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Sample records for test collection tc

  1. Presentation of test cases TC-2A, TC-2B, TC-2C, TC-2D - Twodimensional, incompressible, wall flows with separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheel Larsen, Poul

    1988-01-01

    The four test cases comprise the backfacing step at high Re-number (TC-2A) and low Re-number (TC-2B), a low Re-number boundary layer flow past a thin obstacle, fence-on-wall (TC-2C), and a high Re-number developed channel flow past a squareobstacle (TC-2D). Geometry, test conditions and available...

  2. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2008-03-30

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC24, the first test campaign using a bituminous coal as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC24 was conducted from February 16, 2008, through March 19, 2008. The PSDF gasification process operated for about 230 hours in air-blown gasification mode with about 225 tons of Utah bituminous coal feed. Operational challenges in gasifier operation were related to particle agglomeration, a large percentage of oversize coal particles, low overall gasifier solids collection efficiency, and refractory degradation in the gasifier solids collection unit. The carbon conversion and syngas heating values varied widely, with low values obtained during periods of low gasifier operating temperature. Despite the operating difficulties, several periods of steady state operation were achieved, which provided useful data for future testing. TC24 operation afforded the opportunity for testing of various types of technologies, including dry coal feeding with a developmental feeder, the Pressure Decoupled Advanced Coal (PDAC) feeder; evaluating a new hot gas filter element media configuration; and enhancing syngas cleanup with water-gas shift catalysts. During TC24, the PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane.

  3. GASIFICATION TEST RUN TC06

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services, Inc.

    2003-08-01

    This report discusses test campaign TC06 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC06. Test run TC06 was started on July 4, 2001, and completed on September 24, 2001, with an interruption in service between July 25, 2001, and August 19, 2001, due to a filter element failure in the PCD caused by abnormal operating conditions while tuning the main air compressor. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 190 to 230 psig. In TC06, 1,214 hours of solid circulation and 1,025 hours of coal feed were attained with 797 hours of coal feed after the filter element failure. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. Due to its length and stability, the TC06 test run provided valuable data necessary to analyze long-term reactor operations and to identify necessary modifications to improve equipment and process performance as well as progressing the goal of many thousands of hours of filter element exposure.

  4. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2002-04-05

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC07 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Reactor train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Reactor is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed reactor designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Reactor was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC07. Prior to TC07, the Transport Reactor was modified to allow operations as an oxygen-blown gasifier. Test Run TC07 was started on December 11, 2001, and the sand circulation tests (TC07A) were completed on December 14, 2001. The coal-feed tests (TC07B-D) were started on January 17, 2002 and completed on April 5, 2002. Due to operational difficulties with the reactor, the unit was taken offline several times. The reactor temperature was varied between 1,700 and 1,780 F at pressures from 200 to 240 psig. In TC07, 679 hours of solid circulation and 442 hours of coal feed, 398 hours with PRB coal and 44 hours with coal from the Calumet mine, and 33 hours of coke breeze feed were attained. Reactor operations were problematic due to instrumentation problems in the LMZ resulting in much higher than desired operating temperatures in the reactor. Both reactor and PCD operations were stable and the modifications to the lower part of the gasifier performed well while testing the gasifier with PRB coal feed.

  5. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaign TC25

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2008-12-01

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF), located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device, advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high-pressure solids handling systems. This report summarizes the results of TC25, the second test campaign using a high moisture lignite coal from the Red Hills mine in Mississippi as the feedstock in the modified Transport Gasifier configuration. TC25 was conducted from July 4, 2008, through August 12, 2008. During TC25, the PSDF gasification process operated for 742 hours in air-blown gasification mode. Operation with the Mississippi lignite was significantly improved in TC25 compared to the previous test (TC22) with this fuel due to the addition of a fluid bed coal dryer. The new dryer was installed to dry coals with very high moisture contents for reliable coal feeding. The TC25 test campaign demonstrated steady operation with high carbon conversion and optimized performance of the coal handling and gasifier systems. Operation during TC25 provided the opportunity for further testing of instrumentation enhancements, hot gas filter materials, and advanced syngas cleanup technologies. The PSDF site was also made available for testing of the National Energy Technology Laboratory's fuel cell module and Media Process Technology's hydrogen selective membrane with syngas from the Transport Gasifier.

  6. Tc-99 Adsorption on Selected Activated Carbons - Batch Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattigod, Shas V.; Wellman, Dawn M.; Golovich, Elizabeth C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Smith, Ronald M.

    2010-12-01

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently developing a 200-West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system as the remedial action selected under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Record of Decision for Operable Unit (OU) 200-ZP-1. This report documents the results of treatability tests Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers conducted to quantify the ability of selected activated carbon products (or carbons) to adsorb technetium-99 (Tc-99) from 200-West Area groundwater. The Tc-99 adsorption performance of seven activated carbons (J177601 Calgon Fitrasorb 400, J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, J177612 Norit GAC830, J177613 Norit GAC830, and J177617 Nucon LW1230) were evaluated using water from well 299-W19-36. Four of the best performing carbons (J177606 Siemens AC1230AWC, J177609 Carbon Resources CR-1240-AW, J177611 General Carbon GC20X50, and J177613 Norit GAC830) were selected for batch isotherm testing. The batch isotherm tests on four of the selected carbons indicated that under lower nitrate concentration conditions (382 mg/L), Kd values ranged from 6,000 to 20,000 mL/g. In comparison. Under higher nitrate (750 mg/L) conditions, there was a measureable decrease in Tc-99 adsorption with Kd values ranging from 3,000 to 7,000 mL/g. The adsorption data fit both the Langmuir and the Freundlich equations. Supplemental tests were conducted using the two carbons that demonstrated the highest adsorption capacity to resolve the issue of the best fit isotherm. These tests indicated that Langmuir isotherms provided the best fit for Tc-99 adsorption under low nitrate concentration conditions. At the design basis concentration of Tc 0.865 µg/L(14,700 pCi/L), the predicted Kd values from using Langmuir isotherm constants were 5,980 mL/g and 6,870 mL/g for for the two carbons. These Kd values did not meet the target Kd value of 9,000 mL/g. Tests

  7. Behavior of 99Tc in doped-glass/basalt hydrothermal interaction tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, D.G.; Apted, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    The release of polyvalent radionuclides from a nuclear waste repository located in basalt may be sensitively related to the redox potential (Eh) imposed by the basalt. A series of tests are reported here, evaluating the effect of basalt on the concentrations of 99 Tc released into solution from a borosilicate glass waste form. Crushed PNL 76-68 glass, doped with 0.7 mg 99 Tc/g glass, was reacted with reference basalt groundwater under oxic hydrothermal conditions in a sampling autoclave, both alone and in the presence of crushed basalt. The steady state fluid concentrations of 99 Tc and various table species were determined from samples obtained at the test conditions of 200 0 C, 30 MPa, and a initial solution to solid mass ratio of 10 for both tests. In the glass + groundwater test, the 99 Tc concentration rose rapidly to about 50 mg/L after only 200 hr of run time and remained at a value between 50 and 60 mg/L throughout the duration of the test. For the basalt + glass + groundwater test, the 99 Tc concentration rose to an initial value of about 2.5 mg/L. At about 700 hr, the 99 Tc concentration began to drop rapidly until a value near the analytical detection limit (approximately 0.005 mg/L) was reached after a test duration of 1400 hr. It is concluded that the presence of basalt in these hydrothermal experiments reduces the concentration of 99 Tc in solution by nearly four orders of magnitude, probably by control of solution Eh and subsequent precipitation of a solid containing a reduced form of technetium. Reaction mechanisms are discussed that can account for these observations. 17 references, 1 figure

  8. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC09

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2002-09-30

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC09 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode of operation using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Gasifier was operated as a pressurized gasifier during TC09 in air- and oxygen-blown modes. Test Run TC09 was started on September 3, 2002, and completed on September 26, 2002. Both gasifier and PCD operations were stable during the test run, with a stable baseline pressure drop. The oxygen feed supply system worked well and the transition from air to oxygen was smooth. The gasifier temperature varied between 1,725 and 1,825 F at pressures from 125 to 270 psig. The gasifier operates at lower pressure during oxygen-blown mode due to the supply pressure of the oxygen system. In TC09, 414 hours of solid circulation and over 300 hours of coal feed were attained with almost 80 hours of pure oxygen feed.

  9. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Campaing TC18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2005-08-31

    In support of technology development to utilize coal for efficient, affordable, and environmentally clean power generation, the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama, routinely demonstrates gasification technologies using various types of coals. The PSDF is an engineering scale demonstration of key features of advanced coal-fired power systems, including a KBR Transport Gasifier, a hot gas particulate control device (PCD), advanced syngas cleanup systems, and high pressure solids handling systems. This report details Test Campaign TC18 of the PSDF gasification process. Test campaign TC18 began on June 23, 2005, and ended on August 22, 2005, with the gasifier train accumulating 1,342 hours of operation using Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. Some of the testing conducted included commissioning of a new recycle syngas compressor for gasifier aeration, evaluation of PCD filter elements and failsafes, testing of gas cleanup technologies, and further evaluation of solids handling equipment. At the conclusion of TC18, the PSDF gasification process had been operated for more than 7,750 hours.

  10. Tc and Re Behavior in Borosilicate Waste Glass Vapor Hydration Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, David A.; Buechele, Andrew C.; Pegg, Ian L.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Shuh, David K.

    2007-01-01

    Technetium (Tc), found in some nuclear wastes, is of particular concern with regard to long-term storage, because of its long-lived radioactivity and high mobility in the environment. Tc and rhenium (Re), commonly used as a non-radioactive surrogate for Tc, were studied to assess their behavior in borosilicate glass under hydrothermal conditions in the Vapor Hydration Test (VHT). X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements were made on the original Tc- and Re-containing glasses and their corresponding VHT samples, and show different behavior for Tc and Re under VHT conditions. XAS indicates that, despite starting with different Tc(IV) and Tc(VII) distributions in each glass, the VHT samples have 100% Tc(IV)O 6 environments. SEM shows complete alteration of the original glass, Tc enrichment near the sample surface, and Tc depletion in the center. Perrhenate (Re(VII)O 4 - ) is dominant in both Re-containing samples before and after the VHT, where Re is depleted near the VHT sample surface and more concentrated toward the center. (authors)

  11. Dose calibrator linearity test: {sup 99m}Tc versus {sup 18}F radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willegaignon, Jose; Coura-Filho, George Barberio; Garcez, Alexandre Teles, E-mail: willegaignon@hotmail.com [Instituto do Cancer do Estado de Sao Paulo Octavio Frias de Oliveira (ICESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina; Alves, Carlos Eduardo Gonzalez Ribeiro; Cardona, Marissa Anabel Rivera; Gutterres, Ricardo Fraga [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-01-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at evaluating the viability of replacing {sup 18}F with {sup 99m}Tc in dose calibrator linearity testing. Materials and methods: the test was performed with sources of {sup 99m}Tc (62 GBq) and {sup 18}F (12 GBq) whose activities were measured up to values lower than 1 MBq. Ratios and deviations between experimental and theoretical {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F sources activities were calculated and subsequently compared. Results: mean deviations between experimental and theoretical {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F sources activities were 0.56 (± 1.79)% and 0.92 (± 1.19)%, respectively. The mean ratio between activities indicated by the device for the {sup 99m}Tc source as measured with the equipment precalibrated to measure {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 18}F was 3.42 (± 0.06), and for the {sup 18}F source this ratio was 3.39 (± 0.05), values considered constant over the measurement time. Conclusion: the results of the linearity test using {sup 99m}Tc were compatible with those obtained with the {sup 18}F source, indicating the viability of utilizing both radioisotopes in dose calibrator linearity testing. Such information in association with the high potential of radiation exposure and costs involved in {sup 18}F acquisition suggest {sup 99m}Tc as the element of choice to perform dose calibrator linearity tests in centers that use {sup 18}F, without any detriment to the procedure as well as to the quality of the nuclear medicine service. (author)

  12. The determination of 99Tc by ICP-MS in samples collected near nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihsanullah; East, B.W.

    1991-01-01

    99 Tc occurs naturally in the earth's crust primarily from spontaneous fission of 238 U and slow neutron-induced fission of 235 U. 99 Tc is also produced from nuclear detonation tests, nuclear fuel processing plants and nuclear power stations. By comparison to other sources, the contribution to 99 Tc from natural sources and use of 99m Tc in medicine is considered to be negligible. Releases of 99 Tc from the nuclear fuel cycle include reactor operation, nuclear fuel reprocessing, UF 6 conversion, uranium enrichment, U fuel fabrication, high-level waste solidification, low and high-level waste disposal; however the main contribution to the release of 99 Tc is the process of uranium enrichment. Various environmental samples from the Irish Sea and from Chernobyl have been analysed for 99 Tc by newly developed procedures using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique. (author)

  13. 99m Tc-MDP deposition in testes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calegaro, J.U.M.; Carvalho, A.C.M. de

    A case of 99m Tc-MDP deposition in the testes of a patient who was submmited to therapeutic orquiectomy for prostatic adenocarcinoma six years ago, during bone scintigraphy, is reported. A brief review of the pertinent literature has been made with discussion of the possible mechanism justifying the finding. (Author) [pt

  14. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy and function test with sup(99m)Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (sup(99m)Tc-PMT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Kazuro; Nishiyama, Shoji; Narabayashi, Isamu

    1985-01-01

    The authors studied the effectiveness of sup(99m)Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan (sup(99m)Tc-PMT) for dynamic imaging and function on 40 patients with various hepatobiliary diseases and on healthy individuals. In healthy subjects, sup(99m)Tc-PMT is rapidly removed from the blood by the parenchymal cells of the liver and is excreted through the biliary system. The imaging of the liver, bile ducts, gallbladder and intestines with sup(99m)Tc-PMT was satisfactory. There was no renal visualization. In the case of serial images of healthy individuals, the gallbladder, intrahepatic bile duct and small intestine were visualized after 18.8 +- 7.2, 8.8 +- 1.4, and 16.7 +- 6.3 min, respectively; the mean peak time on the hepatogram was 8.0 +- 5.3 min. The bile ducts of patients with liver disorders were visualized later than those of healthy individuals. Particularly in the case of severe liver parenchymal diseases, the appearance time for the bile duct was significantly delayed. However, the delays in appearance time did not correlate well with low scores on the liver function test. At 70 min after the intravenous administration of sup(99m)Tc-PMT, 2.5 +- 1.5 % of the injected dose was excreted into the urine of the healthy individuals. The urinary excretion of sup(99m)Tc-PMT by the patients with hepatobiliary diseases showed no increase, and it was not entirely related to the results of the serum function tests. However, a larger amount of sup(99m)Tc-PMT was retained in the blood of the patients with hepatobiliary diseases. The blood retention values at 20 min after injection into those with liver cirrhosis and hepatoma were significantly delayed. (author)

  15. Testing the radiochemical purity of a radiopharmaceutical: study of 99mTc-Tetrofosmin (Myoview)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moati, F.; Quartarone, C.; Jourdain, J.R.; Rizzo, N.; Dumont, A.; De Beco, V.; Ait Ben Ali, S.; Lours, S.; Piketty, M.L.; Izembart, M.; Goudou, C.; Lemercier, V.; Schlageter, M.H.; Moretti, J.L.; Progent, A.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this study is to optimize the testing method of radiochemical purity (RCP) of 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin proposed by the Amersham Company: thin-layer chromatography (TLC); ITLC-SG support, migration on 15 Cm; acetone-dichloromethane mobile phase, (35/65, v/v), This technique allows separating the reduced-Tc (Rf = 0), the TcO 4 - (Rf = 1), and in intermediary position (0.2 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin. The results of RCP depend on working conditions, particularly, on the volume of deposit (10 to 20 μl, expected). If the deposited is too small, the 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin does not migrate. With a volume of 20 μl, the separation is weak and the peak width is un-resolvable. The results obtained correspond to the following operational conditions: migration on 8 cm; deposit of 8 to 10 μl; no drying. In these conditions the peak of 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin is well singled out: migration Rf of 0.375 to 0.625. These results have been obtained by the analysis of radio-chromatographic peak. Every strip has been cut cm by cm and the activity was measured by a gamma counter. Repeatability of the method on a series of 8 tests is good: average RCP 93.22%, mean value = 93.24%. The reproducibility was realized by measuring directly by the activity-meter the activity corresponding to 3 identifiable peaks: Reduced Tc (Rf 4 - (Rf 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin (0.25 < Rf < 0.75). On the 21 effectuated tests the inter-test RCP reproducibility was good: average value = 95.24%, CV = 2.07%, mean value 95.3%). In conclusion, the miniaturization improves the separation by Myoview (0.25 < Rf < 0.75), diminishes the migration time by a factor 4 and lowers the reactive cost of testing by 50%

  16. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2003-04-30

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC11 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode of operation using a particulate control device (PCD). Test run TC11 began on April 7, 2003, with startup of the main air compressor and the lighting of the gasifier start-up burner. The Transport Gasifier operated until April 18, 2003, when a gasifier upset forced the termination of the test run. Over the course of the entire test run, gasifier temperatures varied between 1,650 and 1,800 F at pressures from 160 to 200 psig during air-blown operations and around 135 psig during enriched-air operations. Due to a restriction in the oxygen-fed lower mixing zone (LMZ), the majority of the test run featured air-blown operations.

  17. Power Systems Development Facility Gasification Test Run TC08

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southern Company Services

    2002-06-30

    This report discusses Test Campaign TC08 of the Kellogg Brown & Root, Inc. (KBR) Transport Gasifier train with a Siemens Westinghouse Power Corporation (Siemens Westinghouse) particle filter system at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) located in Wilsonville, Alabama. The Transport Gasifier is an advanced circulating fluidized-bed gasifier designed to operate as either a combustor or a gasifier in air- or oxygen-blown mode using a particulate control device (PCD). The Transport Gasifier was operated as a pressurized gasifier in air- and oxygen-blown modes during TC08. Test Run TC08 was started on June 9, 2002 and completed on June 29. Both gasifier and PCD operations were stable during the test run with a stable baseline pressure drop. The oxygen feed supply system worked well and the transition from air to oxygen blown was smooth. The gasifier temperature was varied between 1,710 and 1,770 F at pressures from 125 to 240 psig. The gasifier operates at lower pressure during oxygen-blown mode due to the supply pressure of the oxygen system. In TC08, 476 hours of solid circulation and 364 hours of coal feed were attained with 153 hours of pure oxygen feed. The gasifier and PCD operations were stable in both enriched air and 100 percent oxygen blown modes. The oxygen concentration was slowly increased during the first transition to full oxygen-blown operations. Subsequent transitions from air to oxygen blown could be completed in less than 15 minutes. Oxygen-blown operations produced the highest synthesis gas heating value to date, with a projected synthesis gas heating value averaging 175 Btu/scf. Carbon conversions averaged 93 percent, slightly lower than carbon conversions achieved during air-blown gasification.

  18. Performance testing of PZC generators for 99mTc production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulos, Adelina DM.

    2006-01-01

    The report briefly describes the performance testing done on seven batches of polyzirconium column (PZC) material. PZC is a ready-to-use high molybdenum-capacity column material for adsorbing reactor-produced 99 Mo. The PZC material was manufactured by Kaken Co in Japan and was sent to PNRI for performance evaluation. Fission molybdenum was eluted from a commercial 99 Mo - 99m Tc generator. The eluted 99 Mo in a molybdenum carrier solution was adsorbed on PZC through a series of procedures. The mixture was decanted to a 90 x 12 mm glass column. 99m Tc was eluted with saline solution. The parameters measured were Tc 99m yield, %molybdenum adsorption and desorption, elution profile and radiochemical purity. (author)

  19. TC-13 Mod 0 and Mod 2 Steam Catapult Test Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located on 11,000 feet of test runway, the TC-13 Mod 0 and Mod 2 Steam Catapult Test Site has in-ground catapults identical to those aboard carriers. This test site...

  20. 99m Tc-labeled heparin test in orthopaedic surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouvier, J.F.; Lafon, J.C.; Colin, M.; Chatelut, J.; Beaubatie, F.

    1983-01-01

    99m Tc-labeled heparin test was performed for early detection of phlebitis or pulmonary embolism after orthopaedic prothesis. Heparinic treatment and surgery per se were demonstrated to have no effect on the results. If this test demonstrates a statistical difference for pathologic patients, it is of greater value to consider ratio between rates before and after intervention [fr

  1. IEC-TC88WG8 testing of rotor blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delft, D R.V. van [Delft Univ. of Technology, STEVIN Lab., Delft (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    In 1994 the TC88 of IEC installed a working group (WG8) to draft a guideline on blade testing. This paper gives a description of the task of the working group. Furthermore it gives a report of the progress of the work and summarizes the possible contents of the working group document on blade testing. (au)

  2. Soil-to-plant transfer of 99mTc: how to determine Tc-species in uptake and transport processes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krijger, G. C.; Van Elswijk, D. A.; Wolterbeek, H. Th.

    1995-01-01

    Selective extraction, filtration and capillary electrophoresis were used to recognize problems dealing with complexation, oxidation and ligand-exchange processes during collection and analysis of Tc-species in xylem exudates, while 99m Tc-citrate was used as a marker complex. Relatively unstable Tc-species were synthesized in xylem exudates. Oxidation of relative unstable Tc-species during the collection of xylem exudates was suggested, requiring new, better procedures to recognize Tc-species representative for the plant interior. (author)

  3. 75 FR 5855 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8038-TC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-04

    ... 8038-TC AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... comments concerning Form 8038-TC, Information Return for Tax Credit Bonds. DATES: Written comments should...: Form 8038-TC. Abstract: Form 8038-TC will be used by issuers of qualified tax- exempt credit bonds...

  4. 78 FR 40824 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 8038-TC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... 8038-TC AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice and request for comments... Form 8038-TC, Information Return for Tax Credit Bonds. DATES: Written comments should be received on or...-TC. Abstract: Form 8038-TC will be used by issuers of qualified tax- exempt credit bonds, including...

  5. Comparison of peritoneal equilibration test with 99mTc-DTPA excretion in the assessment of peritoneal permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Senthilnathan, M.S.; Pradhan, P.K.; Nagabhushan, S.; Jeloka, T.K.; Sharma, R.K.

    2004-01-01

    Assessment of peritoneal permeability is necessary for successful management of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The objective of this study was to develop an alternative method of assessing the peritoneal permeability and to compare this method with the conventional method, the peritoneal equilibrium test, first described by Twardowski in 1987. Twenty patients undergoing regular CAPD were included in this study. Before starting the peritoneal dialysis, 370 MBq (10 mCi) technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid ( 99m Tc-DTPA) was injected intravenously. A standard dose of the same quantity was kept and used later for calculations. At the end of 4 h, a dialysate fluid sample (1 ml) was collected and the total dialysis effluent fluid volume was measured. Excretion of 99m Tc-DTPA into the dialysate fluid as a percentage of the injected dose was calculated. Simultaneously, standard peritoneal equilibrium test values were recorded for comparison. Peritoneal excretion of 99m Tc-DTPA ranged from 8% to 25% of the injected dose, depending on the peritoneal membrane permeability. When the results were compared with the conventional method, a good correlation (r=0.79) was found. This innovative radionuclide technique is a simple and convenient method to assess the peritoneal membrane permeability and can be used as an alternative to the peritoneal equilibrium test, which is very cumbersome and associated with many limitations. (orig.)

  6. Quality control and testing of 99 sup (m) Tc-macroaggregated albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darte, L.; Persson, B.R.R.

    1975-06-01

    33 sup(m)Tc-labelled macroaggregated albumin particles prepared from a commercial 'kit' have been tested in detail. With the introduction of the method of gel chromatography column scanning it became possible to make fast and simple quantitative measurements of the radiochemical purity. This was found to be the only reliable method for quantitative determination of non-aggregated sup(99m)Tc-labelled albumin. The measuring results of the kit in question have shown a labelling efficiency of about 97-99 %. In addition to a few percent of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate less than 0.5 % of disturbing radioactivity was found. The labelling was stable for at least 5-6 h. About 80 % of the particles are in the size-range of 10-80 μm. A rough estimation of the number of particles in the solution resulted in 0.5 x 10 6 per mg of MAA. The dynamic studies of the lung uptake and the elimination of sup(99m)Tc-MAA in man resulted in a biological half-time in the lungs of about 1-2 h. The radiation absorbed dose to the lungs per mCi administrered sup(99m)Tc-MAA was estimated to 0.1 rad. Less than 1 % of the radioactivity was accumulated in liver, spleen or kidneys during the first 25 minutes after injection. (author)

  7. Basic and clinical studies on hepatobiliary function test with sup(99m)Tc-PI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Isamu; Shigemoto, Hirosada; Ito, Yasuhiko; Muranaka, Akira; Ohtsuka, Nobuaki

    1979-01-01

    In these basic and clinical studies, the usefulness of sup(99m)Tc-pyridoxilideneisoleucine, a new hepatobiliary agent, was evaluated for a hepatobiliary function test in comparison with sup(99m)Tc-N-[N-(2,6 dimethylphenyl)carbamoylmethyl] iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) and 131 I-rose bengal (RB). The experiments were performed with 2.5 - 5 kg rabbits. Hepatic uptake and the excretion of sup(99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene isoleucine (PI) were earlier than those of 131 I-RB. However, biliary excretions of sup(99m)Tc-PI and sup(99m)Tc-HIDA were less than that of 131 I-RB, because urinary excretions of sup(99m)Tc-labeled compounds were greater. During the first 2.5 - 5 min, sup(99m)Tc-labeled agents had lower blood levels than 131 I-RB. At 6 days after the choledochal ligation, no hepatic uptake of sup(99m)Tc-PI was noted, although 131 I-RB concentrated to the liver. Blood retention of sup(99m)Tc-PI might not always reflect hepatobiliary function, especially in the hyperbilirubinemia. On the other hand, hepatograms from a region of interest corresponding to the liver varied with changes in the serum bilirubin level, although no hepatic uptake was detected in the complete obstructive jaundice and severe parenchymal liver disease being over 7 mg/dl in the serum bilirubin level. (author)

  8. Assessment of RELAP5/MOD3 Version 7 based on the BETHSY Test 6.2 TC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C.J.; Roth, P.A.; Schultz, R.R.

    1992-01-01

    This document provides a discussion of the BETHSY test 6.2 TC which was conducted to investigate thermal hydraulic phenomena during a 5% cold leg SBLOCA and to provide high quality data for advanced thermal-hydraulic code assessment. BETHSY test 6.2 TC was analyzed using RELAP5/MOD3 version 7o

  9. Evaluation of separate renal function by means of 99mTc-aprotinin uptake test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aprile, C.; Saponaro, R.; Villa, G.; Carena, M.; Chiari, G.; Salvadeo, A.; Lunghi, F.; Piazza, V.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility that relative kidney uptake of technetium-99m aprotinin (TcA) might be indicative of separate renal function was investigated in 89 patients who underwent both effective renal plasma flow (ERPFs) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determination. A reference group consisted of 27 healthy volunteers, studied only with TcA. The correlation with ERPFs (r = .73) was similar to that previously reported and confirmed. The correlation with GFR (r = .68) was better if a subgroup of renal units with TcA uptake lower than 16% (lower normal limit) was considered. Most likely, glomerular filtration is a limiting factor of the tubular uptake of TcA, and when GFR is reduced, both parameters decrease in the same manner, while if GFR is normal the two parameters are relatively independent. The correlation between TcA and GFR in 32 children was very similar to that found in adults. TcA uptake test seems to be a useful indicator of separate renal function, providing morphological information at, the same time

  10. Testing the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals: application to 99mTc-HMPAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Ben Ali, S.; Darsin, D.; Rizzo, N.; Lours, S.; De Beco, V.; Dumont, A.; Goudou-Sinha, C.; Izembart, M.; Jourdain, J.R.; Lemercier, V.; Linsker, S.; Moati, F.; Piketty, M.L.; Schlageter, M.H.; Moretti, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The low stability of 99m Tc-HMPAO imposes to carry out the quality testing within the 15 minutes following the preparation. This study has the aim of comparing different methods of radiochemical purity determination (RP) of this radiopharmaceutical in order to validate a fast, reproducible, feasible technique, capable of separating the primary lipophilic 99m Tc-HMPAO (I) of impurities: hydrophilic secondary complex (II), TcO 4 - , reduced and halyards Tc. The reference technique associating two thin-layer chromatographies (TLC), 'C1' and 'C2', has been compared with a TLC 'W' technique and with liquid-liquid extraction 'E' technique: C1 - stationary phase, ITLC Silica gel/mobile phase, Butanone-2; C2 - stationary phase, ITLC Silica gel/mobile phase, 0.9% NaCl; W - stationary phase, Papier Whatman n o 1/mobile phase, Ether; E - extraction with ethyls acetate /0.9% NaCl (1/1 v/v). The 'C1' chromatography allows isolating the reduced Tc and the complex II, the 'C2' chromatography does the same with TcO 4 - but it requires too long techniques (20 min.). The 'W' and 'E' techniques are rapid, reproducible and allow to separate the complex I from the other impurities without discrimination. However, as their results depend upon the deposited quantity of sampling, an optimization and standardization of the techniques are necessary. A forth technique by chromatography on Sep-Pak column is to be evaluated

  11. Participation in CEN TC 335 TC343 Chemical Test Methods. Final report; Deelname CEN TC 335 TC343 Chemical Testmethods. Eindrapportage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, F.P. [ECN Engineering en Services, Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-12-15

    An overview is given of the work that has been done on the standardization of methods for the characterization of biofuels and solid recovered fuels (SRF). For biofuels a complete set of prestandards is available, conversion of pre-standards to standards is in good progress. The development of a standard biocarbon content method based on the {sup 14}C isotope measurement is in good progress. This standard could be an important tool for carbon dioxide trading purposes. CEN is the European Commission for Standardization, TC 335 is the Technical Committee 335 on Solid Biofuels, and TC 343 is the Technical Committee on Solid Recovered Fuels. [Dutch] In de periode september 2005 tot december 2006 zijn Europese standaarden voor de karakterisering van biobrandstoffen beschikbaar gekomen. Voor een aantal parameters is nader onderzoek vereist en deels gaande. Dankzij de ervaring die in Nederland is opgedaan met Nationale Technische Afspraken (NTA's) voor vaste biobrandstoffen heeft onze bijdrage aan de Europese normering de invoering daarvan zeker bespoedigd. De 14C groendeel bepaling begint terrein te winnen en zal in de nabije toekomst ook bij verdere implementatie van het Kyoto protocol een rol gaan spelen. CEN is de European Commission for Standardization, TC 335 is de Technical Committee 335 over Solid Biofuels, en TC 343 is de Technical Committee over Solid Recovered Fuels.

  12. Enhanced99Tc retention in glass waste form using Tc(IV)-incorporated Fe minerals

    OpenAIRE

    Um, W; Luksic, SA; Wang, G; Saslow, S; Kim, DS; Schweiger, MJ; Soderquist, CZ; Bowden, ME; Lukens, WW; Kruger, AA

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 Elsevier B.V. Technetium ( 99 Tc) immobilization by doping into iron oxide mineral phases may alleviate the problems with Tc volatility during vitrification of nuclear waste. Because reduced Tc, Tc(IV), substitutes for Fe(III) in the crystal structure by a process of Tc reduction from Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) followed by co-precipitation of Fe oxide minerals, two Tc-incorporated Fe minerals (Tc-goethite and Tc-magnetite/maghemite) were prepared and tested for Tc retention in glass melt sample...

  13. Enhanced 99 Tc retention in glass waste form using Tc(IV)-incorporated Fe minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Um, Wooyong; Luksic, Steven A.; Wang, Guohui; Saslow, Sarah; Kim, Dong-Sang; Schweiger, Michael J.; Soderquist, Chuck Z.; Bowden, Mark E.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Kruger, Albert A.

    2017-11-01

    Technetium (99Tc) immobilization by doping into iron oxide mineral phases may alleviate the problems with Tc volatility during vitrification of nuclear waste. Reduced Tc, Tc(IV), substitutes for Fe(III) in the crystal structure by a process of Tc reduction from Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) followed by co-precipitation of Fe oxide minerals. Two Tc-incorporated Fe minerals (Tc-goethite and Tc-magnetite/maghemite) were prepared and tested for Tc retention in glass melt samples at temperatures between 600 – 1,000 oC. After being cooled, the solid glass specimens prepared at different temperatures were analyzed for Tc oxidation state using Tc K-edge XANES. In most samples, Tc was partially oxidized from Tc(IV) to Tc(VII) as the melt temperature increased. However, Tc retention in glass melt samples prepared using Tc-incorporated Fe minerals were moderately higher than in glass prepared using KTcO4 because of limited and delayed Tc volatilization.

  14. Hydrogen-induced room-temperature plasticity in TC4 and TC21 alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Baoguo; Jin, Yongyue; Hong, Chuanshi

    2017-01-01

    In order to reveal the effect of hydrogen on the room-temperature plasticity of the titanium alloys TC4 and TC21, compression tests have been carried out at room temperature. Results show that an appropriate amount of hydrogen can improve the room-temperature plasticity of both the TC4 and TC21...... alloys. The ultimate compression strain of the TC4 alloy containing a hydrogen concentration of 0.5 wt.% increases by 39% compared to the untreated material. For the TC21 alloy the ultimate compression strain is increased by 33% at a hydrogen concentration of 0.6 wt.%. The main reason for the improvement...... of hydrogen-induced room-temperature plasticity of the TC4 and TC21 alloys is discussed....

  15. Comparative evaluation of 131I-hippuran and sup(99m)Tc-DTPA for renal function test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempi, V.; Persson, R.B.R.; Svensson, L.

    1975-07-01

    131 I-labelled Hippuran and sup(99m)Tc-labelled DTPA have been compared as substances used for renal function tests. The radiation absorbed dose for 131 I-Hippuran and sup(99m)Tc-DTPA to different organs of an adult standard man is given i a table, showing considerably lower doses for sup(99m)Tc-DTPA. Good agreement was found between the renographic curves obtained with 131 I-Hippuran and sup(99m)Tc-DTPA compared to 131 I-Hippuran excellent scintiphotos of the kidney and also of the upper urinary ways were obtained with sup(99m)Tc-DTPA. With sup(99m)Tc-DTPA, repeated examinations make it possible to follow the development of a disease without great radiation risk to the patient (K.K.)

  16. Testing the radiochemical purity of a radiopharmaceutical: study of {sup 99m}Tc-Tetrofosmin (Myoview); Controle de la purete radiochimique d`un radiopharmaceutique: etude du {sup 99m}Tc-Tetrofosmin (Myoview)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moati, F.; Quartarone, C.; Jourdain, J.R.; Rizzo, N.; Dumont, A.; De Beco, V.; Ait Ben Ali, S.; Lours, S.; Piketty, M.L.; Izembart, M.; Goudou, C.; Lemercier, V.; Schlageter, M.H.; Moretti, J.L.; Progent, A. [Groupe de travail `Radiopharmaceutiques - Ile de France` (France)

    1997-12-31

    The goal of this study is to optimize the testing method of radiochemical purity (RCP) of {sup 99m}Tc-Tetrofosmin proposed by the Amersham Company: thin-layer chromatography (TLC); ITLC-SG support, migration on 15 Cm; acetone-dichloromethane mobile phase, (35/65, v/v), This technique allows separating the reduced-Tc (Rf = 0), the TcO{sub 4}{sup -} (Rf = 1), and in intermediary position (0.2Tc-Tetrofosmin. The results of RCP depend on working conditions, particularly, on the volume of deposit (10 to 20 {mu}l, expected). If the deposited is too small, the {sup 99m}Tc-Tetrofosmin does not migrate. With a volume of 20 {mu}l, the separation is weak and the peak width is un-resolvable. The results obtained correspond to the following operational conditions: migration on 8 cm; deposit of 8 to 10 {mu}l; no drying. In these conditions the peak of {sup 99m}Tc-Tetrofosmin is well singled out: migration Rf of 0.375 to 0.625. These results have been obtained by the analysis of radio-chromatographic peak. Every strip has been cut cm by cm and the activity was measured by a gamma counter. Repeatability of the method on a series of 8 tests is good: average RCP 93.22%, mean value = 93.24%. The reproducibility was realized by measuring directly by the activity-meter the activity corresponding to 3 identifiable peaks: Reduced Tc (Rf < 0.25), TcO{sub 4}{sup -} (Rf < 0.75), and {sup 99m}Tc-Tetrofosmin (0.25 < Rf < 0.75). On the 21 effectuated tests the inter-test RCP reproducibility was good: average value = 95.24%, CV = 2.07%, mean value 95.3%. In conclusion, the miniaturization improves the separation by Myoview (0.25 < Rf < 0.75), diminishes the migration time by a factor 4 and lowers the reactive cost of testing by 50%

  17. Return to normal of sup(99m)Tc-plasmin test after deep venous thrombosis and its relationship to vessel wall fibrinolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edenbrandt, C.M.; Hedner, U.; Tengborn, L.; Nilsson, J.; Ohlin, P.

    1986-08-01

    Fourteen patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and a positive sup(99m)Tc-plasmin test were followed up to determine how soon a negative test was obtained. Localization and extension of the thrombi were determined by phlebography. Plasminogen activator activity in vein walls and local fibrinolytic activity after venous occlusion were measured in order to find out what the prerequisites for impaired thrombolysis are. The time required to obtain a negative sup(99m)Tc-plasmin test showed considerable variation, ranging from less than 1 week to more than 6 months. The sup(99m)Tc-plasmin test had returned to normal in 64% of the patients after 6 months. No relationship was found between vessel wall fibrinolysis and time to normalization. Instead, we found an association between the time to normalization of the sup(99m)Tc-plasmin test and the size of the thrombus, according to phlebography, as well as between the time to normalization of the sup(99m)Tc-plasmin test and the extension of leg points with a positive sup(99m)Tc-plasmin test at admission. The finding of abnormal sup(99m)Tc-plasmin test results more than 6 months after acute DVT is of practical importance and warrants caution when evaluating patients with symptoms and signs suggestive of acute recurrent DVT.

  18. CONSTOR registered V/TC drop tests. Pre-test analysis by finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelzer, W.; Koenig, S.; Klein, K.; Tso, C.F.; Owen, S.; Monk, C.

    2004-01-01

    The CONSTOR registered family of steel-concrete-steel sandwich cask designs have been developed to fulfil both the internationally valid IAEA criteria for transportation and the requirements for long-term intermediate storage in the US and various European countries. A comprehensive drop testing programme using a full-scale prototype test cask (CONSTOR registered V/TC) has been developed as part of the application for a transport license in both Germany and the US. The drop tests using the full-scale cask will be performed by BAM at test facilities in Horstwalde. The tests will include five different 9m drops onto flat unyielding targets and seven different 1m drops onto a punch. The first drop test, a 9m side drop, will be performed during PATRAM 2004. The other drop tests will take place during the following year. The development of the cask design and the formulation of the drop test programme has been supported by an extensive series of finite element analyses. The objectives of the finite element analyses were; to provide an intermediate step in demonstrating the performance of the CONSTOR registered in fulfilling the requirements of 10 CFR 71 and the IAEA transport regulations. To justify the selection of drop tests. To predict the performance of V/TC during the drop tests. To estimate the strain and acceleration time histories at measuring points on the test cask and to aid in the setting up of the test instrumentation. To develop an analysis model that can be used in future safety analyses for transport and storage license applications and which can confidently be used to demonstrate the performance of the package. This paper presents an overview of the analyses performed, including a summary of all the different drop orientations that were considered. The major assumptions employed during the analyses are also discussed, as are the specifics of the modelling techniques that were employed. At the end of the paper, the key results obtained from the analyses

  19. Comparison of peritoneal equilibration test(PET) with Tc99m-DTPA excretion in the assessment of peritoneal permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Senthilnathan, M.S.; Pradhan, P.K.; Jeloka, T.K.; Nagabhushan, S.; Sharma, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Assessment of peritoneal permeability is necessary for successful management of End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) patients by Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD). Twardowski in 1987 described for the first time a method know as Peritoneal Equilibration Test (PET ) to determine peritoneal membrane characteristics. However, this test is not only cumbersome but is associated with several limitations. The objective of this study was to develop an alternative method of assessing the peritoneal permeability and compare this method with the conventional PET. Method: Twenty patients under going regular CAPD were included in this study. Before starting the peritoneal dialysis 370 MBq (10 mCi) 99mTc-DTPA was injected intravenously in the same standard precondition as for PET evaluation. A standard dose of same quantity was kept and used later for calculations. At the end of four hours a dialysate fluid sample (1 ml) was collected and the total dialysis effluent fluid volume was measured. Excretion of 99mTc-DTPA into the dialysate fluid as percentage of injected dose was calculated. Simultaneously standard PET values were recorded for comparison. Results: Peritoneal excretion of 99mTc-DTPA ranged from 8 % to 16 % of the injected dose depending upon the peritoneal membrane permeability. Depending upon the DTPA excretion the patients were divided into 4 groups: High Transporter (15% and above; High Average (12 to 15 %); Low Average (10 to 12%); Low Average (10% and less). When the results were compared with the conventional PET values, a good correlation (r=0.79) could be found. Conclusion: Determining the excretion of 99mTc-DTPA in the dialysate fluid after 4 hrs as percentage of the injected dose is a simple and convenient method to assess the peritoneal membrane permeability and can be used as an alternative technique to conventional PET which is very cumbersome and associated with many limitations

  20. Altered [99mTc]Tc-MDP biodistribution from neutron activation sourced 99Mo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeter, Sandor; Szweda, Roman; Patterson, Judy; Grigoryan, Marine

    2018-01-01

    Given potential worldwide shortages of fission sourced 99 Mo/ 99m Tc medical isotopes there is increasing interest in alternate production strategies. A neutron activated 99 Mo source was utilized in a single center phase III open label study comparing 99m Tc, as 99m Tc Methylene Diphosphonate ([ 99m Tc]Tc-MDP), obtained from solvent generator separation of neutron activation produced 99 Mo, versus nuclear reactor produced 99 Mo (e.g., fission sourced) in oncology patients for which an [ 99m Tc]Tc-MDP bone scan would normally have been indicated. Despite the investigational [ 99m Tc]Tc-MDP passing all standard, and above standard of care, quality assurance tests, which would normally be sufficient to allow human administration, there was altered biodistribution which could lead to erroneous clinical interpretation. The cause of the altered biodistribution remains unknown and requires further research.

  1. The PZC-based Tc-99m generator preparation and its performance test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yishu

    2007-01-01

    This paper described the preparation of Tc-99m generator prepared with Japan distributing Mo adsorbent PZC and irradiated nature MoO 3 and its performance test. Four Tc-99m generators were prepared with different batches of PZC and reactor irradiated nature MoO 3 . The adsorption capacity of PZC to Mo is approximately 200mgMo/gPZC. The adsorption efficiency of three batches PZC is good (>90%) and that of one batch of PZC is not good enough (∼83%). The loss of fine powder (The PZC is fragile) is quite different with the different preparation process of PZC. The elution efficiency is 80-90% and has the up trend with the elution date. The Mo breakthrough can be controlled to acceptable level by connecting HZO safe column containing 1.0g HZO. All the specifications of eluted from PZC-based Tc-99m generator can meet the requirements under Sodium Pertechnetate injection in China Pharmacopoeia. (author)

  2. On the separation of 99mTcO4-, 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-citrate as marker species for the determination of Tc chemical forms in plant material using capillary zone electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijger, G.C.; Claessens, H.A.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.

    1996-01-01

    The present paper addresses the potential use of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) as an anal. tool in 99Tc speciation studies. To optimize sampling, storage and anal. procedures, the three marker compds. 99mTcO4-, 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-citrate were synthesized and used in test-measurements with

  3. The formation of insoluble Tc depends on bacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Uchida, Shigeo; Koiso, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    The formation of insoluble Tc (>0.2 μm in size) in ponding water of paddy soil was investigated. The ponding water prepared by flooding with deionized water was collected at a one-week intervals during the 120 days of the experimental period. The collected sample was incubated with 3 kBq mL -1 TcO 4 - at 25degC for 14 days. The mean value of relative amounts of insolubilized Tc was less than 0.6% of total Tc. This result suggested that flooding with deionized water was not effective for the formation of insoluble Tc. When the ponding water sample was incubated with TcO 4 - under anaerobic conditions, Tc was scarcely insolubilized. On the other hand, a significant fraction of the Tc was insolubilized in the ponding water sample supplemented with nutrients that promote bacterial activity. Also, the amount of insoluble Tc increased with time. From these results, it was concluded that the formation of insoluble Tc in the ponding water depends on enhanced bacterial activity rather than just anaerobic conditions. (author)

  4. Experimental and clinical studies on hepatobiliary scintigraphy and function test with sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narabayashi, Isamu; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Terashima, Hideaki; Yokobayashi, Tsuneo; Kaji, Tatsumi

    1980-01-01

    In experimental and clinical studies, the usefulness of sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA has been evaluated for dynamic imaging and function test. Biological distribution of sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA in rabbits at 1 hour after the intravenous administration indicated that activity was 62% of the injected dose in the gallbladder and intestine, 2% in the liver, and 9% in the kidneys and urine. Hepatic uptake and excretion of sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA were discussed in comparison with those of sup(99m)Tc-p-butyl-IDA, sup(99m)Tc-HIDA, sup(99m)Tc-PI and 123 I-RB. Radiochemical purity was ascertained by thin layer chromatography in saline. Labelling was nearly 100%, namely no unreacted pertechnetate was detected. In clinical study, the imaging of liver, bile ducts, gallbladder and intestine was satisfactory with sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA. There was no or faint renal visualization in cases with hepatic uptake on the hepatogram. Quantitative analysis of blood retention, blood clearance and hepatogram with sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA reflected excretory liver function in various hepatobiliary disorders. We concluded that sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA has a lower urinary excretion and seems more effective than the other sup(99m)Tc-labels, such as sup(99m)Tc-HIDA and sup(99m)Tc-PI, at higher bilirubin levels. However, when the level of the bilirubin in blood rises above 7.4 mg/dl, no hepatic uptake of sup(99m)Tc-E-HIDA was obtained with greater renal excretion. (author)

  5. Media Fill Test for validation of autologous leukocytes separation and labelling by (99m)Tc-HmPAO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Nicoletta; Modoni, Sergio; Schillaci, Orazio

    2013-01-01

    Manufacturing of sterile products must be carried out in order to minimize risks of microbiological contamination. White blood cells (WBC) labelled with (99m)Tc-exametazime ((99m)Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime; (99m)Tc-HMPAO) are being successfully applied in the field of infection/inflammation scintigraphy for many years. In our radiopharmacy lab, separation and labelling of autologous leukocytes with (99m)Tc-HMPAO were performed in a laminar flow cabinet not classified and placed in a controlled area, whereas (99m)Tc-HMPAO radiolabelling procedure was carried out in a hot cell with manipulator gloves. This study was conducted to validate this process using a Media Fill simulation test. The study was performed using sterile Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) in place of active product, reproducing as closely as possible the routine aseptic production process with all the critical steps, as described in the our internal standard operative procedures (SOP). The final vials containing the media of each processed step were then incubated for 14 days and examined for the evidence of microbial growth. No evidence of turbidity was observed in all the steps assayed by the Media Fill. In the separation and labelling of autologous leukocytes with (99m)Tc-HmPAO, Media-Fill test represents a reliable tool to validate the aseptic process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of relative renal function measured with either 99m Tc-DTPA or 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, F.C.; Fujikawa, G.Y.; Decker, H.; Alonso, G.; Pereira, J.C.; Duarte, P.S. [Centro de Diagnostico Fleury, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Medicina Nuclear; Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Saude Publica. Dept. de Epidemiologia]. E-mail: paulo.duarte@fleury.com.br

    2006-07-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the renal function measured with either {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA or {sup 99m}Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. Methods: the values of relative renal function measured in 111 renal dynamic scintigraphies performed either with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA (55 studies) or with {sup 99m}Tc-EC (56 studies) were compared with the relative function measured using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy performed within a 1-month period. The comparisons were performed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The number of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and {sup 99m}Tc-EC studies that presented relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA, using chi square test were also compared. Results: the relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-EC is not statistically different from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA (p = 0.97). The relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA was statistically different from that measured using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA, but with a borderline statistical significance (p = 0.05). The number of studies with relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA is higher for the {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA scintigraphy (p 0.04) than for {sup 99m}Tc-EC. Conclusion: the relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphy is comparable with that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy, while the relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA dynamic scintigraphy presents a significant statistical difference from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. (author)

  7. Comparison of relative renal function measured with either 99m Tc-DTPA or 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, F.C.; Fujikawa, G.Y.; Decker, H.; Alonso, G.; Pereira, J.C.; Duarte, P.S.; Sao Paulo Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the renal function measured with either 99m Tc-DTPA or 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured using 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. Methods: the values of relative renal function measured in 111 renal dynamic scintigraphies performed either with 99m Tc-DTPA (55 studies) or with 99m Tc-EC (56 studies) were compared with the relative function measured using 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy performed within a 1-month period. The comparisons were performed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The number of 99m Tc-DTPA and 99m Tc-EC studies that presented relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA, using chi square test were also compared. Results: the relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-EC is not statistically different from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA (p = 0.97). The relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-DTPA was statistically different from that measured using 99m Tc-DMSA, but with a borderline statistical significance (p = 0.05). The number of studies with relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA is higher for the 99m Tc-DTPA scintigraphy (p 0.04) than for 99m Tc-EC. Conclusion: the relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphy is comparable with that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy, while the relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-DTPA dynamic scintigraphy presents a significant statistical difference from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. (author)

  8. 99mTc-EDTA and 99mTc-DTPA complexes as hydrological tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, J.; Borroto, J.; Nazco, J.; Perez, E.; Gamboa, R.; Cruz, J.

    2002-01-01

    The [ 99m Tc-DTPA] 2- and [ 99m Tc-EDTA] 1- were evaluated as radiotracers for short time hydrological studies. Their complex stability after labelling with 9.25 GBq of 99m Tc, the behaviour against pH variations, from 5 to 9, in simulated solutions and in natural river waters and the sorption of these compounds on the river sediments, were tested in laboratory experiments. Finally field double tracing experiments were carried out for each of labelling complexes and Rhodamine WT. From recovery calculations not losses of the 99m Tc activity were observed. The shape of the RTD curves of the [ 99m Tc-DTPA] 2- and [ 99m Tc-EDTA] 1 were quite similar to the Rhodamine Wt ones. May be concluded that both complexes behaved conservatively on the studied environmental conditions. (author)

  9. Expanding the knowledge of the geographic distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcV/TcVI genotypes in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdirene Dos Santos Lima

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi infection is a complex sylvatic enzooty involving a wide range of animal species. Six discrete typing units (DTUs of T. cruzi, named TcI to TcVI, are currently recognized. One unanswered question concerning the epidemiology of T. cruzi is the distribution pattern of TcII and hybrid DTUs in nature, including their virtual absence in the Brazilian Amazon, the current endemic area of Chagas disease in Brazil. Herein, we characterized biological samples that were collected in previous epizootiological studies carried out in the Amazon Basin in Brazil. We performed T. cruzi genotyping using four polymorphic genes to identify T. cruzi DTUs: mini-exon, 1f8, histone 3 and gp72. This analysis was conducted in the following biological samples: (i two T. cruzi isolates obtained by culturing of stools from the triatomine species Rhodnius picttipes and (ii five serum samples from dogs in which trypomastigotes were observed during fresh blood examination. We report for the first time the presence of TcII and hybrid DTUs (TcV/TcVI in the Amazon region in mixed infections with TcI. Furthermore, sequencing of the constitutive gene, gp72, demonstrated diversity in TcII even within the same forest fragment. These data show that TcII is distributed in the five main Brazilian biomes and is likely more prevalent than currently described. It is very probable that there is no biological or ecological barrier to the transmission and establishment of any DTU in any biome in Brazil.

  10. Microstructural characterization and tribological behavior of surface plasma Zr-Er alloying on TC11 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dongbo; Zhang, Pingze; Liu, Yingchao; Chen, Xiaohu; Ding, Feng; Li, Fengkun

    2018-02-01

    The Zr coating and Zr-Er coating are grown on TC11 substrate by double-glow plasma surface metallurgy technique, followed by the wear tests at ambient temperature and 500 °C. The data of nanohardness and elastic modulus of the samples are collected by the nano-indentation test. The adhesion strength of coatings is investigated by means of the scratch test. The study of wear resistance is performed using a ball-on-disc wear test system by running against the Si3N4 ball and measured by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Experimental results indicate that the nanohardness of the Zr coating and Zr-Er coating are 5.94 GPa and 7.98 GPa, respectively, which are 1.79 times and 2.41 times greater than that of TC11 substrate. Zr coating and Zr-Er coating realize the metallurgical bonding with TC11 substrate with continuous and compact structure. Compared with the Zr coating and TC11, the Zr-Er coating presents the lowest specific wear rates, which are 1.689 × 10-6 mm3 Nm-1 and 1.851 × 10-6 mm3 Nm-1 at ambient temperature and 500 °C respectively, indicating the excellent and improved wear resistance of TC11.

  11. Diagnosis of ischemic cerebrovascular diseases with 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPECT using upright stress test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shaoliang; Xiu Yan; Sun Xiaoguang

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the value of upright brain SPECT stress test, the authors performed 99m Tc-HMPAO brain SPECT in association with measurement of blood pressure in both upright and supine positions. Methods: The authors studied 5 patients with unilateral stenosis occlusion of the internal carotid (Group A), 8 patients with orthostatic hypotension (group B) and 7 normal controls. 370 MBq 99m Tc-HMPAO was injected immediately after uprighting from a supine position. then the first SPECT scan were performed. After the first SPECT, another 555 MBq of 99m Tc-HMPAO were administered while the patients remained on original supine position. Results: Semiquantitive analysis showed that the asymmetric ratios between upright and supine positions in group A changed significantly. In group B, showed postural cerebral hypoperfusion in the bilateral frontal areas, the mean count ratio of the frontal to cerebellar area between the upright and supine positions also significantly changed. In the normal group, there were no significantly changes during the upright test. Conclusions: The upright stress test is useful for detecting not only silent cerebral hypoperfusion, but also orthostatic hypoperfusion

  12. Comparative investigation of the gel chromatography column scanning method for quality control of /sup 99/sup(m)Tc-methylenediphosphonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darte, L

    1981-04-01

    Gel chromatography column scanning (GCS) is the method of choice for quality control of sup(99m)Tc-MDP preparations. Using this method all the labelled components are obtained rapidly in one simple test procedure. The influence of various parameters such as gel type, column size, prehistory of column, equilibration, eluent, elution volume and flow rate upon the results have been investigated. Test results for sup(99 m)Tc-MDP have been compared for several different GCS systems, a few TLC systems and column chromatography with fraction collection. The GCS technique, optimized for testing sup(99m)Tc-MDP preparations has been applied in a few experiments in which very good reproducibility is required: Labelling kinetics and stability when stored at room temperature or in a refrigerator and influence of the sup(99m)Te/(sup(99m)Tc + /sup 99/Tc) atomic ratio and of the amount of radioactivity on the sup(99m)Tc-MDP labelling yield, covering parameter ranges of clinical interest, have been studied.

  13. Testing the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals: application to {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO; Controle de la purete radiochimique des radiopharmaceutiques: application au {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Ben Ali, S.; Darsin, D.; Rizzo, N.; Lours, S.; De Beco, V.; Dumont, A.; Goudou-Sinha, C.; Izembart, M.; Jourdain, J.R.; Lemercier, V.; Linsker, S.; Moati, F.; Piketty, M.L.; Schlageter, M.H.; Moretti, J.L. [Groupe de travail `Radiopharmaceutique - Ile de France` (France)

    1997-12-31

    The low stability of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO imposes to carry out the quality testing within the 15 minutes following the preparation. This study has the aim of comparing different methods of radiochemical purity determination (RP) of this radiopharmaceutical in order to validate a fast, reproducible, feasible technique, capable of separating the primary lipophilic {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO (I) of impurities: hydrophilic secondary complex (II), TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, reduced and halyards Tc. The reference technique associating two thin-layer chromatographies (TLC), `C1` and `C2`, has been compared with a TLC `W` technique and with liquid-liquid extraction `E` technique: C1 - stationary phase, ITLC Silica gel/mobile phase, Butanone-2; C2 - stationary phase, ITLC Silica gel/mobile phase, 0.9% NaCl; W - stationary phase, Papier Whatman n{sup o} 1/mobile phase, Ether; E - extraction with ethyls acetate /0.9% NaCl (1/1 v/v). The `C1` chromatography allows isolating the reduced Tc and the complex II, the `C2` chromatography does the same with TcO{sub 4}{sup -} but it requires too long techniques (20 min.). The `W` and `E` techniques are rapid, reproducible and allow to separate the complex I from the other impurities without discrimination. However, as their results depend upon the deposited quantity of sampling, an optimization and standardization of the techniques are necessary. A forth technique by chromatography on Sep-Pak column is to be evaluated

  14. Homologous labelling of leukocytes with Tc 99m- dimeric ethylcysteinate (DEC): 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soroa, Victoria E.; Ozker, K.

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary tests have been carried out to validate the use of DEC -Tc 99m labelled leukocytes as a more stable substitute for Tc 99m-HMPAO in the diagnosis of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Although in all the patients the infectious focuses have been detected and the results are promissory, further studies with different infections /inflammations are needed to validate the procedure as an alternative routine technique

  15. Brain perfusion SPECT imaging before and during the acetazolamide test using sup 99m Tc-HMPAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Higashi, Sotaro; Kinuya, Keiko; Tsuji, Shiro; Sumiya, Hisashi; Hisada, Kinichi; Yamashita, Junkoh (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-05-01

    A new method using brain perfusion {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPECT imaging was developed for evaluating cerebral perfusion reserve by the acetazolamide test with a short period. The first SPECT study was carried out for 13.5 min to obtain SPECT images at the resting state after 3 min postinjection of 555 MBq (15 mCi) of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO. At the same time as the start of the first SPECT study, 1 g of acetazolamide was intravenously injected. Immediately after the stop of the 1st SPECT study, 925 MBq (25 mCi) of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO from the same vial as in the first study was additionally injected. Three minutes later the second SPECT study was carried out for 10 min. After reconstruction the tomographic images in the first study were subtracted from the images in the second study to obtain those during the acetazolamide test after correction of the time differences in data acquisition between the two studies. This subtraction technique gives independent brain perfusion SPECT images before and during the acetazolamide test. Besides, the regional flow changes during the test were quantitatively analyzed. In conclusion this method seems to be practically useful for evaluating regional brain perfusion before and during drug treatments as a consecutive study with a short period of approximately 30 min. (author).

  16. Liver function test with 99mTc-labelled bilirubin in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichmann, B.; Kaempfer, I.; Schneider, G.

    1989-01-01

    Because of central role of bilirubin in the metabolism of liver it is well suited for liver function tests. Different parameters of hepatocellular partial function and histological findings were studied in patients suffering from functional hyperbilirubinaemia (n = 15), liver cirrhosis (n = 7) and 6 patients recovering from acute hepatitis. After intravenous injection of 99m Tc-bilirubin blood clearance and intestinal excretion in percentages of bilirubin were determined. In patients with cirrhosis the initial phase as well as the intestinal excretion of bilirubin were delayed. This liver function test is useful in the pediatric special diagnosis for investigations during the course of the illness and for assessment of therapeutic activities. (author)

  17. Identification of novel mammalian hosts and Brazilian biome geographic distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi TcIII and TcIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Juliana Helena S; Xavier, Samanta Cristina C; Bilac, Daniele; Lima, Valdirene Santos; Dario, Maria Augusta; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2017-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a parasitic protozoan responsible for Chagas disease. Seven different Discrete Typing Units (DTUs) of T. cruzi are currently identified in nature: TcI-TcVI, and TcBat whose distribution patterns in nature, hosts/reservoirs and eco-epidemiological importance are still little known. Here, we present novel data on the geographic distribution and diversity of mammalian hosts and vectors of T. cruzi DTUs TcIII and TcIV. In this study, we analyzed 61 T. cruzi isolates obtained from 18 species of mammals (five orders) and two Hemiptera genera. Samples were collected from five Brazilian biomes (Pantanal, Caatinga, Cerrado, Atlantic Rainforest, and Amazon) previously characterized as Z3 or mixed infection (TcI-Z3) by mini-exon gene PCR. To identify TcIII and TcIV genotypes, we applied restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis to the PCR-amplified histone 3 gene. DTUs TcIII and TcIV were identified in single and mixed infections from wide dispersion throughout five Brazilian biomes studied, with TcIV being the most common. Pantanal was the biome that displayed the largest number of samples characterized as TcIII and TcIV in single and mixed infections, followed by Atlantic Rainforest and Amazon. Species from the Didelphimorphia order displayed the highest frequency of infection and were found in all five biomes. We report, for the first time, the infection of a species of the Artiodactyla order by DTU TcIII. In addition, we describe new host species: five mammals (marsupials and rodents) and two genera of Hemiptera. Our data indicate that DTUs TcIII and TcIV are more widespread and infect a larger number of mammalian species than previously thought. In addition, they are transmitted in restricted foci and cycles, but in different microhabitats and areas with distinct ecological profiles. Finally, we show that DTUs TcIII and TcIV do not present any specific association with biomes or host species. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Traditional Chinese version of the Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-TC): Its validation and application to schizophrenic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei-Chung; Chen, Li-Fen; Chi, Chia-Hsing; Lin, Ching-Hung; Kao, Yu-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Yau; Lane, Hsien-Yuan; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen

    2016-09-30

    Schizophrenia is an illness that impairs a person's social cognition. The Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is the most well-known test used to measure emotional intelligence (EI), which is a major component of social cognition. Given the absence of EI ability-based scales adapted to Chinese speakers, we translated the MSCEIT into a Traditional Chinese version (MSCEIT-TC) and validated this scale for use in schizophrenia studies. The specific aims were to validate the MSCEIT-TC, to develop a norm for the MSCEIT-TC, and use this norm to explore the EI performance of schizophrenic individuals. We included in our study seven hundred twenty-eight healthy controls and seventy-six individuals with schizophrenia. The results suggest that the MSCEIT-TC is reliable and valid when assessing EI. The results showed good discrimination and validity when comparing the two study groups. Impairment was the greatest for two branches Understanding and Managing Emotions, which implies that the deficits of schizophrenia individuals involve ToM (theory of mind) tasks. Deficits involving the negative scale of schizophrenia was related to impaired performance when the MSCEIT-TC was used (in branch 2, 3, 4, and the area Strategic). Our findings suggest that the MSCEIT-TC can be used for emotional studies in healthy Chinese and in clinical setting for investigating schizophrenic individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic value of 99mTc-ethambutol scintigraphy in tuberculosis: compared to microbiological and histopathological tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartamihardja, A H S; Kurniawati, Y; Gunawan, R

    2018-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) still remains the world's endemic infection. TB affects the lungs and any part of the body other than the lung. The diagnosis of TB has not changed much over the decades. Ethambutol is one of the first line treatments for TB. It can be labeled using 99m Tc. 99m Tc-ethambutol will be accumulated in the site of TB lesion and can be imaged using gamma camera. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of 99m Tc-ethambutol scintigraphy in detecting and localizing of TB. Retrospective cross-sectional study was done. Subjects were patients suspected of having TB infection. Whole body and SPECT-CT imaging at the suspected area was done 1 and 4 h after injection of 370-555 MBq 99m Tc-ethambutol. 99m Tc-ethambutol scintigraphy was analyzed visually. The results were compared with that of histopathological or microbiological tests. Statistical analysis was done to determine the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy. One hundred and sixty-eight subjects were involved in this study. There were 110 men and 58 women with mean age of 34.52 ± 11.94 years. There were concordance results in 156 (92.86%) and discordant in 12 (7.14%) subjects between 99m Tc-ethambutol scintigraphy and histopathological or microbiological result. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy of 99m Tc-ethambutol scintigraphy in the diagnosis of pulmonary TB were 93.9, 85.7, 93.9, 85.7 and 91.4%, respectively, for extra-pulmonary TB 95.5, 77.8, 97.9, 63.6, and 85.1%, respectively, and for total tuberculosis 94.9, 83.3, 96.3, 78.1 and 92.8%, respectively. There was no side effect observed in this study. 99m Tc-ethambutol scintigraphy is a useful diagnostic imaging technique to detect and localize intra- and extra-pulmonary TB. It is safe to be performed even in pediatric patient. Consuming ethambutol less than 2 weeks did not influence the result.

