, we showed the influence of these places on the measurement results, especially on the qualitative and quantitative

  2. A large hemi-anechoic enclosure for community-compatible aeroacoustic testing of aircraft propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Beth A.

    1993-04-01

    A large hemianechoic (absorptive walls and acoustically hard floor) noise control enclosure was erected around a complex of test stands at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. This new state-of-the art Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory (APL) provides an all-weather, semi secure test environment while limiting noise to acceptable levels in surrounding residential neighborhoods. The 39.6-m- (130-ft-) diameter geodesic dome houses the new nozzle aeroacoustic test rig (NATR), an ejector-powered Mach 0.3 free jet facility for acoustic testing of supersonic aircraft exhaust nozzles and turbomachinery. A multiaxis, force-measuring, powered lift facility (PLF) stand for testing short takeoff vertical-landing (STOVL) vehicles is also located in the dome. The design of the Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory efficiently accommodates the research functions of two separate test rigs, one of which (NATR) requires a specialized environment for taking acoustic measurements. An absorptive fiberglass wedge treatment on the interior surface of the dome provides a hemianechoic environment for obtaining the accurate acoustic measurements required to meet research program goals. The APL is the first known geodesic dome structure to incorporate transmission-loss properties as well as interior absorption in a free-standing, community-compatible, hemianechoic test facility.

  3. A Large Hemi-Anechoic Enclosure for Community-Compatible Aeroacoustic Testing of Aircraft Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Beth A.

    1993-01-01

    A large hemi-anechoic (absorptive walls and acoustically hard floor) noise control enclosure has been erected around a complex of test stands at the NASA Lewis Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. This new state-of-the-art Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory (APL) provides an all-weather, semisecure test environment while limiting noise to acceptable levels in surrounding residential neighborhoods. The 39.6 m (130 ft) diameter geodesic dome structure houses the new Nozzle Aeroacoustic Test Rig (NATR), an ejector-powered M = 0.3 free jet facility for acoustic testing of supersonic aircraft exhaust nozzles and turbomachinery. A multi-axis, force-measuring Powered Lift Facility (PLF) stand for testing of Short Takeoff Vertical Landing (STOVL) vehicles is also located within the dome. The design of the Aeroacoustic Propulsion Laboratory efficiently accomodates the research functions of two separate test rigs, one of which (NATR) requires a specialized environment for taking acoustic measurements. Absorptive fiberglass wedge treatment on the interior surface of the dome provides a hemi-anechoic interior environment for obtaining the accurate acoustic measurements required to meet research program goals. The APL is the first known geodesic dome structure to incorporate transmission-loss properties as well as interior absorption into a free-standing, community-compatible, hemi-anechoic test facility.

  4. An empirical test of schema mode conceptualizations in personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Van Vreeswijk, Michiel F; Arntz, Arnoud

    2008-07-01

    Although the use of schema modes in schema-focused therapy (SFT) has been very popular since its introduction, Young's schema mode concept remained largely empirically untested. In order to provide insight into the mode conceptualization of personality disorders (PDs), the current study assessed the relationships between 14 schema modes and all PDs. Relationships between dimensional PD scores and self-reported mode scores were tested in a mixed study group of 489 participants, consisting of axis I and axis II patients, and non-patients. Psychopathology was assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis I and axis II disorders (SCID I and SCID II) or the Structural Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SIDP-IV), and modes were assessed by the Schema Mode Inventory. Kendall's partial tau coefficients, controlling each PD-mode correlation for all other PD scores, indicated unique mode profiles for all PDs and corroborated most of the hypothesized PD-mode correlations, supporting the construct validity of the mode model. Nevertheless, the high number of correlations found for some PDs raises concerns about the specificity of the mode model. Implications for both research and therapy are discussed.

  5. Electromagnetic Interference/Compatibility (EMI/EMC) Control Test and Measurement Facility: User Test Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the EMI/EMC Test Facility. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  6. Test-compatible confidence intervals for adaptive two-stage single-arm designs with binary endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzmann, Kevin; Kieser, Meinhard

    2017-10-27

    Inference after two-stage single-arm designs with binary endpoint is challenging due to the nonunique ordering of the sampling space in multistage designs. We illustrate the problem of specifying test-compatible confidence intervals for designs with nonconstant second-stage sample size and present two approaches that guarantee confidence intervals consistent with the test decision. Firstly, we extend the well-known Clopper-Pearson approach of inverting a family of two-sided hypothesis tests from the group-sequential case to designs with fully adaptive sample size. Test compatibility is achieved by using a sample space ordering that is derived from a test-compatible estimator. The resulting confidence intervals tend to be conservative but assure the nominal coverage probability. In order to assess the possibility of further improving these confidence intervals, we pursue a direct optimization approach minimizing the mean width of the confidence intervals. While the latter approach produces more stable coverage probabilities, it is also slightly anti-conservative and yields only negligible improvements in mean width. We conclude that the Clopper-Pearson-type confidence intervals based on a test-compatible estimator are the best choice if the nominal coverage probability is not to be undershot and compatibility of test decision and confidence interval is to be preserved. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Implantable cardiac pacemaker electromagnetic compatibility testing in a novel security system simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainz, Wolfgang; Casamento, Jon P; Ruggera, Paul S; Chan, Dulciana D; Witters, Donald M

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes a novel simulator to perform electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests for active implantable medical devices (AIMDs) with electromagnetic fields emitted by security systems. The security system simulator was developed in response to over 100 incident reports over 17 years related to the interference of AIMD's with security systems and the lack of a standardized test method. The simulator was evaluated regarding field homogeneity, signal distortion, and maximum magnetic field strength levels. Small three-axis probes and a three-axis scanning system were designed to determine the spatial and temporal characteristics of the fields emitted by 12 different types of walk through metal detectors (WTMDs). Tests were performed on four implanted pacemakers with a saline phantom and correlated to a newly developed test method performed "in air" (without the phantom). Comparison of the simulator thresholds with tests performed in real WTMDs showed that the simulator is able to mimic the pacemaker interference. The interference thresholds found in the simulator indicate that pulsed magnetic fields are more likely to cause interference in pacemakers than sinusoidal fields. The security system simulator will help biomedical engineers, manufacturers of medical devices, and manufacturers of security systems to identify incompatible combinations of WTMDs and AIMDs early in the development stage.

  8. Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing for Conducted Susceptibility Along Interconnecting Signal Lines. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, P. D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wood, R. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Korsah, K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shourbaji, A. A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilson, T. L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Beets, B. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2002-07-31

    This document presents recommendations and the associated technical basis for addressing the effects of conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio-frequency interference (RFI) along interconnecting signal lines in safety-related instrumentation and control (I&C) systems. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in assisting the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research in developing the technical basis for regulatory guidance on EMIIRFI immunity and power surge withstand capability (SWC). Previous research efforts have provided recommendations on (1) electromagnetic compatibility design and installation practices, (2) the endorsement of EMI/RFI and SWC test criteria and test methods, (3) the determination of ambient electromagnetic conditions at nuclear power plants, and (4) the development of recommended electromagnetic operating envelopes applicable to locations where safety-related I&C systems will be installed. The current research focuses on the susceptibility of l&C systems to conducted EMIIRFI along interconnecting signal lines. Coverage of signal line susceptibility was identified as an open issue in previous research on establishing the technical basis for EMIIRFI and SWC in safety-related I&C systems. Research results provided in this report will be used to establish the technical basis for endorsing U.S. Department of Defense and European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization test criteria and test methods that address signal-line susceptibility. In addition, recommendations on operating envelopes are presented based on available technical information.

  9. Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standard test chamber upgrade requirements for spacecraft design verification tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Edward F.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the serious performance deficiencies inherent in conventional modular and welded shielding EMC test enclosures, in which multipath reflections and resonant standing waves can damage flight hardware during RF susceptibility tests, NASA-Goddard has undertaken the modification of a 20 x 24 ft modular-shielded enclosure through installation of steel panels to which ferrite tiles will be mounted with epoxy. The internally reflected RF energy will thereby be absorbed, and exterior power-line noise will be reduced. Isolation of power-line filters and control of 60-Hz ground connections will also be undertaken in the course of upgrading.

  10. Cleaning and materials compatibility test results for elimination of flammable solvents in wipe applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Edwin Paul

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, efforts have been made within the nuclear weapons complex (National Nuclear Security Administration) of the Department of Energy (DOE) to replace Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulated solvents (i.e., flammable, toxic, corrosive, and reactive) and ozone-depleting chemicals (ODC) with more benign alternatives. Within the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) sectors, these solvents are used for cleaning hardware during routine maintenance operations. A primary goal of this study is to replace flammable solvents used in wiping applications. Two cleaners, including a hydrofluoroether (HFE) and an azeotrope of the HFE and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), have been studied as potential replacements for flammable solvents. Cleaning efficacy, short-term and long-term materials compatibility, corrosion, drying times, flammability, environment, safety and health (ES&H) and accelerated aging issues were among the experiments used to screen candidate solvents by the interagency team performing this work. This report presents cleaning efficacy results as determined by the contact angle Goniometer as well as materials compatibility results of various metal alloys and polymers. The results indicate that IPA (baseline cleaner) and the HFE/IPA azeotrope are roughly equivalent in their ability to remove fluorinated grease, silicone grease, and a simulated finger print contaminant from various metal alloys. All of the ASTM sandwich and immersion corrosion tests with IPA, HFE or the HFE/IPA azeotrope on metal alloys showed no signs of corrosion. Furthermore, no deleterious effects were noted for polymeric materials immersed in IPA, HFE, or the HFE/IPA azeotrope.

  11. Mode Calculation and Testing of a Car Body in White

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic parameters of a car body in white (BIW are important during a new car developing. Based on the finite element method, the model of a BIW is developed in which the welding points are treated specially as a new element type and the vibration modes of it are calculated. In modal testing, a fixed sine-sweeping exciter is used to conduct a single-point input force for the structure, whereas the output responses are picked up at different points to identify modes. The obtained modes are coincided both with the FE results and the practical testing.

  12. A mixed-mode bending apparatus for delamination testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, John H., Jr.; Reeder, James R.

    1988-01-01

    A mixed-mode delamination test procedure was developed combining double cantilever beam mode I loading and end notch flexure mode II loading on a split unidirectional laminate. By loading the specimen with a lever, a single applied load simultaneously produces mode I and II bending loads on the specimen. This mixed mode bending (MMB) test was analyzed using both finite element procedures and beam theory to calculate the mode I and II components of strain energy release rate, G sub I and G sub II, respectively. The analyses showed that a wide range of G sub I/G sub II ratios could be produced by varying the applied load position on the loading lever. As the delamination extended, the G sub I/G sub II ratios varied by less than 5 percent. The simple beam theory equations were modified to account for the elastic interaction between the two arms of the specimen and to account for shear deformations. The resulting equations agreed closely with the finite element results and provide a basis for selection of G sub I/G sub II test ratios and a basis for computing the mode I and II components of measured delamination toughness. The MMB specimen analysis and test procedures were demonstrated using unidirectional laminates.

  13. Adhoc electromagnetic compatibility testing of non-implantable medical devices and radio frequency identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Seth J; Guag, Joshua W

    2013-07-11

    The use of radiofrequency identification (RFID) in healthcare is increasing and concerns for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) pose one of the biggest obstacles for widespread adoption. Numerous studies have documented that RFID can interfere with medical devices. The majority of past studies have concentrated on implantable medical devices such as implantable pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). This study examined EMC between RFID systems and non-implantable medical devices. Medical devices were exposed to 19 different RFID readers and one RFID active tag. The RFID systems used covered 5 different frequency bands: 125-134 kHz (low frequency (LF)); 13.56 MHz (high frequency (HF)); 433 MHz; 915 MHz (ultra high frequency (UHF])) and 2.4 GHz. We tested three syringe pumps, three infusion pumps, four automatic external defibrillators (AEDs), and one ventilator. The testing procedure is modified from American National Standards Institute (ANSI) C63.18, Recommended Practice for an On-Site, Ad Hoc Test Method for Estimating Radiated Electromagnetic Immunity of Medical Devices to Specific Radio-Frequency Transmitters. For syringe pumps, we observed electromagnetic interference (EMI) during 13 of 60 experiments (22%) at a maximum distance of 59 cm. For infusion pumps, we observed EMI during 10 of 60 experiments (17%) at a maximum distance of 136 cm. For AEDs, we observed EMI during 18 of 75 experiments (24%) at a maximum distance of 51 cm. The majority of the EMI observed was classified as probably clinically significant or left the device inoperable. No EMI was observed for all medical devices tested during exposure to 433 MHz (two readers, one active tag) or 2.4 GHz RFID (two readers). Testing confirms that RFID has the ability to interfere with critical medical equipment. Hospital staff should be aware of the potential for medical device EMI caused by RFID systems and should be encouraged to perform on-site RF immunity tests prior

  14. Adhoc electromagnetic compatibility testing of non-implantable medical devices and radio frequency identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of radiofrequency identification (RFID) in healthcare is increasing and concerns for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) pose one of the biggest obstacles for widespread adoption. Numerous studies have documented that RFID can interfere with medical devices. The majority of past studies have concentrated on implantable medical devices such as implantable pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). This study examined EMC between RFID systems and non-implantable medical devices. Methods Medical devices were exposed to 19 different RFID readers and one RFID active tag. The RFID systems used covered 5 different frequency bands: 125–134 kHz (low frequency (LF)); 13.56 MHz (high frequency (HF)); 433 MHz; 915 MHz (ultra high frequency (UHF])) and 2.4 GHz. We tested three syringe pumps, three infusion pumps, four automatic external defibrillators (AEDs), and one ventilator. The testing procedure is modified from American National Standards Institute (ANSI) C63.18, Recommended Practice for an On-Site, Ad Hoc Test Method for Estimating Radiated Electromagnetic Immunity of Medical Devices to Specific Radio-Frequency Transmitters. Results For syringe pumps, we observed electromagnetic interference (EMI) during 13 of 60 experiments (22%) at a maximum distance of 59 cm. For infusion pumps, we observed EMI during 10 of 60 experiments (17%) at a maximum distance of 136 cm. For AEDs, we observed EMI during 18 of 75 experiments (24%) at a maximum distance of 51 cm. The majority of the EMI observed was classified as probably clinically significant or left the device inoperable. No EMI was observed for all medical devices tested during exposure to 433 MHz (two readers, one active tag) or 2.4 GHz RFID (two readers). Conclusion Testing confirms that RFID has the ability to interfere with critical medical equipment. Hospital staff should be aware of the potential for medical device EMI caused by RFID systems and should be encouraged to

  15. Noise propagation path identification in time domain via common mode test mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.; Ferreira, J.A.; Polinder, H.; Roc'h, A.; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2007-01-01

    EMC debugging of power electronics systems depends heavily on experience of specialists due to the complex mechanisms of EMC. In this paper, time domain approach is utilized instead of conventional frequency domain method to identify noise propagation path. A proposed test mode lets all the upper or

  16. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Souce for System-Level Testing of Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes the development of an improved vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source used for characterizing and calibrating remote optical sensors, in situ, throughout their testing period. The original flat plate radiometric source was developed for use by the VIIRS instrument during the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP). Following this effort, the FPI has had significant upgrades in order to improve both the radiometric throughput and uniformity. Results of the VIIRS testing with the reconfigured FPI are reported and discussed.

  17. Feasibility results of an electromagnetic compatibility test protocol to evaluate medical devices to radio frequency identification exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Seidman, Seth J; Bekdash, Omar; Guag, Joshua; Mehryar, Maryam; Booth, Paul; Frisch, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of radio frequency identification (RFID) systems in healthcare is increasing, and concerns for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) pose one of the biggest obstacles for widespread adoption. Numerous studies have demonstrated that RFID systems can interfere with medical devices; however, the majority of past studies relied on time-consuming and burdensome test schemes based on ad hoc test methods applied to individual RFID systems. Methods This paper presents the results of ...

  18. In vitro testing of dual-mode thulium microsurgical laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Matthew D.; Stafford, James A.; Schmidt, Brandon P.; Wells, Jonathon D.

    2012-02-01

    Recently, thulium (Tm) fiber lasers have been investigated for use in surgical procedures, especially in urology, because of their numerous advantages over existing laser systems. Lockheed Martin Aculight has recently developed the first truly dual-mode Tm laser, which can be operated in either CW or in short-pulsed mode to produce high peak power. The goal of this study was to assess both the soft tissue ablation performance of this laser in vitro and the feasibility of using it for lithotripsy. Ablation tests were performed on liver tissue, chicken breast, and porcine skin, using a 100μm or 200μm delivery fiber, and operated in CW mode or pulsed (~350ns pulse widths) at 10kHz or 1kHz. Ablation efficiencies for long (3 minutes) exposures and collateral damage zones for short (3-5 seconds) exposures were determined for the different pulse modes and a range of pulse energies. In all tissues, the most energy-efficient ablation occurred for the 10kHz pulsed mode operating just above ablation threshold, while the highest mass removal rate occurred in 10kHz pulsed mode operating at max energy (2.1 mJ). In histological sections from short exposures, 10kHz pulsed exposures created slightly smaller thermal coagulation zones than energy-matched CW exposures, while 1kHz deliveries had substantially smaller thermal damage zones. In addition, using a 100μm fiber, the 10kHz mode was able to fragment samples of uric acid stones.

  19. Testing mode and surface treatment effects on dentin bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, J L; Sakaguchi, R L; Racean, D C; Wozny, J; Steinberg, A D

    1996-12-01

    The goal of this project was to evaluate the effect of the following variables on shear dentin-bonding test results: mode of testing (cyclic fatigue versus static loading), surface treatments (32% phosphoric acid, 10% phosphoric acid, and no treatment [unetched]), and type of shear test (traditional planar versus push-out). All teeth were stored in distilled water and tested in a shear mode at a loading rate of 2 mm/ min. The specimens were loaded in static or cycled for 1000 cycles using a staircase approach or until fracture, whichever occurred first. On samples with etched dentin surfaces, the push-out test did not demonstrate a significant difference in measured bond strength when compared with results from the planar test, although sample preparation was more labor-intensive. The bond strength resulting from cyclic fatigue of the etched specimens was approximately 51% of the static loading value. Ten percent phosphoric acid was as effective as 32% phosphoric acid for dentin bonding. Finite-element analysis indicated that the traditional planar shear test produces flexure of the specimen and high tensile stress magnitudes within the resin bonding layer. The push-out test produces elevated compressive stresses localized in the composite along the circumference of the punch. Shear stresses in the resin bonding layer are similar for both testing methods at the same loading element contact force.

  20. Adhoc electromagnetic compatibility testing of non-implantable medical devices and radio frequency identification

    OpenAIRE

    Seidman, Seth J; Guag, Joshua W

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of radiofrequency identification (RFID) in healthcare is increasing and concerns for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) pose one of the biggest obstacles for widespread adoption. Numerous studies have documented that RFID can interfere with medical devices. The majority of past studies have concentrated on implantable medical devices such as implantable pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). This study examined EMC between RFID systems and non-impla...

  1. Compatibility testing of the WESF /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ storage capsule at 800/sup 0/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1980-06-01

    A program is currently under way at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop the information needed to permit the licensing of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ as a radioisotope heat-source fuel for terrestrial application. A major portion of the effort is directed at determining the compatibility of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ with containment materials at anticipated heat-source operating temperatures. One phase of the compatibility studies involved the testing of two WESF /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ storage capsules at approximately 800/sup 0/C. The first capsule was tested for 5000 h and the second for 26,200 h. The capsules were placed in individual insulated containers and allowed to self-heat to the test temperature. The tests were conducted in a hot cell at WESF. Heat losses from the insulated containers were uneven, and as a result a temperature gradient existed between the center and ends of each capsule. In the 5000-h test the metal//sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ interface temperature varied from about 730 to 821/sup 0/C; in the 26,200-h test the temperature varied from about 750 to 831/sup 0/C. Metallographic examination of sections of metal taken from the Hastelloy C-276 capsules showed that chemical attack of the metal was not significantly greater in the 26,200-h test than in the 5000-h test. Similar results have been observed in other compatibility tests involving Hastelloy C-276 and /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/. The data indicate that chemical attack of the Hastelloy C-276 is due to impurities in the strontium fluoride, and that once the impurities are consumed the rate of attack drops to a very low level.

  2. Compatibility of separatrix density scaling for divertor detachment with H-mode pedestal operation in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, A. W.; McLean, A. G.; Makowski, M. A.; Stangeby, P. C.

    2017-08-01

    The midplane separatrix density is characterized in response to variations in upstream parallel heat flux density and central density through deuterium gas injection. The midplane density is determined from a high spatial resolution Thomson scattering diagnostic at the midplane with power balance analysis to determine the separatrix location. The heat flux density is varied by scans of three parameters, auxiliary heating, toroidal field with fixed plasma current, and plasma current with fixed safety factor, q 95. The separatrix density just before divertor detachment onset is found to scale consistent with the two-point model when radiative dissipation is taken into account. The ratio of separatrix to pedestal density, n e,sep/n e,ped varies from  ⩽30% to  ⩾60% over the dataset, helping to resolve the conflicting scaling of core plasma density limit and divertor detachment onset. The scaling of the separatrix density at detachment onset is combined with H-mode power threshold scaling to obtain a scaling ratio of minimum n e,sep/n e,ped expected in future devices.

  3. Design and testing of an MRI-compatible cycle ergometer for non-invasive cardiac assessments during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusso Silmara

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI is an important tool for cardiac research, and it is frequently used for resting cardiac assessments. However, research into non-pharmacological stress cardiac evaluation is limited. Methods We aimed to design a portable and relatively inexpensive MRI cycle ergometer capable of continuously measuring pedalling workload while patients exercise to maintain target heart rates. Results We constructed and tested an MRI-compatible cycle ergometer for a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Resting and sub-maximal exercise images (at 110 beats per minute were successfully obtained in 8 healthy adults. Conclusions The MRI-compatible cycle ergometer constructed by our research group enabled cardiac assessments at fixed heart rates, while continuously recording power output by directly measuring pedal force and crank rotation.

  4. Transient testing using EMTP modeling in an automatic playback mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooney, J. B. [Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories Inc., Pullman, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The need to test protection schemes under realistic power system conditions, as opposed to doing steady-state tests, was discussed. Transient testing is one of the methods that gives engineers the confidence they need to use newly developed protection schemes. Real-time digital simulators typically use a program like the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) to model power systems. The digitally generated output of EMTP is converted to analog signals in real-time mode via digital-to-analog converters and power amplifiers. COMTRADE is one of the standards that provides a format for playback of power system events. This paper describes the method for transient testing of protective relays using EMTP as the means of modeling the power system, and for replaying the modeled disturbances in an automatic batch mode playback, for a complete, cost effective and thorough testing of the protection system. The system is most useful in situations where the protection system is reasonably predictable or where the number of cases is relatively small. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  5. Tests of the Japhar dual mode ramjet engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessornes, O. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), DEFA Dept., 91 - Palaiseau (France); Scherrer, D. [Office National d' Etudes et de Recherches Aerospatiales (ONERA), DEFA Dept., 92 - Chatillon (France)

    2005-04-01

    In 1997, ONERA and DLR decided to join their efforts on hypersonic air-breathing vehicles in the frame of the JAPHAR program. For this purpose, a vehicle demonstrator has been chosen as a guideline for the studies and a dual mode ramjet engine has then been designed for this vehicle. An experimental scram-jet has been derived from it. A first tests campaign has been performed for simulated flight Mach number of 4.9, 5.8 and 7.5 [P. Novelli, W. Koschel, ISABE paper 99-7091, in: 14. Symp. ISABE, Florence, Italy, 1999; O. Dessornes, D. Scherrer, P. Novelli, ISABE paper 2001-1135, Bengalore, India] followed by complementary tests that consisted of weighing the test chamber. Finally, an additional test campaign was carried out in 2003 with a modified injection set-up and also with a calorimetry device that allowed to determine the combustion efficiency experimentally, which was not done before. In order to work as a dual mode ramjet, the combustion chamber has two injection stages. The first is mainly dedicated to supersonic combustion whereas the second allows to have a subsonic combustion with a thermal throat located near the chamber end. The main experimental results are discussed and comparisons with 3D Navier-Stokes computation are also presented. (authors)

  6. Feasibility results of an electromagnetic compatibility test protocol to evaluate medical devices to radio frequency identification exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Seth J; Bekdash, Omar; Guag, Joshua; Mehryar, Maryam; Booth, Paul; Frisch, Paul

    2014-08-03

    The use of radio frequency identification (RFID) systems in healthcare is increasing, and concerns for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) pose one of the biggest obstacles for widespread adoption. Numerous studies have demonstrated that RFID systems can interfere with medical devices; however, the majority of past studies relied on time-consuming and burdensome test schemes based on ad hoc test methods applied to individual RFID systems. This paper presents the results of using an RFID simulator that allows for faster evaluation of RFID-medical device EMC against a library of RFID test signals at various field strengths. The results of these tests demonstrate the feasibility and adequacy of simulator testing and can be used to support its incorporation into applicable consensus standards. This work can aid the medical device community in better assessing the risks associated with medical device exposure to RFID.

  7. Feasibility results of an electromagnetic compatibility test protocol to evaluate medical devices to radio frequency identification exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of radio frequency identification (RFID) systems in healthcare is increasing, and concerns for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) pose one of the biggest obstacles for widespread adoption. Numerous studies have demonstrated that RFID systems can interfere with medical devices; however, the majority of past studies relied on time-consuming and burdensome test schemes based on ad hoc test methods applied to individual RFID systems. Methods This paper presents the results of using an RFID simulator that allows for faster evaluation of RFID-medical device EMC against a library of RFID test signals at various field strengths. Results The results of these tests demonstrate the feasibility and adequacy of simulator testing and can be used to support its incorporation into applicable consensus standards. Conclusions This work can aid the medical device community in better assessing the risks associated with medical device exposure to RFID. PMID:25086451

  8. Time-Domain Finite Elements for Virtual Testing of Electromagnetic Compatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sedenka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a time-domain finite-element solver developed for simulations related to solving electromagnetic compatibility issues. The software is applied as a module integrated into a computational framework developed within a FP7 European project High Intensity Radiated Field – Synthetic Environment (HIRF SE able to simulate a large class of problems. In the paper, the mathematical formulation is briefly presented, and special emphasis is put on the user point of view on the simulation tool-chain. The functionality is demonstrated on the computation of shielding effectiveness of two composite materials. Results are validated through experimental measurements and agreement is confirmed by automatic feature selective algorithms.

  9. Tablet-Based Functional MRI of the Trail Making Test: Effect of Tablet Interaction Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahta Karimpoor

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Trail Making Test (TMT is widely used for assessing executive function, frontal lobe abilities, and visual motor skills. Part A of this pen-and-paper test (TMT-A involves linking numbers randomly distributed in space, in ascending order. Part B (TMT-B alternates between linking numbers and letters. TMT-B is more demanding than TMT-A, but the mental processing that supports the performance of this test remains incompletely understood. Functional MRI (fMRI may help to clarify the relationship between TMT performance and brain activity, but providing an environment that supports real-world pen-and-paper interactions during fMRI is challenging. Previously, an fMRI-compatible tablet system was developed for writing and drawing with two modes of interaction: the original cursor-based, proprioceptive approach, and a new mode involving augmented reality to provide visual feedback of hand position (VFHP for enhanced user interaction. This study characterizes the use of the tablet during fMRI of young healthy adults (n = 22, with half of the subjects performing TMT with VFHP and the other half performing TMT without VFHP. Activation maps for both TMT-A and TMT-B performance showed considerable overlap between the two tablet modes, and no statistically differences in brain activity were detected when contrasting TMT-B vs. TMT-A for the two tablet modes. Behavioral results also showed no statistically different interaction effects for TMT-B vs. TMT-A for the two tablet modes. Tablet-based TMT scores showed reasonable convergent validity with those obtained by administering the standard pen-and-paper TMT to the same subjects. Overall, the results suggest that despite the slightly different mechanisms involved for the two modes of tablet interaction, both are suitable for use in fMRI studies involving TMT performance. This study provides information for using tablet-based TMT methods appropriately in future fMRI studies involving patients and healthy

  10. Tablet-Based Functional MRI of the Trail Making Test: Effect of Tablet Interaction Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpoor, Mahta; Churchill, Nathan W; Tam, Fred; Fischer, Corinne E; Schweizer, Tom A; Graham, Simon J

    2017-01-01

    The Trail Making Test (TMT) is widely used for assessing executive function, frontal lobe abilities, and visual motor skills. Part A of this pen-and-paper test (TMT-A) involves linking numbers randomly distributed in space, in ascending order. Part B (TMT-B) alternates between linking numbers and letters. TMT-B is more demanding than TMT-A, but the mental processing that supports the performance of this test remains incompletely understood. Functional MRI (fMRI) may help to clarify the relationship between TMT performance and brain activity, but providing an environment that supports real-world pen-and-paper interactions during fMRI is challenging. Previously, an fMRI-compatible tablet system was developed for writing and drawing with two modes of interaction: the original cursor-based, proprioceptive approach, and a new mode involving augmented reality to provide visual feedback of hand position (VFHP) for enhanced user interaction. This study characterizes the use of the tablet during fMRI of young healthy adults (n = 22), with half of the subjects performing TMT with VFHP and the other half performing TMT without VFHP. Activation maps for both TMT-A and TMT-B performance showed considerable overlap between the two tablet modes, and no statistically differences in brain activity were detected when contrasting TMT-B vs. TMT-A for the two tablet modes. Behavioral results also showed no statistically different interaction effects for TMT-B vs. TMT-A for the two tablet modes. Tablet-based TMT scores showed reasonable convergent validity with those obtained by administering the standard pen-and-paper TMT to the same subjects. Overall, the results suggest that despite the slightly different mechanisms involved for the two modes of tablet interaction, both are suitable for use in fMRI studies involving TMT performance. This study provides information for using tablet-based TMT methods appropriately in future fMRI studies involving patients and healthy individuals.

  11. An Overview of Demise Calculations, Conceptual Design Studies, and Hydrazine Compatibility Testing for the GPM Core Spacecraft Propellant Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Robert H.; Moore, N. R.

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is an ongoing Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) project whose basic objective is to improve global precipitation measurements. It has been decided that the GPM spacecraft is to be a "design for demise" spacecraft. This requirement resulted in the need for a propellant tank that would also demise or ablate to an appropriate degree upon re-entry. This paper will describe GSFC-performed spacecraft and tankage demise analyses, vendor conceptual design studies, and vendor performed hydrazine compatibility and wettability tests performed on 6061 and 2219 aluminum alloys.

  12. [The electromagnetic compatibility test requirements for cardiac pacemaker in international standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Gao, Zhong

    2010-09-01

    Based on the latest international standards about implantable pacemakers, describing the main test requirements, especially for the EMC test requirements in details, and comparing the differences between the different standards, making readers having a clear understanding for the tests on pacemakers, especially for the EMC tests.

  13. ECLSS Sustaining Compatibility Testing on Urine Processor Assembly Nonmetallic Materials for Reformulation of Pretreated Urine Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, C. D.

    2015-01-01

    On International Space Station (ISS), the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) converts human urine and flush water into potable water. The urine is acid-pretreated primarily to control microbial growth. In recent years, the sulfuric acid (H2SO4) pretreatment was believed to be largely responsible for producing salt crystals capable of plugging filters in UPA components and significantly reducing the percentage of water recovery from urine. In 2012, ISS management decided to change the acid pretreatment for urine from sulfuric to phosphoric with the goal of eliminating or minimizing formation of salt crystals. In 2013-2014, as part of the qualification of the phosphoric acid (H3PO4) formulation, samples of 12 nonmetallic materials used in UPA components were immersed for up to one year in pretreated urine and brine solutions made with the new H3PO4 formulation. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) was used to measure modulus (stiffness) of the immersed samples compared to virgin control samples. Such compatibility data obtained by DMA for the H3PO4-based solutions were compared to DMA data obtained for the H2SO4-based solutions in 2002-2003.

  14. Modified Mode-I Cracked Sandwich Beam (CSB) Fracture Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. A.; Shivakumar, K. N.

    2001-01-01

    Five composite sandwich panels were fabricated using vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM). Four of these panels had E-glass/vinylester facesheets and one had carbon/epoxy facesheets. The sandwich panels had different density PVC foam cores. The four E-glass panels had core densities of 80, 100, 130, 200 kg/cu m. The sandwich with carbon/epoxy 3 facesheets had a core with density of 100 kg/cu m. Fracture tests were conducted using a modified Cracked Sandwich Beam (CSB) test configuration. Load displacement curves were obtained for loading and unloading of the specimens during crack growth. Various increments of crack growth were monitored. Critical Strain Energy Release Rates (SERR) were determined from the tests using the area method. The critical values of SERR can be considered the fracture toughness of the sandwich material. The fracture toughness ranged 367 J/sq m to 1350 J/sq m over the range of core densities. These results are compared to the Mode-I fracture toughness of the PVC foam core materials and values obtained for foam-cored sandwiches using the TSD specimen. Finite-element analyses (FEA) were performed for the test configuration and Strain Energy Release Rates were calculated using the Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT). The SERR values determined from the FEA were scaled to the fracture loads, or critical loads, obtained from the modified CSB tests. These critical loads were in close agreement with the test values.

  15. The testing effect in general chemistry: Effects of repeated testing on student performance across different test modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prisacari, Anna Agripina

    Research on the testing effect shows that practice tests are more effective than additional studying for enhancing learning. However, there has been little research directly addressing the role of additional testing when students take paper-based or computer-based tests in college courses. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the testing effect and test mode on student performance. The participants were 664 general chemistry students from two large universities in the Midwest and the Pacific Northwest. After covering the test material in their course, students completed two proctored practice tests that included 17 algorithmic question pairs, 5 conceptual pairs, and 2 definition pairs. Each practice test was delivered on computer or paper according to one of four conditions that were defined by the mode of the initial test and the mode of the final test. These conditions were: Computer-Computer, Computer-Paper, Paper-Computer, and Paper-Paper. After completing the initial practice test, students repeated half of the items. Feedback was provided after each test and performance was measured with normalized gains. After completing all of the tests, students were asked to indicate and explain their test mode preferences for general chemistry tests. Four major conclusions resulted from the study. First, the testing effect was found in all conditions, but varied in terms of the test mode. Paper-Computer showed the lowest gains and these gains were significantly lower than those for Paper-Paper. Gains from Computer-Paper and Paper-Paper were not significantly different from each other. Second, the test mode did not affect the students' performance on algorithmic questions, but affected their performance on conceptual and definition questions. Third, the gains from repeated items were significantly higher than the gains from non-repeated items. However, this testing effect was not consistent across all areas of chemistry content. Fourth, a

  16. ECLSS Sustaining Metal Materials Compatibility Final Report, Electrochemical and Crevice Corrosion Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    Electrochemical test results are presented for six noble metals evaluated in two acidic test solutions which are representative of waste liquids processed in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The two test solutions consisted of fresh waste liquid which had been modified with a proposed or alternate pretreatment formulation and its associated brine concentrate. The six test metals included three titanium grades, (Commercially Pure, 6Al-4V alloy and 6Al-4V Low Interstitial alloy), two nickel-chromium alloys (Inconel® 625 and Hastelloy® C276), and one high tier stainless steel (Cronidur® 30).

  17. Tests of the gated mode for Belle II pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinker, Eduard [Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich (Germany); Collaboration: Belle II-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    DEPFET pixel detectors offer intrinsic amplification and very high signal to noise ratio. They form an integral building block for the vertex detector system of the Belle II experiment, which will start data taking in the year 2017 at the SuperKEKB Collider in Japan. A special Test board (Hybrid4) is used, which contains a small version of the DEPFET sensor with a read-out (DCD) and a steering chip (Switcher) attached, both controlled by a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) as the central interface to the computer. In order to keep the luminosity of the collider constant over time, the particle bunch currents have to be topped off by injecting additional bunches at a rate of 50 Hz. The particles in the daughter bunches produce a high rate of background (noisy bunches) for a short period of time, saturating the occupancy of the sensor. Operating the DEPFET sensor in a Gated Mode allows preserving the signals from collisions of normal bunches while protecting the pixels from background signals of the passing noisy bunches. An overview of the Gated Mode and first results is presented.

  18. Improved Thermal-Vacuum Compatible Flat Plate Radiometric Source For System-Level Testing Of Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mark A.; Kent, Craig J.; Bousquet, Robert; Brown, Steven W.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we describe an improved thermal-vacuum compatible flat plate radiometric source which has been developed and utilized for the characterization and calibration of remote optical sensors. This source is unique in that it can be used in situ, in both ambient and thermal-vacuum environments, allowing it to follow the sensor throughout its testing cycle. The performance of the original flat plate radiometric source was presented at the 2009 SPIE1. Following the original efforts, design upgrades were incorporated into the source to improve both radiometric throughput and uniformity. The pre-thermal-vacuum (pre-TVAC) testing results of a spacecraft-level optical sensor with the improved flat plate illumination source, both in ambient and vacuum environments, are presented. We also briefly discuss potential FPI configuration changes in order to improve its radiometric performance.

  19. Electrochemical, Polarization, and Crevice Corrosion Testing of Nitinol 60, A Supplement to the ECLSS Sustaining Materials Compatibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R. E.

    2016-01-01

    In earlier trials, electrochemical test results were presented for six noble metals evaluated in test solutions representative of waste liquids processed in the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Subsequently, a seventh metal, Nitinol 60, was added for evaluation and subjected to the same test routines, data analysis, and theoretical methodologies. The previous six test metals included three titanium grades, (commercially pure, 6Al-4V alloy and 6Al-4V low interstitial alloy), two nickel-chromium alloys (Inconel(RegisteredTrademark) 625 and Hastelloy(RegisteredTrademark) C276), and one high-tier stainless steel (Cronidur(RegisteredTrademark) 30). The three titanium alloys gave the best results of all the metals, indicating superior corrosive nobility and galvanic protection properties. For this current effort, the results have clearly shown that Nitinol 60 is almost as noble as titanium, being very corrosion-resistant and galvanically compatible with the other six metals electrochemically and during long-term exposure. is also quite noble as it is very corrosion resistant and galvanically compatible with the other six metals from both an electrochemical perspective and long-term crevice corrosion scenario. This was clearly demonstrated utilizing the same techniques for linear, Tafel and cyclic polarization, and galvanic coupling of the metal candidate as was done for the previous study. The high nobility and low corrosion susceptibility for Nitinol 60 appear to be intermediate to the nickel/chromium alloys and the titanium metals with indications that are more reflective of the titanium metals in terms of general corrosion and pitting behavior.

  20. Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving VHTR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang H. Oh

    2006-06-01

    Generation IV reactors will need to be intrinsically safe, having a proliferation-resistant fuel cycle and several advantages relative to existing light water reactor (LWR). They, however, must still overcome certain technical issues and the cost barrier before it can be built in the U.S. The establishment of a nuclear power cost goal of 3.3 cents/kWh is desirable in order to compete with fossil combined-cycle, gas turbine power generation. This goal requires approximately a 30 percent reduction in power cost for stateof-the-art nuclear plants. It has been demonstrated that this large cost differential can be overcome only by technology improvements that lead to a combination of better efficiency and more compatible reactor materials. The objectives of this research are (1) to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle in the secondary power conversion side that can be applied to the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR), (2) to improve the plant net efficiency by using the carbon dioxide Brayton cycle, and (3) to test material compatibility at high temperatures and pressures. The reduced volumetric flow rate of carbon dioxide due to higher density compared to helium will reduce compression work, which eventually increase plant net efficiency.

  1. MEMS Reliability: Infrastructure, Test Structures, Experiments, and Failure Modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TANNER,DANELLE M.; SMITH,NORMAN F.; IRWIN,LLOYD W.; EATON,WILLIAM P.; HELGESEN,KAREN SUE; CLEMENT,J. JOSEPH; MILLER,WILLIAM M.; MILLER,SAMUEL L.; DUGGER,MICHAEL T.; WALRAVEN,JEREMY A.; PETERSON,KENNETH A.

    2000-01-01

    The burgeoning new technology of Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) shows great promise in the weapons arena. We can now conceive of micro-gyros, micro-surety systems, and micro-navigators that are extremely small and inexpensive. Do we want to use this new technology in critical applications such as nuclear weapons? This question drove us to understand the reliability and failure mechanisms of silicon surface-micromachined MEMS. Development of a testing infrastructure was a crucial step to perform reliability experiments on MEMS devices and will be reported here. In addition, reliability test structures have been designed and characterized. Many experiments were performed to investigate failure modes and specifically those in different environments (humidity, temperature, shock, vibration, and storage). A predictive reliability model for wear of rubbing surfaces in microengines was developed. The root causes of failure for operating and non-operating MEMS are discussed. The major failure mechanism for operating MEMS was wear of the polysilicon rubbing surfaces. Reliability design rules for future MEMS devices are established.

  2. TESTING HISTOLOGICAL IMAGES OF MAMMARY TISSUES ON COMPATIBILITY WITH THE BOOLEAN MODEL OF RANDOM SETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Mrkvička

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods for testing the Boolean model assumption from binary images are briefly reviewed. Two hundred binary images of mammary cancer tissue and 200 images of mastopathic tissue were tested individually on the Boolean model assumption. In a previous paper, it had been found that a Monte Carlo method based on the approximation of the envelopes by a multi-normal distribution with the normalized intrinsic volume densities of parallel sets as a summary statistics had the highest power for this purpose. Hence, this method was used here as its first application to real biomedical data. It was found that mastopathic tissue deviates from the Boolean model significantly more strongly than mammary cancer tissue does.

  3. Penetrometer compatible, fiber-optic sensor for continuous monitoring of chlorinated hydrocarbons -- field test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanovich, F.P.; Brown, S.B.; Colston, B.W. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    We have developed and field tested a fiber optic chemical sensor for use in environmental monitoring and remediation. The principle of detection is colorimetric and is based on an irreversible chemical reaction between a specific reagent and the target compound. The formation of reaction products are monitored remotely with optical fibers. Successive or on-demand measurements are made possible with a reagent reservoir and a miniature pumping system. The sensor has been evaluated against gas chromatography standards and has demonstrated accuracy and sensitivity (>5ppb w/w) sufficient for the environmental monitoring of the contaminants triceoroethlyene (TCE) and chloroform. The sensor system can be used for bench-top analyses or for in-situ measurements such as groundwater and vadose monitoring wells or in Penetrometry mediated placements.

  4. 78 FR 7939 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (Active Mode)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... 430 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (Active Mode); Proposed Rule #0... Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Microwave Ovens (Active Mode) AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... mode energy use for microwave ovens, including both microwave-only ovens and convection microwave ovens...

  5. Testing and development of an OWC MRI compatible PET insert front-end

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstantinou, G.; Ali, W.; Chil, R.; Cossu, G.; Ciaramella, E.; Vaquero, J.J.

    2016-07-01

    We present the design and development of a positron emission tomography (PET) detector module that could be used inside magnetic resonance imager (MRI). Critical factors compromising this combination have been studied and different solutions have been offered. Our design divides the detector module in two sections: one is the insert front-end that is placed inside the MRI and that comprises of a scintillator, a silicon photomultiplier and minimum analog electronics. The analog pulses are sent to the second section, the back-end digitalization and reconstruction module. The analog link is implemented using optical wireless communication (OWC) techniques. In this work we study how such a setting retains all the necessary characteristics for the detection and characterization of gamma scintillation events, providing sufficient communication quality with low consumption and minimizing the need for space. Possible multiplexing schemes for achieving the necessary transmission with less communication channels are also proposed and studied. A series of tests and measurements on different settings demonstrate the viability of this technique. When fully developed, it can provide a cost effective alternative for the industrial production of a flexible and customizable modular PET detector insert that can be applied to pre-existing small animal or human MRI settings, only minimally affecting the size of the MRI bore, without compromising the PET signal quality. (Author)

  6. Automated laser damage threshold test systems of different test modes for optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bin; Zhang, Yanyun; Ma, Hongping; Liu, Huasong; Ji, Yiqin

    2012-11-01

    The automated laser damage threshold test systems of different test modes are developed recently with micron-scale damage events automated detection, location and re-inspection. The system is carried out using a 10 ns pulsed Nd:YAG laser with a repetition rate of 10 Hz. In view of the requirements of weak site identification and growth test for initial damage sites, we pay more attention to the raster scan protocol. The automated test system is enabled by the pulsed stage movement method. A one pulse to one image correspondence have been set up during scans, which is available for the later confirmation of the automated damage detection results and the growth study at specified test sites. The new and grown defects are decided by comparing the pre-image and current image at the same place during different scans. Currently, the defect comparison rules and tolerance are being optimized to improve the accuracy of test systems.

  7. Refinements to the Mixed-Mode Bending Test for Delamination Toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, James R.

    2000-01-01

    The mixed-mode bending (MMB) test for delamination toughness was first introduced in 1988. This simple test is a combination of the standard Mode I (opening) test and a Mode II (sliding) test. This MMB test has become widely used in the United States and around the world for mixed-mode toughness measurements. Because of the widespread use of this test method, it is being considered for standardization by ASTM Committee D30. This paper discusses several improvements to the original test method. The improvements to the MMB test procedure include an improved method for calculating toughness from the measured test quantities, a more accurate way of setting the mixed-mode ratio to be tested, and the inclusion of a new alignment criterion for improved consistency in measured values.

  8. 14 CFR 33.96 - Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) mode. 33.96 Section 33.96 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Engine tests in auxiliary power unit (APU) mode. If the engine is designed with a propeller brake which... in operation, and remain stopped during operation of the engine as an auxiliary power unit (“APU mode...

  9. Anomaly Detection in Test Equipment via Sliding Mode Observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Wanda M.; Drakunov, Sergey V.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear observers were originally developed based on the ideas of variable structure control, and for the purpose of detecting disturbances in complex systems. In this anomaly detection application, these observers were designed for estimating the distributed state of fluid flow in a pipe described by a class of advection equations. The observer algorithm uses collected data in a piping system to estimate the distributed system state (pressure and velocity along a pipe containing liquid gas propellant flow) using only boundary measurements. These estimates are then used to further estimate and localize possible anomalies such as leaks or foreign objects, and instrumentation metering problems such as incorrect flow meter orifice plate size. The observer algorithm has the following parts: a mathematical model of the fluid flow, observer control algorithm, and an anomaly identification algorithm. The main functional operation of the algorithm is in creating the sliding mode in the observer system implemented as software. Once the sliding mode starts in the system, the equivalent value of the discontinuous function in sliding mode can be obtained by filtering out the high-frequency chattering component. In control theory, "observers" are dynamic algorithms for the online estimation of the current state of a dynamic system by measurements of an output of the system. Classical linear observers can provide optimal estimates of a system state in case of uncertainty modeled by white noise. For nonlinear cases, the theory of nonlinear observers has been developed and its success is mainly due to the sliding mode approach. Using the mathematical theory of variable structure systems with sliding modes, the observer algorithm is designed in such a way that it steers the output of the model to the output of the system obtained via a variety of sensors, in spite of possible mismatches between the assumed model and actual system. The unique properties of sliding mode control

  10. Proposed mixed-mode dynamic fracture toughness testing method using a new specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, H.; Hinoshita, A. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Calder, C.A.; Kennedy, T.C. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)

    1996-12-31

    To find a simple and highly accurate testing method for determining the mixed-mode dynamic fracture toughness in a wide range of ratio of opening and sliding modes, the authors applied a combination technique using an electrical resistance strain gage method and a dynamic finite element method (FEM) to determine the mixed-mode dynamic fracture toughness. They used measuring and recording devices associated with an impact fracture apparatus based on an air gun. The impact fracture test was conducted to assess the mixed-mode dynamic fracture toughness testing method under single-point bending for three specimens of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The ratio of the opening mode deformation to the sliding mode can be changed by adjusting the hitting point. To measure a dynamic stress intensity factors (SIF) K{sub 1}(t) and a crack initiation time, a single axis strain gage was mounted in the vicinity of the crack tip.

  11. LHC Report: Tests of new LHC running modes

    CERN Multimedia

    Verena Kain for the LHC team

    2012-01-01

    On 13 September, the LHC collided lead ions with protons for the first time. This outstanding achievement was key preparation for the planned 2013 operation in this mode. Outside of two special physics runs, the LHC has continued productive proton-proton luminosity operation.   Celebrating proton-ion collisions. The first week of September added another 1 fb-1 of integrated luminosity to ATLAS’s and CMS’s proton-proton data set. It was a week of good and steady production mixed with the usual collection of minor equipment faults. The peak performance was slightly degraded at the start of the week but thanks to the work of the teams in the LHC injectors the beam brightness – and thus the LHC peak performance – were restored to previous levels by the weekend. The LHC then switched to new running modes and spectacularly proved its potential as a multi-purpose machine. This is due in large part to the LHC equipment and controls, which have been designed wi...

  12. A Novel Vibration Mode Testing Method for Cylindrical Resonators Based on Microphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongmeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-contact testing is an important method for the study of the vibrating characteristic of cylindrical resonators. For the vibratory cylinder gyroscope excited by piezo-electric electrodes, mode testing of the cylindrical resonator is difficult. In this paper, a novel vibration testing method for cylindrical resonators is proposed. This method uses a MEMS microphone, which has the characteristics of small size and accurate directivity, to measure the vibration of the cylindrical resonator. A testing system was established, then the system was used to measure the vibration mode of the resonator. The experimental results show that the orientation resolution of the node of the vibration mode is better than 0.1°. This method also has the advantages of low cost and easy operation. It can be used in vibration testing and provide accurate results, which is important for the study of the vibration mode and thermal stability of vibratory cylindrical gyroscopes.

  13. Research on Wideband Differential-Mode Current Injection Testing Technique Based on Directional Coupling Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Pan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new kind of differential-mode current injection test method. The equal response voltage on the cable or the antenna port of the equipment under test (EUT is regarded as equivalent principle for radiation and injection test. The injection and radiation response analysis model and the injection voltage source extrapolation model in high intensity radiated field are established. The conditions of using differential-mode current injection as a substitute for radiation are confirmed. On the basis of the theoretical analysis, the function and structure design scheme of the directional coupling device is proposed. The implementation techniques for the single differential-mode current injection method (SDMCI and the double differential-mode current injection method (DDMCI are discussed in detail. The typical nonlinear response interconnected systems are selected as the EUT. The test results verify the validity of the SDMCI and DDMCI test methods.

  14. Mode shape expansions for the dynamic testing of cable domes considering random pretension deviations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoshun; Deng, Hua; Zhu, Dexi

    2017-04-01

    Cable domes maintain their structural stability and deformation resistance substantially depending on the geometrical stiffness contributed by pretension. Dynamic testing can be employed to monitor the possible stiffness degeneration caused by pretension deviations in existing cable domes. The measured incomplete mode shapes should be expanded for effectively evaluating the actual structural stiffness. However, conventional methods lose effectiveness for expanding mode shapes of cable domes whose modes are sensitive to the pretension deviations. A novel method is developed in this paper to expand the incomplete mode shapes of existing cable domes with random pretension deviations. For a monitored target mode of the existing structure, its mode shape can be approximately expressed as a linear combination of a few mode shapes of the ideal structure. Once their combinational coefficients are determined based on the measured incomplete mode shape, the expansion of this target mode is achieved. Two key steps are included: the determination of these so-called contribution modes and the estimation of their combinational coefficients. For the prescribed limit values of equivalent member length errors adopted to simulate random pretension deviations, contribution modes can be determined by considering the mode shape variations and mode jumpings. A proposed contribution mode effective independence (CMEI) method is further put forward to obtain the best estimate of combinational coefficients and the optimal layout of sensors. The numerical example of a cable dome illustrates the invalidation of the conventional expansion methods when random pretension deviations are considered. In contrast, the method proposed in this paper is validated to be effective and reliable even in the cases of severe modal variations and high noise levels.

  15. Finite element analysis for the inhibition of electromagnetic acoustic testing (EMAT) Lamb waves multi-modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suzhen; Zhang, Yanwei; Zhang, Chuang; Yang, Qingxin

    2017-02-01

    Lamb waves are widely used in nondestructive testing (NDT) and structural health monitoring (SHM) for its obvious advantages, such as good directionality, longer-range propagation and lower loss etc. However, it is difficult to analysis and to interpret the echo signals because of its multi-modes and dispersion. In this paper, the properties of single-mode Lamb waves which were excited by double EMAT were studied based on the principles of multi-modes and the characteristics of wave structure. Simulation results show that the double transducer excitation structure can stimulate single-mode Lamb waves and eliminate the extra modes, which are produced by modal conversion at ends of the specimen. The single-mode excitation of Lamb waves is beneficial to reduce the difficulty of signal processing and provide reliable information to locate the defect. The researches in this paper can be used as a theoretical basis to design double transducer excitation system.

  16. Determination of interlaminar fracture toughness and fracture mode dependence of composites using the edge delamination test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, T. K.; Johnston, N. J.; Morris, D. H.; Simonds, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Edge delamination testing has been conducted in order to determine the mixed mode interlaminar fracture toughness of unnotched (+, -35/0/90)s and (0/+, -35/90)s laminates with graphite fibers and epoxy matrices, with or without elastomer additives. Although the two stacking sequences were chosen so that the total strain energy release rates were equal, the percentages of crack opening and shear mode energy release rates were found to vary widely between the layups. Plots of interlaminar fracture toughness as a function of crack opening energy release rate percentage have been drawn to generate delamination failure criteria which reflect the observed fracture mode dependence.

  17. Indicator for Separation of Structural and Harmonic Modes in Output-only Modal Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, Palle; Møller, Nis

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a technique for separation of harmonic and structural modes in output-only modal testing and identification is presented. The indicator is based on the basic differences of the statistical properties of a harmonic response and narrow-band stochastic response of a structural mode....... The indicator is demonstrated on an example where a plate is loaded by an engine rotating with quasi-stationary speed. An output-only modal identification is performed using a technique based on Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and what appears to be three harmonic components and five structural modes were...

  18. An Indicator for Separation of Structural and Harmonic Modes in Output-Only Modal Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.; Møller, N.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a technique for separation of harmonic and structural modes in output-only modal testing and identification is presented. The indicator is based on the basic differences of the statistical properties of a harmonic response and narrow-band stochastic response of a structural mode....... The indicator is demonstrated on an example where a plate is loaded by an engine rotating with quasi-stationary speed. An output-only modal identification is performed using a technique based on Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and what appears to be three harmonic components and five structural modes were...

  19. An Indicator for Separation of Structural and Harmonic Modes in Output-Only Modal Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.; Møller, N.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper a technique for separation of harmonic and structural modes in output-only modal testing and identification is presented. The indicator is based on the basic differences of the statistical properties of a harmonic response and narrow-band stochastic response of a structural mode....... The indicator is demonstrated on an example where a plate is loaded by an engine rotating with quasi-stationary speed. An output-only modal identification is performed using a technique based on Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and what appeared to be three harmonic components and five structural modes...

  20. Improved orthogonality check for measured modes. [from ground vibration testing of structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, A.

    1980-01-01

    A method is proposed for performing an orthogonality check for normal modes derived from ground vibration testing. The method utilizes partitioned mass and stiffness matrices for a linear undamped representation of a structure. The normalization of the modes by the proposed method inherently includes the effects of significant displacements which were not measured; and the method may allow the use of fewer measurement points than would be necessary with the conventional method.

  1. Testing of visual field with virtual reality goggles in manual and visual grasp modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewski, Dariusz; Francis, Brian A; Sadun, Alfredo; Vakili, Ghazal; Chopra, Vikas

    2014-01-01

    Automated perimetry is used for the assessment of visual function in a variety of ophthalmic and neurologic diseases. We report development and clinical testing of a compact, head-mounted, and eye-tracking perimeter (VirtualEye) that provides a more comfortable test environment than the standard instrumentation. VirtualEye performs the equivalent of a full threshold 24-2 visual field in two modes: (1) manual, with patient response registered with a mouse click, and (2) visual grasp, where the eye tracker senses change in gaze direction as evidence of target acquisition. 59 patients successfully completed the test in manual mode and 40 in visual grasp mode, with 59 undergoing the standard Humphrey field analyzer (HFA) testing. Large visual field defects were reliably detected by VirtualEye. Point-by-point comparison between the results obtained with the different modalities indicates: (1) minimal systematic differences between measurements taken in visual grasp and manual modes, (2) the average standard deviation of the difference distributions of about 5 dB, and (3) a systematic shift (of 4-6 dB) to lower sensitivities for VirtualEye device, observed mostly in high dB range. The usability survey suggested patients' acceptance of the head-mounted device. The study appears to validate the concepts of a head-mounted perimeter and the visual grasp mode.

  2. Testing of Visual Field with Virtual Reality Goggles in Manual and Visual Grasp Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Wroblewski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated perimetry is used for the assessment of visual function in a variety of ophthalmic and neurologic diseases. We report development and clinical testing of a compact, head-mounted, and eye-tracking perimeter (VirtualEye that provides a more comfortable test environment than the standard instrumentation. VirtualEye performs the equivalent of a full threshold 24-2 visual field in two modes: (1 manual, with patient response registered with a mouse click, and (2 visual grasp, where the eye tracker senses change in gaze direction as evidence of target acquisition. 59 patients successfully completed the test in manual mode and 40 in visual grasp mode, with 59 undergoing the standard Humphrey field analyzer (HFA testing. Large visual field defects were reliably detected by VirtualEye. Point-by-point comparison between the results obtained with the different modalities indicates: (1 minimal systematic differences between measurements taken in visual grasp and manual modes, (2 the average standard deviation of the difference distributions of about 5 dB, and (3 a systematic shift (of 4–6 dB to lower sensitivities for VirtualEye device, observed mostly in high dB range. The usability survey suggested patients’ acceptance of the head-mounted device. The study appears to validate the concepts of a head-mounted perimeter and the visual grasp mode.

  3. Efficiency of Switch-Mode Power Audio Amplifiers - Test Signals and Measurement Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    Switch-mode technology is greatly used for audio amplification. This is mainly due to the great efficiency this technology offers. Normally the efficiency of a switch-mode audio amplifier is measured using a sine wave input. However this paper shows that sine waves represent real audio very poorly....... An alternative signal is proposed for test purposes. The efficiency of a switch-mode power audio amplifier is modelled and measured with both sine wave and the proposed test signal as inputs. The results show that the choice of switching devices with low on resistances are unfairly favored when measuring...... the efficiency with sine waves. A 10% efficiency improvement was found for low power outputs. It is therefore of great importance to use proper test signals when measuring the efficiency....

  4. Evaluation of the blood compatibility of materials, cells, and tissues: basic concepts, test models, and practical guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdahl, Kristina N; Hong, Jaan; Hamad, Osama A; Larsson, Rolf; Nilsson, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Medicine today uses a wide range of biomaterials, most of which make contact with blood permanently or transiently upon implantation. Contact between blood and nonbiological materials or cells or tissue of nonhematologic origin initiates activation of the cascade systems (complement, contact activation/coagulation) of the blood, which induces platelet and leukocyte activation. Although substantial progress regarding biocompatibility has been made, many materials and medical treatment procedures are still associated with severe side effects. Therefore, there is a great need for adequate models and guidelines for evaluating the blood compatibility of biomaterials. Due to the substantial amount of cross talk between the different cascade systems and cell populations in the blood, it is advisable to use an intact system for evaluation. Here, we describe three such in vitro models for the evaluation of the biocompatibility of materials and therapeutic cells and tissues. The use of different anticoagulants and specific inhibitors in order to be able to dissect interactions between the different cascade systems and cells of the blood is discussed. In addition, we describe two clinically relevant medical treatment modalities, the integration of titanium implants and transplantation of islets of Langerhans to patients with type 1 diabetes, whose mechanisms of action we have addressed using these in vitro models.

  5. Preliminary failure modes and effects analysis on Korean HCCR TBS to be tested in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Mu-Young, E-mail: myahn74@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yi-Hyun; Lee, Youngmin [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Postulated initiating events are identified through failure modes and effects analysis on the current HCCR TBS design. • A set of postulated initiating events are selected for consideration of deterministic analysis. • Accident evolutions on the selected postualted initiating events are qualitatively described for deterministic analysis. - Abstract: Korean Helium cooled ceramic reflector (HCCR) Test blanket system (TBS), which comprises Test blanket module (TBM) and ancillary systems in various locations of ITER building, is operated at high temperature and pressure with decay heat. Therefore, safety is utmost concern in design process and it is required to demonstrate that the HCCR TBS is designed to comply with the safety requirements and guidelines of ITER. Due to complexity of the system with many interfaces with ITER, a systematic approach is necessary for safety analysis. This paper presents preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) study performed for the HCCR TBS. FMEA is a systematic methodology in which failure modes for components in the system and their consequences are studied from the bottom-up. Over eighty failure modes have been investigated on the HCCR TBS. The failure modes that have similar consequences are grouped as postulated initiating events (PIEs) and total seven reference accident scenarios are derived from FMEA study for deterministic accident analysis. Failure modes not covered here due to evolving design of the HCCR TBS and uncertainty in maintenance procedures will be studied further in near future.

  6. A Criterion to Control Nonlinear Error in the Mixed-Mode Bending Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, James R.

    2002-01-01

    The mixed-mode bending test ha: been widely used to measure delamination toughness and was recently standardized by ASTM as Standard Test Method D6671-01. This simple test is a combination of the standard Mode I (opening) test and a Mode II (sliding) test. This test uses a unidirectional composite test specimen with an artificial delamination subjected to bending loads to characterize when a delamination will extend. When the displacements become large, the linear theory used to analyze the results of the test yields errors in the calcu1ated toughness values. The current standard places no limit on the specimen loading and therefore test data can be created using the standard that are significantly in error. A method of limiting the error that can be incurred in the calculated toughness values is needed. In this paper, nonlinear models of the MMB test are refined. One of the nonlinear models is then used to develop a simple criterion for prescribing conditions where thc nonlinear error will remain below 5%.

  7. Redesign of the mixed-mode bending delamination test to reduce nonlinear effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, James R.; Crews, John H., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The mixed-mode bending (MMB) test uses a lever to apply simultaneously mode I and mode II loading to a split-beam specimen. An iterative analysis that accounts for the geometric nonlinearity of the MMB test was developed. The analysis accurately predicted the measured load-displacement response and the strain energy release rate, G, of an MMB test specimen made of AS4/PEEK. The errors in G when calculated using linear theory were found to be as large as 30 percent in some cases. Because it would be inconvenient to use a nonlinear analysis to analyze MMB data, the MMB apparatus was redesigned to minimize the nonlinearity. With the improved apparatus, loads are applied just above the midplane of the test specimen through a roller attached to the lever. This apparatus was demonstrated by measuring the mixed-mode delamination fracture toughhess of the test specimen. The nonlinearity errors associated with testing this tough composite material were less than +/- 3 percent. The data from the improved MMB apparatus analyzed with a linear analysis were similar to those found with the original apparatus and the nonlinear analysis.

  8. A Way of Getting Scaled Mode Shapes in Output Only Modal Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper some further work is done following the idea introduced by Parloo et all where they proposed that the scaling factor should be estimated by repeated testing introducing mass changes in different points on the structure. In this paper the approximate formula for determination...... scaling factors can be estimated from relative large frequency shifts without introducing any approximation errors. Further it is explained how testing should be performed in order to significantly reduce approximation errors due to mode shape changes and random errors due to uncertainty on the mode shape...

  9. Mode-Stirred Method Implementation for HIRF Susceptibility Testing and Results Comparison with Anechoic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Koppen, Sandra V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of mode-stirred method for susceptibility testing according to the current DO-160D standard. Test results on an Engine Data Processor using the implemented procedure and the comparisons with the standard anechoic test results are presented. The comparison experimentally shows that the susceptibility thresholds found in mode-stirred method are consistently higher than anechoic. This is consistent with the recent statistical analysis finding by NIST that the current calibration procedure overstates field strength by a fixed amount. Once the test results are adjusted for this value, the comparisons with the anechoic results are excellent. The results also show that test method has excellent chamber to chamber repeatability. Several areas for improvements to the current procedure are also identified and implemented.

  10. Testing techniques and comparisons between theory and test for vibration modes of ring stiffened truncated-cone shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, E. C.

    1972-01-01

    Vibration tests were carried out on truncated-cone shells with widely spaced ring stiffeners. The models were excited by an air shaker for LF modes and by small electrodynamic shakers for HF modes. The Novozhilov thin shell theory according to which a ring is an assembly of an arbitrary number of segments, each being a short truncated-cone shell of uniform thickness, is used in the analysis of the results. A mobile, noncontacting, displacement-sensitive sensor system developed by the author was used in the tests. Tests results are given for a free-free 60-deg cone and for a clamped-free 60-deg cone. The tests are characterized as having considerable value for the classification of prevalent multimode responses in shells of this type.

  11. Nonlinear analysis and redesign of the mixed-mode bending delamination test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, J. R.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The Mixed Mode Bending (MMB) test uses a lever to simultaneously apply mode I and mode II loading to a split beam specimen. An iterative analysis that accounts for the geometric nonlinearity of the MMB test was developed. The analysis accurately predicted the measured load displacement response and the strain energy release rate, G, of an MMB test specimen made of APC2 (AS4/PEEK). The errors in G when calculated using linear theory were found to be as large as thirty percent in some cases. Because it would be inconvenient to use a nonlinear analysis to analyze MMB data, the MMB apparatus was redesigned to minimize the nonlinearity. The nonlinear analysis was used as a guide in redesigning the MMB apparatus. With the redesigned apparatus, loads were applied through a roller attached to the level and loaded just above the midplane of the test specimen. The redesigned apparatuus has geometric nonlinearity errors of less than three percent, even for materials substantially tougher than APC2. This apparatus was demonstrated by measuring the mixed mode delamination fracture toughness of APC2.

  12. Face/core mixed mode debond fracture toughness characterization using the modified TSD test method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Christian; Quispitupa, Amilcar; Costache, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    The modified tilted sandwich debond (TSD) test method is used to examine face/core debond fracture toughness of sandwich specimens with glass/polyester face sheets and PVC H45 and H100 foam cores over a large range of mode-mixities. The modification was achieved by reinforcing the loaded face she...

  13. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2010-06-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  14. Preliminary Failure Modes and Effects Analysis of the US DCLL Test Blanket Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee C. Cadwallader

    2007-08-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of a small tritium-breeding test blanket module design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. The FMEA was quantified with “generic” component failure rate data, and the failure events are binned into postulated initiating event families and frequency categories for safety assessment. An appendix to this report contains repair time data to support an occupational radiation exposure assessment for test blanket module maintenance.

  15. Test of the second order asymptotic theory with low degree solar gravity modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, C.T.; Rosenwald, R.D.; Gu, Y.; Hill, H.A

    1988-01-01

    Further testing of first and second order asymptotic theory predictions for solar gravity modes is possible with the work of gu and Hill in which the number of classified low-degree gravity mode multiplets was increased from 31 to 53. In an extension of the work where the properties of 31 multiplets were analyzed in the framework of first order asymptotic theory, a new analysis has been performed using the properties of the 53 classified multiplets. The result of this analysis again shows the inadequacy of first order asymptotic theory for describing the eigenfrequency spectrum and clearly demonstrates the necessity of using second order asymptotic theory. 30 refs.

  16. Dynamic Testing of the NASA Hypersonic Project Combined Cycle Engine Testbed for Mode Transition Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    NASA is interested in developing technology that leads to more routine, safe, and affordable access to space. Access to space using airbreathing propulsion systems has potential to meet these objectives based on Airbreathing Access to Space (AAS) system studies. To this end, the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program (FAP) Hypersonic Project is conducting fundamental research on a Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) propulsion system. The TBCC being studied considers a dual flow-path inlet system. One flow-path includes variable geometry to regulate airflow to a turbine engine cycle. The turbine cycle provides propulsion from take-off to supersonic flight. The second flow-path supports a dual-mode scramjet (DMSJ) cycle which would be initiated at supersonic speed to further accelerate the vehicle to hypersonic speed. For a TBCC propulsion system to accelerate a vehicle from supersonic to hypersonic speed, a critical enabling technology is the ability to safely and effectively transition from the turbine to the DMSJ-referred to as mode transition. To experimentally test methods of mode transition, a Combined Cycle Engine (CCE) Large-scale Inlet testbed was designed with two flow paths-a low speed flow-path sized for a turbine cycle and a high speed flow-path designed for a DMSJ. This testbed system is identified as the CCE Large-Scale Inlet for Mode Transition studies (CCE-LIMX). The test plan for the CCE-LIMX in the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) 10- by 10-ft Supersonic Wind Tunnel (10x10 SWT) is segmented into multiple phases. The first phase is a matrix of inlet characterization (IC) tests to evaluate the inlet performance and establish the mode transition schedule. The second phase is a matrix of dynamic system identification (SysID) experiments designed to support closed-loop control development at mode transition schedule operating points for the CCE-LIMX. The third phase includes a direct demonstration of controlled mode transition using a closed loop control

  17. Redesign of the mixed-mode bending test for delamination toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, J. R.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The mixed-mode bending (MMB) test uses a lever to simultaneously apply mode I and mode II loading to a split-beam specimen. A nonlinear, iterative analysis that accurately predicts the measured load-displacement response and the strain energy release rate, G, of an MMB test, has shown that the errors in G calculated using linear theory can be quite large. The nonlinear analysis was used as a guide in redesigning the MMB apparatus. With the redesigned apparatus, loads are applied through a roller attached to the lever and loaded just above the midplane of the test specimen. The redesigned MMB apparatus has geometric nonlinearity errors of less than 3 percent, even for materials substantially tougher than APC2 (AS4/PEEK). This apparatus was demonstrated by measuring the mixed-mode delamination fracture toughness of APC2. The data from the redesigned MMB apparatus were analyzed with a linear analysis which yielded results similar to those found with the original apparatus and the nonlinear analysis.

  18. Safety of type and screen method compared to conventional antiglobulin crossmatch procedures for compatibility testing in Indian setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Rajendra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past 30 years, pretransfusion tests have undergone considerable modification. In 1984, AABB recommended that the full cross match could be replaced by an abbreviated cross match in patients with negative antibody screen. However, before implementation of such a policy, issue regarding safety of T & S needs to be evaluated. Objectives: The aim of pretransfusion testing (PTT is to ensure that enough red blood cells (RBCs in the selected red cell components will survive when transfused. Results and Conclusion: We have, therefore in this study; evaluated safety of T & S procedure for PTT in comparison with conventional test tube cross match. The T & S procedure gave a safety of 91.6%. Also, the usefulness of the T & S was shown through the detection of unexpected antibodies in 0.75% (15 out of 2026 of cases.

  19. Second-Order Geometric Sliding Mode Attitude Observer with Application to Quadrotor on a Test Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglei An

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A sliding mode observer design framework is proposed based on the Lie group method of numerical integration on manifolds, and a Second-Order Geometric Sliding Mode Attitude Observer (SOGSMAO is designed for angular velocity estimation of quadrotor attitude. The algorithm constructs feedback in the angular velocity space and the space of equivalent Lie algebra of unit quaternion space, respectively. It avoids not only the complexity of constructing feedback in unit quaternion space but also the process of mandatory rescaling which is seen to deteriorate the accuracy of the angular velocity estimates during sliding. The performance of SOGSMAO is compared with traditional quaternion based sliding mode observer in which multiplicative quaternion correction is used and the results show that SOGSMAO gains better tracking performance. Then SOGSMAO is realized on a test bed and the effectiveness of the observer algorithm is verified by experimental studies.

  20. Trading strategy based on dynamic mode decomposition: Tested in Chinese stock market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ling-xiao; Long, Wen

    2016-11-01

    Dynamic mode decomposition (DMD) is an effective method to capture the intrinsic dynamical modes of complex system. In this work, we adopt DMD method to discover the evolutionary patterns in stock market and apply it to Chinese A-share stock market. We design two strategies based on DMD algorithm. The strategy which considers only timing problem can make reliable profits in a choppy market with no prominent trend while fails to beat the benchmark moving-average strategy in bull market. After considering the spatial information from spatial-temporal coherent structure of DMD modes, we improved the trading strategy remarkably. Then the DMD strategies profitability is quantitatively evaluated by performing SPA test to correct the data-snooping effect. The results further prove that DMD algorithm can model the market patterns well in sideways market.

  1. Synthesis of functional materials by radiation and qualification testing of organic materials in nuclear power plant; evaluation of tissue compatibility of hydrogels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, H. J.; Kim, K. C.; Lee, Z. S.; Kim, J. Y.; Yoo, K. E. [Catholic University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    The hydrogels, owing to their adaptive physicochemical properties to the soft connective tissue, are known to have potentials to be applied as skin prosthetics. But hydrogels currently used are prepared by chemical crosslinking procedures. A prosthetics prepared by chemical crosslinking may damage the skin due to eluted crosslinking agent and/or other chemicals involved. That is the drawback of the skin substitutes made of typical hydrogels. The use of the irradiation crosslinking technique may supercede the demerits of conventionally used hydrogels, since this crossolinking technique entirely depends on physical method. The objective of this study is to prepare a series of hydrogels prepared by irradiation crosslinking procedure and to evaluate physical and tissue compatible profiles of these. In vitro and in vivo animal tests were employed to evaluate the properties as well as the comparibility of the samples in order to figure out the possibilities of the use as skin substitutes. 7 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  2. Results of ASTM round robin testing for mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrien, T. Kevin; Martin, Roderick H.

    1992-01-01

    The results are summarized of several interlaboratory 'round robin' test programs for measuring the mode 1 interlaminar fracture toughness of advanced fiber reinforced composite materials. Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) tests were conducted by participants in ASTM committee D30 on High Modulus Fibers and their Composites and by representatives of the European Group on Fracture (EGF) and the Japanese Industrial Standards Group (JIS). DCB tests were performed on three AS4 carbon fiber reinforced composite materials: AS4/3501-6 with a brittle epoxy matrix; AS4/BP907 with a tough epoxy matrix; and AS4/PEEK with a tough thermoplastic matrix. Difficulties encountered in manufacturing panels, as well as conducting the tests are discussed. Critical issues that developed during the course of the testing are highlighted. Results of the round robin testing used to determine the precision of the ASTM DCB test standard are summarized.

  3. Evaluation of the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) Test for Mode 3 Interlaminar Fracture Toughness of Laminated Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Lee, Edward W.; OBrien, T. Kevin; Lee, Shaw Ming

    1996-01-01

    An analytical and experimental investigation was carried out on G40-800/R6376 graphite epoxy laminates to evaluate the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) test as a candidate for a standard Mode 3 interlaminar fracture toughness test for laminated composites. The ECT test consists of a (90/(+/- 45)(sub 3)/(+/- 45)(sub 3)/90))(sub s) laminate with a delamination introduced by a non-adhesive film at the mid-plane along one edge and loaded in a special fixture to create torsion along the length of the laminate. Dye penetrate enhanced X-radiograph of failed specimens revealed that the delamination initiated at the middle of the specimen length and propagated in a self similar manner along the laminate mid-plane. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was performed that indicated that a pure Mode 3 delamination exists at the middle of specimen length away from both ends. At the ends near the loading point a small Mode 2 component exists. However, the magnitude of this Mode 2 strain energy release rate at the loading point is small compared to the magnitude of Mode 3 component in the mid-section of the specimen. Hence, the ECT test yielded the desired Mode 3 delamination. The Mode 3 fracture toughness was obtained from a compliance calibration method and was in good agreement with the finite element results. Mode 2 End-Notched Flexure (ENF) tests and Mode 1 Double Cantilever Beam (DCB) tests were also performed for the same composite material. The Mode 1 fracture toughness was much smaller than both the Mode 2 and Mode 3 fracture toughness. The Mode 2 fracture toughness was found to be 75% of the Mode 3 fracture toughness.

  4. Cross-Mode Comparability of Computer-Based Testing (CBT) versus Paper-Pencil Based Testing (PPT): An Investigation of Testing Administration Mode among Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshsima, Hooshang; Hosseini, Monirosadat; Toroujeni, Seyyed Morteza Hashemi

    2017-01-01

    Advent of technology has caused growing interest in using computers to convert conventional paper and pencil-based testing (Henceforth PPT) into Computer-based testing (Henceforth CBT) in the field of education during last decades. This constant promulgation of computers to reshape the conventional tests into computerized format permeated the…

  5. Using the failure mode and effects analysis model to improve parathyroid hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnezi R

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Racheli Magnezi,1 Asaf Hemi,1 Rina Hemi2 1Department of Management, Public Health and Health Systems Management Program, Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan, 2Endocrine Service Unit, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Aviv, Israel Background: Risk management in health care systems applies to all hospital employees and directors as they deal with human life and emergency routines. There is a constant need to decrease risk and increase patient safety in the hospital environment. The purpose of this article is to review the laboratory testing procedures for parathyroid hormone and adrenocorticotropic hormone (which are characterized by short half-lives and to track failure modes and risks, and offer solutions to prevent them. During a routine quality improvement review at the Endocrine Laboratory in Tel Hashomer Hospital, we discovered these tests are frequently repeated unnecessarily due to multiple failures. The repetition of the tests inconveniences patients and leads to extra work for the laboratory and logistics personnel as well as the nurses and doctors who have to perform many tasks with limited resources.Methods: A team of eight staff members accompanied by the Head of the Endocrine Laboratory formed the team for analysis. The failure mode and effects analysis model (FMEA was used to analyze the laboratory testing procedure and was designed to simplify the process steps and indicate and rank possible failures.Results: A total of 23 failure modes were found within the process, 19 of which were ranked by level of severity. The FMEA model prioritizes failures by their risk priority number (RPN. For example, the most serious failure was the delay after the samples were collected from the department (RPN =226.1.Conclusion: This model helped us to visualize the process in a simple way. After analyzing the information, solutions were proposed to prevent failures, and a method to completely avoid the top four problems was also developed. Keywords: failure mode

  6. Automatically produced FRP beams with embedded FOS in complex geometry: process, material compatibility, micromechanical analysis, and performance tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabler, Markus; Tkachenko, Viktoriya; Küppers, Simon; Kuka, Georg G.; Habel, Wolfgang R.; Milwich, Markus; Knippers, Jan

    2012-04-01

    The main goal of the presented work was to evolve a multifunctional beam composed out of fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) and an embedded optical fiber with various fiber Bragg grating sensors (FBG). These beams are developed for the use as structural member for bridges or industrial applications. It is now possible to realize large scale cross sections, the embedding is part of a fully automated process and jumpers can be omitted in order to not negatively influence the laminate. The development includes the smart placement and layout of the optical fibers in the cross section, reliable strain transfer, and finally the coupling of the embedded fibers after production. Micromechanical tests and analysis were carried out to evaluate the performance of the sensor. The work was funded by the German ministry of economics and technology (funding scheme ZIM). Next to the authors of this contribution, Melanie Book with Röchling Engineering Plastics KG (Haren/Germany; Katharina Frey with SAERTEX GmbH & Co. KG (Saerbeck/Germany) were part of the research group.

  7. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIi of... - Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump Engines 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIII of Part 60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL.... IIII, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIII of Part 60—Optional 3-Mode Test Cycle for Stationary Fire Pump...

  8. Predicting the occurrence of mixed mode failure associated with hydraulic fracturing, part 2 water saturated tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Stephen J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Broome, Scott Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Choens, Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barrow, Perry Carl [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-14

    Seven water-saturated triaxial extension experiments were conducted on four sedimentary rocks. This experimental condition was hypothesized more representative of that existing for downhole hydrofracture and thus it may improve our understanding of the phenomena. In all tests the pore pressure was 10 MPa and confirming pressure was adjusted to achieve tensile and transitional failure mode conditions. Using previous work in this LDRD for comparison, the law of effective stress is demonstrated in extension using this sample geometry. In three of the four lithologies, no apparent chemo-mechanical effect of water is apparent, and in the fourth lithology test results indicate some chemo-mechanical effect of water.

  9. Report on Testing to Expand the Rotary Mode Core Sampling Operating Envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-12-13

    The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Characterization Equipment Group requested that the Numatec Hanford Corporation--Engineering Testing Laboratory (ETL) perform Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) Operating Envelope (OE) testing. This testing was based upon Witwer 1998a and was performed at different time periods between May and September 1998. The purpose of this testing was to raise the maximum down force limit for rotary mode core sampling as outlined in the current OE. If testing could show that a higher down force could be used while drilling into a concrete/pumice block simulant while still remaining below the 60 C limitation, then the current OE could be revised to include the new, higher, down force limit. Although the Test Plan discussed varying the purge flow rate and rotation rate to find ''optimal'' drilling conditions, the number of drill bits that could be destructively tested was limited. Testing was subsequently limited in scope such that only the down force would be varied while the purge flow rate and rotation rate were kept constant at 30 scfm and 55 rpm respectively. A second objective, which was not part of the original test plan, was added prior to testing. The Bit Improvement testing, mentioned previously, revealed that the drill bits tested in the OE testing were made of a slightly different metal matrix than the ones currently used. The older bits, a Longyear part number 100IVD/5 (/5 bit), had tungsten carbide mixed into the metal matrix that forms the cutting teeth. The currently used bits, Longyear part number 100IVD/8 (/8 bit), instead have tungsten metal in the matrix and no tungsten carbide. Rockwell C hardness testing showed that the /5 bit was significantly harder than the /8 bit, with values of /8 vs. 8, respectively. The change from the /5 bit to the /8 bit was made immediately after the previous OE testing in 1996 because of sparking concerns with the tungsten carbide in the /5 bit. This difference in

  10. Tests for establishing compatibility of an observed genotype distribution with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in the case of a biallelic locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellek, Stefan

    2004-09-01

    The classical chi(2)-procedure for the assessment of genetic equilibrium is tailored for establishing lack rather than goodness of fit of an observed genotype distribution to a model satisfying the Hardy-Weinberg law, and the same is true for the exact competitors to the large-sample procedure, which have been proposed in the biostatistical literature since the late 1930s. In this contribution, the methodology of statistical equivalence testing is adopted for the construction of tests for problems in which the assumption of approximate compatibility of the genotype distribution actually sampled with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) plays the role of the alternative hypothesis one aims to establish. The result of such a construction highly depends on the choice of a measure of distance to be used for defining an indifference zone containing those genotype distributions whose degree of disequilibrium shall be considered irrelevant. The first such measure proposed here is the Euclidean distance of the true parameter vector from that of a genotype distribution with identical allele frequencies being in strict HWE. The second measure is based on the (scalar) parameter of the distribution first introduced into the present context by Stevens (1938, Annals of Eugenics 8, 377-383). The first approach leads to a nonconditional test (which nevertheless can be carried out in a numerically exact way), the second to an exact conditional test shown to be uniformly most powerful unbiased (UMPU) for the associated pair of hypotheses. Both tests are compared in terms of the exact power attained against the class of those specific alternatives under which HWE is strictly satisfied.

  11. Wind Tunnel Testing of a 6%-Scale Large Civil Tilt Rotor Model in Airplane and Helicopter Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The test matrix for the LCTR model included high-speed testing (up to 200 knots) in an airplane mode configuration with the engine nacelles parallel...predictions, and to validate performance predictions made during conceptual design . Testing was performed in airplane mode with the nacelles ...to ensure flow transition at a point consistent with the design of the airfoil section. Trip dots were also placed on the nacelles at about 5

  12. Bone fracture characterization under mixed-mode I+II loading using the single leg bending test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, F A M; de Moura, M F S F; Dourado, N; Morais, J J L; Dias, M I R

    2014-11-01

    Fracture under mixed-mode I+II was induced in bovine cortical bone tissue using a developed miniaturized version of the single leg bending test (SLB). Due to the difficulty in crack length monitoring in the course of the test, an equivalent crack method based on specimen compliance and beam theory was adopted as a data reduction scheme. The method was applied to the experimental results in order to obtain the Resistance curves in each loading mode. The determined fracture energy is well described by an energetic power law whose exponent is below one, which means that the linear energetic criterion is not applicable to this material. The proposed procedure was numerically validated by means of a cohesive mixed-mode I+II damage model with bilinear softening. It was concluded that the miniaturized version of the SLB test is adequate for mixed-mode I+II fracture characterization of bone for a constant mode ratio.

  13. Continuous performance test and schizophrenia: a test of stimulus-response compatibility, working memory, response readiness, or none of the above?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvevåg, B; Weinberger, D R; Suter, J C; Goldberg, T E

    2000-05-01

    Abnormalities of attention are considered the fundamental deficits in cognitive function manifested by patients with schizophrenia. The authors administered variations of two types of cognitive tasks to patients with schizophrenia (N=20) and normal comparison subjects (N=30) to test four possible cognitive mechanisms that might account for such abnormalities. Variations of the Continuous Performance Test were used to test the four mechanisms. Stimulus-response mapping was explored by comparing results on a task in which subjects were to make a response if the word "nine" was preceded by the word "one" with results on a task in which the required response was made explicit by the stimulus (the word "ready" followed by the word "press"). The building up of a prepotent response tendency was tested by manipulating the probability with which the cue and imperative stimulus appeared (17% or 50%). The amount of working memory required to maintain contextual information was tested by using different delay intervals (1000 msec and 3000 msec). The extent to which problems in vigilance might be attributable to problems in the "motoric" component of response readiness was operationalized by having subjects perform a secondary motor task concurrent with the attentional task. Patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse than the normal comparison subjects on all tasks. However, none of the four manipulations of the Continuous Performance Test tasks had a differential impact on the patients' performance speed or accuracy. In contrast, there was a significant interaction of group, delay interval, and target probability in which patients made disproportionately more omission errors at short delay intervals and at low target probabilities. The findings may call into question the explanatory power of certain well-known contemporary mechanistic accounts of performance on the Continuous Performance Test in patients with schizophrenia. The findings suggest that a difficulty

  14. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Edwards, Rachel; Chairez, Janette; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc). Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory) was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics) was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer) for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing.

  15. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc. Methods: Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Results: Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Conclusion: Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. Impact of the study: This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing. Keywords: Epoc, Capillary, Transport, Blood gas, Point of care

  16. Characterization of the Edge Crack Torsion (ECT) Test for Mode III Fracture Toughness Measurement of Laminated Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, James G.

    2004-01-01

    The edge crack torsion (ECT) test is designed to initiate mode III delamination growth in composite laminates. The test has undergone several design changes during its development. The objective of this paper was to determine the suitability of the current ECT test design a mode III fracture test. To this end, ECT tests were conducted on specimens manufactured from IM7/8552 and S2/8552 tape laminates. Three-dimensional finite element analyses were performed. The analysis results were used to calculate the distribution of mode I, mode II, and mode III strain energy release rate along the delamination front. The results indicated that mode IIIdominated delamination growth would be initiated from the specimen center. However, in specimens of both material types, the measured values of GIIIc exhibited significant dependence on delamination length. Load-displacement response of the specimens exhibited significant deviation from linearity before specimen failure. X-radiographs of a sample of specimens revealed that damage was initiated in the specimens prior to failure. Further inspection of the failure surfaces is required to identify the damage and determine that mode III delamination is initiated in the specimens.

  17. Dynamic motion modes of high temperature superconducting maglev on a 45-m long ring test line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, W. Y.; Qian, N.; Zheng, J.; Jin, L. W.; Zhang, Y.; Deng, Z. G.

    2017-10-01

    With the development of high temperature superconducting (HTS) maglev, studies on the running stability have become more and more significant to ensure the operation safety. An experimental HTS maglev vehicle was tested on a 45-m long ring test line under the speed from 4 km/h to 20 km/h. The lateral and vertical acceleration signals of each cryostat were collected by tri-axis accelerometers in real time. By analyzing the phase relationship of acceleration signals on the four cryostats, several typical motion modes of the HTS maglev vehicle, including lateral, yaw, pitch and heave motions were observed. This experimental finding is important for the next improvement of the HTS maglev system.

  18. Alexandria fluidized-bed process development unit: cold-mode testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-02-01

    The objectives of the current test program include: validation of predictions from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Coal Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustor System Model; experimental studies supporting AFBC process developments; and the collection of transient data for process control design. This topical report summarizes results from cold mode testing, i.e., experiments performed without combustion for MIT Model verification. During these tests, sulfated limestone (generated from normal AFBC operations) was fluidized with air at temperatures ranging from 80 to 500/sup 0/F in the 3' x 3' (nominal) size PDU at Alexandria, VA. The MIT Model predictions tested include: slumped bed height, minimum fluidization velocity, and expanded bed height. In all cases, there were large discrepancies between the Model predictions and corresponding experimental results. Other results obtained included solids size distribution and particle size profiles in the bed. Size distribution was adequately modeled by the Rosin-Rammler equation. No transient process data was collected due to hardware problems with the Data Acquisition System. Tests were also performed to determine the effect of maldistribution of air, caused by leaks in the air distributor, on experimental results. The data indicated that effects of these leaks seemed to be undetectable.

  19. A case study testing the cavity mode model of the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Sarafopoulos

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a case study we test the cavity mode model of the magnetosphere, looking for eigenfrequencies via multi-satellite and multi-instrument measurements. Geotail and ACE provide information on the interplanetary medium that dictates the input parameters of the system; the four Cluster satellites monitor the magnetopause surface waves; the POLAR (L=9.4 and LANL 97A (L=6.6 satellites reveal two in-situ monochromatic field line resonances (FLRs with T=6 and 2.5 min, respectively; and the IMAGE ground magnetometers demonstrate latitude dependent delays in signature arrival times, as inferred by Sarafopoulos (2004b. Similar dispersive structures showing systematic delays are also extensively scrutinized by Sarafopoulos (2005 and interpreted as tightly associated with the so-called pseudo-FLRs, which show almost the same observational characteristics with an authentic FLR. In particular for this episode, successive solar wind pressure pulses produce recurring ionosphere twin vortex Hall currents which are identified on the ground as pseudo-FLRs. The BJN ground magnetometer records the pseudo-FLR (alike with the other IMAGE station responses associated with an intense power spectral density ranging from 8 to 12 min and, in addition, two discrete resonant lines with T=3.5 and 7 min. In this case study, even though the magnetosphere is evidently affected by a broad-band compressional wave originated upstream of the bow shock, nevertheless, we do not identify any cavity mode oscillation within the magnetosphere. We fail, also, to identify any of the cavity mode frequencies proposed by Samson (1992.

    Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Magnetosphereionosphere interactions; Solar wind-magnetosphere interactions; MHD waves and instabilities

  20. Globalisation and international compatibility - a challenge to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contexts of institutions for higher education are in flux with consequent learning challenges. One of these challenges is that of globalisation and the need for international compatibility. Another challenge is that Mode 2 learning programmes, material and methods need to be relevant to the specific context in which they ...

  1. Measurements of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Honda

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the measurement results of electron beam emittance in the Accelerator Test Facility damping ring operated in multibunch modes. The measurements were carried out with an upgraded laser wire beam profile monitor. The monitor has now a vertical wire as well as a horizontal one and is able to make much faster measurements thanks to an increased effective laser power inside the cavity. The measured emittance shows no large bunch-to-bunch dependence in either the horizontal or vertical directions. The values of the vertical emittance are similar to those obtained in the single-bunch operation. The present results are an important step toward the realization of a high-energy linear collider.

  2. Vacuum testing of a miniaturised switch mode amplifier powering an electrothermal plasma micro-thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Christine; Liang, Wei; Raymond, Luke; Rivas-Davila, Juan; Boswell, Roderick W.

    2017-08-01

    A structurally supportive miniaturised low-weight (≤150 g) radiofrequency switch mode amplifier developed to power the small diameter Pocket Rocket electrothermal plasma micro-thruster called MiniPR is tested in vacuum conditions representative of space to demonstrate its suitability for use on nano-satellites such as `CubeSats'. Argon plasma characterisation is carried out by measuring the optical emission signal seen through the plenum window versus frequency (12.8-13.8 MHz) and the plenum cavity pressure increase (indicative of thrust generation from volumetric gas heating in the plasma cavity) versus power (1-15 Watts) with the amplifier operating at atmospheric pressure and a constant flow rate of 20 sccm. Vacuum testing is subsequently performed by measuring the operational frequency range of the amplifier as a function of gas flow rate. The switch mode amplifier design is finely tuned to the input impedance of the thruster ˜16 pF) to provide a power efficiency of 88 % at the resonant frequency and a direct feed to a low-loss (˜ 10 %) impedance matching network. This system provides successful plasma coupling at 1.54 Watts for all investigated flow rates (10-130 sccm) for cryogenic pumping speeds of the order of 6000 l.s^{-1} and a vacuum pressure of the order of ˜ 2x10^{-5} Torr during operation. Interestingly, the frequency bandwidth for which a plasma can be coupled increases from 0.04 to 0.4 MHz when the gas flow rate is increased, probably as a result of changes in the plasma impedance.

  3. Bone laminarity in the avian forelimb skeleton and its relationship to flight mode: testing functional interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Erin L R; O'connor, Patrick M

    2012-03-01

    Wing bone histology in three species of birds was characterized in order to test hypotheses related to the relationship between skeletal microstructure and inferred wing loading during flight. Data on the degree of laminarity (the proportion of circular vascular canals) and the occurrence of secondary osteons were obtained from three species that utilize different primary flight modes: the Double-crested cormorant, a continuous flapper; the Brown pelican, a static soarer; and the Laysan albatross, a dynamic soarer. Laminarity indices were calculated for four quadrants for each of the three main wing elements. Ulnae and carpometacarpi were predicted to exhibit quadrant specific patterns of laminarity due to hypothesized differences in locally applied loads related to the attachment of flight feathers. However, few differences among the quadrants were identified. No significant differences were identified among the three elements, which is notable as different bones are likely experiencing different loading conditions. These results do not support the concept of bone functional adaptation in the primary structure of the wing elements. Significant differences in laminarity were found among the three primary flight modes. The dynamic soaring birds exhibited significantly lower laminarity than the flapping and static soaring birds. These results support the proposed hypothesis that laminarity is an adaptation for resisting torsional loading. This may be explained by overall wing shape: whereas dynamic soaring birds have long slender wings, flappers and static soaring birds have broader wings with a larger wing chord that would necessarily impart a higher torsional moment on the feather-bearing bones. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Inferring modes of colonization for pest species using heterozygosity comparisons and a shared-allele test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sved, J A; Yu, H; Dominiak, B; Gilchrist, A S

    2003-02-01

    Long-range dispersal of a species may involve either a single long-distance movement from a core population or spreading via unobserved intermediate populations. Where the new populations originate as small propagules, genetic drift may be extreme and gene frequency or assignment methods may not prove useful in determining the relation between the core population and outbreak samples. We describe computationally simple resampling methods for use in this situation to distinguish between the different modes of dispersal. First, estimates of heterozygosity can be used to test for direct sampling from the core population and to estimate the effective size of intermediate populations. Second, a test of sharing of alleles, particularly rare alleles, can show whether outbreaks are related to each other rather than arriving as independent samples from the core population. The shared-allele statistic also serves as a genetic distance measure that is appropriate for small samples. These methods were applied to data on a fruit fly pest species, Bactrocera tryoni, which is quarantined from some horticultural areas in Australia. We concluded that the outbreaks in the quarantine zone came from a heterogeneous set of genetically differentiated populations, possibly ones that overwinter in the vicinity of the quarantine zone.

  5. Multiparty Compatibility for Concurrent Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roly Perera

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objects and actors are communicating state machines, offering and consuming different services at different points in their lifecycle. Two complementary challenges arise when programming such systems. When objects interact, their state machines must be "compatible", so that services are requested only when they are available. Dually, when objects refine other objects, their state machines must be "compliant", so that services are honoured whenever they are promised. In this paper we show how the idea of multiparty compatibility from the session types literature can be applied to both of these problems. We present an untyped language in which concurrent objects are checked automatically for compatibility and compliance. For simple objects, checking can be exhaustive and has the feel of a type system. More complex objects can be partially validated via test cases, leading to a methodology closer to continuous testing. Our proof-of-concept implementation is limited in some important respects, but demonstrates the potential value of the approach and the relationship to existing software development practices.

  6. Electromagnetic compatibility engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ott, Henry W

    2009-01-01

    Praise for Noise Reduction Techniques IN electronic systems ""Henry Ott has literally 'written the book' on the subject of EMC. . . . He not only knows the subject, but has the rare ability to communicate that knowledge to others.""-EE Times Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineering is a completely revised, expanded, and updated version of Henry Ott's popular book Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems. It reflects the most recent developments in the field of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) and noise reduction¿and their practical applications t

  7. A procedure obtaining stiffnesses and masses of a structure from vibration modes and substructure static test data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edighoffer, H. H.