  20. Development of {sup 99m}Tc extraction-recovery by solvent extraction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimura, Akihiro; Nishikata, Kaori; Izumo, Hironobu; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Ishihara, Masahiro [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Oarai Research and Development Center, Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan); Tanase, Masakazu; Fujisaki, Saburo; Shiina, Takayuki; Ohta, Akio; Takeuchi, Nobuhiro [Chiyoda Technol Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    {sup 99m}Tc is used as a radiopharmaceutical in the medical field for the diagnosis, and manufactured from {sup 99}Mo, the parent nuclide. In this study, the solvent extraction with MEK was selected, and preliminary experiments were carried out using Re instead of {sup 99m}Tc. Two tests were carried out in the experiments; the one is the Re extraction test with MEK from Re-Mo solution, the other is the Re recovery test from the Re-MEK. As to the Re extraction test, and it was clear that the Re extraction yield was more than 90%. Two kinds of Re recovery tests, which are an evaporation method using the evaporator and an adsorption/elution method using the alumina column, were carried out. As to the evaporation method, the Re concentration in the collected solution increased more than 150 times. As to the adsorption/elution method, the Re concentration increased in the eluted solution more than 20 times. (author)

  1. Loss-of-coolant accident test series TC-1 experiment operating specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yackle, T.R.

    1979-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to specify the experiment operating procedure for the test series TC-1. The effects of externally mounted cladding thermocouples on the fuel rod thermal behavior during LOCA blowdown and reflood cycles will be investigated in the test. Potential thermocouple effects include: (a) delayed DNB, (b) momentary cladding rewets following DNB, (c) premature cladding rewet during a blowdown two-phase slug period, and (d) early cladding rewet during reflood. The two-phase slug period will be controlled by momentarily opening the hot leg valve. The slug will consist of lower plenum liquid that is sent through the flow shrouds and will be designed to quench the fuel rods at a rate that is similar to the slug experienced early in the LOFT L2-2 and L2-3 tests

  2. Determination of Tc-99 in radioactive wastes; Determinacion de Tc-99 en desechos radiactivos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera S, A. A.

    2015-07-01

    Tc-99 is a fission product and one of the most important radionuclides from the view point of safety assessment for the disposal of radioactive waste because of its long half-life (2.1 x 10{sup 5} years) and high mobility in soil-water systems, if this is released into the environment in significant quantities can concentrate on plants and animals. Tc-99 is a pure beta emitter with a maximum energy of 292 KeV, so their quantification imposes destructive methods to be analyzed by liquid scintillation. Therefore the quantification of Tc-99 in ion exchange resins requires of the mineralization of these and separation of Tc-99 of other radioisotopes present in the resin. Therefore the object of this thesis is to develop a quantification method of Tc-99 content in spent exchange resins. So in order to track the behavior of technetium during digestion exchange resins and radiochemical separation, given its high volatility, in this work the {sup 99m}Tc is used. To determine the degree of mineralization of the resins, an analysis was performed by chromatography. Subsequently the method used to determine the percentage of {sup 99m}Tc aerosolized during mineralization of resin is described. After the method for the radiochemical separation of {sup 99m}Tc is presented by liquid-liquid extraction using crown ether as extractant; for this testing was performed by varying the molarity of the extractant, the ratio of solvent extractant, type of digestion of the resin and the presence of Sr-85, in order to study the behavior of {sup 99m}Tc in the presence of this radioisotope. Finally, a track beta spectra of a sample of {sup 99m}Tc eluted from a generator {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m}Tc function of time was performed. (Author)

  3. Direct {sup 99m}Tc labeling of Herceptin (trastuzumab) by {sup 99m}Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, W.-J.; Yen, C.-L.; Lo, S.-T.; Chen, K.-T. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lo, J.-M. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: jmlo@mx.nthu.edu.tw

    2008-03-15

    By simply incubating Herceptin (trastuzumab) with [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(OH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sup +} ion in saline, a significant yield of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled trastuzumab was found to be achievable. The effective labeling may be based on that trastuzumab is inherent with endogenous histidine group to which {sup 99m}Tc(I) tricarbonyl ion can be strongly bound. For practical {sup 99m}Tc labeling processing, trastuzumab was purified beforehand from the commercial product, Herceptin (Genentech) via size exclusion chromatography to remove the excipient, {alpha}-histidine and a high-labeled yield could be obtained by incubating the purified trastuzumab with [{sup 99m}Tc(CO){sub 3}(OH{sub 2}){sub 3}]{sup +}. Retention of bioactivity of the {sup 99m}Tc(I)-labeled trastuzumab was validated using a cell binding test.

  4. Clinical comparison of diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m and diethyl-IDA Tc 99m for evaluation of the hepatobiliary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingensmith, W.C.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Spitzer, V.M.; Kuni, C.C.; Shanahan, W.S.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with a wide range of hepatobiliary function and clinical diagnoses were studied with both diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m and diethyl-IDA Tc 99m. Images were similar except for an increased liver-to-kidney ratio with diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m (p less than 0.01) and a tendency toward an increased liver-to-background ratio at five minutes with diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m (p greater than 0.05). Quantification of the relative hepatocyte extraction efficiency indicated a 16% higher extraction efficiency for diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m (p greater than 0.05). Cumulative three-hour urine collections following injection demonstrated no significant difference in renal excretion in patients with normal total serum bilirubin levels. Both radiopharmaceuticals demonstrated increasing renal excretion with increasing total serum bilirubin levels; however, renal excretion of diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m increased more slowly than excretion of diethyl-IDA Tc 99m (p less than 0.01). We conclude that, while the overall differences between these two radiopharmaceuticals are small, diisopropyl-IDA Tc 99m is superior because of a lower renal excretion rate in patients with decreased hepatocyte function

  5. Effect of milking efficiency on Tc-99 content of Tc-99m derived from Tc-99m generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnyman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Tc-99m obtained by separation from its parent Mo-99 always contains Tc-99 produced by decay of Tc-99m and Mo-99. Factors effecting the Tc-99/Tc-99m ratios are discussed. An HPLC method has been developed to measure the 99 TcO 4- content of sodium pertechnetate from generators with a detection limit of 0.9 ng Tc-99 for a 500 μl/ aliquot of TcO 4- -99m. First eluates of 10 chromatograph-ic generators gave Tc-99/Tc-99m ratios ranging from 3.5-46 ng Tc/mCi Tc-99m measured at the time of milking. The measurements indicate that Tc-99/Tc-99m ratios high enough to cause adverse labelling effects could be found in 'instant pertechnetate' and in the first eluate from Tc-99m generators for the activities normally used in radiopharmaceutical production

  6. Breast-milk radioactivity after a Tc-99m DTPA aerosol/Tc-99m MAA lung study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountford, P.J.; Hall, F.M.; Wells, C.P.; Coakley, A.J.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements were made of the concentration of Tc-99m activity in samples of breast milk following an administration of Tc-99m DTPA aerosol for a lung ventilation image and one of Tc-99m MAA for lung perfusion. The activity was 222 nCi/ml of milk (8.2 kBq/ml) at 2 hr after the MAA injection, and it was found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 4.6 hr. There was a small incorporation of Tc-99m into breast-milk protein. The authors conclude that the combined use of these two Tc-99m agents did not indicate the interruption of breast feeding beyond 24 hr after administration of the MAA, and that for an aerosol ventiliation study alone, breast feeding need not be interrupted for more than 4 hr after the test

  7. Analysis of accumulation of 99mTc-octreotide and 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide in the rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecky, Martin; Semecky, Vladimir; Trejtnar, Frantisek; Laznicek, Milan; Laznickova, Alice; Nachtigal, Petr; Decristoforo, Clemens; Mather, Stephen J; Mäcke, Helmut R

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare renal handling and distribution of (99m)Tc-octreotide and (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr(3)-octreotide (HYNIC-TOC) in rats. In kidney perfusion experiments, the renal clearance value of (99m)Tc-octreotide was three times lower than that of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. The predominant renal excretion of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC was associated with a high and long-term renal accumulation up to 48 hrs. Microautoradiographic results indicated that (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC was retained mainly in the renal medulla within the cells of the collecting ducts and in the surrounding tissue. Lower positivity was found in the proximal and distal tubular cells. We conclude that the mechanism of renal accumulation of somatostatin analogues renal accumulation is complex and that proximal tubular reabsorption is probably not the main mechanism for uptake of (99m)Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC in the kidneys. The presence of the somatostatin receptors, differences in the tonicity level within kidneys and other possible mechanisms could participate in their renal accumulation.

  8. Analysis of accumulation of 99mTc-octreotide and 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr3-octreotide in the rat kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, Martin; Semecky, Vladimir; Trejtnar, Frantisek; Laznicek, Milan; Laznickova, Alice; Nachtigal, Petr; Decristoforo, Clemens; Mather, Stephen J.; Maecke, Helmut R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare renal handling and distribution of 99m Tc-octreotide and 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Tyr 3 -octreotide (HYNIC-TOC) in rats. In kidney perfusion experiments, the renal clearance value of 99m Tc-octreotide was three times lower than that of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC. The predominant renal excretion of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC was associated with a high and long-term renal accumulation up to 48 hrs. Microautoradiographic results indicated that 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC was retained mainly in the renal medulla within the cells of the collecting ducts and in the surrounding tissue. Lower positivity was found in the proximal and distal tubular cells. We conclude that the mechanism of renal accumulation of somatostatin analogues renal accumulation is complex and that proximal tubular reabsorption is probably not the main mechanism for uptake of 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC in the kidneys. The presence of the somatostatin receptors, differences in the tonicity level within kidneys and other possible mechanisms could participate in their renal accumulation

  9. Pretreatment of Tc-Containing Waste and Its Effect on Tc-99 Leaching From Grouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloy, Albert; Kovarskaya, Elena N.; Harbour, John R.; Langton, Christine A.; Holtzscheiter, E. William

    2007-01-01

    A salt solution (doped with Tc-99), that simulates the salt waste stream to be processed at the Saltstone Production Facility, was immobilized in grout waste forms with and without (1) ground granulated blast furnace slag and (2) pretreatment with iron salts. The degree of immobilization of Tc-99 was measured through monolithic and crushed grout leaching tests. Although Fe (+2) was shown to be effective in reducing Tc-99 to the +4 state, the strong reducing nature of the blast furnace slag present in the grout formulation dominated the reduction of Tc-99 in the cured grouts. An effective diffusion coefficient of 4.75 x 10 -12 (Leach Index of 11.4) was measured using the ANSI/ANS-16.1 protocol. The leaching results show that, even in the presence of a concentrated salt solution, blast furnace slag can effectively reduce pertechnetate to the immobile +4 oxidation state. The measured diffusivity was introduced into a flow and transport model (PORFLOW) to calculate the release of Tc-99 from a Saltstone Vault as a function of hydraulic conductivity of the matrix. (authors)

  10. Radiopharmacokinetic data for 99mTc-ABP - A new radiopharmaceutical for bone scanning: Comparison with 99mTc-MDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Consuelo Arteaga de; Melendez-Alafort, Laura; Montoya-Molina, Carlos E.; Sepulveda-Mendez, Jesus

    1997-01-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled alendronate is a new radiopharmaceutical for bone scanning developed under strict quality control at the INNSZ. The purpose of this work was to compare the radiopharmacokinetic data and the dosimetry of 99m Tc-ABP and 99m Tc-MDP in 10 volunteers, after it was tested in laboratory animals. 99m Tc-ABP has shorter mean residence time (MRT) and t (1(2)) β; is less protein bound; has a higher renal clearance; smaller Vdss, and similar bone uptake at 1 and 2 h. 99m Tc-ABP gives less radiation exposure to the patient with a 740 MBq dose, and the quality of the bone scan is excellent. 99m Tc-ABP is a better radiopharmaceutical than 99m Tc-MDP for bone scanning

  11. Homologous labelling of leukocytes with Tc 99m- dimeric ethylcysteinate (DEC): 'in vitro' and 'in vivo' tests; Marcacion leucocitaria homologa con Tc99m-Etilcisteinato dimero (ECD): pruebas 'in vitro' e 'in vivo'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soroa, Victoria E [Hospital de Clinicas Jose de San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Centro de Medicina Nuclear; Ozker, K [Medical Coll. of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1999-07-01

    Preliminary tests have been carried out to validate the use of DEC -Tc 99m labelled leukocytes as a more stable substitute for Tc 99m-HMPAO in the diagnosis of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Although in all the patients the infectious focuses have been detected and the results are promissory, further studies with different infections /inflammations are needed to validate the procedure as an alternative routine technique.

  12. Vertical distributions of (99)Tc and the (99)Tc/(137)Cs activity ratio in the coastal water off Aomori, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Takahiro; Zheng, Jian; Aono, Tatsuo; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kusakabe, Masashi

    2011-08-01

    Using a sector-field ICP-MS the vertical distributions of the (99)Tc concentration and (99)Tc/(137)Cs activity ratio were measured in the coastal waters off Aomori Prefecture, Japan, where a spent-nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant has begun test operation. The (99)Tc concentrations in surface water ranged from 1.8 to 2.4 mBq/m(3), no greater than the estimated background level. Relatively high (99)Tc/(137)Cs activity ratios (10-12 × 10(-4)) would be caused by the inflow of the high-(99)Tc/(137)Cs water mass from the Japan Sea. There is no observable contamination from the reprocessing plant in the investigated area. The (99)Tc concentration and the (99)Tc/(137)Cs activity ratio in water column showed gradual decreases with depth. Our results implied that (99)Tc behaves in a more conservative manner than (137)Cs in marine environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance tests on new chromatographic material for 99Mo-99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sombrito, Elvira Z.; Bulos, Adelina D.M.

    2004-01-01

    Technetium-99m continues to be the main workhorse of nuclear medicine in the Philippines. Almost 13TBq of 99m Tc was imported to the country in 2002 supplied as 99m Tc- 99 Mo generators. These generators make use of fission molybdenum adsorbed onto an alumina column. Problems associated with the alumina chromatographic generators arise due to safety and economic issues that would be remedied by gel-type generators using low specific activity reactor-produced molybdenum-99 adsorbed on a high capacity gel column material. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) exerted efforts in this direction by developing a gel-type column, which showed satisfactory molybdenum adsorptive capacity. Likewise, Kaken Co. in Japan in cooperation with Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) developed a dried form of a gel-type polyzirconium compound (PZC). It is a ready-to-use high molybdenum capacity column material for adsorbing reactor-produced molybedum-99. The performance of this material is being tested under the framework of the FNCA project on Research Reactor Utilization. Performance tests on four batches of PZC were performed using fission molybdenum eluted from a 99 Mo- 99m Tc generator. A total of 3.3 GBq 99 Mo was extracted from an alumina column of a commercial generator and mixed with carrier molybdenum solution. About 0.67 GBq was loaded into each of the 12 x 90 mm column. One batch was prepared and distributed in 1999 and tests showed very poor elution yield of 30%. Three recent batches of PZC (2002) gave elution yields of 71% (Range of 69-75). The adsorptive capacity is 99% with about 4% desorption rate. Elution volume is at 5-6 ml. Daily elution for five days gave from 1.6 to 5.5% variability. The tests were performed all at the same time and a trend of improving elution yield and consistency of daily elution yield was observed with the time of testing nearer to the sample preparation date. X-ray diffraction analysis showed an amorphous structure for

  14. 93Tc and sup(93m)Tc gamma spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podkopaev, Yu.N.; Zarubin, P.P.; Kobelev, V.F.; Padalko, V.Yu.; Khrisanfov, Yu.V.

    1977-01-01

    The sup(93,93m)Tc decay was studied. The spectra of γ-rays accompanying the decay of this nuclide were studied. 93 Tc and sup(93m)Tc were obtained in the (dn)-reaction on 92 Mo. To ensure a more reliable identification of γ-rays, the isotopic composition of the targets, the bombardment time, the energy of the bombarding deuterons (5-12 MeV) and the spectrum processing program were varied. The energies and relative intensities of the γ-rays of the 93 Tc and sup(93m)Tc decay are listed in tables together with data of other investigatxons. The results obtained largely confirm the known data. Four new transitions were added in the sup(93m)Tc spectrum namely 1046.8, 2011.8, 2182.0, and 2861.5 keV. The 2739.0 keV transition was eliminated from the 93 Tc spectrum. The appropriate changes and additions were made in the 93 Tc decay scheme, and three new levels were introduced: 2479.0, 2821.7, and 3025.8 keV. The values of log ft of some levels of 93 Tc were estimated

  15. 99Tc in the Irish Sea. Recent trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCartney, M.; Rajendran, K.

    1997-01-01

    The increase in discharges of 99 Tc from Sellafield has resulted in an ideal opportunity to study the behaviour of this radionuclide in the aquatic environment. Results, thus far, have demonstrated that 99 Tc uptake by seaweeds collected from around the Irish Sea has followed the anticipated trend, with brown seaweeds accumulating 100-1000 times more 99 Tc than red or green algae. The large increase in discharges of 99 Tc from Sellafield in 1994 had been matched by a similar increase in the levels present in brown seaweeds, mussels and winkles for which concentration factors of 24000, 5000 and 100, respectively, have been derived. This confirms the observation that 99 Tc uptake by marine organisms in the field far exceeds that which would be expected from laboratory studies. Thus, it is concluded that, given the radiological importance of this nuclide, the provision of more accurate information on its environmental behaviour is required. (author)

  16. Delayed decrease in hemispheric cerebral blood flow during Wada test demonstrated by 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computer tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryding, E.; Sjoeholm, H.; Skeidsvoll, H.; Elmqvist, D.

    1989-01-01

    We describe how brain regions with a flow (and metabolism) decrease can be visualized after an injection of short-acting barbiturate in one of the internal carotid arteries during a Wada test. An intravenous administration of 99mTc-HMPAO was used to mark the relative flow distribution. The 99mTc-HMPAO distribution in the brain was recorded three-dimensionally about 1 h later, by means of a single photon emission computer tomograph. We show that the timing of the intravenous 99mTc-HMPAO administration during the Wada test is important for the visualization of the low-flow regions. The administration of the tracer substance should be delayed at least 30 s after the first signs of the barbiturate effect. The rCBF decrease in the barbiturate-injected cerebral hemisphere was associated with a simultaneous decrease in the contralateral, pharmacologically not directly affected, cerebellar hemisphere (crossed cerebellar diaschisis). (author)

  17. Tc7, a Tc1-hitch hiking transposon in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    OpenAIRE

    Rezsohazy, R; van Luenen, H G; Durbin, R M; Plasterk, R H

    1997-01-01

    We have found a novel transposon in the genome of Caenorhabditis elegans. Tc7 is a 921 bp element, made up of two 345 bp inverted repeats separated by a unique, internal sequence. Tc7 does not contain an open reading frame. The outer 38 bp of the inverted repeat show 36 matches with the outer 38 bp of Tc1. This region of Tc1 contains the Tc1-transposase binding site. Furthermore, Tc7 is flanked by TA dinucleotides, just like Tc1, which presumably correspond to the target duplication generated...

  18. Comparison of different methods for radiochemical purity testing of [99mTc-EDDA-HYNIC-D-Phe1,Tyr3]-Octreotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggenberg, Elisabeth von; Penz, Barbara; Kemmler, Georg; Virgolini, Irene; Decristoforo, Clemens

    2006-01-01

    [ 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-D-Phe 1 ,Tyr 3 ]-octreotide ( 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC) is an alternative radioligand for somatostatin receptor (SSTR) scintigraphy of neuroendocrine tumours. In order to allow a rapid and accurate determination of the quality in the clinical routine the aim of this study was to evaluate different methods of radiochemical purity (RCP) testing. Three different methods of RCP testing were compared: high-performance liquid chromatograhpy (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC) and minicolumn (Sep-Pak purification=SPE). HPLC was shown to be the most effective method for the quality control. The use of TLC and SPE is only recommended after sufficient practical labelling experience

  19. Comparison of different methods for radiochemical purity testing of [99mTc-EDDA-HYNIC-D-Phe1,Tyr3]-octreotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Guggenberg, Elisabeth; Penz, Barbara; Kemmler, Georg; Virgolini, Irene; Decristoforo, Clemens

    2006-02-01

    [99mTc-EDDA-HYNIC-D-Phe1,Tyr3]-octreotide (99mTc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC) is an alternative radioligand for somatostatin receptor (SSTR) scintigraphy of neuroendocrine tumours. In order to allow a rapid and accurate determination of the quality in the clinical routine the aim of this study was to evaluate different methods of radiochemical purity (RCP) testing. Three different methods of RCP testing were compared: high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC) and minicolumn (Sep-Pak purification = SPE). HPLC was shown to be the most effective method for the quality control. The use of TLC and SPE is only recommended after sufficient practical labelling experience.

  20. Tc-99m DTPA renal function tests and diuretic renogram in the dilated upper urinary tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakagami, Yoshinari; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Suzuki, Takayuki; Kameoka, Hiroshi; Shiraiwa, Yasuo; Suzuki, Akira (Fukushima Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1992-09-01

    The authors studied patients with dilated upper urinary tracts (16 patients) using radioisotopic split renal function tests and diuretic renogram with [sup 99]mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA). The etiology was ureteropelvic function stenosis, 11; primary megaureter, 3; ureteral stenosis, 1; and aberrant vessel, 1. Response to diuresis was classified into 3 groups: i.e., obstructive pattern, non-obstructive pattern and partial obstructive pattern. In the non-obstructive group, split renal function was good, and thus an operation was not indicated. In the obstructive group, split renal function was significantly decreased and these patients underwent surgery. In the partial obstructive group, if function of the obstructed kidney was approximately the same as that of the non-obstructed side, then surgery was considered unnecessary. (author).

  1. Tc-99m DTPA renal function tests and diuretic renogram in the dilated upper urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakagami, Yoshinari; Yamaguchi, Osamu; Suzuki, Takayuki; Kameoka, Hiroshi; Shiraiwa, Yasuo; Suzuki, Akira

    1992-01-01

    The authors studied patients with dilated upper urinary tracts (16 patients) using radioisotopic split renal function tests and diuretic renogram with 99 mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-99m DTPA). The etiology was ureteropelvic function stenosis, 11; primary megaureter, 3; ureteral stenosis, 1; and aberrant vessel, 1. Response to diuresis was classified into 3 groups: i.e., obstructive pattern, non-obstructive pattern and partial obstructive pattern. In the non-obstructive group, split renal function was good, and thus an operation was not indicated. In the obstructive group, split renal function was significantly decreased and these patients underwent surgery. In the partial obstructive group, if function of the obstructed kidney was approximately the same as that of the non-obstructed side, then surgery was considered unnecessary. (author)

  2. Noninvasive regional cerebral blood flow measurements at pre- and post-acetazolamide test using 99mTc-ECD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Nakano, Seigo; Tanaka, Masaaki.

    1996-01-01

    A technique for serial noninvasive cerebral blood flow measurements at pre- and post-acetazolamide (Diamox) test was newly developed using 99m Tc-ECD without blood sampling. Baseline mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF) was measured from graphical analysis of time activity curves for brain and aortic arch obtained from radionuclide angiography by injection of 370-555 MBq 99m Tc-ECD. The first SPECT study was performed immediately after intravenous administration of 1 g of Diamox, then baseline regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was calculated using Lassen's correction algorithm. Immediately after the stop of the first SPECT study, additional 555-740 MBq of 99m Tc-ECD was administered, thereafter the second SPECT study was started. Post-Diamox SPECT images were obtained by subtraction of the first baseline images from the second images. Using Lassen's algorithm, post-Diamox mCBF was estimated from the baseline mCBF, the baseline mean SPECT counts, and post-Diamox mean SPECT counts corrected for administered dose and imaging time. Post-Diamox rCBF was obtained from the post-Diamox mCBF and the post-Diamox mean SPECT counts using Lassen's algorithm. Coefficient variation was shown 2.7% and 3.5%: mCBF and rCBF, respectively in test-retest results in six patients without Diamox administration. Nine demented patients without vascular disorders showed significant mCBF increase of 35.7% on the average by post-Diamox. In conclusion, this simplified method is practically useful for measuring CBF at pre- and post-Diamox test within short period of time without any blood sample. (author)

  3. Validation of an ergonomic method to withdraw [99mTc] radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeel-Gomes, Sandy; Marie, Solène; Fouque, Julien; Loyeau, Sabrina; Madar, Olivier; Lokiec, François

    2017-11-10

    The main objective of the present work was to ensure quality of radiopharmaceuticals syringes withdrawn with a "Spinal needle/obturator In-Stopper" system. Methods: Visual examinations and physicochemical tests are performed at T0 and T+4h for [ 99m Tc]albumin nanocolloid and T+7h for [ 99m Tc]eluate, [ 99m Tc] HydroxyMethylene DiPhosphonate and [ 99m Tc]Human Serum Albumin. Microbiological validation was performed according to European pharmacopoeia. Fingertip radiation exposure was evaluated to confirm the safety of the system. Results: Results show stable visual and physicochemical properties. The integrity of the connector was not affected after 30 punctures (no cores). No microbiological contamination was found on tested syringes. Conclusion: The system could be used 30 times. The stability of syringes drawing with this method is guaranteed up to 4 hours for [ 99m Tc]albumin nanocolloid and 7 hours for [ 99m Tc]eluate, [ 99m Tc]HydroxyMethylene DisPhosphonate and [ 99m Tc]Human serum albumin. Copyright © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  4. Microwave testing of high-Tc based direct current to a single flux quantum converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplunenko, V. K.; Fischer, Gerd Michael; Ivanov, Z. G.

    1994-01-01

    Design, simulation, and experimental investigations of a direct current to a single flux quantum converter loaded with a Josephson transmission line and driven by an external 70 GHz microwave oscillator are reported. The test circuit includes nine YBaCuO Josephson junctions aligned on the grain...... boundary of a 0°–32° asymmetric Y-ZrO2 bicrystal substrate. The performance of such converters is important for the development of the fast Josephson samplers required for testing of high-Tc rapid single flux quantum circuits in high-speed digital superconducting electronics. Journal of Applied Physics...

  5. Effect of α-naphthylisothiocyanate on blood clearance of 99mTc-phytate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Hiroshi; Kohno, Masahiro; Katoh, Hirotake

    1989-01-01

    The effect of α-naphthylisothiocyanate (ANIT) on blood clearance of 99m Tc-phytate ( 99m Tc-P) in dogs was examined, and blood clearance test of 99m Tc-P was compared with the cases of serum transaminase test or serum bilirubin test. Serum transaminase and bilirubin levels in dogs increased after ANIT administration, however, the degree of increase in these parameters was much lower than the cases in rats. The disappearance rate of 99m Tc-P from blood in dogs decreased with the increase in dose of ANIT and with the passage of time after the ANIT administration. Changes of the blood clearance of 99m Tc-P after ANIT treatment in dogs may be influenced by the disorder in the hepatocytes rather than in the bile ductule cells. The blood clearance test of 99m Tc-P in dogs showed a sensitive reaction for the acute hepatic dysfunction induced by ANIT equally to the serum transaminase test or the serum bilirubin test. (author)

  6. Comparative binding characteristics of Tc-CPI, Tc-TBI, and Tc-MIBI in cultured heart cells: Correlation with biochemical analysis and animal images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piwnica-Worms, D.; Kronauge, J.F.; Holman, B.L.; Davison, A.; Jones, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    Hexakis (isonitrile)technetium (I) complexes are a new class of cationic, lipophilic myocaridal perfusion imaging agents. To better understand their cellular mechanisms of uptake and washout, chick heart cells grown in culture were used as a model myocardial system. Tc-MIBI showed uptake to a plateau at a rate similar to Tc-CPI (t1/2 = 4.1 +- 0.7 minutes); however, the plateau was 63% greater. Tc-TBI uptake approached a plateau 900% greater than Tc-CPI binding. Heart cell studies showed washout of Tc-CPI>Tc-TBI>Tc-MIBI, which correlated with kinetic analysis of rabbit myocardial images. Biochemical in vitro analysis in human plasma demonstrated 75% enzymatic ester hydrolysis of Tc-CPI by 3 minutes, but no hydrolysis of Tc-TBI and Tc-MIBI. The results suggest that metabolism of the ester function of Tc-CPI following myocardial uptake may in part account for the more rapid cellular washout rates of Tc-CPI compared with Tc-TBI and Tc-MIBI

  7. Treatment with radioisotopes (RI), (40). A discussion of a morphological diagnosis and a diagnosis of cell function in the liver with sup(99m)Tc-HIDA (sup(99m)Tc-PI) and sup(99m)Tc-phytate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asahara, A [Central Hospital of JNR, Tokyo (Japan)

    1978-11-01

    sup(99m)Tc-N-N-(N'(2,6 dimethylphenyl) carbamoyl methyl) iminodiacetic acid (sup(99m)Tc-HIDA) or sup(99m)Tc-phytate was administered to the same case, and their uptake into the liver was discussed by hepatic scintigraphy and hepatogram. As a result, hepatic images of subjects with normal liver function and those with cholelithiasis whose biliary flow was normal were the same, and there was no difference in a morphological diagnosis between them. Sufficient images could not be obtained because sup(99m)Tc-HIDA uptake into the liver decreased in acute hepatitis and acute obstructive jaundice, but sufficient images could be obtained by using sup(99m)Tc-phytate and its uptake into the liver was normal. The uptake of both agents decreased in most of the subjects with liver cirrhosis. As a collective result of both agents, various specific patterns of their uptake were showed according to diseases. sup(99m)Tc-phytate is more useful when an examination is made only to take hepatic image, because this agent is less limit for hepatic imaging. Uptake of sup(99m)Tc-HIDA and sup(99m)Tc-phytate into the liver and their excretion were almost the same in most of diseases, and there was no difference in diagnostic application merits between them. Excretion rate of sup(99m)Tc-HIDA was very low in Dubin-Johnson syndrome, but that of sup(99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene isoleusin (PI) was almost normal. It was supposed that metabolism of sup(99m)Tc-HIDA in hepatic cells differs from that of sup(99m)Tc-PI. (Tsunoda, M.).

  8. Evaluation of liver function in carbon tetrachloride-damaged rabbits by dynamic SPECT. Comparison of 99mTc-GSA and 99mTc-Sn colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Takaaki; Kawasaki, Yukiko; Hino, Ichirou; Kojima, Kanji; Ohkawa, Motoomi; Tanabe, Masatada; Tamai, Toyosato.

    1994-01-01

    Technetium-99m-DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA) is a new ligand that binds specifically to asialoglycoprotein receptors in hepatocytes. We performed liver dynamic SPECT using 99m Tc-GSA and 99m Tc-Sn colloid in nine normal control rabbits and 17 chronically CCl 4 -damaged rabbits (total 29 examinations), and also performed liver function tests (ICGR 15 , Alb, etc). Using the obtained dynamic SPECT data, we analyzed the liver kinetics of 99m Tc-Sn colloid using a one-compartment model (hepatic blood flow [K]) and 99m Tc-GSA using a two-compartment model (hepatic blood flow and receptor binding [K 1 ], catabolism [K 2 ]). As the CCl 4 -treated period increased, K 1 decreased most significantly. K 1 showed the most statistically significant correlation with the results of liver function tests, ICGR 15 (p 1 showed a correlation with the hepatic fibrosis of the HAI score. From the present results, liver dynamic SPECT using 99m Tc-GSA may be said to provide a novel method for the evaluation of hepatic functional reserve. (author)

  9. Tumor affinity of technetium-99m labeled radiopharmaceuticals. II. Sup(99m)Tc-Sn-diphosphonate (sup(99m)Tc-EHDP), sup(99m)Tc-Sn-dimercaptosuccinic acid (sup(99m)Tc-DMSA), sup(99m)Tc-Sn-diethyl stilbestrol diphosphate (sup(99m)Tc-DSDP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, K; Kobayashi, S; Hisada, K; Tonami, N [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ando, A

    1976-10-01

    The authors have examined the tumor affinity of various sup(99m)Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals to Ehrlich's tumor for the purpose of delineating human malignant neoplasm positively. The biologic distributions of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-diphosphonate (sup(99m)Tc-EHDP), sup(99m)Tc-Sn-dimercaptosuccinic acid (sup(99m)Tc-DMSA) and sup(99m)Tc-Sn-diethyl stilbestrol diphosphate (sup(99m)Tc-DSDP, sup(99m)Tc-Honvan) are included as the second report on the tumor affinity of Ehrlich-bearing mice. Tumor concentration of sup(99m)Tc-EHDP was lowest and the positive delineation of implanted tumor with sup(99m)Tc-EHDP was poorest in sequential images, though active accumulation in some soft tissues malignant neoplasms, breast cancer, and thyroid cancer, has been reported. Tumor concentration and the tumor-to-blood ratio of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA were not so high, contrary to our expectation that /sup 197/Hg-DMSA might show high tumor concentration and high tumor-to-blood ratio the same as /sup 197/Hg chlormerodrin of the renal scanning radiopharmaceuticals. Tumor concentration of sup(99m)Tc-DSDP was highest. The tumor-to-blood concentration ratio was lower than that of the above mentioned radiopharmaceuticals but the tumor-to-liver ratio and/or tumor-to-lung ratio was over 1.0 at the earlier time. Biologic distribution of sup(99m)Tc-DSDP was similar to that of /sup 32/P labeled DSDP. It is presumed that sup(99m)Tc is labeled at the phosphate ester of DSDP which is dephospholytated immediately by phospholylase in vivo following intravenous injection. Although it is not known precisely it may be assumed that the mechanism of accumulating sup(99m)Tc-DSDP in Ehrlich's tumor is related to the phospholylase activity in neoplasms.

  10. Measurement of technetium-99 in soil samples collected in Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S. [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Environmental and Toxicological Sciences Research Group, Chiba (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) for ICP-MS measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for {sup 99}Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the {sup 99}Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The {sup 99}Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq/g-dw. The limit of detection for {sup 99}Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq/g-dw under standard operating conditions. (author)

  11. Measurement of technetium-99 in soil samples collected in Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.

    2000-01-01

    Extraction techniques for recovery of technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) for ICP-MS measurements were evaluated using soil samples collected from the Marshall Islands. The results of three different extraction techniques were compared: (M1) acid leaching of Tc from ashed soil; (M2) acid leaching of Tc from raw dry soil; and (M3) Tc volatilization from ashed soil using a combustion apparatus. Total Tc recoveries varied considerably between the extraction techniques but each method yielded similar analytical results for 99 Tc. Applications of these extraction techniques to a series of environmental samples and ICP-MS measurements have yielded first data on the 99 Tc content of Marshall Islands soil samples contaminated with close-in radioactive fallout from nuclear weapons testing. The 99 Tc activity concentration in the soil samples ranged between 0.1 and 1.1 mBq/g-dw. The limit of detection for 99 Tc by ICP-MS was 0.17 mBq per sample or 0.014 mBq/g-dw under standard operating conditions. (author)

  12. Hot deformation behavior of TC18 titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Bao-Hua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Isothermal compression tests of TC18 titanium alloy at the deformation temperatures ranging from 25°C to 800°C and strain rate ranging from 10-4 to 10-2 s-1 were conducted by using a WDW-300 electronic universal testing machine. The hot deformation behavior of TC18 was characterized based on an analysis of the true stress-true strain curves of TC18 titanium alloy. The curves show that the flow stress increases with increasing the strain rate and decreases with increasing the temperature, and the strain rate play an important role in the flow stress when increasing the temperatures. By taking the effect of strain into account, an improved constitutive relationship was proposed based on the Arrhenius equation. By comparison with the experimental results, the model prediction agreed well with the experimental data, which demonstrated the established constitutive relationship was reliable and can be used to predict the hot deformation behavior of TC18 titanium alloy.

  13. The Almahata Sitta Polymict Ureilite from the University of Khartoum Collection: Classification, Distribution of Clast Types in the Strewn Field, New Meteorite Types, and Implications for the Structure of Asteroid 2008 TC3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, C. A.; Fioretti, A. M.; Zolensky, M.; Ross, Daniel K.; Shaddad, M.; Ross, D. K.; Kohl, I.; Young, E.; Kita, N.; Hiroi, T.; hide

    2018-01-01

    The Almahata Sitta (AhS) polymict ureilite fell in 2008 when asteroid 2008 TC3 impacted over Sudan]. It is the first meteorite to originate from an asteroid that had been tracked and studied in space (with spectral classification) before impact, and provides a unique opportunity to correlate properties of meteorites with those of their parent asteroid. More than 700 monolithologic stones from the AhS fall were collected. Of those previously studied, approx. 70% were ureilites and approx. 30% were chondrites. It has been inferred that 2008 TC3 was loosely aggregated and porous and disintegrated in the atmosphere, with only its most coherent clasts falling as stones. However, understanding the structure of this asteroid is limited by incomplete study of the heterogeneous stones, and the loss of most of the mass of the asteroid. The University of Khartoum (UOK) AhS collection contains over >600 AhS stones with find coordinates. We are studying this collection to determine: 1) the proportion of ureilitic to various non-ureilitic stones; 2) the distribution of types of stones in the strewn field; and 3) the compositional and physical structure of 2008 TC3. We report on 61 new stones, including a unique sample that may represent the bulk of the material lost from 2008 TC3.

  14. In Vitro Evaluation of Tc-99m Radiopharmaceuticals for Gastric Emptying Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkan Ertay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastrointestinal motility and functional motility disorders causing either delayed or accelerated gastric emptying (GE may result in similar symptoms including nausea, vomiting, early satiety, fullness, bloating, and abdominal discomfort or pain. Hence, it is important to evaluate patients for both rapid and delayed GE in the same test. The gold standard technique to measure GE is scintigraphy by radiolabeled test meals. The aim of this study was to test alternative Tc-99m agents to label eggs as the solid meal and compare to Tc-99m sulfur colloid (SC for gastric emptying studies. Methods: In search of alternative agents for gastric emptying studies, we mixed and fried eggs with four different particulate compounds (Tc-99m labeled SC, tin colloid, nanocolloid and MAA, as well as with free pertechnetate and Tc-99m DTPA. We then measured the stability of these compounds in simulated gastric juice. Results: Our experiments demonstrated that in addition to Tc-99m sulfur colloid;Tc-99m MAA, Tc-99m nanocolloid and Tc-99m tin colloid also appear to make stable complexes with eggs in acidic environment. Conclusion: Therefore, these agents may be used for gastric emptying studies which could be more practical in routine conditions.

  15. The new 99mTc myocardial perfusion imaging agents: 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-teboroxime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, D.S.; Kiat, H.; Maddahi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The two new 99m (99mTc) labeled myocardial perfusion agents, 99mTc-Sestamibi and 99mTc-Teboroxime, are now available for routine clinical application. Both agents allow assessment of ejection fraction by the first-pass technique at rest or during exercise, thus providing additional information not available with thallium-201. 99mTc-Sestamibi has long myocardial residence time, as well as adequate myocardial extraction, providing images of higher count density and superior quality compared with thallium-201. 99mTc-Teboroxime has excellent myocardial uptake characteristics but is cleared very rapidly from the myocardium. Both tracers have shown results similar to those obtained with thallium-201 for detection of coronary artery disease and the assessment of defect reversibility. 99mTc-Sestamibi studies using the rest/stress imaging sequence can be accomplished in approximately 5 hours; studies using dual-isotope imaging (rest thallium-201 and stress 99mTc-Sestamibi injection) can be completed in 1 to 2 hours. Gated stress images can be performed with 99mTc-Sestamibi, providing simultaneous information of myocardial perfusion at stress and resting wall motion or thickening and allowing rapid differentiation of ischemic from infarcted tissue. Because of its slow myocardial clearance and absence of redistribution, 99mTc-Sestamibi allows uncoupling of the time of injection from the time of imaging and thus can be valuable in the evaluation of acute myocardial infarction and outcome of thrombolytic therapy. With 99mTc-Teboroxime, rapid serial studies are feasible. Pharmacologic stress and rest studies with 99mTc-Teboroxime single photon emission computed tomography potentially can be completed in under 30 minutes. 73 references

  16. Determination of Tc-99 in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera S, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Tc-99 is a fission product and one of the most important radionuclides from the view point of safety assessment for the disposal of radioactive waste because of its long half-life (2.1 x 10 5 years) and high mobility in soil-water systems, if this is released into the environment in significant quantities can concentrate on plants and animals. Tc-99 is a pure beta emitter with a maximum energy of 292 KeV, so their quantification imposes destructive methods to be analyzed by liquid scintillation. Therefore the quantification of Tc-99 in ion exchange resins requires of the mineralization of these and separation of Tc-99 of other radioisotopes present in the resin. Therefore the object of this thesis is to develop a quantification method of Tc-99 content in spent exchange resins. So in order to track the behavior of technetium during digestion exchange resins and radiochemical separation, given its high volatility, in this work the 99m Tc is used. To determine the degree of mineralization of the resins, an analysis was performed by chromatography. Subsequently the method used to determine the percentage of 99m Tc aerosolized during mineralization of resin is described. After the method for the radiochemical separation of 99m Tc is presented by liquid-liquid extraction using crown ether as extractant; for this testing was performed by varying the molarity of the extractant, the ratio of solvent extractant, type of digestion of the resin and the presence of Sr-85, in order to study the behavior of 99m Tc in the presence of this radioisotope. Finally, a track beta spectra of a sample of 99m Tc eluted from a generator 99 Mo/ 99m Tc function of time was performed. (Author)

  17. Performance tests on column materials for {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sombrito, E Z; Bulos, A D; Tangonan, M C [Chemistry Research Section, Atomic Research Div., Philippine Nuclear Research Inst., Quezon (Philippines)

    1998-10-01

    To meet the need of producing a {sup 99}Mo-{sup 99m}Tc generator, based on low specific activity reactor-produced {sup 99}Mo, different procedures for preparing zirconium molybdate gels were tested. Performance tests were done on molybdate gel columns prepared using the procedures developed by Vietnam and China, and recently, on a polyzirconium compound (PZC) prepared in Japan. The conditions for the batch drying of a large volume of the gel material were studied as well as the conditions in preparing a column to concentrate technetium-99m. The performance of PZC sample as column material for the generator was also evaluated. (author)

  18. Superplastic Deformation of TC6 Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Ling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The superplastic tensile tests of TC6 alloy were conducted in the temperature range of 800-900℃ by using the maximum m value superplasticity deformation (Max m SPD method and the constant strain rate deformation method at the strain rate range of 0.0001-0.1 s-1. The stress-strain curve of the tensile tests was obtained and the microstructure near the fracture were analyzed by metallographic microscope. The result shows that the superplasticity of TC6 alloy is excellent, and the elongation increases first and then decreases with the increase of strain rate or temperature. When the temperature is 850℃ and strain rate is 0.001 s-1 at constant stain rate tensile tests, the elongation reaches up to 993%. However, the elongation using Max m SPD method at 850℃ is 1353%. It is shown that the material can achieve better superplasticity by using Max m SPD tensile compared to constant stain rate tensile under the same temperature. The superplastic deformation of TC6 alloy can enhance the dynamic recrystallization behavior significantly, the dynamic recrystallization behavior is promoted when strain rate and temperature are increased.

  19. Mismatched uptake of Tc-99m-ECD and Tc-99m-HMPAO in subacute cerebral infarction: Tc-99m-ECD for viability and Tc-99m-HMPAO for flow restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D. S.; Hyun, I. Y.; Kim, S. K. [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1997-07-01

    Tc-99m-HMPAO reflects tissue perfusion but Tc-99m-ECD uptake is affected by tissue viability in addition to tissue perfusion which the varied state of cellular retention of Tc-99m-ECD reflects. Luxuriously perfused area on Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT implies that this cortex was already reperfused either spontaneously or after thrombolysis and that accompanied paralysis of vascular reactivity in those zones warms progressive deterioration. We tried to find out if we can use sequential Tc-99m-ECD/Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT to reveal cortical perfusion and severity and range of risky areas of cerbral cortex despite reperfusion in sub-acute infarction. In 13 patients (M ; F =7 : 6, mean age 57 (range: 26-84)) with cortical (n=12) and basal ganglia infarction (1), we performed sequential Tc-99m-ECD/Tc-99m-HMPAO SPECT at the same position. At first, 555 MBq of Tc-99m-ECD was injected and imaged and then 1110 MBq of Tc-99m-HMPAO was injected again and imaged with the patients in situ, and the first image (Tc-99m-ECD) and the subtracted image (2nd- 1st : Tc-99m-HMPAO) were compared slice by slice. Study was done from 3 days to 31 days (16{+-}9) after ictus. Tc-99m-ECD uptake was always less than or equal to Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake at the lesion in all cases. Luxury perfusion was prominent in four patients. Mismatched uptake was found in 10 patients. Severity of mismatch showed diverse spectrum and was ranged from total middle cerebral artery territory (1 case) to peripheral thin zones around infarction (2 cases). The other 7 showed intermediate amount of tissues with mismatch , i.e., Tc-99m-ECD defects where Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake is in part increased, normal or decreased. Upon discharge, patients having more uptake with Tc-99m-ECD predicted improvement. Patients having mismatched uptake went dichotomous way. In conclusion, Tc-99m-ECD/Tc-99m-HMPAO sequential SPECT is feasible and reveal both tissue perfusion (Tc-99m-HMPAO ) and discrepant Tc-99m-ECD uptake probably reflecting viability in acute

  20. Assessment of the direct cyclotron production of (99m)Tc: An approach to crisis management of (99m)Tc shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovais, Mohammad Reza Aboudzadeh; Aardaneh, Khosro; Aslani, Gholamreza; Rahiminejad, Ali; Yousefi, Kamran; Boulouri, Fatemeh

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, the cyclotron production of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) has been increased, due to the worldwide (99m)Tc generator shortage. In the present work, an improved strategy for the production of (99m)Tc, using the proton irradiation of the enriched (100)Mo was developed. The performance of this method in terms of the production yield, chemical purity, radiochemical purity, as well as radionuclide purity was evaluated. The average production yield was measured to be 356MBqμA(-1)h(-1). A good agreement was found between the calculated production yield and the experimental one. The radiochemical separation and total recovery yields of (99m)Tc were 92% and 69%, respectively. The radiochemical and the radionuclide purities of the (99m)Tc were 99% and >99.99% at the end of purification, respectively. The results of quality control tests (QC) support the concept that cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc is suitable for preparation of USP-compliant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Hydrometeor Trajectories and Distributions in a Simulation of TC Rapid Intensification (RI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z.; Zhu, P.

    2010-12-01

    It has long been recognized that the microphysics scheme used in a numerical simulation of tropical cyclones (TC) can greatly affect the precipitation distribution, intensity and thermodynamic structure of the simulated TC. This suggests that the mixing ratios, concentrations and size distributions of hydrometeor(snow, graupel,rain,cloud ice) are important factors in the evolution of TC . The transport of hydrometeor may have a strong influence on these factors through its interactions with the growth and the latent heat forcing of hydrometeor and the wind filed, hence is a key to understanding TC microphysics. Schematic hydrometeor trajectories were first constructed using 3-D wind field and particle fallspeeds derived from airborne radar observations in a steady-state mature hurricane,Alicia(1983). Since then, little effort has been put in understanding hydrometeor transport in TC, especially the potential link between its evolution and the intensity and structure changes in a non-steady-state TC. This study is focused on investigating such a link by means of numerical simulations of TC Rapid Intensification(RI) using WRF model. We use the tracer utility in WRF to construct hydrometeor trajectories. Most of the popular microphysics schemes are tested, and the most reasonable test( which is determined by comparing the simulated TC intensity and structure with airborne radar observations) and the ensemble mean of all the tests are picked for detailed examinations.

  2. Physicochemical and Biological Analysis of 99mTc-Glutathione Radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ME- Sriyani; N- Zainuddin

    2013-01-01

    99m Tc-glutathion ( 99m Tc-GSH) radiopharmaceutical is available in the GSH lyophilized-kit in which ready to use directly after adding 99m Tc radionuclide. In nuclear medicine, 99m Tc-GSH diagnostic kit is a radiopharmaceutical commonly utilized for cancer diagnoses using imaging method. This paper described the physicochemical and biological characteristics as well as the quality of 99m Tc-GSH diagnostic kit prepared from the GSH lyophilized-kit. The radiochemical purity was determined with thin layer chromatography (TLC) method, performed on a TLC-SG stationary phase with a mobile phase of a dried acetone and 0,9% of NaCl solution. Studies on the effect of volume and radioactivity of Na 99m TcO 4 solution to the radiochemical purity of 99m Tc-GSH were carried out. The sterility of GSH-lyophilized kit and toxicity of 99m Tc-GSH were also investigated. The stability test on GSH lyophilized kit and 99m Tc-GSH in several storage conditions, as well as the plasma stability of 99m Tc-GSH was performed. The analysis result showed that the GSH lyophilized-kit was sterile; the 99m Tc-GSH was non toxic with 99.54 ± 0.01% of radiochemical purity and remained stable 5 hours either at room temperature or 4℃. The volume more than 4 mL of Na 99m TcO 4 solution on the labeling of GSH could decreased the 99m Tc-GSH radiochemical purity, while the radioactivity more than 20 mCi in 7 mL of volume extended the incubation time. In-vitro stability test of 99m Tc-GSH in plasma showed that in the two hours of storage, the radiochemical purity decreased to 51.84 ± 2.52%, and until 5 hours of storage it did not change significantly. From the result, it can be concluded that the GSH lyophilized-kit was remained stable after 13 month of storage either at room temperature or 4℃ with 99% of 99m Tc-GSH radiochemical purity. (author)

  3. Migration of 99Tc in unsaturated Chinese loess under artificial rainfall condition: an in situ test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.L.; Wang, X.Y.; Wang, H.F.; Li, R.J.; Tang, L.T.

    2001-01-01

    The migration of 99 Tc in unsaturated Chinese loess under artificial rainfall condition was investigated in situ. Water suckers were buried at different depths under the bottom of an experimental pit of 2 m x 2 m x 1 m (deep). Quartz containing 3 H and 99 Tc was introduced into the experimental pit to an area of 40 cm x 40 cm and the pit was backfilled to a thickness of 30 cm. An artificial rainfall of 5 mm/h was applied to the experimental pit 4 h a day for 3 months. Moisture water samples were sucked with the help of a vacuum pumping system and the activity of 3 H and 99 Tc in the samples was determined. Breakthrough curves of 3 H and 99 Tc indicated that 99 Tc was slightly retarded. The calculated average apparent distribution coefficient of 99 Tc in the medium was (1.98 ± 0.42) x 10 -2 ml/g. (orig.)

  4. A modified method for the in vivo labeling of red blood cells with /sup 99m/Tc: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, R.J.; Froelich, J.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Leppo, J.; Strauss, H.W.

    1982-01-01

    The rate of incorporation of /sup 99m/Tc into red blood cells pretinned in vivo was measured by collecting blood samples in stannous DTPA solution, which served as a competing ligand for /sup 99m/Tc. This collection technique permitted a measurement of high-affinity red-cell labeling efficiency at the instant of sampling. At 0.5 min after injection only 62% of technetium is tightly bound to the red cell; this rises to 94.5% at 10 min. Based on the graded labeling of the red cells, the in vivo labeling procedure was modified by isolating pertechnetate and red blood cells tinned in vivo in a syringe during the first 10 min of labeling. The pertechnetate is thus prevented from distributing to extravascular compartments, and 90% of the injected /sup 99m/Tc is firmly bound to red blood cells at the time of injection. In a series of 23 patients, seven were tested with the in vivo method and seven with the modified in vivo method, and nine patients were tested with each method on separate occasions. A decrease in gastric activity and improved image quality were found with the modified method compared with the standard method of in vivo red-cell labeling

  5. In vitro cytotoxicity testing of Ubiquicidin 29-41-99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocampo, Ivette Z.; Okazaki, Kayo; Dias, Luis Alberto Pereira; Higa, Olga Z.; Silva, Fabiana M. da; Vieira, Daniel P.; Passos, Priscila; Esteves-Pedro, Natalia M.

    2015-01-01

    The work carried out cytotoxicity tests using a radiopharmaceutical compound produced at IPEN/CNEN-SP to certify its safety through in vitro cytotoxicity tests. Since 2009, the Brazilian regulatory agency (ANVISA) requires that such tests have to be carried out following good laboratory practices (GLP) and in according to the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) guidelines in order to certify its safety for medical use. Those guidelines comprises series of technical recommendations performed to assure quality of experiments. The study chose Ubiquicidin 29-41, an antimicrobial peptide used to discriminate bacterial infection foci from inflammatory sites. Amounts of UBI 29-41 were conjugated or not to 99m Tc and diluted to equivalent concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000% of the maximum dose (or activity) administered in adults. Possible cytotoxic effects were evaluated in comparison to untreated controls as well as positive and negative damage controls. Both full (radioactive) radiopharmaceuticals, as their precursors (only molecules without conjugation to isotopes) showed no significant cytotoxic effect (cytotoxicity ≤ 10%). The study was conducted for the first time in the country comprising preclinical testing of this radiopharmaceutical in accordance with internationally accepted quality parameters, ensuring the safety of its use and enabling inclusion in the pharmaceutical regulatory agenda. (author)

  6. Leaching Tc-99 from SRP glass in simulated tuff and salt groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Jurgensen, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    Results of leach tests with Tc-99 doped SRP borosilicate waste glass are presented. The glass was prepared by melting a mixture of SRP 165 powdered frit doped with a carrier free solution of Tc-99 at 1150 0 C. Dissolution of portions of the resulting glass indicated that the Tc-99 was distributed homogeneously throughout the glass. Static leach tests up to 90 days were performed at 90 0 C in J-13 tuff groundwater or WIPP brine A at a SA/V of 100m -1 . Normalized mass losses were calculated for Tc-99 as well as all the major elements in the glass. Results indicated that under ambient oxidizing conditions Tc-99 leached no faster than the glass-forming elements of the glass. In J-13 water, Tc-99 leached congruently with B. In WIPP brine A, it leached congruently with Si. Leach rates for Li were higher in both groundwaters, probably due to a contribution from an ion exchange mechanism. Leach tests were performed under reducing conditions in J-13 water by adding Zn/Hg amalgam to the leachate. In these tests the pH increased significantly, probably because of the reaction of the amalgam with the water. In a 21-day test, the pH increased to 13 and leach rates for the glass were very high. Even though there was signifcant dissolution of the glass, the normalized mass loss based on Tc-99 was only 0.02g/m 2 . This result and the fact that reducing conditions at normal pH values do not significantly affect the dissolution of the glass, indicate that the low concentrations for Tc-99 obtained under reducing conditions are due to is solubility and not due to an increased durability of the glass. 14 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  7. Performance of TcI/TcVI/TcII Chagas-Flow ATE-IgG2a for universal and genotype-specific serodiagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glaucia Diniz Alessio

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Distinct Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes have been considered relevant for patient management and therapeutic response of Chagas disease. However, typing strategies for genotype-specific serodiagnosis of Chagas disease are still unavailable and requires standardization for practical application. In this study, an innovative TcI/TcVI/TcII Chagas Flow ATE-IgG2a technique was developed with applicability for universal and genotype-specific diagnosis of T. cruzi infection. For this purpose, the reactivity of serum samples (percentage of positive fluorescent parasites-PPFP obtained from mice chronically infected with TcI/Colombiana, TcVI/CL or TcII/Y strain as well as non-infected controls were determined using amastigote-AMA, trypomastigote-TRYPO and epimastigote-EPI in parallel batches of TcI, TcVI and TcII target antigens. Data demonstrated that "α-TcII-TRYPO/1:500, cut-off/PPFP = 20%" presented an excellent performance for universal diagnosis of T. cruzi infection (AUC = 1.0, Se and Sp = 100%. The combined set of attributes "α-TcI-TRYPO/1:4,000, cut-off/PPFP = 50%", "α-TcII-AMA/1:1,000, cut-off/PPFP = 40%" and "α-TcVI-EPI/1:1,000, cut-off/PPFP = 45%" showed good performance to segregate infections with TcI/Colombiana, TcVI/CL or TcII/Y strain. Overall, hosts infected with TcI/Colombiana and TcII/Y strains displayed opposite patterns of reactivity with "α-TcI TRYPO" and "α-TcII AMA". Hosts infected with TcVI/CL strain showed a typical interweaved distribution pattern. The method presented a good performance for genotype-specific diagnosis, with global accuracy of 69% when the population/prototype scenario include TcI, TcVI and TcII infections and 94% when comprise only TcI and TcII infections. This study also proposes a receiver operating reactivity panel, providing a feasible tool to classify serum samples from hosts infected with distinct T. cruzi genotypes, supporting the potential of this method for universal and genotype-specific diagnosis

  8. 99mTc bone scanning agents preparation and chemical analysis of Tc(Sn)pyrophosphate, Tc(Sn)MDP and Tc(Sn)HMDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroesbergen, J.

    1986-01-01

    This thesis describes a comparison of the preparation, composition and properties of three bone scanning agents: 99m Tc(Sn)pyrophosphate, 99m Tc(Sn)MDP and 99m Tc(Sn)HMDP. This study has been performed for two reasons: First to investigate the preparation and composition of the radiopharmaceuticals as a function of experimental conditions. Together with previously reported results for 99m Tc(Sn)EHDP, obtained in a similar way, this enables to use well-defined preparations of the bone scanning agents. Secondly to gain an insight in the mechanism in which the agents behave 'in vivo'. Because the 'in vivo' process is too complicated to study directly, it seemed more appropriate to perform 'in vitro' investigations as simplifications of the 'in vivo' situation. 304 refs.; 26 figs.; 31 tabs

  9. Migration of 99Tc in a weak loess aquifer. A field column experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.L.; Wang, X.Y.; Wang, H.F.

    2001-01-01

    The migration of 99 Tc in a weak loess aquifer was investigated in-situ with undisturbed aquifer medium columns. The columns were obtained horizontally at a depth of 32∼36 m in an Underground Research Facility (URF). Quartz containing 3 H (HTO) and 99 Tc (in the form of 99 TcO 4 - ) was introduced into one end of the columns and the columns were covered tightly. Aquifer water was introduced into the columns directly from an experimental shaft in the UFR. Effluents from the columns were collected and the activity of 3 H and 99 Tc were determined with a liquid scintillation analyzer. The breakthrough curves of 3 H and 99 Tc indicate that 99 Tc migrates a little faster than that 3 H does in the aquifer. (author)

  10. Scavenging of Tc(V) formed by I.T. in 95mTcO4- solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianoz, E.; Colin, M.; Kosinski, M.

    1988-01-01

    The chemical effects of the I.T. of 95m Tc in 95m TcO 4 - have been studied in chelating ligand solutions. At high pH and at high concentration of 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane and 1,4-dithia-8, 11-diazacyclotetradecane, the retention of 95g Tc is about 20% and the unretained 95g Tc appears preponderantly (ca. 73%) as [TcO 2 L] + complexes. In glucoheptonate solution, the 95g Tc retention remains practically the same (22%) but the unretained 95g Tc is found in high proportion (73%) as [TcObis(glucoheptonate)] - . The added ligands are very good scavengers for 95g Tc(V). A comparison is made between 95g Tc species formed by the I.T. in 95m TcO 4 - and 99m Tc species resulting from the chemical reduction of 99m TcO 4 - . (orig.)