    1979-01-01

    A component mode desynthesis procedure is developed for determining the unknown vibration characteristics of a structural component (i.e., a launch vehicle) given the vibration characteristics of a structural system composed of that component combined with a known one (i.e., a payload). At least one component static test has to be performed. These data are used in conjunction with the system measured frequencies and mode shapes to obtain the vibration characteristics of each component. The flight dynamics of an empty launch vehicle can be determined from measurements made on a vehicle/payload combination in conjunction with a static test on the payload.

  8. submitter Heavy-Ion Radiation Impact on a 4 Mb FRAM Under Different Test Modes and Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Viyas; Tsiligiannis, Georgios; Zadeh, Ali; Javanainen, Arto; Virtanen, Ari; Puchner, Helmut; Saigne, Frederic; Wrobel, Frederic; Dilillo, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    The impact of heavy-ions on commercial Ferroelectric Memories (FRAMs) is analyzed. The influence of dynamic and static test modes as well as several stimuli on the error rate of this memory is investigated. Static test results show that the memory is prone to temporary effects occurring in the peripheral circuitry, with a possible effect due to fluence. Dynamic tests results show a high sensitivity of this memory to switching activity of this peripheral circuitry

  9. Computer versus paper-and-pencil administration mode and response distortion in noncognitive selection tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potosky, D; Bobko, P

    1997-04-01

    This study examined the strength of the relationship between computerized and paper-and-pencil noncognitive selection measures. The tendency to engage in response distortion across these 2 modes was also assessed. The raw cross-mode correlations exceeded .90 for all of the substantive selection scales studied. Indeed, latent cross-mode correlations were estimated to be 1.0 for all of these scales. Mean score comparisons of 1 of the response distortion measures (i.e., the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding) suggested that response distortion in the computer-administration mode was significantly greater than response distortion observed with a paper-and-pencil format. However, administration mode did not influence scores on another measure of direct response distortion or any of the substantive selection measures administered.

  10. Introduction to electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Clayton R.

    A formal and extensive treatment of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is presented. Basic principles are reviewed in detail, including reasons for EMC in electronic design. Also discussed are: nonideal behavior of components, signal spectra, radiated emission and susceptibility, conducted emissions and susceptibility, crosstalk, shielding, electrostatic discharge, and system design for EMC.

  11. Electromagnetic compatibility overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, K. C.

    1980-01-01

    An assessment of the electromagnetic compatibility impact of the Satellite Power System is discussed. The discussion is divided into two parts: determination of the emission expected from SPS including their spatial and spectral distributions, and evaluation of the impact of such emissions on electromagnetic systems including considerations of means for mitigating effects.

  12. Psychological compatibility of women's handball team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalar O.G.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The results of study of psychological compatibility of womanish handball commands are presented. The psychological climate of command is investigational. Certain and adapted methods of estimation of psychological compatibility in the command playing types of sport. Psychological tests allow to expose the strong and weak sides of psychology of sportsmen. These information can be used for more effective program of psychological preparation of sportsmen development. It is necessary to improve determination of separate individual qualities of personality of sportsmen.

  13. An analytical and experimental stress analysis of a practical mode II fracture-test specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, D. B.; Jones, D. L.

    1975-01-01

    A boundary collocation method has been employed to determine the Mode II stress intensity factors for a pair of through-the-thickness edge cracks in a finite isotropic plate. An elastostatic analysis has been carried out in terms of the complete Williams stress function employing both even and odd components. The results of the numerical analysis were verified by a two-step procedure whereby the symmetric and antisymmetric portions of the solution were independently compared with existing solutions. The complete solution was verified by comparison with a photoelastic analysis. A compact shear specimen (CSS) of Hysol epoxy resin was loaded in a photoelastic experiment designed to study the isochromatic fringe patterns resulting from the Mode II crack tip stress distribution. The experiment verified that a pure Mode II stress distribution existed in the neighborhood of the crack tips and confirmed the accuracy of the boundary collocation solution for the Mode II stress intensity factors.

  14. Testing of the NASA Hypersonics Project Combined Cycle Engine Large Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE LlMX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, J. D.; Stueber, T. J.; Thomas, S. R.; Suder, K. L.; Weir, L. J.; Sanders, B. W.

    2012-01-01

    Status on an effort to develop Turbine Based Combined Cycle (TBCC) propulsion is described. This propulsion technology can enable reliable and reusable space launch systems. TBCC propulsion offers improved performance and safety over rocket propulsion. The potential to realize aircraft-like operations and reduced maintenance are additional benefits. Among most the critical TBCC enabling technologies are: 1) mode transition from turbine to scramjet propulsion, 2) high Mach turbine engines and 3) TBCC integration. To address these TBCC challenges, the effort is centered on a propulsion mode transition experiment and includes analytical research. The test program, the Combined-Cycle Engine Large Scale Inlet Mode Transition Experiment (CCE LIMX), was conceived to integrate TBCC propulsion with proposed hypersonic vehicles. The goals address: (1) dual inlet operability and performance, (2) mode-transition sequences enabling a switch between turbine and scramjet flow paths, and (3) turbine engine transients during transition. Four test phases are planned from which a database can be used to both validate design and analysis codes and characterize operability and integration issues for TBCC propulsion. In this paper we discuss the research objectives, features of the CCE hardware and test plans, and status of the parametric inlet characterization testing which began in 2011. This effort is sponsored by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Hypersonics project

  15. Determining mode I cohesive law of Pinus pinaster by coupling double cantilever beam test with digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The direct identification of the cohesive law in pure mode I of Pinus pinaster is addressed. The approach couples the double cantilever beam (DCB test with digital image correlation (DIC. Wooden beam specimens loaded in the radial-longitudinal (RL fracture propagation system are used. The strain energy release rate in mode I ( is uniquely determined from the load-displacement ( curve by means of the compliance-based beam method (CBBM. This method relies on the concept of equivalent elastic crack length ( and therefore does not require the monitoring of crack propagation during test. The crack tip opening displacement in mode I is determined from the displacement field at the initial crack tip. The cohesive law in mode I is then identified by numerical differentiation of the relationship. Moreover, the proposed procedure is validated by finite element analyses including cohesive zone modelling. It is concluded that the proposed data reduction scheme is adequate for assessing the cohesive law in pure mode I of P. pinaster

  16. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-06-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  17. Aircraft electromagnetic compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Clifton A.; Larsen, William E.

    1987-01-01

    Illustrated are aircraft architecture, electromagnetic interference environments, electromagnetic compatibility protection techniques, program specifications, tasks, and verification and validation procedures. The environment of 400 Hz power, electrical transients, and radio frequency fields are portrayed and related to thresholds of avionics electronics. Five layers of protection for avionics are defined. Recognition is given to some present day electromagnetic compatibility weaknesses and issues which serve to reemphasize the importance of EMC verification of equipment and parts, and their ultimate EMC validation on the aircraft. Proven standards of grounding, bonding, shielding, wiring, and packaging are laid out to help provide a foundation for a comprehensive approach to successful future aircraft design and an understanding of cost effective EMC in an aircraft setting.

  18. Effective Hypothermic Storage of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Compatible With Global Distribution of Cells for Clinical Applications and Toxicology Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Cláudia; Koshkin, Alexey; Carido, Madalena; Espinha, Nuno; Šarić, Tomo; Lima, Pedro A; Serra, Margarida; Alves, Paula M

    2016-05-01

    To fully explore the potential of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs), efficient methods for storage and shipment of these cells are required. Here, we evaluated the feasibility to cold store monolayers and aggregates of functional CMs obtained from different PSC lines using a fully defined clinical-compatible preservation formulation and investigated the time frame that hPSC-CMs could be subjected to hypothermic storage. We showed that two-dimensional (2D) monolayers of hPSC-CMs can be efficiently stored at 4°C for 3 days without compromising cell viability. However, cell viability decreased when the cold storage interval was extended to 7 days. We demonstrated that hPSC-CMs are more resistant to prolonged hypothermic storage-induced cell injury in three-dimensional aggregates than in 2D monolayers, showing high cell recoveries (>70%) after 7 days of storage. Importantly, hPSC-CMs maintained their typical (ultra)structure, gene and protein expression profile, electrophysiological profiles, and drug responsiveness. The applicability of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) in the clinic/industry is highly dependent on the development of efficient methods for worldwide shipment of these cells. This study established effective clinically compatible strategies for cold (4°C) storage of hPSC-CMs cultured as two-dimensional (2D) monolayers and three-dimensional (3D) aggregates. Cell recovery of 2D monolayers of hPSC-CMs was found to be dependent on the time of storage, and 3D cell aggregates were more resistant to prolonged cold storage than 2D monolayers. Of note, it was demonstrated that 7 days of cold storage did not affect hPSC-CM ultrastructure, phenotype, or function. This study provides important insights into the cold preservation of PSC-CMs that could be valuable in improving global commercial distribution of hPSC-CMs. ©AlphaMed Press.

  19. A Modified Edge Crack Torsion Test for Measurement of Mode III Fracture Toughness of Laminated Tape Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabaj, Michael W.; Davidson, Barry D.; Ratcliffe, James G.

    2016-01-01

    Modifications to the edge crack torsion (ECT) test are studied to improve the reliability of this test for measuring the mode-III fracture toughness, G (sub IIIc), of laminated tape fiber-reinforced polymeric (FRP) composites. First, the data reduction methods currently used in the ECT test are evaluated and deficiencies in their accuracy are discussed. An alternative data reduction technique, which uses a polynomial form to represent ECT specimen compliance solution, is evaluated and compared to FEA (finite element analysis) results. Second, seven batches of ECT specimens are tested, each batch containing specimens with a preimplanted midplane edge delamination and midplane plies with orientations of plus theta divided by minus theta, with theta ranging from 0 degrees to 90 degrees in 15-degree increments. Tests on these specimens show that intralaminar cracking occurs in specimens from all batches except for which theta = 15 degrees and 30 degrees. Tests on specimens of these two batches are shown to result in mode-III delamination growth at the intended ply interface. The findings from this study are encouraging steps towards the use of the ECT test as a standardized method for measuring G (sub IIIc), although further modification to the data reduction method is required to make it suitable for use as part of a standardized test method.

  20. Compatibility studies for the waste packaging program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1969-03-01

    A program is now underway by Battelle-Northwest to develop the technology required for a waste packaging plant. Cesium chloride and strontium fluoride have been selected as the prime candidates for packaging. Cesium diuranate and strontium pyrophosphate have been selected as backup compounds for packaging in case either or both of the prime candidates should be rejected for any reason. No detailed studies of CsCl compatibility have been reported and long term data are needed. As in the case with CsCl, no detailed studies have been made on SrF{sub 2} compatibility. As a result of the lack of pertinent compatibility data, it is readily apparent that detailed studies are required on CsCl and SrF{sub 2} compatibility and at least scouting studies must be made on the compatibility of the backup packaging compounds. This report summarizes the compatibility studies that are underway at PNL using non-radioactive compounds. Capsule fabrication procedures and tests schedules are outlined.

  1. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. [and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition.

  2. Elastomer Compatible With Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jon W.

    1987-01-01

    Artificial rubber resists ignition on impact and seals at low temperatures. Filled fluoroelastomer called "Katiflex" developed for use in seals of vessels holding cold liquid and gaseous oxygen. New material more compatible with liquid oxygen than polytetrafluoroethylene. Provides dynamic seal at -196 degrees C with only 4 times seal stress required at room temperature. In contrast, conventional rubber seals burn or explode on impact in high-pressure oxygen, and turn hard or even brittle at liquid-oxygen temperatures, do not seal reliably, also see (MFS-28124).

  3. A test beam set-up for the characterization of the Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode technology for particle tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Vilella, A; Trenado, J; Vila, A; Casanova, R; Vos, M; Garrido, L; Dieguez, A

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that avalanche photodiodes operated in the Geiger mode above the breakdown voltage offer a virtually infinite gain and time accuracy in the picosecond range that can be used for single photon detection. However, their performance in particle detection still remains unexplored. In this contribution, we are going to expose different steps that we have taken in order to prove the efficiency of the Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes in the aforementioned field. In particular, we will present a setup for the characterization of these sensors in a test beam. The expected results of the test beam at DESY and CERN have been simulated with Geant4 and will also be exposed.

  4. Quality Control for Scoring Tests Administered in Continuous Mode: An NCME Instructional Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allalouf, Avi; Gutentag, Tony; Baumer, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Quality control (QC) in testing is paramount. QC procedures for tests can be divided into two types. The first type, one that has been well researched, is QC for tests administered to large population groups on few administration dates using a small set of test forms (e.g., large-scale assessment). The second type is QC for tests, usually…

  5. Testing to evaluate synergistic effects from LOCA environments. Test IX. Simultaneous mode; cables, splice assemblies, and electrical insulation samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thome, F.V.

    1978-04-01

    This test was conducted to complement Test VIII which was a sequential test of cables, cable splices, and insulation samples. In this test, the generic LOCA environments (radiation, temperature, pressure, chemical spray) were simulated and simultaneously applied to the test items. There were no failures of any assemblies and all were able to function at rated current and voltage throughout the entire test. An additional parameter, dissipation factor, was monitored in this test and when used in conjunction with capacitance, provided a better indication of insulation degradation.

  6. Tempo and mode in plant breeding system evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Emma E; Igić, Boris

    2012-12-01

    Classic questions about trait evolution-including the directionality of character change and its interactions with lineage diversification-intersect in the study of plant breeding systems. Transitions from self-incompatibility to self-compatibility are frequent, and they may proceed within a species ("anagenetic" mode of breeding system change) or in conjunction with speciation events ("cladogenetic" mode of change). We apply a recently developed phylogenetic model to the nightshade family Solanaceae, quantifying the relative contributions of these two modes of evolution along with the tempo of breeding system change, speciation, and extinction. We find that self-incompatibility, a genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization, is lost largely by the cladogenetic mode. Self-compatible species are thus more likely to arise from the isolation of a newly self-compatible population than from species-wide fixation of self-compatible mutants. Shared polymorphism at the locus that governs self-incompatibility shows it to be ancestral and not regained within this family. We demonstrate that failing to account for cladogenetic character change misleads phylogenetic tests of evolutionary irreversibility, both for breeding system in Solanaceae and on simulated trees. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. ARCA Team Tested Low Power Mode S Receiver on BEXUS 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, S.; Biereigel, S.; Udich, S.; Willenbucher, J.; Zollner, H.

    2015-09-01

    In the modern world, the aircraft is a common way of transportation. With thousands of flights every day, of course, the need for tracking planes, monitoring their position and health status arises. At the moment, most airplanes are only tracked in densely populated areas. The main goal of the experiment was the development, verification and production of a low power Mode S ADS-B receiver by the team. Additionally, the team wanted to show, which advantages an aircraft based ADS-B surveillance system could have, using a stratospheric balloon for demonstration and evaluation.

  8. Compatibility Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, James Allen

    2016-01-01

    In support of ground system development for the Space Launch System (SLS), engineers are tasked with building immense engineering models of extreme complexity. The various systems require rigorous analysis of pneumatics, hydraulic, cryogenic, and hypergolic systems. There are certain standards that each of these systems must meet, in the form of pressure vessel system (PVS) certification reports. These reports can be hundreds of pages long, and require many hours to compile. Traditionally, each component is analyzed individually, often utilizing hand calculations in the design process. The objective of this opportunity is to perform these analyses in an integrated fashion with the parametric CADCAE environment. This allows for systems to be analyzed on an assembly level in a semi-automated fashion, which greatly improves accuracy and efficiency. To accomplish this, component specific parameters were stored in the Windchill database to individual Creo Parametric models based on spec control drawings. These parameters were then accessed by using the Prime Analysis within Creo Parametric. MathCAD Prime spreadsheets were created that automatically extracted these parameters, performed calculations, and generated reports. The reports described component compatibility based on local conditions such as pressure, temperature, density, and flow rates. The reports also determined component pairing compatibility, such as properly sizing relief valves with regulators. The reports stored the input conditions that were used to determine compatibility to increase traceability of component selection. The desired workflow for using this tool would begin with a Creo Schematics diagram of a PVS system. This schematic would store local conditions and locations of components. The schematic would then populate an assembly within Creo Parametric, using Windchill database parts. These parts would have their attributes already assigned, and the MathCAD spreadsheets could begin running

  9. The Effect that Varying the Test Mode Had on School Effectiveness Ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Michael H.; And Others

    The effect of alternating criterion-referenced tests (CRTs) with norm-referenced tests (NRTs) when evaluating schools was studied in a sample of 242 Louisiana public elementary schools accounting for over 18,000 third graders tested in 1989. The study used five separate multiple regression models, each producing studentized residuals used as…

  10. Ground tests of the Dynamic Albedo of Neutron instrument operation in the passive mode with a Martian soil model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvetsov, V. N.; Dubasov, P. V.; Golovin, D. V.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Krylov, A. R.; Krylov, V. A.; Litvak, M. L.; Malakhov, A. V.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Sanin, A. B.; Timoshenko, G. N.; Vostrukhin, A. A.; Zontikov, A. O.

    2017-07-01

    The results of the Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) instrument ground tests in the passive mode of operation are presented in comparison with the numerical calculations. These test series were conducted to support the current surface measurements of DAN onboard the MSL Curiosity rover. The instrument sensitivity to detect thin subsurface layers of water ice buried at different depths in the analog of Martian soil has been evaluated during these tests. The experiments have been done with a radioisotope Pu-Be neutron source (analog of the MMRTG neutron source onboard the Curiosity rover) and the Martian soil model assembled from silicon-rich window glass pane. Water ice layers were simulated with polyethylene sheets. All experiments have been performed at the test facility built at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia).

  11. Testing the Impact of Mixed-Mode Designs (Mail and Web) and Multiple Contact Attempts within Mode (Mail or Web) on Clinician Survey Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Timothy J; Jacobson, Robert M; Jenkins, Sarah M; Lackore, Kandace A; Rutten, Lila J Finney

    2018-01-22

    To compare response rate and nonresponse bias across two mixed-mode survey designs and two single-mode designs. This experiment was embedded in a clinician survey of knowledge and attitudes regarding HPV vaccination (n = 275). Clinicians were randomly assigned one of two mixed-mode (mail/web or web/mail) or single-mode designs (mail-only/web-only). Differences in response rate and nonresponse bias were assessed. Using a multiple-contact protocol increased response, and sending a web survey first provided the more rapid response. Overall, the mixed-mode survey designs generated final response rates approximately 10 percentage points higher than their single-mode counterparts, although only the final response differences between the mail-only and web/mail conditions attained statistical significance (32.1 percent vs. 48 percent, respectively; p = .005). Observed differences did not result in nonresponse bias. Results support mixing modes of survey administration and web-based data collection in a multiple contact survey data collection protocol. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  12. Testing two-nucleon transfer reaction mechanism with elementary modes of excitation in exotic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Broglia, R A; Idini, A; Barranco, F; Vigezzi, E

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear Field Theory of structure and reactions is confronted with observations made on neutron halo dripline nuclei, resulting in the prediction of a novel (symbiotic) mode of nuclear excitation, and on the observation of the virtual effect of the halo phenomenon in the apparently non-halo nucleus $^7$Li. This effect is forced to become real by intervening the virtual process with an external (t,p) field which, combined with accurate predictive abilities concerning the absolute differential cross section, reveals an increase of a factor 2 in the cross section due to the presence of halo ground state correlations, and is essential to reproduce the value of the observed $d \\sigma(^7$Li(t,p)$^9$Li)/d$\\Omega$.

  13. Fertilization compatibility of spawning corals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set includes experimental results of fertilization assays to characterize genetic compatibility between individual parental genotypes. Targeted species...

  14. The effect of different operations modes on science capabilities during the 2010 Desert RATS test: Insights from the geologist crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleacher, Jacob E.; Hurtado, José M.; Young, Kelsey E.; Rice, James W.; Garry, W. Brent

    2013-10-01

    The 2010 Desert RATS field test utilized two Space Exploration Vehicles (prototype planetary rovers) and four crewmembers (2 per rover) to conduct a geologic traverse across northern Arizona while testing continuous and twice-per-day communications paired with operation modes of separating and exploring individually (Divide & Conquer) and exploring together (Lead & Follow), respectively. This report provides qualitative conclusions from the geologist crewmembers involved in this test as to how these modes of communications and operations affected our ability to conduct field geology. Each mode of communication and operation provided beneficial capabilities that might be further explored for future Human Spaceflight Missions to other solar system objects. We find that more frequent interactions between crews and an Apollo-style Science Team on the Earth best enables scientific progress during human exploration. However, during multiple vehicle missions, this communication with an Earth-based team of scientists, who represent "more minds on the problem", should not come at the exclusion of (or significantly decrease) communication between the crewmembers in different vehicles who have the "eyes on the ground". Inter-crew communications improved when discussions with a backroom were infrequent. Both aspects are critical and cannot be mutually exclusive. Increased vehicle separation distances best enable encounters with multiple geologic units. However, seemingly redundant visits by multiple vehicles to the same feature can be utilized to provide improved process-related observations about the development and modification of the local terrain. We consider the value of data management, transfer, and accessibility to be the most important lesson learned. Crews and backrooms should have access to all data and related interpretations within the mission in as close to real-time conditions as possible. This ensures that while on another planetary surface, crewmembers are as

  15. Test-retest reproducibility of the default-mode network in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meindl, Thomas; Teipel, Stefan; Elmouden, Rachid; Mueller, Sophia; Koch, Walter; Dietrich, Olaf; Coates, Ute; Reiser, Maximilian; Glaser, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) time-series reveals distinct coactivation patterns in the resting brain representing spatially coherent spontaneous fluctuations of the fMRI signal. Among these patterns, the so-called default-mode network (DMN) has been attributed to the ongoing mental activity of the brain during wakeful resting state. Studies suggest that many neuropsychiatric diseases disconnect brain areas belonging to the DMN. The potential use of the DMN as functional imaging marker for individuals at risk for these diseases, however, requires that the components of the DMN are reproducible over time in healthy individuals. In this study, we assessed the reproducibility of the DMN components within and between imaging sessions in 18 healthy young subjects (mean age, 27.5 years) who were scanned three times with two resting state scans during each session at 3.0 T field strength. Statistical analysis of fMRI time-series was done using ICA implemented with BrainVoyager QX. At all three sessions the essential components of the DMN could be identified in each individual. Spatial extent of DMN activity and size of overlap within and between sessions were most reproducible for the anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus. The degree of reproducibility of the DMN agrees with the degree of reproducibility found with motor paradigms. We conclude that DMN coactivation patterns are reproducible in healthy young subjects. Therefore, these data can serve as basis to further explore the effects of aging and neuropsychiatric diseases on the DMN of the brain. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Long-term ongoing pregnancy rate and mode of conception after a positive and negative post-coital test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, Marloes; Brandes, Monique; de Bruin, Jan Peter; Bots, Rob S G M; Kremer, Jan A M; Nelen, Willianne L D M; Hamilton, Carl J C M

    2014-09-01

    Many fertility clinics have decided to abolish the post-coital test. Yet, it is a significant factor in prognostic models that predict the spontaneous pregnancy rate within one year. The aim of this study was to evaluate (1) the long-term outcome of infertile couples with a positive or a negative post-coital test during their fertility work-up and (2) the contribution of the different modes of conception. Retrospective cohort study. Three fertility clinics in the Netherlands, of which two are secondary care training hospitals and is a one tertiary care academic training hospital. 2476 newly referred infertile couples, where a post-coital test was performed in 1624 couples. After basic fertility work-up, couples were treated according to the national treatment protocols. Spontaneous and overall ongoing pregnancy rate. The spontaneous and overall ongoing pregnancy rates after three years were 37.7 and 77.5% after a positive post-coital test compared with 26.9 and 68.8% after a negative test (p pregnancy rate, justifying expectant management. After a follow-up of three years a positive post-coital test is still associated with a higher spontaneous and a higher overall ongoing pregnancy rate, even in couples with severe male factor infertility. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Empirical Validation Studies of Alternate Response Modes for Writing Assessment. Test Design Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capell, Frank J.; Quellmalz, Edys S.

    In the area of large scale assessment, there is increasing interest in the measurement of students' written performance. At issue is whether the task demands in writing assessment can be simplified to involve the production of paragraph-length writing samples and/or multiple choice testing, rather than full-length essays. This study considers data…

  18. Changing the field of carcinogenicity testing of human pharmaceuticals by emphasizing mode of action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, J.W. van der; Duijndam, B.; Hoorn, T. van den; Woutersen, R.; Water, B. van de

    2017-01-01

    Lifetime testing for carcinogenicity of pharmaceuticals in rodents has been a controversial issue since the start of the International Conference on Harmonisation in 1990. Since 2010 the debate reached a new level following the proposal that a negative outcome of carcinogenicity studies can be

  19. fMRI-compatible rehabilitation hand device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzika Aria

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has been widely used in studying human brain functions and neurorehabilitation. In order to develop complex and well-controlled fMRI paradigms, interfaces that can precisely control and measure output force and kinematics of the movements in human subjects are needed. Optimized state-of-the-art fMRI methods, combined with magnetic resonance (MR compatible robotic devices for rehabilitation, can assist therapists to quantify, monitor, and improve physical rehabilitation. To achieve this goal, robotic or mechatronic devices with actuators and sensors need to be introduced into an MR environment. The common standard mechanical parts can not be used in MR environment and MR compatibility has been a tough hurdle for device developers. Methods This paper presents the design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a novel, one degree of freedom, MR compatible, computer controlled, variable resistance hand device that may be used in brain MR imaging during hand grip rehabilitation. We named the device MR_CHIROD (Magnetic Resonance Compatible Smart Hand Interfaced Rehabilitation Device. A novel feature of the device is the use of Electro-Rheological Fluids (ERFs to achieve tunable and controllable resistive force generation. ERFs are fluids that experience dramatic changes in rheological properties, such as viscosity or yield stress, in the presence of an electric field. The device consists of four major subsystems: a an ERF based resistive element; b a gearbox; c two handles and d two sensors, one optical encoder and one force sensor, to measure the patient induced motion and force. The smart hand device is designed to resist up to 50% of the maximum level of gripping force of a human hand and be controlled in real time. Results Laboratory tests of the device indicate that it was able to meet its design objective to resist up to approximately 50% of the maximum handgrip force. The detailed

  20. fMRI-compatible rehabilitation hand device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanicheh, Azadeh; Muto, Andrew; Triantafyllou, Christina; Weinberg, Brian; Astrakas, Loukas; Tzika, Aria; Mavroidis, Constantinos

    2006-10-06

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used in studying human brain functions and neurorehabilitation. In order to develop complex and well-controlled fMRI paradigms, interfaces that can precisely control and measure output force and kinematics of the movements in human subjects are needed. Optimized state-of-the-art fMRI methods, combined with magnetic resonance (MR) compatible robotic devices for rehabilitation, can assist therapists to quantify, monitor, and improve physical rehabilitation. To achieve this goal, robotic or mechatronic devices with actuators and sensors need to be introduced into an MR environment. The common standard mechanical parts can not be used in MR environment and MR compatibility has been a tough hurdle for device developers. This paper presents the design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a novel, one degree of freedom, MR compatible, computer controlled, variable resistance hand device that may be used in brain MR imaging during hand grip rehabilitation. We named the device MR_CHIROD (Magnetic Resonance Compatible Smart Hand Interfaced Rehabilitation Device). A novel feature of the device is the use of Electro-Rheological Fluids (ERFs) to achieve tunable and controllable resistive force generation. ERFs are fluids that experience dramatic changes in rheological properties, such as viscosity or yield stress, in the presence of an electric field. The device consists of four major subsystems: a) an ERF based resistive element; b) a gearbox; c) two handles and d) two sensors, one optical encoder and one force sensor, to measure the patient induced motion and force. The smart hand device is designed to resist up to 50% of the maximum level of gripping force of a human hand and be controlled in real time. Laboratory tests of the device indicate that it was able to meet its design objective to resist up to approximately 50% of the maximum handgrip force. The detailed compatibility tests demonstrated that there is

  1. Compatible quantum theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, R; Hohenberg, P C

    2014-09-01

    Formulations of quantum mechanics (QM) can be characterized as realistic, operationalist, or a combination of the two. In this paper a realistic theory is defined as describing a closed system entirely by means of entities and concepts pertaining to the system. An operationalist theory, on the other hand, requires in addition entities external to the system. A realistic formulation comprises an ontology, the set of (mathematical) entities that describe the system, and assertions, the set of correct statements (predictions) the theory makes about the objects in the ontology. Classical mechanics is the prime example of a realistic physical theory. A straightforward generalization of classical mechanics to QM is hampered by the inconsistency of quantum properties with classical logic, a circumstance that was noted many years ago by Birkhoff and von Neumann. The present realistic formulation of the histories approach originally introduced by Griffiths, which we call 'compatible quantum theory (CQT)', consists of a 'microscopic' part (MIQM), which applies to a closed quantum system of any size, and a 'macroscopic' part (MAQM), which requires the participation of a large (ideally, an infinite) system. The first (MIQM) can be fully formulated based solely on the assumption of a Hilbert space ontology and the noncontextuality of probability values, relying in an essential way on Gleason's theorem and on an application to dynamics due in large part to Nistico. Thus, the present formulation, in contrast to earlier ones, derives the Born probability formulas and the consistency (decoherence) conditions for frameworks. The microscopic theory does not, however, possess a unique corpus of assertions, but rather a multiplicity of contextual truths ('c-truths'), each one associated with a different framework. This circumstance leads us to consider the microscopic theory to be physically indeterminate and therefore incomplete, though logically coherent. The completion of the theory

  2. Stimulus-response compatibility tests of implicit preference for food and body image to identify people at risk for disordered eating: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Saira; Petróczi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to incorporate implicit measures of relevant social cognition into eating disorder research. Fifty-three females diagnosed with an eating disorder (ED), and 41 at-risk females were recruited via ED support websites, along with 23 healthy females for comparison. Computerised online tests assessing subconscious normative ideal body image (IBI-BIAT) and personalised self-identification body image (PBI-BIAT) associations and food preferences (FP-AAT) were administered, followed by the modified version of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Anthropometric data, age, need for social approval, self-reported measures of self-esteem, normative perception and body image satisfaction were recorded. Self-reported diagnosed ED status was corroborated with BMI and EDE-Q. Diagnostic performance of the implicit measures was assessed with ROC analysis. Those diagnosed with ED showed significantly stronger automatic preferences for and self-identification with thin body image, compared to healthy females, but no differences were found in food preferences. The IBI-BIAT showed better diagnostic power than PBI-BIAT, correctly classifying 87% of the diagnosed participants. No correlation was found between IBI-BIAT and the explicit measures. The results suggest that the underlying subconscious social cognitive factors of pathological eating are linked to body image, not to food items per se. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multistage Adaptive Testing for a Large-Scale Classification Test: Design, Heuristic Assembly, and Comparison with Other Testing Modes. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (6)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yi; Nozawa, Yuki; Gao, Xiaohong; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Multistage adaptive tests (MSTs) have gained increasing popularity in recent years. MST is a balanced compromise between linear test forms (i.e., paper-and-pencil testing and computer-based testing) and traditional item-level computer-adaptive testing (CAT). It combines the advantages of both. On one hand, MST is adaptive (and therefore more…

  4. Differential accelerometer for equivalence principle tests: the common mode rejection factor and separation of signal from noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iafolla, V.; Lucchesi, D. M.; Nozzoli, S.; Santoli, F.; Lorenzini, E. C.; Shapiro, I. I.; Ashenberg, J.; Bombardelli, C.; Glashow, S.

    Testing the Equivalence Principle EP with an accuracy higher than the present state of the art requires to detect a very small signal out of the instrument s intrinsic noise and to the quite high common mode signals acting on the pair of test masses constituting the differential accelerometer Usually the rotation of the experiment permits to modulate the violation signal at a frequency separated from other signals with frequencies associated with the motion orbital or not of the instrument carrier and gravity gradients The possibility to detect the very small violation signal is related with a very high value for the Common Mode Rejection Factor CMRF and the separation of the differential signal due to a possible EP violation from the differential signal due to the gravity gradients Will be presented an experiment under development by our team TEPEE GReAT to test for a violation of the EP in an Einstein Elevator Particular emphasis on the experimental activity concerning the implementation of the differential accelerometer to its CMRF and the indication on the algorithm to separate the signal from noise sources will be given A numerical simulation of the detector s dynamics in the presence of relevant perturbations having assumed realistic errors and construction imperfections will be also presented In the experiment the detector spins about a horizontal axis while free falling for about 25 s in vacuum inside a co-moving capsule released from a stratospheric balloon A possible EP violation signal of a few parts in 10 15 needs to be extracted from the

  5. Meta-Analysis of Fish Early Life Stage Tests - Association of Toxic Ratios and Acute-To-Chronic Ratios with Modes of Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, Stefan; Schreiber, Rene; Armitage, James

    2018-01-01

    Fish early life stage (FELS) tests (OECD test guideline 210) are widely conducted to estimate chronic fish toxicity. In these tests, fish are exposed from the embryonic to the juvenile life stage. In order to analyse whether certain modes of action are related to high toxic ratios (TR, i.e., rati...

  6. Electronic Test or Printed Exercise Book? Which Individual Mode of Preparation is More Effective?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Erzsébet Czenky

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At Szent István University we teach database management in the framework of several subjects. For preparation for the data modeling exam students of one of these courses prepared with help the electronic tests of Moodle e-learning education system, while the attendees of the other course used printed data modeling exercise book, we wrote him based on the inspiration of students’ demand. With examinations based upon statistical methods we looked for an answer to see whether one of the preparation methods yield significantly better results. We analyzed whether there is any remarkable difference between the advantages and disadvantages of the two ways of preparation. We made a survey among students to see which of the preparation methods is favored by them. Based on the outcome of the analysis we are going to decide which one of preparation methods will be recommended by us as teachers.

  7. Testing various modes of installation for permanent broadband stations in open field environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Jérôme; Charade, Olivier; Arnold, Benoît; Louis-Xavier, Thierry

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the RESIF (Réseau Sismologique et géodésique Français) project, we plan to install more than one hundred new permanent broadband stations in metropolitan France within the next 6 years. Whenever possible, the sensors will be installed in natural or artificial underground cavities that provide a stable thermal environment. However such places do not exist everywhere and we expect that about half the future stations will have to be set up in open fields. For such sites, we are thus looking for a standard model of hosting infrastructure for the sensors that would be easily replicated and would provide good noise level performances at long periods. Since early 2013, we have been operating a prototype station at Clévilliers, a small location in the sedimentary Beauce plain, where we test three kinds of buried seismic vaults and a down-hole installation. The cylindrical seismic vaults are 3m deep and 1m wide and only differ by the type of coupling between the casing and the concrete slab where we installed insulated Trillium T120PA seismometers. The down-hole installation consists in a 3m deep well hosting a Trillium Posthole seismometer. For reference, another sensor has been installed in a ~50cm deep hole, similarly to the way we test every new potential site. Here we compare the noise level in each infrastructure at different frequencies. We observe quite similar performances for the vertical component recorded in the different wells. Conversely, the noise levels on the horizontal components at periods greater than 10s vary by more than 20dB depending on the installation condition. The best results are obtained in the completely decoupled vault and for the down-hole setting, both showing performances comparable to some of our permanent stations installed in tunnels. The amplitude of the horizontal noise also appears to be highly correlated to wind speed recorded on site, even at long periods. The variable response of each vault to such

  8. Testing an emerging paradigm in migration ecology shows surprising differences in efficiency between flight modes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E Duerr

    Full Text Available To maximize fitness, flying animals should maximize flight speed while minimizing energetic expenditure. Soaring speeds of large-bodied birds are determined by flight routes and tradeoffs between minimizing time and energetic costs. Large raptors migrating in eastern North America predominantly glide between thermals that provide lift or soar along slopes or ridgelines using orographic lift (slope soaring. It is usually assumed that slope soaring is faster than thermal gliding because forward progress is constant compared to interrupted progress when birds pause to regain altitude in thermals. We tested this slope-soaring hypothesis using high-frequency GPS-GSM telemetry devices to track golden eagles during northbound migration. In contrast to expectations, flight speed was slower when slope soaring and eagles also were diverted from their migratory path, incurring possible energetic costs and reducing speed of progress towards a migratory endpoint. When gliding between thermals, eagles stayed on track and fast gliding speeds compensated for lack of progress during thermal soaring. When thermals were not available, eagles minimized migration time, not energy, by choosing energetically expensive slope soaring instead of waiting for thermals to develop. Sites suited to slope soaring include ridges preferred for wind-energy generation, thus avian risk of collision with wind turbines is associated with evolutionary trade-offs required to maximize fitness of time-minimizing migratory raptors.

  9. Design and prototype tests of a seismic attenuation system for the advanced-LIGO output mode cleaner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, A [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Universita di Pisa, Largo Pontecorvo 2, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); DeSalvo, R [LIGO laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Galli, C [Galli and Morelli, via Cristofani 558, localita Acquacalda, I-55100 Lucca (Italy); Gennaro, G [Promec, via S Pertini 12, I-56031 Pisa (Italy); Mantovani, M [Universita di Siena, via Roma 56, I-53100 Siena (Italy); Marka, S [Department of Physics, Columbia University, 538 W 120th St, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Sannibale, V [LIGO laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Takamori, A [Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Torrie, C [LIGO laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2006-04-21

    Both present LIGO and advanced LIGO (Ad-LIGO) will need an output mode cleaner (OMC) to reach the desired sensitivity. We designed a suitable OMC seismically attenuated optical table fitting to the existing vacuum chambers (horizontal access module, HAM chambers). The most straightforward and cost-effective solution satisfying the Ad-LIGO seismic attenuation specifications was to implement a single passive seismic attenuation stage, derived from the 'seismic attenuation system' (SAS) concept. We built and tested prototypes of all critical components. On the basis of these tests and past experience, we expect that the passive attenuation performance of this new design, called HAM-SAS, will match all requirements for the LIGO OMC, and all Ad-LIGO optical tables. Its performance can be improved, if necessary, by implementation of a simple active attenuation loop at marginal additional cost. The design can be easily modified to equip the LIGO basic symmetric chamber (BSC) chambers and leaves space for extensive performance upgrades for future evolutions of Ad-LIGO. Design parameters and prototype test results are presented.

  10. In-situ diagnostics and degradation mapping of a mixed-mode accelerated stress test for proton exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yeh-Hung; Fly, Gerald W.

    2015-01-01

    With increasing availability of more durable membrane materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells, there is a need for a more stressful test that combines chemical and mechanical stressors to enable accelerated screening of promising membrane candidates. Equally important is the need for in-situ diagnostic methods with sufficient spatial resolution that can provide insights into how membranes degrade to facilitate the development of durable fuel cell systems. In this article, we report an accelerated membrane stress test and a degradation diagnostic method that satisfy both needs. By applying high-amplitude cycles of electrical load to a fuel cell fed with low-RH reactant gases, a wide range of mechanical and chemical stressful conditions can be created within the cell which leads to rapid degradation of a mechanically robust Ion Power™ N111-IP membrane. Using an in-situ shorting/crossover diagnostic method on a segmented fuel cell fixture that provides 100 local current measurements, we are able to monitor the progression and map the degradation modes of shorting, thinning, and crossover leak over the entire membrane. Results from this test method have been validated by conventional metrics of fluoride release rates, physical crossover leak rates, pinhole mapping, and cross-sectional measurements.

  11. Boar spermatozoa successfully predict mitochondrial modes of toxicity: implications for drug toxicity testing and the 3R principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Carrillo, A; Edebert, I; Garside, H; Cotgreave, I; Rigler, R; Loitto, V; Magnusson, K E; Rodríguez-Martínez, H

    2015-04-01

    Replacement of animal testing by in vitro methods (3-R principles) requires validation of suitable cell models, preferably obtained non-invasively, defying traditional use of explants. Ejaculated spermatozoa are highly dependent on mitochondrial production and consumption of ATP for their metabolism, including motility display, thus becoming a suitable model for capturing multiple modes of action of drugs and other chemicals acting via mitochondrial disturbance. In this study, a hypothesis was tested that the boar spermatozoon is a suitable cell type for toxicity assessment, providing a protocol for 3R-replacement of animals for research and drug-testing. Boar sperm kinetics was challenged with a wide variety of known frank mito-toxic chemicals with previously shown mitochondrial effects, using a semi-automated motility analyser allied with real-time fluorescent probing of mitochondrial potential (MitoTracker & JC-1). Output of this sperm assay (obtained after 30 min) was compared to cell viability (ATP-content, data obtained after 24-48 h) of a hepatome-cell line (HepG2). Results of compound effects significantly correlated (Pbreeding boars, are confirmed as suitable biosensors for preclinical toxicology screening and ranking of lead compounds in the drug development processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Handbook of electromagnetic compatibility

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    This""know-how""book gives readers a concise understanding of the fundamentals of EMC, from basic mathematical and physical concepts through present, computer-age methods used in analysis, design, and tests. With contributions from leading experts in their fields, the text provides a comprehensive overview. Fortified with information on how to solve potential electromagnetic interference (EMI) problems that may arise in electronic design, practitioners will be betterable to grasp the latest techniques, trends, and applications of this increasingly important engineering discipline.Handbook of E

  13. Bulgarian emergency responce system for release of hazardous pollutants - design and first test of the preparedness mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganev, Kostadin; Todorova, Angelina; Jordanov, Georgi; Gadzhev, Georgi; Syrakov, Dimiter; Miloshev, Nikolai; Prodanova, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The NATO SfP N 981393 project aims at developing of a unified Balkan region oriented modelling system for operational response to accidental releases of harmful gases in the atmosphere, which would be able to: 1.Perform highly acurate and reliable risk analysis and assessment for selected "hot spots"; 2.Support the emergency fast decisions with short-term regional scale forecast of the propagation of harmful gasesin case of accidental release; 3.Perform, in an off-line mode, a more detailed and comprehensive analysis of the possible longer-term impacts on the environment and human health and make the results available to the authorities and the public. The present paper describes the set up and the testing of the system, mainly focusing on the risk analysis mode. The modeling tool used in the system is the US EPA Models-3 System: WRF, CMAQ and SMOKE (partly). The CB05 toxic chemical mechanism, including chlorine reactions, is employed. The emission input exploits the high-resolution TNO emission inventory. The meteorological pre-processor WRF is driven by NCAR Final Reanalysis data and performs calculations in 3 nested domains, covering respectively the regions of South-Eastern Europe, Bulgaria, and the area surrounding the particular site. The risk assessment for the region of "Vereja Him" factory, Jambol, Bulgaria is performed on the basis of one-year long model calculations. The calculations with CMAQ chemical transport model are performed for the two inner domains. An ammount of 25 tons of chlorine is released two times daily in the innermost domain, and sepаrate calculations are performed for every release. The results are averaged over one year in order to evaluate the probability of exceeding some regulatory treshold value in each grid point. The completion of this task in a relatively short period of time was made possible by using the newly developed Grid computational environment, which allows for shared use of facilities in the research community.

  14. Effect of hydrophilicity on the compatibility between a dual-curing resin cement and one-bottle simplified adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Suh, Byoung In

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of the hydrophilicity of adhesives on the compatibility between one-bottle simplified adhesives and a dual-curing resin cement. Three experimental and two commercial adhesives (All-Bond Universal, OptiBond Allin- One) with the same or similar pH and various degrees of hydrophilicity were tested in this study. Extracted human dentin was treated with each adhesive and bonded with a dual-curing resin cement (Duolink), which was either light cured or chemically (self) cured (n = 10). Shear bond strength was tested using the Ultradent jig method, and failure modes were determined using a stereomicroscope. Water contact angle (as a measure of hydrophilicity/-phobicity) was measured on a fully cured adhesive (n = 10). The data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test. The quantitative relationship between the hydrophilicity and bond strength differences was analyzed (confidence level 95%). Among the experimental adhesives, differences in bond strengths between light-curing and self-curing modes were larger for the more hydrophilic adhesives. For the commercial adhesives, Optibond All-in-One had a lower contact angle than All-bond Universal (p Universal were 29.6 and 31.5, respectively (light cured), and 1.9 and 30.0, respectively (self-cured). Adhesive failure was a predominant mode for all adhesives except for All-Bond Universal. Regression analysis indicated a linear correlation between adhesives' hydrophilicity and bond strength differences (p adhesives were less compatible (larger bond strength differences between different curing modes) with this dual-curing resin cement. All-bond Universal is more hydrophobic than Optibond All-in-One and it is compatible with this self-/dual-curing resin cement.

  15. Wind Tunnel Testing of a 120th Scale Large Civil Tilt-Rotor Model in Airplane and Helicopter Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Willink, Gina C.; Russell, Carl R.; Amy, Alexander R.; Pete, Ashley E.

    2014-01-01

    In April 2012 and October 2013, NASA and the U.S. Army jointly conducted a wind tunnel test program examining two notional large tilt rotor designs: NASA's Large Civil Tilt Rotor and the Army's High Efficiency Tilt Rotor. The approximately 6%-scale airframe models (unpowered) were tested without rotors in the U.S. Army 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. Measurements of all six forces and moments acting on the airframe were taken using the wind tunnel scale system. In addition to force and moment measurements, flow visualization using tufts, infrared thermography and oil flow were used to identify flow trajectories, boundary layer transition and areas of flow separation. The purpose of this test was to collect data for the validation of computational fluid dynamics tools, for the development of flight dynamics simulation models, and to validate performance predictions made during conceptual design. This paper focuses on the results for the Large Civil Tilt Rotor model in an airplane mode configuration up to 200 knots of wind tunnel speed. Results are presented with the full airframe model with various wing tip and nacelle configurations, and for a wing-only case also with various wing tip and nacelle configurations. Key results show that the addition of a wing extension outboard of the nacelles produces a significant increase in the lift-to-drag ratio, and interestingly decreases the drag compared to the case where the wing extension is not present. The drag decrease is likely due to complex aerodynamic interactions between the nacelle and wing extension that results in a significant drag benefit.

  16. 40 CFR 1033.515 - Discrete-mode steady-state emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... If you do start in normal idle, run the low idle mode after normal idle, then resume the specified... sampling period up to a maximum of 15 minutes. (ii) Group the modes in the same manner as the phases of the... Table 1 to this section, including transitions from one notch to the next. This is your reference cycle...

  17. Modeling and Experimental Test of Grid-Tied Photovoltaic Cell Emulating System in the Stand-alone Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Minh Phap

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, generation of electricity from solar arrays has been increased to meet the world's growing energy demand. However, the utilization rate of the power conditioner in the grid-tied solar power system is low because the operation of solar panels is dependent on sunlight. Thus, we studied the method that the small scale wind power generating system in size from a few hundred watts to two or three kilowatts can be connected to the grid-tied power conditioner of the solar power system for residential applications with low power ratings (single phase, size is limited to 10kW by emulating characteristic of the solar panel. In this paper, we introduce the application of the grid-tied PV cell emulating system in the stand-alone mode to improve the utilization rate of the power conditioner. The simulation and experimental test results verify that the PV cell emulating system can operate the power conditioner of the gridtied solar power system.

  18. Atuarfitsialak: Greenland's Cultural Compatible Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Tasha R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002, Greenlandic reform leaders launched a comprehensive, nation-wide reform to create culturally compatible education. Greenland's reform work spans the entire educational system and includes preschool through higher education. To assist their efforts, reform leaders adopted the Standards for Effective Pedagogy developed at the Center for…

  19. Compatibility of Ohio trail users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger E. McCay; George H. Moeller

    1976-01-01

    Compatibility indexes show how Ohio trail users feel about meeting each other on the trail. All four of the major types of trail users-hikers, horseback riders, bicycle riders, and motorcycle riders-enjoy meeting their own kind. But they also feel antagonism toward the faster, more mechanized trail users; e.g., everyone likes hikers, but few like motorcycle riders....

  20. Design optimization for car compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nastic, T.; Schoofs, A.J.G.; Mooi, H.G.

    1999-01-01

    Nowadays traffic safety and occupant protection get a lot of attention due to the large number of fatalities and injuries in car accidents. The occupant protection in two-vehicle crashes can be improved by car-to-car compatibility, which means well balanced crashworthiness characteristics of both

  1. Electromagnetic compatibility in power electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Costa , François; Revol , Bertrand

    2014-01-01

    Scientists largely attribute the recent deterioration of the electromagnetic environment to power electronics. This realization has spurred the study of methodical approaches to electromagnetic compatibility designs as explored in this text. The book addresses major challenges, such as handling numerous parameters vital to predicting electro magnetic effects and achieving compliance with line-harmonics norms, while proposing potential solutions.

  2. A general mixed mode fracture mechanics test specimen: The DCB-specimen loaded with uneven bending moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jørgensen, K.; Jacobsen, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    glass-fibre laminates was studied. The mixed mode fracture resistance increased with increasing crack length due to fibre bridging, eventually reaching asteady-state level (R-curve behaviour). The steady-state fracture toughness level increased with increasing tangential crack opening displacement.......A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratiobetween the two applied moments, the full mode...

  3. Involving women in personalised decision-making on mode of delivery after caesarean section: the development and pilot testing of a patient decision aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoorel, E.N.; Vankan, E.; Scheepers, H.C.J.; Augustijn, B.C.; Dirksen, C.D.; Koning, M.; Kuijk, S.M. van; Kwee, A.; Melman, S.; Nijhuis, J.G.; Aardenburg, R.; Boer, K. de; Hasaart, T.H.M.; Mol, B.W.; Nieuwenhuijze, M.; Pampus, M.G. van; Roosmalen, J. van; Roumen, F.J.M.E.; Vries, R. de; Wouters, M.G.A.J.; Weijden, T.T. van der; Hermens, R.P.M.G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a patient decision aid (PtDA) for mode of delivery after caesarean section that integrates personalised prediction of vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) with the elicitation of patient preferences and evidence-based information. DESIGN: A PtDA was developed and pilot tested

  4. Constructing the universal characteristic of a compressor based on the results of thermal tests of gas turbine units and using it to calculate variable operating modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'Khovskii, G. G.; Trushechkin, V. P.; Chadovskaya, I. I.

    2010-09-01

    A procedure for constructing the universal characteristic of a compressor at different positions of its inlet guide vane using experimentally obtained characteristics of the compressor and turbine, and a computer program for simulating variable operating modes of a gas turbine unit are described. Results from a comparison between calculated data and data obtained from tests of similar types of gas turbines units are presented.

  5. A low-cost MRI compatible keyboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Snejbjerg; Heggli, Ole Adrian; Alves da Mota, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Neuroimaging is a powerful tool to explore how and why humans engage in music. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has allowed us to identify brain networks and regions implicated in a range of cognitive tasks including music perception and performance. However, MRI-scanners are noisy and cramped......, presenting a challenging environment for playing an instrument. Here, we present an MRI-compatible polyphonic keyboard with a materials cost of 850 $, designed and tested for safe use in 3T (three Tesla) MRI-scanners. We describe design considerations, and prior work in the field. In addition, we provide...

  6. Studies on compatibility of energetic materials by thermal methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Carvalho Mazzeu

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical compatibility of explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants with those materials is studied to evaluate potential hazards when in contact with other materials during production, storage and handling. Compatibility can be studied by several thermal methods as DSC (differential scanning calorimetry, TG (Thermogravimetry, VST (Vacuum stability test and others. The test methods and well defined criteria are the most important elements when a compatibility study is being accomplished. In this paper, the compatibility of two very important high explosives used in ammunition, RDX (Cyclo-1,3,5-trimethylene-2,4,6-trinitramine and HMX (Cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine was studied with the materials: fluoroelastomer (Viton and powdered aluminum (Al, using DSC and VST methods. The criteria to judge the compatibility between materials is based on a standardization agreement (STANAG 4147, 2001, and the final conclusion is that explosives and this materials are compatible, but in DSC it was observed that the peak of decomposition temperature of the admixture of RDX with Al decreased in 3º C and another peak appeared after the decomposition peak.

  7. Electromagnetic compatibility management for fast diagnostic design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimbourg, J.

    2004-10-01

    This article presents an overview of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) management for fast diagnostic design. We will present and detail the classical approach in EMC. This approach can be successfully applied for installations where a single engineering entity has the authority to prescribe and enforce a certain compatibility level. Most of the time, strict application of generic standards is required for fast diagnostics. Nethertheless, the pulse perturbation must be synchronized to the fast diagnostic operation. Some "traditional" techniques, such as star-earthing and bonding cable screens at one end, have been shown to be inadequate for fast diagnostic design. Our laser facility, the LIL, will be able to focus up to 60 kJ into a volume of less than 1 mm3. We have to evaluate the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) where diagnostics, cables, and oscilloscopes will be installed. We performed electromagnetic measurements inside and outside the OMEGA target chamber. The electromagnetic pulse generated by the target chamber contains very high frequency components above 1 GHz. The electric field is around a few kV/m outside and goes up to 20 kV/m inside the target. We designed a specific electromagnetic probe for pulse measurement with a rise time down to 100 ps. An ultrashort rise time EMP bench test was built to test apparatus before installation around a target chamber. It produces an electric field higher than 5 kV/m with a rise time under 100 ps.

  8. Compatibility Determination : [Crescent Lake NWR 2003 hunting

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Compatibility Determination states that hunting deer and upland birds at Crescent Lake National Wildlife Refuge is compatible with Refuge purposes.

  9. [Compatibility determinations Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides two compatibility determinations; one stated that the proposed agricultural practices (row crop farming) are compatible with Refuge objectives...

  10. Biological compatibility test on films of added SEO [poly(dimethyl siloxane)-co-poly(ethylene oxide)] PVP; Teste de biocompatibilidade de filmes de PVP com adicao de SEO [poli (dimetilsiloxano)-co-poli(oxido de etileno)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogero, Sizue O.; Souza-Bazzi, Aurea de; Higa, Olga Z. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Supervisao de Radiobiologia

    1999-11-01

    Membranes composed by polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), agar and water crosslinked by ionizing radiation, can have the mechanical properties improved by the addition of copolymers. Due to the hydrophilic property also by the medical grade as it is supplied, the copolymer poly(dimethyl siloxane)-co-poly(ethylene oxide) (SEO) was added to the PVP membranes. Varied concentrations of SEO were used in the preparation of PVP membranes by electron beam irradiation at dose rate of 25 kGy. For testing the bicompatibility of the SEO composed membrane the in vitro assay of cytotoxicity, with Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO), was carried out. However, the membranes showed a cytotoxic characteristic in cell culture, which was stronger as the amount of SEO increased in the composition. (author) 5 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Airborne Gravity Data Denoising Based on Empirical Mode Decomposition: A Case Study for SGA-WZ Greenland Test Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Lei; Wu, Meiping; Forsberg, René

    2015-01-01

    of frequency while low pass filter cannot deal with it in pass band of the low pass filter. In order to improve the accuracy of the airborne gravimetry, Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) is employed to denoise the measuring data of two primary repeated flights of the strapdown airborne gravimetry system SGA...

  12. Community–groundwater compatibility assessments: An approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data processing and analyses include the statistical processing of the collected data to assess the comprehensive measure of groundwater compatibility per area, and the individual indicators of the groundwater-compatibility index are given a relative score. This enables the different indicators for groundwater compatibility ...

  13. Electromagnetic compatibility principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weston, David A

    2001-01-01

    This totally revised and expanded reference/text provides comprehensive, single-source coverage of the design, problem solving, and specifications of electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) into electrical equipment/systems-including new information on basic theories, applications, evaluations, prediction techniques, and practical diagnostic options for preventing EMI through cost-effective solutions. Offers the most recent guidelines, safety limits, and standards for human exposure to electromagnetic fields! Containing updated data on EMI diagnostic verification measurements, as well as over 900 drawings, photographs, tables, and equations-500 more than the previous edition

  14. Measuring Participation of Rehabilitation Patients: Test-Retest Reliability and Mode of Administration Concordance of the Participation Measure-3 Domains, 4 Dimensions (PM-3D4D).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Feng-Hang

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the test-retest reliability and the concordance between the interviewer-administered version and the self-administered version of a newly developed participation measure, Participation Measure-3 Domains, 4 Dimensions (PM-3D4D). Multicenter observational study. Outpatient rehabilitation programs. Rehabilitation outpatients (N=262) participated in the study, including those (n=202) who participated in the test-retest study and those (n=60) who participated in the 2 modes of the administration study. Not applicable. The PM-3D4D includes 19 items measuring participation in productivity, social, and community domains across 4 dimensions: diversity of participation, frequency of participation, desire for change, and difficulty in participation. The test-retest reliability was good across domains and dimensions (intraclass correlation coefficients, .76-.96) as well as in neurological and nonneurological groups. The test-retest reliability was also mostly good at the item level. A high concordance was found between the 2 administration modes (intraclass correlation coefficients, 0.96-1.00). The study results lend support to the use of the PM-3D4D to reliably assess participation of rehabilitation patients. The high concordance between the 2 administration modes suggests the potential use of the instrument in population-based research. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Matrix Converter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fligl

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with matrix converters pulse width modulation strategies design with emphasis on the electromagnetic compatibility. Matrix converters provide an all-silicon solution to the problem of converting AC power from one frequency to another, offering almost all the features required of an ideal static frequency changer. They possess many advantages compared to the conventional voltage or current source inverters. A matrix converter does not require energy storage components as a bulky capacitor or an inductance in the DC-link, and enables the bi-directional power flow between the power supply and load. The most of the contemporary modulation strategies are able to provide practically sinusoidal waveforms of the input and output currents with negligible low order harmonics, and to control the input displacement factor. The perspective of matrix converters regarding EMC in comparison with other types of converters is brightly evident because it is no need to use any equipment for power factor correction and current and voltage harmonics reduction. Such converter with proper control is properly compatible both with the supply mains and with the supplied load. A special digital control system was developed for the realized experimental test bed which makes it possible to achieve greater throughput of the digital control system and its variability.

  16. First test experiment to produce the slowed-down RI beam with the momentum-compression mode at RIBF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumikama, T., E-mail: sumikama@ribf.riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ahn, D.S.; Fukuda, N.; Inabe, N.; Kubo, T.; Shimizu, Y.; Suzuki, H.; Takeda, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Aoi, N. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Beaumel, D. [Institut de Physique Nucléaire d’Orsay (IPNO), CNRS/IN2P3, 91405 Orsay (France); Hasegawa, K. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Ideguchi, E. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Imai, N. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0298 (Japan); Kobayashi, T. [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Aoba, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Matsushita, M.; Michimasa, S. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0298 (Japan); Otsu, H. [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shimoura, S. [Center for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo, RIKEN Campus, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0298 (Japan); Teranishi, T. [Department of Physics, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2016-06-01

    The {sup 82}Ge beam has been produced by the in-flight fission reaction of the {sup 238}U primary beam with 345 MeV/u at the RIKEN RI beam factory, and slowed down to about 15 MeV/u using the energy degraders. The momentum-compression mode was applied to the second stage of the BigRIPS separator to reduce the momentum spread. The energy was successfully reduced down to 13 ± 2.5 MeV/u as expected. The focus was not optimized at the end of the second stage, therefore the beam size was larger than the expectation. The transmission of the second stage was half of the simulated value mainly due to out of focus. The two-stage separation worked very well for the slowed-down beam with the momentum-compression mode.

  17. Design of durability test protocol for vehicular fuel cell systems operated in power-follow mode based on statistical results of on-road data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liangfei; Reimer, Uwe; Li, Jianqiu; Huang, Haiyan; Hu, Zunyan; Jiang, Hongliang; Janßen, Holger; Ouyang, Minggao; Lehnert, Werner

    2018-02-01

    City buses using polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are considered to be the most likely fuel cell vehicles to be commercialized in China. The technical specifications of the fuel cell systems (FCSs) these buses are equipped with will differ based on the powertrain configurations and vehicle control strategies, but can generally be classified into the power-follow and soft-run modes. Each mode imposes different levels of electrochemical stress on the fuel cells. Evaluating the aging behavior of fuel cell stacks under the conditions encountered in fuel cell buses requires new durability test protocols based on statistical results obtained during actual driving tests. In this study, we propose a systematic design method for fuel cell durability test protocols that correspond to the power-follow mode based on three parameters for different fuel cell load ranges. The powertrain configurations and control strategy are described herein, followed by a presentation of the statistical data for the duty cycles of FCSs in one city bus in the demonstration project. Assessment protocols are presented based on the statistical results using mathematical optimization methods, and are compared to existing protocols with respect to common factors, such as time at open circuit voltage and root-mean-square power.

  18. The use of transmission line modelling to test the effectiveness of I-kaz as autonomous selection of intrinsic mode function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Hanafi M.; Ghazali, M. F.; Yusof, M. F. M.; PiRemli, M. A.; Karollah, B.; Rusman

    2017-10-01

    Pressure transient signal occurred due to sudden changes in fluid propagation filled in pipelines system, which is caused by rapid pressure and flow fluctuation in a system, such as closing and opening valve rapidly. The application of Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) as the method to analyse the pressure transient signal utilised in this research. However, this method has the difficulty in selecting the suitable IMF for the further post-processing, which is Hilbert Transform (HT). This paper proposed the implementation of Integrated Kurtosis-based Algorithm for z-filter Technique (I-kaz) to kurtosis ratio (I-kaz-Kurtosis) for that allows automatic selection of intrinsic mode function (IMF) that’s should be used. This work demonstrated the synthetic pressure transient signal generates using transmission line modelling (TLM) in order to test the effectiveness of I-kaz as the autonomous selection of intrinsic mode function (IMF). A straight fluid network was designed using TLM fixing with higher resistance at some point act as a leak and connecting to the pipe feature (junction, pipefitting or blockage). The analysis results using I-kaz-kurtosis ratio revealed that the method can be utilised as an automatic selection of intrinsic mode function (IMF) although the noise level ratio of the signal is lower. I-kaz-kurtosis ratio is recommended and advised to be implemented as automatic selection of intrinsic mode function (IMF) through HHT analysis.

  19. A high resolution cavity BPM for the CLIC Test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Chritin, N.; Soby, L.; Lunin, A.; Solyak, N.; Wendt, M.; Yakovlev, V.

    2012-01-01

    In frame of the development of a high resolution BPM system for the CLIC Main Linac we present the design of a cavity BPM prototype. It consists of a waveguide loaded dipole mode resonator and a monopole mode reference cavity, both operating at 15 GHz, to be compatible with the bunch frequencies at the CLIC Test Facility. Requirements, design concept, numerical analysis, and practical considerations are discussed.

  20. Settlement-Compatible Lunar Transporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, G.

    Over the past few years we have published papers in this forum identifying, characterizing and advocating settlement-compatible transportation architectures for Mars. In the present paper, we do the same for the Moon and show evolutionary potentials for growth of lunar architectures into Mars architectures of the types discussed in our previous papers. The essence of a settlement-compatible architecture is that it yields a low recurring transportation cost and that the elements of the architecture are enduring, i.e., fully reusable with lifetimes on the order of Earth-based capital investments. Our previous papers have shown that extension of human habitation to other bodies in our Solar System is probably unaffordable with any other approach. The design of a settlement-compatible architecture begins with Earth launch. In our prior papers, we simply identified the Earth launch option as a fully reusable system with roughly Shuttle (or Atlas 5 or Delta 4 or Sea Launch or Ariane 5) capability, i.e. about 20 metric t. to low Earth orbit and a payload bay of dimensions about 5 m diameter x 15 to 20 m length. This is what the commercial market needs; this is where the traffic demand is; this is approximately the design point for a next-generation (after Shuttle) reusable launch vehicle. We continue in that vein for the present paper. Human mission advocates may argue it isn't big enough; that they need 80 metric t. payload to orbit. We answer that to achieve our cost criteria, there isn't much of a choice, and that the savings in launch cost will far outweigh the added expense for on-orbit assembly. Lunar transportation is considerably less demanding than Mars transportation. The main difference is in trip time. Because lunar trips are short, the crew habitat can be small, a la the Apollo Command Module, and the propulsion system to move it is also small by comparison. We analyze and depict a lunar transportation system based on crew elements adapted from the

  1. 40 CFR 1045.505 - How do I test engines using discrete-mode or ramped-modal duty cycles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... engines to confirm that they meet emission standards, we will use the modal testing method you select for...-modal testing (either in your original application or in an amendment to your application), either... specified in 40 CFR 1065.514 to confirm that the test is valid. (2) For ramped-modal testing, start sampling...

  2. Breeding graft-compatible Douglas-fir rootstocks (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.L. Copes

    1999-01-01

    A study encompassing 24 years was conducted to determine if a breeding program could produce highly graft-compatible rootstocks. Twenty-seven trees of apparent high graft compatibility were selected and crossed to produce 226 control-pollinated families. Seedlings were grown, field planted, and grafted with test scions. Graft unions from field tests were evaluated...

  3. Electromagnetic compatibility and interference metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, M. T.; Kanda, M.

    1986-07-01

    The material included in the report is intended for a short course on electromagnetic compatibility/interference (EMC/EM) metrology. The entire course is presented in nine chapters with the introductory part given as Chapter 1. The particular measurement topics to be covered are: (1) open sites (Chapters 2 and 6), (2) transverse electromagnetic cells (Chapter 3), (3) techniques for measuring the electromagnetic shielding of materials (Chapter 4), (4) anechoic chambers (Chapter 5), and (5) reverberating chambers (Chapter 8). In addition, since small probe antennas play an important role in some of the EMC/EMI measurements discussed, a separate chapter on various probe systems developed at NBS is given in Chapter 7. Selected contemporary EMI topics such as the characterization and measurement of a complex EM environment, interferences in the form of out-of-band receptions to an antenna, and some conducted EMI problems are also briefly discussed (Chapter 9).

  4. Radiation-Hard SpaceWire/Gigabit Ethernet-Compatible Transponder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    A radiation-hard transponder was developed utilizing submicron/nanotechnology from IBM. The device consumes low power and has a low fabrication cost. This device utilizes a Plug-and-Play concept, and can be integrated into intra-satellite networks, supporting SpaceWire and Gigabit Ethernet I/O. A space-qualified, 100-pin package also was developed, allowing space-qualified (class K) transponders to be delivered within a six-month time frame. The novel, optical, radiation-tolerant transponder was implemented as a standalone board, containing the transponder ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) and optical module, with an FPGA (field-programmable gate array) friendly parallel interface. It features improved radiation tolerance; high-data-rate, low-power consumption; and advanced functionality. The transponder utilizes a patented current mode logic library of radiation-hardened-by-architecture cells. The transponder was developed, fabricated, and radhard tested up to 1 MRad. It was fabricated using 90-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) 9 SF process from IBM, and incorporates full BIT circuitry, allowing a loop back test. The low-speed parallel LVCMOS (lowvoltage complementary metal oxide semiconductor) bus is compatible with Actel FPGA. The output LVDS (low-voltage differential signaling) interface operates up to 1.5 Gb/s. Built-in CDR (clock-data recovery) circuitry provides robust synchronization and incorporates two alarm signals such as synch loss and signal loss. The ultra-linear peak detector scheme allows on-line control of the amplitude of the input signal. Power consumption is less than 300 mW. The developed transponder with a 1.25 Gb/s serial data rate incorporates a 10-to-1 serializer with an internal clock multiplication unit and a 10-1 deserializer with internal clock and data recovery block, which can operate with 8B10B encoded signals. Three loop-back test modes are provided to facilitate the built-in-test functionality. The

  5. Fuel System Compatibility Issues for Prometheus-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DC Noe; KB Gibbard; MH Krohn

    2006-01-20

    Compatibility issues for the Prometheus-1 fuel system have been reviewed based upon the selection of UO{sub 2} as the reference fuel material. In particular, the potential for limiting effects due to fuel- or fission product-component (cladding, liner, spring, etc) chemical interactions and clad-liner interactions have been evaluated. For UO{sub 2}-based fuels, fuel-component interactions are not expected to significantly limit performance. However, based upon the selection of component materials, there is a potential for degradation due to fission products. In particular, a chemical liner may be necessary for niobium, tantalum, zirconium, or silicon carbide-based systems. Multiple choices exist for the configuration of a chemical liner within the cladding; there is no clear solution that eliminates all concerns over the mechanical performance of a clad/liner system. A series of tests to evaluate the performance of candidate materials in contact with real and simulated fission products is outlined.

  6. fMRI-Compatible Electromagnetic Haptic Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riener, R; Villgrattner, T; Kleiser, R; Nef, T; Kollias, S

    2005-01-01

    A new haptic interface device is suggested, which can be used for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. The basic component of this 1 DOF haptic device are two coils that produce a Lorentz force induced by the large static magnetic field of the MR scanner. A MR-compatible optical angular encoder and a optical force sensor enable the implementation of different control architectures for haptic interactions. The challenge was to provide a large torque, and not to affect image quality by the currents applied in the device. The haptic device was tested in a 3T MR scanner. With a current of up to 1A and a distance of 1m to the focal point of the MR-scanner it was possible to generate torques of up to 4 Nm. Within these boundaries image quality was not affected.

  7. Visual land-use compatibility and scenic-resource quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Hendrix

    1977-01-01

    The effect that land-use relationships have upon perceived quality of the visual landscape is discussed, and a case is made for expansion of fit-misfit theory into what has been called visual land-use compatibility. An assessment methodology that was designed to test people's perceptions of land-use relationships is presented and the results are discussed.

  8. The impact of the revised electromagnetic compatibility standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozec, Didier; Hayes, Darren J

    2004-10-01

    Electromedical equipment must be tested to the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standard EN 60601-1-2 to carry the CE mark. The new version of EN 60601-1-2, which becomes mandatory from 1 November 2004, could affect the design of some products. This article summarises the new EMC requirements and provides design tips on how to meet them.

  9. Technical compatibility and safety of glass fiber in battery separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, R. [Schuller International, Toledo, OH (United States); Versen, R. [Schuller International, Littleton, CO (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Nonwovens comprised of glass fibers are both compatible with the relatively harsh chemical environment in lead acid batteries, and yet are safe to handle. The health and safety of glass fibers may seem confusing from a regulatory viewpoint, but are in fact highly tested and well understood scientifically to not cause respiratory disease. Nonwoven separators made from glass fibers are well situated to withstand scientific scrutiny in these times of suspicion of negative health effects ranging from second-hand smoke to tap water. This paper examines technical compatibility of the glass fibers in the battery, the health and safety aspects of glass fibers, and governmental and regulatory interpretation of studies.

  10. Conceptual design of CFETR divertor remote handling compatible structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Huaichu, E-mail: yaodm@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Yao, Damao; Cao, Lei; Zhou, Zibo; Li, Lei [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Conceptual design for the CFETR divertor have been proposed, especially the divertor remote handling compatible structure. • The degrees of freedom of the divertor are analyzed in order to validate the design the divertor supports structure. • Besides the ITER-like scheme, a new scheme for the divertor remote handling compatible supports is proposed, that is the rack and pinion mechanism. • The installation/removel process is verified through simulation in Delmia in order to check design quality for remote handling requirements. - Abstract: Divertor is one of key components of tokamak fusion reactor. The CFETR is China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor. Its divertor will expose to tritium environment and neutron radiation. Materials of the divertor will be radioactived, and cannot be handled by personnel directly. To develop structure which compatible with robots handle for installation, maintenance and removing is required. This paper introduces a conceptual design of CFETR divertor module which compatible with remote handling end-effectors. The divertor module is confined by inner and outer support. The inner support is only confined divertor module radial, toroidal and vertical moving freedom degrees, but not confined rotating freedom degrees. The outer support is the structure that can confine rotating freedom degrees and should also be compatible with remote handling end-effectors.

  11. A tailored approach to electromagnetic compatibility requirements in space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javor, Ken; Nave, Mark

    1991-01-01

    An approach is outlined which defines the requirements for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) between NASA and military technologies with attention given to electromagnetic interference (EMI) requirements. In order to minimize the cost and weight impact of the changes needed for compatibility the plan emphasizes the incorporation of off-the-shelf technology with current nonstandard methods. NASA designs are structured to meet EMI requirements rather than processing waivers against military-type specifications. The NASA-wide EMI requirements can be documented in three sections: requirements, test methods, and tailoring guidelines. It is shown that a NASA-wide EMC specification would decrease the costs of achieving compatibility by increasing efficiency and optimizing the relationship between EMC design and performance and cost.

  12. [Study on the compatibility of slip casting aluminous ceramic crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Q B; Xue, M; You, L; Du, C S; Chao, Y L

    1997-03-01

    One of the key factors for a good slip casting aluminous ceramic crown is good compatibility between its core material and the veneering porcelain.The chemical and thermal compatibility of two slip casting aluminous ceramic crown systems(In-Ceram and GI-I) were investigated by means of SEM and EDAX,thermal shock tests were also performed to evaluate the crazing resistance.The results showed: the crazing resistance of In-Ceram was 158 degrees centigrade,and that of GI-I was degrees centigrade;there existed tightly bonded interfaces between the slip casting aluminous ceramic cores and the veneering porcelains in both of the two systems,where ion transferences were found.The results also suggested good compatibility of the two slip casting aluminous ceramic crown systems.

  13. Vacuum Compatible Percussive Dynamic Cone Penetrometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to develop a vacuum compatible percussive dynamic cone penetrometer (PDCP), for establishing soil bin characteristics, with the ultimate...

  14. Tone compatibility between HDR displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Madec, Gérard; Ducloux, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) is the latest trend in television technology and we expect an in ux of HDR capable consumer TVs in the market. Initial HDR consumer displays will operate on a peak brightness of about 500-1000 nits while in the coming years display peak brightness is expected to go beyond 1000 nits. However, professionally graded HDR content can range from 1000 to 4000 nits. As with Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) content, we can expect HDR content to be available in variety of lighting styles such as low key, medium key and high key video. This raises concerns over tone-compatibility between HDR displays especially when adapting to various lighting styles. It is expected that dynamic range adaptation between HDR displays uses similar techniques as found with tone mapping and tone expansion operators. In this paper, we survey simple tone mapping methods of 4000 nits color-graded HDR content for 1000 nits HDR displays. We also investigate tone expansion strategies when HDR content graded in 1000 nits is displayed on 4000 nits HDR monitors. We conclude that the best tone reproduction technique between HDR displays strongly depends on the lighting style of the content.

  15. Standard practice for leaks using the mass spectrometer leak detector in the inside-Out testing mode

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for testing devices that are sealed prior to testing, such as semiconductors, hermetically enclosed relays, pyrotechnic devices, etc., for leakage through the walls of the enclosure. They may be used with various degrees of sensitivity (depending on the internal volume, the strength of the enclosure, the time available for preparation of test, and on the sorption characteristics of the enclosure material for helium). In general practice the sensitivity limits are from 10−10 to 10−6 Pa m3/s (10−9 standard cm3/s to 10−5 standard cm3/s at 0°C) for helium, although these limits may be exceeded by several decades in either direction in some circumstances. 1.2 Two test methods are described: 1.2.1 Test Method A—Test part preparation by bombing. 1.2.2 Test Method B—Test part preparation by prefilling. 1.3 Units—The values stated in either SI or std-cc/sec units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalen...

  16. Scale-up of counter-current chromatography: demonstration of predictable isocratic and quasi-continuous operating modes from the test tube to pilot/process scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Ian; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana

    2009-12-11

    Predictable scale-up from test tube derived distribution ratios and analytical-scale sample loading optimisation is demonstrated using a model sample system of benzyl alcohol and p-cresol in a heptane:ethyl acetate:methanol:water phase system with the new 18 L Maxi counter-current chromatography centrifuge. The versatility of having a liquid stationary phase with its high loading capacity and flexible operating modes is demonstrated at two different scales by separating and concentrating target compounds using a mixture of caffeine, vanillin, naringenin and carvone using a quasi-continuous technique called intermittent counter-current extraction.

  17. Effect of Time on Gypsum-Impression Material Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, John Boram

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of dental gypsum with three recently introduced irreversible hydrocolloid (alginate) alternatives. The test materials were Alginot® (Kerr™), Position Penta Quick® (3M ESPE™) and Silgimix ® (Sultan Dental™). The irreversible hydrocolloid impression material, Jeltrate Plus antimicrobial® (Dentsply Caulk™) served as the control. Materials and Methods: Testing of materials was conducted in accordance with ANSI/ADA Specification No. 18 for Alginate Impression Materials. Statistical Analysis: The 3-Way ANOVA test was used to analyze measurements between different time points at a significance level of (p Outcome: It was found that there was greater compatibility between gypsum and the alternative materials over time than the traditional irreversible hydrocolloid material that was tested. A statistically significant amount of surface change/incompatibility was found over time with the combination of the dental gypsum products and the control impression material (Jeltrate Plus antimicrobial®).

  18. 32 CFR 552.95 - Compatible use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compatible use. 552.95 Section 552.95 National... CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.95 Compatible use. (a... closed. (4) Motorized infantry operations that will use the majority of the road net in a training area...

  19. Common fixed points for weakly compatible maps

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The purpose of this paper is to prove a common fixed point theorem, from the class of compatible continuous maps to a larger class of maps having weakly compatible maps without appeal to continuity, which generalized the results of Jungck [3], Fisher [1], Kang and Kim [8], Jachymski [2], and Rhoades [9].

  20. Is Religious Education Compatible with Science Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario

    1996-01-01

    Addresses the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education, challenges the popular view that science and religion are compatible or complementary. Discusses differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological, and attitudinal levels. Argues that religious education should be kept…

  1. 12 Mode, MIMO-Free OAM Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Kasper; Gregg, Patrick; Galili, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous MIMO-free transmission of a record number (12) of orbital angular momentum modes over 1.2 km is demonstrated. WDM compatibility of the system is shown by using 60 WDM channels with 25 GHz spacing and 10 GBaud QPSK.......Simultaneous MIMO-free transmission of a record number (12) of orbital angular momentum modes over 1.2 km is demonstrated. WDM compatibility of the system is shown by using 60 WDM channels with 25 GHz spacing and 10 GBaud QPSK....

  2. Optimal Switching Table-Based Sliding Mode Control of an Energy Recovery Li-Ion Power Accumulator Battery Pack Testing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil To Chong

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present work is to apply a sliding mode controller (SMC to medium voltage and high power output energy recovery Li-ion power accumulator battery pack testing systems (ERLPABTSs, which are composed of a three-level neutral-point-clamped (NPC three-phase voltage source inverter (VSI and a two-level buck-boost converter without an isolating transformer. An inner current decoupled control scheme for the aforementioned system is proposed and two sliding mode planes for active and reactive current control are designed based on the control scheme. An optimized switching table for current convergence is used according to the error sign of the equivalent input voltage and feedback voltage. The proposed ERLPABTS could be used to integrate discharging energy into the power grid when performing high accuracy current testing. The active and reactive power references for the grid-connected inverter are determined based on the discharging energy from the DC-DC converter. Simulations and experiments on a laboratory hardware platform using a 175 kW insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT-based ERLPABTS have been implemented and verified, and the performance is found satisfactory and superior to conventional ERLPABPTS.

  3. Long-term ongoing pregnancy rate and mode of conception after a positive and negative post-coital test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, M.; Brandes, M.; Bruin, J.P.; Bots, R.S.; Kremer, J.A.; Nelen, W.L.; Hamilton, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Many fertility clinics have decided to abolish the post-coital test. Yet, it is a significant factor in prognostic models that predict the spontaneous pregnancy rate within one year. The aim of this study was to evaluate (1) the long-term outcome of infertile couples with a positive or a

  4. How Is Rh Compatibility Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... experiences with clinical research. More Information Related Health Topics Blood and Bone Marrow Transplant Blood Tests Blood Transfusion Heart Failure Hemolytic Anemia Other Resources Non-NHLBI ...

  5. 76 FR 77747 - Amendment of the Commission's Rules Governing Hearing Aid-Compatible Mobile Handsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... the newest generation of digital wireless handsets. The proposed rules would adopt the revised version... public inspection and copying during business hours in the FCC Reference Information Center, Portals II... consumer groups, a multi-band and/or multi-mode handset model would be considered hearing aid-compatible...

  6. CMOS-Compatible PureGaB Ge-on-Si APD pixel arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sammak, A.; Aminian, Mahdi; Nanver, L.K.; Charbon, E.E.E.

    2016-01-01

    Pure gallium and pure boron (PureGaB) Ge-on-Si photodiodes were fabricated in a CMOS compatible process and operated in linear and avalanche mode. Three different pixel geometries with very different area-to-perimeter ratios were investigated in linear arrays of 300 pixels with each a size of 26 ×

  7. Section 1. Method of determining mode shapes and natural frequencies of the NASA unmodified test structure. Section 2. Continuous beam closed from solution to the NASA-LSS astromast torsional vibration, appendix E

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The methods used to determine the lower natural frequencies and their corresponding mode shapes of the NASA-LSS Astromast (Unmodified Test Structure), and the mass integrals associated with the mode shapes are illustrated. The test structure is modeled as a cantilever beam with 91 lumped masses and without the tip mass on the free end of the bram. This uncouples the torsion and bending modes and allows for them to be determined separately. The frequency range was limited to an upper bound of 100 rad/sec (15.92 Hz.). In this range from 0.-100. rad/sec, three bending frequencies and one torsion frequency was found.

  8. Calculation of the operation mode of the emergency condenser (EC) of the INKA test facility with ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilschuetz, H.G. [E.ON Kernkraft GmbH, Hannover (Germany); Leyer, S. [AREVA NP GmbH, Offenbach (Germany); Kruessenberg, A.K.; Schaefer, F. [FZD Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V. (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    On 4{sup th} of April 2008 AREVA and E.ON signed a cooperation agreement. An essential part of this is the Final Basic Design Contract SWR 1000. On 28{sup th} of November 2008 AREVA and E.ON have signed a Memorandum of Understanding to develop a commercially viable product and to focus on the successful deployment of the SWR 1000 in a collaborative manner. Meanwhile a rebranding was conducted: the new name of this evolutionary boiling water reactor of the Generation III+ is KERENATM trademark. It is the common intention of AREVA and E.ON to complete the basic design until the end of 2010 so as to reach a design ready for bid and ready for licensing for a construction primarily in a European country. The KERENA trademark is not a completely new plant concept, it is a proven further developed design, based on Gundremmingen NPP and the whole accumulated German BWR operating experience. The design shall fulfill the following major safety items: - further reduction of core damage frequency, - control of postulated core melt accident by in-vessel melt retention without emergency response actions, - introduction of passive safety systems (principle of diversity and redundancy), and - long grace periods for manual intervention (> 3 days). Especially for the newly introduced passive safety systems, which are described in detail, not only an experimental testing and validation is needed, but also thermal-hydraulic system codes have to be qualified, to be able to consider the mostly gravity driven 3D-flow phenomena correctly. Since in some countries the code ATHLET is well established, it is useful to prove its capabilities or to enhance the capabilities, if necessary. Therefore the FZD (Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf) is performing a model development and calculations for code validation of the test results from INKA (INtegral test facility in KArlstein, Germany). This paves the way for licensing procedures later on. (orig.)

  9. A Safety-Critical Java Technology Compatibility Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan Erbs; Ravn, Anders P.

    2014-01-01

    In order to claim conformance with a given Java Specification Request (JSR), a Java implementation has to pass all tests in an associated Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). This paper presents development of test cases and tools for the draft Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) specification. In previous...... work we have shown how the Java Modeling Language (JML) is applied to specify conformance constraints for SCJ, and how JML-related tools may assist in generating and executing tests. Here we extend this work with a layout for concrete test cases including checking of results in a simplified version...

  10. A safety-critical java technology compatibility kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan E.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2014-01-01

    In order to claim conformance with a given Java Specification Request (JSR), a Java implementation has to pass all tests in an associated Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). This paper presents development of test cases and tools for the draft Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) specification. In previous...... work we have shown how the Java Modeling Language (JML) is applied to specify conformance constraints for SCJ, and how JML-related tools may assist in generating and executing tests. Here we extend this work with a layout for concrete test cases including checking of results in a simplified version...

  11. HLW Flexible jumper materials compatibility evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skidmore, T. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-13

    H-Tank Farm Engineering tasked SRNL/Materials Science & Technology (MS&T) to evaluate the compatibility of Goodyear Viper® chemical transfer hose with HLW solutions. The hose is proposed as a flexible Safety Class jumper for up to six months service. SRNL/MS&T performed various tests to evaluate the effects of radiation, high pH chemistry and elevated temperature on the hose, particularly the inner liner. Test results suggest an upper dose limit of 50 Mrad for the hose. Room temperature burst pressure values at 50 Mrad are estimated at 600- 800 psi, providing a safety factor of 4.0-5.3X over the anticipated operating pressure of 150 psi and a safety factor of 3.0-4.0X over the working pressure of the hose (200 psi), independent of temperature effects. Radiation effects are minimal at doses less than 10 Mrad. Doses greater than 50 Mrad may be allowed, depending on operating conditions and required safety factors, but cannot be recommended at this time. At 250 Mrad, burst pressure values are reduced to the hose working pressure. At 300 Mrad, burst pressures are below 150 psi. At a bounding continuous dose rate of 57,870 rad/hr, the 50 Mrad dose limit is reached within 1.2 months. Actual dose rates may be lower, particularly during non-transfer periods. Refined dose calculations are therefore recommended to justify longer service. This report details the tests performed and interpretation of the results. Recommendations for shelf-life/storage, component quality verification, and post-service examination are provided.

  12. Scale effect of anaerobic digestion tests in fed-batch and semi-continuous mode for the technical and economic feasibility of a full scale digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffino, Barbara; Fiore, Silvia; Roati, Chiara; Campo, Giuseppe; Novarino, Daniel; Zanetti, Mariachiara

    2015-04-01

    Methane production capacity in mesophilic conditions of waste from two food industry plants was assessed in a semi-pilot (6L, fed-batch) and pilot (300 L, semi-continuous) scale. This was carried out in order to evaluate the convenience of producing heat and electricity in a full scale anaerobic digester. The pilot test was performed in order to obtain more reliable results for the design of the digester. Methane yield, returned from the pilot scale test, was approximately 80% of that from the smaller scale test. This outcome was in line with those from other studies performed in different scales and modes and indicates the success of the pilot scale test. The net electricity produced from the digester accounted for 30-50% of the food industry plants' consumption. The available thermal energy could cover from 10% to 100% of the plant requirements, depending on the energy demand of the processes performed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Accelerated endurance test of single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers under vacuum used for a scalar space magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellmeier, M.; Hagen, C.; Piris, J.; Lammegger, R.; Jernej, I.; Woschank, M.; Magnes, W.; Murphy, E.; Pollinger, A.; Erd, C.; Baumjohann, W.; Windholz, L.

    2018-02-01

    We performed an endurance test with single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) under vacuum condition and increased operational parameters (laser current and laser temperature) to accelerate the aging of the lasers. During the endurance test the emitted polarization-dependent and polarization-independent optical light power from the lasers was detected. Additionally, electro-optical characterisations including measurements of the combination of laser current and laser temperature to excite the 87Rb D1 transition ( λ = 795 nm), the current and temperature tuning coefficients, laser line width, threshold current and the polarization ellipse were performed for the aged lasers. The test was started with a number of 12 VCSELs consisting of 4 lasers each from 3 different suppliers. The aging behaviour of VCSELs was investigated with respect to the development of a new optical magnetometer prototype for space missions with a mission duration of up to 17 years. Only a limited change of the electro-optical parameters can be tolerated by the instrument design over the mission duration. The endurance test and the electro-optical characterizations revealed clear differences in the aging behaviour of the three suppliers. Lasers from one supplier showed that they can be operated for more than 17 years under vacuum conditions without major degradation of their operational parameters.

  14. MRI compatible head phantom for ultrasound surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menikou, Georgios; Dadakova, Tetiana; Pavlina, Matt; Bock, Michael; Damianou, Christakis

    2015-03-01

    Develop a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible head phantom with acoustic attenuation closely matched to the human attenuation, and suitable for testing focused ultrasound surgery protocols. Images from an adult brain CT scan were used to segment the skull bone from adjacent cerebral tissue. The segmented model was manufactured in a 3-D printer using (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) ABS plastic. The cerebral tissue was mimicked by an agar-evaporated milk-silica gel (2% w/v-25% v/v-1.2% w/v) which was molded inside a skull model. The measured attenuation of the ABS skull was 16 dB/cm MHz. The estimated attenuation coefficient of the gel replicating brain tissue was 0.6 dB/cm MHz. The estimated agar-silica gel's T1 and T2 relaxation times in a 1.5 Tesla magnetic field were 852 ms and 66 ms respectively. The effectiveness of the skull to reduce ultrasonic heating was demonstrated using MRI thermometry. Due to growing interest in using MRI guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) for treating brain cancer and its application in sonothrombolysis, the proposed head phantom can be utilized as a very useful tool for evaluating ultrasonic protocols, thus minimizing the need for animal models and cadavers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. EVA-Compatible Microbial Swab Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2016-01-01

    When we send humans to search for life on Mars, we'll need to know what we brought with us versus what may already be there. To ensure our crewed spacecraft meet planetary protection requirements—and to protect our science from human contamination—we'll need to know whether micro-organisms are leaking/venting from our ships and spacesuits. This is easily done by swabbing external vents and suit surfaces for analysis, but requires a specialized tool for the job. Engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently developed an Extravehicular Activity (EVA)-compatible swab tool that can be used to sample current space suits and life support systems. Data collected now will influence Mars life support and EVA hardware early in the planning process, before design changes become difficult and expensive.NASA’s EVA swab tool pairs a Space Shuttle-era tool handle with a commercially available swab tip mounted into a custom-designed end effector. A glove-compatible release mechanism allows the handle to quickly switch between swab tips, much like a shaving razor handle can snap onto a disposable blade cartridge. Swab tips are stowed inside individual sterile containers, each fitted with a microbial filter that allows the container to equalize atmospheric pressure, but prevents cabin contaminants from rushing into the container when passing from the EVA environment into a pressurized cabin. A bank of containers arrayed inside a tool caddy allows up to six individual samples to be collected during a given spacewalk.NASA plans to use the tool in 2016 to collect samples from various spacesuits during ground testing to determine what (if any) human-borne microbial contamination leaks from the suit under simulated thermal vacuum conditions. Next, the tool will be used on board the International Space Station to assess the types of microbial contaminants found on external environmental control and life support system vents. Data will support

  16. DOD Offshore Wind Mission Compatibility Assessments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set represents the results of analyses conducted by the Department of Defense to assess the compatibility of offshore wind development with military assets...

  17. Morgantown People Mover Electromagnetic Compatibility Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) of a transit system is the absence of interference between all parts of the system, and between the system and the community which it serves. This report documents the EMC experience obtained during the design and ...

  18. Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated Laundry System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An Advanced Microgravity Compatible, Integrated laundry System (AMCILS) is proposed that uses a two phase water / water vapor system to allow good agitation of...

  19. Component Mode Synthesis Using Undeformed Interface Coupling Modes to Connect Soft and Stiff Substructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eskil Lindberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Classical component mode synthesis methods for reduction are usually limited by the size and compatibility of the coupling interfaces. A component mode synthesis approach with constrained coupling interfaces is presented for vibro-acoustic modelling. The coupling interfaces are constrained to six displacement degrees of freedom. These degrees of freedom represent rigid interface translations and rotations respectively, retaining an undeformed interface shape. This formulation is proposed for structures with coupling between softer and stiffer substructures in which the displacement is chiefly governed by the stiffer substructure. Such may be the case for the rubber-bushing/linking arm assembly in a vehicle suspension system. The presented approach has the potential to significantly reduce the modelling size of such structures, compared with classical component mode synthesis which would be limited by the modelling size of the interfaces. The approach also eliminates problems of nonconforming meshes in the interfaces since only translation directions, rotation axes and the rotation point need to be common for the coupled substructures. Simulation results show that the approach can be used for modelling of systems that resemble a vehicle suspension. It is shown for a test case that adequate engineering accuracy can be achieved when the stiffness properties of the connecting parts are within the expected range of rubber connected to steel.

  20. Electromagnetic theory for electromagnetic compatibility engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Toh, Tze-Chuen

    2013-01-01

    Engineers and scientists who develop and install electronic devices and circuits need to have a solid understanding of electromagnetic theory and the electromagnetic behavior of devices and circuits. In particular, they must be well-versed in electromagnetic compatibility, which minimizes and controls the side effects of interconnected electric devices. Designed to entice the practical engineer to explore some worthwhile mathematical methods, and to reorient the theoretical scientist to industrial applications, Electromagnetic Theory for Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineers is based on the

  1. Operating safety of a hot-shot wind tunnel with combined test gas heating in stabilization mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumskii, V. V.; Yaroslavtsev, M. I.

    2017-07-01

    In the present paper, we analyze emergency situations typical of short-duration wind tunnels with electric-arc or combined test-gas heating in the presence of stabilization and diaphragm-rupturing systems, which occur in the case of no discharge initiation in the settling chamber, with the capacitor battery having remained charged during the start of wind-tunnel systems. For avoiding such emergency situations, some additional changes based on using feedback elements are introduced into the wind-tunnel design: the piston of the fast-response valve is made hollow for increasing the volume of the shutoff cavity and for making the release of pressure from this cavity unnecessary; the high-pressure channel, which connects the piston and the piston rod with the settling-chamber cavity, is filled with a liquid and is closed from the side of the settling chamber with a piston; the device for controlled diaphragm breakdown is provided with an external electric circuit intended to control the diaphragm-rupturing process. Those modifications allow subsequent functioning of the wind-tunnel systems only in the presence of heat-supply-induced pressure growth in the settling chamber of the wind tunnel.

  2. Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters

    OpenAIRE

    Guag Joshua W; Seidman Seth J; Pantchenko Oxana S; Witters Donald M; Sponberg Curt L

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study is to investigate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of implantable neurostimulators with the emissions from radio frequency identification (RFID) emitters. Methods Six active implantable neurostimulators with lead systems were tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic fields generated by 22 RFID emitters. These medical devices have been approved for marketing in the U.S. for a number of intended uses that include: epilepsy, depression, inco...

  3. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, M. Yu.; Zakharenko, A. D.; Kozitskiy, S. B.

    2016-10-01

    A mode parabolic equation in the ray centered coordinates for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the ASA wedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method in the case of cross-slope propagation. But in the cases of wave propagation at some angles to the cross-slope direction an account of mode interaction becomes necessary.

  4. Electromagnetic Compatibility between Marine Automatic Identification and Public Correspondence Systems in the Maritime Mobile VHF Band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-04-01

    The Coast Guard funded the National Telecommunications and Information Administration : (NTIA) to perform electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) tests between an ITU-R M. 825-3 : (Characteristics Of a Transponder System Using Digital Selective Calling T...

  5. Compatibility Studies of Hydrogen Peroxide and a New Hypergolic Fuel Blend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldridge, Jennifer; Villegas, Yvonne

    2002-01-01

    Several preliminary materials compatibility studies have been conducted to determine the practicality of a new hypergolic fuel system. Hypergolic fuel ignites spontaneously as the oxidizer decomposes and releases energy in the presence of the fuel. The bipropellant system tested consists of high-test hydrogen peroxide (HTP) and a liquid fuel blend consisting of a hydrocarbon fuel, an ignition enhancer and a transition metal catalyst. In order for further testing of the new fuel blend to take place, some basic materials compatibility and HTP decomposition studies must be accomplished. The thermal decomposition rate of HTP was tested using gas evolution and isothermal microcalorimetry (IMC). Materials were analyzed for compatibility with hydrogen peroxide including a study of the affect welding has on stainless steel elemental composition and its relation to HTP decomposition. Compatibility studies of valve materials in the fuel blend were performed to determine the corrosion resistance of the materials.

  6. Brake Fluid Compatibility with Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-19

    Fluid, DOT III, DOT V, MIL-PRF-46176, deposition 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...UNCLASSIFIED ix ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS DC Direct Current, amps DOT Department of Transportation ECU Electronic Control Unit EOT End of test...triggers the Electronic Control Unit ( ECU ) to turn on the pump motors to raise the system pressure again. It is the cycling of the dump and pump that

  7. Evaluating the compatibility of multi-functional and intensive urban land uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleai, M.; Sharifi, A.; Sliuzas, R.; Mesgari, M.