  11. Dry Kit Development And Clinical Test Of 99mTc-L,L-ECD Radiopharmaceutical For Vrain Perfusion Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, Nani; Sofyan, Rohestri; Rukmini; Iswahyudi

    2000-01-01

    Technetium- 99m ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-L,L-ECD) has been synthesized and formulated based on ligand exchanged reaction with 99mTc-glucoheptonate. Considering the low stability of the dry kit produced, it was fairly necessary to develop the manufacture of L,L-ECD dry kit in order to obtain a more stable one that meet the requirements as brain perfusion imaging radiopharmaceutical. Experiment was done by modifying the packing of dry kit components of the previous formulation. Characteristics of 99m Tc-L,L-ECD produced from this formulation were studied by carrying out the sterility and toxicity test, then followed with clinical test to some volunteers. Evaluation of brain perfusion was done by tomography technique using gamma camera at Nuclear Medicine Installation, Hasan Sadikin Hospital. The modified formulation obtained consist of three components i.e. main ligand L,L-ECD; exchange ligand Ca-glucoheptonate and HaOH. Its stability could reach 8 months at-10 derajat C of storage. Effects of toxicity on mice did not appear. The result of clinical study shows that the radiopharmaceutical was distributed very rapidly in the blood brain circulations and retained in the brain for about one hour. The body scanning indicates that the substance was excreted in the brain for about one hour. The body scanning indicates that the substance was excreted though kidney, liver and spleen. Based on the results obtained the radiopharmaceutical could be promoted to be used for brain perfusion imaging

  12. Pharmacokinetics and radiation dosimetry of 99mTc-3PRGD2 in healthy individuals: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Guanghui; Gao Shi; JI Tiefeng; Ma Qingjie; Wang Qing; Jia Bing; Chen Zuowei

    2012-01-01

    99m Tc-3PRGD 2 is a new SPECT radiotracer for several tumor imaging with high uptake where integrin α v β 3 is highly expressed. This pilot study was to assess the safety, biodistribution and radiation dosimetry of 99m Tc-3PRGD 2 in healthy volunteers. The 10 healthy male volunteers were injected with 99m Tc-3PRGD 2 (786.7±55.8 MBq, 19.1-24.2 mCi). Baseline measurements of vital signs, laboratory safety tests and 12-lead electrocardiogram were recorded before and after injection. Blood and urine samples were collected and radiation counts were obtained at various time points. Whole-body scans and ROIs of identified organs were used for visual analysis and estimating the radiation dosimetry. No adverse reactions were found during the study. 99m Tc-3PRGD 2 exhibited a rapid clearance from the blood with less than 45% of the initial dosage at 10 min after injection and gradual increasing radioactivity in urine with (52.9±6)% of original dose at 1440 min. The whole-body imaging showed high radioactive accumulation in bladder. And the highest 99m Tc-3PRGD 2 uptake was found in the kidneys (3.50×10 -2 mSv/MBq). The 99m Tc-3PRGD 2 exhibited good pharmacokinetic properties and little radiation burden. This study showed that 99m Tc-3PRGD 2 would be a safe and attractive SPECT agent in clinic applications. (authors)

  13. Microbial reduction of 99Tc (as TcO4-) in anaerobic alkaline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khizhnyak, T.; Simonoff, M.; Sergeant, C.; Simonoff, G.; Medvedeva-Lyalikova, N.N.

    2003-01-01

    The ability of bacteria to reduce pertechnetate in alkaline conditions was investigated using halophilic bacteria isolated from soda-lakes environments. Anaerobic halophilic bacteria were able to reduce as much as 0.25 mM pertechnetate, whereas no reduction took place without bacteria or in the presence of heat-killed bacteria. The results obtained showed reduction of Tc(VII)O 4 - to the Tc(V) and Tc(IV) at pH 10 in the carbonate-bicarbonate medium. About 57% of the total technetium was determined to be Tc(IV), 1-3% as a Tc(V) and 17-20% as a Tc(VII) after 1-3 days of incubation with bacteria. The microbial reduction of Tc(VII) in alkaline conditions has been suggested as a potential mechanism for the removal of Tc from contaminated environments or waste streams. (author)

  14. Production of 95mTc with proton bombardment of 95Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, M.; Matsuoka, H.; Sorita, T.; Nagame, Y.; Sekine, T.; Hata, K.; Baba, S.

    1991-01-01

    Formation cross sections of 95m Tc and 95g Tc via the 95 Mo (p,n) reaction have been measured to evaluate the production yield of 95m Tc which is expected to be a useful radiotracer of technetium isotopes. It was found from the cross section data that for incident proton energies above 15 MeV, the thick-target yield of 95m Tc was more than 20 μCi/μAh at the end of bombardment and the 95g Tc contamination was less than 1% after 12 d cooling. To examine the separation and purification of 95m Tc from target, we have carried out a test production of 95m Tc using a thick 95 Mo-enriched target. Other reactions of producing 95m Tc are compared and discussed in terms of the production yield and amounts of contaminants. (author)

  15. Superconductivity in the W-Tc and W2C-Tc systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    A series of compositions in the W-Tc, W 2 C-Re and W 2 C-Tc systems were prepared and examined for superconductivity. The crystal structure, lattice parameters and superconducting transition temperatures of the W 2 C-Tc are reported for the first time. Similar measurements were made on the W-Tc and W 2 C-Re systems and the results compared with previous published results for these systems. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Assessment of peritoneal membrane permeability by Tc-99m-excretion in patients undergoing CAPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Senthilnathan, M.S.; Pradhan, P.K.; Jeloka, T.K.; Sharma, R.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Among various conservative treatment modalities for end stage renal disease (ESRD), continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is increasingly being used in many centers. The success of CAPD depends largely on the permeable characteristics of the peritoneal membrane. Peritoneal Equilibration Test (PET), first described by Twardowski in 1987, is the most commonly used method for determination of peritoneal membrane characteristics. However, this test has several limitations. In order to find an alternative method for assessing peritoneal membrane characteristics we undertook this prospective study involving 20 patients. The main objective was to determine whether peritoneal excretion of intravenously applied Tc-99m-DTPA can be used for this purpose. 20 patients undergoing regular CAPD were included in this study. 370 MBq (10 mCi) of Tc-99m-DTPA was injected intravenously in the same standard preconditions as for the PET evaluation. A standard dose of 370 MBq (10 mCi) DTPA was kept and used later for calculations. At the end of 4 hours, a dialysate fluid sample was collected and the total dialysis effluent volume was measured. Excretion of Tc-99m-DTPA into the dialysate fluid as percentage of injected dose was calculated. Simultaneously standard PET values were determined. The peritoneal excretion of Tc-99m-DTPA ranged from 8 to 16 % of the injected dose depending upon the peritoneal membrane permeability. The patients were divided into following four groups depending upon DTPA excretion. High transporters (15 % and above); high average(12-15 %); low average (10-12 %); low transporters (10 % and less). When the results were compared with standard PET values, a good correlation could be established. We conclude that the radioisotope method using Tc-99m-DTPA can a good alternative technique to assess peritoneal membrane permeability. (author)

  17. On the interaction of granite with Tc(IV) and Tc(VII) in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.E.; Cui, Daquing

    1991-10-01

    The behaviour of technetium in granite-groundwater systems under reducing conditions was investigated. The anion TcO 4 - was reduced to Tc(IV) and simultaneously precipitated as TcO 2 xnH 2 O on the granite surfaces. The electron sources are assumed to be iron oxides and/or iron containing minerals in the granite. The technetium concentration in ground water under repository conditions may be predicted assuming TcO 2 xnH 2 O as the solid phase and TcO(OH) 2 0 and TcO 4 - as the predominant aqueous complexes using a formation constant for TcO(OH) 2 0 of log K = -8.16 and a standard reduction potential E 0 for the reaction TcO 4 - + 3e - + 4H + = TcO 2 xnH 2 O of 0.738 V. The surface related distribution ratio K a for TcO(OH) 2 0 between Stripa granite and ground water is approximately 1 cm based on geometrical surface area. (au)

  18. Sparse matrix test collections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, I.

    1996-12-31

    This workshop will discuss plans for coordinating and developing sets of test matrices for the comparison and testing of sparse linear algebra software. We will talk of plans for the next release (Release 2) of the Harwell-Boeing Collection and recent work on improving the accessibility of this Collection and others through the World Wide Web. There will only be three talks of about 15 to 20 minutes followed by a discussion from the floor.

  19. Impurities in Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical solution obtained from Mo-100 in cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymiński, Zbigniew; Saganowski, Paweł; Kołakowska, Ewa; Listkowska, Anna; Ziemek, Tomasz; Cacko, Daniel; Dziel, Tomasz

    2018-04-01

    The gamma emitting impurities in 99m Tc solution obtained from enriched molybdenum 100 Mo metallic target after its irradiation in a cyclotron were measured using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The radioactivity range of tested samples of 99m Tc was rather low, in the range from 0.34 to 2.39 MBq, thus creating a challenge to investigate the standard measurement HPGe system for impurity detection and quantification. In the process of 99m Tc separation from irradiated target the AnaLig® Tc-02 resin, Dionex H + and Alumina A columns were used. Fractions of eluates from various steps of separation process were taken and measured for radionuclidic purity. The overall measurement sensitivity of gamma emitters in terms of minimum detectable activity (MDA) was found at the level of 14-70Bq with emission lines in range of 36 - 1836keV resulting in impurity content range of 6.7 × 10 -4 to 3.4 × 10 -3 % for 93 Tc, 93m Tc, 94 Tc, 94m Tc, 95 Tc, 95m Tc, 96 Tc 96 Nb, 97 Nb, 99 Mo contaminants and 9.4 × 10 -3 % for 97m Tc. The usefulness of the chosen measurement conditions and the method applied to testing the potential contaminators was proved by reaching satisfactory results of MDAs less than the criteria of impurity concentration of all nuclides specified in the European Pharmacopoeia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of technetium behaviour in radiopharmaceuticals. Characterization of sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate, sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinate, sup(99m)Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate complexes and sup(99m)Tc-colloidal rhenium sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccavini, J.-C.

    1980-12-01

    The chemistry of technetium in extremely dilute solution was approached through the study of three complexing agents and a colloid. By the application of high-performance chromatographic techniques to the analysis of (Tc-pyro), (Tc-DTPA), (Tc-DMSA) complexes it was possible to isolate one or more chelates from a single complexing agent. Addition of pertechnetates to a solution of sodium pyrophosphates and stannous chloride at neutral pH leads to the formation of two complexes, both highly osteotropic. By the use of sup(117m)Sn it was shown that tin employed as reducing agent enters into the composition of one of the two complexes, either of which may be obtained preferentially by varying the (Sn)/(pyro) ratio. With technetium at acid pH (2.5) DMSA gives one or more chelates according to the concentration of the reagents present. DTPA with technetium at neutral pH gives a single complex for which a structure is proposed. The addition of calcium, indispensable for DTPA injection, leads to the appearance of a second bimetallic complex in very much smaller proportions than the first. The size distribution of some colloids was studied by ultrafiltration and permeation on gel. The preparation of colloidal rhenium sulphide and the technetium labelling conditions needed to obtain a very fine colloid were developed. The behaviour of technetium in the presence of colloidal rhenium sulphide and tin pyrophosphate was followed by sup(99m)Tc - sup(186)Re and sup(99m)Tc - sup(117m)Sn double-labelling tests. One reduced technetium fraction associates with the hydrolysed tin, the other follows the rhenium sulphide [fr

  1. Development of a Luminex Bead Based Assay for Diagnosis of Toxocariasis Using Recombinant Antigens Tc-CTL-1 and Tc-TES-26.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Anderson

    Full Text Available The clinical spectrum of human disease caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati ranges from visceral and ocular larva migrans to covert toxocariasis. The parasite is not typically recovered in affected tissues, so detection of parasite-specific antibodies is usually necessary for establishing a diagnosis. The most reliable immunodiagnostic methods use the Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens (TES-Ag in ELISA formats to detect Toxocara-specific antibodies. To eliminate the need for native parasite materials, we identified and purified immunodiagnostic antigens using 2D gel electrophoresis followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Three predominant immunoreactive proteins were found in the TES; all three had been previously described in the literature: Tc-CTL-1, Tc-TES-26, and Tc-MUC-3. We generated Escherichia coli expressed recombinant proteins for evaluation in Luminex based immunoassays. We were unable to produce a functional assay with the Tc-MUC-3 recombinant protein. Tc-CTL-1 and Tc-TES-26 were successfully coupled and tested using defined serum batteries. The use of both proteins together generated better results than if the proteins were used individually. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay for detecting visceral larval migrans using Tc-CTL-1 plus Tc-TES-26 was 99% and 94%, respectively; the sensitivity for detecting ocular larval migrans was 64%. The combined performance of the new assay was superior to the currently available EIA and could potentially be employed to replace current assays that rely on native TES-Ag.

  2. 99mTc tetrosfosmin mamoscintigraphy in the diagnose of the breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, Juan F.

    1997-01-01

    Background: Several radiopharmaceuticals such as Tc-99m Metoxi-isobutiol-isonitrile, Tc-99m MDP, Gallium Citrate and Thallium Chloride have been tested for the detection of breast cancer and lymph node involvement. To date, only report has been published related with the uptake of Tc-99m tetrosfosmin in one patient with breast cancer

  3. Use of 99mTc from a commercial 99Mo/9mTc generator as yield tracer for the determination of 99Tc at low levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Jensen, Mikael; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of Tc-99 and impurity radionuclides in the Tc-99m tracer solution obtained from a commercial Mo-99/Tc-99m generator were measured by gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting. Mo-99 and Ru-103 were found in the Tc-99m eluate. A simple separation using two extra alumina...... cartridges was investigated to purify the eluate to obtain a suitable Tc-99m tracer with low Tc-99 concentration. The activity ratio of Tc-99/Tc-99m in the prepared Tc-99m solution is lower than 15 x 10(-9), which is higher than the theoretical ratio of less than 10 x 10(-9). The possible reason is discussed....... The Tc-99 in the 20 kBq spiked Tc-99m tracer was found to be less than 0.3mBq, which is lower than the detection limit of the radiometric method used for environmental samples. The purified Tc-99m eluate is used as yield tracer for the determination of low levels of Tc-99 in environmental samples. (c...

  4. In vitro cytotoxicity testing of Ubiquicidin 29-41-{sup 99m}Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocampo, Ivette Z.; Okazaki, Kayo; Dias, Luis Alberto Pereira; Higa, Olga Z.; Silva, Fabiana M. da; Vieira, Daniel P., E-mail: dpvieira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Passos, Priscila; Esteves-Pedro, Natalia M., E-mail: fabiana@biosintesis.com.br [Laboratorio Biosintesis Ltda, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The work carried out cytotoxicity tests using a radiopharmaceutical compound produced at IPEN/CNEN-SP to certify its safety through in vitro cytotoxicity tests. Since 2009, the Brazilian regulatory agency (ANVISA) requires that such tests have to be carried out following good laboratory practices (GLP) and in according to the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) guidelines in order to certify its safety for medical use. Those guidelines comprises series of technical recommendations performed to assure quality of experiments. The study chose Ubiquicidin 29-41, an antimicrobial peptide used to discriminate bacterial infection foci from inflammatory sites. Amounts of UBI{sub 29-41} were conjugated or not to {sup 99m}Tc and diluted to equivalent concentrations of 10, 100 and 1000% of the maximum dose (or activity) administered in adults. Possible cytotoxic effects were evaluated in comparison to untreated controls as well as positive and negative damage controls. Both full (radioactive) radiopharmaceuticals, as their precursors (only molecules without conjugation to isotopes) showed no significant cytotoxic effect (cytotoxicity ≤ 10%). The study was conducted for the first time in the country comprising preclinical testing of this radiopharmaceutical in accordance with internationally accepted quality parameters, ensuring the safety of its use and enabling inclusion in the pharmaceutical regulatory agenda. (author)

  5. Evaluation of the absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc99m (DTPA) / Tc99m (Mag3) and Tc99m (Dmsa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez A, M.; Murillo C, F.; Castillo D, C.; Rocha J, J.; Sifuentes D, Y.; Sanchez S, P.; Idrogo C, J.; Marquez P, F.

    2015-10-01

    The absorbed dose in the kidneys of adult patients has been assessed using the biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing Tc 99m (DTPA) / Tc 99m (Mag3) or Tc 99m (Dmsa).The absorbed dose was calculated using the formalism MIRD and the Cristy-Eckerman representation for the kidneys. The absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc 99m (DTPA) / Tc 99m (Mag3), are given by 0.00466 mGy.MBq -1 / 0.00339 mGy.MBq -1 . Approximately 21.2% of the absorbed dose is due to the bladder (content) and the remaining tissue, included in biokinetics of Tc 99m (DTPA) / Tc 99m (Mag3). The absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc 99m (Dmsa) is 0.17881 mGy.MBq -1 . Here, 1.7% of the absorbed dose is due to the bladder, spleen, liver and the remaining tissue, included in biokinetics of Tc 99m (Dmsa). (Author)

  6. 99Tc in seawater in the West Spitsbergen Current and adjacent areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerland, Sebastian; Lind, Bjoern; Dowdall, Mark; Karcher, M.; Kolstad, Anne Kathrine

    2003-01-01

    99 Tc levels were measured in seawater samples collected between 2000 and 2002 in the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) and along the western coast of Svalbard or Spitzbergen and compared with available oceanographic 3-D modelling results for the late 1990s. Additional data from related regions are also presented in order to support the data interpretation. The seawater in the Arctic fjord Kongsfjorden on the western coast of Svalbard is influenced by the WSC, as shown by the 99 Tc levels in surface water. By means of the WSC, 99 Tc reaches the Eastern Fram Strait, where one branch of the WSC turns west into the East Greenland Current (EGC), and another branch continues northwards into the Arctic Ocean. Surface seawater collected in the central part of the WSC during a cruise on board the R/V 'Polarstern' in the summer of 2000, showed higher levels of 99 Tc than samples measured in Kongsfjorden in the spring of 2000. However, all levels measured in surface water are of the same order of magnitude. Data from sampling of deeper water in the WSC and EGC provide information pertaining to the lateral distribution of 99 Tc. In all vertical profiling surveys (conducted in spring and summer), the highest levels of 99 Tc were found in surface water. Comparison with oceanographic 3-D modelling indicates both significant seasonal variations in the lateral stratification of the WSC and variations with depth over shorter vertical distances. This information can be applied in sampling strategies, environmental monitoring, long-range transport of pollutants and physical oceanography

  7. Leaching TC-99 from DWPF glass in simulated geologic repository groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Jurgensen, A.R.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose was to determine if DWPF glass in geologic groundwaters would immobilize Tc-99 as well as it does other elements. A previous study (using a borosilicate glass of a very different composition from DWPF glass) indicated that Tc-99 leached rapidly from the glass suggesting that glass may not be a good matrix for immobilizing Tc-99. It was suggested that the Tc-99 had migrated to vesicles in the glass while the glass was still molten. To determine if borosilicate glass was a good immobilizing matrix for Tc-99, this study was performed using DWPF glass. The leaching of Tc-99 was compared to other elements in the glass. It was shown that rapid leaching will not occur with SRP glass. The leach rate for Tc-99 was nearly identical to that for B, a matrix element in the glass. Another objective was to compare the release of Tc-99 under oxidizing and reducing conditions with other elements in the glass. In the tests described here, even though the glass was dissolving more under reducing conditions as a result of abnormally high pH values, less Tc-99 appeared in solution

  8. Cyclotron produced Tc-99m: testing compatibility with established kits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebeda, Ondřej; Ráliš, Jan; Hradilek, Pavel; Hanč, Petr; van Lier, E. J.; Zyuzin, A.; Moša, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, 2 Supplement (2013), S424-S425 ISSN 1619-7070. [Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). 19.10.2013-23.10.2013, Lyon] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cyclotron U-120M * Tc-99m * 100Mo Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics , Colliders

  9. Tc Generator Development: Up-to-Date Tc Recovery Technologies for Increasing the Effectiveness of Mo Utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van So Le

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A review on the Mo sources available today and on the Tc generators developed up to date for increasing the effectiveness of Mo utilisation is performed in the format of detailed description of the features and technical performance of the technological groups of the Mo production and Tc recovery. The latest results of the endeavour in this field are also surveyed in regard of the technical solution for overcoming the shortage of Mo supply. The technological topics are grouped and discussed in a way to reflect the similarity in the technological process of each group. The following groups are included in this review which are high specific activity Mo: the current issues of production, the efforts of more effective utilisation, and the high specific activity Mo-based Tc generator and Tc concentration units; low specific activity Mo: the Mo production based on neutron capture and accelerators and the direct production of Tc and the methods of increasing the specific activity of Mo using Szilard-Chalmers reaction and high electric power isotopic separator; up-to-date technologies of Tc recovery from low specific activity Mo: the solvent extraction-based Tc generator, the sublimation methods for Mo/Tc separation, the electrochemical method for Tc recovery, and the column chromatographic methods for Tc recovery. Besides the traditional Tc-generator systems, the integrated Tc generator systems (Tc generator column combined with postelution purification/concentration unit are discussed with the format of process diagram and picture of real generator systems. These systems are the technetium selective sorbent column-based generators, the high Mo-loading capacity column-based integrated Tc generator systems which include the saline-eluted generator systems, and the nonsaline aqueous and organic solvent eluent-eluted generator systems using high Mo-loading capacity molybdategel and recently developed sorbent columns. Tc concentration methods used in the

  10. Tc-99m-hexakis(t-butylisonitrile)-technetium(I) (Tc-99m-TBI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelberger, P.; Dudczak, R.; Jones, A.G.; Lister-James, J.; Wagner-Loffler, M.; Buchheit, O.; Fally, F.

    1986-01-01

    The potassium analog (Tl-201)/sup +/ is widely used in nuclear cardiology but has inferior scintigraphic (80 keV photons), dosimetric and economic properties as compared to Tc-99m. Therefore considerable efforts have been made to develop a Tc-compound that would accumulate in the myocardium in relation to regional blood flow. This study was aimed at optimizing the preparation of Tc-TBI with n.c.a. Tc-99m, analyze and purify the product with HPLC, verify biodistribution in mice and undertake a clinical evaluation

  11. Molecular imaging with (99m)Tc-MIBI and molecular testing for mutations in differentiating benign from malignant follicular neoplasm: a prospective comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanella, L; Campenni, A; Treglia, G; Verburg, F A; Trimboli, P; Ceriani, L; Bongiovanni, M

    2016-06-01

    To compare mutation analysis of cytology specimens and (99m)Tc-MIBI thyroid scintigraphy for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules in patients with a cytological reading of follicular neoplasm. Patients ≥18 years of age with a solitary hypofunctioning thyroid nodule (≥10 mm), normal thyrotropin and calcitonin levels, and a cytological diagnosis of follicular neoplasm were prospectively enrolled. Mutation analysis and (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy were performed and patients were subsequently operated on to confirm or exclude a malignant lesion. Mutations for KRAS, HRAS and NRAS and for BRAF and translocations of PAX8/PPARγ, RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 were investigated. Static thyroid scintigraphic images were acquired 10 and 60 min after intravenous injection of 200 MBq of (99m)Tc-MIBI and visually assessed. Additionally, the MIBI washout index was calculated using a semiquantitative method. In our series, 26 % of nodules with a follicular pattern on cytology were malignant with a prevalence of follicular carcinomas. (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy was found to be significantly more accurate (positive likelihood ratio 4.56 for visual assessment and 12.35 for semiquantitative assessment) than mutation analysis (positive likelihood ratio 1.74). A negative (99m)Tc-MIBI scan reliably excluded malignancy. In patients with a thyroid nodule cytologically diagnosed as a follicular proliferation, semiquantitative analysis of (99m)Tc-MIBI scintigraphy should be the preferred method for differentiating benign from malignant nodules. It is superior to molecular testing for the presence of differentiated thyroid cancer-associated mutations in fine-needle aspiration cytology sample material.

  12. Evaluation of the absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3) and Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa); Evaluacion de la dosis absorbida en los rinones debido al Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (MAG3) y Tc{sup 99m} (DMSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez A, M.; Murillo C, F.; Castillo D, C.; Rocha J, J.; Sifuentes D, Y.; Sanchez S, P. [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Av. Juan Pablo II s/n, Trujillo (Peru); Idrogo C, J.; Marquez P, F., E-mail: marvva@hotmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Av. Angamos 2520, Lima (Peru)

    2015-10-15

    The absorbed dose in the kidneys of adult patients has been assessed using the biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3) or Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa).The absorbed dose was calculated using the formalism MIRD and the Cristy-Eckerman representation for the kidneys. The absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3), are given by 0.00466 mGy.MBq{sup -1} / 0.00339 mGy.MBq{sup -1}. Approximately 21.2% of the absorbed dose is due to the bladder (content) and the remaining tissue, included in biokinetics of Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3). The absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa) is 0.17881 mGy.MBq{sup -1}. Here, 1.7% of the absorbed dose is due to the bladder, spleen, liver and the remaining tissue, included in biokinetics of Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa). (Author)

  13. Development of 99mTc extraction techniques from 99Mo by (n,γ) reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Akihiro; Hori, Naohiko; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Ishihara, Masahiro; Yamabayashi, Hisamichi; Tanase, Masakazu; Fujisaki, Saburo; Sato, Yuichi

    2010-11-01

    Investigation of production method of 99 Mo by (n, γ) reaction, where the processing is relatively simple and generating less amount of radioactive waste, is conducted in the Neutron Irradiation and Testing Reactor Center. The 99 Mo is adsorbed to highly efficient adsorbent PZC after neutron irradiation and 99m Tc is eluted. However, radioactivity concentration of the 99m Tc solution obtained from PZC column loaded with 99 Mo derived by (n, γ) method is lower than that obtained from alumina column with 99 Mo by (n, f) method due to extremely low specific activity of (n, f) 99 Mo. Therefore, it is necessary to develop technique for increasing the amount of 99 Mo and the 99m Tc solution of high radioactivity concentration (minimum: 1Ci/ cm 3 ). In this study, the preliminary fabrication tests using high density MoO 3 pellets were carried out to increase the production of 99 Mo. The method of concentrating 99m Tc solution through solvent extraction with MEK was investigated and a device for this concentration process was also developed. In the preliminary tests of the MoO 3 pellets, the pellets having high density were successfully fabricated by the SPS method. Additionally, it was ascertained that the pellets can be dissolved with 6M-NaOH solution completely. The test for 99 Mo adsorption followed by 99m Tc elution using PZC was carried out. As the result, amount of Mo adsorbed to 1g-PZC was about 250mg, and 99m Tc yield was about 80%. In the concentration test using Re solution instead of 99m Tc solution, it was ascertained that the concentration efficiency is higher than 80% of the theoretical value. A concentration device for 99m Tc solution could be realized based on the method employed in the present experiments. The outcomes of development of 99m Tc extraction techniques from 99 Mo by (n,γ) reaction was reviewed in this paper, and the contents were presented in the 3rd International Symposium on Material Test Reactors. (author)

  14. Pharmaceutical design and pharmacological characterization of Tc99m [99mTc] labelled somatostatin and gastrin analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggenberg, E. von

    2004-10-01

    The development of regulatory peptide analogues radiolabelled with 99m Tc is of great interest for nuclear medicine applications, as 99m Tc shows very favourable imaging characteristics, such as low radiation burden to the patient, optimal image quality in SPECT, one-day-acquisition-protocol, availability on demand and cost effectiveness. In this work the principles of pharmaceutical design and preclinical pharmacological characterization of regulatory peptide analogues labelled with 99m Tc with possible application in tumour diagnosis are described. [ 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC0,Tyr3]octreotide ( 99m Tc-EDDA-HYNIC-TOC) is a promising new radiopharmaceutical with the potential to replace [ 111 In-DTPA0]octreotide in receptor scintigraphy of somatostatin receptor-positive tumours. Radiolabelling at high labelling yields and high specific activities could be obtained applying a coligand exchange labelling approach from tricine for EDDA under optimized conditions of pH, EDDA and stannous ion concentration. The resulting complex was characterized via HPLC, receptor binding and LC-MS. For the development of a freeze-dried kit formulation with long shelf-life, high stability of the final preparation and retained biological activity, the addition of bulking agent, the pH of the freeze-drying solution and the content of stannous chloride were of major importance. Different methods of radiochemical purity testing were evaluated to guarantee high quality of the preparation in a clinical setting, forming the basis for a further clinical evaluation of this promising new radiopharmaceutical. Radiolabelling of [D-Glu1]minigastrin (MG) with 99m Tc was studied applying two different labelling approaches. HYNIC-MG could be labelled using tricine and EDDA as coligands; and (Nalpha-His)Ac-MG was used as tridentate ligand for the 99m Tc carbonyl core. Stability experiments by HPLC analysis in PBS, serum, histidine- and cysteine-solutions as well as rat liver and kidney homogenates, receptor

  15. Assessment of hepatic functional reserve for hepatic resection using 99mTc-PMT scintigraphy in comparison with 99mTc-GSA scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, Atsushi

    2000-01-01

    99m Tc-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin( 99m Tc-GSA) scintigraphy has been reported as a useful study of hepatic functional reserve recently. We have performed 99m Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyl-tryptophan( 99m Tc-PMT) and 99m Tc-GSA preoperatively for evaluation of hepatic functional reserve and compared the usefulness of those scintigraphy study. Twenty-four patients who were the candidates of hepatic resection underwent 99m Tc-PMT scintigraphy preoperatively. Hepatic blood flow coefficient (K value), the amount of hepatic blood flow (HBF), and the ratio of portal blood flow (PVR) were computed. 99m Tc-GSA scintigraphy was also performed within two weeks of the 99m Tc-PMT scintigraphy, and the ratio of disappearance (HH 15 ) and the hepatic uptake ratio (LHL 15 ) were computed. The relationship between K value, HBF, PVR, HH 15 and LHL 15 was analyzed. Their correlation with other liver function tests was also examined. K value and HBF did not show statistically significant correlations with HH 15 and LHL 15 , PVR correlated statistically significantly HH 15 and LHL 15 . K value correlated with the preoperative values of cholinesterase, Fischer ratio, γ-globulin, ICGR 15 , albumin, and platelet count. There was a statistically significant correlation between LHL 15 and the value of cholinesterase, γ-globulin, platelet count, and Fischer ratio. When the liver resection of subsegmentectomy or more was indicated in 10 patients, nine patients had LHL 15 value less than 0.9 which delineated possibility of poor prognosis. However, judging from K value and HBF, liver resection was considered feasible and it was all successfully performed, resulting in good prognosis. From this study, it is suspected that 99m Tc-GSA scintigraphy reflect the severity of liver fibrosis and the amount of portal blood flows, and 99m Tc-PMT scintigraphy reflect the hepatic blood flow and ability of protein synthesis. It was proved that 99m Tc-PMT scintigraphy is

  16. Proficiency tests for evaluation of the {sup 99}Tc{sup m} measurements in the nuclear medicine; Aplicacao de teste de proficiencia para avaliacao da medicao de {sup 99}Tc{sup m} na medicina nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de, E-mail: iwahara@ird.gov.b, E-mail: tauhata@ird.gov.b, E-mail: aedu@ird.gov.b [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Nicoli, Ieda Gomes, E-mail: ieda@ird.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN/DF), Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Escritorio de Brasilia; Alabarse, Frederico Gil; Xavier, Ana Maria, E-mail: falabarse@ird.gov.b, E-mail: axavier@ird.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (ESPOA/CNEN-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Escritorio de Porto Alegre

    2009-07-01

    This work performs the performance evaluation of 55 Brazilian nuclear medicine services in activity measurement of radiopharmaceutical containing {sup 99}Tc{sup m}. Proficiency tests based on the acceptance criteria of the Regulation ISO/IEC Guide 43-1 and on the accuracy of the brazilian Regulation CNEN-NN-3.05 were applied in 63 results of activity measurements in radionuclide calibrators used by those services. The performance services has shown that the criteria of the ISO/IEC 43-1, nevertheless to be more restrictive, presents results very consistent with the accuracy criteria requested by the Brazilian regulation

  17. Role of Tc-99m Sulesomab in the diagnosis of bone and joint infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, K.P.; Nadkarni, J.B.; Vinjamuri, S.

    2005-01-01

    Confirming the presence of deep-seated infection in the bones and joints can be difficult, especially when routine laboratory tests and plain radiographs are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to assess the role of Tc-99m labelled anti-granulocyte monoclonal antibody Fab' fragment (Sulesomab) in bone and joint infection. Scans of 95 patients with suspected skeletal/ joint infection were studied and correlated with clinical information. Referrals consisted of suspected infection in prosthetic total joint replacements (38), long bones (32), primary joints (12) and feet (13). There were 48 female and 47 male referrals with a mean age of 60 rears (Range= 16 to 89 years). Results of routine haemogram (ESR, CRP and full blood count), plain radiographs, relevant microbiology, culture and /or histology were collected in all patients. All patients had positive Tc-99m MDP bone scan prior to Tc-99m Sulesomab scintigraphy. Patients were classified into true positives, true negatives, false positives and false negatives on the basis of final diagnosis arrived at by conclusive microbiology, surgery, complementary investigations like CT/MRI and clinical follow-up. Fifty-eight out of 95 patients had normal or equivocal blood test results. Plain radiographs revealed no abnormality or were inconclusive of infection in more than half of the patients. The Tc-99m Sulesomab scans were found to be positive in 38 patients and 57 had normal scans. Outcome classification revealed 29 true positives, 56 true negatives, 9 false positives and one false negative with an overall sensitivity of 96.66 %, specificity of 86.15 % and negative predictive value of 98.24%. Individual sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of each category were compared. The diagnostic accuracy was found to be the highest for long bone infections (96.87%) and least for primary joint infections (83.33%). Overall the sensitivities were better than specificity in all categories. We therefore conclude that Tc

  18. Tc: chemistry and radiopharmaceuticals: a prospectus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tulip, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    The recent explosion in technetium chemistry evident in this symposium promises to continue unabated. As in the past, radiopharmaceutical applications will lead to new Tc chemistry. In this lecture the author will discuss those areas which appear most fertile based on chemical and radiopharmaceutical criteria. Among these will be new organometallic Tc chemistry (e.g., Tc(CNR) 6 cations), Tc complexes as metabolic tracers (e.g., Tc-analogs to FDG), and peptide-based Tc chelators (e.g., Tc-metallothionein)

  19. Immobilization of {sup 99}Tc (Re) using Iron-Phosphate Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Jong; Xu, Kai; Um, Woo Yong; Hrma, Pavel [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) is a fission product artificially generated during the irradiation of {sup 235}U for commercial power production or {sup 239}Pu for nuclear weapons. Under oxidizing conditions, the dominant species of Tc, the pertechnetate anion (TcO{sub 4} {sup -}), is highly soluble in ground water and thus easily transports through the geologic systems. In addition, because of its high fission yield ({approx}6 %) and long half-life (2.1x10{sup 5} yr), immobilization of {sup 99}Tc has been investigated for decades. Several waste forms such as metallic alloys, sintered titanate ceramics and chemically bonded phosphate ceramics have been proposed to encapsulate {sup 99}Tc. They have not yet been realized in the industrial-scale, mostly either due to the high volatilization of {sup 99}Tc during high temperature process (>1300 .deg. C), or the low {sup 99}Tc loading. Iron-phosphate (FeP) glasses have been developed as alternative waste forms because of their chemical durability equivalent to borosilicate glasses. Additionally, vitrification of radioactive waste by FeP glasses can be done at a relatively low temperature ({approx}1000 .deg. C) and the low-temperature process can reduce the volatilization of {sup 99}Tc significantly. Thus, this work reports the immobilization of {sup 99}Tc by FeP glasses using rhenium (Re) as a surrogate. We also examine the chemical durability of Re-containing FeP glasses using product consistency test (PCT). Experimental results reveal that FeP glass can become a promising candidate for immobilizing {sup 99}Tc

  20. 99mTc-Tetrofosmin scintimammography in suspected breast cancer patients: comparison with 99mTc-MIBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki; Bae, Young Tae

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the diagnostic role of 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin in detection of breast cancer and compared with that of 99m Tc-MIBI. Forty-eight patients with a clinically palpable mass or abnormal mammographic or ultrasonographic findings had 99m Tc-MIBI and 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin scintimammographies after intravenous injection of 925 MBq of radiopharmaceuticals. The scintimammographs were correlated with histopathologic findings. Thirty-three patients were diagnosed with breast cancer and 15 patients with benign breast diseases. The numbers of true positive, true negative, false positive, and false negative cases of 99m Tc-MIBI scintimammography were 29, 10, 5, and 4 respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 99m Tc-MIBI scintimammographies were 87.8%, 66.7%, 85.3%, and 71.4% respectively. The numbers of true positive, true negative, false positive, and false negative cases of 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin were 31, 10, 5, and 2 respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin were 93.9%, 66.7%, 86.1%, and 73.3% respectively. One patient was false negative in both 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin scintimammographies and its size was 0.5cm. 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin and 99m Tc-MIBI were non-invasive and useful in detection of breast cancer and 99m Tc-Tetrofosmin was comparable to the 99m Tc-MIBI in detection of primary breast cancer.=20

  1. Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) in annual growth segments of knotted wrack (Ascophyllum nodosum)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldal, Hilde Elise, E-mail: Hilde.Heldal@imr.no [Institute of Marine Research (IMR), PO Box 1870 Nordnes, N-5817 Bergen (Norway); Sjotun, Kjersti, E-mail: Kjersti.Sjotun@bio.uib.no [University of Bergen (UoB), Department of Biology, PO Box 7803, N-5020 Bergen (Norway)

    2010-10-15

    The distribution of technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc) in annual growth segments of the brown seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum (Fucales, Phaeophyceae) from the southwestern coast of Norway is examined in samples collected from January to November 2006. A twenty-fold increase in the {sup 99}Tc-concentration from the youngest to the oldest growth segments was found. The concentrations ranged from 42 to 98 Bq/kg dry weight (d.w.) and from 964 to 1000 Bq/kg d.w. in growth segments formed in 2006 and 1996, respectively. In addition, a seasonal variation in the {sup 99}Tc concentration was observed in the actively growing 2006-segments: concentrations decreased from 98 Bq/kg d.w. in April to 54 Bq/kg d.w. in June; there was a further reduction from June to August (42 Bq/kg d.w.); and, finally there was an increase from August to November (93 Bq/kg d.w.). In most of the segments formed between 2000 and 2005, there was a tendency of slightly decreasing {sup 99}Tc-concentrations between June and November but this pattern was not observed for the older growth segments. In order to find an explanation for the non-homogenous distribution of {sup 99}Tc within thalli of A. nodosum, different hypotheses are discussed. Uptake and elimination of {sup 99}Tc appears to be most pronounced in the actively growing segments. To date, such non-homogenous distribution of {sup 99}Tc within thalli of A. nodosum has not been taken into consideration, neither in connection with sample collection nor analysis. This paper shows that special protocols must be followed if A. nodosum is going to be used as a bioindicator for {sup 99}Tc in the marine environment. A sampling strategy is proposed.

  2. Targeting osteomyelitis with complete [99mTc]besilesomab and fragmented [99mTc]sulesomab antibodies: kinetic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GRATZ, Stefan; KEMKE, Bendix; KEIZE, Patrik; KAMPEN, Wim U.; LUSTER, Markus; HÖFFKEN, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the targeting of “pure” osteomyelitis (i.e., without surrounding soft tissue infection) by directly 99mTc-labelled complete immunoglobulin G (IgG) monoclonal antibody (MAb) ([99mTc]besilesomab) and by directly 99mTc-labelled fragment antigen-binding (FAb) MAb ([99mTc]sulesomab) in relation to their kinetic fate. A total of 73 patients with “pure” osteomyelitis were examined with [99mTc]besilesomab, (Scintimun®, IBA/CIS bio international, Saclay, France; N.=38) and [99mTc]sulesomab (LeukoScan®, Immunomedics Inc., Morris Plains, NJ, USA; N.=35). Kinetic data were deduced from whole-body and single-photon emission computed tomographic scans, performed 10 minutes to 24 hour p.i. (region-of-interest technique [ROI]). In targeting “pure” osteomyelitis, sensitivities at 1-4 hours were found to be higher for [99mTc]sulesomab (44% and 80% for [99mTc]besilesomab and [99mTc]sulesomab, respectively) but at significantly lower target/background (T/B) ratios than with [99mTc]besilesomab (1.8±0.3 versus 1.4±0.5 for [99mTc]besilesomab and [99mTc]sulesomab respectively; P<0.01). With [99mTc]besilesomab, there was a continuous osteomyelitis uptake over 24 hours, whereas with [99mTc]sulesomab, the maximal uptake occurred mostly within 1-4 hours, with subsequent clearance being slower for antigen-bound activity than for nonspecific background. Hence, diagnosis was possible mostly after 4h with [99mTc]sulesomab but often not before 24 hours with [99mTc]besilesomab, the later increasing significantly (P<0.01) in sensitivity (87% and 84% for [99mTc]besilesomab and [99mTc]sulesomab, respectively). These results show that the higher sensitivity of [99mTc]sulesomab in osteomyelitis targeting at earlier p.i. times does not rely on an increased antibody uptake but on a more rapid clearance of nonspecific background activity due to faster metabolism and excretion. Intact [99mTc]besilesomab show a slow, continuous uptake

  3. Using Tc-Re chemical analogy to synthesize and identify new 99mTc complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambino, D.; Kremer, C.; Cartesio, S.; Leon, A.; Kremer, E.

    1989-01-01

    The strong chemical resemblance between Tc and Re is applied to design and evaluate experiments with 99m Tc complexes. A combination of spectrophotometric and electrophoretic techniques allows to propose the formula [TcO 2 (amine) 2 ] + for compounds prepared by reduction of 99m TcO 4 - with Zn (solid phase) in presence of several (bidentate) amines. (author) 10 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  4. Clinical evaluation of hepatic scintigraphy using 99mTc-GSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Katsumi; Nishiyama, Shogo; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Tadokoro, Katsumi; Ikeda, Toshiaki; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Ishii, Kodo

    1992-01-01

    Functional hepatic imaging was performed using 99m Tc-DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin ( 99m Tc-GSA), a radiolabeled ligand that reacts specifically to the asialoglycoprotein receptor that resides at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes, in 21 patients: five with chronic active hepatitis (CAH), 14 with compensative liver cirrhosis (LC), one with chronic inactive hepatitis and one with acute hepatitis. The former two diseases were mainly investigated. Serial liver images were acquired at the rates of 10 sec/frame for 0-5 min and 2 min/frame for 6-30 min after the injection of 99m Tc-GSA, and the images were compared with 99m Tc-phytase images in 2 patients with CAH and 11 with LC, and those with portal scintigrams using 123 I-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in 3 patients with LC. The images using 99m Tc-GSA were in better agreement with hepatic function than those using 99m Tc-phytase, and with the findings of portal scintigraphy using 123 I-IMP. LHL15 (liver/liver and heart radioactivities at 15 min after injection of 99m Tc-GSA) correlated with the hepaplastin test (r=0.978 in CAH, and r=0.544 in LC), indicators of hepatic reserve. These results suggest that liver scintigraphy using 99m Tc-GSA might be a useful method for evaluating liver function. (author)

  5. Pharmacological study of 99mTc-CO-MIBI, a new mycoardial perfusion imaging agent comparison to 99mTc-MIBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiandong; Wang Jincheng; Mi Hongzhi

    2004-01-01

    pharmacokinetics parameters, biodistribution, T/NT radios were collected and calculated during and after the imaging. Moreover, the whole body image, heart planer scintigraphy and tomography were investigated on pharmacodynamics. The same procedure were performed to 99m Tc-MIBI. Results:Blood-pool clearance of 99m Tc-CO-MIBI was modeled and found to be biexponential during 2 hours after injection. The pharmacokinetics conform to two-compartment with 436.36±54.77 ml/h of blood clearance (CL) and half lives T α(1/2 ))=l.46±0.13 min for the fast early clearance, T β(1/2) =97.3+20.51 min for the slow late clearance. The clearance kinetics were faster than 99m Tc-MIBI which of CL=25 8.76±27.88 ml/h, T α(1/2) =2.21±0.09 min, T β(1/2) =163±14.1 min, respectively. The time-radioactivity curves showed that the pulmonary uptake curves were the lowest, the hepatic uptake curves were above the hearts early but descending so quickly as to start bellowing the heart curves at about 40min which were significant difference of 99m Tc-MIBI. To the latter, the liver curves were above the myocardial uptake curves sustained over 2 hours period post injection. The heart uptake ID% of 99m Tc-CO-MIBI were more than that of 99m Tc-MIBI at 10, 30, 60, 90, 120 min. The heart-lung and heart-liver ratios were also significantly different. For 99m Tc-CO-MIBI, they were 3.18±0.08 and 1.05±0.05 by 40 min while 99m Tc-MIBI 2.87±0.11 and 0.70±0.05, respectively. The planar and SPECT imaging of excellent quality during 10 to 120 min demonstrated that 99m Tc-CO-MIBI was high absorbed initially by myocardium and quickly clearance from liver. The whole body image show that the radioactivity mostly removed to the gallbladder and the intestines either. We can obtain perfect myocardial image without liver activity disturbance in condition of no extra fatty diets Conclusions: The result of this study suggested that the single alkaline component 99m Tc-CO-MIBI solution had better pharmacokinetics properties and

  6. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I; Kinggaard Holm, D; Galea, G; Aranko, K; Korhonen, M; Nordstrom, K

    2013-11-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB) and haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in order to identify different practices and to explore whether recommendations can be made for harmonization. An online questionnaire was used for data collection in 2011, and 43 replies were received covering 71 product answers from 13 countries. Estimated percentages of tissue and cell banking covered by EBA member blood banks as a proportion of all collections of each individual country varied markedly. There were also major differences in the amounts of products collected and discarded and in proportions tissues provided for grafting. However, discarding of certain collections also reflects the practice of increasing the likelihood of the very best units being used for transplantation. Harmonization of possible practices should focus on matching supply with demand and on identifying the most efficient operators. This could allow for the development of practices for minimizing unnecessary collections. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  7. Evaluation of (99)  (m)TcN-MPO as a new myocardial perfusion imaging agent in normal dogs and in an acute myocardial infarction canine model: comparison with (99)  (m)Tc-sestamibi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Lihong; Li, Renfei; Jin, Zhongnan; Wen, Xiaofei; Liu, Shuang; Yang, Baofeng; Shen, Baozhong; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-02-01

    (99)  (m)TcN-MPO ([(99)  (m)TcN(mpo)(PNP5)](+): mpo = 2-mercaptopyridine oxide and PNP5 = N-ethoxyethyl-N,N-bis[2-(bis(3-methoxypropyl)phosphino)ethyl]amine) is a cationic (99)  (m)Tc-nitrido complex, which has favorable biodistribution and myocardial uptake with rapid liver clearance in Sprague Dawley rats. The objective of this study was to compare the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of (99)  (m)TcN-MPO and (99)  (m)Tc-Sestamibi in normal dogs, and to evaluate the potential of (99)  (m)TcN-MPO as a myocardial perfusion agent in canines with acute myocardial infarction. Five normal mongrel dogs were injected intravenously with (99)  (m)TcN-MPO. Venous blood samples were collected via a femoral vein catheter at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 90 min post-injection (p.i.). Anterior-posterior planar images were acquired by γ-camera at 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min p.i. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around the heart, liver, and lungs. The heart/liver and heart/lung ratios were calculated by dividing the mean counts in heart ROI by the mean counts in the liver and lung ROI, respectively. For comparison, (99)  (m)Tc-sestamibi was also evaluated in the same five dogs. The interval period between the two examinations was 1 week to eliminate possible interference between these two radiotracers. In addition, single positron emission computed tomography (SPECT) images in the canine infarct model were collected 24 h after myocardial infarction at 30 and 60 min after the administration of (99)  (m)TcN-MPO (n = 4) or (99)  (m)Tc-Sestamibi (n = 4). It was found that (99)  (m)TcN-MPO and (99)  (m)Tc-Sestamibi displayed very similar blood clearance characteristics during the first 90 min p.i. Both (99)  (m)TcN-MPO and (99)  (m)Tc-Sestamibi had a rapid blood clearance with less than 50% of initial radioactivity remaining at 1 min and less than 5% at 30 min p.i. (99)  (m)TcN-MPO and (99)  (m)Tc-Sestamibi both showed good

  8. {sup 201}Tl, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin: relative retention and clearance kinetics in retrogradely perfused guinea pig hearts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Wolfgang M.; Moka, Detlef E-mail: detlef.moka@uni-koeln.de; Brockmann, Holger A.; Schomaecker, Klaus; Schicha, Harald

    2002-02-01

    Myocellular kinetics of {sup 201}Tl, {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI, {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin were investigated using retrogradely-perfused guinea-pig hearts. Relative retention decreased in the order {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin. {sup 201}Tl and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI exhibited bi- (t1,t2), {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin triexponential (t1,t2,t3) time-activity-curves. Latest-phase elimination-half-life increased from {sup 201}Tl (t2) {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI (t2) {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin (t3) {yields}{yields} implies {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin (t3), showing a significant increase in deteriorating myocardium for all tracers but {sup 99m}Tc-furifosmin. Delayed elimination in deteriorating myocardium explains at least partly the redistribution phenomenon of {sup 201}Tl, and suggests a similar phenomenon for {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin.

  9. The function of Sn(II)-apatite as a Tc immobilizing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asmussen, R. Matthew, E-mail: matthew.asmussen@pnnl.gov [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States); Neeway, James J.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States); Lukens, Wayne W. [Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 94720 (United States); Qafoku, Nikolla P. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA, 99352 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    At the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site, Tc-99 is a component of low-activity waste (LAW) fractions of the nuclear tank waste and removal of Tc from LAW streams would greatly benefit the site remediation process. In this study, we investigated the removal of Tc(VII), as pertechnetate, from deionized water (DIW) and a LAW simulant through batch sorption testing and solid phase characterization using tin (II) apatite (Sn-A) and SnCl{sub 2}. Sn-A showed higher levels of Tc removal from both DIW and LAW simulant. Scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/XEDS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of reacted Sn-A in DIW showed that TcO4- is reduced to Tc(IV) on the Sn-A surface. The performance of Sn-A in the LAW simulant was lowered due to a combined effect of the high alkalinity, which lead to an increased dissolution of Sn from the Sn-A, and a preference for the reduction of Cr(VI). - Highlights: • Sn(II)-Apatite shows high proficiency in removing Tc(VII) from neutral solutions. • The removal of the Tc(VII) by Sn(II)-apatite is done via reduction to Tc(IV)O{sub 2} × H{sub 2}O. • In LAW Sn(II)-apatite is less efficient in removing Tc(VII). • Interference in LAW due to a preference for the reduction of Cr(VI) and the high pH. • Sn(II)-apatite can remove Tc(VII) from LAW effectively through increasing material added.

  10. Labelling and quality control of 99mTc labelled somatostatin analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poramatikul, N.; Sangsuriyan, J.; Kongpeth, P.; Ngamprayad, T.; Laloknam, S.; Permtermsin, C.; Madsomboon, N.

    2001-01-01

    To standardize interlaboratory reproducibility, iodination of RC-160 with 125 I and direct labelling of RC-160 with 99m Tc, quality control and binding assay were performed. Two conjugated peptides, HYNIC-RC-160 and MAG-3-RC-160, were synthesized. The conjugated peptides were radiolabelled with 99m Tc via co-ligands; 99m Tc-MAG-3-RC-160 via glucoheptonate, 99m Tc-HYNIC-RC-160 via EDDA and tricine. Conditions for labelling were optimized. Analytical and purification methods for the labelled products were developed. Radiochemical purity test of 99m Tc labelled peptides was performed by HPLC with gradient elution of 0.1%TFA/water and acetonitrile, or by ITLC-SG in saline and in 50% acetonitrile. The contaminants in 99m Tc radiolabelled product were separated by elution from SEPPAK C-18 cartridge by 0.1% acetic acid and the pure product was eluted out of SEPPAK column by 50% acetonitrile with about 68% recovery. Stability of the purified 99m Tc-MAG3-RC-160 stored at -20 deg. C was more than 72 h. 99m Tc-MAG-3-RC-160 showed a high equilibrium dissociation constant with K D of 26 pmole/mg protein and B max of 7.9 mM. (author)

  11. Molecular imaging with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and molecular testing for mutations in differentiating benign from malignant follicular neoplasm: a prospective comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giovanella, L.; Treglia, G.; Ceriani, L. [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Thyroid Centre, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Campenni, A. [Policlinico Universitario, Istituto di Medicina Nucleare, Messina (Italy); Verburg, F.A. [RWTH University Hospital Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Trimboli, P. [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Thyroid Centre, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Ospedale Israelitico, Sezione di Endocrinologia e Diabetologia, Roma (Italy); Bongiovanni, M. [Centre Hopitalier Universitaire Vaudouise, Institut de Pathologie, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2016-06-15

    To compare mutation analysis of cytology specimens and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI thyroid scintigraphy for differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules in patients with a cytological reading of follicular neoplasm. Patients ≥18 years of age with a solitary hypofunctioning thyroid nodule (≥10 mm), normal thyrotropin and calcitonin levels, and a cytological diagnosis of follicular neoplasm were prospectively enrolled. Mutation analysis and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy were performed and patients were subsequently operated on to confirm or exclude a malignant lesion. Mutations for KRAS, HRAS and NRAS and for BRAF and translocations of PAX8/PPARγ, RET/PTC1 and RET/PTC3 were investigated. Static thyroid scintigraphic images were acquired 10 and 60 min after intravenous injection of 200 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and visually assessed. Additionally, the MIBI washout index was calculated using a semiquantitative method. In our series, 26 % of nodules with a follicular pattern on cytology were malignant with a prevalence of follicular carcinomas. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy was found to be significantly more accurate (positive likelihood ratio 4.56 for visual assessment and 12.35 for semiquantitative assessment) than mutation analysis (positive likelihood ratio 1.74). A negative {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scan reliably excluded malignancy. In patients with a thyroid nodule cytologically diagnosed as a follicular proliferation, semiquantitative analysis of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy should be the preferred method for differentiating benign from malignant nodules. It is superior to molecular testing for the presence of differentiated thyroid cancer-associated mutations in fine-needle aspiration cytology sample material. (orig.)

  12. A study on 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin as lung imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Rongzhu; Fan Guangyu; Liu Yinmei; Bai Suzhen

    1990-01-01

    A method for the preparation of macroaggregated albumin (MAA) kits labelled with 99m Tc for lung scanning is described. The tween-80 is used as both dispersing agent and stable agent in order to raise uniformity and concentration of MAA particle size, which is between 10 to 100 μm. More than 80% particles are in the range of 10-60 μm. A millilitre MAA solution contains 5.3 x 10 6 particles. The lyophilized MAA kits are stable within eight months. The unlyophilized MAA kits are stable within 51 days. The radiochemical yield is >95% and the radiochemical purity is determined by paper chromatography. In addition, centrifuge method is used in combination with micro paper chromatography, in order to obtain the percentage of 99m Tc(IV) bound to the MAA, the percentage of unreduced 'free' 99m Tc(VII) and the percentage of reduced-hydrolyzed form of 99n Tc(IV). Blank centrifuge test of the 99m Tc(IV)-Sn colloid shows that about 85% 99m Tc(IV) is found in the supernatant solution. This method is simple and rapid. After eight hours the radiochemical purity of the labelled 99m Tc-MAA sample placed at 16 deg C and 22 deg C remains >95%. The organ distribution of LACA 18-26g mice meets the standard of the same product in the US pharmacopeia. The results of the study with rabbits by scanning with γ-camera indicate that the activity in the lung of the rabbit reaches a high level between 2-3 hours after injection. The toxic test and nonsterile and nonpyrogen test are very satisfactory and meet the standard of the Chinese pharmacopeia

  13. Clinical evaluation of Tc-99m-mebrofenin and comparison with Tc-disofenin for radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingensmith, W. III; Fritzberg, A.; Spitzer, V.

    1982-01-01

    The clinical comparison reported indicates that Tc-mebrofenin has a significantly lower level of renal excretion that Tc-disofenin at all bilirubin levels. At a total bilirubin level of 25 mg/dl the renal excretion of Tc-mebrofenin is still less than the renal excretion of Tc-disofenin in subjects with normal bilirubin levels. In addition, renal radioactivity in images was never seen in subjects with normal bilirubins while visualization of renal radioactivity is routine in normal subjects with Tc-disofenin. No significant differences were found in any other parameter including hepatocyte extraction efficiency, time of maximum hepatic radioactivity, and hepatic parenchymal washout. This study indicates that Tc-mebrofenin is equal to Tc-disofenin in its hepatobiliary characteristics and superior in its renal characteristics

  14. Solubility of Tc(IV) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Fan, X.H.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safer disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 .nH 2 O. The solubility of Tc(IV) is used as a source term in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium oxide was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2+ . The solubility of Tc(IV) oxide has been determined in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(IV) oxide were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(IV) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water is about (1.49∼1.86) x 10 -9 mol/(L.d) under aerobic conditions, but Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water is not oxidized under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(IV) oxide in simulated groundwater and re-distilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The solubility of Tc(IV) oxide decreases with the increase of pH at pH 10 and is pH independent in the range 2 -8 to 10 -9 mol/L at 2 3 2- concentration. These data could be used to estimate the Tc(IV) solubility for cases where solubility limits transport of technetium in reducing environments of high-level waste repositories. (authors)

  15. Studies on the porphine labeled with 99mTc-pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai-Yih Wang; Jiunn-Liang Lin; Wen-Chieh Lin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to use acetylacetonate as a 99m Tc chelating agent label with porphyrin and evaluate its radiochemical and biological characteristics. Stannous chloride was used as a reductant to determine the chemical and biological characterization of 99m Tc-complexes from labeling porphine (4',4'',4'''-(2lH,23H-Porphine-5,10,15,20-terayl)tetrakis-(benzoic acid), TPPB) with 99m Tc-pertechnetate. Instant thin layer chromatography (ITLC), size exclusion chromatography (SEC), paper electrophoresis, and UV/Vis spectrophotometry were used to evaluate chemical characterization. Finally, biodistribution and liver function tests were applied to evaluate biological characteristics. The results of this study show that the labeling efficiency of 99m Tc(acac)-TPPB was nearly 100% when using acetylacetone (acac) as a conjugator. Three major 99m Tc(acac)-TPPB complexes were separated by SEC, and all of them were hydrophilic. The UV-Vis spectra of 99m Tc(acac)-TPPB complexes closely resembled those of the TPPB, but the wave lengths of their peaks changed 430, 521, 556, 591 and 647 nm after complexation. The biodistribution study selected the liver as the target organ. The 99m Tc(acac)-TPPB complex may cause short-term liver injury. However, this injury can be repaired, and the reagent is quickly metabolized. Hence, the toxicity of the 99m Tc(acac)-TPPB complex is within an acceptable range, and making it a promising liver imaging agent. (author)

  16. Assessment of RELAP/MOD3 using BETHSY 6.2TC 6-inch cold leg side break comparative test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Young-Jong; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Chang, Won-Pyo; Kim, Dong-Su

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the results of the RELAP5/MOD3 Version 7j assessment on BETHSY 6.2TC. BETHSY 6.2TC test corresponding to a six inch cold leg break LOCA of the Pressurizer Water Reactor(PWR). The primary objective of the test was to provide reference data of two facilities of different scales (BETHSY and LSTF facility). On the other hand, the present calculation aims at analysis of RELAP5/N4OD3 capability on the small break LOCA simulation, The results of calculation have shown that the RELAP5/MOD3 reasonably predicts occurrences as well as trends of the major phenomena such as primary pressure, timing of loop seal clearing, liquid hold up, etc. However, some disagreements also have been found in the predictions of loop seal clearing, collapsed core water level after loop seal clearing, and accumulator injection behaviors. For better understanding of discrepancies in same predictions, several sensitivity calculations have been performed as well. These include the changes of two-phase discharge coefficient at the break junction and some corrections of the interphase drag term. As result, change of a single parameter has not improved the overall predictions and it has been found that the interphase drag model has still large uncertainties

  17. The utility of quantitative 99mTc-GSA liver scintigraphy in the evaluation of hepatic functional reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuke, Noriyuki; Aburano, Tamio; Nakajima, Kenichi

    1992-01-01

    Using data from 17 patients with liver cirrhosis and 3 patients with fatty liver, we have compared the utility of 3 hepatic imaging agents in the evalution of hepatic functional reserve. Evaluated here were 99m Tc-galactosyl human serum albumin (GSA) which is a new ligand for hepatic binding protein, 99m Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyl tryptophan (PMT) of a hepatobiliary agent, and 99m Tc-Sn colloid. In each patient, we performed these 3 imaging studies within a week and also examined hepatic function tests (indocyanine green test, hepaplastin test, choline-esterase, etc). In each imaging study, serial images and dynamic data were obtained after the injection of 99m Tc-GSA (185 MBq/3 mg), 99m Tc-PMT (185 MBq), or 99m Tc-Sn colloid (185 MBq). Using the dynamic data obtained, we analyzed the liver kinetics of the 3 agents based on 1 compartment model with 3 parameters (hepatic clearance, hepatic excretion rate, non-specific volume of distribution). From fitting the liver and heart data to this model, three unknown parameters were determined. Patlak plot was also applied in order to estimate liver uptake rate. Both curve fitting and Patlak plot could determine appropriate parameters in every study. In 99m Tc-GSA, a nonlinear 3 compartment model was also applied in order to estimate hepatic blood flow, liver receptor density, and affinity of receptor-GSA binding separately. Using the parameters obtained, we analyzed the correlations between the parameters and the results of hepatic function tests. In all of the parameters, those obtained from 99m Tc-GSA imaging showed the most significant statistical correlation with the results of hepatic function tests. From the present results, 99m Tc-GSA imaging was concluded to be the best for evaluation of hepatic functional reserve. (author)

  18. Preoperative radiological diagnosis by 99mTc·MIBI-99mTc subtraction scintigraphy for primary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inouye, Takahiro; Tomita, Toshiki; Shinden, Seiichi; Takagi, Hitoshi; Kano, Shigeru.

    1996-01-01

    Preoperative radiological diagnosis constitutes the most important factor for the surgical treatment of hyperparathyroidism. In this regard, MRI is useful for detecting the abnormal parathyroid, but it is often difficult to localize it using MRI only. It is thus necessary to combine this procedure with excellent subtraction scintigraphy. We performed both 201 Tl- 99m Tc and 99m Tc·MIBI- 99m Tc subtraction scintigraphy in seven patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and compared them the radiological results. Five patients presented parathyroid adenomas and the rest hypertrophy of the parathyroid. We could detect the abnormal parathyroid in four patients (57.1%) by 201 Tl- 99m Tc subtraction scintigraphy and in six patients (85.7%) by 99m Tc·MIBI- 99m Tc subtraction scintigraphy. We therefore believe that 99m Tc·MIBI- 99m Tc subtraction scintigraphy will become an essential examination for primary hyperparathyroidism rather than the presently employed 201 Tl- 99m Tc subtraction scintigraphy. (author)

  19. Scintigraphic findings on 99mTc-MDP, 99mTc-sestamibi and 99mTc-HMPAO images in Gaucher's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, G.; Molea, N.; La Civita, L.; Porciello, G.; Lazzeri, E.; Ferri, C.

    1996-01-01

    We report here on the use of the lipophilic cationic complex technetium-99m sestamibi ( 99m Tc-MIBI), employed as an indicator of increased cellular density and metabolic activity, to evaluate Gaucher cell infiltrates in the bone marrow; 99m Tc-hexametazime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) was also employed, as a pure indicator of lipidic infiltration in the bone marrow. A 67-year-old patient with known type 1 Gaucher's disease presented with a painful left hip and knee and difficulty in gait subsequent to traumatic fracture of the left femoral neck that had required implant of a fixation screw-plaque. Bone scan with 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate revealed reduced uptake at the distal metaphyseal-epiphyseal femoral region. In addition, whole-body maps and spot-view acquisitions of the thighs and legs were recorded at both 30 min and 2.5 h after the injection of 99m Tc-MIBI: the scintigraphic pattern clearly showed increased uptake at several sites involved by Gaucher deposits in the bone marrow (both knees, with variable intensity in different areas), matching the bone changes detected by conventional x-ray. The target to non-target ratios slowly decreased with time, from an average value of 2.25 in the early scan to an average value of 2 in the delayed scan. The lipid-soluble agent 99m Tc-HMPAO exhibited a superimposable scintigraphic pattern of accumulation at the involved sites, though with lower target to non-target ratios (1.27-1.48). The results obtained in this patient suggest a potential role of 99m Tc-MIBI in the scintigraphic evaluation of Gaucher's lipid deposits in the bone marrow. If the results are confirmed in other patients, this radiopharmaceutical would offer clear advantages over 133 Xe because of its wider availability and greater practicality (i.v. administration of 99m Tc-MIBI versus inhalation of 133 Xe, and use of a single gamma camera instead of two as with 133 Xe). (orig.). With 3 figs

  20. Tc(V)-DMS tumour imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, K.; Yomoda, I.; Yokoyama, A.; Endo, K.; Torizuka, K.

    1986-01-01

    The data obtained by the authors provide good evidence of Tc(V)-DMS as a stable, large-molecular-size Tc-complex or polynuclear Tc-complex, comparable to Tc-cit and Ga-cit. A role for this polynuclear configuration in the generation of Tc-species with affinity for neoplastic cells was demonstrated using the dilution method as a promoter of Tc(V)-DMS dissociation. The concurrent Ehrlich ascites tumour cell uptake studies with TLC analysis revealed the chromatographically detected changes well traced by the biological cell utilization. The biological implications of dilution as one of the factors regulating radiopharmaceutical delivery to the tumour cell tissue were better demonstrated in the biodistribution studies carried out with Erhlich ascites-bearing mice. If, on the basis of the present data, the authors may take their postulate one step further, a more dissociated Tc-species, defined speculatively as TcO/sub 4//sup 3-/, might constitute an active Tc- species within the cell interacting with some tumour-specific substance or site. Research to find evidence of its presence is currently in progress

  1. In-house cyclotron production of high-purity Tc-99m and Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Petra; Boschi, Alessandra; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Zagni, Federico; Corazza, Andrea; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micòl; Pupillo, Gaia; Marengo, Mario; Loriggiola, Massimo; Skliarova, Hanna; Mou, Liliana; Cisternino, Sara; Carturan, Sara; Melendez-Alafort, Laura; Uzunov, Nikolay M; Bello, Michele; Alvarez, Carlos Rossi; Esposito, Juan; Duatti, Adriano

    2018-05-30

    In the last years, the technology for producing the important medical radionuclide technetium-99m by cyclotrons has become sufficiently mature to justify its introduction as an alternative source of the starting precursor [ 99m Tc][TcO 4 ] - ubiquitously employed for the production of 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals in hospitals. These technologies make use almost exclusively of the nuclear reaction 100 Mo(p,2n) 99m Tc that allows direct production of Tc-99m. In this study, it is conjectured that this alternative production route will not replace the current supply chain based on the distribution of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators, but could become a convenient emergency source of Tc-99m only for in-house hospitals equipped with a conventional, low-energy, medical cyclotron. On this ground, an outline of the essential steps that should be implemented for setting up a hospital radiopharmacy aimed at the occasional production of Tc-99m by a small cyclotron is discussed. These include (1) target production, (2) irradiation conditions, (3) separation/purification procedures, (4) terminal sterilization, (5) quality control, and (6) Mo-100 recovery. To address these issues, a comprehensive technology for cyclotron-production of Tc-99m, developed at the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (LNL-INFN), will be used as a reference example. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sequential hepatobiliary scintigraphy of the patients with constitutional jaundice, ICG excretory defect disease and hepatocellular carcinoma with 99mTc-PI, 99mTc-HIDA and 99mTc-EHIDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitani, Tsuyoshi

    1987-01-01

    Sequential 2 min scintiphotos were obtained with a scintilation camera after intravenous injection of 3 mCi of 99m Tc-HIDA or 99m Tc-PI. Digital matrix images were simultaneously recorded with computer. Sequential samples for the blood clearance of 99m Tc-HIDA or 99m Tc-PI were obtained for 120 min following injection to the patient of constitutional hyperbilirubinemia and ICG excretory defect disease. In Dubin-Johnson syndrome, the hepatic uptake of 99m Tc-HIDA was faster or normal but the excretion was extremely slower than in normal cases. Both hepatic uptake and excretion of 99m Tc-PI were almost normal. In Rotor's disease, hepatic uptake of 99m Tc-HIDA or 99m Tc-PI was very poor, showing almost no hepatic images in all time. In Gilbert's disease and ICG excretory defect disease, hepatic uptake and excretion of 99m Tc-HIDA or 99m Tc-PI were within normal limit. From these results, Dubin-Johnson syndrome, Rotor's disease and Gilbert's disease show the different patterns between hepatic uptake and excretion of 99m Tc-HIDA and 99m Tc-PI hepatobiliary scintigraphy and these patterns contribute to the differential diagnosis of constitutional jaundice. The usefulness of hepatobiliary imaging with 99m Tc-EHIDA in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was studied in 15 patients with histologically verified HCC. In 15 patients, 3 patients (20 %) showed increased radioactivity with 99m Tc-EHIDA image, where liver scan with 99m Tc-Sn colloid showed filling defect. These results indicate that use of 99m Tc-EHIDA scan and 67 Ga-citrate imaging is useful for positive visualization of HCC. (author)

  3. 99mTc-MIBI, 99mTc-tetrofosmin and 99mTc-Q12 in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Bert F.; Krenning, Eric P.; Breeman, Wout A. P.; Ensing, Geert; Benjamins, Harry; Bakker, Willem H.; Visser, Theo J.; Jong, Marion de

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare uptake of 99m Tc-MIBI, 99m Tc-tetrofosmin and 99m Tc-Q12 in vitro and biodistribution in vivo in rats. In vitro, uptake decreased in the order MIBI→tetrofosmin→Q12. Uptake of MIBI and tetrofosmin, but not of Q12, in cultured tumor cells was dependent on the plasma membrane and mitochondrial potential. In vivo, heart uptake of all three compounds was high and stable. Tumor uptake decreased in the order MIBI→Q12→tetrofosmin and the tumor/blood ratio in the order MIBI→tetrofosmin→Q12

  4. Biogeochemical Coupling of Fe and Tc Speciation in Subsurface Sediments: Implications to Long-Term Tc Immobilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jim K. Fredrickson; C. I. Steefel; R. K. Kukkadapu; S. M. Heald

    2006-01-01

    The project has been focused on biochemical processes in subsurface sediments involving Fe that control the valence state, solubility, and effective mobility of 99Tc. Our goal has been to understand the Tc biogeochemistry as it may occur in suboxic and biostimulated subsurface environments. Two objectives have been pursued: (1) To determine the relative reaction rates of 99Tc(VII)O2(aq) with metal reducing bacteria and biogenic Fe(II); and to characterize the identity, structure, and molecular speciation of Tc(IV) products formed through reaction with both biotic and abiotic reductants. (2) To quantify the biogeochemical factors controlling the reaction rate of O2 with Tc(IV)O2?nH2O in sediment resulting from the direct enzymatic reduction of Tc(VII) by DIRB and/or the reaction of Tc(VII) with the various types of biogenic Fe(II) produced by DIRB

  5. Relationship between 99mTc-ECD SPECT images and performance of the Wisconsin card sorting test in healthy humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jinhua; Lin Xiangtong; Guan Yihui; Xu Lianqin; Zhang Guangming; Xue Fangpeng

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between 99m Tc-ECD SPECT and performance of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in normal young and aged volunteers through the semi-quantitative analysis of the baseline and cognition activated rCBF images. Methods: 18 young and 17 aged volunteers were enrolled. The education level of the two groups was matched. All subjects were healthy and CT results of all the aged volunteers were normal. Both baseline and cognition activated 99m Tc-ECD SPECT were performed on all the subjects. The cognition activated brain SPECT: The cognitive task was WCST. 1110 MBq 99m Tc-ECD was administered by intravenous bolus injection 5 minutes after the onset of the WCST. The images were reconstructed and semiquantitatively analyzed. WCST were scored through 9 items: 1) period, 2) categories, 3) total corrects, 4) conceptual level (%), 5) perseverative responses, 6) total errors, 7) perseverative errors, 8) perseverative error (%), 9) non-perseverative errors. Results: 1) Compared with the baseline, the activated rCBF values of frontal, left temporal and left parietal lobes were higher in young subjects. 2) The activated rCBF values of right frontal lobe is slightly higher than those of baseline in aged group. 3) WCST scores: the young had significantly better scores than the aged in 7 items. 4) The baseline and activated rCBF values of the frontal lobes and anterior cingule were closely related to the scores of categories, perseverative responses, total errors and non-perseverative errors. Conclusions: 1) The distribution patterns of 99m Tc-ECD are different between young and aged volunteers. 2) The performance of WCST mainly relates to frontal lobes. The mild hypoperfusion of the frontal lobe in aged group may be the cause of poor conceptual and thinking ability. 3) First found the significant correlation between anterior cingule and performance of WCST

  6. Effect of hydrogen addition on the microstructure of TC21 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Tangkui; Li Miaoquan

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The aim of this paper is to study the effect of hydrogen content (0-0.887 wt.%H) on microstructure, phase composition, microhardness and β transus temperature of TC21 alloy. The results show that, with increasing hydrogen content, the β phase increases, the α/β interfaces of lamellar transformed β phase disappear, the lattice parameter of β phase increases and the β transus temperature decreases for the hydrogenated TC21 alloy. In comparison to the as-received TC21 alloy, the contrasts of primary α phase and transformed β phase under optical microscope in the TC21 alloy with high hydrogen content are reversed completely. Furthermore, the γ and δ hydrides are detected in the hydrogenated TC21 alloy. In addition, the variations of phase compositions for the hydrogenated TC21 alloy have influence on microhardness and β transus temperature. → In conclusion, this paper shows some significant rules about the influence of hydrogen on TC21 alloy. - Abstract: TC21 alloy was hydrogenated at 750 deg. C with different hydrogen contents ranging from 0 to 0.873 wt.%H, and its microstructural evolution and phase transformations were investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microhardness and the β transus temperature for the hydrogenated TC21 alloy were determined by microhardness testing and metallographical approach, respectively. The results show that, hydrogen addition has a noticeable influence on microstructure, phase composition, microhardness and β transus temperature of TC21 alloy. With increasing hydrogen content, the β phase increases, the α/β interfaces of lamellar transformed β phase disappear, the lattice parameter of β phase increases and the β transus temperature decreases for the hydrogenated TC21 alloy. In comparison to the as-received TC21 alloy, the contrasts of primary α phase and transformed β phase under optical microscope in the hydrogenated TC21 alloy with high hydrogen

  7. Use of 99mTc-bicisate in activation studies by split-dose technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, S; Madsen, P L; Sperling, B

    1994-01-01

    The properties of the brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracer 99mTc-bicisate (ethyl cysteinate dimer) were examined in regard to its use in test-retest studies with short-interval, split-dose studies. The stimulus applied in these tests was a visual activation by a "flicke......The properties of the brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) tracer 99mTc-bicisate (ethyl cysteinate dimer) were examined in regard to its use in test-retest studies with short-interval, split-dose studies. The stimulus applied in these tests was a visual activation...

  8. Redox behavior of Tc(VII)/Tc(IV) under various reducing conditions in 0.1 M NaCl solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Gaona, X.; Altmaier, M.; Scheinost, A.C.; Fellhauer, D.; European Commission Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe

    2013-01-01

    Redox behaviour of Tc(VII)/Tc(IV) was investigated in 0.1 M NaCl solutions containing different reducing agents in the pH range 2 to 13 at 22 C under inert Ar atmosphere. In several samples, the 1 x 10 -5 mol/dm 3 (M) initially added TcO 4 - was reduced to form a Tc(IV) oxide solid phase with low solubility. The observed Tc redox transformation processes are systematized according to E h -pH conditions in solution, indicating that a borderline for the reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV), TcO 4 - + 3e - + 4H + TcO 2 . xH 2 O(coll, hyd) + (2-x)H 2 O exists, independent of the reducing chemical system. This experimentally derived borderline is about 100 mV lower than the equilibrium line calculated from the reported standard redox potential of TcO 2 . 1.6H 2 O(s). This behaviour can be related to the existence of more soluble solid phase modifications, i.e. nanoparticulate Tc(IV) oxide species TcO 2 . xH 2 O(coll, hyd). The reaction kinetics likewise correlate to the redox potential measured in solution. Slow reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) was observed when the redox potential in the system was slightly below the above mentioned reduction borderline. Fast reduction was observed in the systems far below the borderline, but also in those systems containing Fe(II) solids, suggesting a specific surface mediated effect in the reduction process. EXAFS analysis on two magnetite samples indicate reduced Tc(IV) species which do not remain adsorbed at the reactive mineral surface and are incorporated in the magnetite structure. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of usefulness of Tc-99m-GSA liver scintigraphy in chronic liver diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Hiroyuki; Kashiwagi, Toru; Kasahara, Akinori

    1991-01-01

    Liver scintigraphy was performed using a newly developed radiopharmaceutical, Tc-99m-DTPA-galactosyl-human-serum-albumin (Tc-99m-GSA), which binds specifically to the receptors on the hepatic cell surface, in 15 patients with chronic liver disease. The scintigraphy was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively, and the results were compared with those obtained from the Tc-99m-PMT or Tc-99m-sn-phytate scintigraphy, and the liver function tests. The Tc-99m-GSA scintigraphy showed clear liver images in chronic hepatitis. However, in liver cirrhosis, the liver images were not clear and the cardiac images still existed 40 minutes after administration of Tc-99m-GSA, suggesting that the image quality of the Tc-99m-GSA scintigrams may be inferior to that of Tc-99m-sn-phytate or Tc-99m-PMT in some cases of severe liver dysfunction. The time-activity curves of the heart and liver were analyzed by non-linear regression analysis. The clearance rate from plasma (Kd) were obtained from the time-activity curve of the heart, and the hepatic uptake rate (Ku), hepatic excretion rate (Ke) and peak time of hepatic uptake-excretion curve (PT) were obtained from the time-activity curve of the liver. Kd, Ku, and PT values were more significantly decreased or prolonged in the patients with chronic hepatitis. Kd, Ku, and PT values had positive correlations with the result of the serum liver function tests, ICG-R15 and ICG-K. Ku and PT values had also correlations with the histological degree of hepatic fibrosis. On the other hand, the indices obtained using Tc-99m-PMT or Tc-99m-sn-phytate did not have correlations with the histological degrees of hepatic fibrosis. It is concluded that the liver scintigraphy using Tc-99m-GSA may be useful and give different information from those with conventional liver scintigraphies in evaluating chronic liver diseases. (author)

  10. Preparation of 99mTc-thiourea complex as a precursor for Tc(III) labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rey, A.; Teran, M.; Molina, S.; Leon, A.; Kremer, C.; Gambino, D.; Kremer, E.

    1996-01-01

    Ligand exchange is one of the possible synthetic routes to obtain 99m Tc coordination compounds. However, the success of this route depends on the availability of good precursors. The objective of this work is the preparation of the complex [ 99m Tc (tu) 6 ] 3+ (tu = thiourea), as a potential precursor for 99m Tc(III) coordination compounds. The preparation was successfully performed in acidic conditions, the excess of tu serving as reducing agent. At pH values higher than 3, the compound becomes unstable and on addition of polydentate ligands new Tc(III) complexes are formed. With edta, the complex 99m Tc(III)-edta was obtained in high yield. (author). 13 refs., 3 tabs

  11. Accumulation of Tc-99m-MIBI and Tc-99m-tetrofosmin in tumor cells. Uptake and washout studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, M.; Aghajanian, A.A.; Sinzinger, H.; Kalinowska, W.; Zielinski, C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To investigate in-vitro the uptake and washout of Tc-99m-MIBI and Tc-99m-tetrofosmin in human breast adenocarcinoma and soft tissue sarcoma cell lines. Methods: The uptake of Tc-99m-MIBI and Tc-99m-tetrofosmin (at 37 0 C, 10, 30 and 60 minutes after incubation with 7.4x10E5 Bq each tracer) was investigated in breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 and SK-BR-3 cells, synovial sarcoma SW 982 cells and chondrosarcoma SW 1353 cells (concentration of 1x10E6 cells/ml incubation medium). Tracer uptake in cells incubated with ouabain (Na/K-ATPase pump inhibitor; 100 μM and 1mM; 15 and 30 minutes), nigericin (increases mitochondrial potential and disrupts cell membrane potential; 5 and 50 μg/ml; 15 minutes) and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) (depolarizes mitochondrial membrane; 10 and 100 μM; 30 minutes) was compared to that in cells without incubation with chemical agents (control cells). The washout (at 37 0 C, 10-60 minutes, 30 and 60 minutes after tracer incubation) of Tc-99m-MIBI and Tc-99m-tetrofosmin was studied in MCF-7 cells, SK-BR-3 cells , SW 1353 cells and fibrosarcoma SW 684 cells. Results: Cellular tracer uptake decreased with ouabain (decrease of Tc-99m-tetrofosmin > Tc-99m-MIBI in SK-BR-3 cells and SW 982 cells) and increased with nigericin (increase of Tc-99m-MIBI > Tc-99m-tetrofosmin in all cells) as compared to the uptake in control cells. With CCCP, decrease of Tc-99m-MIBI uptake in cells preincubated with nigericin was higher than that in cells under basal conditions, whereas a similar decrease of Tc-99m-tetrofosmin uptake in these two group of cells was found. Washout of Tc-99m-MIBI from all cells was lower than that of Tc-99m-tetrofosmin. No significant difference in cell-associated activity of both tracers was found between washout after 30 minutes and that after 60 minutes of incubation, in all cells. Washout of Tc-99m-MIBI from SK-BR-3 cells Tc-99m-tetrofosmin) and Na/K-ATPase pump (Tc-99m-tetrofosmin > Tc-99m-MIBI). Tc-99m-MIBI and

  12. High-Tc superconductor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    There has been much speculation about new products and business opportunities which high-Tc superconductors might make possible. However, with the exception of one Japanese survey, there have not been any recognized forecasts suggesting a timeframe and relative economic impact for proposed high-Tc products. The purpose of this survey is to provide definitive projections of the timetable for high-Tc product development, based on the combined forecasts of the leading U.S. superconductivity experts. The FTS panel of experts on high-Tc superconductor applications, representing both business and research, forecast the commercialization and economic impact for 28 classes of electronic, magnetic, communications, instrumentation, transportation, industrial, and power generation products. In most cases, forecasts predict the occurrence of developments within a 90% statistical confidence limit of 2-to-3 years. The report provides background information on the 28 application areas, as well as other information useful for strategic planners. The panel also forecast high-Tc research spending, markets, and international competitiveness, and provide insight into how the industry will evolve

  13. Assessment of Using 99Mo and 99mTc Isotopes in Kuwait Medical Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Naser

    2016-04-01

    The Ministry of Health (MOH) in the state of Kuwait currently depends on importing the radioisotope molybdenum (Mo) in its isotopic form (Mo) to fulfill its demands. The present study was conducted on all nuclear medicine departments in the state of Kuwait. Daily, weekly, and monthly data were analyzed to statistically determine the current and future demands for the isotope Tc. This analysis was performed by collecting and analyzing data on MOH consumption of Tc for different diagnostic applications. The overall results indicate a partial decrease of 1.012% in the overall total demand for Tc up to the year 2018 for the state of Kuwait.

  14. Assessment of hepatic functional reserve for hepatic resection using {sup 99m}Tc-PMT scintigraphy in comparison with {sup 99m}Tc-GSA scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, Atsushi [Dokkyo Univ. School of Medicine, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin({sup 99m}Tc-GSA) scintigraphy has been reported as a useful study of hepatic functional reserve recently. We have performed {sup 99m}Tc-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyl-tryptophan({sup 99m}Tc-PMT) and {sup 99m}Tc-GSA preoperatively for evaluation of hepatic functional reserve and compared the usefulness of those scintigraphy study. Twenty-four patients who were the candidates of hepatic resection underwent {sup 99m}Tc-PMT scintigraphy preoperatively. Hepatic blood flow coefficient (K value), the amount of hepatic blood flow (HBF), and the ratio of portal blood flow (PVR) were computed. {sup 99m}Tc-GSA scintigraphy was also performed within two weeks of the {sup 99m}Tc-PMT scintigraphy, and the ratio of disappearance (HH{sub 15}) and the hepatic uptake ratio (LHL{sub 15}) were computed. The relationship between K value, HBF, PVR, HH{sub 15} and LHL{sub 15} was analyzed. Their correlation with other liver function tests was also examined. K value and HBF did not show statistically significant correlations with HH{sub 15} and LHL{sub 15}, PVR correlated statistically significantly HH{sub 15} and LHL{sub 15}. K value correlated with the preoperative values of cholinesterase, Fischer ratio, {gamma}-globulin, ICGR{sub 15}, albumin, and platelet count. There was a statistically significant correlation between LHL{sub 15} and the value of cholinesterase, {gamma}-globulin, platelet count, and Fischer ratio. When the liver resection of subsegmentectomy or more was indicated in 10 patients, nine patients had LHL{sub 15} value less than 0.9 which delineated possibility of poor prognosis. However, judging from K value and HBF, liver resection was considered feasible and it was all successfully performed, resulting in good prognosis. From this study, it is suspected that {sup 99m}Tc-GSA scintigraphy reflect the severity of liver fibrosis and the amount of portal blood flows, and {sup 99m}Tc-PMT scintigraphy

  15. Clinical evaluation of hepatic scintigraphy using sup 99m Tc-GSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Katsumi; Nishiyama, Shogo; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Tadokoro, Katsumi; Ikeda, Toshiaki; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Ishii, Kodo (Kitasato Univ., Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-06-01

    Functional hepatic imaging was performed using {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA-galactosyl human serum albumin ({sup 99m}Tc-GSA), a radiolabeled ligand that reacts specifically to the asialoglycoprotein receptor that resides at the plasma membrane of hepatocytes, in 21 patients: five with chronic active hepatitis (CAH), 14 with compensative liver cirrhosis (LC), one with chronic inactive hepatitis and one with acute hepatitis. The former two diseases were mainly investigated. Serial liver images were acquired at the rates of 10 sec/frame for 0-5 min and 2 min/frame for 6-30 min after the injection of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA, and the images were compared with {sup 99m}Tc-phytase images in 2 patients with CAH and 11 with LC, and those with portal scintigrams using {sup 123}I-iodoamphetamine (IMP) in 3 patients with LC. The images using {sup 99m}Tc-GSA were in better agreement with hepatic function than those using {sup 99m}Tc-phytase, and with the findings of portal scintigraphy using {sup 123}I-IMP. LHL15 (liver/liver and heart radioactivities at 15 min after injection of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA) correlated with the hepaplastin test (r=0.978 in CAH, and r=0.544 in LC), indicators of hepatic reserve. These results suggest that liver scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-GSA might be a useful method for evaluating liver function. (author).

  16. Indications for pediatric 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic-scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, J.; Becker, W.; Zappel, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives an overview about the diagnostic use of 99m Tc-Dimercaptosuccinic ( 99m Tc-DMSA)-scintigraphy in siblings and children and presents our own results with this tracer in pediatric nephro-urology. 99m Tc-DMSA offers a high renal accumulation and therefore is suited for the diagnosis of renal malformations. Furthermore, a calculation of the tubular renal split function and imaging of the renal cortex is possible due its high tubular retention. The tracer may be used with success in the non invasive diagnostic work up of both renoparenchymal and renovascular hypertension in childhood and especially in the diagnosis of segmental renal artery stenosis. Scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DMSA is a simple and highly effective method in the diagnosis of pyelonephritis and renal scarring. It offers important informations about the further prognosis of a child with urinary tract infection. In upper urinary tract infection 99m Tc-DMSA-scintigraphy may be more specific than available clinical tests. In the diagnosis of pyelonephritis and renal scarring scintigraphic imaging has been proven to be more sensitive than pyelography and ultrasound and its diagnostic power is at least equal compared with computed tomography. Therefore, imaging with 99m Tc-DMSA can be considered as the reference method in these questions. Regarding that reflux is seen in less than 40% of children with a pathologic DMSA-scan and that the prognosis of children with an urinary tract infection without a pathologic DMSA-scan is usually good, one could question the use of micturating cystourethrography in the diagnostic work up of children with symptomatic urinary tract infection and a normal DMSA-scan. (orig.) [de

  17. Solubility study of Tc(IV) oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Fan, X.H.

    2005-01-01

    The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safer disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under oxidizing conditions technetium exists as the anionic species TcO 4 - whereas under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. Hence, the mobility of Tc(IV) in reducing groundwater may be limited by the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O under these conditions. Due to this fact it is important to investigate the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. The solubility determines the release of radionuclides from waste form and is used as a source term in radionuclide migration analysis in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium oxide was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2 + . The solubility of Tc(IV) oxide has been determined in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(IV) oxide were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(IV) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is about (1.49-1.86) x 10 -9 mol/(L·d) under aerobic conditions, but Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is not oxidized under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(IV) oxide in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The

  18. Bcl-2 overexpression prevents 99mTc-MIBI uptake in breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloj, Luigi; Zannetti, Antonella; Caraco, Corradina; Del Vecchio, Silvana; Salvatore, Marco

    2004-01-01

    We have previously shown a correlation between the absence of technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI) uptake and overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in human breast carcinoma. To establish a direct cause-effect relationship between Bcl-2 overexpression and reduced 99m Tc-MIBI uptake, MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines were stably transfected with the human Bcl-2 gene to increase intracellular protein levels and tested for 99m Tc-MIBI uptake. All clones overexpressing Bcl-2 showed a dramatic reduction of 99m Tc-MIBI uptake as compared with mock transfected control cells. Tracer uptake was promptly and partially restored by induction of apoptosis with staurosporine treatment. After 4.5 h of staurosporine treatment, a tenfold increase in 99m Tc-MIBI uptake was observed in treated as compared with untreated Bcl-2 overexpressing cells. Our findings provide a rational basis for the development of an in vivo test to detect Bcl-2 overexpression in human tumours. (orig.)

  19. TcNPR3 from Theobroma cacao functions as a repressor of the pathogen defense response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Maximova, Siela N; Guiltinan, Mark J

    2013-12-06

    Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) NON-EXPRESSOR OF PR1 (NPR1) is a transcription coactivator that plays a central role in regulating the transcriptional response to plant pathogens. Developing flowers of homozygous npr3 mutants are dramatically more resistant to infection by the pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae, suggesting a role of NPR3 as a repressor of NPR1-mediated defense response with a novel role in flower development. We report here the characterization of a putative NPR3 gene from the tropical tree species Theobroma cacao (TcNPR3). Like in Arabidopsis, TcNPR3 was constitutively expressed across a wide range of tissue types and developmental stages but with some differences in relative levels compared to Arabidopsis. To test the function of TcNPR3, we performed transgenic complementation analysis by introducing a constitutively expressing putative TcNPR3 transgene into an Arabidopsis npr3 mutant. TcNPR3 expressing Arabidopsis plants were partially restored to the WT pathogen phenotype (immature flowers susceptible to bacterial infection). To test TcNPR3 function directly in cacao tissues, a synthetic microRNA targeting TcNPR3 mRNA was transiently expressed in cacao leaves using an Agrobacterium-infiltration method. TcNPR3 knock down leaf tissues were dramatically more resistance to infection with Phytophthora capsici in a leaf bioassay, showing smaller lesion sizes and reduced pathogen replication. We conclude that TcNPR3 functions similar to the Arabidopsis NPR3 gene in the regulation of the cacao defense response. Since TcNPR3 did not show a perfect complementation of the Arabidopsis NPR3 mutation, the possibility remains that other functions of TcNPR3 remain to be found. This novel knowledge can contribute to the breeding of resistant cacao varieties against pathogens through molecular markers based approaches or biotechnological strategies.

  20. Final report on the proficiency test on the determination of total arsenic concentration in water TC Project BGD/08/018

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Trinkl, A.; Rossbach, M.; Benesch, T.; Campbell, M.; Sansone, U.; Will, K.; Schorn, R.; Toervenyi, A.

    2005-02-01

    A proficiency test on the determination of arsenic in drinking water was organised within the frame of the TC project BGD/8/018 to evaluate the analytical performance of laboratories in Bangladesh. This report summarises the performance evaluation of the participating laboratories. Analytical data evaluation showed that 61% of data obtained a 'Passed' final score for both the accuracy and precision criteria applied to this exercise. (author)

  1. Olanzapine induced Q-Tc shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja Shafti, Saeed; Fallah Jahromi, Parisa

    2014-12-01

    Prolongation of Q-Tc interval is commonly accepted as a surrogate marker for the ability of a drug to cause torsade de pointes. In the present study, safety of olanzapine versus risperidone was compared among a group of patients with schizophrenia to see the frequency of the electrocardiographic alterations induced by those atypical antipsychotics. Two hundred and sixty-eight female inpatients with schizophrenia entered in one of the two parallel groups to participate in an open study for random assignment to olanzapine (n = 148) or risperidone (n = 120). Standard 12-lead surface electrocardiogram (ECG) was taken from each patient at baseline, before initiation of treatment, and then at the end of management, just before discharge. The parameters that were assessed included heart rate (HR), P-R interval, QRS interval, Q-T interval (corrected = Q-Tc), ventricular activation time (VAT), ST segment, T wave, axis of QRS, and finally, interventricular conduction process. A total of 37.83% of cases in the olanzapine group and 30% in the risperidone group showed some Q-Tc changes; 13.51% and 24.32% of the patients in the olanzapine group showed prolongation and shortening of the Q-Tc, respectively, while changes in the risperidone group were restricted to only prolongation of Q-Tc. Comparison of means showed a significant increment in Q-Tc by risperidone (p = 0.02). Also, comparison of proportions in the olanzapine group showed significantly more cases with shortening of Q-Tc versus its prolongation (p = 0.01). No significant alterations with respect to other variables were evident. Olanzapine and risperidone had comparable potentiality for induction of Q-Tc changes, while production of further miscellaneous alterations in ECG was more observable in the olanzapine group compared with the risperidone group. Also shortening of Q-Tc was specific to olanzapine.

  2. Production and clinical evaluation of 99mTc-octreotide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fettich, J.; Kolenc-Peitl, P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Due to advantages of 99m-Tc labelled radiopharmaceuticals we examined the feasibility of producing 99m-Tcoctreotide in our laboratory and compare the results with 111-In-octreotide in the same patients. Keeping constant amount of components without exceeding amount of the peptide used, preparation of 99m-Tc-ethylendiaminediacetic- acidhydrazinonicotinamide-D-Phe1,Tyr3-octreotide (99m-Tc EDDA/HYNIC-TOC) was achieved. Radiochemical purity was tested using high-pressure liquid chromatography for 24 hours. In vitro stability testing of the product showed that radiochemical purity remained above 95% for 24 hours and the radiopharmaceutical was found suitable for human use. 5 - 10 μg of the peptide labelled with 550-650 MBq of 99m-Tc was prepared for each patient. 32 patients with clinically suspicious or confirmed carcinoid were investigated with 550 - 650 MBq 99m-Tcoctreotide prepared in our laboratory followed by 110 MBq 111-In-octreotide (Octreoscan, Mallinkrodt). Whole body scintigraphy and abdominal SPECT were performed 4 and 20 hrs after injection of respective radiopharmaceutical. In all patients both studies were acquired within 5 days. All patients gave informed consent for the study as required by Ethics committee. No abnormal tracer uptake was seen anywhere in the body in 12 patient with either of the radiopharmaceuticals. These were used to assess normal distribution of both radiopharmaceuticals. Normal accumulation was seen in case of both radiopharmaceuticals in the spleen, kidneys, liver and gallbladder. Biliary activity was seen in the gut in patients that were not well prepared for the study. There was significantly less activity seen in the kidneys in case of 99m-Tc-octreotide. This could be explained by higher hydrophilicity of the 99m-Tc-EDDA/HYNEC-TOC molecules as compared with 111-In-DTPA-octreotide. 20 patients with confirmed carcinoids showed abnormal uptake but without any difference in distribution of the two radiopharmaceuticals

  3. Effects of concurrent drug therapy on technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate biodistribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkle, G.H.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Peek, C.; Barker, K.K.; Ice, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    Drug interactions with /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate resulting in altered biodistribution were studied using chart review and animal tests. Charts of nine patients who had abnormal gallbladder uptake of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate during a two-year period were reviewed to obtain data such as concurrent drug therapy, primary diagnosis, and laboratory values. Adult New Zealand white rabbits were then used for testing the biodistribution of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate when administered concurrently with possibly interacting drugs identified in the chart review--penicillamine, penicillin G potassium, penicillin V potassium, acetaminophen, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Chart review revealed no conclusive patterns of altered biodistribution associated with other factors. The data did suggest the possibility that the five drugs listed above might cause increased hepatobiliary clearance of the radiopharmaceutical. Animal tests showed that i.v. penicillamine caused substantial distribution of radioactivity into the gallbladder and small bowel. Minimally increased gallbladder radioactivity occurred when oral acetaminophen and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were administered concurrently. Oral and i.v. penicillins did not increase gallbladder activity. Penicillamine may cause substantial alteration of the biodistribution of technetium /sup 99m/Tc gluceptate

  4. Clinical application of 99mTc-DTPA-HSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Yasuaki; Yamazaki, Junichi; Okuzumi, Ichio

    1989-01-01

    A newly developed blood pool imaging agent, Tc-99m DTPA-HSA (Tc-99m HSA-D), was clinically assessed in blood pool studies of patients with heart disease. Twenty mCi of Tc-99m HSA-D was iv injected to the patients. Similarly, conventional Tc-99m HSA was injected one week later for comparison. Blood counts of Tc-99m HSA-D were significantly higher than those of Tc-99m HSA at 30 minutes after iv injection (p<0.01) and at one, 3, and 6 hours (p<0.001). For the heart, liver, and lungs, sequential counts of Tc-99m HSA-D were also significantly higher than those of Tc-99m HSA. Free Tc-99m uptake in the stomach, thyroid gland, and kidneys was higher on Tc-99m HSA images than Tc-99m HSA-D images. Hepatic and pulmonary uptake of free Tc-99m that were visualized on Tc-99m HSA-D did not influence the diagnostic ability. None of the patients had clinical toxicity of Tc-99m HSA-D. The results indicate that Tc-99m HSA-D is a stable blood pool imaging agent. (Namekawa, K)

  5. 99Tc Process Monitoring System In-Lab Performance Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, Matthew J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Niver, Cynthia M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A 99Tc Process Monitoring (Tc-Mon) System has been designed and built for deployment at the recently constructed 200 West Pump & Treat (200W P&T) Plant in the 200 West Area ZP-1 Operable Unit of the Hanford Site. The plant is operated by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC). The Tc-Mon system was created through collaboration between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Burge Environmental, Inc. The design of the new system has been optimized based on experience from an earlier field test (2011) of a prototype system at the 200W-ZP-1 Interim Pump & Treat Plant.

  6. 99mTc-MAG3: can it be a viable alternative to 99mTc-DTPA ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, C.S.; Padhy, A.K.; Nair, R.; Gopinath, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the potentials of 99m Tc MAG 3 to replace universally used 99m Tc-DTPA as a routine renal agent. Five patients with different nephrological problems were first studied with 99m Tc MAG 3 and then reinvestigated with 99m Tc-DTPA two to seven days later. Renal MAG 3 gamma camera images were found to be almost identical with those of 99m Tc-DTPA images except high hepatic and splenic uptake of the former compound in four out of five patients (80%) irrespective of kidney function. MAG 3 and DTPA renograms showed identical differential renal uptake function (r=0.87) with slightly higher uptake in right kidneys. Time to reach the peak correlated well (r=0.91). Time to reach half maximum renal activity was also found to be almost identical (r=0.97) for MAG 3 and DTPA. It was felt that the age old 99m Tc-DTPA is as good a compound as 99m Tc MAG 3 with regard to imaging and assessment of renal uptake, drainage and differential renal functions. 99m Tc-DTPA is much cheaper, readily available in India and stable to suit the logistics in a busy nuclear medicine department for routine renography. (author). 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Preparation and biological profile of 99mTc-lidocaine as a cardioselective imaging agent using 99mTc eluted from 99Mo/99mTc generator based on Al-Mo gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakr, T.M.; October University of Modern Sciences and Arts; Ibrahim, A.B.; Rashed, H.M.; Fasih, T.W.

    2017-01-01

    The current study is aimed to prepare 99m Tc-lidocaine as a new myocardial perfusion-imaging agent. The used 99m Tc was obtained from Al- 99 Mo-molybdate(VI) gel matrix. 99m Tc-lidocaine showed higher (15.4 ± 0.11% ID/g) and faster (15 min post injection) cardiac uptake than the recently studied 99m Tc-valsartan and 99m Tc-procainamide. Consequently, 99m Tc-lidocaine will be a valuable myocardial SPECT agent for diagnosis of emergency patients. Besides, the receptor affinity study confirmed the selectivity of 99m Tc-lidocaine for sodium channels in the heart. (author)

  8. Preparation and characterization of the tetrabutylammonium salts of the tetrahalooxotechnetates(V), [TcOCl4]- and [TcOBr4]-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preetz, W.; Peters, G.

    1980-01-01

    The treatment of (TBA)TcO 4 with conc. HCl or HBr at room temperature yields (TBA) [TcOCl 4 ] or (TBA) [TcOBr 4 ], which are nearly insoluble in acidic aqueous solutions, but well soluble in organic solvents. The vibrational spectra indicate C 4 sub(v) symmetry for the complex ions. (TBA) [TcOBr 4 ] shows an unusual resonance Raman effect, as the progression of overtones runs with the B 1 TcCl 4 stretching vibration instead of the symmetric A 1 mode. The coupling of B 1 with the first overtone of νTcO gives more intense difference than combination bands. (orig.)

  9. Study on the metabolic peculiarities of renal radiotracer 99mTc-PAHIDA and diagnostic use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Shoupeng; Wang Liuyi; Lun Mingyue

    1994-11-01

    The metabolic peculiarities of renal radiotracer 99m Tc-PAHIDA and diagnostic use were studied. The results of the radioactive tracing study showed that 99m Tc-PAHIDA was distributed predominantly in kidney, and then in heart, gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, musculus quadriceps femoris, adipose tissue, testes and brain. It should be noted that when smaller dose of this agent was given, more 99m Tc-PAHIDA was concentrated in kidney and, at the same time, the level of its binding to plasma protein was lower. The experimental results indicated that 99m Tc-PAHIDA was rapidly excreted in urine. Autoradiochromatographic examination of the urine showed a single radioactive peak corresponding to the authentic 99m Tc-PAHIDA, indicating that 99m Tc-PAHIDA was excreted in the unchanged form. (3 tabs.)

  10. Effects of FlAsH/Tetracysteine (TC) tag on PrP proteolysis and PrPres formation by TC-scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Yuzuru; Hohsfield, Lindsay A.; Hollister, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    The FlAsH/tetracysteine (FlAsH/TC) tag is a powerful tool for fluorescent labeling of proteins. However, even small tags such as FlAsH/TC could alter the behavior of the tagged proteins, especially if the insertion occurs at internal sites. Defining the influence of FlAsH/TC on nearby protein-protein interactions might aid in selecting appropriate positions for internal TC insertions and allow the exploitation of serial FlAsH/TC insertions (TC-scanning) as a probe to characterize sites of protein-protein interaction. To explore this application in the context of substrate-protease interactions, we analyzed the effect of FlAsH/TC insertions on proteolysis of cellular prion protein (PrPsen) in in vitro reactions and generation of the C1 metabolic fragment of PrPsen in live neuroblastoma cells. The influence of FlAsH/TC insertion was evaluated by TC-scanning across the cleavage sites of each protease. The results showed that FlAsH/TC inhibited protease cleavage only within limited ranges of the cleavage sites that varied from about 1 to 6 residues-wide depending on the protease, providing an estimate of the PrP residues interacting with each protease. TC-scanning was also used to probe a different type of protein-protein interaction, the conformational conversion of FlAsH-PrPsen to the prion disease-associated isoform, PrPres. PrP constructs with FlAsH/TC insertions at residues 90–96 but not 97–101 were converted to FlAsH-PrPres, identifying a boundary separating loosely versus compactly folded regions of PrPres. Our observations demonstrate that TC-scanning with the FlAsH/TC tag can be a versatile method for probing protein-protein interactions and folding processes. PMID:23943295

  11. Internal friction around Tc connected with superconductivity in high Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yening

    1993-01-01

    Internal friction and ultrasonic measurements show that there always exists a phase-like transition (PLT) characterized by the jump of lattice parameters at tens degrees above Tc in superconducting YBaCuO, BiSrCaCuO and TlBaCaCuO. Ferroelastic loops and shape memory effect associated with elastic softening invariably occur at the PLT temperature, showing the characteristics of thermoelastic martensitic transition. Internal frictions in KHz of Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO reveal a static hysteretic plateau (Qp -1 ) above Tc that drops linearly with temperature below Tc. The Qp -1 of YBaCuO decreases with decreasing oxygen content. The origin of the hysteretic Qp -1 is attributed to the lattice distortions around the carriers. (orig.)

  12. 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HM-PAO SPECT in five patients with MELAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Shinako; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Kitano, Masashi; Horiike, Shigeharu; Kan, Shinichi; Ishii, Katsumi; Matsubayashi, Takashi; Sakai, Fumihiko

    1998-01-01

    Cerebral perfusion was studied in five patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes syndrome (MELAS), using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 99m Tc-ethyl cysteinate dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) or 99m Tc-hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime ( 99m Tc-HM-PAO). In four cases, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated by the method reported by Mastuda et al. Immediately after the stroke-like episodes, accumulation of the tracer was relatively increased in the temporooccipital lobe, and also increased rCBF was shown in the same area. However, the region showed decreased radioactivity at the chronic stage, and rCBF decreased also. These findings are consistent with positron emission tomography (PET) at the acute stage and autopsy. 99m Tc-ECD SPECT and 99m Tc-HM-PAO SPECT may be useful in the diagnosis and assessment of the progress of the MELAS. (author)

  13. Accumulation of 99Tc in duckweed Lemna minor L. as a function of growth rate and 99Tc concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattink, J.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.

    2001-01-01

    This study focuses on the question of whether short-term studies can be used to forecast the accumulation of the long-lived fission product 99 Tc in duckweed, Lemna minor L., grown in the field; in other words, are the accumulation parameters independent of changing growth rates typical of natural populations of duckweed. Two processes determine the 99 Tc accumulation: (i) uptake and release of 99 TcO 4 - , characterised by a concentration factor, K d , and (ii) first-order reduction and complexation of Tc VII , characterised by k red . At various 99 Tc concentrations, the growth, total Tc and TcO 4 - accumulation were monitored over 10 days; parameters were fitted and compared with earlier results. Both K d and k red turn out to be independent of time, concentration and growth rate up to a concentration of 10 -6 mol l -1 99 TcO 4 - . Concentrations above this level result in toxic effects. The Tc accumulation in field populations of duckweed at Tc concentrations which generally occur in the environment can be forecasted by using the results from short-term experiments

  14. Kinetic study on ligand exchange reaction between ethylenedicysteine and 99mTc- glucoheptonate (99mTc-GH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.Y.; Ji, S.R.; Lu, C.X.; Ding, S.Y.; Chen, Z.P.; Lin, X.T.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: 99m Tc-L,L-ethylenedicysteine( 99m Tc-EC)is a new type of renal imaging agent. It can be labeled very easily and efficiently at room temperature through direct labeling at pH 12. The need for direct labeling at pH 12 does not compromise the simplicity and ease of preparation of 99m Tc-EC and its practical usefulness in daily routine. On the basis of the labeling experiments, we developed a ligand exchange labeling method, in which the labeling EC with 99m Tc can be performed at pH 8. In order to provide a theoretic basis, a detailed kinetic study of ligand exchange reaction between 99m Tc- glucoheptonate( 99m Tc-GH) and EC was carried out. Materials and Methods: 99m Tc-EC is prepared as follows: 99m Tc-GH + EC → 99m Tc-EC + GH, labeling can be easily performed by adding 99m TcO 4 - (2∼6ml generator elute) to glucoheptonate solution containing SnCl 2 .2H 2 O solution to form 99m Tc-GH, then freshly prepared 99m Tc-GH is transferred to the aqueous solution of different concentrations of EC at different pH value, after being shaken, 99m Tc-EC was formed. Radiolabeling yield(RLY) and radiochemical purity(RCP) of 99m Tc-GH and 99m Tc-EC were measured by Xinhua No.1 paper with developing system of Me 2 CO/H 2 O/con.NH 3 .H 2 O=9/3/1(V/V). 99m Tc-GH(RCP must be over 98%, 80ul, 3.6∼7.4MBq) was added to 1ml of 0.5mol/L phosphate buffer(pH 12) containing different amount of EC(150, 75, 50 and 15ug), the sample was taken out at different time intervals and RCP was determined. The solution of EC(30ul, 5g/L) was added to 1ml of 0.5mol/L phosphate buffer at different pH value(pH11, 10, 9, 8, 7), after completely vortexed, 99m Tc-GH(RCP must be over 98%, 80ul, 3.6∼7.4MBq) was then added, the sample was taken out and RCP was determined as above. The rate constant(k) of ligand exchange reaction at different concentrations of EC and different reaction pH values were calculated out by integrating. Plot ln[1/(1-RLY)] vs t(time) showed a liner relationship, and the rate

  15. TcA, the putative transposase of the C. elegans Tc1 transposon, has an N-terminal DNA binding domain.

    OpenAIRE

    Schukkink, R F; Plasterk, R H

    1990-01-01

    Tc1 is a transposon present in several copies in the genome of all natural isolates of the nematode C.elegans; it is actively transposing in many strains. In those strains Tc1 insertion is the main cause of spontaneous mutations. The transposon contains one large ORF that we call TcA; we assume that the TcA protein is the transposase of Tc1. We expressed TcA in E.coli, purified the protein and showed that it has a strong affinity for DNA (both single stranded and double stranded). A fusion pr...

  16. Discordant results in Tc-99m tetrofosmin and Tc-99m sestamibi parathyroid scintigraphies; Resultados discordantes em cintilografias das paratireoides realizadas com tetrofosmin-99mTc e com sestamibi-99mTc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, Paulo Schiavom; Domingues, Fernanda C.; Santi Costa, Michele; Brandao, Cynthia; Oliveira, Marco A.C. de; Vieira, Jose G.H. [Fleury - Centro de Medicina Diagnostica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: paulo.duarte@fleury.com.br

    2007-10-15

    Parathyroid scintigraphies have been used to detect pathological parathyroid glands either before as well as after the parathyroid resection surgery in patients with hyperparathyroidism. One of the most utilized techniques to perform the studies is the double-phase images with Tc-99m sestamibi, which has been shown to be very accurate in the localization of enlarged parathyroid glands. Similar to Tc-99m sestamibi, Tc-99m tetrofosmin is a radiopharmaceutical initially developed to perform myocardial perfusion study that has been used to perform parathyroid scintigraphies. Although most of the papers suggest that the overall sensitivities of both radiopharmaceuticals are similar, there are some papers questioning the accuracy of Tc-99m tetrofosmin to detect abnormal parathyroid glands. In the present article, we report a case with discordant results by both methods. (author)

  17. Comparison of Tc-99m maraciclatide and Tc-99m sestamibi molecular breast imaging in patients with suspected breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Michael K; Morrow, Melissa M B; Hunt, Katie N; Boughey, Judy C; Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind L; Conners, Amy Lynn; Rhodes, Deborah J; Hruska, Carrie B

    2017-12-01

    Molecular breast imaging (MBI) performed with 99m Tc sestamibi has been shown to be a valuable technique for the detection of breast cancer. Alternative radiotracers such as 99m Tc maraciclatide may offer improved uptake in breast lesions. The purpose of this study was to compare relative performance of 99m Tc sestamibi and 99m Tc maraciclatide in patients with suspected breast cancer, using a high-resolution dedicated gamma camera for MBI. Women with breast lesions suspicious for malignancy were recruited to undergo two MBI examinations-one with 99m Tc sestamibi and one with 99m Tc maraciclatide. A radiologist interpreted MBI studies in a randomized, blinded fashion to assign an assessment score (1-5) and measured lesion size. Lesion-to-background (L/B) ratio was measured with region-of-interest analysis. Among 39 analyzable patients, 21 malignant tumors were identified in 21 patients. Eighteen of 21 tumors (86%) were seen on 99m Tc sestamibi MBI and 19 of 21 (90%) were seen on 99m Tc maraciclatide MBI (p = 1). Tumor extent measured with both radiopharmaceuticals correlated strongly with pathologic size ( 99m Tc sestamibi, r = 0.84; 99m Tc maraciclatide, r = 0.81). The L/B ratio in detected breast cancers was similar for the two radiopharmaceuticals: 1.55 ± 0.36 (mean ± S.D.) for 99m Tc sestamibi and 1.62 ± 0.37 (mean ± S.D.) for 99m Tc maraciclatide (p = 0.53). No correlation was found between the L/B ratio and molecular subtype for 99m Tc sestamibi (r s  = 0.12, p = 0.63) or 99m Tc maraciclatide (r s  = -0.12, p = 0.64). Of 20 benign lesions, 10 (50%) were seen on 99m Tc sestamibi and 9 of 20 (45%) were seen on 99m Tc maraciclatide images (p = 0.1). The average L/B ratio for benign lesions was 1.34 ±0.40 (mean ±S.D.) for 99m Tc sestamibi and 1.41 ±0.52 (mean ±S.D.) for 99m Tc maraciclatide (p = 0.75). Overall diagnostic performance was similar for both radiopharmaceuticals. AUC from ROC

  18. Study of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA biodistribution in experimental animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Thais O.M. de; Silva, Natanael G. da; Colturato, Maria T.; Felgueiras, Carlos F.; Mengatti, Jair; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.; Araújo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: thais.castrom@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia

    2017-11-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA, succimer ({sup 99m}Tc), is a radiopharmaceutical commonly used in nuclear medicine for renal function evaluation by imaging. In order to achieve adequate labeling of the product with good radiochemical yield and standardized biological distribution, the interval of 185 - 3700 MBq should be kept in a maximum volume of 3 mL for product labeling. Moreover, one should avoid exposing the reconstituted solution to oxygen and using the product after four hours post labeling. The aim of the study was to quantify and evaluate the influence of different DMSA complexes on biological distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in experimental animals, taking in account variations in the labeling parameters. Radiochemical purity was determined by paper and thin layer chromatography using both acetone/Whatman 3MM, 0.9% NaCl/TLC-SG and n-propanol/ H{sub 2}O/acetic acid (4:3:1 V/V/V)/TLC-SG systems respectively for quantification of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} - and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 2} plus some {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA complexes. The labeling activity did not significantly affect the extent of the main complex generation. The presence of oxygen and the concentration of {sup 99}Tc did not markedly change the percentage of the radiochemical impurities in the preparation. Radiochemical purity tests of the DMSA-{sup 99m}Tc based on IPEN-CNEN DMSA-TEC reagent and on another producer's reagent showed similar results. Although the routine method used by IPEN-CNEN to determine the radiochemical yield of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA was not able to discriminate among {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA complexes, the renal uptake and the kidney to liver plus spleen uptake ratio in rats met the official compendia criteria for the radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  19. Study of "9"9"mTc-DMSA biodistribution in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Thais O.M. de; Silva, Natanael G. da; Colturato, Maria T.; Felgueiras, Carlos F.; Mengatti, Jair; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.; Araújo, Elaine B. de

    2017-01-01

    "9"9"mTc-DMSA, succimer ("9"9"mTc), is a radiopharmaceutical commonly used in nuclear medicine for renal function evaluation by imaging. In order to achieve adequate labeling of the product with good radiochemical yield and standardized biological distribution, the interval of 185 - 3700 MBq should be kept in a maximum volume of 3 mL for product labeling. Moreover, one should avoid exposing the reconstituted solution to oxygen and using the product after four hours post labeling. The aim of the study was to quantify and evaluate the influence of different DMSA complexes on biological distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in experimental animals, taking in account variations in the labeling parameters. Radiochemical purity was determined by paper and thin layer chromatography using both acetone/Whatman 3MM, 0.9% NaCl/TLC-SG and n-propanol/ H_2O/acetic acid (4:3:1 V/V/V)/TLC-SG systems respectively for quantification of "9"9"mTcO_4 - and "9"9"mTcO_2 plus some "9"9"mTc-DMSA complexes. The labeling activity did not significantly affect the extent of the main complex generation. The presence of oxygen and the concentration of "9"9Tc did not markedly change the percentage of the radiochemical impurities in the preparation. Radiochemical purity tests of the DMSA-"9"9"mTc based on IPEN-CNEN DMSA-TEC reagent and on another producer's reagent showed similar results. Although the routine method used by IPEN-CNEN to determine the radiochemical yield of "9"9"mTc-DMSA was not able to discriminate among "9"9"mTc-DMSA complexes, the renal uptake and the kidney to liver plus spleen uptake ratio in rats met the official compendia criteria for the radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  20. Synthesis and characterization of technetium(III) complexes with nitrogen heterocycles by O atom transfer from oxotechnetium(V) cores. Crystal structures of mer-[Cl3(pic)3Tc] and mer-[Cl3(pic)(PMe2Ph)2Tc] (pic = 4-picoline). Electrochemical parameters fore the reduction of TcII, TcIII, and TcIV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Jun; Yamano, Akahito; Clarke, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    The combination of pyridine ligands, (OCl 4 Tc) - , and O atom acceptors of different cone angles, such as PMe 2 Ph or PPh 3 , results in Tc III complexes that vary in the coordination of the phosphine ligand. The compounds mer[Cl 3 (4-picoline) 3 Tc] and mer-(Cl 3 (4-picoline)(PMe 2 Ph) 2 Tc) have been obtained in good yield and have been characterized spectroscopically and by single-crystal x-ray diffraction. The crystal structure data are reported. Linear correlations of technetium reduction potentials in DMF with electrochemical ligand additivity parameters (E L 's) have been obtained for the Tc II,I , Tc III,II , and Tc IV,III couples. The slope and intercept (S M , I M ) pairs for each technetium oxidation-reduction couple, respectively, are (1.39, -2.07), (1.29, -0.91), and (1.00, 0.65). 32 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Comparison of sup(99m)Tc-MDP to sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate by computerized quantitative joint scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekonen, A.; Moettoenen, T.; Oka, M.

    1982-01-01

    99mTc-pertechnetate was compared to 99mTc-MDP in joint pairs with asymmetric arthritis. Markedly elevated joint activity ratios (inflamed/uninflamed joint) were measured in all the joint pairs studied. In the joints affected by reactive arthritis and without roentgenologic changes the mean joint activity was the same with both tracers. A very high activity ratio with 99mTc-MDP was found in septic arthritis. In rheumatoid arthritis the sensitivity of 99mTc-MDP as an indicator of active arthritis seemed to be better than that of 99mTc-pertechnetate. Even in joints without erosions in roentgenograms the joint activity ratios were markedly elevated with 99mTc-MDP. This suggests, that high activity in 99mTc-MDP scanning might be prognostic of erosive joint changes. In this work a profile curve was used for quantitation differences between joints

  2. Tc Chemistry in HLW: Role of Organic Complexants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, Nancy S.; Conradsen, Steven D.

    2003-01-01

    Tc complexation with organic compounds in tank waste plays a significant role in the redox chemistry of Tc and the partitioning of Tc between the supernatant and sludge components in waste tanks. These processes need to be understood so that strategies to effectively remove Tc from high-level nuclear waste prior to waste immobilization can be developed and so that long-term consequences of Tc remaining in residual waste after sludge removal can be evaluated. Only limited data on the stability of Tc-organic complexes exists and even less thermodynamic data on which to develop predictive models of Tc chemical behavior is available. To meet these challenges we are conducting a research program to study to develop thermodynamic data on Tc-organic complexation over a wide range of chemical conditions. We will attempt to characterize Tc-speciation in actual tank waste using state-of-the-art analytical organic chemistry, separations, and speciation techniques to validate our model. On the basis of such studies we will develop credible model of Tc chemistry in HLW that will allow prediction of Tc speciation in tank waste and Tc behavior during waste pretreatment processing and in waste tank residuals

  3. Imaging of irradiated liver with Tc-99m-sulfur colloid and Tc-99m-IDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfand, M.J.; Saha, S.; Aron, B.S.

    1981-01-01

    In three cases, irradiated regions of liver failed to concentrate Tc-99m-sulfur colloid. In two of these three, imaging with Tc-99m-acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (IDA) agents within five days showed near normal hepatic uptake of this hepatobiliary imaging agent. The hepatic parenchymal cells may be imaged with Tc-99m-IDA in some irradiated regions of liver, despite loss of reticuloendothelial cell function

  4. Installation of Tc-99m generator manufacturing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, B. C.; Choung, W. M.; Park, J. H.; Park, S. H.; Kim, S. J.; Park, K. B.

    2004-01-01

    For the characteristics of radiopharmaceuticals, the manufacturing facility should be complied with the radiation safety standards for operators as well as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) cleanness standards for production. We intensively modified the existing Radioisotope production facilities, which were installed only in radiation safety points of view, to meet cleanness criteria. And the concept of multi-barrier buffer zones was introduced to apply negative air pressure for hot cell with first priority and to continue relative positive air pressure for clean room. The manufacturing area for Tc-99m Generator can be entered only through a second change. The doors of each change area are interlocked to maintain air pressure differentials. The pass box for material transfer are also interlocked so that only one side may be opened at any one time to keep cleanness. Two door-type autoclave was installed crossing the wall between preparing room and aseptic room to keep cleanness after sterilization. Three lead hot cells were installed and final inspection including gamma survey test were performed. The clean room was installed and TAB for this facility was performed in order to acquire the necessary air flow. The filter bank for filtration of exhausted radiation air was installed and its efficiency test was performed. In this facility, radiation shielding utilities and manufacturing instruments were set up and their operating manuals were documented. Efficiency tests for every utilities and instruments were satisfied and the approval for use of the facilities was achieved from MOST (Ministry of Science and Technology). The Sam Young Unitech, the lessee of the facilities set up the equipment in the hot cell, which is needed to produce Tc-99m Generator, supported by IPPE in Russia. They are composing the systems complied with the guidelines and the regulations, and keep in contact to KFDA for acquiring its approval. It is expected to produce Tc-99m Generator within

  5. Comparison of carrier-added [99mTc] EDTMP and carrier-free preparations of [99mTc] EDTMP and [99mTc] DPD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krcal, A.; Kletter, K.; Dudczak, R.; Pirich, C.; Mitterhauser, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: High uptake of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals in malignant bone lesions is a prerequisite for adequate bone scanning. Visual image analysis is impaired due to high soft-tissue activity with currently available [ 99m Tc]-EDTMP-kits. This study aimed to compare carrier-added [ 99m Tc]-EDTMP with carrier-free [ 99m Tc]-EDTMP and [ 99m Tc]-DPD preparations in clinical routine. 15 μg and 150 μg perrhenic acid respectively were added to [ 99m Tc]-pertechnetate (>6 GBq in 3 ml phys. saline). The solution was then transferred into a vial, containing 1 mg of EDTMP, 3.6 mg stannous(II)chloride and 10 mg ascorbic acid under inert conditions. Under vigorous stirring the reaction mixture was heated to 45 o C for 10 min. After cooling down to room temperature the labelling mixture was sterile filtrated (millipore 0.22 μm). Quality control was performed using radio-ITLC (Whatman SG; acetone or ethanol: R f perrhenate/pertechnetate 0.87, colloid/product 0.05; phys. saline: R f colloid 0.00, perrhenate/pertechnetate and product 0.9) allowing rapid and efficient assessment of the product. Carrier free [ 99m Tc]-EDTMP and [ 99m Tc]-DPD were prepared according to instructions of the manufacturer. Clinical studies were performed in 29 patients according to a routine bone scanning protocol by injecting 700-800 MBq of the respective tracer and whole body imaging 3 h thereafter. Radiochemical purity and radiochemical yield relied on various parameters such as concentration of carrier and reducing agent and reaction conditions (pH, reaction time, temperature). Means of the labelling yield were 22 % for the preparation using 150 μg of carrier (5 preparations), 80 % for the preparation using 15 μpg of carrier (10 preparations) and 91 % for the carrier free products (5 preparations). Radiochemical purity was >96 % in all experiments. Colloid was formed in very low amounts, and was completely removed by sterile filtration. In clinical studies quantitative analysis

  6. Prediction of multiaxial fatigue life for notched specimens of titanium alloy TC4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Z. R.; Li, Z. X. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China); Hu, X. T.; Song, Y. D. [Nanjing University, Nanjing (China)

    2016-05-15

    Both the proportional and nonproportional multiaxial fatigue tests were conducted on two kinds of notched specimens of titanium alloy TC4. The multiaxial fatigue critical area of notched specimen is considered as the location experiencing the maximum damage. It is unsatisfactory to predict the multiaxial fatigue life with the local stress and strain in the fatigue critical area. The critical distance concepts are employed in the multiaxial life prediction method for notched specimens. The proposed method was checked by the test data of TC4 notched specimens. The prediction results are almost within a factor of three scatter band of the test results.