    2007-12-01

    This research is aimed at developing a model for assessing land use compatibility in densely built-up urban areas. In this process, a new model was developed through the combination of a suite of existing methods and tools: geographical information system, Delphi methods and spatial decision support tools: namely multi-criteria evaluation analysis, analytical hierarchy process and ordered weighted average method. The developed model has the potential to calculate land use compatibility in both horizontal and vertical directions. Furthermore, the compatibility between the use of each floor in a building and its neighboring land uses can be evaluated. The method was tested in a built-up urban area located in Tehran, the capital city of Iran. The results show that the model is robust in clarifying different levels of physical compatibility between neighboring land uses. This paper describes the various steps and processes of developing the proposed land use compatibility evaluation model (CEM).

  8. Blood compatibility of AAc, HEMA, and PEGMA-grafted cellulose film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nho, Young Chang. E-mail: ycnho@kaeri.re.kr; Kwon, Oh Hyun

    2003-03-01

    To improve surface blood compatibility on cellulose film for hemodialysis, acrylic acid, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and three kinds of polyethylene glycol methacrylates were grafted onto the cellulose film surface by radiation grafting technique. Heparin was introduced onto the grafted cellulose film surfaces. The grafting and heparinization were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the attenuated total reflectance mode and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. The blood compatibility of the modified cellulose film was examined by the determination of platelet adhesion and thrombus formation.

  9. Compatibility analysis of 3D printer resin for biological applications

    KAUST Repository

    Sivashankar, Shilpa

    2016-08-30

    The salient features of microfluidics such as reduced cost, handling small sample and reagent volumes and less time required to fabricate the devices has inspired the present work. The incompatibility of three-dimensional printer resins in their native form and the method to improve their compatibility to many biological processes via surface modification are reported. The compatibility of the material to build microfluidic devices was evaluated in three different ways: (i) determining if the ultraviolet (UV) cured resin inhibits the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), i.e. testing devices for PCR compatibility; (ii) observing agglutination complex formed on the surface of the UV cured resin when anti-C-reactive protein (CRP) antibodies and CRP proteins were allowed to agglutinate; and (iii) by culturing human embryonic kidney cell line cells and testing for its attachment and viability. It is shown that only a few among four in its native form could be used for fabrication of microchannels and that had the least effect on biological molecules that could be used for PCR and protein interactions and cells, whereas the others were used after treating the surface. Importance in building lab-on-chip/micrototal analysis systems and organ-on-chip devices is found.

  10. Compatibility and stability of valsartan in a solid pharmaceutical formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamíris Amanda Júlio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Valsartan (VAL is a highly selective blocker of the angiotensin II receptor that has been widely used in the treatment of hypertension. Active pharmaceutical ingredient compatibility with excipients (crospovidone, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose and titanium dioxide is usually evaluated in solid pharmaceutical development. Compatibility and stability can be evaluated by liquid chromatography. Studies were performed using binary mixtures of 1:1 (w/w VAL/excipient; samples were stored under accelerated stability test conditions (40 ºC at 75% relative humidity. The results indicate that VAL is incompatible with crospovidone and hypromellose, which reduced the VAL content and gave rise to new peaks in the chromatogram due to degradation products.

  11. Blood compatibility of the jellyfish valve without anticoagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imachi, K; Mabuchi, K; Chinzei, T; Abe, Y; Imanishi, K; Suzukawa, M; Yonezawa, T; Kouno, A; Ono, T; Nozawa, H

    1991-01-01

    The blood compatibility of the jellyfish valve was studied. Artificial heart (AH) blood pumps incorporating jellyfish valves were connected to 18 goats as total artificial hearts (TAHs) and pumped for 1 to 125 days without anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs. No thrombus was formed on the valve membrane or around the valve seat. Scanning electron microscopy showed almost no platelet deposition or microfibrin clot formation on the valve membrane, including its central region; the spokes of the valve seat were also free from platelet and microfibrin clots. No calcification was observed during these tests, and plasma free hemoglobin was between 2 and 7 mg/dl. The jellyfish valve revealed good blood compatibility, even without anticoagulant use.

  12. Compatibility of refractory materials for nuclear reactor poison control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, J. H.

    1974-01-01

    Metal-clad poison rods have been considered for the control system of an advanced space power reactor concept studied at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Such control rods may be required to operate at temperatures of about 140O C. Selected poison materials (including boron carbide and the diborides of zirconium, hafnium, and tantalum) were subjected to 1000-hour screening tests in contact with candidate refractory metal cladding materials (including tungsten and alloys of tantalum, niobium, and molybdenum) to assess the compatibility of these materials combinations at the temperatures of interest. Zirconium and hafnium diborides were compatible with refractory metals at 1400 C, but boron carbide and tantalum diboride reacted with the refractory metals at this temperature. Zirconium diboride also showed promise as a reaction barrier between boron carbide and tungsten.

  13. Two-stage coal liquefaction process materials from the Wilsonville Facility operated in the nonintegrated and integrated modes: chemical analyses and biological testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Later, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    This document reports the results from chemical analyses and biological testing of process materials sampled during operation of the Wilsonville Advanced Coal Liquefaction Research and Development Facility (Wilsonville, Alabama) in both the noncoupled or nonintegrated (NTSL Run 241) and coupled or integrated (ITSL Run 242) two-stage liquefaction operating modes. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity assays were conducted in conjunction with chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses to provide detailed, comparative chemical and biological assessments of several NTSL and ITSL process materials. In general, the NTSL process materials were biologically more active and chemically more refractory than analogous ITSL process materials. To provide perspective, the NTSL and ITSL results are compared with those from similar testing and analyses of other direct coal liquefaction materials from the solvent refined coal (SRC) I, SRC II and EDS processes. Comparisons are also made between two-stage coal liquefaction materials from the Wilsonville pilot plant and the C.E. Lummus PDU-ITSL Facility in an effort to assess scale-up effects in these two similar processes. 36 references, 26 figures, 37 tables.

  14. Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K. P.; Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    1999-01-01

    The present appendix contains the derivation of ten different limit state equations divided on three different failure modes. Five of the limit state equations can be used independently of the characteristics of the subsoil, whereas the remaining five can be used for either drained or undrained s...

  15. Compatibility of interspecific Manihot crosses presaged by protein electrophoresis .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, N M A; Bomfim, N; Chaib, A; Abreu, L F A; Gomes, P T C

    2010-01-01

    Cross incompatibility of wild Manihot species with cassava (M. esculenta) can impede their utilization for improving this cultigen. We tested whether compatibility could be determined based on electrophoresis results. Manihot pilosa, M. glaziovii, M. reptans, and M. cearulescens were tested. These species were allowed to hybridize with cassava to determine whether hybridization coincides with the similarity index based on electrophoresis analysis. Gene markers of leaf shape, stem surface, disk color, and fruit shape were used to confirm hybridization. Manihot pilosa and M. glaziovii successfully hybridized with cassava, while the others failed to do so under natural conditions. This result coincided with the similarity index from electrophoresis.

  16. Electromagnetic Compatibility for the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Robert C.

    2004-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Space Shuttle electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). It includes an overview of the design of the shuttle with the areas that are of concern for the electromagnetic compatibility. It includes discussion of classical electromagnetic interference (EMI) and the work performed to control the electromagnetic interference. Another area of interest is electrostatic charging and the threat of electrostatic discharge and the attempts to reduce damage to the Shuttle from these possible hazards. The issue of electrical bonding is als reviewed. Lastly the presentation reviews the work performed to protect the shuttle from lightning, both in flight and on the ground.

  17. Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Douglas, N, ed.

    2004-11-25

    From May 11--15, 2004, the Institute for Mathematics and its Applications held a hot topics workshop on Compatible Spatial Discretizations for Partial Differential Equations. The numerical solution of partial differential equations (PDE) is a fundamental task in science and engineering. The goal of the workshop was to bring together a spectrum of scientists at the forefront of the research in the numerical solution of PDEs to discuss compatible spatial discretizations. We define compatible spatial discretizations as those that inherit or mimic fundamental properties of the PDE such as topology, conservation, symmetries, and positivity structures and maximum principles. A wide variety of discretization methods applied across a wide range of scientific and engineering applications have been designed to or found to inherit or mimic intrinsic spatial structure and reproduce fundamental properties of the solution of the continuous PDE model at the finite dimensional level. A profusion of such methods and concepts relevant to understanding them have been developed and explored: mixed finite element methods, mimetic finite differences, support operator methods, control volume methods, discrete differential forms, Whitney forms, conservative differencing, discrete Hodge operators, discrete Helmholtz decomposition, finite integration techniques, staggered grid and dual grid methods, etc. This workshop seeks to foster communication among the diverse groups of researchers designing, applying, and studying such methods as well as researchers involved in practical solution of large scale problems that may benefit from advancements in such discretizations; to help elucidate the relations between the different methods and concepts; and to generally advance our understanding in the area of compatible spatial discretization methods for PDE. Particular points of emphasis included: + Identification of intrinsic properties of PDE models that are critical for the fidelity of numerical

  18. Screening Test Procedure For Long Life Single Mode Step Index Separate Confinement Heterostructure Single Quantum Well (Sinsch-Sqw) Laser Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, William J.

    1989-06-01

    An experiment was conducted to establish an effective burn-in and screening procedure for long life SINSCH-SQW laser diodes. The laser diodes were grown by MOCVD and processed with 20μ wide oxide defined stripes. The devices had a high reflective back facet coating with a small etalon bonded to a passivated front facet to ensure single mode operation. The laser diodes were bonded p-side up to copper heat sinks using indium solder. A total of 48 devices were selected prior to burn-in and were operated at 200mA constant current for 2000 hours at an average heat sink temperature of 55°C. The average initial output power was 45mW per device. At the end of the test, the output powers ranged from lmW to 85mW. Most of the devices with the low final power failed catastrophically within 24 hours from the start of the test. Many laser diodes showed very little change in output power while others degraded gradually by varying amounts. Failure analysis showed that failures were facet, bulk, or heat sink related. The temporal output power degradations (i.e., gradual degradation, etc.) can be explained by the identified failure mechanisms. From the test results and failure analysis, a screening strategy based on inspection and burn-in can be devised to reject devices that may fail early. Also, improvements in processing can provide potential yield improvements. After accounting for degradation related to processing, a very long material lifetime is predicted for these SINSCH-SQW laser diodes.

  19. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Dorothea; Schoelermann, Andrea M; Filbry, Alexander; Hamann, Tina; Moser, Claudia; Rippke, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp. The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire. Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers' self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants. Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test shampoo significantly reduced the extent of scabs and erythema. Therefore, the shampoo is ideally suited for use after hair transplantation and for the treatment of sensitive scalp. The excellent skin compatibility is because of the mild surfactant system, the calming ingredient bisabolol, and

  20. Statistical EMC: A new dimension electromagnetic compatibility of digital electronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaliovich, Anatoly

    Electromagnetic compatibility compliance test results are used as a database for addressing three classes of electromagnetic-compatibility (EMC) related problems: statistical EMC profiles of digital electronic systems, the effect of equipment-under-test (EUT) parameters on the electromagnetic emission characteristics, and EMC measurement specifics. Open area test site (OATS) and absorber line shielded room (AR) results are compared for equipment-under-test highest radiated emissions. The suggested statistical evaluation methodology can be utilized to correlate the results of different EMC test techniques, characterize the EMC performance of electronic systems and components, and develop recommendations for electronic product optimal EMC design.

  1. 46 CFR 150.150 - Exceptions to the compatibility chart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions to the compatibility chart. 150.150 Section... CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES § 150.150 Exceptions to the compatibility chart. The Commandant (G-MSO... 1, the Compatibility Chart. ...

  2. A JPEG backward-compatible HDR image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2012-10-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) imaging is expected to become one of the technologies that could shape next generation of consumer digital photography. Manufacturers are rolling out cameras and displays capable of capturing and rendering HDR images. The popularity and full public adoption of HDR content is however hindered by the lack of standards in evaluation of quality, file formats, and compression, as well as large legacy base of Low Dynamic Range (LDR) displays that are unable to render HDR. To facilitate wide spread of HDR usage, the backward compatibility of HDR technology with commonly used legacy image storage, rendering, and compression is necessary. Although many tone-mapping algorithms were developed for generating viewable LDR images from HDR content, there is no consensus on which algorithm to use and under which conditions. This paper, via a series of subjective evaluations, demonstrates the dependency of perceived quality of the tone-mapped LDR images on environmental parameters and image content. Based on the results of subjective tests, it proposes to extend JPEG file format, as the most popular image format, in a backward compatible manner to also deal with HDR pictures. To this end, the paper provides an architecture to achieve such backward compatibility with JPEG and demonstrates efficiency of a simple implementation of this framework when compared to the state of the art HDR image compression.

  3. Testing of an environmental compatible dismantling technology for activated metallic reactor components (water abrasive jetstream technic) under real conditions. Final report; Erprobung des Wasserabrasivsuspensionsstrahlverfahrens (WASS) bei der Zerlegung aktivierter metallischer Reaktorkomponenten (RDB u.a.) unter realen Bedingungen. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalwa, H.; Louis, H.; Brandt, C. [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde

    2000-07-01

    The water abrasive suspension jetstream cutting (WASJ) was tested during the past research program for its general practicability. The programs goal was to investigate the dismantling of the lower part of the core baffel as well as of the reactor-pressure-vessel itself. For this purpose the University of Hanover established a lab-scale testing program to optimize the following parameters: different abrasives, cutting performance, remote tools monitoring and handling, verification of the forces to the manipulators, adaptation of cutting parameters to the different cutting tasks and the analyses for water-processing to maintain sub-aquatic visibility. Based on the results obtained in minor-scale testing the process parameters were adapted to the pilot manifold (ALBA-WASS) in VAK. This program served also for the training of personnel and the certification of the procedure by experts and the authorities. During the pre-operational phase a solids extraction and water-purification device was developed to enable the use of the technique under sub-aquatic conditions. The core-baffel was dismantled with the 1400 bar WASS into parts ready for final storage. For the cutting of the reactor-pressure-vessel itself, the WASS was modified to a jetstream-pressure of 2000 bar. At the end of the operation we were able to determine that for the dismantling of nuclear-power-plants an additional efficient cutting technique is now available. (orig.) [German] Das Wasserabrasivsuspensionsstrahlschneiden war in vorangegangenen Forschungsvorhaben auf seine generelle Einsatzbarkeit untersucht worden. Die Aufgabenziele waren, die Zerlegung des Kernmantelunterteiles sowie die Zerlegung des Reaktordruckbehaelters. Zu diesem Zweck wurden mit der Laboranlage der Universitaet Hannover Untersuchungen verschiedener Abrasivmittel bezueglich Schneidfaehigkeit und Truebung, Versuche zur Optimierung der Werkzeugueberwachung und -handhabung, Ermittlung der Kraefte am Handhabungssystem, Anpassung der

  4. Compatibility Between Electric Components in Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdyk, Andrzej; Holbøll, Joachim; Arana Aristi, Iván

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes a method for investigation of the compatibility between electric components in wind farms by identifying critical resonances at different points of an offshore wind farm (OWF), based on systematic variation of critical parameters. In this way, the design of future OWF can...

  5. Screening for attractants compatible with entomopathogenic fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several thrips attractants were screened for compatibility with Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and a subset of these for attraction to Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Conidial germination and germ tube length of M. anisopliae were used as indicators of ...

  6. Electromagnetic compatibility design guideline for STADAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowdell, R. B.; Hill, J. S.; Senn, J. C.; Shifman, J. C.; Skaggs, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Procedures for achieving electromagnetic compatibility in electronic and electrical equipment for aerospace ground stations are investigated. The application of shielding theory to good design is treated and standards of good practice are outlined for bonding, grounding, wiring, and cabling. Some aspects of filter design are explained, and suggestions are given for the application of filters to electronic and electrical equipment.

  7. Plasmonic Modulator Using CMOS Compatible Material Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a design of ultra-compact plasmonic modulator is proposed and numerically analyzed. The device l ayout utilizes alternative plas monic materials such as tr ansparent conducting oxides and titanium nitride which potentially can be applied for CMOS compatible process. The modulation...

  8. Energetic materials standards – Chemical compatibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuukkanen, I.M.; Bouma, R.H.B.

    2014-01-01

    Subgroup A Energetic Materials Team, SG/A (EMT), develops and maintains standards that are relevant to all life-cycle phases of ammunition/weapon systems. STANAG 4147 is the standard regarding chemical compatibility of explosives with munition components, and is a document of prime importance.

  9. Compatibility of Motion Facilitates Visuomotor Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, Michael J.; Spivey, Michael J.; Krumhansl, Carol L.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research indicates that synchronized tapping performance is very poor with flashing visual stimuli compared with auditory stimuli. Three finger-tapping experiments compared flashing visual metronomes with visual metronomes containing a spatial component, either compatible, incompatible, or orthogonal to the tapping action. In Experiment 1,…

  10. Catholic Educator Perceptions about Brain Compatible Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenen, Amie

    2009-01-01

    This document reports the findings of a doctoral project regarding the perceptions held by administrators and teachers of comprehensive Catholic schools in one Midwestern diocese. With the recent explosion of research in the area of the brain and brain compatible instruction it is valuable to know and understand the perceptions held by current…

  11. Improvement of crash compatibility between cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, J.A.H.M.; Faerber, E.; Cesari, D.; Hobbs, A.C.; Kampen, B. van; Paez, J.; Wykes, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the research work of the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC) in the field of crash compatibility between passenger cars. Since July 1997 the EC Commission is partly funding the research work of EEVC. The running period of this project will be two

  12. Improvement of crash compatibility between cars.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faerber, E. Cesari, D. Hobbs, A.C. Huibers, J. Kampen, B. van Paez, J. & Wykes, N.J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the research work of the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC) in the field of crash compatibility between passenger cars. Since July 1997 the EC Commission is partly funding the research work of EEVC. The running period of this project will be two

  13. Are Naturalism and Moral Realism Compatible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peels, H.D.

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper, Alvin Plantinga has argued that there is good reason to think that naturalism and moral realism are incompatible. He has done so by arguing that the most important argument for the compatibility of these two theses, which has been provided by Frank Jackson, fails and that any

  14. The Construal (In)compatibility Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaojing; Ringberg, Torsten; Mao, Huifang

    2011-01-01

    incompatible with their mental construal, while ad claims construed at a level compatible with consumers' mental construal are more effective for those who possess a less creative mindset. We document that such differences in persuasion are driven by the fact that consumers with a creative (less creative) mind...

  15. Compatibility of Calamus deerratus and Lacosperma secundiflorum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation was conducted to determine the optimum water to cement ratio for a locally manufactured Portland cement for use in wood composites. The effects of pre-processing and calcium chloride (CaCl2) on the compatibility of two rattan canes (Calamus deerratus and Lacosperma secundiflorum) with cement were ...

  16. Prediction of resonance effect on the common mode current noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kchikach, M.; Menou, A.; Elaoufi, J. [Academie Internationale Mohamed 6 de l' Aviation Civile, Casablanca (Morocco)]|[Office Nationale des Aeroports, Aeroport Mohammed 5, Casablanca (Morocco); Elhasnanoui, A. [Ecole National de l' Industrie Minerale, Rabat (Morocco); Qian, Z.M. [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). College of Electrical Engineering

    2007-07-01

    A poor layout in the process control board of a circuit model can cause electromagnetic interference (EMI). In order to choose the correct application for unintentional circuit elements such as inductance, capacitance and resistance, it is important to understand the magnitude of these circuit elements and the characteristics of components over a range of frequencies. A simplified equivalent circuit model used to study the resonance influence on common mode (CM) current noise in a switching mode power supply was presented in this paper. EMI caused by resonance was shown to be a source of the high conducted EMI that physically influenced the tested AC/DC converter used for telecom applications. In order to avoid system malfunction and to guarantee Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) standards, the effects of EMI must be analyzed and predicted. The proposed equivalent circuit model contained essential couplings, unintentional circuit elements, and sources found in the common mode current path. This series resonance circuit was composed of input cables. A theoretical review of the equivalent voltage source and the intentional parameters of the converter was also presented. Simulation results were found to be in good agreement with test results. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Test-retest reliability of a new self reported comprehensive questionnaire measuring frequencies of different modes of adolescents commuting to school and their parents commuting to work - the ATN questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørkelund Line A

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies assessing active commuting to school usually use simple questionnaires, and often is mode of commuting reported with a single questionnaire item only. The purpose of the present study is to report the test-retest reliability of a newly developed comprehensive questionnaire on active commuting to school and work among 6th grade school children and their parents in Norway. Methods A total of 106 pupils and 77 parents completed a questionnaire two times, 14 days apart. The questionnaire consisted of frequency items on how often the participants walk, cycle, go by car and go by public transportation to school (pupils or work (parents. The questionnaire was divided into seasons and to/from school or work in order to cover seasonal and topographic variations. The average number of trips for each mode of commuting was calculated. Then the sample was categorised into mode of commuting: walkers, cyclists, car commuters or public transport commuters. Results The average numbers of trips did not differ for any of the commuting modes comparing test to retest data for any of the seasons. Test-retest correlation coefficients were high for all modes of commuting (Spearman correlation coefficient were 0.85-0.92 for pupils and 0.82-0.95 for parents. Most participants categorised into mode of commuting were categorized into the same mode at both time points (97% and 95% for pupils and parents respectively. Conclusion This newly developed questionnaire appears to be a reliable tool for measuring active commuting to school and work.

  18. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    CERN Document Server

    Trofimov, M Yu; Kozitskiy, S B

    2015-01-01

    An adiabatic mode Helmholtz equation for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the crosswedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method.

  19. Fatigue Evaluation of Recycled Asphalt Mixture Based on Energy-Controlled Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue properties of asphalt mixtures are important inputs for mechanistic-empirical pavement design. To understand the fatigue properties of asphalt mixtures better and to predict the fatigue life of asphalt mixtures more precisely, the energy-controlled test mode was introduced. Based on the implementation theory, the laboratory practice for the energy-controlled mode was realized using a four-point-bending fatigue test with multiple-step loading. In this mode, the fatigue performance of typical AC-20 asphalt specimens with various reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP contents was tested and evaluated. Results show that the variation regulation of the dissipated energy and accumulative energy is compatible with the loading control principle, which proves the feasibility of the method. In addition, the fatigue life of the asphalt mixture in the energy-controlled mode was between that for the stress-controlled and strain-controlled modes. The specimen with a higher RAP content has a longer fatigue life and better fatigue performance.

  20. Teste Dicótico de Dígitos (etapa de escuta direcionada em crianças com fissura labiopalatina Dichotic Listening Test (directed attention mode in children with cleft lip and palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Cavalcanti Lemos

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Perdas auditivas condutivas nos primeiros anos de vida podem levar a transtornos do processamento auditivo, de atenção e, conseqüentemente, dificuldades de aprendizado da comunicação. OBJETIVO: Verificar o desempenho de crianças com fissura labiopalatina no teste dicótico de dígitos, etapa de escuta direcionada; e compará-los aos de um grupo sem fissura labiopalatina. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Fizeram parte deste estudo 52 crianças, de ambos os gêneros, na faixa etária de sete anos a sete anos e 11 meses, que foram distribuídas em dois grupos: um com crianças com fissura labiopalatina (n=27 e outro de crianças sem essa anomalia (n=25. O processo de avaliação constituiu da aplicação de um questionário, bateria de testes auditivos convencionais e aplicação do Teste Dicótico de Dígitos (etapa de escuta direcionada. RESULTADOS: No Teste Dicótico de Dígitos (etapa de escuta direcionada, foi possível observar que o grupo com FLP apresentou porcentagens de acerto inferiores ao grupo controle, tanto para a orelha direita quanto para a orelha esquerda. A análise estatística mostrou interação estatisticamente significativa para grupo versus gênero, p=0,026. CONCLUSÃO: No Teste Dicótico de Dígitos (etapa de escuta direcionada somente as crianças do gênero feminino com fissura labiopalatina obtiveram índices de acerto inferiores às do grupo controle. Estudo prospectivo clínico.Conductive hearing loss in the first years of life may lead to hearing processing and attention deficit disorders, and consequently to communication and learning impairments. AIM: this paper aims to examine the performance of children with cleft lip and palate in dichotic listening tests (directed attention mode and compare them to a control group without cleft lip and palate. MATERIALS AND METHOD: fifty-two children of both genders were enrolled in the study. Their ages ranged between 7 years and 7 years and 11 months, and they were divided into two

  1. Laser welding of polymers, compatibility and mechanical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Erik; Strange, Marianne; Kristensen, Jens Klæstrup

    2013-01-01

    Laser welding of polymers is today a commonly used industrial technology. It has shown obvious advantages compared to e.g. adhesive bonding in terms of higher productivity, better quality and easiness for automation. The ongoing development of lasers tailored for polymer welding in coordination...... for research and development. This paper presents some research results related to laser welding of various polymer materials, including weld compatibility investigations related to the joining of different polymers. Theory for bonding mechanisms, strength development, mechanical properties testing and other...

  2. Technical Basis for Electromagnetic Compatibility Regulatory Guidance Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, Paul D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Korsah, Kofi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Harrison, Thomas J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wood, Richard Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mays, Gary T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this report is to serve as the technical basis document for the next, planned revision of this RG that highlights and provides the rationale for the recommended changes. The structure of this document follows and summarizes the several assessment activities undertaken during the course of this project to evaluate new and updated electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) standards, testing methods and limits, and relevant technology developments being incorporated into plant activities that may have EMI/RFI implications, as well as other specific issues, including impacts of electrostatic discharge (ESD) on safety equipment and impacts on increased usage of wireless devices in nuclear power plants.

  3. One-Way Compatibility, Two-Way Compatibility and Entry in Network Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio Maria Manenti; Ernesto Somma

    2002-01-01

    We study the strategic choice of compatibility between two initially incompatible network goods in a two-stage game played by an incumbent and an entrant firm. Compatibility may be achieved by means of a converter. We derive a number of results under different assumptions about the nature of the converter (one-way vs two-way), the existence of property rights and the possibility of side payments. With incompatibility, entry deterrence occurs for sufficiently strong network effects. In the cas...

  4. A Study of Beam Position Diagnostics with Beam-excited Dipole Higher Order Modes using a Downconverter Test Electronics in Third Harmonic 3.9 GHz Superconducting Accelerating Cavities at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P. [Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Baboi, N. [DESY; Eddy, N. [Fermilab; Fellenz, B. [Fermilab; Jones, R. M. [Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Lorbeer, B. [DESY; Wamsat, T. [DESY; Wendt, M. [Fermilab

    2012-08-01

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) in accelerating cavities contain transverse beam position information. Previous studies have narrowed down three modal options for beam position diagnostics in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz cavities at FLASH. Localized modes in the beam pipes at approximately 4.1 GHz and in the fifth cavity dipole band at approximately 9 GHz were found, that can provide a local measurement of the beam position. In contrast, propagating modes in the first and second dipole bands between 4.2 and 5.5 GHz can reach a better resolution. All the options were assessed with a specially designed test electronics built by Fermilab. The aim is to define a mode or spectral region suitable for the HOM electronics. Two data analysis techniques are used and compared in extracting beam position information from the dipole HOMs: direct linear regression and singular value decomposition. Current experiments suggest a resolution of 50 {\\mu}m accuracy in predicting local beam position using modes in the fifth dipole band, and a global resolution of 20 {\\mu}m over the complete module. Based on these results we decided to build a HOM electronics for the second dipole band and the fifth dipole band, so that we will have both high resolution measurements for the whole module, and localized measurements for individual cavity. The prototype electronics is being built by Fermilab and planned to be tested in FLASH by the end of 2012.

  5. A study of beam position diagnostics with beam-excited dipole higher order modes using a downconverter test electronics in third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baboi, N.; Lorbeer, B.; Wamsat, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Wendt, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Jones, R.M. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) in accelerating cavities contain transverse beam position information. Previous studies have narrowed down three modal options for beam position diagnostics in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz cavities at FLASH. Localized modes in the beam pipes at approximately 4.1 GHz and in the fifth cavity dipole band at approximately 9 GHz were found, that can provide a local measurement of the beam position. In contrast, propagating modes in the first and second dipole bands between 4.2 and 5.5 GHz can reach a better resolution. All the options were assessed with a specially designed test electronics built by Fermilab. The aim is to de ne a mode or spectral region suitable for the HOM electronics. Two data analysis techniques are used and compared in extracting beam position information from the dipole HOMs: direct linear regression and singular value decomposition. Current experiments suggest a resolution of 50 m accuracy in predicting local beam position using modes in the fifth dipole band, and a global resolution of 20 m over the complete module. Based on these results we decided to build a HOM electronics for the second dipole band and the fifth dipole band, so that we will have both high resolution measurements for the whole module, and localized measurements for individual cavity. The prototype electronics is being built by Fermilab and planned to be tested in FLASH by the end of 2012.

  6. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment MECA Abrasion Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Anderson, M. S.; Hinde, B. D.; Hecht, M. H.; Pike, W. T.; Marshall, J.; Meloy, T. P.; Cobbly, T.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) experiment, an instrument suite to be flown on Mars Surveyor 2001, will include a tool for doing simple mineralogical scratch and streak tests on particles from the Martian regolith. The Abrasion Tool will be applied to particles that adhere to highly polished substrates of various hardnesses. Granular soil components will be subjected to a compressive force of about 3 N using a leaf spring. The spring will be applied with a paraffin actuator capable of a 0.76 mm throw to achieve a maximum displacement of about 7.5 mm at the tip of the tool. The pressure per grain will be dependent on the grain size, the number of grains that adhere to the substrate and the number of grains in compression. The pressure per particle is expected to be on the order of 100 MPa - 1 GPa. The MECA sample wheel containing the substrates will be rotated after the particles are placed in compression to produce scratches or pits. A primary goal of the Abrasion Tool is to identify quartz (Mohs' hardness = 7) using substrates of varying hardnesses. Quartz is considered hazardous to future human explorers of Mars because it can cause silicosis of the lungs if it is of respirable size. It is also hazardous to machinery, structures, and space suits because of its ability to abrade and scratch surfaces. Since large quantities of minerals harder than quartz are not expected, any scratches produced on polished quartz substrates might be reasonably attributed to quartz particles, although there may be minerals such as impact metamorphic diamond in the soils. Careful calibration of the tool will be necessary to ensure that grains are not overloaded; for example, a steel ball pressed into glass will produce a Hertzian fracture, even though it is softer than glass. Other minerals, such as magnetite (Mohs'hardness = 6.5) have been shown to scratch glass ceramics such as Zerodur (Mohs' hardness = 6.5). Thus, minerals can be differentiated: note that

  7. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) Abrasion Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, K. R.; Anderson, M. S.; Hinde, B. D.; Hecht, M. H.; Pike, W. T.; Marshall, J. R.; Meloy, T. P.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) experiment, an instrument suite to be flown on Mars Surveyor 2001, will include a tool for doing simple mineralogical scratch and streak tests on particles from the Martian regolith. The Abrasion Tool will be applied to particles that adhere themselves to highly polished substrates of various hardnesses. Granular soil components will be subjected to a compressive force of about 3 N using a leaf spring. The spring will be applied with a paraffin actuator capable of a 0.76 mm throw to achieve a maximum displacement of about 7.5 mm at the tip of the tool. The pressure per grain will be dependent on the grain size, the number of grains that adhere to the substrate and the number of grains in compression. The pressure per particle is expected to be on the order of 100 MPa - 1 GPa. The MECA sample wheel containing the substrates will be rotated after the particles are placed in compression to produce scratches or pits. A primary goal of the Abrasion Tool is to identify quartz (Mohs' hardness = 7) using substrates of varying hardnesses. Quartz is considered hazardous to future human explorers of Mars because it can cause silicosis of the lungs if it is of respirable size. It is also hazardous to machinery, structures, and space suits because of its ability to abrade and scratch surfaces. Since large quantities of minerals harder than quartz are not expected, any scratches produced on polished quartz substrates might be reasonably attributed to quartz particles, although there may be minerals such as impact metamorphic diamond in the soils. Careful calibration of the tool will be necessary to ensure that grains are not overloaded; for example, a steel ball pressed into glass will produce a Hertzian fracture, even though it is softer than glass. Other minerals, such as magnetite (Mohs' hardness = 6.5) have been shown to scratch glass ceramics such as Zerodur (Mohs' hardness = 6.5). Thus, minerals can be differentiated

  8. Cardiac Parasympathetic Reactivation in Elite Soccer Players During Different Types of Traditional High-Intensity Training Exercise Modes and Specific Tests: Interests and Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellal, Alexandre; Casamichana, David; Castellano, Julen; Haddad, Monoem; Moalla, Wassim; Chamari, Karim

    2015-12-01

    The cardiac parasympathetic reactivation is currently used in soccer with a daily or weekly monitoring. However, previous studies have not investigated how this cardiac parasympathetic reactivation is in elite soccer players along different types of traditional high-intensity training exercise and specific tests. In this context, the present study aim to analyse it and to determine the interests and limits of this type of physiological information. The present study aims to examine how different traditional training exercise modes affect the cardiac parasympathetic reactivation function in elite soccer players. Twenty-two international soccer players participating in UEFA Champion's League took part in this study (age: 24.3 ± 4.2 years; height: 178.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 80.3 ± 5.7 kg). Players performed different training methods including: short-duration intermittent exercises (INT) in-line and with changes of direction (COD) (10 - 10 seconds, 15 - 15 seconds, 30 - 30 seconds, e.g. an alternance of 10 - 10 seconds is 10 seconds of running according to the maximal aerobic speed (MAS) and 10-sec of recovery), INT including agility and technical skills (8 - 24-seconds), small-sided-games (SSGs) with and without goalkeepers (2 vs. 2, 3 vs. 3, 4 vs. 4), and repeated sprint ability (RSA) efforts (10 × 20 m, 10 × 30 m, 15 × 20 m). Heart rate (HR) decline was recorded 3 minutes after each exercise. HR declines were greater after the RSA compared to SSGs (P skills during INT, especially for the 30 - 30-seconds. This study revealed that cardiac parasympathetic reactivation function varied after INT, RSA and SSG, but also according to the rules manipulation. Therefore, this study provides interesting information for the training monitoring and players' recovery profile, with the aim of facilitating a more efficient planning and manipulation of training recovery strategies according to their fitness markers.

  9. Detection of l = 4 and l = 5 Modes in 12 Years of Solar VIRGO-SPM Data—Tests on Kepler Observations of 16 Cyg A and B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Mikkel Nørup; Kjeldsen, Hans; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Handberg, Rasmus; Silva Aguirre, Victor

    2014-02-01

    We present the detection of l = 4 and l = 5 modes in power spectra of the Sun, constructed from 12 yr full-disk VIRGO-SPM data sets. A method for enhancing the detectability of these modes in asteroseismic targets is presented and applied to Kepler data of the two solar analogues 16 Cyg A and B. For these targets, we see indications of a signal from l = 4 modes, while nothing is yet seen for l = 5 modes. We further simulate the power spectra of these stars and from this we estimate that it should indeed be possible to see such indications of l = 4 modes at the present length of the data sets. In the simulation process, we briefly look into the apparent misfit between observed and calculated mode visibilities. We predict that firm detections of at least l = 4 should be possible in any case at the end of the Kepler mission. For l = 5, we do not predict any firm detections from Kepler data.

  10. Paleogeographical reconstructions compatible with Earth dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Scalera

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available The present research concerns the study of the possibility of an increase in the size of the Earthbecause of a still unknown process. After a previous recognition of the existence in the Pacific of shape conformities in a number of pairs of continental and oceanic boundaries (Scalera, 1991, 1993a, a search for compatibility of these results with independent data sets, paleomagnetic and geological and paleontological was undertaken. The conclusion is that the Earth's dilatation is compatible with the used data, while nothing can be affirmed with certainty about the dilatation process or its continuity or discontinuity through geological time. A tentative model of the evolution of the trench-arc-backarc systems has been provided, tuning it in agreement with a dilatational planet.

  11. Compatibility of entomopathogenic nematodes (Nematoda: Rhabditida with insecticides used in the tomato crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique de Siqueira Sabino

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs are agents that can be used for the biological control of pests associated with insecticides in a tank mix. Compatibility studies need to be conducted to analyze which products are compatible with nematodes. The aim of this work was to evaluate the compatibility between EPNs and the insecticides that are most used on the tomato crop, and to correlate the toxicological classification of the chemical products with two species of EPNs that have the potential to control tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta. Among the products tested, Certero (triflumuron, Decis (deltamethrin, Previcur (dimethylamino-propyl, Ampligo (lambdacyhalothrin + chlorantranilprole, Premio (clorantranilprole, Engeo Pleno (thiamethoxam + lambda-cyhalothrin were compatible (IOBC class 1 with both nematode species.

  12. Migration and sustainability - compatible or contradictory?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2006-01-01

    When the migration issue is discussed in a sustainability perspective, two questions are vital: 1) What is the relationship between migration and the global population growth? 2) What is the relationship between migration and consumption growth, and how does migration influence the distribution o...... of consumption possibilities both between and within industrialized and developing countries? Based on responses to these questions, it is argued that reasonably managed migration will be compatible with sustainable development....

  13. Group Discounts Compatible with Buyer Privacy

    OpenAIRE

    Domingo-Ferrer, Josep; Blanco-Justicia, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    We show how group discounts can be offered without forcing buyers to surrender their anonymity, as long as buyers can use their own computing devices (e.g. smartphone, tablet or computer) to perform a purchase. Specifically, we present a protocol for privacy-preserving group discounts. The protocol allows a group of buyers to prove how many they are without disclosing their identities. Coupled with an anonymous payment system, this makes group discounts compatible with buyer privacy (that is,...

  14. An MR-compatible neonatal incubator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, M N J; Hart, A R; Lait, M; Griffiths, P D

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To develop a neonatal MR-compatible incubator for transporting babies between a neonatal intensive care unit and an MRI unit that is within the same hospital but geographically separate. Methods The system was strapped to a standard MR-compatible patient trolley, which provides space for resuscitation outside the incubator. A constant-temperature exothermic heat pad was used to maintain temperature together with a logging fluoro-optic temperature monitor and alarm system. The system has been designed to accommodate standard knee-sized coils from the major MR manufacturers. The original incubator was constructed from carbon fibre, but this required modification to prevent radiofrequency shading artefacts due to the conducting properties of the carbon fibre. A high-tensile polyester material was used, which combined light weight with high impact strength. The system could be moved onto the patient bed with the coils and infant in place by one technologist. Results Studies in eight neonatal patients produced high quality 1.5 T MR images with low motion artefacts. The incubator should also be compatible with imaging in 3 T MR systems, although further work is required to establish this. Images were acquired using both rapid and high-resolution sequences, including three-dimensional volumes, proton spectra and diffusion weighting. Conclusion The incubator provides a safe, quiet environment for neonates during transport and imaging, at low cost. PMID:22167517

  15. JTIDS 960 to 1215 MHz Radionavigation Band Compatibility Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    signal generator is used to simulate the percentage of aircraft that have just entered the beacon’s service volume and the EPSCO signal generator...measured for various PRF’s of the EPSCO signal generator. This was done with and without TDMA interference present. As the PRF of the EPSCO signal...presence of TDMA decodes. The change is due to the desensiti- zation that occurs when the decoded replies of the EPSCO , the internal generator and any TDMA

  16. Stability and Compatibility Tests with Hydrogen Peroxide. Report No. 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1950-09-01

    Compositions of Alloys used for Couples in H.T.P. 2. Composition of T.L. H.T.P. 3. Metallic Couples in H.T.P, k» Appearance of Elcctrodos No, 1 - 18...perhaps not surprising in view of the incrustation of tho surface with corrosion products. In addition temperature was not controlled, but tho effect...USED FDR COUPLES IN H.T.P. Alloy 2 Nominal Aotual Speoif ioation Composition Batoh Composition Condition Remarks STA.7/A.3 A1 99.¥ Fully Couples

  17. Mating compatibility between Bactrocera invadens and Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, W; Ahmad, S; Dammalage, T; Tomas, U Sto; Wornoayporn, V; Ul Haq, I; Cáceres, C; Vreysen, M J B; Schutze, M K

    2014-04-01

    The invasive fruit fly, Bactrocera invadens Drew, Tsuruta & White, is a highly polyphagous fruit pest that occurs predominantly in Africa yet has its origins in the Indian subcontinent. It is extremely morphologically and genetically similar to the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel); as such the specific relationship between these two species is unresolved. We assessed prezygotic compatibility between B. dorsalis and B. invadens using standardized field cage mating tests, which have proven effectiveness in tephritid cryptic species studies. These tests were followed by an assessment of postzygotic compatibility by examining egg viability, larval and pupal survival, and sex ratios of offspring produced from parental and subsequent F1 crosses to examine for hybrid breakdown as predicted under a two-species hypothesis. B. dorsalis was sourced from two countries (Pakistan and China), and each population was compared with B. invadens from its type locality of Kenya. B. invadens mated randomly with B. dorsalis from both localities, and there were generally high levels of hybrid viability and survival resulting from parental and F1 crosses. Furthermore, all but one hybrid cross resulted in equal sex ratios, with the single deviation in favor of males and contrary to expectations under Haldane's rule. These data support the hypothesis that B. dorsalis and B. invadens represent the same biological species, an outcome that poses significant implications for pest management and international trade for sub-Saharan Africa.

  18. Evaluation of an MR-compatible blood sampler for PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, J.; Grazioso, R.; Zhang, N.; Schmand, M.; Wienhard, K.

    2010-10-01

    The integration of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) is an upcoming hybrid imaging technique. Prototype scanners for pre-clinical and clinical research have been built and tested. However, the potential of the PET part can be better exploited if the arterial input function (AIF) of the administered tracer is known. This work presents a dedicated MR-compatible blood sampling system for precise measurement of the AIF in an MR-PET study. The device basically consists of an LSO/APD-detector assembly which performs a coincidence measurement of the annihilation photons resulting from positron decays. During the measurement, arterial blood is drawn continuously from an artery and lead through the detector unit. Besides successful tests of the MR compatibility and the detector performance, measurements of the AIF of rats have been carried out. The results show that the developed blood sampling system is a practical and reliable tool for measuring the AIF in MR-PET studies.

  19. [Miscellaneous Compatibility Determinations : Rocky Mountain Arsenal NWR : 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Linked through this record are compatibility determinations from the Rocky Mountain Arsenal between the years 2005 and 2014. Included is a 2005 Compatibility...

  20. A Study of Beam Position Diagnostics with Beam-excited Dipole Higher Order Modes using a Downconverter Test Electronics in Third Harmonic 3.9 GHz Superconducting Accelerating Cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Eddy, N; Fellenz, B; Jones, R M; Lorbeer, B; Wamsat, T; Wendt, M

    2012-01-01

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) in accelerating cavities contain transverse beam position information. Previous studies have narrowed down three modal options for beam position diagnostics in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz cavities at FLASH. Localized modes in the beam pipes at approximately 4.1 GHz and in the fifth cavity dipole band at approximately 9 GHz were found, that can provide a local measurement of the beam position. In contrast, propagating modes in the first and second dipole bands between 4.2 and 5.5 GHz can reach a better resolution. All the options were assessed with a specially designed test electronics built by Fermilab. The aim is to define a mode or spectral region suitable for the HOM electronics. Two data analysis techniques are used and compared in extracting beam position information from the dipole HOMs: direct linear regression and singular value decomposition. Current experiments suggest a resolution of 50 micron accuracy in predicting local beam position using modes in the fifth d...

  1. Calcium chloride in neonatal parenteral nutrition: compatibility studies using laser methodology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K Huston

    Full Text Available We have previously reported results of precipitation studies for neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions containing calcium chloride and sodium phosphate using visual methods to determine compatibility. The purpose of this study was to do further testing of compatibility for solutions containing calcium chloride using more sensitive methods.Solutions of Trophamine (Braun Medical Inc, Irvine, CA and Premasol (Baxter Pharmaceuticals, Deerfield, IL were compounded with calcium chloride and potassium phosphate. Controls contained no calcium or phosphate. After incubation at 37° for 24 hours solutions without visual precipitation were analyzed to determine mean particle size using dynamic light scattering from a laser light source.Particle sizes were similar for control solutions and those without visual precipitation and a mean particle size <1000 nm. Compatible solutions were defined as those with added calcium and phosphate with no visual evidence of precipitation and mean particle size <1000 nm. In solutions containing 2.5-3% amino acids and 10 mmol/L of calcium chloride the maximum amount of potassium phosphate that was compatible was 7.5 mmol/L.Maximum amounts of phosphate that could be added to parenteral nutrition solutions containing Trophamine and calcium chloride were about 7.5-10 mmol/L less for a given concentration of calcium based upon laser methodology compared to visual techniques to determine compatibility. There were minor differences in compatibility when adding calcium chloride and potassium phosphate to Premasol versus Trophamine.

  2. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079 ...

  3. 47 CFR 68.4 - Hearing aid-compatible telephones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... if it provides internal means for effective use with hearing aids that are designed to be compatible... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing aid-compatible telephones. 68.4 Section... (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK General § 68.4 Hearing aid-compatible...

  4. The Effect of Birth Order on Roommate Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, John H.; Williams, Ondre J.

    1977-01-01

    A group of students were matched on the basis of compatible birth order; another was matched on the basis of conflicting birth order. After a month's experience in a residence hall their compatibility was examined. Students with conflicting birth order were more compatible than those with the same birth order. (Author)

  5. Highly efficient and compatible shampoo for use after hair transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schweiger D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dorothea Schweiger,1 Andrea M Schoelermann,1 Alexander Filbry,1 Tina Hamann,1 Claudia Moser,2 Frank Rippke1 1Research and Development, Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, Germany; 2Moser Medical, Clinics for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Vienna, Austria Background: Sensitive or hyperreactive skin is a common condition defined by prickling, burning, pain, and pruritus. Although this skin problem was initially described on the face, the scalp is often affected. A sensitive scalp can react with irritation to harsh surfactants or other additives which are often present in shampoos. For this reason, we developed a new rinse-off hypertolerant shampoo specifically designed for the hypersensitive and problematic scalp.Methods: The shampoo formulation is based on an extremely mild surfactant system and contains bisabolol, an anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory ingredient of chamomile. The shampoo is free of additives such as perfumes, silicones, colorants, parabens, paraffins, and betaine. Since skin can remain in a hyperreactive state after wounding, the status after hair transplantation was chosen as a model system to test the shampoo. Scalp condition and compatibility of each volunteer were analyzed by a plastic surgeon directly after hair transplant and after stitch removal. The plastic surgeons also rated whether they would recommend the further use of the test shampoo. Additionally, volunteers completed a self-assessment questionnaire.Results: Following hair transplantation, regular use of the shampoo resulted in a significant reduction in the extent of scabbing and erythema. This was confirmed by dermatological scalp examinations performed by the plastic surgeon as well as in volunteers' self-assessments. The plastic surgeon highly recommended the further use of the test shampoo after hair transplant to all study participants.Conclusion: Application of the test shampoo demonstrated excellent skin compatibility and product efficacy after hair transplant. The test

  6. Influence of the linear mode coupling on the nonlinear impairments in few-mode fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutluyarov, R.V.; Lyubopytov, V.S.; Bagmanov, V.Kh

    2017-01-01

    This paper is focused on the influence of the linear mode coupling caused by the fiber bending on the nonlinear distortions in a mode-division multiplexed system. The system under test utilizes the fundamental Gaussian mode and the conjugated first-order vortex modes propagating in the step-index...

  7. Evaluation of Advanced Bionics high resolution mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechner, Andreas; Frohne-Buechner, Carolin; Gaertner, Lutz; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke; Battmer, Rolf-Dieter; Lenarz, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the advantages of the Advanced Bionic high resolution mode for speech perception, through a retrospective analysis. Forty-five adult subjects were selected who had a minimum experience of three months' standard mode (mean of 10 months) before switching to high resolution mode. Speech perception was tested in standard mode immediately before fitting with high resolution mode, and again after a maximum of six months high resolution mode usage (mean of two months). A significant improvement was found, between 11 and 17%, depending on the test material. The standard mode preference does not give any indication about the improvement when switching to high resolution. Users who are converted within any study achieve a higher performance improvement than those converted in the clinical routine. This analysis proves the significant benefits of high resolution mode for users, and also indicates the need for guidelines for individual optimization of parameter settings in a high resolution mode program.