  7. 99mTc-HYNIC-derivatized ternary ligand complexes for 99mTc-labeled polypeptides with low in vivo protein binding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masahiro; Arano, Yasushi; Mukai, Takahiro; Fujioka, Yasushi; Ogawa, Kazuma; Uehara, Tomoya; Saga, Tsuneo; Konishi, Junji; Saji, Hideo

    2001-01-01

    6-Hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) is a representative agent used to prepare technetium-99m ( 99m Tc)-labeled polypeptides with tricine as a coligand. However, 99m Tc-HYNIC-labeled polypeptides show delayed elimination rates of the radioactivity not only from the blood but also from nontarget tissues such as the liver and kidney. In this study, a preformed chelate of tetrafluorophenol (TFP) active ester of [ 99m Tc](HYNIC)(tricine)(benzoylpyridine: BP) ternary complex was synthesized to prepare 99m Tc-labeled polypeptides with higher stability against exchange reactions with proteins in plasma and lysosomes using the Fab fragment of a monoclonal antibody and galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (NGA) as model polypeptides. When incubated in plasma, [ 99m Tc](HYNIC-Fab)(tricine)(BP) showed significant reduction of the radioactivity in high molecular weight fractions compared with [ 99m Tc](HYNIC-Fab)(tricine) 2. When injected into mice, [ 99m Tc](HYNIC-NGA)(tricine)(BP) was metabolized to [ 99m Tc](HYNIC-lysine)(tricine)(BP) in the liver with no radioactivity detected in protein-bound fractions in contrast to the observations with [ 99m Tc](HYNIC-NGA)(tricine) 2. In addition, [ 99m Tc](HYNIC-NGA)(tricine)(BP) showed significantly faster elimination rates of the radioactivity from the liver as compared with [ 99m Tc](HYNIC-NGA)(tricine) 2. Similar results were observed with 99m Tc-labeled Fab fragments where [ 99m Tc](HYNIC-Fab)(tricine)(BP) exhibited significantly faster elimination rates of the radioactivity not only from the blood but also from the kidney. These findings indicated that conjugation of [ 99m Tc](HYNIC)(tricine)(BP) ternary ligand complex to polypeptides accelerated elimination rates of the radioactivity from the blood and nontarget tissues due to low binding of the [ 99m Tc](HYNIC)(tricine)(BP) complex with proteins in the blood and in the lysosomes. Such characteristics would render the TFP active ester of [ 99m Tc](HYNIC)(tricine)(BP) complex

  8. Using radioisotopes compounds (99mTc-infecton and 99mTcHIG) in evaluating and examination of pulmonary tuberculosis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, H. M.; Abdul-Hakeem, O.; Mohammad, K.; Briton, K.

    2000-01-01

    This study examined 40 patients: 34 have pulmonary tuberculosis, 3 have pneumonitis, 2 have lung cancer, and one has bilharziasis. All patients have been imaged using radioisotopes compounds (99mTc-infecton and 99mTcHIG) and after 1 hour and 4 hours of patients injection.Using 99mTc-infecton gave positive results in 30 pulmonary tuberculosis patients out of 34, the 3 pneumonitis patients, while using 99mTcHIG gave positive results in 27 pulmonary tuberculosis patients including the 3 pneumonitis patients. Both 99mTc-infecton and 99mTcHIG gave negative results with the lung cancer patients and unreal positive results with the bilharziasis patient. It has been found that the sensitivity and accuracy in the examinations using 99mTc-infecton were 88%, 93%, and 85.7% respectively in comparison with using 99mTcHIG where the values were 70.6%, 91%, and 68.5% respectively. Continuing examination and monitoring of 18 tuberculosis patients for 2-18 months with anti-pulmonary tuberculosis treatment, showed complete response of 12 patients using 99mTc-infecton, and 8 by using 99mTcHIG. As a result, 99mTc-infecton can be used for examining pulmonary tuberculosis patients

  9. Concentration of 99Tc in edible seaweed (Konbu) in the northern part of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuka, Yoshihito; Iyogi, Takashi; Kakiuchi, Hideki; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2006-01-01

    The first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Japan is located in Rokkasho Village, Aomori Prefecture, and is now performing uranium testing. We surveyed the distribution of background environmental radiation and radioactive materials around the plant before its full operation and studied causes of their fluctuation. The 99 Tc concentrations of edible seaweed (Konbu) collected in the northern part of Japan are reported here. Since the plant will release small amounts of 99 Tc to the ocean, the concentration of 99 Tc in seawater near the plant might possibly increase in the future. Seaweeds are important food items in Japan, and concentrate some radionuclides in seawater. Therefore, the 99 Tc concentrations in edible seaweeds before the full plant's operation are important to investigate the effect of the plant on the local environmental radioactivity. However, there are few reports of concentrations in edible seaweeds in the world, including those of Japan. Because concentrations of this nuclide in a general environmental sample are extremely low, it is difficult to determine them using conventional radioanalytical techniques. In this study, Tc in a sample was simply and rapidly separated from matrix elements by a solid phase chromatographic resin and an anion exchange resin, successively. The nuclide was determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Radioactivity of 137 Cs in the sample was also measured by using gamma-ray spectrometry. In 2004, fishing industry cooperative associations of Aomori, Iwate and Hokkaido provided 15 edible seaweed (Konbu) samples, 11 Laminaria japonica and one each of L. ochotensis, L. angustata L. diabolica and L. longissima. Concentrations of 99 Tc in L. japonica ranged from 3.9 to 74 mBq kg -1 -dry, and mean value was 31 mBq kg -1 -dry. Concentrations in other edible seaweeds in Hokkaido were 3.4 - 6.2 mBq kg -1 -dry, except for L. longissima, which was lower than the detection limit (2.4 mBq kg -1 -dry

  10. The role of Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging in primary biliary cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aburano, T.; Yokoyama, K.; Shuke, N.; Kinuya, S.; Takayama, T.; Tonami, N.; Hisada, K.

    1991-01-01

    To assess the presence of primary biliary cirrhosis, 15 patients at various histopathologic stages were studied by Tc-99m IDA hepatobiliary and/or Tc-99m colloid hepatic imaging. In the earlier stages (I and II), seven of eight patients (88%) showed uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA. Of seven patients in the same stage, however, four (57%) showed no abnormality on Tc-99m colliod imaging. In three of these four negative patients (75%), uniform hepatic retention of Tc-99m IDA was noted. In the later stages (III and IV), all seven patients showed decreased clearance with or without delayed tracer appearance in the intestine and prominent hepatic retention on Tc-99m IDA imaging; with Tc-99m colloid imaging there was enlargement of the spleen and increased activity in the spleen and bone marrow. Thus, Tc-99m IDA imaging is considered to be more useful in revealing this functional disorder at the earlier stage of primary biliary cirrhosis and in evaluating progression from an earlier to a later stage of disease. Tc-99m colloid imaging also effectively evaluated progression

  11. Lung function declines in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis and increased respiratory epithelial permeability to 99mTc-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinet, T.; Dusser, D.; Labrune, S.; Collignon, M.A.; Chretien, J.; Huchon, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Respiratory epithelial clearance of 99m Tc-DTPA (RC-Tc-DTPA) and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were determined at intervals of 6 or 12 months in 37 untreated, nonsmoking patients with sarcoidosis over a period of 6 to 36 months. PFT included the measurements of total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), FEV1, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide. No difference was found between the respiratory clearance of 113m In-DTPA (2.25 +/- 1.00%/min) and RC-Tc-DTPA (2.29 +/- 1.11%/min) in eight patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Pulmonary function decreased 15% or more in at least 2 function tests during 11 follow-up periods, but it remained stable during 47 follow-up periods. In patients whose lung function deteriorated, RC-Tc-DTPA increased to 3.51 +/- 1.55%/min; in contrast, in patients whose lung function remained stable, regardless of the initial values, RC-Tc-DTPA was normal (1.00 +/- 0.50%/min; p less than 0.001). In eight patients who were treated with corticosteroids, RC-Tc-DTPA decreased from 3.48 +/- 1.31%/min to 1.56 +/- 0.64%/min (p less than 0.001), and PFT improved. We conclude that in nonsmokers with pulmonary sarcoidosis, increased RC-Tc-DTPA is not related to dissociation of 99mTc from DTPA, RC-Tc-DTPA is increased when pulmonary function decreases, and, when increased, RC-Tc-DTPA decreases with corticosteroid therapy

  12. sup(99m)Tc-2-mercaptopropionylglycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saji, Hideo; Odori, Teruo; Morita, Rikushi; Yokoyama, Akira; Tanaka, Hisashi.

    1979-01-01

    Labeling of 2-mercaptopropionylglycine (2-MPG) with sup(99m)Tc, was studied and its chemical characteristics were examined. Further, biliary excretion behavior of this complex was comparatively estimated in mice, rats and rabbits. sup(99m)Tc-2-MPG was rapidly excreted in large quantities into the bile in mice and rats: within 1 hr after injection, 51% of the injected dose was recovered from the bile in rats. On the other hand, the ligand exchange reaction between this complex and penicillamine indicates that a low hydrolyzed sup(99m)Tc species is coordinated with 2-MPG. These results suggest that a low hydrolyzed sup(99m)Tc state is an effective feature in biliary excretion behavior of sup(99m)Tc compounds. Another interesting in vivo behavior of sup(99m)Tc-2-MPG is the difference observed in mice and rabbits: in mice, very high sup(99m)Tc activity is concentrated in the gallbladder and the clearance from tissues other than the gallbladder is rapid, whereas in rabbits, although a rapid and high excretion into the gallbladder is observed, a considerable high sup(99m)Tc activity is retained in the liver and the kidney. One reason for this different in vivo behavior is the low stability of this complex at high dilution: a big animal has the large dilution volume which lead to higher decomposition estimated by the higher liver and kidney retention or the lower bile excretion. In conclusion, studies carried on sup(99m)Tc-2-MPG showed a good biliary excretion behavior but an in vivo unstableness in big animals. (author)

  13. Role of Ca2+ in the binding mechanism of EHDP-Tc complex to bone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langevelde, A. van; Huisman, C.M.; Driessen, O.M.J.; Pauwels, E.K.J.

    1979-01-01

    Experiments are described testing the hypothesis that 99m-Tc-EHDP complex travels to bone as a unit and dissociates at the bone binding site because of the high affinity of EHDP for hydroxyapatite after which technetium binds separately. The results indicate that technetium is not dissociated from EHDP in binding to hydroxyapatite, but the EHDP-Tc-ligand stays intact. It is postulated that calcium plays an important role in bone-labelling with EHDP-Tc complex and that in fact the EHDP-Ca-Tc complex is the binding agent. Only by assuming the presence of this agent could the action of magnesium-ions or of excess calcium-ions be explained. (Auth./C.F.)

  14. Utility evaluation on application of geometric mean depending on depth of kidney in split renal function test using 99mTc-MAG3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Byeul; Ahn, Sung Min; Lee, Wang Hui

    2016-01-01

    99mTc-MAG 3 Renal scan is a method that acquires dynamic renal scan image by using 99mTc-MAG 3 and dynamically visualizes process of radioactive agent being absorbed to kidney and excreted continuously. Once the test starts, ratio in both kidneys in 1-2.5 minutes was measured to obtain split renal function and split renal function can be expressed in ratio based on overall renal function. This study is based on compares split renal function obtained from data acquired from posterior detector, which is a conventional renal function test method, with split renal function acquired from the geometric mean of values obtained from anterior and posterior detectors, and studies utility of attenuation compensation depending on difference in geometric mean kidney depth. From July, 2015 to February 2016, 33 patients who undertook 99mTc-MAG 3 Renal scan(13 male, 20 female, average age of 44.66 with range of 5-70, average height of 160.40 cm, average weight of 55.40 kg) were selected as subjects. Depth of kidney was shown to be 65.82 mm at average for left and 71.62 mm at average for right. In supine position, 30 out of 33 patients showed higher ratio of deep-situated kidney and lower ratio of shallow-situated kidney. Such result is deemed to be due to correction by attenuation between deep-situated kidney and detector and in case where there is difference between the depth of both kidneys such as, lesions in or around kidney, spine malformation, and ectopic kidney, ratio of deep-situated kidney must be compensated for more accurate calculation of split renal function, when compared to the conventional test method (posterior detector counting)

  15. Characterization of sup(99m)Tc/sup(99)Tc-hydroxycarboxylic acid chelates by high voltage electrophoresis without supporting material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, I.; Muenze, R.; Dreyer, I.; Dreyer, R.

    1982-01-01

    Ion mobilities of different sup(99m)Tc- and 99 Tc chelates prepared by reduction of pertechnetate by Sn(II) in the presence of citric, malic, tartaric, gluconic, and α-hydroxyisobutyric acid as ligands have been measured by means of electrophoresis without supporting material. All the chelates investigated proved to be anions in the pH range of 2-7. Both the Tc(V)- and Tc(IV) compounds with the same ligand including the sup(99m)Tc preparation show identical ion mobilities and dissociation characteristics. (author)

  16. Sample preparation method for ICP-MS measurement of 99Tc in a large amount of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, M.; Seki, R.

    2002-01-01

    Sample preparation for measurement of 99 Tc in a large amount of soil and water samples by ICP-MS has been developed using 95m Tc as a yield tracer. This method is based on the conventional method for a small amount of soil samples using incineration, acid digestion, extraction chromatography (TEVA resin) and ICP-MS measurement. Preliminary concentration of Tc has been introduced by co-precipitation with ferric oxide. The matrix materials in a large amount of samples were more sufficiently removed with keeping the high recovery of Tc than previous method. The recovery of Tc was 70-80% for 100 g soil samples and 60-70% for 500 g of soil and 500 L of water samples. The detection limit of this method was evaluated as 0.054 mBq/kg in 500 g soil and 0.032 μBq/L in 500 L water. The determined value of 99 Tc in the IAEA-375 (soil sample collected near the Chernobyl Nuclear Reactor) was 0.25 ± 0.02 Bq/kg. (author)

  17. A functional test of the salivary gland using sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Sousuke; Oshima, Motoo

    1981-01-01

    The function of the parotid glands were studied in 45 patients with parotid gland diseases, with the salivary glands affection systemic diseases, and with radiation injury of the parotid glands. As a control, the studies were done on 13 patients with no history of salivary gland disease. The method is consisted of sequential scientigraphy using a gamma scintillation camera and simultaneous recordings of the time-activity curves for the regions over the parotid glands and Stensen's orifices. The examination was commenced immediately after intravenous injection of sup(99m)Tc, and was continued up to 30 minutes. Salivation was stimulated with oral administration of tartaric acid at 20 minutes after injection. According to whether the uptake, concentration and excretion of sup(99m)Tc were diminished or increased, the time-activity curves could be grouped four different patterns. Using this method, a clinician can determine the exact stage of glandular dysfunction. (author)

  18. Oxidative Stability of Tc(I) Tricarbonyl Species Relevant to the Hanford Tank Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Sayandev [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hall, Gabriel B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Washton, Nancy M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-17

    Technetium (Tc), which exists predominately in the liquid supernatant and salt cake fractions of the nuclear tank waste stored at the U.S. DOE Hanford Site, is one of the most difficult contaminants to dispose of and/or remediate. In the strongly alkaline environments prevalent in the tank waste, its dominant chemical form is pertechnetate (TcO4-, oxidation state +7). However, based on experimentation to-date, a significant fraction of the soluble Tc cannot be effectively separated from the wastes and may be present as a non-pertechnetate species. The presence of a non pertechnetate species significantly complicates disposition of low-activity waste (LAW), and the development of methods to either convert them to pertechnetate or to separate the non-pertechnetate species directly is needed. The challenge is the uncertainty regarding the nature and stability of the alkaline-soluble, low-valence, non pertechnetate species in the liquid tank waste. One objective of the Tc management project is to address this knowledge gap. This fiscal year (FY) 2015 report summarizes experimental work exploring the oxidative stability of model low-valence Tc(I) tricarbonyl species, derived from the [Tc(CO)3]+ moiety. These compounds are of interest due to their implied presence in several Hanford tank waste supernatants. Work in part was initiated in FY 2014, and a series of samples containing non-pertechnetate Tc generated ex situ or in situ in pseudo-Hanford tank supernatant simulant solutions was prepared and monitored for oxidation to Tc(VII) (Levitskaia et al. 2014). This experimentation continued in FY 2015, and new series of samples containing Tc(I) as [Tc(CO)3]+•Ligand was tested. The monitoring method used for these studies was a combination of 99Tc NMR and EPR spectroscopies.

  19. Sonolytic Oxidation of Tc(IVO2nH2O Nanoparticles to Tc(VIIO4 in Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zakir

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sonolysis of a hydrosol of TcO2nH2O was investigated in the Ar- or He- atmosphere. Colloidal TcO2nH2O nanoparticles were irradiated with a 200 kHz and 1.25 W/cm2 ultrasound. It was found that the TcO2nH2O colloids dispersed in an aqueous solution (under Ar or He atmosphere was completely dissolved by ultrasonic irradiation (200 kHz, 200 W. The original brownish black color of the suspension slowly disappeared leaving behind a colorless solution. This change suggests that oxidation of Tc(IV to Tc(VII takes place. The oxidation was almost complete during 30 minutes sonication time under argon atmosphere for initial concentration of 6.0E-5 M. Addition of t-butyl alcohol, an effective radical scavenger which readily reacts with OH radicals, supressed the dissolution of TcO2nH2O colloids. This reaction indicates that TcO2nH2O molecules are oxidized by OH radicals produced in cavitation bubbles.

  20. The Goettingen high-Tc superconductivity research pool: the effects of structure and structural defects on the performance of high-Tc superconductors. Final reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-02-01

    The compilation presents the final reports prepared by the various teams of the Goettingen research pool for high-Tc superconductivity. The reports are entitled: Structure and phase transition in high-Tc superconductors (Krebs/Freyhardt). Preparation and critical properties of high-Tc superconductors (Freyhardt/Heinemann/Zimmermann). EMC measurements in high-Tc superconductors (Bormann/Noelting). Phase analysis of the various phases observed in the preparation of high-Tc superconductors (Faupel/Hehenkamp). Positron annihilation in high-Tc superconductors (Hehenkamp). Preparation and characterization of thin films consisting of superconducting oxide ceramics (v. Minnigerode/Samwer). High-Tc superconductivity in monocrystals (Winzer/Beuermann). Microwave conductivity in high-Tc superconductors (Helberg). High-resolution structural analyses in high-Tc superconductors (Kupcik/Bente). Synthesis, structural analyses and spectroscopy of high-Tc superconductors (Bente). Synthesis, monocrystal growing, crystal structure of high-Tc superconductors (Schwarzmann). Ion-beam-aided studies in high-Tc superconductors (Uhrmacher). (orig./MM) [de

  1. Evaluation of Tc-99M dextran as a useful agent for peripheral lymphoscintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzana Kousar; Muhammad Numair Younis; Shabana Saeed; Mustanser Jehangir; Saeeda Asghar

    2004-01-01

    Peripheral lymphoscintigraphy is known for its great academic value and more importantly, may contribute to supporting the accuracy of clinical diagnosis and assessment of lymphedema treatment. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the 99m Tc dextran as peripheral lymphoscintigraphic agent and its validation in recognizing different lymphatic patterns in normal and edematous limbs. Methods: Peripheral lymphoscintigraphy was performed in 24 patients (mean age 43.9 ± 11 years) using 99m Tc dextran (molecular weight 150,000 and 250,000) as radiotracer. 37 MBq (1 mCi) 99m Tc dextran (PINSCANTM) was injected intradermally in the first web space of the hand or foot of both limbs. 30 minutes sequential dynamic and static imaging was done. Delayed static images were taken at one hour and then three hours post injection. Results: Only qualitative interpretation was done. Different lymphatic patterns were observed in normal population as well as in control and edematous limbs. Results were further analysed using chi square test, paired and unpaired student t test at the confidence level 0.05. All mean values were given with one standard deviation. Visual and statistical analysis showed good clinical correlation. These results were also compared favourably with 99m Tc HSA lymphoscintigraphic findings available in literature. Conclusion: 99m Tc dextran is a promising agent for peripheral lymphoscintigraphy. (authors)

  2. Preparation and quality control of 99m Tc-MDPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, Dulcila M. Lessa; Castanheira, Claudia Elisabete; Castro, Jose Alberto de; Mengatti, Jair; Muramoto, Emiko; Pereira, Claudia Regina; Vicente, Irene

    2005-01-01

    Since the early 1970s a number of 99 mTc-phosphate compounds have been introduced for bone imaging. The three extensively studies diphosphonates are: 1-hydroxyethylidene diphosphonate (HEDP), methylene diphosphonate (MDP) and hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP or HDP) of which MDP and HDP are most commonly used in nuclear medicine. This report describes the routine production and quality control of MDP ('multidose') at IPEN-CNEN/SP, in lyophilized form for labeled with high activities of 99m Tc (9,250 MBq). The process was done under vacuum and low temperature in Super Modulyo -'Edwards' lyophilizator and each lyophilized vial contains: 5.0 mg of MDP; 1.0 mg SnCl 2 .H 2 O; 0.1mg ascorbic acid and 20.0 mg sodium pyrophosphate at pH = 6.0. The radiochemical purity was determined by thin layer chromatography system in Whatman 3MM paper (1 x 8 cm), using acetone and saline (0.9% NaCl) as solvents, respectively. Sterility and pyrogen tests were performed by the microbiology procedures outlined in the pharmacopoeias and by the 'in-vitro' Limulus test, respectively. Biological distribution in Wistar rats was evaluated in different organs (% dose / organ). The method was validated for routine production at Radiopharmacy Center, the radiochemical purities of 99m Tc-MDP ('multidose') was > 95%. The biological distribution in rats showed high uptake in bone tissue, and low activities in thyroid, liver and stomach. Sterility and pyrogen tests were negative in all the delivered lyophilized vials. (author)

  3. Different uptake of 99mTc-ECD adn 99mTc-HMPAO in the same brains: analysis by statistical parametric mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Y; Lee, J S; Rha, J H; Lee, I K; Ha, C K; Lee, D S

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO) uptake in the same brains by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. We examined 20 patients (9 male, 11 female, mean age 62+/-12 years) using 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain less than 7 days after onset of stroke. MRI showed no cortical infarctions. Infarctions in the pons (6 patients) and medulla (1), ischaemic periventricular white matter lesions (13) and lacunar infarction (7) were found on MRI. Split-dose and sequential SPET techniques were used for 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO brain SPET, without repositioning of the patient. All of the SPET images were spatially transformed to standard space, smoothed and globally normalized. The differences between the 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images were statistically analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 96 software. The difference between two groups was considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected P values less than 0.01. Visual analysis showed no hypoperfused areas on either 99mTc-ECD or 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images. SPM analysis revealed significantly different uptake of 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO in the same brains. On the 99mTc-ECD SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, in the left superior temporal lobe and in the superior region of the cerebellum. On the 99mTc-HMPAO SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the medial temporal lobes, thalami, periventricular white matter and brain stem. These differences in uptake of the two tracers in the same brains on SPM analysis suggest that interpretation of cerebral perfusion is possible using SPET with 99mTc-ECD and 99mTc-HMPAO.

  4. Three-dimensional display of 99mTc-MIBI myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashimada, Akio; Machida, Kikuo; Honda, Norinari

    1992-01-01

    One of 99m Tc-hexakis, 99m Tc-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile (MIBI), has been demonstrated to have a myocardial uptake proportional to regional coronary blood flow. In this study, 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial scintigraphy was performed for 16 patients with ischemic heart disease. After injection of 740 MBq of 99m Tc-MIBI, 64 projection images were collected during a 360-degree rotation. Three-dimensional (3D) display of the left ventricle was reconstructed with depth-shading method from 99m Tc-MIBI SPECT images, which were reconstructed by filtered back projection method. In 9 of the patients, left ventricular cineangiography were performed as diagnostic gold standard. Four physicians blinded to patients' clinical information interpreted 3D images and SPECT images on separate occasions. Diagnosis of hypoperfusion by 3D displays agreed with those of SPECT in 92.9% (104/112 segments), and disagreed in 7.1% (8 segments). Sensitivity and specificity of 3D images were 87.0% and 93.9%, which were not statistically different (p<0.05) from that of SPECT images (91.3%, 97.0%). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed nearly identical curves for the two. Although 3D display had nearly identical diagnostic ability with SPECT, observers reported that 3D images were easier to diagnose than SPECT images. An advantage of the 3D display is that the display gives a more realistic impression of the left ventricle to an observer than tomography or planar imaging. Another advantage is that 3D display can reduce the amount of data storage compared with that of SPECT. In conclusion, 3D images may be useful for diagnosis of hypoperfusion of left ventricle. (author)

  5. Studies on chemical effects on x-ray intensity ratios of K/sub β//K/sub α/ in nuclear decay of technetium nuclides /sup 99m/Tc, /sup 97m/Tc, and /sup 95m/Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamoto, I.; Kaji, H.; Yoshihara, K.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical effects of characteristic x-ray intensity ratios of K/sub β//K/sub α/ were investigated for the second d-group element Tc in the decay processes /sup 99m/Tc → 99 Tc (two-step isomeric transition), /sup 97m/Tc → 97 Tc (one-step isomeric transition), and /sup 95m/Tc → 95 Mo (electron capture). The objective nuclides were produced by (n, γ)β - , (d, xn), and (α, xn) reactions and were chemically separated from the target materials. The x rays were measured with a pure germanium detector, and the K/sub β/ x rays were analyzed into the two components K/sup prime//sub beta1/ and K/sup //sub beta2/ using a computer program. The chemical effect of the intensity ratio was more pronounced for K/sup prime//sub beta2//K/sub α/ than for K/sup //sub beta1//K/sub α/, as expected. The effect was larger in KTcO 4 than in the other species of Tc 2 S 7 , K 2 TcCl 6 , and Tc metal. The effect in the two-step isomeric transition in /sup 99m/Tc was found to be larger than in the one-step isomeric transition in /sup 97m/Tc. The effect in the electron capture in /sup 95m/Tc (Mo x rays) was similar to that in /sup 97m/Tc although the ratio K/sub β//K/sub α/ was smaller in /sup 95m/Tc than in /sup 97m/Tc, reflecting the change of nuclear charge. The tendency of the observed chemical effect was explained by taking into account the interfering factors which involve Pauling's ionicity in chemical bonding between Tc and its counter atom

  6. Adsorption behavior of 99Tc in Ca-bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dejun; Fan Xianhua; Zhang Yingjie; Yao Jun; Zhou Duo; Wang Yong

    2004-01-01

    The adsorption behaviors of 99 Tc in bentonite were studied with batch methods under aerobic and anoxic conditions. The adsorption ratios is about 1.47 mL/g under aerobic conditions. The adsorption ratio of 99 Tc in bentonite is not affected by pH in the range of 5-12 and the CO 3 2- , Fe 3+ concentrations in the range of 10 -8 -10 -2 mol/L in the solution. The adsorption ratio of Tc in bentonite increases with the increase of the mass percent of Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 and the Fe 2+ concentration in the range of 10 -8 -10 -2 mol/L. Tc exists ainly in the form of Tc(VII) after the adsorption equilibriums. The adsorption ratio of Tc in bentonite increase with the increase of the mass percent of Fe and Tc exists mainly in the form of Tc(VII) after the adsorption equilibriums. The adsorption ratio of Tc in bentonite is about 84.84 mL/g under anoxic conditions. The adsorption ratios of 99 Tc in bentonite decreases with the increase of pH in the range of 5-12 and the CO 3 2- concentration in the range of 10 -8 -10 -2 mol/L in the solution. The adsorption ratio of Tc in bentonite increases with the increase of the Fe 3+ , Fe 2+ concentration in the range of 10 -8 -10 -2 mol/L and the mass percent of Fe, Fe 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 . Tc exists mainly in the form of Tc(IV) after the adsorption equilibriums. The adsorption isotherms of TcO 4 - in bentonite are all in fairly agree with the Freundlich's equation under aerobic and anoxic conditions. (authors)

  7. Technetium removal column flow testing with alkaline, high salt, radioactive tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, D.L. Jr.; Kurath, D.E.; Golcar, G.R.; Conradson, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes two bench-scale column tests conducted to demonstrate the removal of Tc-99 from actual alkaline high salt radioactive waste. The waste used as feed for these tests was obtained from the Hanford double shell tank AW-101, which contains double shell slurry feed (DSSF). The tank sample was diluted to approximately 5 M Na with water, and most of the Cs-137 was removed using crystalline silicotitanates. The tests were conducted with two small columns connected in series, containing, 10 mL of either a sorbent, ABEC 5000 (Eichrom Industries, Inc.), or an anion exchanger Reillex trademark-HPQ (Reilly Industries, Inc.). Both materials are selective for pertechnetate anion (TcO 4 - ). The process steps generally followed those expected in a full-scale process and included (1) resin conditioning, (2) loading, (3) caustic wash to remove residual feed and prevent the precipitation of Al(OH) 3 , and (4) elution. A small amount of Tc-99m tracer was added as ammonium pertechnetate to the feed and a portable GEA counter was used to closely monitor the process. Analyses of the Tc-99 in the waste was performed using ICP-MS with spot checks using radiochemical analysis. Technetium x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra of 6 samples were also collected to determine the prevalence of non-pertechnetate species [e.g. Tc(IV)

  8. /sup 99m/Tc labeling of antibodies to cardiac myosin Fab and to human fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khaw, B.A.; Strauss, H.W.; Carvalho, A.; Locke, E.; Gold, H.K.; Haber, E.

    1982-01-01

    We have developed a method of labeling biologically active labile macromolecules, such as human fibrinogen (HF) and anticardiac-myosin Fab (AM-Fab), with /sup 99m/Tc at neutral pH. This method uses dithionite reduction of pertechnetate and subsequent labeling, to test the method with acid-labile macromolecules. Complexes of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid with macromolecules such as human fibrinogen (D-HF) and anticardiac-myosin Fab (D-AM-Fab) were labeled and utilized in in vitro and in vivo studies. In biodistribution studies, the /sup 99m/Tc D-HF had a two-component blood clearance (half-times 1 hr and 15 hr) and was 80--88% coagulable. The /sup 99m/Tc AM-Fab retained its immunoreactivity as tested by affinity chromatography; also during in vivo localization in experimental myocardial infarction. This labeling technique provides an easy and efficient approach to the /sup 99m/Tc labeling of other biologically active and acid-labile macromolecules

  9. Tc-99m-diethyl-IDA imaging: clinical evaluation in jaundiced patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauwels, S.; Piret, L.; Schoutens, A.; Vandermoten, G.; Beckers, C.

    1980-01-01

    Hepatobiliary imaging with Tc-99m-N,α-(2,6-diethylacetanilide)-iminodiacetic acid (Tc-diethyl-IDA) was performed in 91 jaundiced patients with documented hepatobiliary damage and serum total bilirubin up to 35 mg/dl. There were 56 patients with obstructive jaundice and 35 with hepatocellular disease. Correct discrimination between hepatocellular and obstructive jaundice was possible with an overall accuracy of 90%. Agreement with the final clinical diagnosis was obtained in 97% of patients with hepatocellular disease, and in 86% of patients with obstructive jaundice. The reliability of the test was inversely related to the serum bilirubin levels below 10 mg/dl to 83% for bilirubin between 10 and 20 mg/dl. Above 20 mg/dl, the demonstration of a mechanical obstruction was possible in only one out of the four patients with obstructive jaundice. The high predictive values of the test illustrate that Tc-diethyl-IDA imaging constitutes a reliable method to demonstrate an obstructive cause for the jaundice as long as the bilirubin level remains below 20 mg/dl

  10. Study on the metabolic peculiarities of renal radiotracer {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDA and diagnostic use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoupeng, Zhu; Liuyi, Wang; Mingyue, Lun [Suzhou Medical Coll., JS (China)

    1994-11-01

    The metabolic peculiarities of renal radiotracer {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDA and diagnostic use were studied. The results of the radioactive tracing study showed that {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDA was distributed predominantly in kidney, and then in heart, gastrointestinal tract, liver, spleen, musculus quadriceps femoris, adipose tissue, testes and brain. It should be noted that when smaller dose of this agent was given, more {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDA was concentrated in kidney and, at the same time, the level of its binding to plasma protein was lower. The experimental results indicated that {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDA was rapidly excreted in urine. Autoradiochromatographic examination of the urine showed a single radioactive peak corresponding to the authentic {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDA, indicating that {sup 99m}Tc-PAHIDA was excreted in the unchanged form. (3 tabs.).

  11. The evaluation of dobutamine 99mTc-MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Qing; Qu Wanying; Gong Junhui; Zhou Ying

    1996-01-01

    The method and the clinical value of dobutamine stress test as a substitute for exercise test in 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging was investigated. 40 Patients were intravenously infused with dobutamine through IVAC syringe pumps by incremental doses, and 99m Tc-MIBI was injected at the peak dobutamine heart rate. The myocardial imaging was then performed. The rest myocardial imaging was done after 48 hours. 30 of the 31 patients with coronary heart disease showed reversible perfusion defects in dobutamine 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial perfusion images and 7 of the 9 patients without coronary heart disease showed normal images. The sensitivity of this test was 96.8% and the specificity 77.8%. None of the studies was discontinued due to dobutamine side effect. Dobutamine 99m Tc-MIBI myocardial perfusion imaging is a safe and sensitive method in the diagnosis of coronary heart disease

  12. Accumulation, elimination and retention of 99Tc by duckweed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattink, J.; Weltje, L.; Wolterbeek, H.Th.; Goeij, J.J.M. de

    2004-01-01

    Accumulation dynamics of the long-lived fission product technetium ( 99 Tc) in duckweed is studied. Duckweed serves as model for aquatic plants, because of its representative foliar uptake for 99 Tc. 99 Tc is irreversibly accumulated and distributed over cytoplasm, chloroplasts and mitochondria. Autoradiography showed that 99 Tc was not transported to new biomass. Irreversible storage of 99 Tc in plant biomass means that steady-state situations cannot be interpreted as a balance between uptake and elimination of 99 Tc, but that 99 Tc continuously builds up in each single duckweed plant and overall Tc concentrations are averaged over new biomass. (author)

  13. The scintigraphy of sacroiliac joints. A comparison of 99mTc-DPD and 99mTc-MDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantto, T.

    1990-01-01

    The accumulation of 99m Tc-methylene diphosphonate ( 99m Tc-MDP) and 99m Tc-dicarboxypropane diphosphonate ( 99m Tc-DPD) in sacroiliac (si) joints was evaluated as a function of imaging time in 22 control patients and 5 patients with sacroiliitis. The controls were injected with either 99m Tc-DPD or 99m Tc-MDP (12 and 10 patients, respectively) and the patients with sacroiliitis with both agents within 5 days. Both the anterior and posterior views of the si joints were taken. The sacroiliac joint-to-sacrum (SI/S) ratio was calculated with the region of interest method. No statistically significant differences between these bone-seeking agents were found in the SI/S ratios of the control or the diseased patients. A clear overlap of indices (mean±SD) was found between the control patients and the patients with sacroiliitis. When the inflamed si joint was divided into three small adjacent areas and the SI/S ratios calculated for these areas, a statistically significant (P 99m Tc-DPD and in most patients injected with 99m Tc-MDP. In the posterior views, the significance was less marked. In every case, the inflamed part of the si joint was visible in the anterior views. The background subtraction had the greatest effect on the SI/S ratio of anterior images, but in the posterior views no significance was found. The low specificity of sacroiliac joint imaging must be taken into consideration when the results are interpreted. (orig.)

  14. Change of 99mtechnetium-pertechnetate-thyroid uptake under suppression (TcTUs) induced by optimization of iodine supply in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, M.J.; Trupkovic, T.; Schumacher, T.; Krause, T.M.; Oexle, C.; Moser, E.

    1998-01-01

    The present study deals with the change of the 99m Technetium-pertechnetate thyroid uptake under suppression (TcTU s ) in dependence on the urinary iodine excretion. The study collective comprises 510 patients with euthyroid goiter (N=91), with functional thyroid autonomy (N=361) and with Graves' disease (N=58), who were examined in the now thyroid ambulance between January 1995 and February 1997 and who presented with endogeneous or exogeneous TSH-supression. All patients received a quantitative thyroid scintigraphy with 99m Technetium-pertechnetate and a measurement of the urinary iodine excretion. The TcTU s from the whole collective shows an inverse correlation to the urinary iodine excretion for the range of 0 to 500 μg iodine/g creatinine. The TcTU s remains constant on a low basal level for iodine excretion values over 500 μg iodine/g creatinine. Significant differences occur in dependence on the underlying disease. TcTU s is constantly low in patients with euthyroid goiter, independent of the iodine excretion value. The TcTU s is significantly increased in patients with functional thyroid autonomy or Graves' disease when iodine excretion is below 100 or 50 μg iodine/g creatinine respectively, but shows only minor changes when iodine excretion rises up to 500 μg iodine/g creatinine. When iodine excretion exceeds 500 μg iodine/g creatinine, the TcTU s of patients with thyroid autonomy drops down to a low basal level. (orig.) [de

  15. Electrolytic 99mTcO4- reduction: a different pathway to obtain 99mTc-labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savio, E.; Kremer, C.; Gambino, D.; Kremer, E.; Leon, A.

    1991-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction of 99m TcO 4 - at inert electrodes to obtain 99m Tc cationic complexes and in vitro stability of labelled compounds were studied. Amines were used as neutral N-donor ligands and a systematic analysis of various parameters involved in the reduction process was performed. Usefulness of electrolytic reduction was proved as an alternative 99m Tc-labelling method. Its most important advantages are: production of complexes with a high radiochemical purity, negligible presence of red-hyd- 99m Tc, lack of foreign materials, simplicity of development and possibility of further applications. (author)

  16. Comparative biological evaluation between 99mTc tricarbonyl and 99mTc-Sn(II) levosalbutamol as a β2-adrenoceptor agonist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanad, Mahmoud H.; Borai, Emad H.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the comparison between 99m Tc-tricarbonyl and 99m Tc-Sn (II) levosalbutamol as a β 2 -adrenoceptors radiopharmaceutical and evaluation of their different biological characteristics using experimental animals. Levosalbutamol was labeled firstly with 99m Tc in the presence of SnCl 2 . 2H 2 O as a reducing agent under the optimum conditions: pH 8, 50 μg SnCl 2 . 2H 2 O, room temperature, 40 μg levosalbutamol and 30 min reaction time to give a maximum radiochemical yield of 98 ± 0.1%. The obtained 99m Tc-levosalbutamol was stable for a time up to 8 h. Secondly, 99m Tc-tricarbonyl ([ 99m Tc(CO) 3 (H 2 O) 3 ] + ) levosalbutamol was prepare under 30 min heating at 100 C. Labeling yield and stability were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (labeling yield >99% and stability for 8 h). Biodistribution investigation showed that, the maximum uptake ratio of the 99m Tc-levosalbutamol ( 99m Tc-Lev) between lung and heart was 2.34 ± 0.62 % of the injected activity/g tissue organ, at 30 min post-injection. But in case of 99m Tc-tricarbonyl levosalbutamol ( 99m Tc-tricarbonyl Lev) the maximum uptake ratio was 3.6 ± 0.11 of the injected activity/g tissue organ, at 30 min post-injection. This indicates that 99m Tc-tricarbonyl levosalbutamol was more selective for lung β 2 -adrenoceptors than 99m Tc-levosalbutamol. These results introduce 99m Tc-tricarbonyl levosalbutamol as a novel potential radiopharmaceutical for lung imaging.

  17. Improved brain scan specificity utilizing /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate and /sup 99m/Tc(Sn)-diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.C.; McKusick, K.A.; Pendergrass, H.P.; Potsaid, M.S.

    1975-01-01

    Each of 36 patients was studied with two separate brain scans performed sequentially after the injection of 20 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate or 20 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc(Sn)-diphosphonate. The resulting scans were qualitatively compared, and lesion-to-nonlesion ratios of activity determined. Diagnoses were established by clinical criteria and were supported in the majority of cases by computerized axial tomography or roentgen angiography or both. Histologic confirmation was available in five cases of tumor and in the single cases of subdural hematoma and cerebral abscess. Of 22 cerebral infarctions, 15 were better demonstrated with /sup 99m/Tc-(Sn)-diphosphonate than with /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate. Of the seven remaining cases, three were visualized equally well with each agent, and three were better demonstrated with /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate. One was not seen with either agent. Of the 12 tumors, 11 were visualized better with /sup 99m/Tc-pertechnetate than with /sup 99m/Tc(Sn)-diphosphonate while in one case the lesion was seen equally as well with both agents. In no case was a lesion definitely seen with one radio- pharmaceutical and not with the other. These results indicate that this dual method is helpful in differentiating gliomas and metastases from cerebral infarctions. (U.S.)

  18. A proposal for spreading and commercializing the (n, gamma) 99Tc generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kosuke; Hishinuma, Yukio; Tatenuma, Katsuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    A practicability of 99m Tc generator based on (n, gamma) method using PZC (Poly Zirconium Compound), a Mo adsorbent with a high adsorption efficiency, has been studied by the FNCA member countries as a part of the FNCA activities; three research collaboration projects, Technetium Generator Project (TCG), Neutron Activation Analysis Project (NAA) and Neutron Spreading Project (NS) have been set up in order to achieve the significant results of the research reactor use among Asian countries. As a result of the collaboration research, practical data on the 99m Tc elution and 99 Mo breakthrough has recently been obtained by using the new 99m Tc generator based on (n, gamma) method using PZC (indicate 'PZC- 99m Tc generator' as follows). Even though unexpected amount of 99 Mo breakthrough accompanied with the 99m Tc elution treatment were currently occurred, the problem has been solved by subsequently adding an alumina column underneath the generator column containing PZC. In accordance with the realization of the practical PZC- 99m Tc generator, an administering tests to the mice with labeled compound of 99m Tc generated by PZC method have already been started by BATAN, a loading machine to simplify the process of the 99 Mo adsorption to PZC and the 99 Mo-PZC packing to a generator column has been fabricated in BATAN's hot cell to realize a mass production of PZC- 99m Tc generator, and moreover the Japanese and Indonesian patents pertaining to the production process and the loading machine of PZC- 99m Tc generator have been applied with joint application of BATAN and KAKEN Co. By the current collaboration approaches mentioned above, it is clear that the Technetium Generator Project of FNCA is now reaching to a phase where the aims of the project shall be turned from establishment of the practical PZC- 99m C generator to establishment of the delivery system of PZC- 99m Tc generator to put them into commercial use. In this paper, a practical application of the PZC- 99m

  19. On the organ distribution of a selection of 99mTc-tagged tetracyclines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinhold, S.E.M.

    1983-01-01

    During this study the time course of organ concentrations of 99mTc-tagged tetracycline and of 99mTc-rolitetracycline that had been labeled according to two different methods was investigated with reference to that of two standard preparations, 99mTcO 4 and 3 H-labeled tetracycline, which differ from the test substances in their chemical structures (lipohilia - hydrophilia). As the substances to be investigated here are chemically related, they showed mostly consistent organ concentrations and great vivo stability. The concentrations measured in the organs examined (particularly the lungs) followed the same pattern as the concentrations in the blood and were thus regarded as being primarily the result of convection processes, whereas the concentrations seen in some other organs (especially the kidneys and, to a lesser extent, the liver) rather appeared to be determined by invasion and evasion processes; this held true for 99mTc-labeled tetracyclines as well as for pertechnetate. None of the five substances tested during this study appeared to be able to pass the blood-brain barrier. As regards solubility in water, the 99mTc-labeled tetracyclines occupy an intermediate position between pertechnetate (extremely water-soluble) and 3 H-labeled tetracyclines (extremely lipophil), which can be seen from the moderately high blood concentrations of these preparations. In view of the high organ concentrations that are observed particularly in the kidneys following administration of 99mTc-labeled tetracycline and rolitetracycline, the use of these substances for renal scintiscanning appears worth considering, as only approx. one tenth of the dose of pertechnetate would be required for this purpose. (TRV) [de

  20. Genetic Characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi DTUs in Wild Triatoma infestans from Bolivia: Predominance of TcI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Aliaga, Claudia; Waleckx, Etienne; Buitrago, Rosio; Salas, Renata; Barnabé, Christian; Tibayrenc, Michel; Noireau, François

    2012-01-01

    Background The current persistence of Triatoma infestans (one of the main vectors of Chagas disease) in some domestic areas could be related to re-colonization by wild populations which are increasingly reported. However, the infection rate and the genetic characterization of the Trypanosoma cruzi strains infecting these populations are very limited. Methodology/Principal Findings Of 333 wild Triatoma infestans specimens collected from north to south of a Chagas disease endemic area in Bolivia, we characterized 234 stocks of Trypanosoma cruzi using mini-exon multiplex PCR (MMPCR) and sequencing the glucose phosphate isomerase (Gpi) gene. Of the six genetic lineages (“discrete typing units”; DTU) (TcI-VI) presently recognized in T. cruzi, TcI (99.1%) was overdominant on TcIII (0.9%) in wild Andean T. infestans, which presented a 71.7% infection rate as evaluated by microscopy. In the lowlands (Bolivian Chaco), 17 “dark morph” T. infestans were analyzed. None of them were positive for parasites after microscopic examination, although one TcI stock and one TcII stock were identified using MMPCR and sequencing. Conclusions/Significance By exploring large-scale DTUs that infect the wild populations of T. infestans, this study opens the discussion on the origin of TcI and TcV DTUs that are predominant in domestic Bolivian cycles. PMID:22685616

  1. 78 FR 60287 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

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  2. 75 FR 51271 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-19

    ... communication strategies, messages, and labels. These communications will aim to improve public understanding of... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0420] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Testing Communications on...

  3. Triamide mercaptide (N/sub 3/S) ligands for Tc-99m as potential Tc-99m renal function agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzberg, A.R.; Kasina, S.; Johnson, D.L.; Eshima, D.

    1985-01-01

    A number of diamide dimercaptide (N/sub 2/S/sub 2/) complexes of Tc-99m have shown potential as renal tubular function radiopharmaceuticals that could replace radioiodinated hippurate (OIH). Evaluation of such ligands suggested that maximum efficiency for tubular secretion and specificity resulted from addition of a carboxylate group. However, such derivatives resulted in chelate ring stereoisomers that were differently transported by the renal tubular system. The problem of stereoisomers was obviated by replacing one sulfur with an effectively planar amido nitrogen. Groups on the nitrogen then result in diastereomers only when an additional asymetric center is present. A series of triamide mercaptide compounds have been synthesized to evaluate this class as ligands for Tc-99m. One of the simplest of the series, mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (MAG/sub 3/), formed a single Tc-99m product in high yield as determined by HPLC. Preliminary results with pmr and ms of the Tc-99 complex indicate a structure consistent with a 1:1 metal to ligand ratio and monooxo technetium group. Biological evaluation of Tc-99m MAG/sub 3/ showed high renal specificity and rate of excretion exceeding OIH in several species including humans. Members of the N/sub 3/S series studied include mercaptoacetylglycylglycyl-amino acids. In some cases with second asymmetric centers, two components were seen on HPLC. In mice several dianionic Tc-99m complexes were excreted faster than OIH, Tc-99m MAG/sub 2/-ala, -asn, and -gln. Trianionic Tc-99m MAG/sub 2/-asp and -glu were excreted more slowly, and Tc-99m MAG/sub 2/-phe showed hepatobiliary excretion. Triamide mercaptides represent a new ligand class for Tc-99m

  4. 99mTc DMSA scintigraphic findings in renal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Tae Yong; Kim, Kun Il; Yoon, Chi Soon; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo

    1993-01-01

    Evaluations of residual renal function and the therapeutic effectiveness in renal tuberculosis have largely been dependent on intravenous pyelogram or Contrast-CT scan, even though, exact renal functions are not evaluate with there methods. 99m Tc- DMSA is a radiopharmaceutical that is trapped in the functioning tubular cells of the kidney and therefore, quantitative renal function could be evaluated by insuring the counts of renal radioactivity and concomitant evaluation of renal morphology could be passable with the analog images of the radioactivity. The authors retrospectively analyzed 99mTc-DMSA scans of 75 kidneys of 67 patients with confirmed renal tuberculosis. We classified the morphologies of tuberculous kidneys as 6 types. We classified the morphologies of tuberculous kidneys as 6 types such as the type with small cortical defect, with parenchymal ulcerocavernous lesions, ulcerocavernous fistula to pelvis, mass-like defects, contracted kidney with ureter visualization, and the type with non visualization of kidney, corresponding to the characters of renal tuberculous pathogenesis with abscess formation, ulcerocavernous fistula, and fibrosis, and corresponding to the renal anatomy with parenchyma, and pelvocalyceal collecting system. Their mean residual renal functions measured with 99mTc-DMSA uptake rates were 19.0%,18.4%, 7.9%, 12%, 4.1%, 3.4% respectively

  5. Achalasia diagnosed by {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate scintigraphy; Diagnose einer Achalasie durch {sup 99m}Tc-Pertechnetat-Szintigraphie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikosch, P. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Endokrinologie; Gallowitsch, H.J. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Endokrinologie; Kresnik, E. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Endokrinologie; Lind, P. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin und Spezielle Endokrinologie

    1997-06-01

    A 73-year-old patient presented a {sup 99m}Tc scintiscan with a focal tracer accumulation left and caudal of the thyroid gland. Further investigations with sonography, CT, esophagoscopy and barium swallow provided the diagnosis of achalasia as the reason for focal {sup 99m}Tc retention caudal of the thyroid gland. Explanation for {sup 99m}Tc accumulation within the esophagus may be the nonspecific accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc not only in the thyroid gland but also in the salivary glands. Excretion of the tracer follows with the saliva. Structural and motor disorders of the esophagus can thus lead to focal tracer retention within the esophagus simulating thyroid tissue. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine 73jaehrige Patientin zeigte bei der {sup 99m}Tc-Schilddruesenszintigraphie eine von der Schilddruese abgesetzte deutliche fokale Speicherung links kaudal der Schilddruese. Die weitere diagnostische Abklaerung mittels Sonographie, CT, Oesophagoskopie und videoassistiertem Kontrastmittelschluckakt ergab als Ursache der {sup 99m}Tc-Speicherung eine Achalasie. Die Erklaerung einer {sup 99m}Tc-Speicherung in der Speiseroehre waere die unspezifische {sup 99m}Tc-Aufnahme in den Speicheldruesen mit nachfolgender Tracerelimination ueber den Speichel. Depotbildungen von Speichel bei Erkrankungen der Speiseroehre, die mit einer Transportstoerung des Speichels verbunden sind, koennen dadurch Schilddruesengewebe vortaeuschen. (orig.)

  6. Accumulation of {sup 99}Tc in duckweed Lemna minor L. as a function of growth rate and {sup 99}Tc concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattink, J. E-mail: jhattink@hotmail.com; Wolterbeek, H.Th

    2001-07-01

    This study focuses on the question of whether short-term studies can be used to forecast the accumulation of the long-lived fission product {sup 99}Tc in duckweed, Lemna minor L., grown in the field; in other words, are the accumulation parameters independent of changing growth rates typical of natural populations of duckweed. Two processes determine the {sup 99}Tc accumulation: (i) uptake and release of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}, characterised by a concentration factor, K{sub d}, and (ii) first-order reduction and complexation of Tc{sup VII}, characterised by k{sub red}. At various {sup 99}Tc concentrations, the growth, total Tc and TcO{sub 4}{sup -} accumulation were monitored over 10 days; parameters were fitted and compared with earlier results. Both K{sub d} and k{sub red} turn out to be independent of time, concentration and growth rate up to a concentration of 10{sup -6} mol l{sup -1} {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}. Concentrations above this level result in toxic effects. The Tc accumulation in field populations of duckweed at Tc concentrations which generally occur in the environment can be forecasted by using the results from short-term experiments.

  7. Comparison of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin (Infecton) and Tc-99m Methylene diphosphonate (MDP) three-phase bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in patients with Sickle Cell Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bererhi, H.; Hussein, S.; Wali, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The high incidence of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a major health problem in Oman. These patients are more prone to infections than the general population, and in particular, they are highly susceptible to osteomyelitis. Because bone infarction is more common than osteomyelitis in SCD, an accurate and rapid differential diagnosis is essential before initiating appropriate treatment. The present prospective study evaluates the usefulness of the new radiopharmaceutical, Tc- 99m Ciprofloxacin (Infecton) for the differential diagnosis of infection and infarction in patients with SCD. Majority of subjects studied were children. The results of Tc-99m Infecton imaging were compared with those of the 3-phase bone scintigraphy using Tc- 99m Methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP). Twenty-five patients referred for ruling out infection were imaged after intravenous injection of 5.5 MBq/kg body weight of Tc-99m Infecton. First pass, blood pool and late images (at one, four and 24 hours post injection) were performed. Subsequently all patients were also studied by three-phase bone scintigraphy using Tc-99m MDP. No adverse effects were observed. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and positive likelihood ratio of Tc-99m Infecton imaging for osteomyelitis were 100%, 92%, 94% and 12.5 respectively. Although bone scintigraphy would rarely be used by itself as a stand-alone test in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in patients with SCD, its corresponding values were: 88%, 64%, 71% and 2.4. The results of this study suggest that the use of Tc-99m Infecton imaging is extremely beneficial in the management of patients of Sickle Cell Disease with suspected osteomyelitis. (author)

  8. Studies of labelling conditions for gentamicin with99mTc Biological uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, O.G. de; Almeida, M.A.T.M. de; Muramoto, E.

    1989-10-01

    Gentamicin sulphate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic type specifically used for treatment of infections produced by Gram-negative bacterias but on the hand it presents ototoxic reactions as a serious side effect. The optimal labelling conditions of gentamicin sulphate with 99m Tc, using sodium pertechnetate solutions eluted from a 99 Mo - 99m Tc generator, were stablished by testing differents masses of antibiotic and reducing agent (SnCl 2 .2H 2 O), and also different reaction times and final labelling pH. The labelling yields were determined through ascendent type crimatographic analysis using metylacetone and 0,9% NaCl solution as solvents. From the studies of the biological uptake of 99m Tc gentamicin sulphate per gram of eight different organs and tissues from Wistar rats, it was shown that for a dose of 0,3 mg of 99m Tc-gentamicin intravenously administered. The kidneys, presented the greatest affinity for the drug, being thus the main excretory organs of the product. (author) [pt

  9. Simple determination of 99Tc in radioactive waste using Tc extraction disk and imaging plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameo, Y.; Katayama, A.; Hoshi, A.; Haraga, T.; Nakashima, M.

    2010-01-01

    A simple method was developed for determination of 99 Tc in low-level radioactive waste: Technetium-99 retained by a solid phase extraction disk was directly measured with imaging plates system. It was found that more than 97% of Tc were retained by the disk from a solution of pH 2 to 12, whereas depth profile of Tc in the disk, which greatly influences the counting efficiency, depended on solution pH. The present method was successfully applied to actual radioactive liquid waste samples arising from nuclear research facilities.

  10. Utility evaluation on application of geometric mean depending on depth of kidney in split renal function test using 99mTc-MAG{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Byeul; Ahn, Sung Min [Dept. of Radiological Science, Gachon University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Wang Hui [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Gil-Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    99mTc-MAG{sub 3} Renal scan is a method that acquires dynamic renal scan image by using 99mTc-MAG{sub 3} and dynamically visualizes process of radioactive agent being absorbed to kidney and excreted continuously. Once the test starts, ratio in both kidneys in 1-2.5 minutes was measured to obtain split renal function and split renal function can be expressed in ratio based on overall renal function. This study is based on compares split renal function obtained from data acquired from posterior detector, which is a conventional renal function test method, with split renal function acquired from the geometric mean of values obtained from anterior and posterior detectors, and studies utility of attenuation compensation depending on difference in geometric mean kidney depth. From July, 2015 to February 2016, 33 patients who undertook 99mTc-MAG{sub 3} Renal scan(13 male, 20 female, average age of 44.66 with range of 5-70, average height of 160.40 cm, average weight of 55.40 kg) were selected as subjects. Depth of kidney was shown to be 65.82 mm at average for left and 71.62 mm at average for right. In supine position, 30 out of 33 patients showed higher ratio of deep-situated kidney and lower ratio of shallow-situated kidney. Such result is deemed to be due to correction by attenuation between deep-situated kidney and detector and in case where there is difference between the depth of both kidneys such as, lesions in or around kidney, spine malformation, and ectopic kidney, ratio of deep-situated kidney must be compensated for more accurate calculation of split renal function, when compared to the conventional test method (posterior detector counting)

  11. Exafs studies of coprecipitation and adsorption reactions of Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunker, D.J.; Jones, M.J.; Livens, F.R.; Collison, D. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry; Pattrick, R.A.D. [Manchester Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences (United Kingdom); Charnock, J.M. [CLRC Daresbury Laboratoire, Warrington Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Adsorption and coprecipitation reactions may be a simple way of removing [TcO{sub 4}]{sup -} from aqueous solution. The effectiveness of a range of potential adsorbents and precipitants has been evaluated and some are capable of near quantitative (>98%) removal of [TcO{sub 4}){sup -} from solution. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) has been used to determine Tc oxidation states and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) has been used to identify the local environment of Tc. The absorption edge position has been determined, using [PPh{sub 4}][TcO{sub 4}], TcS{sub 2} and Tc{sub 2}S{sub 7} as model compounds, and is diagnostic of Tc oxidation state. In a series of experiments investigating FeS coprecipitation, Tc was reduced to oxidation state (IV) and its local environment resembled that in TcO{sub 2} (6 O atoms at approximately 2.0 Angstrom). (authors)

  12. Modelling 99Tc concentrations in Fucus vesiculosus from the north-east Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawakowski, Claire; Nicholson, Michael D.; John Kershaw, Peter; Leonard, Kinson S.

    2004-01-01

    In 1994 there were substantial increases in the quantity of 99 Tc discharged into the north-east Irish Sea from BNFL Sellafield (UK), concomitant with improvements in waste treatment procedures. As a consequence, the concentration of 99 Tc observed in seawater and biota samples, taken from the Irish Sea coastline, increased significantly. Elevated concentrations were also reported in Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish and Arctic waters in subsequent years. In the present study a simple numerical model was developed and applied to time-series data of 99 Tc concentrations in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus, collected from three UK sites in the vicinity of Sellafield (St. Bees, Heysham, Port William). The model considered site-specific scaling effects, lag times, previous discharge history and potential seasonal variation in uptake. In general, there was a good fit between predicted and observed concentrations, but the degree of uncertainty varied inversely with the frequency of sampling. We did not observe a significant seasonal variation. The modelled lag times to the three sites were consistent with transport times based on observations of the water column distribution of 99 Tc. The model was applied to a variety of discharge scenarios, reflecting current discussion on the future management of 99 Tc releases. Concentrations in Fucus reached asymptotic values in 3-10 years, depending on the scenario and sampling site under consideration

  13. Alternative generators of the 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khujaev, S.

    2004-01-01

    9 9mTc is the most widely used radionuclide in nuclear medicine. 9 9mTc radionuclide is obtained from a generator, in which 9 9Mo servest as the parent radionuclide. In the generator 9 9mTc and 9 9Mo radionuclides are found in genetic balance and 9 9mTc radionuclide is chemically extracted from the system periodically. Although there already exists many ways and variants of manufacturing 9 9mTc generators, search for new variants of the 9 9Mo → 9 9mTc generator systems continue. An example is the investigations carried out with the support of the IAEA. In these research works, generators based on elution of poly molybdate gels have been developed and evaluated. These generators will be serving as alternative technologies for production of 9 9mTc radionuclide, which use 9 9Mo produced by non-fission means. It is known that in Australia and China more than 30% of 9 9mTc generators are gel-generators. The works of authors are devoted to the problem of searching new perspective materials as a column material that will serve as adsorbent. The main purpose of all the research on alternative technologies is the usage of parent radionuclide 9 9Mo that is obtained from 9 8Mo(n, γ) 9 9Mo reaction instead of as a fission product. Our work examines the possibility of reception of generators 9 9Mo → 9 9mTc using non-fission 9 9Mo that is based on insoluble salts of molybdate

  14. A new method for 99mTc-labelling of proteins, leucocytes and platelets for nuclear medicine application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundrehagen, E.

    1984-01-01

    A reduced state of 99mTc was obtained by concentrated hydrocloric acid treatment of the 99mTc(VII)/0.15 M NaCl eluate from 99Mo/99mTc generators. Non-acidic reduced state of 99mTc in dry NaCl deposit was obtained by vacuum evaporation of concentrated HCl and water. A monitored vacuum evaporator built for this purpose is presented, as well as methods of formation of various 99mTc-protein and 99mTc-polypeptide complexes. After careful protein precipation or anionic adsorption of pertechnetate and 99mTc-gentisic acid complexes, high radiochemical purities of labelled proteins were demonstrated by gel chromatography studies, radioimmunological methods, radioaffinity testing studies and ampholyte displacement radiochromatography. Preparative methods for 99mTc-plasmin (at pH=2), 99mTc-secretin (at pH=3) and 99mTc-IgG (at pH=4) are presented. The role and the limitations of 99mTc-plasmin for diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis were investigated in experimentally induced jugular vein thrombosis in rabbits. The in vivo distribution of intravenously injected 99mTc-secretin was found to be in correspondance with that of unlabelled secretin. Labelling of platelets and leucoytes from human blood with 99mTc was carried out at pH=7.2. Data for a remarkable high stability of the labelled cells are presented

  15. Production of gel 99mTc generators for Nuclear Medicine at the Nuclear Power Institute of China, Chengdu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.E.

    1996-07-01

    The development and testing of the gel-type 99m Tc generator technology has been going on for several years at the Nuclear Power Institute of China. This generator type has already been licensed by the Ministry of Health. With the co-operation of the IAEA, under Model Project CPR/2/006,it is intended to upgrade and optimise the existing facility for large scale production and continue to improve the generator performance in terms of quality and reliability of its use in nuclear medicine. The expert mission objective was to carry out final laboratory tests to assess the performance of the gel- type 99m Tc, locally produced, as well as to assess the suitability of the corresponding 99m Tc eluate for nuclear medicine studies. In particular, the expert tested the suitability of the 99m Tc for the labelling of sensitive biomolecules and its general performance in a nuclear medicine service

  16. Tc-99m tilmanocept versus Tc-99m sulfur colloid in breast cancer sentinel lymph node identification: Results from a randomized, blinded clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkart, Jonathan T; Hosseini, Ava; Wallace, Anne M

    2017-12-01

    No prior trials have compared sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification outcomes between Tc-99m tilmanocept (TcTM) and Tc-99m sulfur colloid (TcSC) in breast cancer (BC). We report on the secondary outcomes from a randomized, double-blinded, single surgeon clinical trial comparing post-injection site pain between TcTM and TcSC. Patients were randomized to receive a preoperative single, peritumoral intradermal injection of TcTM or TcSC. The number of total, "hot", and blue nodes detected and removed were compared between groups. Fifty-two (27-TcSC and 25-TcTM) patients were enrolled and underwent definitive surgical treatment. At least one "hot" SLN was detected in all patients. Three (5.8%) patients had a disease positive-SLN. The total number of SLNs removed was 61 (mean 2.26 (standard deviation (SD) 0.90)) in the TcSC group and 54 (mean 2.16 (SD 0.90)) in the TcTM group, P = 0.69. The total number of "hot" nodes in the TcSC group was 1.96 (SD 0.76) compared to 2.04 (SD 0.73) in the TcTM group, P = 0.71. The number of identified SLNs did not differ significantly between TcTM and TcSC. Given that no significant technical advantages exist between the two agents, surgeons should choose a radiopharmaceutical based on cost and side effect profile. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Differentiation of malignant and degenerative benign bone disease using Tc-99m Citrate and Tc-99m MDP scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, J.; Guo, R.; Li, S.-J.; Ren, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, X.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: For the evaluation of bone metastases in patients (pts) with cancer, 99mTcMDP bone scintigraphy is an important tool, but some limitations exist. One of these is the differential diagnosis of malignant and degenerative benign bone disease. The aim of this study was to differentiate them using 99mTcCitrate and 99mTcMDP scintigraphy. Methods: 39 pts (92 lesions) with known malignant or degenerative benign bone disease were studied. 23 pts had malignant bone disease (48 lesions, group 1), the other 16 pts had degenerative benign bone disease (44 lesions, group2), for which the results of 99mTcMDP scintigraphy were positive. In both groups, 99mTcCitrate scintigraphy was performed within a time interval of 2-7 days after 99mTcMDP scintigraphy (555∼740MBq. static, 3hr, planar or SPECT i m a g e s w h e n r e q u i r e d ) . The 99mTccitrate/99mTcMDP lesion-to-background radioisotope uptake ratio (RUR) was calculated for each lesion. Conventional techniques (histopathology, X-ray, CT, MRI and clinical follow up) were considered to be proof of the presence of bone metastases and degenerative benign bone disease. Results: Uptake of 99mTcMDP in the two groups is the same (1.96±0.25 vs. 1.87±0.21; t=1.178, P>0.20), while in 99mTcCitrate image, malignant lesions demonstrated a higher uptake of lesion activity than that of benign degenerative lesions (1.47±0.42 vs. 1.09±0.38; t=2.887, P<0.01). The mean 99mTccitrate/99mTcMDP RUR in the malignant group was significantly higher than the mean in the benign group (0.78±0.21 vs. 0.54±0.19; t=3.646, P<0.001). Conclusions: The preliminary results of the study confirm the usefulness and feasibility of 99mTcCitrate scintigraphy for differentiating malignant from benign degenerative lesions seen as areas of increased activity on 99mTcMDP bone scintigraphy. (author)

  18. Use of 99mTc-HMPAO-leucocyte scintigraphy coupled to 99mTc-colloid scintigraphy in diagnosing the osteo-articular sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darlas, Y.; Pegoix, M.; Filmont, J.E.; Leclercq, S.; Rosas, M.H.; Agostini, D.; Aubriot, J.H.; Bouvard, G.

    1997-01-01

    The object of this study was the scintigraphic diagnosis of osseous sepsis based on the absence of congruence between leucocytic and colloidal fixations and the evaluation of the effect of coupling between the scintigraphies (sc) with leucocytes (A) and colloids (B) on the diagnosis feasibility index of this technique. Seventy four patients, 97 sc were divided into two groups according to the scintigraphic technique [(A) only]: 35 sc; [(A) and (B)]: 62 sc. [Prosthesis: 48 patients, 68 sc. Osteitis: 26 patients, 29 sc]. The scintigraphies were performed as follows: (A) autologous leucocytes labelled by 250 - 300 MBq of 99m Tc-HMPAO, with planar incidences (15 min), 3 - 4 hours after injection and (B) Labelled nano-colloids labelled by 180 - 200 MBq of 99m Tc, the same incidences, 30 min after injection. The delay between (A) and (B): 48 hours. The final diagnosis of sepsis: bacteriological and histologic criteria after biopsies and/or clinical, biological and radiological evolution. The comparison between the two groups is given in a table in terms of prevalence, sensitivity and specificity, using the χ2 and Fisher tests. In conclusion, the scintigraphy by 99m Tc-HMPAO-leucocyte is a sensitive method (Se ∼ 90%) for the diagnosis of osseous sepsis and coupled to the scintigraphy by 99m Tc-colloids allow obtaining a high specificity (Sp ≥ 90%) by reducing the number of falsely positive diagnoses

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of 99mTc/99Tc-MAG3-biotin conjugates for antibody pretargeting strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gog, Frank B. van; Visser, Gerard W.M.; Gowrising, Radjish W.A.; Snow, Gordon B.; Dongen, Guus A.M.S. van

    1998-01-01

    Four 99m Tc-MAG3-biotin conjugates were synthesized to determine their potential use in antibody pretargeting strategies for radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS). To use these 99m Tc-MAG3-biotin conjugates as model compounds for 186 Re-MAG3-biotin conjugates for radioimmunotherapy (RIT), nanomolar amounts of 99 Tc were added as carrier to 99m Tc. The biotin derivatives used for the preparation of the conjugates - biocytin, biotin hydrazide, biotinyl-piperazine, and biotinyl-diaminosuccinic acid - differed at the site that is regarded to be susceptible to hydrolysis by biotinidase present in human plasma. All four conjugates were produced with high radiochemical purity, were stable in PBS, and demonstrated full binding capacity to streptavidin. The 99m Tc/ 99 Tc-MAG3-labeled biotinyl-piperazine and biotinyl-diaminosuccinic acid conjugates were stable in mouse as well as human plasma, whereas the corresponding biocytin and biotin hydrazide conjugates were rapidly degraded. The biodistribution in nude mice at 30 min after injection was similar for all conjugates, and a rapid blood clearance and high intestinal excretion were both observed. It is concluded that the metabolic routing of a conjugate containing biotin and MAG3 is dominated by these two moieties. For this reason, MAG3-biotin conjugates do not seem suited for pretargeted RIT, for which quantitative and fast renal excretion is a prerequisite to minimize radiation toxicity. However, in a pretargeted RIS approach the 99m Tc-MAG3-biotin conjugates might have potential

  20. 75 FR 39952 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Testing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... communications will aim to improve public understanding of the risks and benefits of using medical devices and... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0344] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Testing Communications on...

  1. Electrolytic 99TcO4- reduction at inert electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer, C.; Gambino, D.; Leon, A.; Kremer, E.

    1990-01-01

    Electrolytic pertechnetate reduction at inert electrodes was studied as an alternative procedure for synthesizing Tc complexes. Pertechnetate reduction was carried out in aqueous media using different aminated ligands (en, dien, trien and 1,3-dap) forming [TcO 2 (amine) 2 ] + type complexes. Simultaneously with synthesis of the desired Tc complex, TcO 2 was electrodeposited onto the cathode. Conversion of TcO 4 - to Tc complex and TcO 2 was studied as a function of several variables (kind and concentration of supporting electrolyte, ligand concentration, pH, current and electrolysis time). (author) 9 refs.; 6 figs.; 1 tab

  2. Comparative study of uptake and washout of 99mTcN(NOEt)2 with 99mTc-MIBI in human cervical carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Shi'an; Zhang Yongxue; An Rui

    2002-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the cellular kinetics of bis (N-ethoxy-N-ethyl dithiocarbamato) nitrido 99m Tc(V) [ 99m TcN (NOEt) 2 ] in human cervical carcinoma cell line Hela and to compare it with that of 99m Tc hexakis-2- methoxyisobutyl isonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI), and hence to define the possible clinical value of 99m TcN(NOEt) 2 in tumor imaging. Methods: Using radionuclide tracer technique, 99m TcN(NOEt) 2 and 99m Tc-MIBI were incubated with human cervical carcinoma cell lines Hela at 37 degree C and at 22 degree C respectively. At several incubation times, the uptake and washout characteristics of the radiotracers in human cervical carcinoma cell line Hela were investigated and compared. Results: The maximum uptake of 99m TcN(NOEt) 2 in Hela was 46.15% and that of 99m Tc-MIBI was 12.6% (P 99m TcN(NOEt) 2 after 5 min incubation in human cervical carcinoma cell line Hela was 65% of the total uptake, while that of 99m Tc-MIBI was 50% of the total uptake (P 99m TcN(NOEt) 2 was retained in the Hela cells at one hour while 56.67% of 99m Tc-MIBI was retained (P 99m Tc-MIBI, the cellular kinetics of 99m TcN(NOEt) 2 was not temperature-dependent (the cellular kinetics is similar at 37 degree C and at 22 degree C, P>0.05). Conclusions: In vitro data suggest that 99m TcN(NOEt) 2 may be a better tracer than 99m Tc-MIBI in tumor imaging and 99m TcN(NOEt) 2 has potential application in clinical use

  3. Studies on sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate from the MEK solvent extraction generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, R.; Moore, D.E.; Maddalena, D.J.; Boyd, R.E.

    1984-12-01

    Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography has revealed organic residues in sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate obtained from 99 Mo-molybdate by extraction, using the organic solvent methylethylketone (MEK). The organic residues have been identified as either (i) low molecular weight carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone, presumably caused by the effects of γ-radiation on MEK, or (ii) condensation products resulting from the action of strong alkali on MEK during the extraction process. The quantities of organic residues varied from batch to batch of extracted pertechnetate; up to 40 μ mL -1 was found. When these compounds were tested, in rats, by addition to a pyrophosphate bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical, the tissue distribution was not significantly different from that in the control, which contained no added compound. Assay for 99 Tc in MEK-derived pertechnetate indicated up to 10 μg mL -1 of 99 Tc carrier. An assessment of the biological effect of 99 Tc carrier was obtained by (i) red blood cell labelling, where 6 ng mL -1 of 99 Tc was sufficient to reduce labelling efficiency; and (ii) pyrophosphate tissue distribution, where a significant effect was obtained in the presence of 10 μ mL -1 of 99 Tc carrier

  4. Usefulness of L,L-ethylenedicysteine - 99mTc complex (EC-99mTc) for the kidney investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, M.J.; Wiewiora, J.; Kapuscinksi, J.; Liniecki, J.

    1992-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of own EC- 99m Tc complex for the kidney function examination, the renoscintigraphy with EC- 99m Tc and clearance determinations were performed. During renoscintigraphy the kidney images were of superb quality, with overlaying organs (liver, spleen) not visualized. Renograms showed typical shapes, their TMAX and T1/2 values being insignificantly different from the obtained with other radiopharmaceuticals, used in renoscintigraphy (MAG 3 , hippuran). Very strict correlations were found between values of EC- 99m Tc and OIH- 131 I clearances (r=0.91) and excretion rate constants (r=0.92) of both radiopharmaceuticals. The correlation enabled formulation of an equation by which ERPF could be established from EC- 99m Tc clearance: ERPF OIH =1.245 x Cl EC +51.52. On the basis of this equation a lower boundary of the normal EC- 99m Tc clearance was established; it amounts to 300 ml/min/1.73 m 2 . (author). 17 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  5. A Study on 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake in various thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Jae; Min, Hae Sook; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1974-01-01

    The 99m Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake rates(20 min) were measured in 24 healthy normal subjects, 140 patients with nontoxic goiter and 98 patients with thyrotoxicosis who were treated at the Thyroid Clinic, Seoul National University Hospital, from August 1972 to August 1973. Diagnostic reliabilities and correlations between 99m TcO 4 -thyroid uptake rate (20 min) and other thyroid function tests were evaluated. The observed results were as follows:1) The 99m TcO 4 - thyroid uptake rates (20 min) in normal subjects, euthyroid group and hyperthyroid group were 4.1±0.9%, 5.2±1.8% and 29.7±10.6%. There was a significant difference between the mean of the euthyroid group and the mean of the hyperthyroid group and so differentiation between them can be easy. 2) In the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, the reliabilities of 99m TcO 4 - thyroid uptake rate(20 min), 131 I thyroid uptake rate (24 hrs), serum T 3 resin uptake rate, serum T 4 and T 7 were 87.9-97.9%, 81.2-94.4%, 87.9-97.9%, 90.5-99.3% and 93.7-100%. 99m TcO 4 -thyroid uptake rate (20 min) is more accurate than 131 I thyroid uptake rate (24 hrs) in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. 3) 99m TcO 4 -thyroid uptake rate (20 min) was well correlated with 131 I thyroid uptake rate (24 hrs), serum T 3 resin uptake rate, serum T 4 and T 7 . Points in favor of 99m Tc are that it gives a small radiation dose to the thyroid, that tests can be repeated at the short interval, the study can be completed at a single patient visit and it is particularly well suited for the assessment of thyroid function in patients being treated with an antithyroid drug.

  6. Developing a Test Collection for the Evaluation of Integrated Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Larsen, Birger; Lund, Haakon

    2010-01-01

    he poster discusses the characteristics needed in an information retrieval (IR) test collection to facilitate the evaluation of integrated search, i.e. search across a range of different sources but with one search box and one ranked result list, and describes and analyses a new test collection c...... assessments. The test collection may be used for systems- as well as user-oriented evaluation.......he poster discusses the characteristics needed in an information retrieval (IR) test collection to facilitate the evaluation of integrated search, i.e. search across a range of different sources but with one search box and one ranked result list, and describes and analyses a new test collection...... constructed for this purpose. The test collection consists of approx. 18,000 monographic records, 160,000 papers and journal articles in PDF and 275,000 abstracts with a varied set of metadata and vocabularies from the physics domain, 65 topics based on real work tasks and corresponding graded relevance...

  7. The development of 99mTc-analog of Cu-DTS as an agent for imaging hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, K.; Tsukamoto, T.; Saito, M.; Nakayama, M.; Fujibayashi, Y.; Saji, H.

    2000-01-01

    Works on dithiosemicarbazone (DTS) derivatives radiolabeled with divalent Cu (Cu-62, Cu-64) indicate its potentiality as an ischemic tissue detecting agent. Development of analogous derivatives labeled with the more accessible technetium-99m (Tc) is most desirable. Various synthesized DTS derivatives are radiolabeled with a novel approach, using a macromolecular Sn(II)-complex under an anaerobic condition at pH 3.4-4.5 and stabilization by ascorbate solution at pH 6.7-7.0. Characterization of Tc-DTS derivatives done by various analytical methods (TLC, HPLC, EP, PC) and by in vivo studies in normal mice and in rats myocardial LAD (left anterior descent coronary artery) occlusion model. Among tested DTS, only Tc-ATSE, Tc-ATSM and Tc-ATSM 2 showed distinctive characteristics, with the latter presenting high myocardium uptake in regions of ischemia in LAD rat myocardium model. Potentiality of the Cu-DTS mimetic agent, Tc-ATSM 2 as an ischemia-damaged myocardium agent is discussed

  8. Quality standards for sample collection in coagulation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2012-09-01

    Preanalytical activities, especially those directly connected with blood sample collection and handling, are the most vulnerable steps throughout the testing process. The receipt of unsuitable samples is commonplace in laboratory practice and represents a serious problem, given the reliability of test results can be adversely compromised following analysis of these specimens. The basic criteria for an appropriate and safe venipuncture are nearly identical to those used for collecting blood for clinical chemistry and immunochemistry testing, and entail proper patient identification, use of the correct technique, as well as appropriate devices and needles. There are, however, some peculiar aspects, which are deemed to be particularly critical when collecting quality specimens for clot-based tests, and these require clearer recognition. These include prevention of prolonged venous stasis, collection of nonhemolyzed specimens, order of draw, and appropriate filling and mixing of the primary collection tubes. All of these important preanalytical issues are discussed in this article, and evidence-based suggestions as well as recommendations on how to obtain a high-quality sample for coagulation testing are also illustrated. We have also performed an investigation aimed to identify variation of test results due to underfilling of primary blood tubes, and have identified a clinically significant bias in test results when tubes are drawn at less than 89% of total fill for activated partial thromboplastin time, less than 78% for fibrinogen, and less than 67% for coagulation factor VIII, whereas prothrombin time and activated protein C resistance remain relatively reliable even in tubes drawn at 67% of the nominal volume. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Temporal and spatial responses of the bioindicator Fucus to discharges of 99Tc in the eastern Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, P.; Busby, R.G.; McCartney, M.

    1999-01-01

    Technetium-99 is a radioactive isotope discharged under authorisation to the Irish Sea from the British Nuclear Fuels plc Sellafield reprocessing plant in Cumbria via a marine pipeline. An increase in 99 Tc discharges from Sellafield in recent years has provided an ideal opportunity to undertake a more detailed investigation of its environmental behaviour. Here, the temporal and spatial response of Fucus sp. to the increased discharges has been investigated and its role as a bioindicator assessed. Initial investigations in 1995, have confirmed the expectation that Fucus does act as an effective bioindicator of 99 Tc, with easily detectable 99 Tc concentrations (1 - 15 kBq kg -1 wet weight) being encountered, providing a time integrated signal of 99 Tc discharges. Analysis of subsequent samples collected during 1996, however, have shown significant short-term peaks in Fucus 99 Tc concentrations close to Sellafield (up to 90 kBq kg -1 wet weight) and this can be related to peaks in 99 Tc seawater concentrations. This type of response suggests that Fucus has a means of rapidly accumulating 99 Tc, although the rate at which this accumulated component may be eliminated remains unclear. This effect was only observed at sites close to Sellafield (within 15 km). Relatively constant 99 Tc concentrations in Fucus were found at more distant sites (50 - 150 km). (author)

  10. Ventilation scintigraphy of the lung with sup(99m)Tc-DTPA or with sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, D; Matthys, H; Coates, G; Dolovich, M; Newhouse, M

    1983-04-01

    Ventilation scintigraphy of the lung, obtained with sufficiently small sup(99m)Tc-labelled aerosol particles, provides an image of ventilation distribution that is acceptable in clinical routine. Whether sup(99m)Tc-DTPA or sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid is more suitable as a carrier was studied in 6 smokers and 8 non-smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid was not absorbed by the bronchial mucosa and therefore appears to be an almost ideal agent. In contrast, sup(99m)Tc-DTPA was absorbed by the bronchial mucosa in all smoking patients more rapidly and inhomogenously than in non-smokers. The quantitative and qualitative comparison of the two dorsal ventilation scans taken both immediately after inhalation and 20 min later, showed in all 6 smoking patients after 20 min significant differences which influenced the diagnostic result. sup(99m)Tc-DTPA is therefore not recommended for use in ventilation lung scintigraphy, especially in smoking patients.

  11. In situ Spectroscopic Analysis and Quantification of [Tc(CO)3]+ in Hanford Tank Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Shirmir D; French, Amanda D; Lines, Amanda M; Soderquist, Chuck Z; Rapko, Brian M; Heineman, William R; Bryan, Samuel A

    2018-06-12

    The quantitative conversion of non-pertechnetate [Tc(CO)3]+ species in nuclear waste storage tank 241-AN-102 at the Hanford Site is demonstrated. A waste sample containing the [Tc(CO)3]+ species is added to a developer solution that rapidly converts the non-emissive species into a luminescent complex, which is detected spectroscopically. This method was first demonstrated using a [Tc(CO)3]+ sample non-waste containing matrix to determine a detection limit (LOD), resulting in a [Tc(CO)3]+ LOD of 2.20 × 10-7 M, very near the LOD of the independently synthesized standard (2.10 × 10-7 M). The method was then used to detect [Tc(CO)3]+ in a simulated waste using the standard addition method, resulting in a [Tc(CO)3]+ concentration of 1.89 × 10-5 M (within 27.7% of the concentration determined by β- liquid scintillation counting). Three samples from 241-AN-102 were tested by the standard addition method: (1) a 5 M Na adjusted fraction, (2) a fraction depleted of 137Cs, (3) and an acid-stripped eluate. The concentrations of [Tc(CO)3]+ in these fractions were determined to be 9.90 × 10-6 M (1), 0 M (2), and 2.46 × 10-6 M (3), respectively. The concentration of [Tc(CO)3]+ in the as-received AN-102 tank waste supernatant was determined to be 1.84 × 10-5 M.

  12. Chapter 19. Design and evaluation of potential 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals based on the Tc-Carbonyl, 4 + 1 mixed ligand chelate system and Tc-nitrido approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giglio, J.; Muslera, A.; Leon, E.; Paolino, A.; Leon, A.; Rey, A.; Incerti, M.; Fernandez, R.; Manta, E.; Brugnini, A.; Chabalgoity, A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the work was to explore the possibilities of the novel labelling strategies in the development of 99m Tc labelled small biomolecules. Different steps required to fulfil this objective were undertaken: organic synthesis of glucose derivatives, optimization of labelling and in vitro and in vivo evaluation of Rd peptides and anne xin 13 derivatives using either the Hyonic bifunctional ligand, the Tc-tricarbonyl, the 4 + 1 mixed ligand or the Tc(V)-nitri do approaches. Glucose-O-hexyl bromide, glucose- O-butylbromide and glucose-O-butylamine were successfully synthesized, opening the possibility of introducing different chelators according to the desired labelling procedure. c(RGDyK) derivatives bearing different chelators were labelled with 99m Tc using novel approaches and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo in order to compare the effect of the chelator and labelling method on the physicochemical and biological behaviour. Annexin 13 peptides were also labelled using the HYNIC and Tc(I)-tricarbonyl approaches. A primary evaluation in normal animals and in a model of cardiac apoptosis is also presented. Cooperation with other participants was crucial to develop this work. (author)

  13. Determination of radiochemical purity and pharmacokinetic parameters of sup(99m)Tc-sulphur colloid and sup(99m)Tc-tin colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, V.; Konstantinovska, D.; Milivojevic, K.; Bzenic, J.

    1981-01-01

    Labelling yield and radiochemical purity, higher than 95%, of sup(99m)Tc-colloid preparations were determined by using the paper chromatography method. Less than 3% of labelled citric acid, added to the preparation as a buffer solution, has been found in sup(99m)Tc-sulphur colloid. High radiochemical purity and optimum size of colloid particles has also been proved by biodistribution studies on experimental animals. The analysis performed has shown that more than 50% of sup(99m)Tc-colloid preparations excreted by urine is sup(99m)TcO - , the remaining past 50% being protein bound sup(99m)Tc. Biological half-time of excretion of the fast phase is the same for both preparations, i.e. 10 min, while for the slow component it is 120 min in sup(99m)Tc-S-colloid and 160 min in sup(99m)Tc-Sn colloid. (orig.) [de

  14. Testing of 99mTc labelled sucralfate in induced gastric and duodenal ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pallagi, Katalin; Janoki, Gyoezoe

    1988-01-01

    The conditions of in vitro labelling of sucralfate available in medical practice were established according to literature data including some modifications. Labelling efficiency proved to be 98.1%. The radiopharmaceutical is stable over 6 hours in vitro. 99m Tc-sucralfate accumulates in experimentally induced gastric and duodenal ulcers thus tracing the site of the ulcerous lesion. (author) 14 refs.; 3 tabs

  15. Preparation and stability of the {sup 99m} Tc-HNE{sub 2} radiopharmaceutical; Preparacion y estabilidad del radiofarmaco {sup 99m} TC-HNE{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada T, J

    2002-07-01

    conjugate the solid phase extraction was used, using the C-18 sep-pak cartridges. The native peptide and the conjugate were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) using a molecular exclusion column for YMC-Pack Diol-60 peptides, phosphates buffer 0.1 M p H= 7.4 at a flux 1.5 ml/min; integrated to a diode arrangement detector to obtain the UV spectra and a radioactivity detector for obtaining the radio chromatograms of the compounds in study, verifying that the different bifunctional agents will be separate appropriately from the peptide, once formed the conjugate peptide, the labelling with {sup 99m} Tc was realized using sodium pertechnetates (NaTcO{sub 4}) eluted from a {sup 99}Mo/{sup 99m} Tc generator and as a reducer agent stannous chloride. The In vitro stability tests were realized measuring the radiochemical purity of the radio peptide in Instant Thin Layer Chromatography with silica-gel (ITLC-SG), NaCl 0.9% and acetone as eluent systems at different time intervals in solutions of different cysteine concentration. These tests indicated the trans chelation grade of the {sup 99m} Tc metal. In the In vivo evaluations the stability of the {sup 99m} Tc-HNE-2 was obtained when it was realized the biodistribution in normal mice of the balb-c stock. The obtained results show a radiochemical purity of 95.05 % {+-} 2.81% for the {sup 99m} Tc-DTPA-HNE-2 conjugates and 51.45% {+-} 3.2% for {sup 99m} Tc-HYNIC-HNE-2 even as tricine as colligand was used. The In vivo and In vitro stability tests of the radio conjugates show that the radio complexes are keeping whole at least during 24 hours (In vitro) time in which passing for half life of the {sup 99m} Tc radionuclide and 30 min (In vivo). Since the radio conjugates prepared with DTPA were obtained with radiochemical purities adequate for its use in scintillography, it is necessary as a future work to realize the biodistribution kinetics as in healthy animals as in models with induced infectious processes

  16. Cytological effects of Tc on young soybean plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.W.; Onasch, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Soybean seedlings (Glycine max cv. Williams) were exposed for 24 to 67 h to 99 TcO 4 - (Tc) at various concentrations in dilute culture solution. Reduced primary leaf midrib length was observed with 67-h exposures to greater than or equal to 6.0 mu M Tc. Cellular effects were consistently observed by a light microscope after 43-h or longer exposure to 6.6 microM Tc and higher concentrations. At lower Tc levels, abnormal cells were interspersed among cells of normal appearance. Abnormal cells displayed blockshaped nuclei which were more densely stained by Harris' hematoxylineosin Y than controls; such cells frequently demonstrated incipient plasmolysis. The number of affected cells increased with dose; both nuclei and cytoplasm demonstrated greater staining intensity and more severe plasmolysis at higher levels. At levels of greater than or equal to 13.2 Tc, cellular damage was extensive. Cells were reduced in size and were highly plasmolysed; cell walls were distorted, and intercellular spaces were reduced or became nonexistent. Mitotic activity was observed at Tc levels less than or equal to 9.9 microM. Observed Tc cellular effects are attributed principally to the alteration of membrane permeability characteristics

  17. sup(99m)Tc-Ethylenediamine-N, N-diacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imoto, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    sup(99m)Tc-Ethylenediamine-N, N-Diacetic Acid (sup(99m)Tc-EDDA), a compound having affinity for tumors was evaluated, and the results were as follows. 1) sup(99m)Tc-EDDA accumulated in experimentary-induced tumors. The tumor/tissue ratio (%g/dose) of sup(99m)Tc-EDDA was greater than that of 67 Ga-citrate, especially with Ehrlich ascites tumors. 2) sup(99m)Tc-EDDA accumulated mainly in the nuclear components of tumor cells. 3) No acute toxic effects of EDDA were observed in mice, rabbits or in volunteers. 4) The sup(99m)Tc-EDDA image was positive in 72 % of clinical examinations of lung cancer. The sup(99m)Tc-EDDA did not accumulate in the liver, and this suggests that tumor near the liver may be more easily detected with sup(99m)Tc-EDDA than with 67 Ga-citrate. 5) In some cases sup(99m)Tc-EDDA accumulated in mammary glands (nipples) and in pleural effusions (pleuritis), though the mechanism of which was obscure. 6) sup(99m)Tc-EDDA is a good agent for detecting malignant tumors. (author)

  18. The influence of stereoisomerism on the pharmacokinetics of Tc radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.; Taylor, A. [Atlanta, Emory Univ. School of Medicine, GA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Marzilli, L.G. [Atlanta, Emory Univ. School of Medicine, GA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-12-01

    The influence of stereoisomerism on the pharmacokinetics of Tc mono-oxo complexes is reviewed. Tc(V) mono-oxo complexes formed with N/S ligands have four donor groups from the ligands in an equatorial plane; the oxo ligand coordinates in an axial position. Stereoisomerism in Tc(V) mono-oxo complexes can be centered within the ligand (carbon atom in the chelate ring of ligating nitrogen of amine donors) or at the Tc. The metal center becomes chiral when an equatorial ligand has a head and a tail (i.e. the two ends of the ligand differ). All types of stereocenter can produce significantly different pharmacokinetic profiles for individual isomers. Thus, biological evaluation of separated stereoisomers is necessary to identify the optimal stereochemical configuration, particularly for radiopharmaceuticals targeted to receptor molecules with low specificity. Because of inter species variation, there is ultimately no substitute for human testing. Although it is possible that the increase in nonspecific binding of agents incorporating L- vs D-amino acids may more than offset any increased receptor binding, much more information is needed. Stereochemical factors can also lead to unpredictable differences in coordination geometry and thermodynamic preference of a single isomer; thus chemical characterization of stereo-isomers continues to be an important component of radiopharmaceutical development.

  19. Pressure and high-Tc superconductivity in sulfur hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gor'kov, Lev P; Kresin, Vladimir Z

    2016-05-11

    The paper discusses fundamentals of record-TC superconductivity discovered under high pressure in sulfur hydride. The rapid increase of TC with pressure in the vicinity of Pcr ≈ 123GPa is interpreted as the fingerprint of a first-order structural transition. Based on the cubic symmetry of the high-TC phase, it is argued that the lower-TC phase has a different periodicity, possibly related to an instability with a commensurate structural vector. In addition to the acoustic branches, the phonon spectrum of H3S contains hydrogen modes with much higher frequencies. Because of the complex spectrum, usual methods of calculating TC are here inapplicable. A modified approach is formulated and shown to provide realistic values for TC and to determine the relative contributions of optical and acoustic branches. The isotope effect (change of TC upon Deuterium for Hydrogen substitution) originates from high frequency phonons and differs in the two phases. The decrease of TC following its maximum in the high-TC phase is a sign of intermixing with pairing at hole-like pockets which arise in the energy spectrum of the cubic phase at the structural transition. On-pockets pairing leads to the appearance of a second gap and is remarkable for its non-adiabatic regime: hydrogen mode frequencies are comparable to the Fermi energy.

  20. Iliac renal ectopia explored by {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy. Report of one case; Ectopie renale iliaque exploree par scintigraphie au {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA et au {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA. A propos d'un cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghfir, I.; Ben Rais, N. [Hopital Ibn Sina, CHU de Rabat, Service de Medecine Nucleaire de Rabat (Morocco)

    2008-11-15

    Introduction Renal ectopia is a malposition by anomaly of migration during the embryonic development. It can be high, low or crossed. Association with an obstructive malformation is rather frequent. The objective of this work is to highlight the interest of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy in the exploration of this type of malformation through the observation of a patient presenting an iliac right renal ectopia associated with an ureteral-pelvic junction syndrome. Observation A 38-year-old patient with an ureteral-pelvic junction syndrome on a right iliac renal ectopia revealed by intravenous urography. The dynamic renal scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA with furosemide test evidenced an organic obstruction in the right urinary tract with a right renal function estimated at 40% on the {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy. A right pyelo-plasty was carried out. The evolution was marked by the disappearance of pain and a remarkable improvement of the permeability of the right urinary tract on the follow-up scintigraphy. Discussion Renal ectopia is not an unfrequent urinary malformation. It is generally low, pelvic or iliac. Association with an ureteral-pelvic junction obstruction is rather frequent. In this purpose, renal scintigraphy intervenes as a means of functional exploration, with low ionizing radiation and non-invasive to assess the permeability of the urinary tracts of the ectopic kidney and to appreciate the relative renal function. This contributes to the orientation of diagnosis and the improvement of therapeutic strategy.

  1. Influence of Storage Temperature on Radiochemical Purity of 99mTc-Radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccelli, Licia; Boschi, Alessandra; Martini, Petra; Cittanti, Corrado; Bertelli, Stefania; Bortolotti, Doretta; Govoni, Elena; Lodi, Luca; Romani, Simona; Zaccaria, Samanta; Zappaterra, Elisa; Farina, Donatella; Rizzo, Carlotta; Giganti, Melchiore; Bartolomei, Mirco

    2018-03-15

    The influence of effective room temperature on the radiochemical purity of 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals was reported. This study was born from the observation that in the isolators used for the preparation of the 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals the temperatures can be higher than those reported in the commercial illustrative leaflets of the kits. This is due, in particular, to the small size of the work area, the presence of instruments for heating, the continuous activation of air filtration, in addition to the fact that the environment of the isolator used for the 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals preparation and storage is completely isolated and not conditioned. A total of 244 99m Tc-radiopharmaceutical preparations (seven different types) have been tested and the radiochemical purity was checked at the end of preparation and until the expiry time. Moreover, we found that the mean temperature into the isolator was significantly higher than 25 °C, the temperature, in general, required for the preparation and storage of 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals. Results confirmed the radiochemical stability of radiopharmaceutical products. However, as required in the field of quality assurance, the impact that different conditions than those required by the manufacturer on the radiopharmaceuticals quality have to be verified before human administration.

  2. 99mTc-Alafosfalin: an antibiotic peptide infection imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsopelas, C.; Penglis, S.; Ruszkiewicz, A.; Bartholomeusz, F.D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The radiolabeled antibiotic peptide 99m Tc-alafosfalin was assessed as an infection imaging agent in a rat model by comparison with 99m Tc-DTPA and 99m Tc-leukocytes. 99m Tc-alafosfalin was prepared via an instant cold kit and 99m Tc-leukocytes were prepared using 99m Tc-stannous fluoride colloid in an ex vivo labeling procedure of whole blood. In separate experiments, the three radiotracers were administered to rats infected with staphylococcus aureus. Quantitative biodistribution studies were performed as well as scintigraphic images and histopathology. 99m Tc-alafosfalin is a stable product, obtained in high radiochemical purity (>95%). This agent was mainly renally excreted, with low liver, spleen and bone uptake, and resulted in a mean ratio of infected/non-infected thighs of 4.3/1.0 at 4 hr post radiotracer injection. 99m Tc-DTPA gave a corresponding ratio of 1.9/1.0 and 99m Tc-leukocytes gave 20.0/1.0 at the same time point. An in vitro assay found the level of 99m Tc-alafosfalin binding to staphylococcus aureas higher than 99m Tc-DTPA (10% versus 1% respectively). 99m Tc-alafosfalin accumulates at sites of infection in a rat model better than the perfusion molecule 99m Tc-DTPA, yet less than 99m Tc-leukocytes. The distribution characteristics of this 99m Tc-antibiotic peptide would be an advantage in imaging abdominal and soft tissue infection

  3. Contribution of 99mTc-DTPA dynamic renal scintigraphy with furosemide test in the exploration of low grade urethra-pelvic junction syndrome. Report of 17 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghfir, I.; Ben Rais, N.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The renal scintigraphy using 99m Tc-DTPA with furosemide test constitutes a noninvasive and functional method that is of appreciable interest in the exploration of the upper urinary tract and in the evaluation of the separate renal function. It distinguishes the functional character of dilation from organic obstruction needing surgery or endoscopic treatment. Material and methods We report, through this work, the observations of 17 patients with a low grade urethra-pelvic junction syndrome detect by intravenous urography (I.V.U.). 99m Tc-DTPA renal scintigraphy with furosemide test was carried out among all our patients by means of a gamma-camera with large field equipped with a low energy high-resolution parallel collimator. The evaluation of images obtained consisted of analysis of urethra-pelvic permeability taking into account the semiquantitative parameters of time-activity curve or isotopic nephrogram (I.N.) obtained after digital reconstruction of sequential images. Results On the 17 studied cases, the sex-ratio was equal to 1.83; the average age was 18.92 years with extremes spanning from 4 years to 70 years. Renal scintigraphy categorized four patients groups. Group I: two patients (11.76%) with normal aspect of I.N.; group II; seven patients (41.17% of cases) with functional dilation; group III: five patients (29.41%) with organic obstruction and a group IV: three patients (17.64%) with intermediate response. Discussion 99m Tc-DTPA renal scintigraphy with furosemide test allowed, through our study, to obviate the limits of IVU and manometric explorations to distinguish functional dilation of organic obstruction. It permits the improvement of treatment with a favourable dosimetry. (authors)

  4. Bioaccumulation and chemical modification of Tc by soil bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrot, J.

    1989-01-01

    Bioaccumulation and chemical modification of pertechnetate (TcO 4 -) by aerobically and anaerobically grown soil bacteria and by pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio sp.) were studied to gain insight on the possible mechanisms by which bacteria can affect the solubility of Tc in soil. Aerobically grown bacteria had no apparent effect on TcO 4 -; they did not accumulate Tc nor modify its chemical form. Anaerobically grown bacteria exhibited high bioaccumulation and reduced TcO 4 -, enabling its association with organics of the growth medium. Reduction was a metabolic process and not merely the result of reducing conditions in the growth medium. Association of Tc with bacterial polysaccharides was observed only in cultures of anaerobic bacteria. Sulfate-reducing bacteria efficiently removed Tc from solution and promoted its association with organics. Up to 70% of the total Tc in the growth medium was bioaccumulated and/or precipitated. The remaining Tc in soluble form was entirely associated with organics. Pertechnetate was not reduced by the same mechanism as dissimilatory sulfate reduction, but rather by some reducing agent released in the growth medium. A calculation of the amount of Tc that could be associated with the bacterial biomass present in soil demonstrates that high concentration ratios in cultures do not necessarily imply that bioaccumulation is an important mechanism for long-term retention of Tc in soil

  5. Pulmonary clearance of 99mTc-DTPA and 99mTc-albumin in rabbits with surfactant dysfunction and lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, K.; Wollmer, P.

    1992-01-01

    We measured the pulmonary clearance of inhaled 99m Tc-DTPA and 99m Tc-albumin in rabbits with surfacant dysfunction induced by dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate and in rabbits with lung injury induced by oleic acid. After inhalation of 99m Tc-albumin in ten animals, clearance of the tracer from the lungs was monitored for 90 min. The first 30 min was a control period. Dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate was then administered in aerosol and after another 30 min oleic acid was injected intravenously. Ten other rabbits were given 99m Tc-DTPA, and clearance was externally recorded for 60 min. Five animals inhaled detergent aerosol and five animals were given oleic acid intravenously after 30 min. Airway pressures, tidal volume, and arterial blood gases were measured before and after each intervention. The half-life of 99m Tc-albumin in the lung was 442 ± 123 min during the control period, 363 ± 52 min after detergent administration, and 134 ± 18 min after oleic acid administration. The half-life of 99m Tc-DTPA was 94 ± 16 min before and 10 ± 0.6 min after detergent administration and 75 ± 12 min before and 18 ± 1.8 min after oleic acid administration. Gas exchange was not affected by administration of dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate but markedly impaired after injection of oleic acid. Compliance of the respiratory system remained unaffected by detergent but decreased after injection of oleic acid. The results indicate that the rate limiting factors for the alveolo-capillary transfer of 99m Tc-albumin and 99m Tc-DTPA are different. Surfactant dysfunction affects the transfer of 99m Tc-DTPA but not 99m Tc-albumin. (author)

  6. A new detection method of 99Tc by nuclear excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekine, T.; Yoshihara, Kenji; Nemeth, Zs.; Lakosi, L.; Veres, A.

    1989-01-01

    A new nuclear excitation process, 99 Tc(γ,γ') 99m Tc reaction, was applied for the first time to radioactivation analysis of technetium. Bremsstrahlung irradiation of 99 Tc samples gave the reaction product 99m Tc which emits γ-ray easily measurable by a semiconductor detector. The production rate of 99m Tc per μg 99 Tc was linearly correlated with the flux of bremsstrahlung. The detection limit of 99 Tc was estimated to be nanogram order (0.63 Bq 99 Tc) under the optimum irradiation condition. Possible interference by 100 Ru(γ, p) 99m Tc reaction was also studied, which could be discriminated from the (γ,γ') reaction by simultaneously occurring 98 Ru(γ,p) 97 Ru reaction. (author) 17 refs.; 7 figs

  7. Soil-to-Plant Transfer Factors of {sup 99}Tc for Korean Major Upland Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lim, Kwang Muk; Jun, In; Keum, Dong Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Reserach Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    In order to investigate the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) of {sup 99}Tc for Korean major upland crops (soybean, radish and Chinese cabbage), pot experiments were performed in a greenhouse. Soils were collected from four upland fields (two for soybean and two for radish and Chinese cabbage) around Gyeongju radioactive-waste disposal site. Three to four weeks before sowing, dried soils were mixed with a {sup 99}Tc solution and the mixtures were put into pots and irrigated. TF values were expressed as the ratios of the {sup 99}Tc concentrations in plants (Bq kg{sup -1}-dry or fresh) to those in soils (Bq kg{sup -1}-dry). There was no great difference in the TF value between soils. The TF values for soybean seeds were extremely lower than those for the straws, indicating a very low mobility of {sup 99}Tc to seeds. As representative TF values of{sup 99}Tc,1.8 X 10{sup -1}, 1.2 X 10{sup 1}, 3.2 X 10{sup 2} and 1.3 X 10{sup 2} (for dry plants), arithmetic means for two soils, were proposed for soybean seeds, radish roots, radish leaves and Chinese cabbage leaves, respectively. In the case of the vegetables, proposals for fresh plants were also made. The proposed values are not sufficiently representative so successive updates are needed.

  8. [Contamination levels to room air arising from the use of 99mTc-gas and prevention from the contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatani, A; Akutsu, T; Yamaguchi, K; Onodera, Y; Manaka, Y; Takahashi, K

    1996-04-01

    99mTc-gas (TECHNEGAS) is a 99mTc-labeled micro-aerosol which is considered to have different behavior from 133Xe or 81mKr gas. In order to estimate contamination levels to room air arising from the use of 99mTc-gas, filtered expired air during administration and 1, 2, 3, 5, 10 min after the administration were collected in each polyethylene bag. Radioactivities of the polyethylene bags, used filter and the lung were measured with 3-head scintillation camera. The activity of the expired air diminished within 6-10 min and about 5% of whole discharged 99mTc-gas was released to room air. The activity of the used filter was two times of the lung. According to these results, it is recommended that the 99mTc-gas may be administrated in a exclusive room. The administrated patient and used filter must be remain in the exclusive room.

  9. Clinical evaluation of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI (sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-pyridoxylidene isoleucine) in the various hepatobiliary disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawaguchi, S; Iio, M; Yamada, H; Murata, H; Chiba, K [Tokyo Metropolitan Geriatric Medical Center (Japan)

    1978-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the hepatobiliary scanning using sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI in clinical diagnosis of various hepatobiliary disorders. Nineteen patients were scanned with sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI. The results were as follows: 1) The stability of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI examined by paper chromatography using saline as a solvent showed satisfied result at scanning time. sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI in the blood was assumed to be bound to serum proteins immediately after injection. sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI in the urine was assumed to keep the form of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI. 2) The appearance times of kidney, liver, bile duct, gallbladder, and intestine in the normal case were 5, 5, 10 and 15 minutes respectively after injection. The peak times of hepatogram in the normal case, drug induced hepatitis and obstructive jaundice were 12, 15 and 18 minutes respectively after injection. The images obtained by sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI was superior to the images obtained by /sup 131/I-BSP. 3) The blood clearance and urinary excretion rate of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI also provided us clinical usefulness. 4) The scanning of Dubin-Johnson syndrome of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI showed almost normal hepatobiliary image similar to the sequential scan by /sup 131/I-RB as was reported previously by authors. In conclusion, the hepatobiliary scan using sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI provided clear hepatobiliary images. Other parameters such as blood clearance, urinary excretion rate and diameter of choledochus were also favorable. By combining it with sup(99m)Tc-HIDA a differential diagnosis of congenital jaundice is also expected.

  10. Clinical evaluation of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI [sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-pyridoxylidene isoleucine] in the various hepatobiliary disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Schinichiro; Iio, Masahiro; Yamada, Hideo; Murata, Hajime; Chiba, Kazuo

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the hepatobiliary scanning using sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI in clinical diagnosis of various hepatobiliary disorders. Nineteen patients were scanned with sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI. The results were as follows: 1) The stability of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI examined by paper chromatography using saline as a solvent showed satisfied result at scanning time. sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI in the blood was assumed to be bound to serum proteins immediately after injection. sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI in the urine was assumed to keep the form of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI. 2) The appearance times of kidney, liver, bile duct, gallbladder, and intestine in the normal case were 5, 5, 10 and 15 minutes respectively after injection. The peak times of hepatogram in the normal case, drug induced hepatitis and obstructive jaundice were 12, 15 and 18 minutes respectively after injection. The images obtained by sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI was superior to the images obtained by 131 I-BSP. 3) The blood clearance and urinary excretion rate of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI also provided us clinical usefulness. 4) The scanning of Dubin-Johnson syndrome of sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI showed almost normal hepatobiliary image similar to the sequential scan by 131 I-RB as was reported previously by authors. In conclusion, the hepatobiliary scan using sup(99m)Tc-(Sn)-PI provided clear hepatobiliary images. Other parameters such as blood clearance, urinary excretion rate and diameter of choledochus were also favorable. By combining it with sup(99m)Tc-HIDA a differential diagnosis of congenital jaundice is also expected. (author)

  11. Peptic ulcer imaging with /sup 99m/Tc sucralfate and possible advantages of /sup 99m/Tc sucrose octasulfate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CentiColella, A.; Scopinaro, F.

    1986-01-01

    Sucralfate is a basic aluminum salt of sucrose octasulfate that protects the damaged mucosa and also the normal mucosa from peptic aggression. In fact sucralfate adheres to the mucosa as pH decreases below 4, and buffers the acid, slowly releasing sucrose octasulfate that forms insoluble complexes with the proteins exuded by the ulcers, or is washed out of the stomach. Sucralfate itself is also able to precipitate with proteins in the ulcers. Sucralfate may be labelled by several methods: /sup 99m/Tc HSA, /sup 99m/Tc DTPA, /sup 75/Se, /sup 111/In. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical results obtained using /sup 99m/Tc DTPA sucralfate, which the authors believe is the only labelled sucralfate suitable for clinical studies and to discuss the possible diagnostic uses of /sup 99m/Tc sucrose octasulfate. In fact, it has been possible to label the sucrose octasulfate either with /sup 99m/Tc DTPA or with /sup 99m/Tc without the use of intermediate ligands

  12. Chemical form of tumor-tropic 99mTc-DL-homocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, A.; Okada, S.

    1989-01-01

    Analyses of the chemical forms of 99m Tc-complexes provide important information for the development of a new tumor-tropic 99m Tc-labeled radiopharmaceutical. We attempted to determine the chemical form of 99m Tc-DL-homocysteine ( 99m Tc-Hcy) which was previously reported to be tumor-tropic. By analyzing the functional residues of Hcy in the 99m Tc-Hcy molecule, it was estimated that the sulfhydryl and amino residues participated in the chelate formation. Gel filtration analysis of 99m Tc-Hcy indicated that its molecular size was bigger than that of 99m Tc-penicillamine monomer. The analysis also indicated that 99m Tc-Hcy complex seemed to be a relatively small oligomer. Although an uncertainty remains on the valency of Tc in 99m Tc-Hcy molecule and the accurate molecular size of this complex, its putative chemical form is described. (author)

  13. Results of regular study on radionuclidic purity of sup(99m)Tc obtained from 99Mo-sup(99m)Tc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlcek, J.; Rohacek, J.; Husak, V.

    1979-01-01

    A total of 39 sup(99m)Tc eluates obtained from 9 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generators delivered by The Radiochemical Centre Amersham during one year was studied with regard to their radionuclide purity. Using a Ge(Li) spectrometer the contaminants 60 Co, 103 Ru, 131 I, 134 Cs, 140 La and 188 Re were found in sup(99m)Tc-eluates with average levels ranging from 2.9 x 10 -3 to 2.8 x 10 -1 per cent of sup(99m)Tc activity. The additional total body absorbed dose caused by these contaminants, as calculated from their average content in sup(99m)Tc eluates, was less than 1% of the dose due to sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 CS [de

  14. Different uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO in the same brains: analysis by statistical parametric mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyun, I.Y. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea); Lee, J.S.; Lee, D.S. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Rha, J.H.; Lee, I.K.; Ha, C.K. [Dept. of Neurology, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea)

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer ({sup 99m}Tc-ECD) and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) uptake in the same brains by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. We examined 20 patients (9 male, 11 female, mean age 62{+-}12 years) using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain less than 7 days after onset of stroke. MRI showed no cortical infarctions. Infarctions in the pons (6 patients) and medulla (1), ischaemic periventricular white matter lesions (13) and lacunar infarction (7) were found on MRI. Split-dose and sequential SPET techniques were used for {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO brain SPET, without repositioning of the patient. All of the SPET images were spatially transformed to standard space, smoothed and globally normalized. The differences between the {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET images were statistically analysed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) 96 software. The difference between two groups was considered significant at a threshold of uncorrected P values less than 0.01. Visual analysis showed no hypoperfused areas on either {sup 99m}Tc-ECD or {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET images. SPM analysis revealed significantly different uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO in the same brains. On the {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, in the left superior temporal lobe and in the superior region of the cerebellum. On the {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the medial temporal lobes, thalami, periventricular white matter and brain stem. These differences in uptake of the two tracers in the same brains on SPM analysis suggest that interpretation of cerebral perfusion is possible using SPET with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and

  15. Studies of Tc oxidation states in humic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Liu Dejun; Yao Jun

    2011-01-01

    The oxidation state of Tc is an important aspect of the speciation in groundwater which contained organic substances due to it control the precipitation, complexation, sorption and colloid formation behavior of the Tc under HWL geological disposal conditions. In present work, the oxidation states of Tc were investigated using the LaCl 3 coagulation method and solution extraction method in aqueous solutions in which the humic acid concentration range is from 0 to 20 mg/L and the Tc (VII) concentration is about 10 -8 mol/L. The radiocounting of 99 Tc was determined using liquid scintillation spectrometry. The humic acid will influence the radiocounting ratio of 99 Tc apparently, however, the quenching effect can be restrained once keep the volume of the cocktail to about twenty times of the sample volume. The LaCl 3 coagulation method was carried out for the investigation of Tc oxidation states in humic acid aqueous systems at about pH 8. The tetraphenylarsonium chloride (TPA)-chloroform extraction method was used also simultaneously to investigation the concentrations of Tc (IV) and Tc (VII) for the availability of the LaCl 3 precipitation method, and the experimental results demonstrate that tetravalent technetium and pertechnetate concentration are well agreement with the LaCl 3 precipitation method. These two experimental results demonstrated that Tc (VII) is very stable in the Tc (VII)-humic acid system during a 350 days experimental period, and the Tc (IV) concentrations are very lower, that is indicate that there didn't oxidizing reactions between the Fluka humic acid and Tc (VII) in aqueous solutions under anaerobic conditions. That means the presence of humic acids even in anaerobic groundwater is disadvantage for the retardance of radionuclides. (authors)

  16. Correlation between differential renal uptake of 99mTc-MAG3 and 99mTc-DMSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaldo, J.M.; Gruenwald, F.; Menzel, C.; Biersack, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    We reviewed the quantitative indices obtained from sequential 99m Tc-MAG3 and 99m Tc-DMSA imaging studies performed in 134 patients with a variety of renal disorders in order to determine the correlation between the measured differential renal function using these two agents. Overall correlation was high with r=.86 and the derived regression equation was R.F. DMSA =8.2+0.84 (R.F. MAG3 ), where F.F. is the relative function. Highly divergent values for differential function were obtained however in some subjects. Patients with renal obstructive disorders had a correlation coefficient of.81 which was lower than those with nonobstructive pathologies (r=.95). Although relative kidney function measured using 99m Tc-MAG3 and 99m Tc-DMSA correlate significantly, certain patients such as those with renal obstruction may necessitate quantitation using different renal parameters. (orig.) [de

  17. New superconductors from granular to high T$_{c}$

    CERN Document Server

    Deutscher, Guy

    2018-01-01

    How new are the high Tc superconductors, as compared to the conventional low Tc ones? In what sense are these oxides different from regular metals in their normal state? How different is the mechanism for high Tc superconductivity from the well-known electron-phonon interaction that explains so well superconductivity in metals and alloys? What are the implications of the new features of the high Tc oxides for their practical applications? This interesting book aims to provide some answers to those questions, drawing particularly on similarities between the high Tc oxides and granular superconductors, which also present a short coherence length, a small superfluid density and an inhomogeneous structure.

  18. New superconductors from granular to high T$_{c}$

    CERN Document Server

    Deutscher, Guy

    2006-01-01

    How new are the high Tc superconductors, as compared to the conventional low Tc ones? In what sense are these oxides different from regular metals in their normal state? How different is the mechanism for high Tc superconductivity from the well-known electron-phonon interaction that explains so well superconductivity in metals and alloys? What are the implications of the new features of the high Tc oxides for their practical applications? This book aims to give some answers to those questions, drawing particularly on similarities between the high Tc oxides and granular superconductors, which also present a maximum of their critical temperature near the metal-insulator transition.

  19. Initial direct comparison of 99mTc-TOC and 99mTc-TATE in identifying sites of disease in patients with proven GEP NETs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikla, Jaroslaw B; Mikolajczak, Renata; Pawlak, Dariusz; Buscombe, John R; Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Anna; Bator, Andrzej; Maecke, Helmut R; Walecki, Jerzy

    2008-07-01

    The imaging of neuroendocrine tumors has become one of the most significant areas in nuclear oncology. In an attempt to provide high-quality imaging and possible sensitivity at a reduced cost, time, and radiation dose, several (99m)Tc agents have been proposed. The aim of this initial study was to compare the tumor uptake and biodistribution of 2 new 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC)-derivatized Tyr(3)-octreotide analogs, (99m)Tc-[HYNIC,Tyr(3)]octreotide ((99m)Tc-TOC) and (99m)Tc-[HYNIC,Tyr(3),Thr(8)]octreotide ((99m)Tc-TATE), in patients with somatostatin receptor-expressing tumors. Each of 12 patients with proven gastrointestinal pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors received a mean activity of 520 MBq of (99m)Tc-TOC and (99m)Tc-TATE. Scintigraphy with both tracers was performed 3-4 h after their injection using standard whole-body and SPECT imaging. The images were reviewed subjectively by 2 readers, who reported tumor uptake lesion by lesion. Both radiotracers demonstrated concordance between the results in 7 patients (58%). In total, 110 sites of disease were identified with (99m)Tc-TOC, compared with 115 with (99m)Tc-TATE. There was 1 case in which (99m)Tc-TOC identified sites of disease not seen on (99m)Tc-TATE imaging but 4 cases in which some sites of disease were seen with (99m)Tc-TATE and not (99m)Tc-TOC. In this initial study, both tracers seem to show similar sites of tumor, with (99m)Tc-TATE having a slight edge in the total number of lesions seen, especially in lymph node metastases.

  20. 99mTc-ECD SPECT study in dementia and aphasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Otsuka, Makoto; Sasaki, Masayuki; Akashi, Yuko; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Masuda, Kouji; Ichimiya, Atsushi

    1993-01-01

    We studied clinical significance of 99m Tc-L,L,-ethyl cysteine dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) SPECT study in dementia and aphasia, and compared it with 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT study. The subjects consisted of 13 patients, including 10 patients with dementia and 3 patients with aphasia. Hypoperfusion areas were detected in 5 out of 10 patients with dementia and 2 out of 3 patients with aphasia in 99m Tc-ECD SPECT, and in 4 out of 10 patients with dementia and all of 3 patients with aphasia in 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT. The count rate ratios in 99m Tc-ECD and 99m Tc-HMPAO SPECT were correlated well with each other, and the contrast of the 99m Tc-ECD SPECT image was equivalent or slightly higher as compared with 99m Tc-HMPAO. Therefore, 99m Tc-ECD SPECT study was considered to be useful for the evaluation of cerebral perfusion in dementia and aphasia. (author)

  1. Novel 99mTc(III)-azide complexes [99mTc(N3)(CDO)(CDOH)2B-R] (CDOH2 = cyclohexanedione dioxime) as potential radiotracers for heart imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Min; Zheng, Yumin; Avcibasi, Ugur; Liu, Shuang

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In this study, novel 99m Tc(III)-azide complexes [ 99m Tc(N 3 )(CDO)(CDOH) 2 B-R] ( 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 : R = IS; 99m Tc-MPboroxime-N 3 : R = MP; 99m Tc-PAboroxime-N 3 : R = PA; 99m Tc-PYboroxime-N 3 : R = PY; and 99m Tc-Uboroxime-N 3 : R = 5U) were evaluated as heart imaging agents. Methods: Complexes [ 99m Tc(N 3 )(CDO)(CDOH) 2 B-R] (R = IS, MP, PA, PY and 5U) were prepared by ligand exchange between NaN 3 and [ 99m TcCl(CDO)(CDOH) 2 B-R]. Biodistribution and imaging studies were carried out in Sprague–Dawley rats. Image quantification was performed to compare their initial heart uptake and myocardial retention. Results: 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 , 99m Tc-PYboroxime-N 3 and 99m Tc-Uboroxime-N 3 were prepared with high RCP (93–98%) while the RCP of 99m Tc-MPboroxime-N 3 and 99m Tc-PAboroxime-N 3 was 80–85%. The myocardial retention curves of 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 , 99m Tc-PYboroxime-N 3 and 99m Tc-Uboroxime-N 3 were best fitted to the bi-exponential decay function. The half-time of the fast component was 1.6 ± 0.4 min for 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 , 0.7 ± 0.1 min for 99m Tc-PYboroxime-N 3 and 0.9 ± 0.4 min for 99m Tc-Uboroxime-N 3 . The 2-min heart uptake from biodistribution studies followed the ranking order of 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 (3.60 ± 0.68%ID/g) > 99m Tc-PYboroxime-N 3 (2.35 ± 0.37%ID/g) ≫ 99m Tc-Uboroxime-N 3 (1.29 ± 0.06%ID/g). 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 had the highest 2-min heart uptake among 99m Tc radiotracers revaluated in SD rats. High quality SPECT images were obtained with the right and left ventricular walls being clearly delineated. The best image acquisition window was 0–5 min for 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 . Conclusion: Both azide coligand and boronate caps had significant impact on the heart uptake and myocardial retention of complexes [ 99m Tc(N 3 )(CDO)(CDOH) 2 B-R]. Among the radiotracers evaluated in SD rats, 99m Tc-ISboroxime-N 3 has the highest initial heart uptake with the heart retention comparable to that of 99m Tc

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Tc(I) Carbonyl Nitrosyl Species Relevant to the Hanford Tank Waste: FY 2016 Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Gabriel B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chatterjee, Sayandev [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Levitskaia, Tatiana G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Martin, Thibaut J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wall, Nathalie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Walter, Eric D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-11-24

    Among long-lived radioactive constituents in the Hanford tank waste, Tc presents a unique challenge in that it exists predominantly in the liquid phase, generally in the anionic form of pertechnetate, TcO4-, which is highly volatile at low-activity waste (LAW) vitrification melter temperatures and mobile in the Hanford site’s subsurface environment. The complex behavior of Tc under storage, treatment, and immobilization conditions significantly affects its management options, which to-date remain uncertain. In strongly alkaline environments, Tc exists as pertechnetate, TcO4- (oxidation state +7), and in the reduced forms (oxidation state < +7) collectively known as non-pertechnetate species. Pertechnetate is a well-characterized, anionic Tc species that can be removed from LAW by anion exchange or solvent extraction methods. There is no definitive information on the origin of the non-pertechnetate Tc species, nor is there a comprehensive description of their composition and behavior. It has been recently proposed that the non-pertechnetate species can comprise Tc(I) metal center and carbonyl or mixed carbonyl nitrosyl ligands stabilizing low-valent Tc. Recent work by our group has significantly expanded this previous work, generating a series of Tc(I) carbonyl compounds and demonstrating that they can be generated from reduction of TcO4- in the simulated Hanford tank waste in presence of CO at elevated temperature (Levitskaia et al. 2014). These results are consistent with the previous proposal that [Tc(CO)3]+ species can be present in the Hanford tank waste and suggest that the low Tc(I) oxidation state is stabilized by the π-accepting ability of the CO ligands. The continuation work has been initiated to develop model Tc carbonyl nitrosyl compounds and investigate their potential presence in the Hanford tank wastes. This report summarizes our to-date results.

  3. Formation of a Tc(III)-adenosine diphosphate complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, J.; Kremer, C.; Kremer, E.

    1995-01-01

    A 99 Tc-ADP complex was prepared when KTcO 4 was reduced in aqueous medium by SnCl 2 , Na 2 S 2 O 4 , NaBH 4 or Zn in the presence of ADP in excess. The resulting solution was studied by chromatography and spectrophotometry. Electrochemical reduction and substitution on [Tc III (tu) 6 ] 3+ were investigated as alternative synthetic routes. The anionic Tc-ADP complex was isolated as a solid. Cerimetric titrations confirmed the oxidation state +3 for the central atom. IR and 1 H-NMR data showed that the purine base is bonded to the Tc central atom but not the ribose moiety. No oxo groups seemed to be directly bonded to the Tc atom. The complex is rather stable in neutral solutions. However, it decomposes to pertechnetate and TcO 2 at extreme pH values. (author). 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Evaluation of Tc-99m leukocyte scan in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, J.A.; Marcus, C.S.; Henneman, P.L.; Inkelis, S.H.; Wilson, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    A new /sup 99m/Tc Microlite leukocyte scan was performed in 38 patients to assess its value in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Autologous leukocytes are labeled with /sup 99m/Tc by inducing phagocytosis of /sup 99m/Tc albumin microcolloid particles. The advantages of this test over the standard indium-111 scan include superior imaging capability, a marked reduction (greater than 75%) in the radiation dose, and performance of the test including labeling, in less than 3 hr. Imaging is performed at 5-90 min postinjection of labeled cells. There were 19 male and 19 female patients with ages ranging from 10 to 80 years, in whom the diagnosis of appendicitis was indeterminate on clinical examination. Of the 13 of the 38 patients (34%) who came to surgery 12 had acute appendicitis. The WBC scan correctly identified 10 of the 12 cases of appendicitis. There were two false-negative studies. In the nonoperative group of 25 patients admitted for observation, 21 studies were reported as negative and four identified other sites of inflammation. All patients with a negative study have remained asymptomatic on follow-up. With a sensitivity of 83% (10/12) and a specificity of 100% (26/26) the /sup 99m/Tc leukocyte scan provides a rapid and highly accurate method for diagnosis of appendicitis in this preliminary study of patients with equivocal clinical exams

  5. 99mTc-IgG-Lung Scintigraphy in the Assessment of Pulmonary Involvement in Interstitial Lung Disease and Its Comparison With Pulmonary Function Tests and High-Resolution Computed Tomography: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahtouee, Mehrzad; Saberifard, Jamshid; Javadi, Hamid; Nabipour, Iraj; Malakizadeh, Hasan; Monavvarsadegh, Gholamhossein; Ilkhani Pak, Hoda; Sadeghi, Azadeh; Assadi, Majid

    2015-01-01

    The discrimination of inactive inflammatory processes from the active form of the disease is of great importance in the management of interstitial lung disease (ILD). The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of 99mTc-IgG scan for the detection of severity of disease compared to high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and pulmonary function test (PFT). Eight known cases of ILD including four cases of Mustard gas (MG) intoxication and four patients with ILD of unknown cause were included in this study. A population of six patients without lung disease was considered as the control group. The patients underwent PFT and high-resolution computed tomography, followed by 99mTc-IgG scan. They were followed up for one year. 99mTc-IgG scan assessment of IgG uptake was accomplished both qualitatively (subjectively) and semiquantitatively. All eight ILD patients demonstrated a strong increase in 99mTc-IgG uptake in the lungs, compared to the control patients. The 99mTc-IgG scan scores were higher in the patient group (0.64[95% confidence interval(CI)=0.61-0.69])) than the control group (0.35 (0.35[95% CI=0.28-0.40]), (P<0.05)). In patients, a statistically significant positive correlation was detected between 99mTc-IgG scan and HRCT scores (Spearman’s correlation coefficient = 0.92, P < 0.008). The 99mTc-Human Immunoglobulin (HIG) scores were not significantly correlated with PFT findings (including FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC), O 2 saturation and age (P values > 0.05). There were no significant correlations between 99mTc-IgG score and HRCT patterns including ground glass opacity, reticular fibrosis and honeycombing (P value > 0.05). The present results confirmed that 99mTc-IgG scan could be applied to detect the severity of pulmonary involvement, which was well correlated with HRCT findings. This data also showed that the 99mTc-IgG scan might be used as a complement to HRCT in the functional evaluation of the clinical status in ILD; however, further studies are

  6. On the reusability of open test collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hashemi, S.H.; Clarke, C.L.A.; Dean-Hall, A.; Kamps, J.; Kiseleva, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Creating test collections for modern search tasks is increasingly more challenging due to the growing scale and dynamic nature of content, and need for richer contextualization of the statements of request. To address these issues, the TREC Contextual Suggestion Track explored an open test

  7. Hepato-biliary scan using sup(99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene isoleucine (sup(99m)Tc-PI) and its clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, S; Watahiki, H; Takeda, I; Kitamura, K; Ichikawa, H [Ogaki Municipal Hospital, Gifu (Japan)

    1978-05-01

    The hepato-biliary scan with sup(99m)Tc-pyridoxylidene Isoleucine (sup(99m)Tc-PI) was able to demonstrate the biliary system much more clearly than that using usual radiopharmaceuticals such as /sup 131/I-BSP of /sup 131/I-Rose Bengal. The hepato-biliary scan with sup(99m)Tc-PI demonstrated the hepatobiliary system more clearly than DIC in 47.6% of all cases studied. Especially the demonstration of changes of intra-hepatic biliary tree in cases with intra-hepatic gall stone and cholangiocarcinoma was quite superior to DIC, although there was somewhat difficulty in getting information about the right hepatic duct. For the diagnosis of gall stone in the gall bladder, DIC was more suitable than sup(99m)Tc-PI hepatobiliary scan. The sup(99m)Tc-PI hepato-biliary scan was able to demonstrate the biliary system even in cases having moderate jaundice, in which cases DIC could not demonstrate the biliary system. This sup(99m)Tc-PI hepato-biliary scan was proved to be useful in determing a certain cause of defects shown on the conventional liver scan. No side effect was noticed in this series of the study.