  8. Analysis of Slip Activity and Deformation Modes in Tension and Tension-Creep Tests of Cast Mg-10Gd-3Y-0.5Zr (Wt Pct) at Elevated Temperatures Using In Situ SEM Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Boehlert, Carl J.; Wang, Qudong; Yin, Dongdi; Ding, Wenjiang

    2016-05-01

    The tension and tension-creep deformation behavior at elevated temperatures of a cast Mg-10Gd-3Y-0.5Zr (wt pct, GW103) alloy was investigated using in situ scanning electron microscopy. The tests were performed at temperatures ranging from 473 K to 598 K (200 °C to 325 °C). The active slip systems were identified using an EBSD-based slip trace analysis methodology. The results showed that for all of the tests, basal slip was the most likely system to be activated, and non-basal slip was activated to some extent depending on the temperature. No twinning was observed. For the tension tests, non-basal slip consisted of ~35 pct of the deformation modes at low temperatures (473 K and 523 K (200 °C and 250 °C)), while non-basal slip accounted for 12 and 7 pct of the deformation modes at high temperatures (573 K and 598 K (300 °C and 325 °C)), respectively. For the tension-creep tests, non-basal slip accounted for 31 pct of the total slip systems at low temperatures, while this value decreased to 10 to 16 pct at high temperatures. For a given temperature, the relative activity for prismatic slip in the tension-creep tests was slightly greater than that for the tension tests, while the activity for pyramidal slip was lower. Slip-transfer in neighboring grains was observed for the low-temperature tests. Intergranular cracking was the main cracking mode, while some intragranular cracks were observed for the tension-creep tests at high temperature and low stress. Grain boundary ledges were prevalently observed for both the tension and tension-creep tests at high temperatures, which suggests that besides dislocation slip, grain boundary sliding also contributed to the deformation.

  9. Rate-Compatible Protograph LDPC Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods resulting in rate-compatible low density parity-check (LDPC) codes built from protographs. Described digital coding methods start with a desired code rate and a selection of the numbers of variable nodes and check nodes to be used in the protograph. Constraints are set to satisfy a linear minimum distance growth property for the protograph. All possible edges in the graph are searched for the minimum iterative decoding threshold and the protograph with the lowest iterative decoding threshold is selected. Protographs designed in this manner are used in decode and forward relay channels.

  10. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING COMPATIBLE ROBOTIC SYSTEM FOR FULLY AUTOMATED BRACHYTHERAPY SEED PLACEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntener, Michael; Patriciu, Alexandru; Petrisor, Doru; Mazilu, Dumitru; Bagga, Herman; Kavoussi, Louis; Cleary, Kevin; Stoianovici, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To introduce the development of the first magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-compatible robotic system capable of automated brachytherapy seed placement. Methods An MRI-compatible robotic system was conceptualized and manufactured. The entire robot was built of nonmagnetic and dielectric materials. The key technology of the system is a unique pneumatic motor that was specifically developed for this application. Various preclinical experiments were performed to test the robot for precision and imager compatibility. Results The robot was fully operational within all closed-bore MRI scanners. Compatibility tests in scanners of up to 7 Tesla field intensity showed no interference of the robot with the imager. Precision tests in tissue mockups yielded a mean seed placement error of 0.72 ± 0.36 mm. Conclusions The robotic system is fully MRI compatible. The new technology allows for automated and highly accurate operation within MRI scanners and does not deteriorate the MRI quality. We believe that this robot may become a useful instrument for image-guided prostate interventions. PMID:17169653

  11. Compatibility of Cloxacillin Sodium with Selected Intravenous Drugs During Simulated Y-Site Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Thomas; Forest, Jean-Marc; Leclair, Grégoire

    2015-03-01

    Data regarding Y-site compatibility of intravenous (IV) cloxacillin sodium with other drugs are scarce and incomplete. To establish the compatibility of IV cloxacillin with 89 injectable drugs during simulated Y-site administration. Cloxacillin sodium (10 mL, 100 mg/mL) was combined with 89 undiluted IV drugs (10 mL, each). Tests were duplicated and performed at room temperature. Visual evaluation and a light obscuration particle count test were performed on 1 of the 2 solutions immediately after mixing. The second mixture underwent visual evaluation after 15 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours, followed by a particle count test at 4 hours. Drugs were considered incompatible if the mixture precipitated or became turbid within the 4-hour period or exceeded the particle count limit allowed by Test 1.B of USP initially or at 4 hours. Of the 89 tested drugs, 64 were compatible for up to 4 hours. The remaining 25 drugs were incompatible. Of these incompatible drugs, 16 were identified visually, and 9 were identified by the light obscuration particle count test. Sixty-four IV drugs were found to be compatible with cloxacillin via simulated Y-site, whereas 25 drugs were found to be incompatible with the antibiotic. The light obscuration particle count test should be used to complement visual evaluation when samples do not precipitate immediately.

  12. RHETT2/EPDM Hall Thruster Propulsion System Electromagnetic Compatibility Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Charles J.; Sankovic, John M.; Freitas, Joseph; Lynn, Peter R.

    1997-01-01

    Electromagnetic compatibility measurements were obtained as part of the Electric Propulsion Demonstration Module (EPDM) flight qualification program. Tests were conducted on a Hall thruster system operating at a nominal 66O W discharge power. Measurements of conducted and radiated susceptibility and emissions were obtained and referenced to MEL-STD-461 C. The power processor showed some conducted susceptibility below 4 kHz for the magnet current and discharge voltage. Radiated susceptibility testing yielded a null result. Conducted emissions showed slight violations of the specified limit for MIL-461C CE03. Radiated emissions exceeded the RE02 standard at low frequencies, below 300 MHz, by up to 40 dB RV/m/MHz.

  13. Is wave-particle objectivity compatible with determinism and locality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionicioiu, Radu; Jennewein, Thomas; Mann, Robert B; Terno, Daniel R

    2014-09-26

    Wave-particle duality, superposition and entanglement are among the most counterintuitive features of quantum theory. Their clash with our classical expectations motivated hidden-variable (HV) theories. With the emergence of quantum technologies, we can test experimentally the predictions of quantum theory versus HV theories and put strong restrictions on their key assumptions. Here, we study an entanglement-assisted version of the quantum delayed-choice experiment and show that the extension of HV to the controlling devices only exacerbates the contradiction. We compare HV theories that satisfy the conditions of objectivity (a property of photons being either particles or waves, but not both), determinism and local independence of hidden variables with quantum mechanics. Any two of the above conditions are compatible with it. The conflict becomes manifest when all three conditions are imposed and persists for any non-zero value of entanglement. We propose an experiment to test our conclusions.

  14. Is religious education compatible with science education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahner, Martin; Bunge, Mario

    1996-04-01

    This paper tackles a highly controversial issue: the problem of the compatibility of science and religion, and its bearing on science and religious education respectively. We challenge the popular view that science and religion are compatible or even complementary. In order to do so, we give a brief characterization of our conceptions of science and religion. Conspicuous differences at the doctrinal, metaphysical, methodological and attitudinal level are noted. Regarding these aspects, closer examination reveals that science and religion are not only different but in fact incompatible. Some consequences of our analysis for education as well as for education policy are explored. We submit that a religious education, particularly at an early age, is an obstacle to the development of a scientific mentality. For this and other reasons, religious education should be kept away from public schools and universities. Instead of promoting a religious world view, we should teach our children what science knows about religion, i.e., how science explains the existence of religion in historical, biological, psychological and sociological terms.

  15. Integrated environmentally compatible soldering technologies. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosking, F.M.; Frear, D.R.; Iman, R.L.; Keicher, D.M.; Lopez, E.P.; Peebles, H.C.; Sorensen, N.R.; Vianco, P.T.

    1994-05-01

    Chemical fluxes are typically used during conventional electronic soldering to enhance solder wettability. Most fluxes contain very reactive, hazardous constituents that require special storage and handling. Corrosive flux residues that remain on soldered parts can severely degrade product reliability. The residues are removed with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC), or other hazardous solvents that contribute to ozone depletion, release volatile organic compounds into the atmosphere, or add to the solvent waste stream. Alternative materials and processes that offer the potential for the reduction or elimination of cleaning are being developed to address these environmental issues. Timing of the effort is critical, since the targeted chemicals will soon be heavily taxed or banned. DOE`s Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (DOE/EM) has supported Sandia National Laboratories` Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration (ECMID). Part of the ECM program involves the integration of several environmentally compatible soldering technologies for assembling electronics devices. Fluxless or {open_quotes}low-residue/no clean{close_quotes} soldering technologies (conventional and ablative laser processing, controlled atmospheres, ultrasonic tinning, protective coatings, and environmentally compatible fluxes) have been demonstrated at Sandia (SNL/NM), the University of California at Berkeley, and Allied Signal Aerospace-Kansas City Division (AS-KCD). The university demonstrations were directed under the guidance of Sandia staff. Results of the FY93 Soldering ID are presented in this report.

  16. Blood compatibility assessment of graft copolymer (NR-g-DMAA) tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Mirzan T.; Otsuhata, Kazushige; Tabata, Yoneho; Ohashi, Fumio; Takeuchi, Atsuki

    Graft copolymer (NR-g-DMAA) tubes have been prepared by using simultaneous radiation-induced grafting of N,N-dimethyl-acrylamide, CH 2CHCON(CH 3) 2, (DMAA) onto natural rubber (NR) tubes. The blood compatibility of the NR-g-DMAA tubes was assessed with three methods, namely in vitro test, ex vivo once through test and ex vivo loops test. In the case of the in vitro test, a simple whole blood contacting procedure has been employed. The ex vivo once through test involves the exposing of NR-g-DMAA tubes with once through flow of fresh canine blood and then it was inspected for any evidence of clot. In the case of ex vivo loops test, the NR-g-DMAA tube was implanted at external jugular vein of a mongrel canine and the blood flow in the NR-g-DMAA tube was detected with an ultrasonic flow meter. It was found that the blood compatibility of NR-g-DMAA tubes is improved significantly with the increasing degree of grafting. All the NR-g-DMAA tubes having a degree of grafting of about 30 wt % or more exhibit good blood compatibility. It was also found that the blood compatibility of the NR-g-DMAA tube is better than that of a medical grade silicon rubber (SiR) tube.

  17. Compatibility of the Radio Frequency Mass Gauge with Graphite-Epoxy Composite Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerli, G. A.; Mueller, C. H.

    2015-01-01

    The radio frequency mass gauge (RFMG) is a low-gravity propellant quantity gauge being developed at NASA for possible use in long-duration space missions utilizing cryogenic propellants. As part of the RFMG technology development process, we evaluated the compatibility of the RFMG with a graphite-epoxy composite material used to construct propellant tanks. The key material property that can affect compatibility with the RFMG is the electrical conductivity. Using samples of 8552/IM7 graphite-epoxy composite, we characterized the resistivity and reflectivity over a range of frequencies. An RF impedance analyzer was used to characterize the out-of-plane electrical properties (along the sample thickness) in the frequency range 10 to 1800 MHZ. The resistivity value at 500 MHz was 4.8 ohm-cm. Microwave waveguide measurements of samples in the range 1.7 - 2.6 GHz, performed by inserting the samples into a WR-430 waveguide, showed reflectivity values above 98%. Together, these results suggested that a tank constructed from graphite/epoxy composite would produce good quality electromagnetic tank modes, which is needed for the RFMG. This was verified by room-temperature measurements of the electromagnetic modes of a 2.4 m diameter tank constructed by Boeing from similar graphite-epoxy composite material. The quality factor Q of the tank electromagnetic modes, measured via RF reflection measurements from an antenna mounted in the tank, was typically in the range 400 less than Q less than 3000. The good quality modes observed in the tank indicate that the RFMG is compatible with graphite-epoxy tanks, and thus the RFMG could be used as a low-gravity propellant quantity gauge in such tanks filled with cryogenic propellants.

  18. Failure mechanism analysis of a discrete 650V enhancement mode GaN-on-Si power device with reverse conduction accelerated power cycling test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Sungyoung; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Uhrenfeldt, Christian

    2017-01-01

    A commercial discrete enhancement mode gallium nitride power component employing advanced package technology without conventional bond wire possesses the ability for bidirectional conduction. The gallium nitride power components can provide not only higher forward conductivity but also superior r...... of cycles to failure. In physical failure analysis, delamination of a solder joint between a chip and a copper layer of an aluminum print circuit board is observed with a scanning acoustic microscope....

  19. Electromagnetic Compatibility of Devices on Hybrid Electromagnetic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konesev, S. G.; Khazieva, R. T.; Kirillov, R. V.; Gainutdinov, I. Z.; Kondratyev, E. Y.

    2018-01-01

    There is a general tendency to reduce the weight and dimensions, the consumption of conductive and electrical insulating materials, increase the reliability and energy efficiency of electrical devices. In recent years, designers have been actively developing devices based on hybrid electromagnetic components (HEMC) such as inductive-capacitive converters (ICC), voltages pulse generators (VPG), secondary power supplies (SPS), capacitive storage devices (CSD), induction heating systems (IHS). Sources of power supplies of similar electrical devices contain, as a rule, links of increased frequency and function in key (pulse) modes, which leads to an increase in electromagnetic interference (EMI). Nonlinear and periodic (impulse) loads, non-sinusoidal (pulsation) of the electromotive force and nonlinearity of the internal parameters of the source and input circuits of consumers distort the shape of the input voltage lead to an increase in thermal losses from the higher harmonic currents, aging of the insulation, increase in the weight of the power supply filter units, resonance at higher harmonics. The most important task is to analyze the operation of electrotechnical devices based on HEMC from the point of view of creating EMIs and assessing their electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) with power supply systems (PSS). The article presents the results of research on the operation of an IHS, the operation principle of a secondary power supply source of which is based on the operation of a half-bridge autonomous inverter, the switching circuit of which is made in the form of a HEMC, called the «multifunctional integrated electromagnetic component»" (MIEC).

  20. Protected Edge Modes without Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Levin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the question of when a gapped two-dimensional electron system without any symmetry has a protected gapless edge mode. While it is well known that systems with a nonzero thermal Hall conductance, K_{H}≠0, support such modes, here we show that robust modes can also occur when K_{H}=0—if the system has quasiparticles with fractional statistics. We show that some types of fractional statistics are compatible with a gapped edge, while others are fundamentally incompatible. More generally, we give a criterion for when an electron system with Abelian statistics and K_{H}=0 can support a gapped edge: We show that a gapped edge is possible if and only if there exists a subset of quasiparticle types M such that (1 all the quasiparticles in M have trivial mutual statistics, and (2 every quasiparticle that is not in M has nontrivial mutual statistics with at least one quasiparticle in M. We derive this criterion using three different approaches: a microscopic analysis of the edge, a general argument based on braiding statistics, and finally a conformal field theory approach that uses constraints from modular invariance. We also discuss the analogous result for two-dimensional boson systems.

  1. Mixed-Mode-Bending Delamination Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, John H., Jr.; Reeder, James R.

    1991-01-01

    Mixed-mode-bending delamination apparatus generates two types of delamination stress simultaneously in specimen from single externally applied point load. In technique, indivial mode I and mode II contributions to delamination in specimen analyzed by use of simple beam-theory equations, eliminating need for time-consuming, difficult numerical analysis. Allows wider range of mode I/mode II ratios than possible with many other methods. Mixed-mode delamination testing of interest in all fields utilizing composite materials, used mostly in aerospace field, but also used in automobiles, lightweight armored military vehicles, boats, and sporting equipment. Useful in general lumber, plywood, and adhesive industries, as well.

  2. Mixed-Mode Crack Growth in Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavian POP

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In timber elements the mixed mode dependsessentially of wood anatomy and load configuration.In these conditions, in order to evaluate the materialbehavior and the fracture process, it’s necessary toseparate the part of each mode. The mixed modeseparation allows evaluating the amplitude offracture mode. In the present paper, using a mixedmodecrack growth specimen made in Douglas fir,the mixed mode crack growth process is studythanks to marks tracking method. Using the markstracking method the characteristic displacementsassociated to opening and shear mode aremeasured. From the experimental measurements,the energy release rate associated to opening andshear modes is calculated into to account the crackadvancement during the test.

  3. Engine Materials Compatibility with Alternate Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, Jeffery K [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Wilson, Dane F [ORNL

    2013-05-01

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  4. Engine Materials Compatability with Alternative Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, Steve [Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Moore, D. [USCAR

    2013-04-05

    The compatibility of aluminum and aluminum alloys with synthetic fuel blends comprised of ethanol and reference fuel C (a 50/50 mix of toluene and iso-octane) was examined as a function of water content and temperature. Commercially pure wrought aluminum and several cast aluminum alloys were observed to be similarly susceptible to substantial corrosion in dry (< 50 ppm water) ethanol. Corrosion rates of all the aluminum materials examined were accelerated by increased temperature and ethanol content in the fuel mixture, but inhibited by increased water content. Pretreatments designed to stabilize passive films on aluminum increased the incubation time for onset of corrosion, suggesting film stability is a significant factor in the mechanism of corrosion.

  5. Toward Clinically Compatible Phase-Contrast Mammography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Scherer

    Full Text Available Phase-contrast mammography using laboratory X-ray sources is a promising approach to overcome the relatively low sensitivity and specificity of clinical, absorption-based screening. Current research is mostly centered on identifying potential diagnostic benefits arising from phase-contrast and dark-field mammography and benchmarking the latter with conventional state-of-the-art imaging methods. So far, little effort has been made to adjust this novel imaging technique to clinical needs. In this article, we address the key points for a successful implementation to a clinical routine in the near future and present the very first dose-compatible and rapid scan-time phase-contrast mammograms of both a freshly dissected, cancer-bearing mastectomy specimen and a mammographic accreditation phantom.

  6. Developing 2 C-compatible investment criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeser, Frauke [NewClimate - Institute for Climate Policy and Global Sustainability gGmbH, Bonn (Germany); Weischer, Lutz [Germanwatch e.V., Koeln (Germany); Thomae, Jakob [2degrees Investing Initiative, New York, NY (United States); Hoehne, Niklas; Hagemann, Markus; El Alaoui, Alexander; Bals, Christoph; Eckstein, David; Kreft, Soenke; Rosse, Morten

    2015-11-30

    This report studies the development of criteria for assessing the compatibility of financial investments with the international goal to limit global temperature increase to below 2 C above pre-industrial levels. The findings are intended as a starting point and a key input for a longer term process to develop consensus-based 2 C investing criteria. The focus here is placed on investments in projects and physical assets, in particular of development and climate finance organisations. In order to limit global temperature increase to 2 C, global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will have to be reduced significantly, eventually to zero, during the course of this century. This requires shifting capital from high to low carbon investments as well as significant capital mobilisation for investments in 2 C-compatible infrastructure. Given the long lifetime of physical assets, and the urgency of decarbonisation over the coming decades, this needs to begin today. Public financial institutions can play a prominent role in contributing to aligning investment flows with the 2 C limit, as well as in closing the current infrastructure investment gap, responding to their explicit or implicit climate mandates and leadership role in the finance sector. The majority of international financial institutions integrate climate considerations into their finance decisions to some degree, and are familiar with different types of criteria, including positive and negative lists, qualitative and quantitative benchmarks, and the use of shadow carbon pricing. However, current approaches do not link to the 2 C limit. 2 C investment criteria are therefore needed to guide investors in this regard. Such criteria may also support other purposes, including an understanding of climate risks and improved reporting and accountability.

  7. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Alexander; Windbacher, Thomas; Sverdlov, Viktor; Selberherr, Siegfried

    2016-11-01

    For many decades CMOS devices have been successfully scaled down to achieve higher speed and increased performance of integrated circuits at lower cost. Today’s charge-based CMOS electronics encounters two major challenges: power dissipation and variability. Spintronics is a rapidly evolving research and development field, which offers a potential solution to these issues by introducing novel ‘more than Moore’ devices. Spin-based magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM) is already recognized as one of the most promising candidates for future universal memory. Magnetic tunnel junctions, the main elements of MRAM cells, can also be used to build logic-in-memory circuits with non-volatile storage elements on top of CMOS logic circuits, as well as versatile compact on-chip oscillators with low power consumption. We give an overview of CMOS-compatible spintronics applications. First, we present a brief introduction to the physical background considering such effects as magnetoresistance, spin-transfer torque (STT), spin Hall effect, and magnetoelectric effects. We continue with a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art spintronic devices for memory applications (STT-MRAM, domain wall-motion MRAM, and spin-orbit torque MRAM), oscillators (spin torque oscillators and spin Hall nano-oscillators), logic (logic-in-memory, all-spin logic, and buffered magnetic logic gate grid), sensors, and random number generators. Devices with different types of resistivity switching are analyzed and compared, with their advantages highlighted and challenges revealed. CMOS-compatible spintronic devices are demonstrated beginning with predictive simulations, proceeding to their experimental confirmation and realization, and finalized by the current status of application in modern integrated systems and circuits. We conclude the review with an outlook, where we share our vision on the future applications of the prospective devices in the area.

  8. Performance and Compatibility of Phosphonate-Based Superplasticizers for Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Coppola

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the effectiveness of an innovative phosphonate-based superplasticizer (PNH for ready mixed concrete. Concrete specimens were manufactured by considering a constant initial workability, equal to 220 mm slump at the end of the mixing procedure. Workability was measured at 0, 30, and 60 min to evaluate the workability retention performances of the innovative superplasticizer. Compressive tests at 1, 7, and 28 days were carried out to evaluate the influence of the phosphonate-based superplasticizer on concrete setting and hardening. The concrete mixes were designed by considering 13 different cements to assess the superplasticizer-cement compatibility. The PNH-based admixture showed a better performance in terms of water reduction and workability retention with respect to napthalenesulphonate based admixtures (NSF; however, a higher dosage of PNH with respect to polycarboxylate ethers (PCEs was needed to get the same initial fluidity.

  9. Dissociating between object affordances and spatial compatibility effects using early response components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf, Meytal; Holmes, Nicholas P.; Schwartz, Isabella; Makin, Tamar R.

    2013-01-01

    Perception and action are tightly linked: objects may be perceived not only in terms of visual features, but also in terms of possibilities for action. Previous studies showed that when a centrally located object has a salient graspable feature (e.g., a handle), it facilitates motor responses corresponding with the feature's position. However, such so-called affordance effects have been criticized as resulting from spatial compatibility effects, due to the visual asymmetry created by the graspable feature, irrespective of any affordances. In order to dissociate between affordance and spatial compatibility effects, we asked participants to perform a simple reaction-time task to typically graspable and non-graspable objects with similar visual features (e.g., lollipop and stop sign). Responses were measured using either electromyography (EMG) on proximal arm muscles during reaching-like movements, or with finger key-presses. In both EMG and button press measurements, participants responded faster when the object was either presented in the same location as the responding hand, or was affordable, resulting in significant and independent spatial compatibility and affordance effects, but no interaction. Furthermore, while the spatial compatibility effect was present from the earliest stages of movement preparation and throughout the different stages of movement execution, the affordance effect was restricted to the early stages of movement execution. Finally, we tested a small group of unilateral arm amputees using EMG, and found residual spatial compatibility but no affordance, suggesting that spatial compatibility effects do not necessarily rely on individuals' available affordances. Our results show dissociation between affordance and spatial compatibility effects, and suggest that rather than evoking the specific motor action most suitable for interaction with the viewed object, graspable objects prompt the motor system in a general, body-part independent fashion

  10. Bacterial Compatibility in Combined Inoculations Enhances the Growth of Potato Seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Christine D; Yagi, Shogo; Ijima, Motoaki; Nashimoto, Tomoya; Sawada, Maki; Ikeda, Seishi; Asano, Kenji; Orikasa, Yoshitake; Ohwada, Takuji

    2017-03-31

    The compatibility of strains is crucial for formulating bioinoculants that promote plant growth. We herein assessed the compatibility of four potential bioinoculants isolated from potato roots and tubers (Sphingomonas sp. T168, Streptomyces sp. R170, Streptomyces sp. R181, and Methylibium sp. R182) that were co-inoculated in order to improve plant growth. We screened these strains using biochemical tests, and the results obtained showed that R170 had the highest potential as a bioinoculant, as indicated by its significant ability to produce plant growth-promoting substances, its higher tolerance against NaCl (2%) and AlCl3 (0.01%), and growth in a wider range of pH values (5.0-10.0) than the other three strains. Therefore, the compatibility of R170 with other strains was tested in combined inoculations, and the results showed that the co-inoculation of R170 with T168 or R182 synergistically increased plant weight over un-inoculated controls, indicating the compatibility of strains based on the increased production of plant growth promoters such as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and siderophores as well as co-localization on roots. However, a parallel test using strain R181, which is the same Streptomyces genus as R170, showed incompatibility with T168 and R182, as revealed by weaker plant growth promotion and a lack of co-localization. Collectively, our results suggest that compatibility among bacterial inoculants is important for efficient plant growth promotion, and that R170 has potential as a useful bioinoculant, particularly in combined inoculations that contain compatible bacteria.

  11. Preparation and Compatibility Evaluation of Polypropylene/High Density Polyethylene Polyblends

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Jia-Horng; Pan, Yi-Jun; Liu, Chi-Fan; Huang, Chien-Lin; Hsieh, Chien-Teng; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Lin, Zheng-Ian; Lou, Ching-Wen

    2015-01-01

    This study proposes melt-blending polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) that have a similar melt flow index (MFI) to form PP/HDPE polyblends. The influence of the content of HDPE on the properties and compatibility of polyblends is examined by using a tensile test, flexural test, Izod impact test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized light microscopy (PLM), and X-ray diffraction...

  12. Hardy's paradox tested in the spin-orbit Hilbert space of single photons

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Ebrahim; Cardano, Filippo; Maffei, Maria; de Lisio, Corrado; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Boyd, Robert W.; Santamato, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    We test experimentally the quantum ``paradox'' proposed by Lucien Hardy in 1993 [Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1665 (1993)] by using single photons instead of photon pairs. This is achieved by addressing two compatible degrees of freedom of the same particle, namely its spin angular momentum, determined by the photon polarization, and its orbital angular momentum, a property related to the optical transverse mode. Because our experiment involves a single particle, we cannot use locality to logically e...

  13. Current barriers to confine high frequency common mode currents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, Dominicus Johannes Guilielmus; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2016-01-01

    A commercially produced three phase power line filter is submitted to a Current Barrier (CB) Electro-Magnetic Compatibility (EMC) zoning strategy as an attempt to confine high frequency common mode currents. The intent of the paper is not to show how to build a ’perfect’ filter, since this is known.

  14. Reconsidering the habitats assessment : the compatibility of the habitats assessment with green infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistenkas, F.H.

    2014-01-01

    Traditional understandings of the Natura 2000 habitats assessment may not be fully compatible with modern sustainability and EU Green Infrastructure demands. One criterion testing might obstruct such a green infrastructure and its sustainable multi-functionality. Also given the latest judgement of

  15. Compatible biological and chemical control systems for Rhizoctonia solani in potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogert, van den P.H.J.F.; Luttikholt, A.J.G.

    2004-01-01

    A series of chemical and biological control agents were tested for compatibility with the Rhizoctonia-specific biocontrol fungus Verticillium biguttatum aimed at designing novel control strategies for black scurf (Rhizoctonia solani) and other tuber diseases in potato. The efficacy of chemicals,

  16. Cellular compatibility of RGD-modified chitosan nanofibers with aligned or random orientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yanyan; Lue Lanxin; Feng Zhangqi; Xiao Zhongdang; Huang Ningping, E-mail: nphuang@seu.edu.c, E-mail: zdxiao@seu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2010-10-01

    Aligned and randomly oriented chitosan nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning. The fibers were modified with the RGD cell-adhesive peptide through a heterobifunctional crosslinker containing a segment of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG). PEG rendered the surface hydrophilic and provided flexible spacers, allowing the preservation of the bioactivity of further captured RGD peptides. NIH 3T3 cells were used to test the cellular compatibility of these chitosan nanofibrous scaffolds. Cell morphology and viability were investigated by SEM, fluorescent staining and cell counting. The results indicate that RGD-modified surfaces significantly improve the cellular compatibility of chitosan nanofibers and suggest a good candidate as a scaffold employed in tissue engineering.

  17. Materials compatibility and lubricants research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes. Technical progress report, 1 April 1995--30 June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szymurski, S.R.; Hourahan, G.C.; Godwin, D.S.; Amrane, K.

    1995-08-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC and HCFC refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory Committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. The AirConditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) manages and contracts multiple research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Detailed results from these projects are reported in technical reports prepared by each subcontractor.

  18. Multimission Modular Spacecraft Ground Support Software System (MMS/GSSS) state-of-the-art computer systems/ compatibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The compatibility of the Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) Ground Support Software System (GSSS), currently operational on a ModComp IV/35, with the VAX 11/780 system is discussed. The compatibility is examined in various key areas of the GSSS through the results of in depth testing performed on the VAX 11/780 and ModComp IV/35 systems. The compatibility of the GSSS with the ModComp CLASSIC is presented based upon projections from ModComp supplied literature.

  19. Compatibility and Marital Satisfaction in Disabled Couples Compared to Healthy Ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Abed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of current study was the evaluation and comparison of compatibility and marital satisfaction between handicapped couples and healthy ones. Methods: In this study, 50 handicapped couples and 50 healthy couples were examined with Enrich’s marital satisfaction questionnaire and Bell’s adjustment questionnaire. The data were analyzed, using SPSS 15, correlation tests and ANOVA. Results: The results showed that there was no significant difference between handicapped and healthy couples in compatibility and marital satisfaction. Discussion: It is concluded that people who were handicapped before their marriage and those who decided to marry them were suitably aware of the issue, therefore accepting a handicapped person was not so hard. What is important in marital compatibility is accepting a partner.

  20. A social work study for the effects of different factors on compatible and discordant couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Esalat

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we perform an empirical investigation to examine the impact different factors on compatible and discordant couples. The survey is performed in one of western regions of Iran near the city of Esfahan. In our study, we choose two groups of people from the population with no family dispute and from the people who have requested divorce. They are asked to fill in a questionnaire and the results are analyzed. We used Chi-square tests to verify any meaningful difference between compatible and discordant couples on different issues. The survey concludes that compatible and discordant couples were different in their motivation, marital satisfaction, continued incentive generation, finding better position among relatives and accomplishing their religious duties to get married.

  1. Condoms and condiments: compatibility and safety of personal lubricants and their use in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geibel, Scott

    2013-07-09

    Previous research on the use of personal lubricants for sexual intercourse is limited and has primarily focused on condom compatibility and breakage, with only recent limited assessment of lubricant safety and possible epidemiologic implications. This article discusses the global evidence of lubricant compatibility with latex condoms and biological safety of lubricants, as well as documentation of lubricant use and current guidelines for HIV prevention programming in Africa. Data on lubricant compatibility with condoms are less available than commonly realized, and many lubricant products may not have been thoroughly tested for safety due to flexible regulatory environments. Recent laboratory and study findings from microbicides research also suggest that some water-based lubricants may have safety issues. Some African populations are using several types of lubricants, especially oil-based petroleum jellies, and receive little evidence-based guidance. More research is needed from the medical community to guide prevention programming.

  2. Condoms and condiments: compatibility and safety of personal lubricants and their use in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Geibel

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on the use of personal lubricants for sexual intercourse is limited and has primarily focused on condom compatibility and breakage, with only recent limited assessment of lubricant safety and possible epidemiologic implications. This article discusses the global evidence of lubricant compatibility with latex condoms and biological safety of lubricants, as well as documentation of lubricant use and current guidelines for HIV prevention programming in Africa. Data on lubricant compatibility with condoms are less available than commonly realized, and many lubricant products may not have been thoroughly tested for safety due to flexible regulatory environments. Recent laboratory and study findings from microbicides research also suggest that some water-based lubricants may have safety issues. Some African populations are using several types of lubricants, especially oil-based petroleum jellies, and receive little evidence-based guidance. More research is needed from the medical community to guide prevention programming.

  3. Polyurethane Organosilicate Nanocomposites as Blood Compatible Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson H. Y. Chung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymer clay nanocomposites (NCs show remarkable potential in the field of drug delivery due to their enhanced barrier properties. It is hypothesised that well dispersed clay particles within the polymer matrix create a tortuous pathway for diffusing therapeutic molecules, thereby resulting in more sustained release of the drug. As coatings for medical devices, these materials can simultaneously modulate drug release and improve the mechanical performance of an existing polymer system without introducing additional materials with new chemistries that can lead to regulatory concerns. In this study, polyurethane organosilicate nanocomposites (PUNCs coated onto stainless steel wires were evaluated for their feasibility as blood compatible coatings and as drug delivery systems. Heparin was selected as the model drug to examine the impact of silicate loading and modifier chain length in modulating release. Findings revealed that better dispersion was achieved from samples with lower clay loadings and longer alkyl chains. The blood compatibility of PUNCs as assessed by thrombin generation assays showed that the addition of silicate particles did not significantly decrease the thrombin generation lag time (TGT, p = 0.659 or the peak thrombin (p = 0.999 of polyurethane (PU. PUNC coatings fabricated in this research were not cytotoxic as examined by the cell growth inhibition assay and were uniformly intact, but had slightly higher growth inhibition compared to PU possibly due to the presence of organic modifiers (OM. The addition of heparin into PUNCs prolonged the TGT, indicating that heparin was still active after the coating process. Cumulative heparin release profiles showed that the majority of heparin released was from loosely attached residues on the surface of coils. The addition of heparin further prolonged the TGT as compared to coatings without added heparin, but a slight decrease in heparin activity was observed in the NCs

  4. Characterization of a prototype MR-compatible Delta4 QA system in a 1.5 tesla MR-linac

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, J. H. W.; Seravalli, E.; Houweling, A. C.; Woodings, S. J.; van Rooij, R.; Wolthaus, J. W. H.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2018-01-01

    To perform patient plan quality assurance (QA) on a newly installed MR-linac (MRL) it is necessary to have an MR-compatible QA device. An MR compatible device (MR-Delta4) has been developed together with Scandidos AB (Uppsala, Sweden). The basic characteristics of the detector response, such as short-term reproducibility, dose linearity, field size dependency, dose rate dependency, dose-per-pulse dependency and angular dependency, were investigated for the clinical Delta4-PT as well as for the MR compatible version. All tests were performed with both devices on a conventional linac and the MR compatible device was tested on the MRL as well. No statistically significant differences were found in the short-term reproducibility (prototype was found to be safe and effective for use in the 1.5 tesla magnetic field of the Elekta MR-linac

  5. Test of the FDTD accuracy in the analysis of the scattering resonances associated with high-Q whispering-gallery modes of a circular cylinder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriskin, Artem V; Boriskina, Svetlana V; Rolland, Anthony; Sauleau, Ronan; Nosich, Alexander I

    2008-05-01

    Our objective is the assessment of the accuracy of a conventional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) code in the computation of the near- and far-field scattering characteristics of a circular dielectric cylinder. We excite the cylinder with an electric or magnetic line current and demonstrate the failure of the two-dimensional FDTD algorithm to accurately characterize the emission rate and the field patterns near high-Q whispering-gallery-mode resonances. This is proven by comparison with the exact series solutions. The computational errors in the emission rate are then studied at the resonances still detectable with FDTD, i.e., having Q-factors up to 10(3).

  6. Compatibility of copper-electroplated cells with Metal Wrap Through module materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, I.J.; Geerligs, L.J.; Olson, C.L.; Goris, M.J.A.A. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-10-16

    As part of the European FP7 RandD project 'Cu-PV', the compatibility of copper-electroplated metal wrapthrough (MWT) cells with conductive adhesives has been investigated. The objectives of this project include to reduce, by the use of copper plating, the amount of silver utilized in cell manufacturing, and to demonstrate the compatibility of high-power n-type back-contact module technology with copper-plated cells. The overall goal is to reduce the impact on the environment of cell and module manufacture. MWT module technology as developed by ECN uses conductive adhesive to make the interconnection between cells and a conductive backsheet foil. These adhesives have been proved to result in very reliable modules in the case of cells with fired silver metallization. To determine the compatibility of conductive adhesive with copper-plated cells, component tests were performed, followed by the manufacture of modules with copperplated cells and conductive adhesive interconnections. Climate chamber testing of these modules showed that the adhesive is compatible with the copper-plated cells. The next steps include further optimization of the plating process and additional testing at the module level.

  7. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, P.D.; Kercel, S.W.; Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.

    1999-08-29

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) has long been a key element of qualification for mission critical instrumentation and control (I&C) systems used by the U.S. military. The potential for disruption of safety-related I&C systems by electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), or power surges is also an issue of concern for the nuclear industry. Experimental investigations of the potential vulnerability of advanced safety systems to EMI/RFI, coupled with studies of reported events at nuclear power plants (NPPs) that are attributed to EMI/RFI, confirm the safety significance of EMC for both analog and digital technology. As a result, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in the development of the technical basis for guidance that addresses EMC for safety-related I&C systems in NPPs. This research has involved the identification of engineering practices to minimize the potential impact of EMI/RFI and power surges and an evaluation of the ambient electromagnetic environment at NPPs to tailor those practices for use by the nuclear industry. Recommendations for EMC guidance have been derived from these research findings and are summarized in this paper.

  8. [Safety and electromagnetic compatibility in sanitary field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, M; Feroldi, P; Ferri, C; Ignesti, A; Olmi, R; Priori, S; Riminesi, C; Tobia, L

    2012-01-01

    In sanitary field and especially in a hospital, multiple sources of non ionizing radiation are used for diagnostic and therapeutic aims. In sanitary sector both workers and users are present at the same time, and in some cases general population could need higher protection than workers in relationship to the exposition to electromagnetic fields. In order to protect health and safety of patients, general population and workers of hospitals and with the aim to identify, analyze, evaluate and study its level of significance, electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic sources Research Italian project Si.C.E.O. (Safety And Electromagnetic Compatibility In Sanitary Field) was instituted. Target of our research project was to deepen risk of exposition elements with analysis of outdoor (e.g. power lines, transmission cabinets) and indoor (e.g. equipment for physical therapy) sources, located in sanitary structures and to verify the level exposition of workers and common population end the respect of specific regulation, and finally to define technical and organizational measures really useful for protection and reduction of risk.

  9. A magnetic field compatible graphene transmon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, James G.; Uilhoorn, Willemijn; de Jong, Damaz; Borsoi, Francesco; van der Enden, Kian; Goswami, Srijit; Cassidy, Maja; Kouwenhoven, Leo. P.

    Hybrid circuit QED is a key tool for readout and scaling of both semiconductor-based spin and topological quantum computing schemes. However, traditional approaches to circuit QED are incompatible with the strong external magnetic fields required for these qubits. Here we present measurements of a hybrid graphene-based transmon operating at 1 T. The device consists of coplanar waveguide resonators where the NbTiN thin film is patterned with a dense anti-dot lattice to trap Abriskov vortices, resulting in internal quality factors Qi >10^5 up to 6 T. Furthermore, the atomically thin nature of graphene in combination with the high critical field of its superconducting contacts makes it an ideal system for tolerating strong parallel magnetic fields. We combine these circuit elements to realize a magnetic field compatible transmon qubit. An external gate allows us to change the Josephson energy, and study the corresponding change in the resonator-qubit interaction in the dispersive regime. Two tone spectroscopy reveals a gate-tunable qubit peak at 1T. These experiments open up the possibility of fast charge parity measurements in high magnetic fields for readout of Majorana qubits..

  10. Compatibility Rate of Clinical and Histopathologic Diagnosis of Oral Lesions in Zahedan Dental School during 1999-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Saravani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Different oral lesions have clinical characteristics which in some cases are similar. Therefore, in these cases histopathological examination for correct diagnosis is necessary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the compatibility rate of clinical and histopathological diagnosis of oral lesions in Zahedan School of dentistry. Methods: In this retrospective study, determination of the compatibility of clinical and histopathological diagnosis was done using 631 available records in department of pathology, Zahedan School of dentistry, during 1999- 2015. Type of the lesions (neoplastic and non-neoplastic, and demographic data including age, gender, location of lesions (intraosseous or soft tissue, and clinician’s specialty was extracted from patients records and data were analyzed using SPSS (V.21 software and Chi- Square test. Results: Total compatibility rate between clinical and histopathological diagnosis was 70.1%. The most accurate clinical diagnosis was related to lichenoid lesions (100% and leukoplakia (100% and verrucous carcinoma had the least diagnostic compatibility (20%. There was no significant relationship between compatibility of histopathological and clinical diagnosis with age range, gender, location, and clinician’s specialty. Also non-neoplastic lesions with compatible histopathological and clinical diagnoses were three times more than neoplastic lesions. (P=0.03. Conclusion: Although there was a great compatibility between clinical and histopathological diagnosis, many records had no clinical diagnosis and the inconsistency was also significant. Therefore, more attention to clinical signs and effective cooperation between the clinician and pathologist for correct and more accurate diagnosis and treatment is recommended

  11. An Approach to Average Modeling and Simulation of Switch-Mode Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramovitz, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper suggests a pedagogical approach to teaching the subject of average modeling of PWM switch-mode power electronics systems through simulation by general-purpose electronic circuit simulators. The paper discusses the derivation of PSPICE/ORCAD-compatible average models of the switch-mode power stages, their software implementation, and…

  12. Brain-Compatible Music Teaching Part 2: Teaching "Nongame" Songs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In the previous issue of "General Music Today," the Early Childhood column explored brain-compatible ways of teaching action songs and singing games. This article illustrates the application of brain-compatible ways to teach songs that do not lend themselves to actions or games. There are two ways of teaching songs. One is based on the assumption…

  13. Topological spaces with a coarsest compatible quasi-uniformity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some equivalent forms of the condition for the existence of a coarsest compatible (transitive) quasi-uniformity are presented. The T2 case is also discussed. As a tool we use an interesting description of the compatible transitive totally bounded quasi-uniformities. Quaestiones Mathematicae 23(2000), 67–75 ...

  14. 47 CFR 76.630 - Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. 76.630 Section 76.630 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST... Compatibility with consumer electronics equipment. (a) Cable system operators shall not scramble or otherwise...

  15. Materials compatibility issues related to thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Attention is given to results obtained to date in developmental investigations of a thermal energy storage (TES) system for the projected NASA Space Station's solar dynamic power system; these tests have concentrated on issues related to materials compatibility for phase change materials (PCMs) and their containment vessels' materials. The five PCMs tested have melting temperatures that correspond to the operating temperatures of either the Brayton or Rankine heat engines, which were independently chosen for their high energy densities.

  16. Inhibiting multiple mode vibration in controlled flexible systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, James M.; Chang, Kenneth W.; Seering, Warren P.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs on inhibiting multiple mode vibration in controlled flexible systems are presented. Topics covered include: input pre-shaping background; developing multiple-mode shapers; Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) test article; and tests and results.

  17. Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and TEMPEST Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Electromagnetic Interference (EMI), Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) and TEMPEST testing are conducted at EPG's Blacktail Canyon Test Facility in one of its two...

  18. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  19. Testing low-mode symmetry control with low-adiabat, extended pulse-lengths in BigFoot implosions on the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenberger, Matthias; Casey, D. T.; Thomas, C. A.; Baker, K. L.; Spears, B. K.; Khan, S. F.; Hurricane, O. A.; Callahan, D.

    2017-10-01

    The Bigfoot approach to indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) has been developed as a compromise trading high-convergence and areal densities for high implosion velocities, large adiabats and hydrodynamic stability. Shape control and predictability are maintained by using relatively short laser pulses and merging the shocks within the DT-ice layer. These design choices ultimately limit the theoretically achievable performance, and one strategy to increase the 1-D performance is to reduce the shell adiabat by extending the pulse shape. However, this can result in loss of low-mode symmetry control, as the hohlraum ``bubble,'' the high-Z material launched by the outer-cone beams during the early part of the laser pulse, has more time to expand and will eventually intercept inner-cone beams preventing them from reaching the hohlraum waist, thus losing equatorial capsule drive. We report on experimental results exploring shape control and predictability with extended pulse shapes in BigFoot implosions. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Compatibility of Fluorinert, FC-72, with selected materials.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubert, James Henry; Sawyer, Patricia Sue

    2006-02-01

    Removable encapsulants have been developed as replacement materials for electronic encapsulation. They can be removed from an electronic assembly in a fairly benign manner. Encapsulants must satisfy a limited number of criteria to be useful. These include processing ease, certain mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties, adhesion to common clean surfaces, good aging characteristics, and compatibility. This report discusses one aspect of the compatibility of removable blown epoxy foams with electronic components. Of interest is the compatibility of the blowing agent, Fluorinert{trademark} (FC-72) electronic fluid with electronic parts, components, and select materials. Excellent compatibility is found with most of the investigated materials. A few materials, such as Teflon{reg_sign} that are comprised of chemicals very similar to FC-72 show substantial absorption of FC-72. No compatibility issues have yet been identified even for the few materials that show substantial absorption.

  1. Deformation compatibility control for engineering structures methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Hanhua; Chen, Mengchong; Deng, Jianliang

    2017-01-01

    This book presents essential methods of deformation compatibility control, and explicitly addresses the implied conditions on the methods’ deformation compatibility. Consequently, these conditions can be considered in engineering structure design, while the conditions on stable equilibrium can be taken into account in the design method. Thus, the designed deformation and the actual deformation of the respective structure are approximately identical, guaranteeing both the flexibility of the construction material in force transmission and the equilibrium of force in the structure. Though equilibrium theory in engineering structures has been extensively studied, there has been comparatively little research on compatibility. In the limited researches available, the topics are primarily the theories and assumptions on the deformation compatibility, while few systematic works focus on the mechanical theoretical principles and methods of deformation compatibility control. As such, the flexibility of the constructi...

  2. Comparative evidence for the correlated evolution of polyploidy and self-compatibility in Solanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Kelly; Goldberg, Emma E; Igić, Boris

    2011-01-01

    Breakdown of self-incompatibility occurs repeatedly in flowering plants with important evolutionary consequences. In plant families in which self-incompatibility is mediated by S-RNases, previous evidence suggests that polyploidy may often directly cause self-compatibility through the formation of diploid pollen grains. We use three approaches to examine relationships between self-incompatibility and ploidy. First, we test whether evolution of self-compatibility and polyploidy is correlated in the nightshade family (Solanaceae), and find the expected close association between polyploidy and self-compatibility. Second, we compare the rate of breakdown of self-incompatibility in the absence of polyploidy against the rate of breakdown that arises as a byproduct of polyploidization, and we find the former to be greater. Third, we apply a novel extension to these methods to show that the relative magnitudes of the macroevolutionary pathways leading to self-compatible polyploids are time dependent. Over small time intervals, the direct pathway from self-incompatible diploids is dominant, whereas the pathway through self-compatible diploids prevails over longer time scales. This pathway analysis is broadly applicable to models of character evolution in which sequential combinations of rates are compared. Finally, given the strong evidence for both irreversibility of the loss of self-incompatibility in the family and the significant association between self-compatibility and polyploidy, we argue that ancient polyploidy is highly unlikely to have occurred within the Solanaceae, contrary to previous claims based on genomic analyses. © 2010 The Author(s). Evolution© 2010 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Effect of polymerization mode of adhesive and cement on shear bond strength to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latta, Mark A; Kelsey, William P; Kelsey, William P

    2006-04-01

    To investigate the shear bond strength to dentin when two resin adhesive systems in light-cure, dual-cure, and auto-cure modes were used with three resin cements. This was done to determine the degree of compatibility that exists when resin products with different polymerization mechanisms are used together. Three hundred non-carious human molars were divided into 30 test groups in which Prime & Bond NT and ScotchBond Multi-Purpose were used as adhesives with Calibra, Nexxus and Variolink cements to attach Rexillium III posts to flattened dentin surfaces. Debonding was achieved with an Instron testing machine and mean shear bond strengths were determined for each test group. The data were subjected to three-way ANOVA and post-hoc LSD testing to determine whether significant differences existed between the test groups. Bond strengths achieved were affected by the adhesive, the cement, and the cement curing mode. In general, the auto-cure application of the three cements demonstrated reduced shear bond strengths, both with respect to the different adhesives and their curing modes as well as compared to the dual-cure technique of the same cement. Additionally, Prime & Bond NT demonstrated considerably more variability than ScotchBond Multi-Purpose when used with both dual-cure and auto-cure varieties of the three cements. The bond strengths of resin cements depend on the curing mode of the cement and the adhesive. Unlike with direct light-cured resin composites, combining adhesive systems and dual-cured resin cements from different manufacturers may be contraindicated.