  8. Advanced Presentation of BETHSY 6.2TC Test Results Calculated by RELAP5 and TRACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Prošek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today most software applications come with a graphical user interface, including U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission TRAC/RELAP Advanced Computational Engine (TRACE best-estimate reactor system code. The graphical user interface is called Symbolic Nuclear Analysis Package (SNAP. The purpose of the present study was to assess the TRACE computer code and to assess the SNAP capabilities for input deck preparation and advanced presentation of the results. BETHSY 6.2 TC test was selected, which is 15.24 cm equivalent diameter horizontal cold leg break. For calculations the TRACE V5.0 Patch 1 and RELAP5/MOD3.3 Patch 4 were used. The RELAP5 legacy input deck was converted to TRACE input deck using SNAP. The RELAP5 and TRACE comparison to experimental data showed that TRACE results are as good as or better than the RELAP5 calculated results. The developed animation masks were of great help in comparison of results and investigating the calculated physical phenomena and processes.

  9. Chemical effects of I. T. sup(95m)Tc-sup(95g)Tc in some pertechnetates in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianovici, E.; Lerch, P.; Zahner, G.; Maddock, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Although the distribution of sup(95g)Tc amongst the different products following isomeric transition in solid samples of pertechnetates is independent of the pH of the solution in which the dissolution for analysis takes place, the same is not true if the decay takes place in solution. The sup(95g)Tc appears in neutral and cationic forms as well as TcO - 4 and another anionic species. Introduction of scavengers into the solution suggests that this pH effect may arise from reactions of the primary sup(95g)Tc products with radiolytic products formed in the solution by Auger electrons released during the isomeric transition. (orig.)

  10. 99mTc renal tubular function agents: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshima, D.; Fritzberg, A.R.; Taylor, A. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Orthoiodohippuric (OIH) acid labeled with 131I is a widely used renal radiopharmaceutical agent and has been the standard radiopharmaceutical agent for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow (EPRF). Limitations to the routine clinical use of 131I OIH are related to the suboptimal imaging properties of the 131I radionuclide and its relatively high radiation dose. 123I has been substituted for 131I; however, its high cost and short shelf-life have limited its widespread use. Recent work has centered on the development of a new 99mTc renal tubular function agent, which would use the optimal radionuclidic properties and availability of 99mTc and combine the clinical information provided by OIH. The search for a suitable 99mTc renal tubular function agent has focused on the diamide dithiolate (N2S2), the paraaminohippuric iminodiacetic acid (PAHIDA), and the triamide mercaptide (N3S) donor ligand systems. To date, the most promising 99mTc tubular function agent is the N3S complex: 99mTc mercaptoacetyltriglycine (99mTc MAG3). Studies in animal models in diuresis, dehydration, acid or base imbalance, ischemia, and renal artery stenosis demonstrate that 99mTc MAG3 behaves similarly to 131I OIH. A simple kit formulation is available that yields the 99mTc MAG3 complex in high radiochemical purity. Studies in normal subjects and patients indicate that 99mTc MAG3 is an excellent 99mTc renal tubular agent, but its plasma clearance is only 50% to 60% that of OIH. In an effort to develop an improved 99mTc renal tubular function agent, changes have been made in the core N3S donor ligand system, but to date no agent has been synthesized that is clinically superior to 99mTc MAG3. 61 references

  11. Role of 99mTc-mebrofenin in evaluation of neonatal cholestasis syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maini, Atul; Khanduri, Arun; Gambhir, S.; Yacha, S.K.; Das, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated 40 patients with neonatal cholestasis syndrome (NCS) over a period of 2.5 years. Main aim was to evaluate the efficacy of hepatobiliary scintigraphy using 99m Tc-mebrofenin, without phenobarbital induction, in differentiating Extrahepatic Biliary Atresia (EHBA) from Neonatal Hepatitis (NH). All infants were clinically examined. Liver function tests, ultrasonography and liver biopsy were carried out in each case. EHBA was diagnosed either by per-operative cholangiography or scintigraphy and liver biopsy. NH was diagnosed by liver histology and ultrasonography or by scintigraphy or by per operative cholangiography. Our sensitivity (100%) and specificity (80%) were found to be similar to results of previous studies using other 99m Tc-IDA agents with phenobarbital induction. Therefore, with 99m Tc-mebrofenin phenobarbital induction may not be needed in differentiating EHBA from NH, thus decreasing the time of diagnostic evaluation. (author)

  12. 99mTc-stannous colloid white cell scintigraphy in childhood inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Kenneth; Porn, Ute; Howman-Giles, Robert; O'Loughlin, Edward; Uren, Roger; Gaskin, Kevin; Dorney, Stuart; Kamath, Ramanand

    2004-02-01

    99mTc-Labeled white cell scintigraphy (WCS) has been used for the investigation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in adults, but data on children are limited. The most common agent used is (99m) Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO); however, this agent has limitations. In a retrospective study, we assessed the use of (99m)Tc-stannous colloid WCS for the initial evaluation of children with suspected IBD. Diagnostic, endoscopic, and contrast radiography results were retrospectively collected from the medical records. Two experienced nuclear physicians unaware of the patient data interpreted the WCS results, with agreement reached by consensus. Statistical analysis was performed on the ability of WCS to detect active disease and localize it topographically and on a comparison of diagnostic methods, using a combination of clinical features and endoscopy as the reference standard. Between 1996 and 1999, 64 patients (35 male and 29 female; mean age, 12.5 y; age range, 2-19 y) had WCS performed, with IBD subsequently diagnosed in 34 patients. (99m)Tc-Stannous colloid WCS had an 88% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 8.8 likelihood ratio for initial investigation of IBD. Agreement was poor for topographic localization of disease. Small-bowel series had a 75% sensitivity, 50% specificity, and 1.5 likelihood ratio for detecting endoscopic disease of the terminal ileum and proximal colon. Our results confirm that WCS is a useful imaging technique for the initial evaluation of patients with suspected IBD. (99m)Tc-Stannous colloid had results at least comparable to those of other WCS agents, and in children, (99m)Tc-stannous colloid WCS should be preferred in view of lower cost, shorter preparation time, and the smaller blood volumes required.

  13. sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate scintigraphy and colonic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.; Merrick, M.V.; Palmer, K.R.; Millar, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Sucralfate is an aluminium substituted disaccharide, binding at low pH to sites of ulceration in the gastrointestinal tract. Dawson et al (1985) reported that abdominal scans taken 12-24 hours after ingestion of sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate provide a range of normal appearances in healthy subjects and the pattern of ileal or colonic abnormalities in inflammatory bowel disease, surprising in view of the low binding affinity of sucralfate at ileonic pH. The authors have studied a series of 18 consecutive patients undergoing routine colonoscopy preceded by sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate scintigraphy. In vitro tests of isotope binding to parent molecule and absence of gastric mucosal uptake show that the disappointing results were not due to disruption of the sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate complex. It is suggested that labelled sucralfate attaches to luminal contents rather than adhering to mucosa, supported by the caecal 'hot spots' found in patients shown to have caecal pooling at colonoscopy and by observations that the one poorly prepared patient with pronounced faecal retention at time of endoscopy also had increased retention of radioactivity throughout the colon in the absence of mucosal abnormality. (U.K.)

  14. Sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate scintigraphy and colonic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, A.; Merrick, M.V.; Palmer, K.R.; Millar, A.M.

    1987-09-05

    Sucralfate is an aluminium substituted disaccharide, binding at low pH to sites of ulceration in the gastrointestinal tract. Dawson et al (1985) reported that abdominal scans taken 12-24 hours after ingestion of sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate provide a range of normal appearances in healthy subjects and the pattern of ileal or colonic abnormalities in inflammatory bowel disease, surprising in view of the low binding affinity of sucralfate at ileonic pH. The authors have studied a series of 18 consecutive patients undergoing routine colonoscopy preceded by sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate scintigraphy. In vitro tests of isotope binding to parent molecule and absence of gastric mucosal uptake show that the disappointing results were not due to disruption of the sup(99m)Tc-sucralfate complex. It is suggested that labelled sucralfate attaches to luminal contents rather than adhering to mucosa, supported by the caecal 'hot spots' found in patients shown to have caecal pooling at colonoscopy and by observations that the one poorly prepared patient with pronounced faecal retention at time of endoscopy also had increased retention of radioactivity throughout the colon in the absence of mucosal abnormality. (U.K.).

  15. Preparation and stability of the 99m Tc-HNE2 radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada T, J.

    2002-01-01

    extraction was used, using the C-18 sep-pak cartridges. The native peptide and the conjugate were characterized by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) using a molecular exclusion column for YMC-Pack Diol-60 peptides, phosphates buffer 0.1 M p H= 7.4 at a flux 1.5 ml/min; integrated to a diode arrangement detector to obtain the UV spectra and a radioactivity detector for obtaining the radio chromatograms of the compounds in study, verifying that the different bifunctional agents will be separate appropriately from the peptide, once formed the conjugate peptide, the labelling with 99m Tc was realized using sodium pertechnetates (NaTcO 4 ) eluted from a 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator and as a reducer agent stannous chloride. The In vitro stability tests were realized measuring the radiochemical purity of the radio peptide in Instant Thin Layer Chromatography with silica-gel (ITLC-SG), NaCl 0.9% and acetone as eluent systems) at different time intervals in solutions of different cysteine concentration. These tests indicated the trans chelation grade of the 99m Tc metal. In the In vivo evaluations the stability of the 99m Tc-HNE-2 was obtained when it was realized the biodistribution in normal mice of the balb-c stock. The obtained results show a radiochemical purity of 95.05 % ± 2.81% for the 99m Tc-DTPA-HNE-2 conjugates and 51.45% ± 3.2% for 99m Tc-HYNIC-HNE-2 even as tricine as colligand was used. The In vivo and In vitro stability tests of the radio conjugates show that the radio complexes are keeping whole at least during 24 hours (In vitro) time in which passing for half life of the 99m Tc radionuclide and 30 min (In vivo). Since the radio conjugates prepared with DTPA were obtained with radiochemical purities adequate for its use in scintillography, it is necessary as a future work to realize the biodistribution kinetics as in healthy animals as in models with induced infectious processes. Likewise for obtaining gamma graphic images at different times, from animals

  16. Comparison of 99m-Tc-MDP and 99m-Tc-MIBI whole body scans for diagnosis of widespread skeletal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, M.; Hoshiar, A.; Mortazavi, S.H.

    2002-01-01

    Skeletal metastasis is one of the most important disabling complications of the malignant diseases. As in general, the survival of patients with osteometastatic lesions is relatively long, an early diagnosis can lead to improve the patient's life, both quantitatively and qualitatively and prevent exacerbation of the disease and disabling complications. In this study 22 patients with established diagnosis of malignant disease and clinical manifestations of skeletal metastasis were evaluated both with 99 m-Tc-MIBI and 99 m-Tc-MDP whole body scans, in two separate phases. Patient's diagnosis were as following: small round cell tumor, breast carcinoma. Nasopharynx carcinoma and multiple myeloma. In the first phase of the study a whole body bone scan was performed by IV injection of 740MBq 99 m-Tc-MDP. After a period of 1 week a whole body scan carried out by 99 m-Tc-MDP for all the patients. No treatment such as radiation therapy ar chemotherapy was done in this 1 week interval. The number and intensity of the scan findings were compared visually, according to the three- phase staging, subsequently. whole body survey with 99 m-Tc-MDP in 14 out 22 patient were positive demonstrating only 44.4% of body lesions established on whole body bone scan with 99 m-Tc-MDP. The mean value of intensity of radiotracer uptake was around 1.5+ (mild to moderate ). on the other hand in 7 patients with positive 99 m-Tc-MDP scan some hidden soft tissue lesions ( mostly lymph nodes) were detected with intensity of 2+. So this study shows that whole body bone scan is preferable for detection of widespread metastasis comparing with 99 m-Tc-MDP whole body scan. the significance of 99 m-Tc-MDP scan is mainly limited to some equivocal of soft tissue lesions

  17. Concentration of sup(99m)Tc from the eluate of 99Mo-sup(99m)Tc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saucedo, T.; Mora, M.; Fraga de Suarez, A.H.; Mitta, A.E.A.

    1976-04-01

    A method is described to concentrate sup(99m)Tc solutions, originated in 99 Mo-sup(99m)Tc generators, independent of its age. The techniques of preparation of the different radiopharmaceuticals used in nuclear medicine are also described. (author) [es

  18. Synthesis, characterization and biodistribution of technetium complexes (99Tc/99mTc) with 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-hexose oximes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmetz, H.J.

    1993-05-01

    In the present work, the synthesis and isolation of isomeric complexes of technetium ( 99 Tc/ 99m Tc) with the 2-amino-2-deoxy-D-hexoses D-glucose aminoxime, D-galactose aminoxime and D-mannose aminoxime, the characterization of the complexes as 99 Tc compounds, and bio-distribution studies on the analogous 99m Tc complexes have been untertaken. As a first step, the free ligands were synthesized and identified using elemental analysis, infra-red and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and FAB mass spectroscopy. In the bio-distribution studies on the 99m Tc complexes of D-glucose aminoxime and of D-galactose aminoxime in NMRI mice, significant short-term accumulation of 99m Tc activity in heart muscle could be detected, which may be attributed to a biochemical transport mechanism. Uptake in the lungs and the liver was found, but a more significant uptake was observed in the kidneys, where the complexes were rapidly secreted in proportion to their concentration in the blood plasma. (orig./BBR) [de

  19. Development of 99mTc labelled somatostatin analogues and evaluation of their radiochemical and biological behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gano, L.; Patricio, L.

    2001-01-01

    Conjugates of two somatostatin analogues, octreotide and RC-160, with HYNIC were synthesized, characterized and purified by reverse phase HPLC. Radiolabelling of the conjugates with 99m Tc was achieved using tricine as co-ligand. High labelling efficiencies were obtained and 99m Tc peptides with high radiochemical purity were found when analysed both by ITLC and HPLC. In vitro stability of 99m Tc-peptides in human serum and towards cysteine challenge was determined by Cellogel electrophoresis and HPLC after ultrafiltration of serum solution through a 20 kDa cut off membrane. Biodistribution studies were performed in healthy mice at 5 and 30 minutes and 1, 2, 4 and 24 h post-injection. Urine and blood samples were collected at sacrifice time. Samples of urine and ultrafiltrate murine serum were analysed by electrophoresis and reverse phase HPLC in order to get some information about radiocompounds metabolism. Biological distribution of 99m Tc octreotide was also assayed in mice pre-treated with an excess of unlabelled peptide. From our results we conclude that this labelling method led to stable 99m Tc complexes both in vitro and in vivo when high specific activities (37-72 GBq/μmole) were used. Biodistribution studies of both 99m Tc-peptides indicated a radioactivity distribution profile with significant differences especially in the liver uptake that is higher for 99m Tc RC-160. However, a rapid blood clearance was obtained for both radiolabelled peptides, and the urine analysis indicated that 99m Tc peptide is mostly excreted as the initial complex. Pre-treatment with unlabelled peptide did not affect renal excretion of 99m TOC but pancreas and intestine radioactive uptake was significantly lower, indicating saturation of somatostatin receptors and selective uptake. (author)

  20. Evaluation of renal allograft with 99mTc-mononuclear leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, S.A.L.; Oliveira, H.S.; Goncalves, R.T.; Pontes, D.S.; Fonseca, L.B.M.; Gutfilen, B.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Because kidney biopsy is an invasive procedure that carries a small but significant risk of major complications, a noninvasive test that detects rejection before it is clinically apparent is very much needed. The reversibility of acute rejection is related to the promptness with which treatment is begun. Here we show the evaluation of rejection in the first week post-transplant with 99m Tc-mononuclear leukocyte scintigraphy (99mTc-MLS). Materials and Methods: 70 patients submitted to renal transplant at the Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho (HUCFF/UFRJ) underwent 99m Tc-MLS at the 1st and 5th post-transplant days. The labeled cells were administered (444MBq) and scans were carried out 3 and 24h post injection. A region of interest (ROI) was drawn at the allograft image and statistics compared between the 3 and 24h images. Percentages above 15% in the 24h image relating to the 3h image were considered abnormal and suspect of rejection. 25 of the 70 patients rejected the renal allograft in the 1st week post-transplant. Results: 99m Tc-MLS has detected rejection in 20 of the 25 patients. Color Doppler was also carried out in all the patients and has detected 16 rejections. Sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 100% for scintigraphy and 64% and 100% for Ultrasound. 99m Tc-MLS is more sensitive in humoral rejection than color Doppler. The latter is better to identify the vascular rejection. Conclusion: In order to evaluate renal allograft and improve the rejection diagnosis the combination of both techniques should be applied. More studies are now in progress

  1. Solubility study of Tc(Ⅳ) in a granitic water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dejun; Yao Jun; Wang Bo

    2008-01-01

    The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safe disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under oxidizing conditions technetium exists as the anionic species TcO 4 - whereas under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 -nH 2 O. Hence, the mobility of Tc(Ⅳ) in reducing groundwater may be limited by the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O under these conditions. Due to this fact it is important to investigate the solubility of TcO 2 ·nH 2 O. The solubility determines the release of radionuclides from waste form and is used as a source term in radionuclide migration analysis in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium (Ⅳ) was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2+ . The solubility of Tc(Ⅳ) has been determined in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(Ⅳ) were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(Ⅳ) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(Ⅳ) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is about (1.49-1.86)x10 -9 mol·L -1 d -1 under aerobic conditions, while no Tc(Ⅳ) oxidation was detected in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(Ⅳ) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The

  2. /sup 99m/Tc labelled ulcer avid agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scopinaro, F.; Linari, G.; Baldieri, M.; Liberatore, M.; Corti, E.; Signori, C.

    1986-01-01

    Sulfated oligosaccharides have some interesting pharmacological properties: they are anticoagulants and protect the ulcerative areas of epithelia by precipitating over ulcers together with exudative proteins. Some sucralfate labelling methods using /sup 75/Se, /sup 111/In, /sup 99m/Tc-albumin and /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA have been reported. Only the /sup 99m/Tc-sucralfate has, at present, the requisites to be used as an ulcer-seeking agent. The aim of this study were: (a) to introduce a simple and easy-to-repeat method for the labelling of sucralfate with /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA; (b) to demonstrate that it is possible to label the sucrose octasulfate directly with /sup 99m/Tc without the aid of other ligands (e.g. DTPA)

  3. Clinical study of renoscintiphoto using sup(99m)Tc-EDTA, -DTPA and 131I-hippuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Akira; Ishii, Katsumi; Yoda, Kazushige; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1975-01-01

    The scintillation photographs of the kidneys of 35 cases were taken using sup(99m)Tc-EDTA. The photographs were compared with those taken using sup(99m)Tc-DTPA and 131 I-hippuran. In normal cases, sup(99m)Tc-EDTA which is excreted most slowly serves to take best the pictures of the parenchyma and the pelvis of the kidney. Being a sup(99m)Tc-labelled compound with a short half life time and being administrable at a substantial dose of 2-4mCi, sup(99m)Tc-EDTA provides an advantage to take continuous pictures of the blood vessel phase. This reagent can, therefore, help take a clear picture of the congestion site of the renal infarct. However, the renal dynamic test using EDTA or DTPA is difficult to catch such delicate changes as very slight rejection of the transplanted kidney or as very slight disturbance of the kidney parenchyma. In this respect, 131 I-hippuran is superior to EDTA and DTPA. In obstructive disorders of the kidney, there was no remarkable difference among these three reagents. (auth.)

  4. Round robin tests of Tc and Ic on YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Y.; Higuchi, N.; Meguro, S.; Takahashi, K.; Uyeda, K.; Ishihara, T.; Inukai, E.; Umeda, M.

    1989-01-01

    In the author's research and development of oxide superconducting material, methods for measuring the critical properties such as critical temperature and critical current were investigated and studied by way of round robin tests. The investigation was carried out through the steps of (1) decision on the specifications of common samples and measuring methods, (2) preparation and characterization of common samples, (3) distribution of samples to ten member research organs of Super-GM, (4) experimental measurement in the respective research organs, and (5) analysis of measurement results. The measurement of critical temperature and critical current were made mainly using the 4-probe method, and partially the magnetization method. The results were found to disperse, depending on the measurement methods and definitions of Tc and lc. Data analysis with these factors clarified is important

  5. A review of sup(99m)Tc generator technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinski, V.J.

    1982-01-01

    The sup(99m)Tc generator has found widespread use because it is ideally suited for scintigraphy. The preparation of sup(99m)Tc generators using alumina and other ion exchange systems is described. Other methods of separating 99 Mo and sup(99m)Tc, such as solvent extraction and sublimation, are also discussed. Some of the problems associated with the alumina column type sup(99m)Tc generator are listed with possible causes and solutions to their problems. The current biomedical applications of the sup(99m)Tc radioisotope are the basis of a $100 million nuclear medicine business. The importance of the sup(99m)Tc generator makes it imperative that we understand and solve the problems associated with its manufacture. (author)

  6. /sup 99m/Tc-aminohexylidendiphosphonate and /sup 99/mTc-Pyrophosphate in the scintigraphic diagnosis of experimental cardiomyopathy in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duska, F; Kafka, P; Mazurova, Y; Hadas, L; Vizda, J; Palicka, V; Grossman, V

    1987-10-01

    Experimental cardiomyopathy was provoked in 24 dogs with high intravenous doses of adrenaline and theophylline. These lesions were studied by means of the new agent /sup 99m/Tc-AHDP and /sup 99m/Tc-PYP in comparison. Cardiomyopathy could be imaged as early as 4 h after the onset of involvement but not later than 7 days. A maximum accumulation occurred in lesions 24 h old, /sup 99m/Tc uptake in the myocardium was graded scintigraphically, /sup 99m/Tc-AHDP was accumulated in the altered myocardium to a greater extent than /sup 99m/Tc-PYP. Scintigraphic findings were in good agreement with plasma levels of creatine-kinase. A comparison with histology demonstrated that the maximum accumulation of radiopharmaceuticals occurred at the time when the development of myocardium involvement reached the stage of myocytolysis.

  7. Preparation of glucoheptonate - sup(99m) Tc using stannous ascorbate as reducing agent for TcO-4 ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, M.R.F.F. de; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1983-12-01

    A preparation procedure of stannous ascorbate in lyophilized form is presented. This reducing agent was employed for the preparation of kits of calcium glucoheptonate (GHA) to be labelled with sup(99m) Tc for use in kidney scintigraphy. Comparative studies between kits prepared with stannous ascorbate and those prepared with stannous chloride as reducing agent were made. The labelling yield during 18 hours after the addition of sup(99m) TcO - 4 was higher when stannous ascorbate was used. The stability of kits of calcium glucoheptonate - sup(99m) Tc containing stannous ascorbate was studied during five months after its preparation in the lyophilized form. On the fifth month the labelling yield of GHA - sup(99m) Tc was 89-95%, being therefore suitable for kidney scintigraphy. (Author) [pt

  8. ICP-MS as advantageous analytical technique for the determination of long-lived /sup 99/Tc in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihsanullah

    1992-05-01

    Technetium (Tc) was the first artificially created by man and has no stable isotope. The most crucial technetium isotope environmentally /sup 99/Tc is a pure beta emitter with a half-life of 2.1 X 105 years. The main source of /sup 99/Tc to the environment is the disposal of liquid wastes from nuclear installations or during separation and recovery of spent nuclear fuels. Because of its long half life, high fission yield, mobility and current interest in the collective long term doses, it is necessary to establish a knowledge of the behavior of /sup 99/Tc in the environment for complete assessment of the impact of nuclear industry. Due to various analytical difficulties however, data on the behavior of Tc in the environment are limited. In the literature, many techniques are reported for the analysis of Tc. A very sensitive, precise and powerful technique is required which can be applied to environmental samples in order to gain information by obtaining more precise data to assess the impact of Tc releases on man. Attention has been focussed for this purpose on a new powerful technique i.e. inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). This report has been directed towards the development of ICP-MS. The technique gives a very high sensitivity enabling long lived radionuclides including /sup 99/Tc to be measured directly down to pg ml-1 levels in solution. Because of its versatility ICP-MS is finding applications for trace multielement analysis and low detection limits in almost all fields. (author)

  9. Impeding 99Tc(IV) mobility in novel waste forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mal-Soon; Um, Wooyong; Wang, Guohui; Kruger, Albert A.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Rousseau, Roger; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Technetium (99Tc) is an abundant, long-lived radioactive fission product whose mobility in the subsurface is largely governed by its oxidation state. Tc immobilization is crucial for radioactive waste management and environmental remediation. Tc(IV) incorporation in spinels has been proposed as a novel method to increase Tc retention in glass waste forms during vitrification. However, experiments under high-temperature and oxic conditions show reoxidation of Tc(IV) to volatile pertechnetate, Tc(VII). Here we examine this problem with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations and propose that, at elevated temperatures, doping with first row transition metal can significantly enhance Tc retention in magnetite in the order Co>Zn>Ni. Experiments with doped spinels at 700 °C provide quantitative confirmation of the theoretical predictions in the same order. This work highlights the power of modern, state-of-the-art simulations to provide essential insights and generate theory-inspired design criteria of complex materials at elevated temperatures. PMID:27357121

  10. Evaluation of sup(99m)Tc-albumin dilution curve with simultaneous injection of sup(99m)Tc- and 131I-albumins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinoshita, Masahiko; Kato, Shotaro; Motomura, Masakazu; Kawakita, Seiichi

    1979-01-01

    A critical comparison of radiocardiograms with sup(99m)Tc- and 131 I-albumins was made to determine whether or not sup(99m)Te-albumin can be used as a tracer for measuring blood volume (BV) and cardiac output (CO). Simultaneous injection of both isotopes was given to twenty-two patients to obtain radiocardiograms for each by means of a single scintillation counter with two pulse height analyzers. Such method allows for the determination of the energy levels for both sup(99m)Tc and 131 I. The radiocardiographic pattern was somewhat different between sup(99m)Tc- and 131 I-radiocardiograms: The ratio of left to right peak height was 16% on the average lower in the sup(99m)Tc-radiocardiogram than in the 131 I-one. The reason for the lower ratio is explained by greater absorption of sup(99m)Tc-radioactivity within the soft tissue interposing between the scintillation probe and heart. The values for sup(99m)Tc-derived blood volume were 7.4% on the average larger than those for 131 I-derived blood volume (p less than 0.01), although the correlation was excellent (r = 0.98 p less than 0.01). There was no systemic difference between cardiac output determined by sup(99m)Tc- and 131 I-albumins since the overestimation of blood volume can compensate for the underestimation of CO/BV by sup(99m)Tc-study. In view of its rapid extravasation, sup(99m)Tc-albumin is not so appropriate tracer for accurate measurements of BV and CO/BV, although it may be used for measurement of cardiac output. (author)

  11. Comparison of different modalities in diagnosis of coronary artery disease (ECG, ETT, Angiography, Rest and Stress Echo. and 99m Tc-MIBI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zein, A.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to compare the most important five investigation modalities commonly used to investigate coronary artery disease, these were ECG, Exercise Tolerance Test (ETT), Echocardiography, SPECT imaging using 99m Tc-Sestamibi, and Angiography. The three test modalities, ECG, Echo, and 99m Tc-MIBI were conducted in both rest and stress conditions. All patients were referred to the hospital (NORI) from cardiology departments of different hospitals for stress/rest 99mTc-MIBI cardiac perfusion study. The decision to proceed with coronary angiography was made by the cardiologist to confirm or exclude diagnosis of CAD, to determine the potential surgical candidates and to assess complications if any. 17 patients were included in the study, 16 males and one female. All of them underwent the five test modalities mentioned, 80% of them were smokers, 47% were hypertensives, 20% were diabetics. The sensitivity of ECG, ETT, and Echocardiography were found to be 60.0%, 73.3%, and 82.4% respectively. Both angiography and 99mTc-Sestamibi were found to be 100% sensitive for detection of CAD. Specificity for all modalities tested was found to be 1, which is unrealistically high due to the small number of normal patients (only two). The predictive value of positive test came to be 1 for all test modalities, where as the predictive value of negative test was calculated to be 0.25, 0.33, and 0.67 for the tests, ECG, ETT, and Echocardiography respectively, but in case of 99mTc-Sestamibi, and coronary angiography it was found to be 1 for both of them. The localization ability of the different test modalities for ischemic and/or infarcted areas was investigated taking coronary angiography as the gold standard. All the three modalities, ECG, Echo, and 99mTc-Sestamibi showed good results in detection of areas supplied by left anterior descending artery, and on the other hand poor results in detection of left circumflex hypoperfused tributaries. The differential

  12. Cyclohexanone solvent extraction of 99TcO4 from alkaline nuclear waste solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1980-01-01

    Although the 99 Tc cyclohexanone solvent extraction process is still in the bench-scale development stage, the process appears well suited for engineering-scale removal of 99 Tc from alkaline Hanford waste solutions. The most pressing process development need is to resolve the phase disengaging problems encountered during water stripping operations. Stripping tests in pulse columns and/or centrifugal contactors are particularly needed to determine the magnitude of the phase disengaging problem in engineering-scale equipment and to find suitable remedies. 5 figures, 7 tables

  13. Study of Eustachian tube drainage function with radioisotope (99m-Tc)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marone, S.A.M.; Miniti, A.

    1985-01-01

    The knowledge of the physiological condition of the Eustachian tube is of major significance to the understanding of the middle ear pathology as well as for the treatment of each case. This paper studies the drainage function of the Eustachian tube. The choice of the Technetium (99m-Tc) as tracer was based on its physical qualities - tracer perfectly adaptable to the detection system, pure gamma emitter, low energy and 6 hours half-life. The use of Tc-99m turns out to be a very accurate method for testing the drainage function. It is an entirely physiological method, and it produces no side effect reactions. (Auth.)

  14. Radiation-dosimetry and chemical-toxicity considerations for 99Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coffey, J.L.; Hayes, R.L.; Rafter, J.J.; Watson, E.E.; Carlton, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Technetium-99 (T/sub 1/2/ = 2.13 x 10 5 y) is produced in the fission of 235 U and 239 Pu. Technitium-99 has been found to contaminate some areas of the uranium re-enrichment process. ICRP-30 Part 2 gives the Annual Limit on Intake (ALI) for 99 Tc as 2 x 10 8 Bq (5.4 mCi) for class D inhaled material (IC80). The ICRP states clearly that ALIs are based on radiation risk only and that chemical toxicity is not considered (IC79). No data were found on the chemical toxicity of 99 Tc, possibly because there are no stable isotopes of technetium with which to study the toxicity, although, because of its long T/sub 1/2/, 99 Tc can, for all practical purposes, be considered stable. The ALI values for 99 Tc are based on data obtained using high specific activity /sup 99m/Tc (T/sub 1/2/ = 6 h) and /sup 95m/Tc (T/sub 1/2/ = 61 days). Since the specific activities of 99 Tc and Na 99 TcO 4 are quite low (17 mCi/g and 9 mCi/g, respectively) and 99 Tc is available in abundant supply, we have attempted to assess the relative radiation and chemical hazards that are associated with this radionuclide. The approach in this study was (1) to study the effect of chemical dose on the whole body retention of 99 Tc sodium pertechnetate in rats and to relate these effects to the radiation dose and the ALI and (2) to compare the chemical toxicity of 99 Tc sodium pertechnetate with the ALI at different chemical dose levels

  15. Usefulness of the dimercapto succinic pentavalent acid (99m Tc- Dmsa-V) in the diagnostic of the bone metastases illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega L, N.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the utility of 99m Tc-(V)- Dmsa whole body planar scan in the diagnostic of skeletal metastases. Nineteen patients were studied, having a recent 99m Tc-HDP bone scan reporting different pathologies (3 normal scans, 5 equivocal scans and 11 with disseminated bone metastases). 72 hours later, a whole body planar scan was obtained at 3 and 24 hours after the i.v. administration of 99m Tc-(V)-Dmsa. Counts per pixel were determined in regions of interest drawn over metastases sites and in normal tissue, and were correlated with the bone scan. Statistical analysis was carried out by using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance followed by Mann Whitney U test. Other comparisons were done with Momios, chi square and t Student tests. 273 lesions were studied in the whole body bone scan and 184 lesions in the 99m Tc-(V)-Dmsa scintigraphy (t Student test n.s.). The tumor to normal tissue ratios were 3.3 (+/- 0.521) and the soft to normal tissue ratios were 1.01 (+/- 0.01), Mann Whitney p 99m Tc-(V)-Dmsa scintigraphy is an useful choice in the diagnostic of bone metastases when the whole body planar bone scan ( 99m Tc- HDP) is equivocal or abnormal. It also points out other lesions such as in bone and in soft tissue. (Author)

  16. Transmutation of Tc-99 in fission reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloosterman, J.L.; Li, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    Transmutation of Tc-99 in three different types of fission reactors is considered: A heavy water reactor, a fast reactor and a light water reactor. For the first type a CANDU reactor was chosen, for the second one the Superphenix reactor, and for the third one a PWR. The three most promising Tc-99 transmuters are the fast reactor with a moderated subassembly in the inner core, a fast reactor with a non-moderated subassembly in the inner core, and a heavy water reactor with Tc-99 target pins in the moderator between the fuel bundles. Transmutation half lives of 15 to 25 years can be achieved, with yearly transmuted Tc-99 masses of about 100 kg at a thermal reactor power of about 3000 MW. (orig.)

  17. Solubility study of Tc(IV) in a granitic water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D.J.; Yao, J.; Wang, B.; Bruggeman, C.; Maes, N.

    2007-01-01

    The deep geological disposal of the high level radioactive wastes is expected to be a safe disposal method in most countries. The long-lived fission product 99 Tc is present in large quantities in nuclear wastes and its chemical behavior in aqueous solution is of considerable interest. Under oxidizing conditions technetium exists as the anionic species TcO 4 - whereas under the reducing conditions, expected to exist in a deep geological repository, it is generally predicted that technetium will be present as TcO 2 .nH 2 O. Hence, the mobility of Tc(IV) in reducing groundwater may be limited by the solubility of TcO 2 .nH 2 O under these conditions. Due to this fact it is important to investigate the solubility of TcO 2 .nH 2 O. The solubility determines the release of radionuclides from waste form and is used as a source term in radionuclide migration analysis in performance assessment of radioactive waste repository. Technetium(IV) was prepared by reduction of a technetate solution with Sn 2+ . The solubility of Tc(IV) has been determined in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The effects of pH and CO 3 2- concentration of solution on solubility of Tc(IV) were studied. The concentration of total technetium and Tc(IV) species in the solutions were periodically determined by separating the oxidized and reduced technetium species using a solvent extraction procedure and counting the beta activity of the 99 Tc with a liquid scintillation counter. The experimental results show that the rate of oxidation of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is about (1.49 ∝ 1.86) x 10 -9 mol L -1 d -1 under aerobic conditions, while no Tc(IV) oxidation was detected in simulated groundwater and redistilled water under anaerobic conditions. Under aerobic or anaerobic conditions the solubility of Tc(IV) in simulated groundwater and redistilled water is equal on the whole after centrifugation or ultrafiltration. The

  18. Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA renal scan findings in patients with congenital megacalyces and megaureter without urinary tract obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Bae, Jin Ho; Jeong, Sin Young; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo

    2003-01-01

    A 10 days old male infant with congenital megacalyces and megaureter, diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonographic screening, underwent Tc-99m DTPA renal scan for evaluation of urinary tract patency, Tc-99m DMSA scan for evaluation of renal cortical damage. He also underwent intravenous urography(IVU) and renal ultrasonography. Tc-99m DTPA renal scan demonstrates intense tracer accumulation in enlarged both renal pelvocalyses and ureters, which rapidly washout diuretics administration. Tc-99m DMSA renal cortical scan shows no remarkable photon defect in both renal cortices and visible tracer uptake in both megaureter areas. Ultasonographic and IVU studies show enlarged both renal calyses and bullously dilated ureters, but no dilatation in renal pelvis. Follow up Tc-99m DTPA renal scan, performed at one year later, also reveals intense tracer accumulation in enlarged both urinary tracts which rapidly washout without diuretics, and shows no significant change compare to the previous Tc-99m DTPA renal scan. Urinary tract obstruction and renal cortical damage can be easily evaluated with Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA scans in patients with megacalyces and megaureter

  19. Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA renal scan findings in patients with congenital megacalyces and megaureter without urinary tract obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Bae, Jin Ho; Jeong, Sin Young; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    A 10 days old male infant with congenital megacalyces and megaureter, diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonographic screening, underwent Tc-99m DTPA renal scan for evaluation of urinary tract patency, Tc-99m DMSA scan for evaluation of renal cortical damage. He also underwent intravenous urography(IVU) and renal ultrasonography. Tc-99m DTPA renal scan demonstrates intense tracer accumulation in enlarged both renal pelvocalyses and ureters, which rapidly washout diuretics administration. Tc-99m DMSA renal cortical scan shows no remarkable photon defect in both renal cortices and visible tracer uptake in both megaureter areas. Ultasonographic and IVU studies show enlarged both renal calyses and bullously dilated ureters, but no dilatation in renal pelvis. Follow up Tc-99m DTPA renal scan, performed at one year later, also reveals intense tracer accumulation in enlarged both urinary tracts which rapidly washout without diuretics, and shows no significant change compare to the previous Tc-99m DTPA renal scan. Urinary tract obstruction and renal cortical damage can be easily evaluated with Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA scans in patients with megacalyces and megaureter.

  20. Radiopharmaceuticals to 99mTc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Cabana, Alba

    1994-01-01

    Studies about 99m Tc had demonstrated that have favorable properties for support diagnostic proceedings in nuclear medicine. This physical and chemical properties used for obtain another radiopharmaceuticals have been employed through re actives kits labelled with Tc 99m . A brief description was given about 99m utilities in diagnostic techniques such as endothelium reticular system,renal and hepatic studies,bone scintillators,cardiac diagnostic and cerebral perfusion

  1. Fabrication of multifunctional CaP-TC composite coatings and the corrosion protection they provide for magnesium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cui; Zhang, Xiaoxu; Li, Qing

    2017-08-28

    Two major problems with magnesium (Mg) alloy biomaterials are the poor corrosion resistance and infection associated with implantation. In this study, a novel calcium phosphate (CaP)/tetracycline (TC) composite coating for Mg implants that can both improve the corrosion resistance of Mg and release a drug in a durable way is reported. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that TC additives make the CaP coating more compact and uniform. Electrochemical tests indicated CaP/TC coatings can provide excellent corrosion protection for Mg alloy substrates. Besides, TC additives can also provide effective prevention of bone infection and inflammation due to its broad-spectrum antibacterial properties. The one-step hydrothermal process reported here greatly simplified the multi-step fabrication of smart coatings reported previously.

  2. Catabolism and protein binding of /sup 99m/Tc pyridoxylideneglutamate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansholt, A.L.; Krohn, K.A.; Stadalnik, R.C.; Matolo, N.M.; DeNardo, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    Various Tc-99m-labeled compounds have been suggested as replacements for [I-131] rose bengal for imaging of the hepatobiliary system. Among such compounds are Schiff's bases, which are tin-free Tc-chelates easily prepared by 30-min autoclaving of an equimolar mixture of pyridoxal and an amino acid at pH 8.5. We have compared the properties of several Schiff's bases, including Tc-99m pyridoxylideneglutamate (Tc-PyG) with [I-131] rose bengal. Under conditions described, Tc-PyG can be prepared free of Tc-pyridoxal and with 4 - radiochemical impurity. Blood clearance and biliary excretion were studied in three animal models and in normal human volunteers. In all animal models, Tc-PyG initially cleared from the blood more rapidly than rose bengal, but a significant amount of Tc-PyG was excreted in the urine, this in contrast to [I-131] rose bengal which was almost completely excreted through the biliary system. Species differences were observed in the degree of urinary versus biliary clearance of Tc-PyG, with significantly greater urinary excretion in dogs than in monkeys and rabbits. Replacing glutamate with other amino acids did not significantly increase the blood clearance rate or decrease urinary excretion, so that Tc-PyG appears to be at least as good as any of the others studied. Tc-PyG was only 20% bound to plasma proteins, and electrophoretic and chromatographic studies did not reveal any in vivo changes of Tc-PyG before excretion in urine or bile

  3. Bioavailability of {sup 99m}Tc-paclitaxel-glucuronide ({sup 99m}Tc-PAC-G)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biber Muftuler, F.Z.; Demir, I.; Uenack, P.; Ichedef, C.; Yurt Kilcar, A. [Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications

    2011-07-01

    An antitumor agent paclitaxel (PAC) has been proved to be efficient in the treatment of breast and ovarian cancer. Glucuronic acid-derived paclitaxel compound (paclitaxel-glucuronide (PAC-G)) was enzymatically synthesized using microsome preparate separated from rat livers. The biodistribution mechanism of PAC-G in healthy female Albino Wistar rats has been investigated. The expected structure is confirmed according to LC/MS results, and the possible attachment is to C2-hydroxyl group. PAC-G was labeled with {sup 99m}Tc and the radiochemical yield of radiolabeled compound ({sup 99m}Tc-PAC-G) was 98.0 {+-} 02.74% (n=9). The range of the breast/blood and breast/muscle ratios is approximately between 3 and 35 in 240 min. All these experimental studies indicate that {sup 99m}Tc-PAC-G may potentially be used in breast tissue as an imaging agent. (orig.)

  4. Imaging human atherosclerosis with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled low density lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lees, A.M.; Lees, R.S.; Schoen, F.J.; Isaacsohn, J.L.; Fischman, A.J.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of localizing human atherosclerotic plaques by gamma scintillation camera external imaging with technetium-99m-labeled low density lipoproteins (99mTc-LDL) was tested in 17 patients who had atherosclerosis. Imaging demonstrated focal accumulation of radiolabel consistent with 99mTc-LDL sequestration by plaques in the carotid, iliac, or femoral vessels of four patients 8 to 21 hours after intravenous injection of the radiopharmaceutical. Focal accumulation of 99mTc-LDL also appeared in the location of coronary lesions in four patients, but this accumulation could not be distinguished with certainty from residual blood pool radioactivity. When carotid endarterectomy specimens from six patients who received 99mTc-LDL 1 day before endarterectomy were examined, the specimens had focal accumulations of radiolabel, with two to four times greater radioactivity in some regions of each specimen than in others; this occurred whether or not the lesions were detected on the gamma camera images. Lesion composition may have determined whether accumulation was quantitatively sufficient to produce an external image. Histologically, the imaged carotid specimen had abundant foam cells and macrophages and poorly organized intramural blood consistent with a plaque hemorrhage; in contrast, nonimaged endarterectomy specimens were mature, fibrocalcific plaques. We conclude that: 1) 99mTc-LDL did accumulate in human atherosclerotic plaques; 2) in some patients, the accumulation of 99mTc-LDL was sufficient for detection by gamma camera imaging; 3) the amount of LDL that accumulated appeared to depend on lesion composition; and 4) the design of new radiopharmaceuticals with reduced residual blood pool activity relative to plaque accumulation should lead to improved external imaging of atherosclerosis

  5. A comparative study of 99mTc-HL91 and 99mTc-MIBI imaging in experimental tumor and inflammatory models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, W.; Zhang, X.Y.; An, R.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: 99m Tc-HL91 is a newly developed hypoxic imaging agent for ischemic myocardium and tumor imaging. 99m Tc-MIBI is one of imaging agent for mammary tumor imaging. The aim of this experiment is to evaluate the diagnostic value of 99m Tc-HL91 in detection of solid tumor in experimental tumor and inflammatory models, via comparative study with 99m Tc-MIBI. Material and Methods: HL91 kits was provided by China Nine Star Co. Three kinds of bearing solid neoplasm mice groups (bearing Ehrlich carcinoma mice, bearing H 22 carcinoma mice and bearing human ovarian COC 1 neoplasm nude mice) and two inflammatory model groups (chemical and bacterial inflammation) underwent static whole body planar images at 1 and 4 hours post injection of 99m Tc-HL91. Two kinds of bearing neoplasm mice groups (bearing Ehrlich carcinoma mice, bearing H 22 carcinoma mice) and two inflammatory model groups (chemical and bacterial inflammation) underwent static planar images post injection of 99m Tc-MIBI, at early phase (10∼20 minutes) and delayed phase (2 hrs). All of mice were sacrificed at 4 hrs. The tumors, or inflammatory lesions, blood and contralateral muscles were removed, weighed and the radioactivity was measured. Regions of interesting (ROIs) were drawn around tumor, inflammatory lesions and contralateral muscles in planar images, and the radioactivity ratios of target (tumor or inflammatory lesions)-to-blood (T/B), target-to-non target (contralateral muscles) i. e. T/NT was calculated. Results: Neoplasm can be clearly visible in planar images at 1hr and 4 hrs post injection of 99m Tc-HL91 in all tumor models. At same time inflammatory lesions cannot be seen clearly. Neoplasm can be seen in delayed phase in 99m Tc-MIBI groups, but not easy to distinguish them from inflammation. Conclusion: Compared with 99m Tc-MIBI imaging, 99m Tc-HL91 has much more diagnostic value in detection of solid neoplasm, and can distinguish neoplasm from inflammation

  6. Clinical evaluation of scintigraphies with sup(99m)Tc-phytate and /sup 67/Ga-citrate as a screening test for hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayabe, Y; Oshiumi, Y; Kamoi, I; Ichiya, Y [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Murakami, J

    1981-02-01

    sup(99m)Tc-phytate and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphies were evaluated clinically in 50 cases of histologically proven hepatocellular carcinoma. Detectability was higher in sup(99m)Tc-phytate scans than in /sup 67/Ga scans, and was influenced by the presence of liver cirrhosis. However, by using both scans, the highest detectability was obtained. /sup 67/Ga scan was useful especially in cases with equivocal sup(99m)Tc-phytate scintigraphy and cases with liver cirrhosis. There was no definite correlation seen between Edmondson's histological gradings and grades of /sup 67/Ga accumulation. No significant difference of /sup 67/Ga accumulation in hepatocellular carcinoma was observed regardless of the presence of liver cirrhosis. We conclude that it is better to use sup(99m)Tc-phytate as the first choice in screening of hepatocellular carcinoma and subsequent /sup 67/Ga scan if indicated.

  7. Analysis of 99mTc-labeled radiopharmaceuticals by high-performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Toshio

    1990-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equiped with on line radiometric and optical detectors (i.e. radio-HPLC) have been applied to the radiochemical analysis of commonly-used 99m Tc-radio pharma ceuticals with a view point to check the radiochemical purities of the compounds. Chromatographic conditions were determined by examination of the types of column, mobile phase and pH. An aqueous size-exclusion (Shim-pack Diol-300) and reversed-phase column (Zorbax-ODS) were found to be suitable for 99m Tc-HSA and the other 99m Tc-agents, respectively. The analysis of low molecular weight 99m Tc-agents (e.g. 99m Tc-DTPA, 99m Tc-DMSA, 99m Tc-pyrophosphate, 99m Tc-phytic acid, 99m Tc-MDS, 99m Tc-HMDP) were done by reversed-phaseion pairing chromatography using a optimized mobile phase consisted on a mixture of 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) and 2 mM TBA (tetra nbutyl) ammonium hydroxide) in 30 % methanol. The mobile phases for analysis of medium molecular weight 99m Tc-HSA were consisted of a mixture of 50 mM phosphate buffer (ph 7.0) in 30 % methanol, and a mixtures of 1 % SDS (sodium dodecyl sulfonate) in Tris buffer (pH. 7.0), respectively. It was apparent from the radio-chromatograms obtained from these chromatographic conditions, that impurity of 99m TcO 4 was observed in 99m Tc-pyrophosphate, 99m Tc-phytic acid, 99m Tc-MDP, 99m Tc-HMDP, and impurities of 99m Tc-labeled species and 99m TcO 4 , were observed in 99m Tc-HIDA, 99m Tc-HIDA, 99m Tc-HSA. The radiochemical impurities of the 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals were ranged between 90 and 100 %. From these results, radio-HPLC has been shown to be suitable method for analysis of 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals, with rapidity and excellent precision. (author)

  8. Comparing consideration of the biological behaviour of [sup(99m)Tc(DMPE)2Cl2]+ and [sup(99m)Tc(DMPE)3]+ in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syhre, R.; Seifert, S.; Muenze, R.; Jander, R.; Kretschmar, M.

    1984-01-01

    The myotropic [sup(99m)Tc(DMPE) 3 ] + -complex was prepared by alakaline reduction of pertechnetate in an excess of DMPE and under absence of air with a radiochemical purity of > 95% and compared with the [sup(99m)TcCl 2 (DMPE) 2 ] + -complex concerning the tissue distribution and biokinetics. The tissue distribution corresponds nearly to the Tc(III)-complex with the exception of rather increased activity of the lungs. Tc(I)-DMPE is more lipophilic and stronger bound to human serum albumin than the Tc(III)-DMPE-complex. The biological half-lifes of the distribution phase of Tc(I)-DMPE are longer than the corresponding half-lifes determined for Tc(III)-DMPE. Target/nontarget ratios similar to 201 Tl are nearly achieved for Tc(III)-DMPE in the first 20 minutes after injection. The Tc(I)-DMPE-complex does not reach comparable heart/liver ratios within the first two hours after injection, the necessary heart/blood ratios only after 20-30 minutes. Both compounds are not stable in vivo. (orig.) [de

  9. Predicting the sparticle spectrum from GUTs via SUSY threshold corrections with SusyTC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antusch, Stefan [Department of Physics, University of Basel,Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut),Föhringer Ring 6, D-80805 München (Germany); Sluka, Constantin [Department of Physics, University of Basel,Klingelbergstr. 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-07-21

    Grand Unified Theories (GUTs) can feature predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton Yukawa couplings at high energy, which can be tested with the increasingly precise results for the fermion masses, given at low energies. To perform such tests, the renormalization group (RG) running has to be performed with sufficient accuracy. In supersymmetric (SUSY) theories, the one-loop threshold corrections (TC) are of particular importance and, since they affect the quark-lepton mass relations, link a given GUT flavour model to the sparticle spectrum. To accurately study such predictions, we extend and generalize various formulas in the literature which are needed for a precision analysis of SUSY flavour GUT models. We introduce the new software tool SusyTC, a major extension to the Mathematica package REAP http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1126-6708/2005/03/024, where these formulas are implemented. SusyTC extends the functionality of REAP by a full inclusion of the (complex) MSSM SUSY sector and a careful calculation of the one-loop SUSY threshold corrections for the full down-type quark, up-type quark and charged lepton Yukawa coupling matrices in the electroweak-unbroken phase. Among other useful features, SusyTC calculates the one-loop corrected pole mass of the charged (or the CP-odd) Higgs boson as well as provides output in SLHA conventions, i.e. the necessary input for external software, e.g. for performing a two-loop Higgs mass calculation. We apply SusyTC to study the predictions for the parameters of the CMSSM (mSUGRA) SUSY scenario from the set of GUT scale Yukawa relations ((y{sub e})/(y{sub d}))=−(1/2), ((y{sub μ})/(y{sub s}))=6, and ((y{sub τ})/(y{sub b}))=−(3/2), which has been proposed recently in the context of SUSY GUT flavour models.

  10. Occurrence and behaviour of Tc in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxenburger, H.J.; Schuettelkopf, H.

    1984-08-01

    A literature research was performed about the occurence and the behaviour of Tc in the environment. About 3600 publications, published between 1925 und 1983, were evaluated. The actual knowledge about Tc in the environment within extended regions is fragmentary. A lot of necessary informations about the behaviour of Tc in the environment are lacking completely. (orig.) [de

  11. Studies of the Tc oxidation states in humic acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bo; Liu Dejun; Yao Jun

    2010-01-01

    The oxidation state is an important aspect of the speciation of Tc in groundwater that contained organic substances due to it control the precipitation, complexation, sorption and colloid formation behavior of the Tc under HWL geological disposal conditions. In present work, the oxidation states of Tc were investigated using the LaCl 3 coagulation method and solution extraction method in aqueous solutions in which the humic acid concentration range is from 0 to 20 mg L -1 and the Tc (Ⅶ) concentration range is about 10 -8 mol l -1 . The radiocounting of 99 Tc was determined using liquid scintillation spectrometry. The humic acid will influence the radiocounting ratio of 99 Tc apparently, however, the quenching effect can be restrained once keep the volume of the cocktail to about twenty times of the sample volume. The LaCl 3 coagulation methods were carried out for the investigation of Tc oxidation states in humic acid aqueous systems at about pH 8. The tetraphenylarsonium chloride (IPA)-chloroform extraction method was used also simultaneously to investigation the concentrations of Tc (Ⅳ) and Tc (Ⅶ) for the availability of the LaCl 3 precipitation method, and the experimental results demonstrate that tetravalent technetium and pertechnetate concentrations are well agreement with the LaCl 3 precipitation method. These two experimental results demonstrated that Tc (Ⅶ) is very stable in the Tc (Ⅶ)-humic acid system during a 350 days experimental period, and the Tc (Ⅳ) concentrations are very lower, that is indicate that there didn't oxidizing reactions between the Fluka humic acid and Tc (Ⅶ) in aqueous solutions under anaerobic conditions. That is means the presence of humic acids even in anaerobic groundwater is disadvantage for the retardance of radionuclides. (authors)

  12. Operational Based Vision Assessment Automated Vision Test Collection User Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-15

    AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2017-0012 Operational Based Vision Assessment Automated Vision Test Collection User Guide Elizabeth Shoda, Alex...June 2015 – May 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Operational Based Vision Assessment Automated Vision Test Collection User Guide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... automated vision tests , or AVT. Development of the AVT was required to support threshold-level vision testing capability needed to investigate the

  13. Detection and localization of enlarged parathyroid glands in patients with hyperparathyroidism using 99mTc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI). A study of subtraction scintigraphy with 99mTc-pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katagiri, Makoto; Ohtawa, Takahiro; Otsuka, Nobuaki; Morita, Koichi; Sone, Teruki; Mimura, Hiroaki; Yanagimoto, Shinichi; Fukunaga, Masao; Harada, Tanekazu

    1995-01-01

    In this study we investigated the detectability of abnormal parathyroid gland(s) by 99m Tc-methoxy-isobutylisonitrile (MIBI) scintigraphy in patients with hyperparathyroidism. The subjects were 6 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) with a single adenoma and 13 patients with renal hyperparathyroidism (RHP) on chronic maintenance hemodialysis. The imaging data of 99m Tc-pertechnetate were subtracted from those of 99m Tc-MIBI (MIBI-Tc), and number and location of the positive images on scintigrams were compared with those obtained by conventional scintigraphy using 201 Tl-Cl and 99m Tc-pertechnetate (Tl-Tc). All of the patients underwent surgery, and the number and location of the abnormal parathyroid glands were confirmed. The number of resected parathyroid glands were 6 in PHP and 52 in RHP. The detectability of MIBI-Tc was 83.3% in PHP and 51.9% in RHP, while that of Tl-Tc was 100% and 44.2%, respectively. Although no statistically significant difference in the detectability was found between MIBI-Tc and Tl-Tc, the number of false positives with MIBI-Tc was less than that with Tl-Tc. The detectability of MIBI-Tc depended on the size of the parathyroid gland. The maximal diameter and weight of the smallest parathyroid gland detected were 15 mm and 290 mg in PHP, and 9 mm and 50 mg in RHP. The existence of the thyroid gland did not reduce the detectability of MIBI-Tc. In conclusion, MIBI-Tc was clinically very useful for the detection of abnormal parathyroid glands in patients with hyperparathyroidism. (author)

  14. /sup 99m/Tc-labeled solid-phase meal: a quantitative clinical measurement of human gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J.L.; Beck, W.J.; McDonald, A.P.; Carlson, G.M.; Mathias, J.R.

    1983-08-01

    A solid-phase meal labeled with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid provides an improved clinical test for the quantitative evaluation of human gastric emptying. We studied 12 healthy male controls and five male patients with known gastric stasis secondary to a vagotomy and drainage procedure. All subjects were fasted for 8 hours before the study, and each consumed an unbuttered biscuit and a poached egg white containing 1 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid. For 2 hours, 60-second counts were measured every 10 minutes by a Pho Gamma III scintillation camera. The t/sup 1///sup 2/ for control subjects was 60 minutes, at which time patients with gastric stasis had retained 98% of the test meal. At 120 minutes, control subjects and patients with gastric stasis had 4.7% and 89%, respectively, of the meal remaining in the stomach. The solid-phase test meal labeled with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid is easy to perform and can be used clinically to quantitatively measure gastric emptying in humans. This test can discriminate between control subjects and patients with known gastric stasis.

  15. /sup 99m/Tc-labeled solid-phase meal: a quantitative clinical measurement of human gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.L.; Beck, W.J.; McDonald, A.P.; Carlson, G.M.; Mathias, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A solid-phase meal labeled with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid provides an improved clinical test for the quantitative evaluation of human gastric emptying. We studied 12 healthy male controls and five male patients with known gastric stasis secondary to a vagotomy and drainage procedure. All subjects were fasted for 8 hours before the study, and each consumed an unbuttered biscuit and a poached egg white containing 1 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid. For 2 hours, 60-second counts were measured every 10 minutes by a Pho Gamma III scintillation camera. The t 1 / 2 for control subjects was 60 minutes, at which time patients with gastric stasis had retained 98% of the test meal. At 120 minutes, control subjects and patients with gastric stasis had 4.7% and 89%, respectively, of the meal remaining in the stomach. The solid-phase test meal labeled with /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid is easy to perform and can be used clinically to quantitatively measure gastric emptying in humans. This test can discriminate between control subjects and patients with known gastric stasis

  16. Stability of U(VI) and Tc(VII) Reducing Microbial Communities to Environmental Perturbation: Development and Testing of a Thermodynamic Network Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, James P.; Istok, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Previously published research from in situ field experiments at the NABIR Field Research Center have shown that cooperative metabolism of denitrifiers and Fe(III)/sulfate reducers is essential for creating subsurface conditions favorable for U(VI) and Tc(VII) bioreduction (Istok et al., 2004). The overall goal of this project is to develop and test a thermodynamic network model for predicting the effects of substrate additions and environmental perturbations on the composition and functional stability of subsurface microbial communities. The overall scientific hypothesis is that a thermodynamic analysis of the energy-yielding reactions performed by broadly defined groups of microorganisms can be used to make quantitative and testable predictions of the change in microbial community composition that will occur when a substrate is added to the subsurface or when environmental conditions change. An interactive computer program was developed to calculate the overall growth equation and free energy yield for microorganisms that grow by coupling selected combinations of electron acceptor and electron donor half-reactions. Each group performs a specific function (e.g. oxidation of acetate coupled to reduction of nitrate); collectively the groups provide a theoretical description of the entire natural microbial community. The microbial growth data are combined with an existing thermodynamic data base for associated geochemical reactions and used to simulate the coupled microbial-geochemical response of a complex natural system to substrate addition or any other environmental perturbations

  17. Influence of a {sup 99m}TcN core on the biological and physicochemical behavior of {sup 99m}Tc complexes of L,L-EC and L,L-ECD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangera, Kennedy O; Vanbilloen, Hubert P.; Bellande, Emmanuel; Pasqualini, Roberto; Verbruggen, Alfons M

    1996-11-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-nitrido complexes of L,L-ethylene dicysteine ({sup 99m}TcN-L,L-EC) and {sup 99m}TcN-L,L-ethylene dicysteine diethylester ({sup 99m}TcN-L,L-ECD) were prepared and their characteristics compared to those of the respective {sup 99m}Tc-oxo complexes. {sup 99m}TcN-L,L-EC and {sup 99m}TcO-L,L-EC migrate to similar extents during electrophoresis at pH 12, but, at pH 6, {sup 99m}TcN-L,L-EC migrates further than {sup 99m}TcO-L,L-EC. Renal excretion of {sup 99m}TcN-L,L-EC is inferior to that of {sup 99m}TcO-L,L-EC, indicating that the TcN-glycine sequence has lower affinity for the renal tubular system. Both {sup 99m}TcO-L,L-ECD and {sup 99m}TcN-L,L-ECD are neutral, but {sup 99m}TcN-L,L-ECD is hydrophilic and shows minimal brain uptake in both mice and the baboon.