  4. Compatibility issues of cement with water reducing admixture in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Shrivastava

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple brand of cement and water reducing admixtures are available in the market, even though these cements and admixture comply with the respective codal provisions there performance are not same in the concrete for each and every brand of cement and water reducing admixture, even if quality and source of other ingredients of concrete is kept same. This has created a lot of confusion among the user about what type/brand of admixture is used with what type/brand of cement and what should be optimum dose of admixture. Common problem associated with incompatibility issue is flash setting, delayed setting, rapid slump loss, improper strength gain and cracking, these not only effect the strength of the concrete but also the durability of the structure. Hence, in the present study different brand/type of cement and water reducing admixture available in the market is used to find study the compatibility issue and optimum dose of admixture. To achieve this marsh cone test has been performed. Test results indicate that the optimum dose of admixture vary from 0.9 to 1.1% of the weight of cement with different type/brand of cement and type/brand of admixture.

  5. Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantchenko, Oxana S; Seidman, Seth J; Guag, Joshua W; Witters, Donald M; Sponberg, Curt L

    2011-06-09

    The objective of this study is to investigate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of implantable neurostimulators with the emissions from radio frequency identification (RFID) emitters. Six active implantable neurostimulators with lead systems were tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic fields generated by 22 RFID emitters. These medical devices have been approved for marketing in the U.S. for a number of intended uses that include: epilepsy, depression, incontinence, Parkinsonian tremor and pain relief. Each RFID emitter had one of the following carrier frequencies: 125 kHz, 134 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 433 MHz, 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz. The test results showed the output of one of the implantable neurostimulators was inhibited by 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less. The output of the same implantable neurostimulator was also inhibited by another 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less and also showed inconsistent pulsing rate at a separation distance of 15 cm. Both effects occurred during and lasted through out the duration of the exposure. The clinical significance of the effects was assessed by a clinician at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The effects were determined to be clinically significant only if they occurred for extended period of time. There were no observed effects from the other 5 implantable neurostimulators or during exposures from other RFID emitters.

  6. Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to investigate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) of implantable neurostimulators with the emissions from radio frequency identification (RFID) emitters. Methods Six active implantable neurostimulators with lead systems were tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic fields generated by 22 RFID emitters. These medical devices have been approved for marketing in the U.S. for a number of intended uses that include: epilepsy, depression, incontinence, Parkinsonian tremor and pain relief. Each RFID emitter had one of the following carrier frequencies: 125 kHz, 134 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 433 MHz, 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz Results The test results showed the output of one of the implantable neurostimulators was inhibited by 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less. The output of the same implantable neurostimulator was also inhibited by another 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less and also showed inconsistent pulsing rate at a separation distance of 15 cm. Both effects occurred during and lasted through out the duration of the exposure. Conclusions The clinical significance of the effects was assessed by a clinician at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The effects were determined to be clinically significant only if they occurred for extended period of time. There were no observed effects from the other 5 implantable neurostimulators or during exposures from other RFID emitters. PMID:21658266

  7. Electromagnetic compatibility of implantable neurostimulators to RFID emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guag Joshua W

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study is to investigate electromagnetic compatibility (EMC of implantable neurostimulators with the emissions from radio frequency identification (RFID emitters. Methods Six active implantable neurostimulators with lead systems were tested for susceptibility to electromagnetic fields generated by 22 RFID emitters. These medical devices have been approved for marketing in the U.S. for a number of intended uses that include: epilepsy, depression, incontinence, Parkinsonian tremor and pain relief. Each RFID emitter had one of the following carrier frequencies: 125 kHz, 134 kHz, 13.56 MHz, 433 MHz, 915 MHz and 2.45 GHz Results The test results showed the output of one of the implantable neurostimulators was inhibited by 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less. The output of the same implantable neurostimulator was also inhibited by another 134 kHz RFID emitter at separation distances of 10 cm or less and also showed inconsistent pulsing rate at a separation distance of 15 cm. Both effects occurred during and lasted through out the duration of the exposure. Conclusions The clinical significance of the effects was assessed by a clinician at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The effects were determined to be clinically significant only if they occurred for extended period of time. There were no observed effects from the other 5 implantable neurostimulators or during exposures from other RFID emitters.

  8. Integrated Data Collection Analysis (IDCA) Program - Mixing Procedures and Materials Compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olinger, Becky D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sandstrom, Mary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Warner, Kirstin F. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Sorensen, Daniel N. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Remmers, Daniel L. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Moran, Jesse S. [Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC-IHD), Indian Head, MD (United States); Shelley, Timothy J. [Air Force Research Lab. (AFRL), Tyndall AFB, FL (United States); Whinnery, LeRoy L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hsu, Peter C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Whipple, Richard E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kashgarian, Michaele [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, John G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-01-14

    Three mixing procedures have been standardized for the IDCA proficiency test—solid-solid, solid-liquid, and liquid-liquid. Due to the variety of precursors used in formulating the materials for the test, these three mixing methods have been designed to address all combinations of materials. Hand mixing is recommended for quantities less than 10 grams and Jar Mill mixing is recommended for quantities over 10 grams. Consideration must also be given to the type of container used for the mixing due to the wide range of chemical reactivity of the precursors and mixtures. Eight web site sources from container and chemical manufacturers have been consulted. Compatible materials have been compiled as a resource for selecting containers made of materials stable to the mixtures. In addition, container materials used in practice by the participating laboratories are discussed. Consulting chemical compatibility tables is highly recommended for each operation by each individual engaged in testing the materials in this proficiency test.

  9. The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloy, Thomas P.; Marshall, John; Hecht, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) will evaluate the Martian environment for soil and dust-related hazards to human exploration as part of the Mars Surveyor Program 2001 Lander. Sponsored by the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) enterprise, MECA's goal is to evaluate potential geochemical and environmental hazards that may confront future martian explorers, and to guide HEDS scientists in the development of high fidelity Mars soil simulants. In addition to objectives related to human exploration, the MECA data set will be rich in information relevant to basic geology, paleoclimate, and exobiology issues. The integrated MECA payload contains a wet-chemistry laboratory, a microscopy station, an electrometer to characterize the electrostatics of the soil and its environment, and arrays of material patches to study the abrasive and adhesive properties of soil grains. MECA is allocated a mass of 10 kg and a peak power usage of 15 W within an enclosure of 35 x 25 x 15 cm (figures I and 2). The Wet Chemistry Laboratory (WCL) consists of four identical cells that will accept samples from surface and subsurface regions accessible to the Lander's robotic arm, mix them with water, and perform extensive analysis of the solution. Using an array of ion-specific electrodes (ISEs), cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical techniques, the chemistry cells will wet soil samples for measurement of basic soil properties of pH, redox potential, and conductivity. Total dissolved material, as well as targeted ions will be detected to the ppm level, including important exobiological ions such as Na, K+, Ca++, Mg++, NH4+, Cl, S04-, HC03, as well as more toxic ions such as Cu++, Pb++, Cd++, Hg++, and C104-. MECA's microscopy station combines optical and atomic-force microscopy (AFM) to image dust and soil particles from millimeters to nanometers in size. Illumination by red, green, and blue LEDs is augmented by an ultraviolet LED intended to excite

  10. Physical Compatibility of Propofol-Sufentanil Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbytovská, Jarmila; Gallusová, Jana; Vidlářová, Lucie; Procházková, Kamila; Šimek, Jan; Štěpánek, František

    2017-03-01

    instability that could lead to particle enlargement; thus, fat embolism should not be a risk after their intravenous application. However, our long-term stability study revealed differences between commercially available preparations containing the same active ingredient; some of the mixtures showed an increase in particle size and polydispersity over a longer period. Although our results should not be generalized beyond the particular propofol-sufentanil preparations and concentrations studied here, they do suggest that, as a general principle, a compatibility study should be performed for any preparation before the first intravenous application to exclude the risk of droplet aggregation.

  11. Measuring fN force variations in the presence of constant nN forces: a torsion pendulum ground test of the LISA Pathfinder free-fall mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russano, G.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Dolesi, R.; Ferroni, V.; Gibert, F.; Giusteri, R.; Hueller, M.; Liu, L.; Pivato, P.; Tu, H. B.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Weber, W. J.

    2018-02-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a differential accelerometer with the main goal being to demonstrate the near perfect free-fall of reference test masses, as is needed for an orbiting gravitational wave observatory, with a target sensitivity of 30 fm s‑2 Hz-1/2 at 1 mHz. Any lasting background differential acceleration between the two test masses must be actively compensated, and noise associated with the applied actuation force can be a dominant source of noise. To remove this actuation, and the associated force noise, a ‘free-fall’ actuation control scheme has been designed; actuation is limited to brief impulses, with both test masses in free-fall in the time between the impulses, allowing measurement of the remaining acceleration noise sources. In this work, we present an on-ground torsion pendulum testing campaign of this technique and associated data analysis algorithms at a level nearing the sub-femto-g/\\sqrtHz performance required for LISA Pathfinder.

  12. A mode of error: Immunoglobulin binding protein (a subset of anti-citrullinated proteins can cause false positive tuberculosis test results in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Greenwald

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrullinated Immunoglobulin Binding Protein (BiP is a newly described autoimmune target in rheumatoid arthritis (RA, one of many cyclic citrullinated peptides(CCP or ACPA. BiP is over-expressed in RA patients causing T cell expansion and increased interferon levels during incubation for the QuantiFERON-Gold tuberculosis test (QFT-G TB. The QFT-G TB has never been validated where interferon is increased by underlying disease, as for example RA.Of ACPA-positive RA patients (n = 126, we found a 13% false-positive TB test rate by QFT-G TB. Despite subsequent biologic therapy for 3 years of all 126 RA patients, none showed evidence of TB without INH. Most of the false-positive RA patients after treatment with biologic therapy reverted to a negative QFT-G test. False TB tests correlated with ACPA level (p < 0.02.Three healthy women without arthritis or TB exposure had negative QFT-G TB. In vitro, all three tested positive every time for TB correlating to the dose of BiP or anti-BiP added, at 2 ug/ml, 5 ug/ml, 10 ug/ml, and 20 ug/ml.BiP naturally found in the majority of ACPA-positive RA patients can result in a false positive QFT-G TB. Subsequent undertreatment of RA, if biologic therapy is withheld, and overtreatment of presumed latent TB may harm patients. Keywords: Tuberculosis, IGRA, Rheumatoid arthritis, Interferon, Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA, Immunoglobulin binding protein (BiP

  13. Development of Recycling Compatible Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives and Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven J. Severtson

    2010-02-15

    The objective of this project was the design of new water-based pressure-sensitive adhesive (PSA) products and coatings engineered for enhanced removal during the processing of recycled fiber. Research included the formulation, characterization, and performance measurements of new screenable coatings, testing of modified paper and board substrates and the design of test methods to characterize the inhibition of adhesive and coating fragmentation and relative removal efficiencies of developed formulations. This project was operated under the requirements that included commercially viable approaches be the focus, that findings be published in the open literature and that new strategies could not require changes in the methods and equipment used to produce PSA and PS labels or in the recycling process. The industrial partners benefited through the building of expertise in their company that they would not, and likely could not, have pursued if it had not been for the partnership. Results of research on water-based PSAs clearly identifies which PSA and paper facestock properties govern the fragmentation of the adhesive and provide multiple strategies for making (pressure-sensitive) PS labels for which the PSA is removed at very high efficiencies from recycling operations. The application of these results has led to the identification of several commercial products in Franklin International’s (industrial partner) product line that are recycling compatible. Several new formulations were also designed and are currently being scaled-up. Work on recycling compatible barrier coatings for corrugated containers examined the reinforcement of coatings using a small amount of exfoliated organically modified montmorillonite (OMMT). These OMMT/paraffin wax nanocomposites demonstrated significantly improved mechanical properties. Paraffin waxes containing clay were found to have significantly higher Young’s moduli and yield stress relative to the wax matrix, but the most

  14. Updated Outer Core Reference Model from a Bayesian Inversion of Normal Mode Eigenfrequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottaar, Sanne; Irving, Jessica; Lekic, Vedran

    2017-04-01

    The outer core is arguably Earth's most dynamic region, and consists of an iron-nickel liquid with an unknown combination of lighter alloying elements. Frequencies of Earth's normal modes provide the strongest constraints on the radial profiles of compressional wavespeed, VΦ, and density, ρ, in the outer core. Recent great earthquakes have yielded new normal mode measurements; however, mineral physics experiments and calculations are often compared to the Preliminary Reference Earth model (PREM), which is 35 years old and does not provide uncertainties. Here we investigate the thermo-elastic properties of the outer core using Earth's free oscillations and a Bayesian framework. To estimate radial structure of the outer core and its uncertainties, we choose to exploit recent datasets of normal mode centre frequencies. Under the self-coupling approximation, centre frequencies are unaffected by lateral heterogeneities in the Earth, for example in the mantle. Normal modes are sensitive to both VΦ and ρ in the outer core, with each mode's specific sensitivity depending on its eigenfunctions. We include a priori bounds on outer core models that ensure compatibility with measurements of mass and moment of inertia as well as satisfying other physical requirements. We use Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain techniques to explore different choices in parameterizing the outer core, each of which represents different a priori constraints. We test how results vary assuming a smooth polynomial parametrization (similar to PREM), or assuming an Equation-of-State and adiabaticity and inverting directly for thermo-elastic parameters. Independent of the parameterisation we find that the top of the outer core is denser and has a steeper velocity profile than suggested by PREM. The velocity model we propose from our inversion of normal modes is in good agreement with velocity models based purely on body waves.

  15. Kepler-93b: A terrestrial world measured to within 120 km, and a test case for a new Spitzer observing mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, Sarah [University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Chaplin, William J.; Davies, Guy R.; Campante, Tiago L.; Handberg, Rasmus; Elsworth, Yvonne; Hekker, Saskia [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Charbonneau, David; Fressin, Francois; Zeng, Li [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309 (United States); Werner, Michael W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aguirre, Victor Silva; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Metcalfe, Travis S.; Karoff, Christoffer [Stellar Astrophysics Centre (SAC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney 2006 (Australia); Gilliland, Ronald L., E-mail: sarahba@uw.edu [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others

    2014-07-20

    We present the characterization of the Kepler-93 exoplanetary system, based on three years of photometry gathered by the Kepler spacecraft. The duration and cadence of the Kepler observations, in tandem with the brightness of the star, enable unusually precise constraints on both the planet and its host. We conduct an asteroseismic analysis of the Kepler photometry and conclude that the star has an average density of 1.652 ± 0.006 g cm{sup –3}. Its mass of 0.911 ± 0.033 M{sub ☉} renders it one of the lowest-mass subjects of asteroseismic study. An analysis of the transit signature produced by the planet Kepler-93b, which appears with a period of 4.72673978 ± 9.7 × 10{sup –7} days, returns a consistent but less precise measurement of the stellar density, 1.72{sub −0.28}{sup +0.02} g cm{sup –3}. The agreement of these two values lends credence to the planetary interpretation of the transit signal. The achromatic transit depth, as compared between Kepler and the Spitzer Space Telescope, supports the same conclusion. We observed seven transits of Kepler-93b with Spitzer, three of which we conducted in a new observing mode. The pointing strategy we employed to gather this subset of observations halved our uncertainty on the transit radius ratio R{sub P} /R{sub *}. We find, after folding together the stellar radius measurement of 0.919 ± 0.011 R{sub ☉} with the transit depth, a best-fit value for the planetary radius of 1.481 ± 0.019 R{sub ⊕}. The uncertainty of 120 km on our measurement of the planet's size currently renders it one of the most precisely measured planetary radii outside of the solar system. Together with the radius, the planetary mass of 3.8 ± 1.5 M{sub ⊕} corresponds to a rocky density of 6.3 ± 2.6 g cm{sup –3}. After applying a prior on the plausible maximum densities of similarly sized worlds between 1 and 1.5 R{sub ⊕}, we find that Kepler-93b possesses an average density within this group.

  16. Measurement of mode coupling distribution along a few-mode fiber using a synchronous multi-channel OTDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Masataka; Yoshida, Masato; Hirooka, Toshihiko

    2014-12-15

    We describe the nondestructive measurement of mode coupling along a few-mode fiber using a synchronous multi-channel optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR). By installing a few-mode fiber (FMF) coupler made with a phase mask method, we excite the LP01 mode in an FMF under the test as an input mode, and then we detect backward Rayleigh scattered LP11a or LP11b modes, which were generated as a result of the mode coupling through the coupler. The mode coupling distribution between the LP01 and LP11a,b modes along the test FMF was successfully measured with a 10-m spatial resolution by obtaining the ratio between the backscattered LP01 mode and LP11a or LP11b. The value of the mode coupling obtained with the present method agreed well with that obtained with the conventional transmission method.

  17. The use of random decrement technique for identification of structural modes of vibration. [tested on a generalized payload and the space shuttle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, S. R.

    1977-01-01

    An algorithm is developed to obtain the free responses of a structure from its random responses due to some unknown or known random input or inputs, using the random-decrement technique without changing time correlation between signals. The algorithm is tested using random responses from a 'generalized payload' model and from the 'Space Shuttle' model. The resulting free responses are then used to identify the modal characteristics of the two systems.

  18. Optimization and maintenance tests considering multiple failure modes, aging and imperfect maintenance; Optimizacion de las pruebas y mantenimiento considerando multiples modos de fallo, envejecimiento y mantenimiento imperfecto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martorell, S.; Marton, I.; Sanchez, A.; Carlos, S.

    2014-07-01

    The paper focuses on the optimization of the test and maintenance intervals under the criteria of unavailability or cost including the effect of the aging of the components and models of imperfect maintenance. The results obtained in the case of application, which focuses on a system of safety of a nuclear power station, show differences, mainly in the outage when you consider the aging. (Author)

  19. Marshall Space Flight Center Electromagnetic Compatibility Design and Interference Control (MEDIC) handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T. L.; Mccollum, M. B.; Trout, D. H.; Javor, K.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the MEDIC Handbook is to provide practical and helpful information in the design of electrical equipment for electromagnetic compatibility (EMS). Included is the definition of electromagnetic interference (EMI) terms and units as well as an explanation of the basic EMI interactions. An overview of typical NASA EMI test requirements and associated test setups is given. General design techniques to minimize the risk of EMI and EMI suppression techniques at the board and equipment interface levels are presented. The Handbook contains specific EMI test compliance design techniques and retrofit fixes for noncompliant equipment. Also presented are special tests that are useful in the design process or in instances of specification noncompliance.

  20. High power and single mode quantum cascade lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bismuto, Alfredo; Bidaux, Yves; Blaser, Stéphane; Terazzi, Romain; Gresch, Tobias; Rochat, Michel; Muller, Antoine; Bonzon, Christopher; Faist, Jerome

    2016-05-16

    We present a single mode quantum cascade laser with nearly 1 W optical power. A buried distributed feedback reflector is used on the back section for wavelength selection. The laser is 6 mm long, 3.5 μm wide, mounted episide-up and the laser facets are left uncoated. Laser emission is centered at 4.68 μm. Single-mode operation with a side mode suppression ratio of more than 30 dB is obtained in whole range of operation. Farfield measurements prove a symmetric, single transverse-mode emission in TM00-mode with typical divergences of 41° and 33° in the vertical and horizontal direction respectively. This work shows the potential for simple fabrication of high power lasers compatible with standard DFB processing.

  1. Effects of alcohols and compatible solutes on the activity of β-galactosidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Andrew N W; Magill, Emma; Hallsworth, John E; Timson, David J

    2013-02-01

    During alcoholic fermentation, the products build up and can, ultimately, kill the organism due to their effects on the cell's macromolecular systems. The effects of alcohols on the steady-state kinetic parameters of the model enzyme β-galactosidase were studied. At modest concentrations (0 to 2 M), there was little effect of methanol, ethanol, propanol and butanol on the kinetic constants. However, above these concentrations, each alcohol caused the maximal rate, V(max), to fall and the Michaelis constant, K(m), to rise. Except in the case of methanol, the chaotropicity of the solute, rather than its precise chemical structure, determined and can, therefore, be used to predict inhibitory activity. Compounds which act as compatible solutes (e.g. glycerol and other polyols) generally reduced enzyme activity in the absence of alcohols at the concentration tested (191 mM). In the case of the ethanol- or propanol-inhibited β-galactosidase, the addition of compatible solutes was unable to restore the enzyme's kinetic parameters to their uninhibited levels; addition of chaotropic solutes such as urea tended to enhance the effects of these alcohols. It is possible that the compatible solutes caused excessive rigidification of the enzyme's structure, whereas the alcohols disrupt the tertiary and quaternary structure of the protein. From the point of view of protecting enzyme activity, it may be unwise to add compatible solutes in the early stages of industrial fermentations; however, there may be benefits as the alcohol concentration increases.

  2. Final Report: A CdZnTe detector for MRI-compatible SPECT Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Ling-Jian

    2012-12-27

    The key objective of this project is to develop the enabling technology for future MRI-compatible nuclear (e.g. SPECT) imaging system, and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing simultaneous MR and SPECT imaging studies of the same object. During the past three years, we have developed (a) a MRI-compatible ultrahigh resolution gamma ray detector and associated readout electronics, (b) a theoretical approach for modeling the effect of strong magnetic field on SPECT image quality, and (c) a maximum-likelihood (ML) based reconstruction routine with correction for the MR-induced distortion. With this support, we have also constructed a four-head MR-compatible SPECT system and tested the system inside a 3-T clinical MR-scanner located on UI campus. The experimental results obtained with this system have clearly demonstrated that sub-500um spatial resolution can be achieved with a SPECT system operated inside a 3-T MRI scanner. During the past three years, we have accomplished most of the major objectives outlined in the original proposal. These research efforts have laid out a solid foundation the development of future MR-compatible SPECT systems for both pre-clinical and clinical imaging applications.

  3. The ITER EC H and CD upper launcher: Analysis of remote handling compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronden, D.M.S., E-mail: d.m.s.ronden@rijnhuizen.nl [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster and ITER-NL, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Baar, M. de [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster and ITER-NL, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Chavan, R. [CRPP, EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Elzendoorn, B.S.Q. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster and ITER-NL, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Goodman, T. [CRPP, EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, EPFL, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Heemskerk, C.J.M. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Merelhof 2, 2172 HZ, Sassenheim (Netherlands); Henderson, M.A. [ITER-IO, Cadarache 13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Koning, J.F. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster and ITER-NL, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Saibene, G. [FUSION FOR ENERGY, Joint Undertaking, 08019 Barcelona (Spain); Spaeh, P.; Strauss, D. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Association KIT-EURATOM, Institute for Materials Research I, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Research Highlights: > RH class 1 requires a full RH compatible design and a detailed maintenance plan that needs to be demonstrated through hardware mockup testing. > RH class 2 requires a full RH compatible design and a detailed and verified maintenance plan. > RH class 3 requires a RH compatible design and a basic maintenance plan. - Abstract: The present design of the ECH (Electron Cyclotron Heating) upper port launcher has been evaluated in light of the ITER remote handling (RH) requirements. Changes to the launcher design associated with the accessibility, maintainability and manageability of replaceable components are presented. Captive bolts were placed along the flange of the Blanket Shielding Module (BSM). A hinge mechanism was integrated to simplify the (dis-)mounting of the BSM and a frame with incorporated cooling and actuation lines was suggested for simplified mounting and replacement of the steerable mirrors. Rotating the upper port plug upside-down improves maintenance access and component handling. Tools are proposed for manipulation of the port plug and its sub-components. The RH compatibility analysis can improve a design. Early consideration of RH requirements and implementation of necessary features is therefore vital.

  4. Physical compatibility of cisatracurium with selected drugs during simulated Y-site administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foushee, Jaime A; Fox, Laura M; Gormley, Lyndsay R; Lineberger, Megan S

    2015-03-15

    The physical compatibility of cisatracurium with selected drugs during simulated Y-site administration was studied. Study drugs were selected based on the lack of physical compatibility data with cisatracurium and their use in intensive care units. Test admixtures were prepared by mixing 2.5-mL samples of varying concentrations of calcium gluconate, diltiazem, esomeprazole, regular insulin, nicardipine, pantoprazole, and vasopressin with either 2.5 mL of normal saline 0.9% (control) or 2.5 mL of cisatracurium (experimental) to simulate a 1:1 Y-site ratio. Drug infusions were prepared at the maximum concentrations used clinically. Physical compatibility of the admixtures was determined by visual and turbidimetric assessments performed in triplicate immediately after mixing and at 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Visual incompatibility was defined as a change in color, the formation of haze or precipitate, the presence of particles, or the formation of gas in the experimental groups compared with the controls. Disturbances invisible to the naked eye were determined by assessing changes in turbidity of experimental admixtures compared with the controls. None of the admixtures exhibited visual changes when mixed with cisatracurium. Six of the seven admixtures exhibited turbidimetric compatibility with cisatracurium. Pantoprazole admixtures demonstrated a significant difference in turbidimetric assessment between the control and experimental groups when mixed with cisatracurium (p control and experimental samples. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Development of a fiber based Raman probe compatible with interventional magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Praveen C.; Praveen, Bavishna B.; Rube, Martin; Cox, Benjamin; Melzer, Andreas; Dholakia, Kishan

    2014-02-01

    Raman spectroscopy has proven to be a powerful tool for discriminating between normal and abnormal tissue types. Fiber based Raman probes have demonstrated its potential for in vivo disease diagnostics. Combining Raman spectroscopy with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) opens up new avenues for MR guided minimally invasive optical biopsy. Although Raman probes are commercially available, they are not compatible with a MRI environment due to the metallic components which are used to align the micro-optic components such as filters and lenses at the probe head. Additionally they are not mechanically compatible with a typical surgical environment as factors such as sterility and length of the probe are not addressed in those designs. We have developed an MRI compatible fiber Raman probe with a disposable probe head hence maintaining sterility. The probe head was specially designed to avoid any material that would cause MR imaging artefacts. The probe head that goes into patient's body had a diameter <1.5 mm so that it is compatible with biopsy needles and catheters. The probe has been tested in MR environment and has been proven to be capable of obtaining Raman signal while the probe is under real-time MR guidance.

  6. SNV's modes of ordering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, John; Duim, van der Rene

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an aidnographic approach to examine how internal organizational modes of ordering have influenced tourism development practices of SNV Netherlands Development Organisation (SNV). Our research revealed six modes of ordering: administration, project management, enterprising,

  7. Molecular cooperativity and compatibility via full atomistic simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan Yang, Kenny

    Civil engineering has customarily focused on problems from a large-scale perspective, encompassing structures such as bridges, dams, and infrastructure. However, present day challenges in conjunction with advances in nanotechnology have forced a re-focusing of expertise. The use of atomistic and molecular approaches to study material systems opens the door to significantly improve material properties. The understanding that material systems themselves are structures, where their assemblies can dictate design capacities and failure modes makes this problem well suited for those who possess expertise in structural engineering. At the same time, a focus has been given to the performance metrics of materials at the nanoscale, including strength, toughness, and transport properties (e.g., electrical, thermal). Little effort has been made in the systematic characterization of system compatibility -- e.g., how to make disparate material building blocks behave in unison. This research attempts to develop bottom-up molecular scale understanding of material behavior, with the global objective being the application of this understanding into material design/characterization at an ultimate functional scale. In particular, it addresses the subject of cooperativity at the nano-scale. This research aims to define the conditions which dictate when discrete molecules may behave as a single, functional unit, thereby facilitating homogenization and up-scaling approaches, setting bounds for assembly, and providing a transferable assessment tool across molecular systems. Following a macro-scale pattern where the compatibility of deformation plays a vital role in the structural design, novel geometrical cooperativity metrics based on the gyration tensor are derived with the intention to define nano-cooperativity in a generalized way. The metrics objectively describe the general size, shape and orientation of the structure. To validate the derived measures, a pair of ideal macromolecules

  8. Modes of log gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K.

    2011-01-01

    The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional "critical gravity'', linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All "log mode'' solutions, which we categorize as "spin-2'' or "Proca'', arise as limits of the massive spin-2 modes of the noncritical theory. The linearized

  9. Electro magnetic compatibility of rockets; Rocket ni okeru denji tekigosei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Y. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-06-01

    Outlined herein is electro-magnetic compatibility (EMC), which is of crucial importance for rockets and satellites. It is concerned with interference between electronic devices, resulting from increased quantities of electromagnetic waves. This problem can be solved by keeping conducted emission (CE: emission of noise) or radiated emission (RE: radiated noise) of one component lower than conducted susceptibility (CS: resistance to noise) or radiated susceptibility (RS: ability of preventing malfunction by noise) of another component. The EMC-related standards have been established, base on the above concepts. They fall into two general categories; CISPR- and MIL-centered ones. MIL-STD-461 is one of the basic EMC standards for space craft. The aerospace industry should solve the various EMC-related problems specific to flying bodies, such as limited spaces for on-board devices, diversified types of components, common power sources, combinations of components supplied by different makers and ungrounded devices. The EMC testing unit installed can measure 20 Hz to 18 GHz of radiated noise and 20 Hz to 1 GHz of conducted noise, and works in an electrical field of up to 60 V/m at 14 KHz to 18 GHz. (NEDO)

  10. Undergraduate nursing students' compatibility with the nursing profession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianati Mansur

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The high rate of attrition among nursing students has caused some nursing leaders to think about the necessity of considering students' personality during the process of admission into nursing schools. Due to the lack of studies on Iranian nursing students' personality traits, this study was designed to assess freshmen nursing students' personality characteristics and their compatibility with the demands of the nursing profession. Methods A descriptive study was conducted at Tehran and kashan medical universities and one of the branches of Azad University. Convenience sampling was used and 52 freshmen nursing students were assessed using Holland's Vocational Interests Inventory. Results From the total participants 63.5% were females and 36.5% were males. Based on the Holland's Vocational Interests Inventory 44% did not have appropriate personality characteristics for the nursing profession. 77% of the nursing students participating in the study reported that they lacked information about nursing. Conclusion It seems that personality tests can help to select the best students for nursing schools from those who show good academic capabilities. This would decrease the rate of attrition and could improve the quality of care.

  11. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Mario Vicario

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999. Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs, swapping (swapping verbs and thinking (thinking verbs. We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e. participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain. However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis.

  12. Design of a small animal MR compatible PET scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slates, R.; Cherry, S.; Boutefnouchet, A.; Shao, Y.; Dahlbom, M.; Farahani, K. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). School of Medicine

    1999-06-01

    Using a combination of Monte-Carlo simulations and experimental measurements, the authors have designed a small animal MR compatible PET (McPET) scanner for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of mice and rats in vivo. The scanner consists of one ring of 480 LSO crystals arranged in 3 layers with 160 crystals per layer. The crystal dimensions are 2 x 3 x 7.5 mm{sup 3}. This was based on a target resolution of 2.5 mm and simulations showing that a depth of 7.5 mm avoided significant depth of interaction effects across the desired field of view. The system diameter of 11.2 cm is large enough to accommodate the animal positioned inside a stereotactic frame. Each crystal will be coupled through 2 mm diameter optical fibers to multi-channel PMT`s which reside outside the main magnetic field. Through 50 cm of optical fiber, a photopeak is clearly seen and the measured energy resolution is 25%. Prototype optical fiber connectors have been tested to increase the flexibility of the system and result in a light loss of only 6%. The proposed system will have adequate resolution and sensitivity for a number of applications in small animals and will be the first practical device for simultaneous in vivo imaging with PET and MR.

  13. Left-right compatibility in the processing of trading verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicario, Carmelo M; Rumiati, Raffaella I

    2014-01-01

    The research investigating the nature of cognitive processes involved in the representation of economical outcomes is growing. Within this research, the mental accounting model proposes that individuals may well use cognitive operations to organize, evaluate, and keep track of their financial activities (Thaler, 1999). Here we wanted to test this hypothesis by asking to a group of participants to detect a syntax mistake of verbs indicating incoming and going out activities related to economical profit (trading verbs), swapping (swapping verbs) and thinking (thinking verbs). We reported a left-right compatibility for trading verbs (i.e., participants were faster with their right hand while detecting verb referring to a monetary gain with respect to a monetary loss; and faster with their left hand while detecting a monetary loss with respect to a monetary gain). However, this pattern of result was not reported while detecting swapping verbs. Results are discussed taking into account the mental accounting theory as well as to the spatial mapping of valence hypothesis.

  14. Raman spectroscopy-compatible inactivation method for pathogenic endospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckel, S; Schumacher, W; Meisel, S; Elschner, M; Rösch, P; Popp, J

    2010-05-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy is a fast and sensitive tool for the detection, classification, and identification of biological organisms. The vibrational spectrum inherently serves as a fingerprint of the biochemical composition of each bacterium and thus makes identification at the species level, or even the subspecies level, possible. Therefore, microorganisms in areas susceptible to bacterial contamination, e.g., clinical environments or food-processing technology, can be sensed. Within the scope of point-of-care-testing also, detection of intentionally released biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) agents, such as Bacillus anthracis endospores, or their products is attainable. However, no Raman spectroscopy-compatible inactivation method for the notoriously resistant Bacillus endospores has been elaborated so far. In this work we present an inactivation protocol for endospores that permits, on the one hand, sufficient microbial inactivation and, on the other hand, the recording of Raman spectroscopic signatures of single endospores, making species-specific identification by means of highly sophisticated chemometrical methods possible. Several physical and chemical inactivation methods were assessed, and eventually treatment with 20% formaldehyde proved to be superior to the other methods in terms of sporicidal capacity and information conservation in the Raman spectra. The latter fact has been verified by successfully using self-learning machines (such as support vector machines or artificial neural networks) to identify inactivated B. anthracis-related endospores with adequate accuracies within the range of the limited model database employed.

  15. Generalized Metric Spaces Do Not Have the Compatible Topology

    OpenAIRE

    Tomonari Suzuki

    2014-01-01

    We study generalized metric spaces, which were introduced by Branciari (2000). In particular, generalized metric spaces do not necessarily have the compatible topology. Also we prove a generalization of the Banach contraction principle in complete generalized metric spaces.

  16. Standards for compatibility of printed circuit and component lead materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Study of packaging of microminiature electronic components reveals methods of improving compatibility of lead materials, joining techniques, transfer molding concepts, printed circuit board materials, and process and material specifications.

  17. Compatibility of Functionalized Graphene with Polyethylene and Its Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Myeong Seo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The compatibility of polyethylene (PE with a functionalized graphene sheet (FGS, which was prepared by the thermal reduction of graphite oxide, was examined in this study. The dispersion of the FGS in the PE was improved as the molecular weight of the PE was decreased. The PE copolymers containing polar comonomers such as maleic anhydride or acrylic acid exhibited better compatibility with FGS than the PE homopolymers. The compatibility of the FGS with PE copolymers containing small amounts of comonomers, which have a solubility parameter slightly larger [up to approximately 0.5 (J/cm31/2] than that of PE itself, was better than the compatibility of both the PE and PE copolymers containing larger amounts of comonomers. The morphology, electric conductivity, and tensile properties of FGS/PE copolymer/PE nanocomposites showed that the copolymers with a solubility parameter slightly larger than that of PE effectively served as a compatibilizer in FGS/PE nanocomposites.

  18. Preformulation compatibility screening of dika fat-drug mixtures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dika fat was found to be compatible with aspirin, ascorbic acid, paracetamol, sulphanilamide, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride, bromopheniramine maleate, chlorpheniramire maleate, diazepam, phenobarbital, phenobarbital sodium, phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride and propranolol hydrochloride. It appears that ...

  19. Metric Compatible or Noncompatible Finsler--Ricci Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Vacaru, Sergiu I

    2011-01-01

    There were elaborated different models of Finsler geometry using the Cartan (metric compatible), or Berwald and Chern (metric non-compatible) connections, the Ricci flag curvature etc. In a series of works, we studied (non)commutative metric compatible Finsler and nonholonomic generalizations of the Ricci flow theory [see S. Vacaru, J. Math. Phys. 49 (2008) 043504; 50 (2009) 073503 and references therein. The goal of this work is to prove that there are some models of Finsler gravity and geometric evolution theories with generalized Perelman's functionals, and correspondingly derived nonholonomic Hamilton evolution equations, when metric noncompatible Finsler connections are involved. Following such an approach, we have to consider distortion tensors, uniquely defined by the Finsler metric, from the Cartan and/or the canonical metric compatible connections. We conclude that, in general, it is not possible to elaborate self-consistent models of geometric evolution with arbitrary Finsler metric noncompatible co...

  20. Compatibility of entomopathogenic fungi with extracts of plants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The compatibility of some commercial botanicals (Biospark, Phytophrate, Exodos, Biodos and Neemgold) and of solvent extracts of Syndrella nodiflora, Premna tomentosa, Vitex negundo, Ipomea carnea, Pteridium aquilinum (leaves) and Annona squomosa (seeds) with Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuil., Isaria ...

  1. New optical architecture for holographic data storage system compatible with Blu-ray Disc™ system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Ken-ichi; Ide, Tatsuro; Shimano, Takeshi; Anderson, Ken; Curtis, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    A new optical architecture for holographic data storage system which is compatible with a Blu-ray Disc™ (BD) system is proposed. In the architecture, both signal and reference beams pass through a single objective lens with numerical aperture (NA) 0.85 for realizing angularly multiplexed recording. The geometry of the architecture brings a high affinity with an optical architecture in the BD system because the objective lens can be placed parallel to a holographic medium. Through the comparison of experimental results with theory, the validity of the optical architecture was verified and demonstrated that the conventional objective lens motion technique in the BD system is available for angularly multiplexed recording. The test-bed composed of a blue laser system and an objective lens of the NA 0.85 was designed. The feasibility of its compatibility with BD is examined through the designed test-bed.

  2. Electromagnetic Environmental Effects System Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    K-1 L. INTRA SYSTEM ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY ( EMC ) SOURCE/VICTIM ................... L-1 M. PERSONNEL...TEMPEST and test guidance for the addition of test procedures for implementing Electromagnetic Compatibility ( EMC ), Radiated Emissions (RE...for Grounds and Bonds is not addressed since it is sufficiently discussed in MIL-STD-464C. For Shielding Effectiveness, reference American Society

  3. Incentive-Compatible Interdomain Routing with Linear Utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Alexander; Nikolova, Evdokia; Papadimitriou, Christos

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the problem of incentive-compatible interdomain routing, examining the quite realistic special case in which the utilities of autonomous systems (ASes) are linear functions of the traffic in the incident links and the traffic leaving each AS. We show that incentive-compatibility toward maximizing total welfare is achievable efficiently, and in the uncapacitated case, by an algorithm that can be easily implemented by the border gateway protocol (BGP), the standard ...

  4. 1987 IEEE International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Atlanta, GA, Aug. 25-27, 1987, Symposium Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various papers on the state of the art in electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) are presented. The general topics addressed include: EMC analysis; simulators, facilities, and instrumentation; shield performance assessments; open area test sites; electromagnetic pulse; EMI suppression; and EMC measurements. Also considered are: cable coupling/crosstalk; radiated emission measurement concerns; electrostatic discharge; lightning/EMP; antenna-related EMC; statistical approach to EMC; and electromagnetic environment/system level EMC.

  5. International Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, Wakefield, MA, August 20-22, 1985, Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Various papers on electromagnetic compatibility are presented. The general topics addressed include: EMI transient/impulsive disturbances, electromagnetic shielding, antennas and propagation, measurement technology, anechoic chamber/open site measurements, communications systems, electrostatic discahrge, cables/transmission lines. Also considered are: elecromagnetic environments, antennas, electromagnetic pulse, nonlinear effect, computer/data transmission systems, EMI standards and requirements, enclosures/TEM cells, systems EMC, and test site measurements.

  6. Electromagnetic compatibility characterization of a BAe Stirling-cycle cryocooler for space application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dean L.; Ross, Ronald G., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) measurements of an 80-K Stirling-cycle cooler. The measurements, performed in the JPL EMC test facility, include dc magnetic field characterization, radiated magnetic and electric field emissions, and conducted emissions on the internal lines between the cooler electronics and the cooler. The measurements conform to both the MILSTD-461C specifications as well as to the specifications for the NASA Earth Observing System.

  7. Compatibility of Space Nuclear Power Plant Materials in an Inert He/Xe Working Gas Containing Reactive Impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MM Hall

    2006-01-31

    A major materials selection and qualification issue identified in the Space Materials Plan is the potential for creating materials compatibility problems by combining dissimilar reactor core, Brayton Unit and other power conversion plant materials in a recirculating, inert He/Xe gas loop containing reactive impurity gases. Reported here are results of equilibrium thermochemical analyses that address the compatibility of space nuclear power plant (SNPP) materials in high temperature impure He gas environments. These studies provide early information regarding the constraints that exist for SNPP materials selection and provide guidance for establishing test objectives and environments for SNPP materials qualification testing.

  8. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  9. Mode selection laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor mode selection laser, particularly to a VCSEL laser (200) having mode selection properties. The mode selection capability of the laser is achieved by configuring one of the reflectors (15,51) in the resonance cavity so that a reflectivity of the reflector...... (15) varies spatially in one dimension or two dimensions. Accordingly, the reflector (15) with spatially varying reflectivity is part both of the resonance cavity and the mode selection functionality of the laser. A plurality of the lasers configured with different mode selectors, i.e. different...... spatial reflector variations, may be combined to generate a laser beam containing a plurality of orthogonal modes. The laser beam may be injected into a few- mode optical fiber, e.g. for the purpose of optical communication. The VCSEL may have intra-cavity contacts (31,37) and a Tunnel junction (33...

  10. High Strength and Compatible Aluminum Alloy for Hydrogen-Peroxide Fuel Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a new high strength and Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) propellant compatible aluminum alloy for NASA Hyper-X vehicle's fuel tanks and structures. The tensile strength of the new alloy is more than 3 times stronger than the conventional 5254 alloy while it still maintains HP compatibility similar to 5254 (Class 1 category). The alloy development strategy consists of selecting certain rare earth and transition metals, with unique electrochemical properties, that will not act as catalysts to decompose liquid HP at the atomic level. Such elements will added to the aluminum alloy and the mixture will be cast and rolled into thin sheet metals. Test coupons are machined from sheet metals for HP long-term exposure testing and mechanical properties testing. In addition, the ability to weld the new alloy using Friction Stir Welding has also been explored. Currently, aluminum alloy 5254 is the state-of-the-art material for HP storage, but its yield strength is very low (420 ksi) and may not be suitable for the development of light-weight fuel tanks for Hyper-X vehicles. The new high strength and HP compatible alloy could represent an enabling material technology for NASA's Hyper-X vehicles, where flight weight reduction is a critical requirement. These X-planes are currently under studied as air-breathing hypersonic research vehicles featuring a lifting body configuration with a Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) engine system.

  11. BULGARIAN COMPATIBILITY WITH NATO AIR POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    of the most serious and at the same time wicked problems that will find its solution through the new fighter project is overcoming the Bulgarian Air...Air Force in a position to undergo a serious test. The problems of transition deprived the Bulgarian Armed Forces, and in particular the Air Force...between the Bulgarian Air Force and the forces of NATO partners exists, and it is a problem which has to be urgently solved. The overall intent of the

  12. Polymer Matrix Composite Material Oxygen Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Tom

    2001-01-01

    Carbon fiber/polymer matrix composite materials look promising as a material to construct liquid oxygen (LOX) tanks. Based on mechanical impact tests the risk will be greater than aluminum, however, the risk can probably be managed to an acceptable level. Proper tank design and operation can minimize risk. A risk assessment (hazard analysis) will be used to determine the overall acceptability for using polymer matrix composite materials.

  13. Enhanced Telecom Emission from Single Group-IV Quantum Dots by Precise CMOS-Compatible Positioning in Photonic Crystal Cavities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzl, Magdalena; Hackl, Florian; Glaser, Martin; Rauter, Patrick; Brehm, Moritz; Spindlberger, Lukas; Simbula, Angelica; Galli, Matteo; Fromherz, Thomas; Schäffler, Friedrich

    2017-03-15

    Efficient coupling to integrated high-quality-factor cavities is crucial for the employment of germanium quantum dot (QD) emitters in future monolithic silicon-based optoelectronic platforms. We report on strongly enhanced emission from single Ge QDs into L3 photonic crystal resonator (PCR) modes based on precise positioning of these dots at the maximum of the respective mode field energy density. Perfect site control of Ge QDs grown on prepatterned silicon-on-insulator substrates was exploited to fabricate in one processing run almost 300 PCRs containing single QDs in systematically varying positions within the cavities. Extensive photoluminescence studies on this cavity chip enable a direct evaluation of the position-dependent coupling efficiency between single dots and selected cavity modes. The experimental results demonstrate the great potential of the approach allowing CMOS-compatible parallel fabrication of arrays of spatially matched dot/cavity systems for group-IV-based data transfer or quantum optical systems in the telecom regime.

  14. How Compatible is Clinical Diagnosis with Electrophysiology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Turkel

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation of the clinical diagnosis of patients referred to the electroneuromyography laboratory with the electrophysiological diagnosis. Material and Method: Eight hundred eighty two patients  were enrolled in the study. Their ages, genders, the clinic that referred the patient, the clinical diagnosis, and the electrophysiological results were registered retrospectively and the results were statistically evaluated. Results: Five hundred twenty four of 882 patients enrolled in the study were women, while 358 of them were men. Four hundred hundred ninety nine (56,6% of the patients were consulted by the Neurology department, 222 (25,2% patients were consulted by the Neurosurgery deparment, 59 (6,7%  patients were consulted by the Physical medicine and rehabilitation  deparment while 61 (6,9% patients were referred by the Orthopedy department and 41 (4,6% by other departments. Carpal tunnel syndrome was the most frequent clinical diagnosis (28,7%. Only in a small group of patients symptoms were assessed rather than the clinical diagnosis (2,9%. In 49,1% of the patients, There was correlation between clinical and electrophysiological diagnosis while 44,7% of patients had normal electroneuromyography results. Discussion: The high rate of the normal electroneuromyography tests and the statistically significant discordance of clinical diagnosis of patients with their electrophysiological test results show that, there are inessential electroneuromyography reguests.

  15. Constitutive behaviour of mixed mode loaded adhesive layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Högberg, J.L.; Sørensen, Bent F.; Stigh, U.

    2007-01-01

    Mixed mode testing of adhesive layer is performed with the Mixed mode double Cantilever Bean? specimen. During the experiments, the specimens are loaded by transversal and/or shear forces; seven different mode mixities are tested. The J-integral is used to evaluate the energy dissipation in the f......Mixed mode testing of adhesive layer is performed with the Mixed mode double Cantilever Bean? specimen. During the experiments, the specimens are loaded by transversal and/or shear forces; seven different mode mixities are tested. The J-integral is used to evaluate the energy dissipation...... in the failure process zone. The constitutive behaviour of the adhesive layer is obtained by a so called inverse method and fitting an existing mixed mode cohesive model, which uses a coupled formulation to describe a mode dependent constitutive behaviour. The cohesive parameters are determined by optimizing...

  16. Establishing the evolutionary compatibility of potential sources of colonizers for overfished stocks: a population genomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves da Silva, Anders; Appleyard, Sharon A; Upston, Judy

    2015-02-01

    Identifying fish stock structure is fundamental to pinpoint stocks that might contribute colonizers to overfished stocks. However, a stock's potential to contribute to rebuilding hinges on demographic connectivity, a challenging parameter to measure. With genomics as a new tool, fisheries managers can detect signatures of natural selection and thus identify fishing areas likely to contribute evolutionarily compatible colonizers to an overfished area (i.e. colonizers that are not at a fitness disadvantage in the overfished area and able to reproduce at optimal rates). Identifying evolutionarily compatible stocks would help narrow the focus on establishing demographic connectivity where it matters. Here, we genotype 4723 SNPs in 616 orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) across five fishing areas off the Tasmanian coast in Australia. We ask whether these areas form a single genetic unit, and test for signatures of local adaptation. Results from amova, structure, discriminant analysis of principal components, BAYESASS and isolation by distance suggest that sampled locations are subjected to geneflow amounts that are above what is needed to establish 'drift connectivity'. However, it remains unclear whether there is a single panmictic population or several highly connected populations. Most importantly, we did not find any evidence of local adaptation, suggesting that the examined orange roughy stocks are evolutionarily compatible. The data have helped test an assumption of the orange roughy management programme and to formulate hypotheses regarding stock demographic connectivity. Overall, our results demonstrate the potential of genomics to inform fisheries management, even when evidence for stock structure is sparse. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effects of Stitching on Delamination of Satin Weave Carbon-Epoxy Laminates Under Mode I, Mode II and Mixed-Mode I/II Loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Walid; Michel, Laurent; Othomene, Renaud

    2010-12-01

    The objective of the present study is to characterize the effect of modified chain stitching on the delamination growth under mixed-mode I/II loading conditions. Delamination toughness under mode I is experimentally determined, for unstitched and stitched laminates, by using untabbed and tabbed double cantilever beam (TDCB) tests. The effect of the reinforcing tabs on mode I toughness is investigated. Stitching improves the energy release rate (ERR) up to 4 times in mode I. Mode II delamination toughness is evaluated in end-notched flexure (ENF) tests. Different geometries of stitched specimens are tested. Crack propagation occurs without any failure of stitching yarns. The final crack length attains the mid-span or it stops before and the specimen breaks in bending. The ERR is initially low and gradually increases with crack length to very high values. The mixed-mode delamination behaviour is investigated using a mixed-mode bending (MMB) test. For unstitched specimens, a simple mixed-mode criterion is identified. For stitched specimens, stitching yarns do not break during 25% of mode I ratio tests and the ERR increase is relatively small compared to unstitched values. For 70% and 50% of mode I ratios, failures of yarns are observed during crack propagation and tests are able to capture correctly the effect of the stitching: it clearly improves the ERR for these two mixed modes, as much as threefold.

  18. Reduced sexual compatibility between cultivated and wild chicory and their F1 hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauser, T.P.; Bagger Jørgensen, Rikke; Toneatto, F.

    2012-01-01

    Crops were domesticated from wild plants not too long ago and have subsequently diverged from the wild ones, especially in traits used by humans. Whether divergence between the cultigen and wild forms has also lead to reduced reproductive compatibility is unknown for many species. Chicory...... (Cichorium intybus L.) has been bred as a crop at least since Roman times. To test if this has led to a loss in reproductive compatibility with wild chicory, we planted cultivar, wild, and F1 hybrid plants into two field plots, and let them pollinate freely. On 2 days, in the beginning and middle...... of the flowering season, we counted the numbers of flowering capitula and open flowers per capitulum, which in combination with counts of viable pollen per flower were used to estimate the expected proportion of seeds fathered by cultivar, wild, and hybrid plants. Open capitula on wild and hybrid plants were...

  19. Optimizing the compatibility between rating scales and measures of productive second language competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a systematic investigation concerning the performance of different rating scales used in the English section of a university entrance examination to assess 1,287 Japanese test takers' ability to write a third-person introduction speech. Although the rating scales did not conform to all of the expectations of the Rasch model, they successfully defined a meaningful continuum of English communicative competence. In some cases, the expectations of the Rasch model needed to be weighed against the specific assessment needs of the university entrance examination. This investigation also found that the degree of compatibility between the number of points allotted to the different rating scales and the various requirements of an introduction speech played a considerable role in determining the extent to which the different rating scales conformed to the expectations of the Rasch model. Compatibility thus becomes an important factor to consider for optimal rating scale performance.

  20. Dual-Mode Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  1. Assessing the dermal compatibility of a new female incontinence product line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutshall, Denise; Zhou, Shaoying; Wang, Baiyang; Farage, Miranda A; Hochwalt, Anne E

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a line of products designed to better meet the overall needs of women suffering from urinary incontinence. The products are more discrete and contain a unique odor neutralizing technology (ONT). This paper describes the overall skin compatibility program for this product line in which the new products were compared to negative controls and/or commercially marketed reference products with an established history of safe use. Test products consisted of several product forms (light pads/pantiliners, moderate pads, briefs and taped diapers) with ONT and having various degrees of protection. Studies were conducted using standard protocols for 4-day and 21-day cumulative irritation, the Human Repeat Insult Patch Test (HRIPT), and the Behind-the-Knee (BTK) test for mechanical and chemical irritation. In one 4-day irritation study and one HRIPT, test subjects consisted of individuals with self-assessed sensitive skin. In addition, one 4-day study was conducted using normal skin sites, and sites compromised by tape stripping. Nonirritant controls were physiologic saline and/or current, commercially marketed incontinence products. All responses were evaluated by visual scoring of erythema. In addition, in the BTK, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and adverse sensory effects collected from panelists' daily diaries were also evaluated. Two 4-day cumulative irritation studies and one 21-day study demonstrated that a wide range of product forms (liners, light and moderate pads, briefs and adult diapers) produced skin reactions similar to the nonirritant controls. The 4-day study conducted using sensitive skin subjects showed good skin compatibility, and the test products were comparable to the nonirritant controls. In the 4-day study with both normal and compromised skin sites, test products produced mean erythema scores similar to the nonirritant controls. Three HRIPT separate studies confirm that the products do not induce contact sensitization, including one

  2. Design, simulation and characterization of silicon compatible light emitting devices for optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Brandon Fairfield

    study enhanced spontaneous emission. Simulations of the optimized device predicted a 35 fold enhancement in the peak luminescence. We then sought to address the requirements of a Si compatible light source for optical interconnects by designing an electrically pumped, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) compatible laser with telecom wavelength emission. Leveraging the efficient electroluminescence (EL) in Si-nc films and the telecom wavelength lasing capabilities of Er:SiO2, we proposed integrating the two materials in a concentric microdisk structure. In the proposed structure, EL from an inner Si-nc disk acts as an optical pump for an Er:SiO2 laser in the outer disk. We used our modeling tool to confirm the proposed device behavior and optimize the geometry. We then fabricated a series of preliminary light emitting structures including Si-nc microdisks, Si-nc microgears, and concentric Si-nc/SiO2 and Si-nc/Er:SiO 2 microdisks. We developed two experimental characterization setups for studying whispering gallery modes (WGMs) in these raised resonators, one based on collecting emission in the far-field and the other based on coupling emission to a tapered fiber. We performed the first comparison of these characterization techniques, discussed their relative merits, and identified the regimes of operation in which each is appropriate. Using these characterization techniques, we tested our Si-nc microdisks, microgears and concentric microdisks. We then performed the first investigation of microgear resonators using a Si based light emitting material. We then developed a fabrication process for Si-nc/Er:SiO2 concentric microdisks in accordance with our two-stage laser design. Characterization of these concentric microdisks confirmed the existence of Si-nc based pump modes and Er:SiO 2 based signal modes. We also developed a semi-analytic model to predict lasing thresholds in this device in terms of Si-nc pump power. We subsequently derived an experimental

  3. Adaptation of the modified Bouc–Wen model to compensate for hysteresis in respiratory motion for the list-mode binning of cardiac SPECT and PET acquisitions: Testing using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasari, Paul K. R.; Shazeeb, Mohammed Salman [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, Massachusetts 01609 (United States); Könik, Arda; Lindsay, Clifford; Mukherjee, Joyeeta M.; Johnson, Karen L.; King, Michael A., E-mail: Michael.King@umassmed.edu [Department of Radiology, Division of Nuclear Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts 01655 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Binning list-mode acquisitions as a function of a surrogate signal related to respiration has been employed to reduce the impact of respiratory motion on image quality in cardiac emission tomography (SPECT and PET). Inherent in amplitude binning is the assumption that there is a monotonic relationship between the amplitude of the surrogate signal and respiratory motion of the heart. This assumption is not valid in the presence of hysteresis when heart motion exhibits a different relationship with the surrogate during inspiration and expiration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the novel approach of using the Bouc–Wen (BW) model to provide a signal accounting for hysteresis when binning list-mode data with the goal of thereby improving motion correction. The study is based on the authors’ previous observations that hysteresis between chest and abdomen markers was indicative of hysteresis between abdomen markers and the internal motion of the heart. Methods: In 19 healthy volunteers, they determined the internal motion of the heart and diaphragm in the superior–inferior direction during free breathing using MRI navigators. A visual tracking system (VTS) synchronized with MRI acquisition tracked the anterior–posterior motions of external markers placed on the chest and abdomen. These data were employed to develop and test the Bouc–Wen model by inputting the VTS derived chest and abdomen motions into it and using the resulting output signals as surrogates for cardiac motion. The data of the volunteers were divided into training and testing sets. The training set was used to obtain initial values for the model parameters for all of the volunteers in the set, and for set members based on whether they were or were not classified as exhibiting hysteresis using a metric derived from the markers. These initial parameters were then employed with the testing set to estimate output signals. Pearson’s linear correlation coefficient between the

  4. The effects of relationship enrichment program on compatibility and marital satisfaction of infertile couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Miri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Infertility as a crisis in couples' life, not only creates psychological problems, but also, it can act as a powerful impact on the relationships between couples. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of relationship enrichment on compatibility and marital satisfaction of infertile couples. Methods: This is a semi experimental study with pre-test and post-test on control group. Statistical population of this study was an infertile couple in Birjand. The couples were randomly divided to control groups (17 couples and experimental groups (15 couples. The research instrument was marital adjustment questionnaire. That completed before, immediately and 3 months after intervention. The intervention consisted of 6 training session. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 16. Results: Before the intervention, mean scores were matched the two groups. After the intervention, the experimental group increased average compatibility from 101.5±22/4 to 129.33±10.6 , marital satisfaction from 33/8±8 to 44±4.8 , marital solidarity from12±3.8 to 16.1±2.2 , couples agreement from 44.6±10.5 to 54.8±6.1 , expression of love from 11±3.7 to 14.2± 1.(p<0.05 Conclusion: Relationship enrichment increased the marital compatibility and marital satisfaction. Therefore recommended using relationship enrichment program to increase compatibility and marital satisfaction. Paper Type: Research Article.

  5. Does active application of universal adhesives to enamel in self-etch mode improve their performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loguercio, Alessandro D; Muñoz, Miguel Angel; Luque-Martinez, Issis; Hass, Viviane; Reis, Alessandra; Perdigão, Jorge

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of adhesion strategy on the enamel microshear bond strengths (μSBS), etching pattern, and in situ degree of conversion (DC) of seven universal adhesives. 84 extracted third molars were sectioned in four parts (buccal, lingual, proximal) and divided into 21 groups, according to the combination of the main factors adhesive (AdheSE Universal [ADU], All-Bond Universal [ABU], Clearfil Universal [CFU], Futurabond U [FBU], G-Bond Plus [GBP], Prime&Bond Elect (PBE), and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive [SBU]), and adhesion strategy (etch-and-rinse, active self-etch, and passive self-etch). Specimens were stored in water (37°C/24h) and tested at 1.0mm/min (μSBS). Enamel-resin interfaces were evaluated for DC using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The enamel-etching pattern was evaluated under a field-emission scanning electron microscope (direct and replica techniques). Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Active self-etch application increased μSBS and DC for five out of the seven universal adhesives when compared to passive application (petching pattern was observed for all universal adhesives in the etch-and-rinse strategy. A slight improvement in etching ability was observed in active self-etch application compared to that of passive self-etch application. Replicas of GBP and PBE applied in active self-etch mode displayed morphological features compatible with water droplets. The DC of GBP and PBE were not affected by the application/strategy mode. In light of the improved performance of universal adhesives when applied actively in SE mode, selective enamel etching with phosphoric acid may not be crucial for their adhesion to enamel. The active application of universal adhesives in self-etch mode may be a practical alternative to enamel etching in specific clinical situations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The compatibility of fingerprint visualization techniques with immunolabeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Annemieke; Aalders, Maurice C G; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Lambrechts, Saskia A G

    2013-07-01

    The chemical composition of a fingermark potentially holds a wealth of information about the fingermark donor, which can be extracted by immunolabeling. Immunolabeling can be used to detect specific components in fingermarks; however, to be applicable in the forensic field, it should be compatible with commonly used fingerprint visualization techniques. In this study, the compatibility of immunolabeling with two different fingerprint visualization techniques, magnetic powdering and ninhydrin staining, was investigated on fingermarks deposited on glass and on nitrocellulose membranes. With dermcidin as antigen of interest, immunolabeling was performed successfully on all developed fingermarks. We can conclude that immunolabeling is compatible with magnetic powdering and ninhydrin staining, which can be of great forensic value. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  7. Biochemical mechanisms determine the functional compatibility of heterologous genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porse, Andreas; Schou, Thea S.; Munck, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Elucidating the factors governing the functional compatibility of horizontally transferred genes is important to understand bacterial evolution, including the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance, and to successfully engineer biological systems. In silico efforts and work using single-gene...... libraries have suggested that sequence composition is a strong barrier for the successful integration of heterologous genes. Here we sample 200 diverse genes, representing >80% of sequenced antibiotic resistance genes, to interrogate the factors governing genetic compatibility in new hosts. In contrast...... to previous work, we find that GC content, codon usage, and mRNA-folding energy are of minor importance for the compatibility of mechanistically diverse gene products at moderate expression. Instead, we identify the phylogenetic origin, and the dependence of a resistance mechanism on host physiology, as major...

  8. [Application of Doehlert design for compatibility research of Dachengqi decoction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhen; Cao, Cheng; Zeng, Yuaner; Jiang, Bin

    2009-05-01

    To study the compatibility of dosage change of Zhishi, Houpo and Mangxiao affecting the yields of Anthraquinone components in Dachengqi decoction. Response surface methodology (RSM) with Doehlert design was adopted to evaluate the yields of Anthraquinone components in Dachengqi decoction by dosage change of Zhishi, Houpo and Mangxiao and the analysis time was shorten through a desirability function. Results show that Anthraquinone components were got a high yields when the dosage ratio of Dachengqi decoction were compatible as follows: Dahuang-Zhishi-Houpo-Mangxiao (1:4:2. 31:2). The Doehlert design with a desirability function, which allow a sequential response methodology, is a good methods, and, of cause, the mathematical model can be further extended and applied to the compatibility research of Chinese material medicine.

  9. Neighboring block based disparity vector derivation for multiview compatible 3D-AVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jewon; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Xin; Karczewicz, Marta

    2013-09-01

    3D-AVC being developed under Joint Collaborative Team on 3D Video Coding (JCT-3V) significantly outperforms the Multiview Video Coding plus Depth (MVC+D) which simultaneously encodes texture views and depth views with the multiview extension of H.264/AVC (MVC). However, when the 3D-AVC is configured to support multiview compatibility in which texture views are decoded without depth information, the coding performance becomes significantly degraded. The reason is that advanced coding tools incorporated into the 3D-AVC do not perform well due to the lack of a disparity vector converted from the depth information. In this paper, we propose a disparity vector derivation method utilizing only the information of texture views. Motion information of neighboring blocks is used to determine a disparity vector for a macroblock, so that the derived disparity vector is efficiently used for the coding tools in 3D-AVC. The proposed method significantly improves a coding gain of the 3D-AVC in the multiview compatible mode about 20% BD-rate saving in the coded views and 26% BD-rate saving in the synthesized views on average.

  10. J-controlled crack growth as an indicator of hydrogen-stainless steel compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, M.R.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Donovan, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The J-integral was evaluated as a parameter to characterize fracture of stainless steels and as a measure of hydrogen damage. C-shaped specimens of type 304L, 316, and 21-6-9 stainless steels were tested in high pressure helium and hydrogen. The critical force for crack initiation (Jm), and tearing resistance (dJ/da) were decreased by hydrogen in all three alloys. The J-integral appears useful as a measure of hydrogen compatibility because it is sensitive to both test environment and microstructure.

  11. Reuse of a treated red mud bauxite waste: studies on environmental compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunori, Claudia; Cremisini, Carlo; Massanisso, Paolo; Pinto, Valentina; Torricelli, Leonardo

    2005-01-14

    Red mud is the major solid waste produced in the process of alumina extraction from bauxite (Bayer process). Environmental "compatibility" of a treated red mud was studied in order to evaluate its possible recycling in environmental compartments. The leaching test requested by the Italian law on treated solid waste to be "re-introduced in the environment" was performed on this material. Moreover, in order to better evaluate the environmental compatibility, three different types of eco-toxicological tests were applied (Microtox test, ASTM microalgae toxicity test and sea urchin embryo toxicity test). These "chemical" and eco-toxicological tests gave encouraging results. The possibility to use this material for treating contaminated waters and soils was evaluated, again with particular attention to the Italian regulatory system, through experiments on the treated red mud metal trapping ability and on the subsequent release of trapped metals, at low pH conditions. The treated red mud showed a general high metal trapping capacity and the release at low pH was generally low.

  12. Vapor-solid-solid grown Ge nanowires at integrated circuit compatible temperature by molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongyunshen; Song, Yuxin; Zhang, Zhenpu; Sun, Hao; Han, Yi; Li, Yaoyao; Zhang, Liyao; Xue, Zhongying; Di, Zengfeng; Wang, Shumin

    2017-09-01

    We demonstrate Au-assisted vapor-solid-solid (VSS) growth of Ge nanowires (NWs) by molecular beam epitaxy at the substrate temperature of ˜180 °C, which is compatible with the temperature window for Si-based integrated circuit. Low temperature grown Ge NWs hold a smaller size, similar uniformity, and better fit with Au tips in diameter, in contrast to Ge NWs grown at around or above the eutectic temperature of Au-Ge alloy in the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth. Six ⟨110⟩ growth orientations were observed on Ge (110) by the VSS growth at ˜180 °C, differing from only one vertical growth direction of Ge NWs by the VLS growth at a high temperature. The evolution of NWs dimension and morphology from the VLS growth to the VSS growth is qualitatively explained by analyzing the mechanism of the two growth modes.

  13. Ge Microdisk with Lithographically-Tunable Strain using CMOS-Compatible Process

    CERN Document Server

    Sukhdeo, David S; Gupta, Shashank; Kim, Daeik; Woo, Sungdae; Kim, Youngmin; Vuckovic, Jelena; Saraswat, Krishna C; Nam, Donguk

    2015-01-01

    We present germanium microdisk optical resonators under a large biaxial tensile strain using a CMOS-compatible fabrication process. Biaxial tensile strain of ~0.7% is achieved by means of a stress concentration technique that allows the strain level to be customized by carefully selecting certain lithographic dimensions. The partial strain relaxation at the edges of a patterned germanium microdisk is compensated by depositing compressively stressed silicon nitride layer. Two-dimensional Raman spectroscopy measurements along with finite-element method simulations confirm a relatively homogeneous strain distribution within the final microdisk structure. Photoluminescence results show clear optical resonances due to whispering gallery modes which are in good agreement with finite-difference time-domain optical simulations. Our bandgap-customizable microdisks present a new route towards an efficient germanium light source for on-chip optical interconnects.

  14. Broadband enhancement of local density of states using silicon-compatible hyperbolic metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu; Inampudi, Sandeep; Capretti, Antonio [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Sugimoto, Hiroshi [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Fujii, Minoru [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kobe University, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Dal Negro, Luca, E-mail: dalnegro@bu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Photonics Center, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary' s Street Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Boston University, 15 Saint Mary' s Street, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Light emitting silicon quantum dots by colloidal synthesis were uniformly spin-coated into a 20 nm-thick film and deposited atop a hyperbolic metamaterial of alternating TiN and SiO{sub 2} sub-wavelength layers. Using steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy as a function of the emission wavelength in partnership with rigorous electromagnetic modeling of dipolar emission, we demonstrate enhanced Local Density of States and coupling to high-k modes in a broad spectral range. These findings provide an alternative approach for the engineering of novel Si-compatible broadband sources that leverage the control of radiative transitions in hyperbolic metamaterials and the flexibility of the widespread Si platform.

  15. CMOS-compatible photonic devices for single-photon generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Chunle

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sources of single photons are one of the key building blocks for quantum photonic technologies such as quantum secure communication and powerful quantum computing. To bring the proof-of-principle demonstration of these technologies from the laboratory to the real world, complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS-compatible photonic chips are highly desirable for photon generation, manipulation, processing and even detection because of their compactness, scalability, robustness, and the potential for integration with electronics. In this paper, we review the development of photonic devices made from materials (e.g., silicon and processes that are compatible with CMOS fabrication facilities for the generation of single photons.

  16. Microbubble Surface Modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Michel; Palanchon, P.; Goertz, D.; van der Meer, S.M.; Chin, C.T.; Lohse, Detlef; de Jong, N.

    2004-01-01

    We have investigated surface vibrations generated by ultrasound excitation of individual unencapsulated micron-sized bubbles. In addition, we present surface modes (n=2 and 3) observed for phospholipid-coated ultrasound contrast agents excited through excitation of radial modes at frequencies

  17. Entomopathogenic fungi as biological control agents of diamondback moth (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)and compatibility with chemical insecticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to evaluate the efficiency of entomopathogenic fungi against Plutella xylostella (L.) and the compatibility of the most virulent isolates with some of the insecticides registered for use on cabbage crops. Pathogenicity tests used isolates of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium rileyi...

  18. Mode decomposition evolution equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2012-03-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) based methods have become some of the most powerful tools for exploring the fundamental problems in signal processing, image processing, computer vision, machine vision and artificial intelligence in the past two decades. The advantages of PDE based approaches are that they can be made fully automatic, robust for the analysis of images, videos and high dimensional data. A fundamental question is whether one can use PDEs to perform all the basic tasks in the image processing. If one can devise PDEs to perform full-scale mode decomposition for signals and images, the modes thus generated would be very useful for secondary processing to meet the needs in various types of signal and image processing. Despite of great progress in PDE based image analysis in the past two decades, the basic roles of PDEs in image/signal analysis are only limited to PDE based low-pass filters, and their applications to noise removal, edge detection, segmentation, etc. At present, it is not clear how to construct PDE based methods for full-scale mode decomposition. The above-mentioned limitation of most current PDE based image/signal processing methods is addressed in the proposed work, in which we introduce a family of mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs) for a vast variety of applications. The MoDEEs are constructed as an extension of a PDE based high-pass filter (Europhys. Lett., 59(6): 814, 2002) by using arbitrarily high order PDE based low-pass filters introduced by Wei (IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 6(7): 165, 1999). The use of arbitrarily high order PDEs is essential to the frequency localization in the mode decomposition. Similar to the wavelet transform, the present MoDEEs have a controllable time-frequency localization and allow a perfect reconstruction of the original function. Therefore, the MoDEE operation is also called a PDE transform. However, modes generated from the present approach are in the spatial or time domain and can be

  19. Hybrid electro-optic polymer modulator compatible to silicon photonic waveguide (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Shiyoshi

    2016-09-01

    Electro-optic (EO) polymers are the promising material of choice for the waveguide modulation application due to their high EO coefficient, optical transparency, low dielectric loss, and compatibility with many materials and substrates. This widespread compatibility enables the construction of the unique hybrid polymer device to the silicon waveguide. One of the successful demonstrations in recent progress is the hybrid silicon modulator to the EO polymer. The hybrid silicon and polymer modulators have already demonstrated a very low half-wave voltage and multi-GHz bandwidth response. While, the fabrication is quite elaborate, involving the high-resolution lithography, controlled etching, and ion implantation process. In order to simplify the hybrid silicon and EO polymer modulator, we apply the conventional photolithography technique. The waveguide consists of silicon core with a thickness of 30 nm and a width of 2 μm, and the cladding is the polymer. In such a thin silicon core, the side-wall scattering can be significantly reduced, thus the measured propagation loss of the waveguide is 1.5 dB/cm. The optical mode calculation reveals that 55% of the optical field extends into the polymer cladding. The hybrid phase modulator waveguide performed the half-wave voltage of the modulator to be 4.6 V at 1550 nm and excellent temperature stability at 85C for longer than 500 hours. We also investigate a mode converter which can couple the light from the hybrid polymer waveguide to the silicon strip waveguide. The coupling loss between two devices is measured to be 0.5 dB.

  20. Shaft mode shape demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, R.

    1985-01-01

    The dynamic response of a rotating machine is directly influenced by its geometric configuration and all aspects of the rotor construction. These determine two significant parameters, mass distribution and stiffness, which yield a spectrum of natural frequencies and mode shapes. The mode shapes can be presented as snapshots of the characteristic amplitude/phase reponse patterns of the shaft, due to the major forcing function of unbalance, at different rotative speeds. To demonstrate the three shaft mode shapes of the rotor rig using the Shaft Mode Demonstrator and oscilloscopes. The synchronous (1X) amplitude and phase of the rotor vibration in the vertical direction from several points along the shaft is displayed on corresponding points of the demonstrator. Unfiltered vibration from vertical and horizontal probe pairs is displayed on the oscilloscopes in orbit format for a dynamic presentation of the mode shape.

  1. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    This PhD thesis considers higher order modes (HOMs) in optical fibers. That includes their excitation and characteristics. Within the last decades, HOMs have been applied both for space multiplexing in optical communications, group velocity dispersion management and sensing among others....... The research presented in this thesis falls in three parts. In the first part, a first time demonstration of the break of the azimuthal symmetry of the Bessel-like LP0X modes is presented. This effect, known as the bowtie effect, causes the mode to have an azimuthal dependence as well as a quasi......-radial polarization as opposed to the linear polarization of the LP0X modes. The effect is investigated numerically in a double cladding fiber with an outer aircladding using a full vectorial modesolver. Experimentally, the bowtie modes are excited using a long period grating and their free space characteristics...

  2. In vitro blood compatibility of poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate) and the influence of surface modification by alkali treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Feng, E-mail: fengshen0513@gmail.com [School of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China); Zhang Erlin [School of Materials Science, Jiamusi Univeristy, Jiamusi 154007 (China); Wei Zunjie [School of Materials Sciences and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, 150001 (China)

    2010-04-06

    In vitro blood compatibility of poly (hydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx) was evaluated in comparison with poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) by a haemolysis assay, in vitro platelet adhesion test and coagulation measurements including plasma recalcification time (PRT), plasma prothrombin time (PT) and kinetic clotting time. The results showed that PHBHHx exhibited better blood compatibility than PLLA. Furthermore, PHBHHx film was modified by NaOH treatment to improve the surface hydrophilic property and the influence of the surface modification on the blood compatibility was investigated. Surface properties including hydrophilic property, surface appearance and functional groups were characterized by water contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the hydrophilic property of PHBHHx film was obviously improved by the NaOH treatment. It was also shown that the NaOH treatment could significantly enhance the blood compatibility of PHBHHx by prolonging PRT, PT, and kinetic clotting time and decreasing platelet activation. It is thought that the improvement in the hydrophilic property mainly contributes to the enhancement of blood compatibility.

  3. Fractographic study of epoxy fractured under mode I loading and mixed mode I/III loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Fei [ORNL; Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Bertelsen, Williams D. [Gougeon Brothers, Inc.

    2011-01-01

    Fiber reinforced polymeric composite materials are widely used in structural components such as wind turbine blades, which are typically subject to complicated loading conditions. Thus, material response under mixed mode loading is of great significance to the reliability of these structures. Epoxy is a thermosetting polymer that is currently used in manufacturing wind turbine blades. The fracture behavior of epoxy is relevant to the mechanical integrity of the wind turbine composite materials. In this study, a novel fracture testing methodology, the spiral notch torsion test (SNTT), was applied to study the fracture behavior of an epoxy material. SNTT samples were tested using either monotonic loading or cyclic loading, while both mode I and mixed mode I/III loading conditions were used. Fractographic examination indicated the epoxy samples included in this study were prone to mode I failure even when the samples were subject to mixed mode loading. Different fatigue precracks were observed on mode I and mixed mode samples, i.e. precracks appeared as a uniform band under mode I loading, and a semi-ellipse under mixed mode loading. Fracture toughness was also estimated using quantitative fractography.

  4. Electromagnetic Interface Testing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electromagnetic Interface Testing facilitysupports such testing asEmissions, Field Strength, Mode Stirring, EMP Pulser, 4 Probe Monitoring/Leveling System, and...

  5. Context-dependent JPEG backward-compatible high-dynamic range image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshunov, Pavel; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2013-10-01

    High-dynamic range (HDR) imaging is expected, together with ultrahigh definition and high-frame rate video, to become a technology that may change photo, TV, and film industries. Many cameras and displays capable of capturing and rendering both HDR images and video are already available in the market. The popularity and full-public adoption of HDR content is, however, hindered by the lack of standards in evaluation of quality, file formats, and compression, as well as large legacy base of low-dynamic range (LDR) displays that are unable to render HDR. To facilitate the wide spread of HDR usage, the backward compatibility of HDR with commonly used legacy technologies for storage, rendering, and compression of video and images are necessary. Although many tone-mapping algorithms are developed for generating viewable LDR content from HDR, there is no consensus of which algorithm to use and under which conditions. We, via a series of subjective evaluations, demonstrate the dependency of the perceptual quality of the tone-mapped LDR images on the context: environmental factors, display parameters, and image content itself. Based on the results of subjective tests, it proposes to extend JPEG file format, the most popular image format, in a backward compatible manner to deal with HDR images also. An architecture to achieve such backward compatibility with JPEG is proposed. A simple implementation of lossy compression demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed architecture compared with the state-of-the-art HDR image compression.

  6. Research on micro-structure and hemo-compatibility of the artificial heart valve surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Xia [Center of Photonics Fabrication, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu Teachers University of Technology, Changzhou 213015 (China); Shao Yunliang [Center of Photonics Fabrication, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhou Ming, E-mail: zm_laser@126.com [Center of Photonics Fabrication, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Li Jian; Cai Lan [Center of Photonics Fabrication, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China)

    2009-04-15

    In order to seek the method to improve the hemo-compatibility of artificial mechanical heart valve, the surface of rabbit's heart valve was observed using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the dual-scale structure which consists of cobblestones-like structure of 8 {mu}m in underside diameter and 3 {mu}m in height, and the fine cilia of about 150 nm in diameter, was helpful to the hemo-compatibility of the heart valve. Therefore, the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface with hierarchical micro-structure was fabricated using femtosecond laser fabrication technique and soft lithography. At the same time, the tests of apparent contact angle and platelet adhesion on both smooth and textured PDMS surfaces were carried out to study their wettability and hemo-compatibility. The results demonstrated that the surface with textured structure displayed more excellent wettabililty and anti-coagulation property than that of smooth surface. The apparent contact angle of textured surface enhanced from 113.1 deg. to 163.6 deg. and the amount of adsorbed platelet on such surface was fewer, no distortion and no activation were found.

  7. Assessing compatibility of direct detection data: halo-independent global likelihood analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Witte, Samuel J.

    2016-10-01

    We present two different halo-independent methods to assess the compatibility of several direct dark matter detection data sets for a given dark matter model using a global likelihood consisting of at least one extended likelihood and an arbitrary number of Gaussian or Poisson likelihoods. In the first method we find the global best fit halo function (we prove that it is a unique piecewise constant function with a number of down steps smaller than or equal to a maximum number that we compute) and construct a two-sided pointwise confidence band at any desired confidence level, which can then be compared with those derived from the extended likelihood alone to assess the joint compatibility of the data. In the second method we define a ``constrained parameter goodness-of-fit'' test statistic, whose p-value we then use to define a ``plausibility region'' (e.g. where p >= 10%). For any halo function not entirely contained within the plausibility region, the level of compatibility of the data is very low (e.g. p < 10%). We illustrate these methods by applying them to CDMS-II-Si and SuperCDMS data, assuming dark matter particles with elastic spin-independent isospin-conserving interactions or exothermic spin-independent isospin-violating interactions.

  8. Assessing Compatibility of Direct Detection Data: Halo-Independent Global Likelihood Analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Gelmini, Graciela B.

    2016-10-18

    We present two different halo-independent methods utilizing a global maximum likelihood that can assess the compatibility of dark matter direct detection data given a particular dark matter model. The global likelihood we use is comprised of at least one extended likelihood and an arbitrary number of Poisson or Gaussian likelihoods. In the first method we find the global best fit halo function and construct a two sided pointwise confidence band, which can then be compared with those derived from the extended likelihood alone to assess the joint compatibility of the data. In the second method we define a "constrained parameter goodness-of-fit" test statistic, whose $p$-value we then use to define a "plausibility region" (e.g. where $p \\geq 10\\%$). For any halo function not entirely contained within the plausibility region, the level of compatibility of the data is very low (e.g. $p < 10 \\%$). As an example we apply these methods to CDMS-II-Si and SuperCDMS data, assuming dark matter particles with elastic s...

  9. [Compatible biomass models for main tree species with measurement error in Heilongjiang Province of Northeast China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-hu; Li, Feng-ri; Jia, Wei-wei; Liu, Fu-xiang; Wang, He-zhi

    2011-10-01

    Based on the biomass data of 516 sampling trees, and by using non-linear error-in-variable modeling approach, the compatible models for the total biomass and the biomass of six components including aboveground part, underground part, stem, crown, branch, and foliage of 15 major tree species (or groups) in Heilongjiang Province were established, and the best models for the total biomass and components biomass were selected. The compatible models based on total biomass were developed by adopting the method of joint control different level ratio function. The heteroscedasticity of the models for total biomass was eliminated with log transformation, and the weighted regression was applied to the models for each individual component. Among the compatible biomass models established for the 15 major species (or groups) , the model for total biomass had the highest prediction precision (90% or more), followed by the models for aboveground part and stem biomass, with a precision of 87.5% or more. The prediction precision of the biomass models for other components was relatively low, but it was still greater than 80% for most test tree species. The modeling efficiency (EF) values of the total, aboveground part, and stem biomass models for all the tree species (or groups) were over 0.9, and the EF values of the underground part, crown, branch, and foliage biomass models were over 0.8.

  10. Compatibility Indicators in Developing Consolidation Materials with Nanoparticle Insertions for Old Wooden Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina TIMAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The conservation of old wooden objects is a complex domain that encapsulates science, aesthetics and art. A priority in wood conservation is the operation of consolidation. Historical wooden objects are frail and present different forms of degradation, often active infestation being present. Maintaining physical integrity and authenticity are thus priorities for the object in question. A consolidation material should not only impart sufficient mechanical strength to the object, but be compatible with all the materials that are part of the object. A myriad of new potential materials and technologies are worth special attention in solving major problems in wood consolidation. Aiming to develop new nanotechnologic consolidation materials for old wood, we conducted several researches. Before testing the benefits of adding nanoparticles into the recipe of consolidation materials for old wood, one has firstly to establish compatibility criteria and indicators between the matrix and the insertion in each case. That is the topic of the present paper. The results obtained, namely a list of compatibility indicators, represent the starting point in developing innovative consolidation materials with nanoparticle insertions.

  11. Compatibility of strontium-90 fluoride with containment materials at elevated temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-08-01

    The use of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ as a heat-source fuel requires that the /sup 90/Sr be adequately contained during heat-source service. A program for determining the compatibility of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ with containment materials at heat-source operating temperatures is described. These compatibility studies included: initial and supplemental screening tests; WESF /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ capsule demonstration tests; thermal gradient test; and long-term tests. TZM, Haynes Alloy 25, and Hastelloy C-276 were the three materitals selected for evaluation at 600/sup 0/, 800/sup 0/ and 1000/sup 0/C for periods up to 30,000 h. Results showed that all three alloys suffered substantial attack when exposed to the /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/, although the TZM was more resistant to attack than the Hastelloy C-276 and Haynes Alloy 25. The latter two alloys appeared to provide about equal resistance to fluoride attack for exposures longer than about 12,000 h. Attack of the alloys tested by the /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ was due primarily to impurities.

  12. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-12-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber.

  13. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-01-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber. PMID:26868709

  14. Contrastive Compatibility in Some Arabic Dialects and Their Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadora, Frederic J.

    1976-01-01

    This study assesses and characterizes lexical relationships among the major urban Syro-Lebanese varieties of Arabic. To achieve this quantitative analysis of degrees of similarity or differentiation, an analytical procedure based on lexical compatibility was developed. Secondarily, a classification of these varieties is presented as a by-product…

  15. Creative Commons licenses and design: are the two compatible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jasserand, C.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses whether Creative Commons licences are applicable to and compatible with design. The first part focuses on the peculiar and complex nature of a design, which can benefit from a copyright and a design protection. This shows how it can affect the use of Creative Commons licences.

  16. Operation compatibility: a neglected contribution to dual-task costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, M.M.; Band, G.P.H.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, dual-task interference has been attributed to the consequences of task load exceeding capacity limitations. However, the current study demonstrates that in addition to task load, the mutual compatibility of the concurrent processes modulates whether 2 tasks can be performed in

  17. Leaders, Leadership and Democracy--Are They Compatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schostak, John

    2016-01-01

    This article is taken from a talk given by John Schostak at the Co-Operative Head Office, Manchester on 25 September 2015. Question addressed in this paper include: (1) To what extent is leadership needed for a democratic life?; (2) What form of democratic organisation, if any, is compatible with leadership?; and (3) Is democracy undermined by…

  18. Circuit board design for good electromagnetic compatibility performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearpark, J

    2005-10-01

    Design engineers need to consider the electromagnetic performance of printed circuit boards to adhere to electromagnetic compatibility requirements. This article examines factors that influence performance and outlines techniques to avoid the use of overly expensive screen enclosures in order to comply with the standards.

  19. Compatibility of fixed orthodontic appliances with MR environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starčuk jr., Zenon; Hubálková, H.; Starčuková, Jana; Linetskiy, I.; Bartušek, Karel; Krupa, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 19, Suppl. 1 (2006), EPOS 726:1-7 E-ISSN 1352-8661 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : orthodontic appliance * magnetic resonance * compatibility * dentistry * artifact Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 0.756, year: 2005 http://posters.webges.com/esmrmb/epos

  20. An IC-compatible polyimide pressure sensor with capacitive readout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedersen, M.; Meijerink, M.G.H.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet

    1997-01-01

    A capacitive differential pressure sensor has been developed. The process used for the fabrication of the sensor is IC-compatible, meaning that the device potentially can be integrated on one chip with a suitable signal-conditioning circuit. A sensor for a differential pressure of ±1 bar has been

  1. Compatibility of the holy Qur'an with sciences: anthropological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus Allah has encouraged us since more than 14 centuries; to study the past of beings included that of humans and, therefore to found the two other anthropological specialities: the Archaeology and the Paleoanthropology. In other verses Allah designates other important anthropological concepts compatible with the most ...

  2. 77 FR 59702 - Promoting U.S. EC Regulatory Compatibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... to be addressed (including any information on negative effects of these differences and on the... markets and technologies. As we continue in the High Level Working Group on Jobs and Growth to examine the... approaches to standards; and An assessment of the effects of enhanced regulatory compatibility (quantified...

  3. The compatibility of fingerprint visualization techniques with immunolabeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, Annemieke; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Lambrechts, Saskia A. G.

    2013-01-01

    The chemical composition of a fingermark potentially holds a wealth of information about the fingermark donor, which can be extracted by immunolabeling. Immunolabeling can be used to detect specific components in fingermarks; however, to be applicable in the forensic field, it should be compatible

  4. 47 CFR 68.316 - Hearing aid compatibility: Technical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-504 Magnetic Field Intensity Criteria for Telephone Compatibility With Hearing Aids Table of Contents... communications since the 1940's. Magnetic pick-ups in hearing-aids have provided for coupling to many, but not... useful to anyone engaged in the manufacture of telephone terminal equipment and hearing-aids and to those...

  5. compatible volume-taper equations for predicting merchantable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    ABSTRACT: Compatible systems of merchantable total tree cubic volume and stem taper equations are derived by integrating an existing volume equation. The systems are developed to yield volume at any merchantable length, total volume and for any merchantable top diameter. It is also demonstrated that the most ...

  6. Compatible volume-taper equations for predicting merchantable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compatible systems of merchantable total tree cubic volume and stem taper equations are derived by integrating an existing volume equation. The systems are developed to yield volume at any merchantable length, total volume and for any merchantable top diameter. It is also demonstrated that the most common types of ...

  7. 36 CFR 1193.21 - Accessibility, usability, and compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accessibility, usability, and compatibility. 1193.21 Section 1193.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES General Requirements § 1193.21...

  8. Genetics of wide compatible gene and variability studies in rice ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 95; Issue 2. Genetics of wide compatible gene and variability studies in rice (Oryza sativa L.) S. REVATHI K. SAKTHIVEL S. MANONMANI M. UMADEVI R. USHAKUMARI S. ROBIN.

  9. Spectral measurement using IC-compatible linear variable optical filter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emadi, A.; Grabarnik, S.; Wu, H.; De Graaf, G.; Hedsten, K.; Enoksson, P.; Correia, J.H.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the functional and spectral characterization of a microspectrometer based on a CMOS detector array covered by an IC-Compatible Linear Variable Optical Filter (LVOF). The Fabry-Perot LVOF is composed of 15 dielectric layers with a tapered middle cavity layer, which has been

  10. Biocytin: a neuronal tracer compatible with rapid decalcification procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirsig-Wiechmann, C R

    1994-03-01

    The compatibility of neuronal tract-tracing and decalcification procedures was examined in salamander nasal chemosensory systems. Biocytin, but not horseradish peroxidase, retained its labeling capacity following rapid decalcification of the cranial bone. The combination of biocytin tract-tracing and decalcification procedures allows the visualization of labeled neurons and/or their projections within bony regions of intact specimens.

  11. Pollen-pistil compatibility relationships in some Iranian almond ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The identification of pollen-pistil compatibility relationships among almond cultivars and genotypes is very important for breeders and growers. In the present study, PCR based technique was used to identify S-alleles in 10 late blooming almond genotypes. In total, 19 alleles were amplified by five primer pairs in the studied ...

  12. On Incentive Compatibility and Budget Balancedness in Public Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suijs, J.P.M.

    1995-01-01

    Holstroem (1979) showed that Groves' schemes are the unique incentive compatible transfer schemes for public decision making problems if the domain of preferences is smoothly connected. In this paper we will show that this result can be extended to public decision making problems with a connected

  13. Compatibility and economic assessment of sweetpotato and garden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, sole cropping of NR05/022 variety of Sweetpotato had the best Naira return on investment with a BCR of 3.25. It is therefore recommended that Sweetpotato and garden egg are compatible and intercropping them in a humid ultisol is economically viable. So farmers in the study area are encouraged to intercrop ...

  14. Mode choice model parameters estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Strnad, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The present work focuses on parameter estimation of two mode choice models: multinomial logit and EVA 2 model, where four different modes and five different trip purposes are taken into account. Mode choice model discusses the behavioral aspect of mode choice making and enables its application to a traffic model. Mode choice model includes mode choice affecting trip factors by using each mode and their relative importance to choice made. When trip factor values are known, it...

  15. Blood Compatibility of ZrO2 Particle Reinforced PEEK Coatings on Ti6Al4V Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Song

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Titanium (Ti and its alloys are widely used in biomedical devices. As biomaterials, the blood compatibility of Ti and its alloys is important and needs to be further improved to provide better functionality. In this work, we studied the suitability of zirconia (ZrO2 particle reinforced poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK coatings on Ti6Al4V substrates for blood-contacting implants. The wettability, surface roughness and elastic modulus of the coatings were examined. Blood compatibility tests were conducted by erythrocytes observation, hemolysis assay and clotting time of recalcified human plasma, to find out correlations between the microstructure of the ZrO2-filled PEEK composite coatings and their blood compatibilities. The results suggested that adding ZrO2 nanoparticles increased the surface roughness and improved the wettability and Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov (DMT elastic modulus of PEEK coating. The PEEK composite matrix coated Ti6Al4V specimens did not cause any aggregation of erythrocytes, showing morphological normal shapes. The hemolysis rate (HR values of the tested specimens were much less than 5% according to ISO 10993-4 standard. The values of plasma recalcification time (PRT of the tested specimens varied with the increasing amount of ZrO2 nanoparticles. Based on the results obtained, 10 wt % ZrO2 particle reinforced PEEK coating has demonstrated an optimum blood compatibility, and can be considered as a candidate to improve the performance of existing PEEK based coatings on titanium substrates.

  16. Surface modes in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic surface modes are present at all surfaces and interfaces between material of different dielectric properties. These modes have very important effects on numerous physical quantities: adhesion, capillary force, step formation and crystal growth, the Casimir effect etc. They cause surface tension and wetting and they give rise to forces which are important e.g. for the stability of colloids.This book is a useful and elegant approach to the topic, showing how the concept of electromagnetic modes can be developed as a unifying theme for a range of condensed matter physics. The

  17. 3-D Mixed Mode Delamination Fracture Criteria - An Experimentalist's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Many delamination failure criteria based on fracture toughness have been suggested over the past few decades, but most only covered the region containing mode I and mode II components of loading because that is where toughness data existed. With new analysis tools, more 3D analyses are being conducted that capture a mode III component of loading. This has increased the need for a fracture criterion that incorporates mode III loading. The introduction of a pure mode III fracture toughness test has also produced data on which to base a full 3D fracture criterion. In this paper, a new framework for visualizing 3D fracture criteria is introduced. The common 2D power law fracture criterion was evaluated to produce unexpected predictions with the introduction of mode III and did not perform well in the critical high mode I region. Another 2D criterion that has been shown to model a wide range of materials well was used as the basis for a new 3D criterion. The new criterion is based on assumptions that the relationship between mode I and mode III toughness is similar to the relation between mode I and mode II and that a linear interpolation can be used between mode II and mode III. Until mixed-mode data exists with a mode III component of loading, 3D fracture criteria cannot be properly evaluated, but these assumptions seem reasonable.

  18. Amplitude damping of Laguerre-Gaussian modes - Journal Article

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors present an amplitude damping channel for Laguerre-Gaussian modes. The channel is tested experimentally for a Laguerre-Gaussian mode, having an azimuthal index l = 1, illustrating that it decays to a Gaussian mode in good...

  19. Preparation and Compatibility Evaluation of Polypropylene/High Density Polyethylene Polyblends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Horng Lin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes melt-blending polypropylene (PP and high density polyethylene (HDPE that have a similar melt flow index (MFI to form PP/HDPE polyblends. The influence of the content of HDPE on the properties and compatibility of polyblends is examined by using a tensile test, flexural test, Izod impact test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, polarized light microscopy (PLM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The SEM results show that PP and HDPE are incompatible polymers with PP being a continuous phase and HDPE being a dispersed phase. The FTIR results show that the combination of HDPE does not influence the chemical structure of PP, indicating that the polyblends are made of a physical blending. The DSC and XRD results show that PP and HDPE are not compatible, and the combination of HDPE is not correlated with the crystalline structure and stability of PP. The PLM results show that the combination of HDPE causes stacking and incompatibility between HDPE and PP spherulites, and PP thus has incomplete spherulite morphology and a smaller spherulite size. However, according to mechanical property test results, the combination of HDPE improves the impact strength of PP.

  20. Preparation and Compatibility Evaluation of Polypropylene/High Density Polyethylene Polyblends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-Horng; Pan, Yi-Jun; Liu, Chi-Fan; Huang, Chien-Lin; Hsieh, Chien-Teng; Chen, Chih-Kuang; Lin, Zheng-Ian; Lou, Ching-Wen

    2015-12-17

    This study proposes melt-blending polypropylene (PP) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) that have a similar melt flow index (MFI) to form PP/HDPE polyblends. The influence of the content of HDPE on the properties and compatibility of polyblends is examined by using a tensile test, flexural test, Izod impact test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized light microscopy (PLM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The SEM results show that PP and HDPE are incompatible polymers with PP being a continuous phase and HDPE being a dispersed phase. The FTIR results show that the combination of HDPE does not influence the chemical structure of PP, indicating that the polyblends are made of a physical blending. The DSC and XRD results show that PP and HDPE are not compatible, and the combination of HDPE is not correlated with the crystalline structure and stability of PP. The PLM results show that the combination of HDPE causes stacking and incompatibility between HDPE and PP spherulites, and PP thus has incomplete spherulite morphology and a smaller spherulite size. However, according to mechanical property test results, the combination of HDPE improves the impact strength of PP.