  18. Biodistribution of immunoliposome labeled with Tc-99m in tumor xenografted mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Naoto; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Nakahara, Tadaki; Kanoh, Momoe; Hashimoto, Jun; Kunieda, Etsuo; Kubo, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    Immunoliposome (PEG, GAH, liposome; PGL), consisting of F(ab') 2 fragment of monoclonal antibody, GAH and polyethyleneglycol-coated (PEGylated) liposome was provided. Immunoliposome, PGL was labeled with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) by two methods: labeling F(ab') 2 fragment with Tc-99m; Tc-99m-PGL, and entrapping Tc-99m into liposome; PGL[Tc-99m]. The objective of this study was to compare the biodistribution of Tc-99m-PGL and PGL[Tc-99m] in human gastric cancer xenografted mice. Tc-99m-PGL, PGL[Tc-99m], and Tc-99m-entrapped liposome; Lipo[Tc-99m] were prepared. They were injected into human gastric cancer, MKN45, xenografted mice via the tail vein, and their biodistribution was studied. No marked accumulation of either PGL[Tc-99m] or Lipo[Tc-99m] was observed in the stomach. The uptake of Tc-99m-PGL by the liver, spleen, and lung was higher than that by the tumor. On the other hand, the uptake of PGL[Tc-99m] by the lung and spleen was markedly lower as compared with that of Tc-99m-PGL; the accumulation of PGL[Tc-99m] was lower in the lung and higher in the spleen as compared with that of the tumor. Although the liver uptake of PGL[Tc-99m] was markedly decreased as compared with that of Tc-99m-PGL, it was higher than the uptake of the tumor. The Tc-99m-PGL was strongly taken up by the tumor, with a high level of incorporation also seen in the stomach. These findings suggest the need for further study of the labeling stability. PGL[Tc-99m] appears to show promise for high tumor uptake and retention. This is an important implication for the potential application of immunoliposomes entrapped with Re-186, instead of Tc-99m, in internal radiotherapy. (author)

  19. Nuclear quadrupole moment of the 99Tc ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errico, Leonardo; Darriba, German; Renteria, Mario; Tang Zhengning; Emmerich, Heike; Cottenier, Stefaan

    2008-01-01

    By combining first-principles calculations and existing nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments, we determine the quadrupole moment of the 9/2 + ground state of 99 Tc to be (-)0.14(3)b. This confirms the value of -0.129(20)b, which is currently believed to be the most reliable experimental determination, and disagrees with two earlier experimental values. We supply ab initio calculated electric-field gradients for Tc in YTc 2 and ZrTc 2 . If this calculated information would be combined with yet to be performed Tc-NMR experiments in these compounds, the error bar on the 99 Tc ground state quadrupole moment could be further reduced

  20. Development of more efficacious Tc-99m organ imaging agents for use in nuclear medicine by analytical characterization of radiopharmaceutical mixtures. Progress report, May 1, 1982-April 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heineman, W.R.; Deutsch, E.A.

    1982-11-01

    A procedure based on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been developed for separating individual Tc-diphosphonate complexes in skeletal-imaging radiopharmaceuticals prepared by reduction of TcO 4 - with NaBH 4 in the presence of methylene diphosphonate (MDP). Seven different Tc-MDP complexes have been detected and isolated in pure form. Significant differences in skeletal uptake and blood clearance are exhibited by the three complexes tested thus far by biodistribution studies in test animals. The relative quantities of these complexes present in a radiopharmaceutical preparation are dramatically influenced by the pH of the reaction mixture. Thus, control of pH is a simple means of forming in high yield the single, most efficacious Tc-MDP complex for skeletal imaginG. An HPLC method with electrochemical detection has been developed for the analytical determination of total TcO 4 - (/sup 99m/Tc + 99 Tc). Concentrations of TcO 4 - as low as 9 x 10 -9 M can be detected. The method is being evaluated for monitoring total TcO 4 - in 99 Mo//sup 99m/Tc generators

  1. Real-time new satellite product demonstration from microwave sensors and GOES-16 at NRL TC web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossuth, J.; Richardson, K.; Surratt, M. L.; Bankert, R.

    2017-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Tropical Cyclone (TC) satellite webpage (https://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/TC.html) provides demonstration analyses of storm imagery to benefit operational TC forecast centers around the world. With the availability of new spectral information provided by GOES-16 satellite data and recent research into improved visualization methods of microwave data, experimental imagery was operationally tested to visualize the structural changes of TCs during the 2017 hurricane season. This presentation provides an introduction into these innovative satellite analysis methods, NRL's next generation satellite analysis system (the Geolocated Information Processing System, GeoIPSTM), and demonstration the added value of additional spectral frequencies when monitoring storms in near-realtime.

  2. Robust high-yield ~1 TBq production of cyclotron based sodium [99mTc]pertechnetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, J D; Thomas, B; Selivanova, S V; Berthelette, E; Wilson, J S; McEwan, A J B; Gagnon, K

    2018-03-02

    This paper presents the irradiation and processing of high-current 100 Mo targets at the University of Alberta (UofA) in a GMP compliant setting. For purpose of comparison with a second production facility, additional studies at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke (CHUS) are also described. More than 70% of today's diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals are based on 99m Tc, however the conventional supply chain for obtaining 99m Tc is fragile. The aim of this work was to demonstrate reliable high yield production and processing of 99m Tc with medium-energy, high-current, cyclotrons. We used two cyclotrons (TR-24, Advanced Cyclotron Systems, Inc) for irradiations with 22 MeV or 24 MeV incident energy and 400 μA current up to a maximum of 6 h. The irradiated 100 Mo was dissolved using peroxide, basified using ammonium carbonate, and purified using a PEG-based solid phase extraction technique. High-yield productions with 22 MeV (400 μA, 6 h) yielded an average isolated [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - yield of 878 GBq ± 99 GBq (23.7 Ci ± 2.7 Ci) decay corrected to EOB, n = 8 (isolated saturation yield: 4.36 ± 0.49 GBq/μA). Irradiations with 24 MeV (400 μA, 6 h) resulted in an average isolated [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - yield of 993 GBq ± 100 GBq (26.8 Ci ± 2.7 Ci) decay corrected to EOB, n = 7 (isolated saturation yield: 4.97 ± 0.50 GBq/μA). These yields corresponds to 600-700 GBq (16-19 Ci) of [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - at release (i.e. 3 hour post-EOB). For all tested batches, the QC results were within the recently published specifications in the European Pharmacopoeia. Reliable near-TBq production yields for 99m Tc can be obtained using medium-energy cyclotrons. This work presents evidence that medium-energy high-current cyclotrons can provide high yields of [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - with radionuclidic impurities levels within the specifications of the existing European Pharmacopoeia monograph, indicating that this

  3. Rice uptake and leaching of {sup 99}Tc in different paddy soils contaminated according to two contrasting scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yong Ho; Lim, Kwang Muk; Jun, In; Kim, Byung Ho; Keum, Dong Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Four different paddy soils collected around the Gyeongju nuclear site were treated with {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -1} solution under the assumption of two contrasting contamination scenarios. Scenario I (SN-I) is for a pre-transplanting deposition of {sup 99}Tc followed by plowing, whereas SN-II is for its deposition onto the water surface shortly after transplanting. Rice plants were grown in lysimeters in a greenhouse. Plant uptake of {sup 99}Tc was quantified with the TF{sub area} (m{sup 2}·kg{sup -1}-dry). The SN-II values for straws and brown rice, having been generally higher than the SN-I values, were within the ranges of 6.9x10{sup -3}⁓4.1x10{sup -2} and 5.2x10{sup -6}⁓7.3x10{sup -5}, respectively. Sorption onto clay seems to have decreased {sup 99}Tc uptake in SN-I, whereas it may have had an insignificant effect in SN-II. A phenomenon characteristic of submerged paddy soil, i.e., the development of a thin oxic surface layer may have greatly affected the rice uptake of SN-II {sup 99}Tc. The surface-water concentrations of {sup 99}Tc were much higher in SN-II than in SN-I. For the percolating water, however, the opposite was generally true. At most 1.3% of the applied {sup 99}Tc were leached through such percolation. The use of empirical deposition time-dependent TF{sub area} values was considered desirable in assessing the radiological impact of a growing-season deposition of {sup 99}Tc onto paddy fields.

  4. Clinical evaluation of myocardial perfusion imaging with 99mTc-CPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiujie

    1988-01-01

    10 normal subjects and 55 cases of patients with heart diseases were studied with 99m Tc-CPI myocardial perfusion imaging. The 99m Tc-CPI myocarbial imaging is superior to 99m Tc-TBI, because the uptake of 99m Tc-CPI in both lung and liver is lower. The imaging quality of 99m Tc-CPI is nearly as good as that of 201 Tl. 16 patients had both 99m Tc-CPI myocardial imaging and coronary artery angiography. The sensitivity of 99m Tc-CPI myocardial imaging for detecting coronary artery disease (CAD) was 92%, whereas the sensitivity of ECG was 84.6%. 99m Tc-CPI myocardial tomography was obtained in 17 patients using Toshiba 90B SPECT system. The imaging quality of myocardial tomography using 99m Tc-CPI is very good and superior to planar imaging for detecting myocardial infarction

  5. [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT study in dementia and aphasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwabara, Yasuo; Ichiya, Yuichi; Otsuka, Makoto; Sasaki, Masayuki; Akashi, Yuko; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Masuda, Kouji; Ichimiya, Atsushi (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1993-09-01

    We studied clinical significance of [sup 99m]Tc-L,L,-ethyl cysteine dimer ([sup 99m]Tc-ECD) SPECT study in dementia and aphasia, and compared it with [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO SPECT study. The subjects consisted of 13 patients, including 10 patients with dementia and 3 patients with aphasia. Hypoperfusion areas were detected in 5 out of 10 patients with dementia and 2 out of 3 patients with aphasia in [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT, and in 4 out of 10 patients with dementia and all of 3 patients with aphasia in [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO SPECT. The count rate ratios in [sup 99m]Tc-ECD and [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO SPECT were correlated well with each other, and the contrast of the [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT image was equivalent or slightly higher as compared with [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO. Therefore, [sup 99m]Tc-ECD SPECT study was considered to be useful for the evaluation of cerebral perfusion in dementia and aphasia. (author).

  6. An expedient method for the preparation of 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-MAG3 using microwave and teflon 'bomb'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varelis, P.; Poot, M.T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The recommended method for the preparation of 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-MAG3 requires that they be heated in a boiling water bath for 10 minutes, after reconstitution with sodium pertechnetate. This method is both inconvenient and time consuming. A more rapid and convenient method for the preparation of these radiopharmaceuticals employs a conventional microwave oven. However, a serious limitation of this method is the hazard associated with an explosion of a vessel containing a radioactive substance. Traditionally, mixtures that can potentially explode are contained in a device called a 'bomb'. We have developed a method, utilising such a device, that allows us to rapidly and safely prepare 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-MAG3 using a microwave oven. This device is used in our department on a daily basis. Since using the teflon bomb, there has been one incidence of an explosion, which was successfully contained within the bomb. There was no statistically significant difference between the radiochemical purity (RCP) of the microwave prepared samples and those obtained using the recommended method. In conclusion, 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-MAG3 can be safely prepared and quality controlled in under ten minutes using a microwave oven and our teflon bomb. The average RCP for 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-MAG3 prepared using a microwave oven were 97.0+2.0% (n=19) and 99.8+0.2 (n=7) respectively

  7. An expedient method for the preparation of 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-MAG3 using microwave and teflon `bomb`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varelis, P.; Poot, M.T. [St George Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1998-06-01

    Full text: The recommended method for the preparation of 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-MAG3 requires that they be heated in a boiling water bath for 10 minutes, after reconstitution with sodium pertechnetate. This method is both inconvenient and time consuming. A more rapid and convenient method for the preparation of these radiopharmaceuticals employs a conventional microwave oven. However, a serious limitation of this method is the hazard associated with an explosion of a vessel containing a radioactive substance. Traditionally, mixtures that can potentially explode are contained in a device called a `bomb`. We have developed a method, utilising such a device, that allows us to rapidly and safely prepare 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-MAG3 using a microwave oven. This device is used in our department on a daily basis. Since using the teflon bomb, there has been one incidence of an explosion, which was successfully contained within the bomb. There was no statistically significant difference between the radiochemical purity (RCP) of the microwave prepared samples and those obtained using the recommended method. In conclusion, 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-MAG3 can be safely prepared and quality controlled in under ten minutes using a microwave oven and our teflon bomb. The average RCP for 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-MAG3 prepared using a microwave oven were 97.0+2.0% (n=19) and 99.8+0.2 (n=7) respectively

  8. Preparation of 99 sup(m)Tc labeled fibrinogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, M.A.T.M. de; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1984-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of 99 sup(m) TC labelled Fibrinogen using stannous chloride as reducing agent of 99 sup(m) TcO- 4 ion is presented. A sample of 20 mg of Fibrinogen is dissolved in 2 ml of buffer carbonate (pH=8) and 0.3 ml stannous chloride 0.2% is added. A sterile solution of sodium pertechnetate 99 sup(m) Tc eluted from a Mo-Tc generator is immediately added. The mixture rests for 30 minutes and after this period, the obtained yield is about 70%. The lyophilized kits also presented a yield of 70%, being therefore suitable for medical applications. (Author) [pt

  9. Achalasia diagnosed by 99mTc pertechnetate scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikosch, P.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Kresnik, E.; Lind, P.

    1997-01-01

    A 73-year-old patient presented a 99m Tc scintiscan with a focal tracer accumulation left and caudal of the thyroid gland. Further investigations with sonography, CT, esophagoscopy and barium swallow provided the diagnosis of achalasia as the reason for focal 99m Tc retention caudal of the thyroid gland. Explanation for 99m Tc accumulation within the esophagus may be the nonspecific accumulation of 99m Tc not only in the thyroid gland but also in the salivary glands. Excretion of the tracer follows with the saliva. Structural and motor disorders of the esophagus can thus lead to focal tracer retention within the esophagus simulating thyroid tissue. (orig.) [de

  10. Chemistry of /sup 99m/Tc labeling kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.; Richards, P.

    1976-01-01

    Problems have been reported with the use of kit-produced /sup 99m/Tc radiopharmaceuticals. This study was undertaken to understand the chemistry involved in various stannous kit systems. The relation between Tc, tin, and the ligands used to complex the reduced Tc was investigated. It is concluded that for reliable performance, stannous kits should be prepared so that most of the tin is kept in the usable (reducing) form; a solution would be to use minimum tin and a large excess of complexing agent. Oxidation of the Tc complex to free pertechnetate is not a major problem in most kit systems. 5 figures

  11. Clinical efficacy of 99mTc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Itaru; Sugioka, Yasushi; Tanaka, Yasunori

    1993-01-01

    99m Tc-tetrofosmin is a lipophilic, cationic diphosphine which has been developed for myocardial imaging. We examined 9 patients with ischemic heart disease including 3 angina pectoris (AP), 4 old myocardial infarction (OMI), 1 AP with OMI and 1 syndrome X. One patient was examined before and after operation. Three hundred seventy MBq of 99m Tc-tetrofosmin was injected during exercise and 740 MBq at rest. And 74 MBq of 201 Tl myocardial exercise and redistribution scintigraphy was also performed to compare with 99m Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy. SPECT, multiple gated SPECT and anterior planar images were obtained in all cases. We calculated percent wall thickening (%WT) using multiple gated SPECT images. There was a decreased lung uptake in 99m Tc-tetrofosmin planar images compared to 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy. Liver and Biliary system uptake in 99m Tc-tetrofosmin images was decreased with intake of milk. Segmental comparison of SPECT images showed an agreement in 9/10 of the segment between 201 Tl and 99m Tc-tetrofosmin. We could obtain excellent quality of multiple gated SPECT images in all patients. We could calculate percent wall thickening (%WT) in all patients. We conclude that 99m Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy should provide usefulness for detection of ischemic myocardium as same as 201 Tl myocardial scintigraphy, although the biologic characteristics of two agents were different. These data and excellent quality of multiple gated SPECT images suggest that 99m Tc-tetrofosmin is a new 99m Tc agent for evaluation of patients with ischemic heart disease. (author)

  12. Lymphoscintigraphy in melanoma patients using Tc-99m dextran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, D.; Padgett, H.; Henze, E.; Carlson, C.; Bennett, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Surgical removal of regional lymph nodes draining the site of a melanoma is a generally practiced procedure. It is often difficult in many cases of truncal melanomas near the midline or near the waistline to determine which group or groups of nodes to remove. Colloidal Au-198, Tc-99m sulfur colloid, and Tc-99m antimony sulfur colloid have all been used and have given useful clinical information. Objections, however, have been raised to the local radiation dose with these compounds. To reduce this problem while obtaining greater information on lymph flow, the authors have studied dextran, a macromolecule commonly used as plasma substitute. Dextran (average mol. wt. 72,000) labeled with Tc-99m has been used to study lymph drainage from the site of truncal melanoma in 29 patients. Serial images in the first hour following intradermal injection clearly demonstrate tracer in efferent lymphatics within 5 to 10 minutes, and brief pooling in the regional lymph nodes between 20 and 60 minutes. When compared with particulate tracers such as micro Tc-99m sulfur colloid, the Tc-99m dextran appears to move much faster through the lymphatics. Overall distribution of the Tc-99m dextran to lymph nodes is very similar to previous findings with micro Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Dextran drainage to more than one group of regional nodes was seen in 12/29 patients as compared with 17/50 patients using micro Tc-99m sulfur colloid. The superior images with Tc-99m dextran appear to make it the agent of choice

  13. Post meningitis subdural hygroma: Anatomical and functional evaluation with (99m)Tc-ehylene cysteine dimer single photon emission tomography/computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Punit; Mishra, Ajiv; Arora, Geetanjali; Tripathi, Madhavi; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Subdural hygroma is the collection of cerebrospinal fluid in the subdural space. Most often these resolve spontaneously. However, in cases with neurological complications surgical drainage may be needed. We here, present the case of an 8-year-old boy with post meningitis subdural hygroma. (99m)Tc-ehylene cysteine dimer ((99m)Tc-ECD) hybrid single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) carried out in this patient, demonstrated the subdural hygroma as well as the associated cerebral hypoperfusion. If (99m)Tc-ECD SPECT/CT is integrated into management of these patients, it can help in decision making with respect to conservative versus surgical management.

  14. Post meningitis subdural hygroma: anatomical and functional evaluation with 99mTc-ethylene cysteine dimer single photon emission tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Punit; Mishra, Ajiv; Arora, Geetanjali; Tripathi, Madhavi; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Subdural hygroma is the collection of cerebrospinal fluid in the subdural space. Most often these resolve spontaneously. However, in cases with neurological complications surgical drainage may be needed. We here, present the case of an 8-year-old boy with post meningitis subdural hygroma. 99m Tc-ethylene cysteine dimer ( 99m Tc-ECD) hybrid single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) carried out in this patient, demonstrated the subdural hygroma as well as the associated cerebral hypoperfusion. If 99m Tc-ECD SPECT/CT is integrated into management of these patients, it can help in decision making with respect to conservative versus surgical management. (author)

  15. sup(99m)Tc-labeled monofluorophosphate as a skeletal imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Tsuneji; Ito, Yasuhiko; Muranaka, Akira; Yokobayashi, Tsuneo; Uchida, Masahiro

    1976-01-01

    The performance of sup(99m)Tc-monofluorophosphate was compared with those of sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate and sup(99m)Tc-diphosphonate in rabbits. Studies included chromatographic quality control, measurements of blood clearance, tissue distribution, urinary excretion, skeletal imaging, and measurements of the serum calcium. The labeling for sup(99m)Tc-monofluorophosphate was 98% on paper chromatography and 85% on thin layer chromatography. A large fraction of the activity of the three labeled agents was cleared very rapidly from the bloodstream: however, slow components of the curves were the highest for sup(99m)Tc-monofluorophosphate and lowest for sup(99m)Tc-diphosphonate. Three hours after injection 20% of the dose of sup(99m)Tc-monofluorophosphate was taken up by bone. The corresponding values of sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate and sup(99m)Tc-diphosphonate were 29.1% and 40.0% respectively. Ratio of concentration in bone to that in other major organs was highest with sup(99m)Tc-diphosphonate. Ratios were similar for both sup(99m)Tc-monofluorophosphate and sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate and much lower than those of sup(99m)Tc-diphosphonate. No significant differences were demonstrated in urinary excretion of the three labeled agents. Visual comparison of the scans obtained with three compounds confirmed the results of radioassay. All were excellent skeletal imaging agents, although sup(99m)Tc-diphosphonate appeared to be superior to the other two mainly because of a higher target to non-target ratio. With 50 mg of monofluorophosphate and 1 mg of stannous fluoride, no hypocalcemia was observed. (J.P.N.)

  16. Synthesis, structure elucidation and redox properties of 99Tc complexes of lacunary Wells Dawson polyoxometalates: insights into molecular 99Tc - metal oxide interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, Donna; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Howell, Robertha C.; Mbomekalle, Israel M.; Lukens, Wayne W. Jr; Bian, Fang; Mausolf, Edward; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R; Francesconi, Lynn C.

    2011-01-01

    The isotope 99 Tc (β max : 250 keV, half-life: 2 x 10 5 year) is an abundant product of uranium-235 fission in nuclear reactors and is present throughout the radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford and Savannah River. Understanding and controlling the extensive redox chemistry of 99 Tc is important to identify tunable strategies to separate 99 Tc from spent fuel and from waste tanks and once separated, to identify and develop an appropriately stable waste-form for 99 Tc. Polyoxometalates (POMs), nanometer sized models for metal oxide solid-state materials, are used in this study to provide a molecular level understanding of the speciation and redox chemistry of incorporated 99 Tc. In this study, 99 Tc complexes of the (α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 10- and (α 1 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 10- isomers were prepared. Ethylene glycol was used as a 'transfer ligand' to minimize the formation of TcO 2 · xH 2 O. The solution structures, formulations, and purity of Tc V O(α 1 /α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 7- were determined by multinuclear NMR. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of the complexes are in agreement with the formulation and structures determined from 31 P and 183 W NMR. Preliminary electrochemistry results are consistent with the EXAFS results, showing a facile reduction of the Tc V O(α 1 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 7- species compared to the Tc V O(α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 7- analog. The α 1 -defect is unique in that a basic oxygen atom is positioned toward the α 1 -site and the Tc V O center appears to form a dative metal-metal bond with a framework W site. These attributes may lead to the assistance of protonation events that facilitate reduction. Electrochemistry comparison shows that the Re V analogs are about 200 mV more difficult to reduce in accordance with periodic trends.

  17. Initial Evaluation of (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) as a Renal Tracer in Healthy Human Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowska, Malgorzata; Klenc, Jeffrey; Folks, Russell D; Taylor, Andrew T

    2014-09-01

    Preclinical studies in rats showed that two of (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) isomers (rac- and L-ASMA) had pharmacokinetic properties equivalent to that of (131)I-OIH, the radiopharmaceutical standard for the measurement of effective renal plasma flow. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) isomers in healthy human subjects. Three ASMA ligands (rac-, L- and D-ASMA) were labeled with (99m)Tc(CO)3 using an IsoLink kit (Covidien), and each formed (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) tracer was co-injected with (131)I-OIH into healthy human subjects followed by sequential imaging, plasma clearance measurements and timed urine collection. Plasma protein binding, red cell uptake and percent injected dose in the urine were determined. Urine from each group of volunteers was analyzed for metabolites by HPLC. Image quality was excellent with all three agents. Each (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) preparation was excreted unchanged in the urine. The plasma clearance ratio ((99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA)/(131)I-OIH) was 81 ± 3 % for D-ASMA compared to only 20 ± 4 % for L-ASMA and 37 ± 7 % for rac-ASMA; the 81 % clearance ratio for D-ASMA isomer is still ∼ 30 % higher than the (99m)Tc-MAG3/(131)I-OIH clearance ratio (∼50-60 %). Red cell uptake was similar for all three tracers (6-9 %), and all tracers had a relatively rapid renal excretion; at 3 h, the (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA)/(131)I-OIH urine ratio was 100 ± 3 % for D-ASMA, 80 ± 2 % for L-ASMA and 88 ± 1 % for rac-ASMA. The renal excretion characteristics of (99m)Tc(CO)3(D-ASMA) in humans are superior to those of the other two (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) isomers studied, but are still inferior to (131)I-OIH, even though there was no difference in the clearance of two of (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) isomers and (131)I-OIH in rats. The work described here demonstrates the sensitivity in in vivo biological behavior of (99m)Tc(CO)3(ASMA) isomers to their subtle structural differences.

  18. Synthesis, Characterization, and Initial Biological Evaluation of [99m Tc]Tc-Tricarbonyl-labeled DPA-α-MSH Peptide Derivatives for Potential Melanoma Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Sihver, Wiebke; Bergmann, Ralf; Belter, Birgit; Bolzati, Cristina; Salvarese, Nicola; Steinbach, Jörg; Pietzsch, Jens; Pietzsch, Hans-Jürgen

    2018-06-06

    α-Melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) derivatives target the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) specifically and selectively. In this study, the α-MSH-derived peptide NAP-NS1 (Nle-Asp-His-d-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-NH 2 ) with and without linkers was conjugated with 5-(bis(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)amino)pentanoic acid (DPA-COOH) and labeled with [ 99m Tc]Tc-tricarbonyl by two methods. With the one-pot method the labeling was faster than with the two-pot method, while obtaining similarly high yields. Negligible trans-chelation and high stability in physiological solutions was determined for the [ 99m Tc]Tc-tricarbonyl-peptide conjugates. Coupling an ethylene glycol (EG)-based linker increased the hydrophilicity. The peptide derivatives displayed high binding affinity in murine B16F10 melanoma cells as well as in human MeWo and TXM13 melanoma cell homogenates. Preliminary in vivo studies with one of the [ 99m Tc]Tc-tricarbonyl-peptide conjugates showed good stability in blood and both renal and hepatobiliary excretion. Biodistribution was performed on healthy rats to gain initial insight into the potential relevance of the 99m Tc-labeled peptides for in vivo imaging. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Preparation of the 99mTc-dextran lymphoscin tigraphic agent and its preliminary clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Weiyue; You Dejian; Ma Yuanming; He Guangren; Zhang Wei; Tu Zhipei; Jin Bixia

    1991-01-01

    Dextran-70 was treated by gradient sedimentation, and that with a mean molecular weight of 105000 which was optimal for lymphatic system imaging rabbits was selected. Sn-Dextran kit was produced containing the above-mentioned dextran. Sn-Dextran kits can be stored at 4 deg C for 8 months. Its efficiency of labelling is more than 95%. The biodistribution, pharmacokinetics studies and lymphoscintigraphy in rabbits for 99m Tc-dextran showed: (1) high radioactivity in the popliteal nodes and very low redioactivity in other nontarget organs except kidneys through which it was excreted; (2) 99m Tc-dextran accumulated markedly and rapidly in lymphatic system. The lymph channels and nodes were well visualized in scintigrams; (3) 99m Tc-dextran cleared rapidly from the injection site. Radioactivity of 95% of the injected dose disappearing after 6.5h. Toxicity tests indicated that: 99m Tc-dextran is a drug of low toxicity and safe. Preliminary clinical applications of 99m Tc-dextran in 100 cases provided satisfactory results. The process of imaging usually took less than 1h after injection, and no side-effects occurred in any patient. In most cases, the results corresponded basically with the clinical diagnosis. Hence, 99m Tc-dextran is an ideal radiopharmaceutical that can be used for the visualization of the lymphatic system. It is recomminded for routine use in clincal practice

  20. Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin SPECT of Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Min Kyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Gachon University Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Min Ki [Good Samaritan Hospital, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Won Sick [Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Tc-99m ciprofloxacin is available for imaging infection. However, there has been no study on employing single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with using Tc-99m ciprofloxacin to image active pulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess the efficacy of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT for imaging active pulmonary tuberculosis. Twenty-one participants were enrolled in this prospective study. They were divided into two groups according to the clinical and radiological assessment. Group one (Gr. 1) consisted of five normal volunteers and six patients with inactive pulmonary tuberculosis. Group two (Gr. 2) consisted of ten patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis. SPECT was performed 3 h after injecting 555 MBq (15 mCi) of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin. The findings of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT were interpreted by a nuclear medicine specialist and then the results were analyzed according to the patients' clinical and radiological classifications. The results of Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT were as follows: eight true-positive cases, ten true-negative cases, one false-positive case and two false-negative cases. The sensitivity and specificity was 80.0% and 90.0%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 88.9% and the negative predictive value was 83.3%. Conclusions Tc-99m ciprofloxacin SPECT is feasible for imaging active pulmonary tuberculosis. It is a useful nuclear-imaging method for discriminating between the active and inactive tuberculosis states in patients with a past medical history of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  1. Tc-99m Ethylenedicysteine and Tc-99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Scintigraphy-Comparison of the Two for Detection of Scarring and Differential Cortical Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmalingam, Anitha; Pawar, Shwetal U; Parelkar, Sandesh V; Shetye, Suruchi S; Ghorpade, Mangala K; Tilve, Gundu H

    2017-01-01

    The differential cortical function obtained by Tc-99m EC is comparable to that of Tc-99m DMSA. However, identification of scars on Tc-99m EC images needs to be studied. The aim of the study is to evaluate role of Tc-99m EC for detection of scarring and differential cortical function by comparing with Tc-99m DMSA. Prospective observational study of recurrent UTI; minimum 6 weeks after acute episode; when urine examination is negative for pus cells. Forty-seven children with normal positioned kidneys underwent Tc-99m EC and DMSA scintigraphy. The DRF and cortical phase images of both studies in the same image matrix size were evaluated by two independent observers for scarring; Tc-99m DMSA was considered as the gold standard. MS Excel 2007 and GraphPad Instat V3.1 and ROC analysis. There was no significant difference in the detection of scarring using two studies with Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) 0.932. The sensitivity and specificity of Tc-99m EC for detection of scarring was 98.75% and 99.15%, respectively. There was good agreement between the differential cortical function calculated using two studies. The summed Tc-99m EC images with an acceptable high image contrast allow detection of cortical scarring in patients with normal kidney positions. It is an excellent single-modality comprehensive investigational agent for renal parenchymal defects, function, and excretion evaluation with the added advantages of lower cost, convenience, and low radiation exposure to the child.

  2. Inhibitory effect of trans-caryophyllene (TC) on leukocyte-endothelial attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Chunfeng; Dai, Xinlun; Ao, Yu; Li, Yumei

    2017-08-15

    trans-Caryophyllene (TC) is a major component found in the essential oils of many spices and foods/medicinal plants. It is a natural sesquiterpene and has been the subject of numerous studies. However, the effects of TC on vascular inflammation remain unknown. In this study, we reported that TC treatment in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) prevented attachment of monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1 cells to endothelial cells. In addition, in vivo results indicate that TC inhibited macrophage infiltration to the aortic surface and reduced total serum levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. Importantly, administration of TC could inhibit the induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, our data indicate that the inhibitory effects of TC on the expression of VCAM-1 are mediated by the JAK2/STAT1/IRF-1 pathway. TC is a specific agonist of the type 2 cannabinoid receptor (CB2R). Importantly, we further verified that the inhibitory effects of TC on the expression of IRF-1 and VCAM-1 are dependent on activation of CB2R. Inhibition of CB2R by either specific inhibitors or RNA interference abolished the inhibitory effects of TC on the expression of IRF-1 and VCAM-1. Our results suggest that TC might have a capacity to suppress the development of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Generating pseudo test collections for learning to rank scientific articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, R.; Tsagkias, M.; de Rijke, M.; Meij, E.

    2012-01-01

    Pseudo test collections are automatically generated to provide training material for learning to rank methods. We propose a method for generating pseudo test collections in the domain of digital libraries, where data is relatively sparse, but comes with rich annotations. Our intuition is that

  4. The labeling of white blood cells with 99mTc and 111In complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadizad, T.; Najafi, R.

    1993-01-01

    Leukocytes have been labelled with a variety of gamma emitters and labelled (mixed) leukocytes are used clinically to detect and localize sites of abscess in the abdominal area and inflammatory processes surrounding grafts, ulcerative colitis and study of leukocyte kinetics. In this project we used 99m Tc-Sn-Pyp, 99m Tc-Hexamethyl propenylamine oxine, 111 In-Tropolone and 111 In-Oxine Sulfate for the labelling of leukocytes. All the in vitro and in vivo tests have been done to get an optimum condition for injection

  5. Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi TcII and TcI in free-ranging population of lion tamarins (Leontopithecus spp: an 11-year follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Varella Lisboa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a review of the dataset resulting from the 11-years follow-up of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in free-ranging populations of Leontopithecus rosalia (golden lion tamarin and Leontopithecus chrysomelas (golden-headed lion tamarin from distinct forest fragments in Atlantic Coastal Rainforest. Additionally, we present new data regarding T. cruzi infection of small mammals (rodents and marsupials that live in the same areas as golden lion tamarins and characterisation at discrete typing unit (DTU level of 77 of these isolates. DTU TcII was found to exclusively infect primates, while TcI infected Didelphis aurita and lion tamarins. The majority of T. cruzi isolates derived from L. rosalia were shown to be TcII (33 out 42 Nine T. cruzi isolates displayed a TcI profile. Golden-headed lion tamarins demonstrated to be excellent reservoirs of TcII, as 24 of 26 T. cruzi isolates exhibited the TcII profile. We concluded the following: (i the transmission cycle of T. cruzi in a same host species and forest fragment is modified over time, (ii the infectivity competence of the golden lion tamarin population fluctuates in waves that peak every other year and (iii both golden and golden-headed lion tamarins are able to maintain long-lasting infections by TcII and TcI.

  6. Neutral and stereospecific Tc-99m complexes: [99mTc]N-benzyl-3,4-di-(N-2-mercaptoethyl)-amino-pyrrolidines (P-BAT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Zhiping; Ploessl, Karl; Kung Meiping; Mu Mu; Kung, Hank F.

    1999-01-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled radiopharmaceuticals are currently the most commonly used agents in nuclear medicine. To prepare binding site-specific small molecules containing a Tc-99m complexing core, it is important to consider a ligand system, which selectively forms only one stereoisomer. A novel series of bisaminoethanethiol (BAT) derivatives as a model system were prepared. Stereoisomers of N-benzyl-3,4-di-(N-2-mercaptoethyl)-amino pyrrolidines (P-BAT): (3R,4R)-P-BAT (R,R-4) and (3,4)meso-P-BAT (8), the trans and meso isomer, respectively, as a chelating group were prepared successfully. The desired Tc-99m P-BAT complexes were obtained by using Sn(II)/glucoheptonate as the reducing agent for [ 99m Tc]pertechnetate. As predicted, after complexation with [ 99m Tc]Tc v O, the trans isomer, (3R,4R)-P-BAT (R,R-4), showed only one isomer; whereas the corresponding meso isomer, (3,4)meso-P-BAT (8), produced two distinctive complexes isolated readily by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The [ 99m Tc](R,S)meso-P-BAT (8) isomers showed a different lipophilicity (partition coefficient [P.C.]=54.3 and 55.4 for peak A and peak B, respectively), as compared with that of the corresponding [ 99m Tc](3R,4R)-P-BAT (R,R-4), trans isomer ( P.C.=163). Results of the biodistribution study in rats of these isomers show different heart and brain uptake, suggesting that the intrinsic differences in biodistribution are due to structural and stereospecific factors. Examples in this report confirm that it is possible to design stereospecific Tc-99m complexes based on the bisaminoethanethiol (N 2 S 2 , BAT) ligand system. Consideration on stereoselectivity of site-specific agents labeled with Tc-99m is likely an essential requirement on developing binding-site specific radiopharmaceuticals

  7. The measurement of 99mTc-DTPA pulmonary clearance in normals, asymptomatic smokers and diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Ju; Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, Yun Seong; Lee, Min Ki; Park, Soon Kew

    1998-01-01

    We measured pulmonary epithelial permeability by 99m Tc-DTPA radioaerosol clearance in patients with diabetes and correlated with the presence of microangiopathy to understand the pathophysiology of pulmonary microangiopathy and evaluate 99m Tc-DTPA radioaerosol clearance as a diagnostic test to assess pulmonary microangiopathy. We performed 99m Tc-DTPA radioaerosol scan in 10 normal subjects, 10 asymptomatic smokers, 20 diabetic patients without history of smoking (10 with microangiopathy, 10 without microangiopathy). 99m Tc-DTPA clearance half-time (T 1/2 ) was calculated, then compared with the result of chest radiography and pulmonary function test. Chest radiography and pulmonary function test were normal in all subjects. There were no significant difference of clinical or laboratory characteristics between these groups except age. The diabetic patients with microangiophaty were significantly older (p 1/2 of normal subjects and asymptomatic smokers were significantly different (65.2±23.7 min vs 39.6±9.8 min, p 1/2 was 90.5±46.5 min and significantly delayed when compared with those of normals and asymptomatic smokers (p 1/2 of diabetic patients without microangiopathy, 70.0±12.7 min, was not significantly different from those of normals or asymptomatic smokers (p>0.05). No significant correlation was found between the T 1/2 and spirometric parameters including DLco, FVC, FEV 1 , FEV 1 /FVC (%) and FEF 25-75% in all subjects, and between the T 1/2 and duration of diabetes in diabetic patients. Eventhough the influence of age can't be excluded, delayed 99m Tc-DTPA clearance half-time (T 1/2 ) in diabetic patients with microangiopathy indicates decreased pulmonary capillary permeability as one of the pathophysiologic results of pulmonary microangiopaththy. Further studies are needed in larger number of age matched control and diabetic patients to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy

  8. Effective visualization of suppressed thyroid tissue by means of baseline 99mTc-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile in comparison with 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy after TSH stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattimo, A; Bertelli, P; Burroni, L

    1992-01-01

    Baseline 99mTc-MIBI thyroid scintigraphy was compared with 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy after TSH stimulation in seven patients with suppressed thyroid tissue due to an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule (AFTN). In all patients the suppressed thyroid tissue was visualized by means of both baseline 99mTc-MIBI and post-TSH 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy, and in some cases the former technique provided better visualization. In one patient presenting a "warm" nodule T3-suppression did not affect the nodular/extranodular uptake ratio of 99mTc-MIBI, whereas the 99mTc-pertechnetate uptake ratio increased significantly. This leads us to hypothesize that the thyroid uptake of 99mTc-MIBI is not related to TSH control, but rather to other mechanisms such as the blood flow. Since exogenous TSH is no longer available, 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy can be successfully used in the place of repeated 99mTc-pertechnetate scintigraphy after TSH stimulation in the assessment of AFTN.

  9. Influence of bilirubin on the distribution of 99mTc-HIDA and 99mTc-IODIDA in rats and their interaction with HSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, M.S.; Zmbova, B.; Zivanov-Stakic, D.; Vladimirov, S.

    1993-01-01

    The interaction of bilirubin and 99m Tc-HIDA and 99m Tc-IODIDA has been studied in rats. The mechanism of this interaction has been examined at the level of binding with human serum albumin (HSA) by the in vitro method. Percentage of binding with HSA, and affinity constants for 99m Tc-IODIDA were determined with and without bilirubin. Bilirubin was labeled with 99m Tc and its interaction with HSA was also examined. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  10. Availability of 99Tc in undisturbed soil cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denys, Sebastien; Echevarria, Guillaume; Florentin, Louis; Leclerc-Cessac, Elisabeth; Morel, Jean-Louis

    2003-01-01

    Models for safety assessment of radioactive waste repositories need accurate values of the soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides. In oxidizing environments, 99 Tc is expected to occur as pertechnetate ( 99 TcO 4 - ). Due to its high mobility, leaching of this element in the field might be important, potentially affecting the reliability of estimated transfer parameters of 99 Tc as measured in closed experimental systems such as hydroponics or pot experiments. The aim of this experiment was to measure the leaching of 99 Tc in undisturbed irrigated soil cores under cultivation as well as plant uptake and to study the possible competition between the two transfer pathways. Undisturbed soil cores (50x50 cm) were sampled from a Rendzic Leptosol (R), a colluvial Fluvic Cambisol (F) and a Dystric Cambisol (D) using PVC tubes (three cores sampled per soil type). Each core was equipped with a leachate collector at the bottom, allowing the monitoring of 99 Tc leaching through the cores. Cores were placed in a greenhouse and maize (Zea mays L., cv. DEA, Pioneer[reg]) was sown. After 135 d, maize was harvested and radioactivity determined in both plant and water samples. Results showed that during the growing period, leaching of 99 Tc was limited, due to the high evapotranspiration rate of maize. After harvest, leaching of 99 Tc went on because of the absence of evapotranspiration. Effective uptake (EU) of 99 Tc in leaves and grains was calculated. EU reached 70% of the input in the leaves and was not significantly different among soils. These results confirmed those obtained from pot experiments, even though leaching was allowed to occur in close-to-reality hydraulical conditions. As a consequence, it was concluded that pot experiments are an adequate surrogate for more complex 'close-to-reality' experimental systems for measuring transfer factors

  11. Microstructure and Properties of Laser Additive Manufacturing TC Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jiao-xi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of uneven wear of TC bearing that conventional method brought and improve its service life,wear-resistant coating was fabricated on the surface of steel parts matrix with the method of laser additive manufacture. The Cr3C2/Fe based alloy was deposited by laser cladding technique on the inner-sleeve cylindrical and outer-sleeve bore of TC bearing with two different process parameters. The high-performance coating was obtained respectively, of cracks free,no pores and with good metallurgical quality. The morphology of the laser cladding coating was observed by scanning electronic microscope (SEM,the composition was analyzed by EDS,the phase transformation was characterized by XRD. The wear resistance,corrosion resistance and hardness of the laser cladding layer were tested by friction and wear tester,salt spray test chamber and digital micro-hardness tester respectively. The results show that the average micro-hardness of composite coating is HV700. The wear resistance of the composite coating is about 3 times as much as the Ni-based alloy. The corrosion resistance is close to 316L stainless steel.

  12. Mechanical Properties of TC4 Matrix Composites Prepared by Laser Cladding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Lin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the penetration performance of TC4, the direct laser deposition technology was used to prepare TC4 composite material. TA15+30% TiC powder, TA15+20%Cr3C2 powder and TA15+15%B4C powder were used as deposited materials for TC4 matrix. The micromorphology, change of hardness of the deposited coating and mechanical properties of the three composites were studied. The experimental results demonstrate that the TC4 matrix with the three kinds of materials can form a complete metallurgical bonding, and the strength of TC4-(TA15+TiC, TC4-(TA15+Cr3C2 and TC4-(TA15+B4C are higher than that of TC4 matrix materials, while the plasticity is slightly worse.

  13. The effect of HBB:c.*+96T>C (3’UTR +1570 T>C on the mild b-thalassemia intermedia phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türker Bilgen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin beta (HBB:c.*+96T>C substitution is very rare among β-globin gene mutations and its clinical significance remains to be clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the role of HBB:c.*+96T>C in the β-thalassemia intermedia phenotype in a Turkish family. The proband and parents were screened for β-globin gene mutations via direct sequencing. Hematological and physical examination results were recorded, and correlated according to genotype. The proband was compound heterozygous for Cod 8 (-AA and HBB:c.*+96T>C, whereas his mother and father were heterozygous for Cod 8 (-AA and HBB:c.*+96T>C, respectively. The father had almost normal hematological findings, whereas the mother had the typical β-thalassemia trait phenotype. The proband was diagnosed as mild β-thalassemia intermedia based on hepatosplenomegaly and hematological findings. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of HBB:c.*+96T>C mutation in a Turkish family. HBB:c.* 96T>C substitution is a very rare, but clinically relevant β-globin gene mutation. Additionally, we think that if 1 spouse is a carrier for β-globin gene mutation the other should be screened for silent mutations, such as HBB:c.*+96T>C mutation of the β-globin gene, even if she/he does not have any clinical or hematological signs of the β-thalassemia trait phenotype.

  14. Evaluation of the 99Mo contamination in eluates samples generated of 99mTc in a clinic of Recife, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, W.G.; Lima, F.F.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the 99 Mo content in eluates of 99 Mo/ 99 m Tc generators, used in a nuclear medicine service in Recife. To do this, were collected eluates samples from 5 elution of 10 different generators using the attenuation method in own nuclear medicine service which provided routine activimeter CRC-127R model, manufactured by Capintec. The samples were measured, and the activities of 99m Tc and 99 Mo were determined and calculated the MBT (molybdenum break through) for 1 st , 3 rd , 5 th , 7 th and 9 th elution of each generator. It was observed in a sample the presence of molybdenum in the amount near the limit set by the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP), 0,15μCi/mCi). A second sample presented good high value, more than double the USP limit. The results obtained demonstrate the possibility of finding 99 Mo in the eluted solution, which reinforces the need to deploy the control test of the molybdenum content in all elution in quality control programs of service nuclear medicine

  15. 99mTc ovalbumin labelled eggs for gastric emptying scintigraphy: in-vitro comparison of solid food markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Frédérique; Salaun, Pierre Y; Couturier, Olivier; Querellou, Solène; Le Duc-Pennec, Alexandra; Mougin-Degraef, Marie; Bizais, Yves; Legendre, Jean M

    2005-11-01

    The reliability of solid phase gastric emptying measurements by scintigraphy requires a marker that remains within the solid component of the test meal, and which is not degraded by the gastric juice throughout the scintigraphic procedure. In Europe, foods are most often labelled with 99mTc rhenium sulfide macrocolloid (RSMC) but this solid phase marker was withdrawn from the market in January 2004. To test other potential solid phase markers and to compare them to the reference marker RSMC. These markers were rhenium sulfide nanocolloid (RSNC), tin fluoride colloid (TFC), phytates and two albumins (Alb and AlbC). All were radiolabelled with 99mTc. After quality control, each 99mTc marker was incorporated into the albumin of one egg. Then, egg white and yolk were mixed together, and a well-cooked omelette was prepared. Aliquots of the omelette were incubated with an acidic solution of pepsin at 37 degrees C which mimicked gastric juice. Unbound radioactivity in the supernatant fraction was measured at various times up to 3 h. The radiochemical purity was > 95% for all radiopharmaceuticals. During the in-vitro incubation, the percentage of 99mTc labelled colloids released from the omelette increased continuously: after 3 h, 5% for TFC and RSMC, 8% for phytates, and > 9% for the two albumins and RSNC. Considering quality controls and release of 99mTc during in-vitro incubation of the omelette, TFC showed the same behaviour as the reference marker RSMC. Thus, TFC seems to be the best candidate to replace RSMC for the radiolabelling of the solid phase of the gastric emptying test meal.

  16. Collection, pre-treatment and analyses of Cs-137 and Tc-99 in marine samples at the Institute of Marine Research (IMR), Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heldal, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    ]-impregnated filters and a flow-meter are mounted in a series directly on the ships water intake. About 200 L seawater are passed through the filters at a flow rate of 5 L/min. The filters are then dried at 60 deg. C for about 24 h and brought back to IMR where they are ashed at 450 deg. C and filled into 60 ml polyethylene counting boxes prior to analysis. Samples from the CTD-rosette multi-bottle sampler are shipped back to the laboratory and analysed using the ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP)-method. Biota, seawater and sediment samples are gamma-counted on Ortec HPGe-detectors with efficiencies ranging from 30 to 60 %, electric cryostat cooling systems, and 10 cm lead shieldings. For the analysis of Tc-99, 50-100 L of seawater is collected from the shipboard pump (surface samples) or CTD-rosette multi-bottle sampler (samples from the water column) and filled into 25 L polyethylene carboys. A known amount of rhenium (Re) is added to each sample as a carrier and yield monitor on board the ship. Further, the samples are passed through anion exchange resins made of BioRad AGx8 (100-200 mesh) packed into 60 ml disposable polystyrene syringes. The syringes containing the anion exchange resin are brought back to IMR for further radiochemical treatment. A RISOe beta-counter is used for beta-counting for Tc-99. Information about salinity and temperature of the seawater is normally available from the stations we collect samples. This information is important while interpreting the results. Samples of biota and sediments are collected for analysis of different hydrocarbons and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from the same stations as the radionuclide samples. Combining these results gives us a more overall picture of the pollution load. (author)

  17. Role of scintigammagraphy with 99mTc-Gluthatione and 99mTc-MIBI in the evaluation and staging of lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena Quian, Yamile; Perera Pintado, Alejandro; Coca Perez, Marco A.; Batista Cuellar, Juan F.; Prats Capote, Anais; Sanchez Mendoza, Elvia; Sosa, Adriana; Mesa Cuervo, Jose R.; Hernandez Ramirez, Porfirio

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The aim of this study was to assess the utility of scintigammagraphy using 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-Gluthatione for the evaluation and staging of patients with lymphomas. We studied thirty patients (age range 16-66 years) of Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). A control group (CG) of 8 patients with negative histological results was also studied. The patients were divided in three groups; HD group: thirteen patients (7 males and 6 females); NHL: seventeen patients (10 males and 7 females); CG: eight patients (2 males and 6 females). Scintigammagraphy studies were performed 20 min and 2 h after intravenous administration of 925-1110 MBq of 99mTc-MIBI or 99mTc-Gluthatione (GSH) using a gamma camera (Sophy DS-7, Sopha Medical System, France) equipped with low energy all purpose parallel hole collimator. Anterior and posterior images of thorax, abdomen and pelvis in 128x128 pixels matrix each for 1 million counts per view were acquired. A 20% window centered on the 140 keV was used for all acquisitions. All images were processed and analysed on a workstation (Power Vision, SMV, Canada) and interpreted by three qualified and experienced nuclear medicine specialist. The final diagnosis was reached by consensus. The images with a focal abnormal intense uptake were considered positive. Images showing diffuse bilateral and symmetrical uptake, bilateral lung uptake and intestinal uptake were considered negative. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of results for both radiopharmaceuticals were calculated using the histological findings, x-ray, ultrasound and CT scanning as confirmation criterion as gold standard. The nodular sclerosis was the most frequent type in HD group. In this group twelve patients were positive with 99mTc-MIBI scintigammagraphy while one was negative (nodular sclerosis, grade II). Scintigammagraphy with 99mTc-GSH was positive in all patients in HD group. However, scintigammagraphy with both radiopharmaceuticals

  18. The use of 99Mo/99mTc generators in the analysis of low levels of 99Tc in environmental samples by radiochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowdall, M.; Selnaes, Oe.G.; Lind, B.; Gwynn, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of low levels of 99 Tc in environmental samples presents special challenges, particularly with respect to the selection of an appropriate and practicable chemical yield tracer. Of all the tracers available, 99m Tc eluted from 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators appears to be the most practicable in terms of availability, ease of use and cost. These factors have led to an increase in the use of such generators for the provision of 99m Tc as yield tracer for 99 Tc. For the analysis of low levels ( 3 or kg) of 99 Tc in environmental samples, consideration must be given to the radiochemical purity of the tracer solution with respect to contamination with both 99 Tc and other radionuclides. Due to the variable nature of the extent of the interference from tracer solution to tracer solution, it is unwise to try and establish a correction factor for any single generator. The only practical solution to the problem therefore is to run a 'blank' sample with each batch of samples drawn from a single tracer solution. (LN)

  19. Development of kits for 99mTc radiopharmaceuticals for infection imaging. Report of a co-ordinated research project 2000-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-09-01

    Infectious diseases remain a major health problem and cause of death worldwide, particularly in developing countries. Nuclear medicine imaging, because of its sensitivity, offers an attractive option for diagnosis of focal infections. This needs a reliable radiopharmaceutical that can selectively concentrate in sites of infection. Over the years 67 Ga and other radiopharmaceuticals that localize in inflammation associated with infection sites, also known as 'non-specific agents' have been used for infection imaging. However, experience has shown that an 'infection specific agent' that concentrates selectively at sites of infection and not inflammation would have several advantages. The first such agent developed more than two decades ago was 111 In-leucocytes which is still considered a 'gold standard'. Considerations of cost, availability, and superior properties for imaging make 99 mTc a better label than 111 In. 99 mTc white blood cell (WBC) was developed subsequently and used for infection imaging. However, both 111 In and 99 mTc WBCs have a number of drawbacks, in particular: each patient's blood sample has to be collected and individually radiolabelled; well-trained staff and suitable facilities for separating and labelling the patient's blood are needed; the risk of infection and cross-contamination associated with potential blood-borne microorganisms; and cost of materials. Because of these, considerable efforts have been continuously made towards developing convenient replacements for 99 mTc WBCs with limited success, 99 mTc antigranulocyte antibody being a good example. However, these radiopharmaceuticals still have many disadvantages, related to either their cost and availability or their performance. In view of the large potential for applications in patients, the development of new and improved 99 mTc labelled infection specific imaging agents was considered as a very worthwhile aim for scientific research in general and, in particular, for the

  20. Liver scanning with sup(99m)Tc-phytate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, A; Isobe, Y; Kobayashi, T; (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine); Kinoshita, Fumio; Shibata, Masayoshi

    1975-03-01

    /sup 198/Au-colloid has been widely used for liver scanning in Japan but it is not the best scanning agent because of the large exposure dose to the patient. The authors performed a few basic experiments with sup(99m)Tc-phytate, the preparation of which is very easy. The labeling efficiency was found to be 97.5% immediately after preparation and it remained fairly stable for a period of time. As a result, the compound can be used up to 6 hours after preparation without fear of chemical instability. Liver scanning with sup(99m)Tc-phytate was done on 116 patients and was compared with /sup 198/Au-colloid liver-scanning. Scans made with sup(99m)Tc were found to be superior to those made with /sup 198/Au in the resolution of surface defects in the liver, while at increasing depths the resolution with sup(99m)Tc dropped rapidly, apparently due to absorption of its relatively low energy photon. This indicates the importance of taking multidirectional views. The degrees of splenic concentration of sup(99m)Tc-phytate were fairly close to those of /sup 198/Au-colloid. Therefore, liver scanning with sup(99m)Tc-phytate is useful in the diagnostic evaluation of diffuse parenchymal liver disease.

  1. Liver scanning with sup(99m)Tc-phytate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Atsushi; Isobe, Yoshinori; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Kinoshita, Fumio; Shibata, Masayoshi.

    1975-01-01

    198 Au-colloid has been widely used for liver scanning in Japan but it is not the best scanning agent because of the large exposure dose to the patient. The authors performed a few basic experiments with sup(99m)Tc-phytate, the preparation of which is very easy. The labeling efficiency was found to be 97.5% immediately after preparation and it remained fairly stable for a period of time. As a result, the compound can be used up to 6 hours after preparation without fear of chemical instability. Liver scanning with sup(99m)Tc-phytate was done on 116 patients and was compared with 198 Au-colloid liver-scanning. Scans made with sup(99m)Tc were found to be superior to those made with 198 Au in the resolution of surface defects in the liver, while at increasing depths the resolution with sup(99m)Tc dropped rapidly, apparently due to absorption of its relatively low energy photon. This indicates the importance of taking multidirectional views. The degrees of splenic concentration of sup(99m)Tc-phytate were fairly close to those of 198 Au-colloid. Therefore, liver scanning with sup(99m)Tc-phytate is useful in the diagnostic evaluation of diffuse parenchymal liver disease. (auth.)

  2. [99mTc]/[123I] Simultaneous dual-isotope brain striatum phantom SPECT study: preparing for simultaneous [99mTc]TRODAT-1/[123I]-IBZM pre- and post-synaptic dopamine imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, PF; Hsu, HT; Tzen, KY; Wey, SP

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: The brain dopamine transporters (DAT) and dopamine D2 receptors are implicated in all kinds of movement disorders. Both sites are also targets for drug treatment, Therefore, brain dopamine system is important in both basic and clinical neurological researches. Kung HF et al. developed [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-l for DAT and [ 123 I]IBZM for D2 receptor SPECT imaging in living human brain. In this work, the possibility of doing [ 99m Tc]TRODAT-1/[ 123 I]IBZM simultaneous dual-isotope SPECT for both DAT/D2 receptor imaging was studied. The SPECT acquisition protocol, the percent of 99m Tc/ 123 I energy cross contamination, and the reproducibility of striatal /background ratios were studied with a striatal phantom to confirm the accuracy of 99m Tc/ 123 I dual-isotope simultaneous SPECT technique. Materials and Methods: In each set of experiment, the 4 striatum (target) chambers and the rest of the brain (background) were filled with solutions containing 99m Tc only, 123 I only, and both isotopes. Several sets of experiment with different target/background ratios were tested. For SPECT image acquisition, a triple-head gamma camera equipp with high resolution fan-beam collimators (Siemens Multi-SPECT3). Energy window settings of a 15% centered window at 140KeV for 99m Tc and a 10% asymmetric window with a lower bound at 159KeV for 123 I were used. After filtered backprojection and Chang's attenuation correction, regions of interest were defined at the bilateral basal ganglia and occipital areas. The reproducibility of counting activity and the different target/background ratios from each isotope were observed. Results: The results of the study revealed that the energy crossed contaminations from I-123 into Tc- 99m and vice verse were 22±12.4 % and 0.4±1.0 %, respectively. The correlation of striatum/background ratios between single isotope and simultaneous was excellent (R2 = 0.99). The success of this simultaneous dual-isotope SPECT technique is suggestive of the

  3. Preparation, quality control and biological characterization of 99mTc-vincristine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saira Hina; Muhammad Ibrahim Rajoka; Asma Haque

    2015-01-01

    In present study it is aimed to radiolabel vincristine with 99m Tc and to evaluate bioaffinity of 99m Tc labeled vinc. The optimum conditions required to obtain 99.6 ± 0.4 %, (n = 5) radiolabeling yield of 99m Tc-vincristine ( 99m Tc-vinc) were as follows: pH 4, 5 µg of vincristine sulphate, 6 µg SnCl 2 ·2H 2 O as a reducing agent and 10 min incubation time at room temperature. Quality control of 99m Tc-vinc was done by using paper electrophoresis and thin layer chromatography. The radiolabeling yield was confirmed by High performance liquid chromatography using radioactive and UV detector operating at 230 nm. 99m Tc-vinc was stable in vitro for 5 h. Biodistribution and scintigraphy of 99m Tc-vinc was performed in mice and rabbits respectively and that 99m Tc-vinc showed high uptake of it in liver and spleen. Finally 99m Tc-vinc may be the potential imaging agent for liver and spleen. (author)

  4. PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ∼2 m DIAMETER NEAR-EARTH ASTEROID 2015 TC25: A POSSIBLE BOULDER FROM E-TYPE ASTEROID (44) NYSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan A.; Bottke, William F.; Thirouin, Audrey; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Kelley, Michael S.; Ryan, William; Cloutis, Edward A.; Tegler, Stephen C.; Ryan, Eileen V.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Richardson, James E.; Le Corre, Lucille; Moskovitz, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Small near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) (<20 m) are interesting, because they are progenitors for meteorites in our terrestrial collection. The physical characteristics of these small NEAs are crucial to our understanding of the effectiveness of our atmosphere in filtering low-strength impactors. In the past, the characterization of small NEAs has been a challenge, because of the difficulty in detecting them prior to close Earth flyby. In this study, we physically characterized the 2 m diameter NEA 2015 TC25 using ground-based optical, near-infrared and radar assets during a close flyby of the Earth (distance 128,000 km) in 2015 October 12. Our observations suggest that its surface composition is similar to aubrites, a rare class of high-albedo differentiated meteorites. Aubrites make up only 0.14% of all known meteorites in our terrestrial meteorite collection. 2015 TC25 is also a very fast rotator with a period of 133 ± 6 s. We combined the spectral and dynamical properties of 2015 TC25 and found the best candidate source body in the inner main belt to be the 70 km diameter E-type asteroid (44) Nysa. We attribute the difference in spectral slope between the two objects to the lack of regolith on the surface of 2015 TC25. Using the albedo of E-type asteroids (50%–60%) we refine the diameter of 2015 TC25 to 2 m, making it one of the smallest NEAs ever to be characterized.

  5. PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ∼2 m DIAMETER NEAR-EARTH ASTEROID 2015 TC25: A POSSIBLE BOULDER FROM E-TYPE ASTEROID (44) NYSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Vishnu; Sanchez, Juan A.; Bottke, William F.; Thirouin, Audrey; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Kelley, Michael S.; Ryan, William; Cloutis, Edward A.; Tegler, Stephen C.; Ryan, Eileen V.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Richardson, James E.; Le Corre, Lucille [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0092 (United States); Moskovitz, Nicholas [Lowell Observatory, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Small near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) (<20 m) are interesting, because they are progenitors for meteorites in our terrestrial collection. The physical characteristics of these small NEAs are crucial to our understanding of the effectiveness of our atmosphere in filtering low-strength impactors. In the past, the characterization of small NEAs has been a challenge, because of the difficulty in detecting them prior to close Earth flyby. In this study, we physically characterized the 2 m diameter NEA 2015 TC25 using ground-based optical, near-infrared and radar assets during a close flyby of the Earth (distance 128,000 km) in 2015 October 12. Our observations suggest that its surface composition is similar to aubrites, a rare class of high-albedo differentiated meteorites. Aubrites make up only 0.14% of all known meteorites in our terrestrial meteorite collection. 2015 TC25 is also a very fast rotator with a period of 133 ± 6 s. We combined the spectral and dynamical properties of 2015 TC25 and found the best candidate source body in the inner main belt to be the 70 km diameter E-type asteroid (44) Nysa. We attribute the difference in spectral slope between the two objects to the lack of regolith on the surface of 2015 TC25. Using the albedo of E-type asteroids (50%–60%) we refine the diameter of 2015 TC25 to 2 m, making it one of the smallest NEAs ever to be characterized.

  6. Development of Tc99m-Saccharic Acid for Heart Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafii Khamis; Mohd Azfar Adenan; Bohari Yaacob; Amir Fitri Shafii

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease especially the coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Coronary heart disease is a common term for the buildup of plaque in the heart coronary arteries that could block the blood supply to the myocardial and this could lead to heart attack. An estimated 17 million people died from cardiovascular disease in 2008 representing 30% of all global death. In United Kingdom, coronary heart disease killed as much as 82,000 people each year. Hence, early detection of the coronary heart disease is very important in reducing the mortality among the world population. One of the most sensitive detection methods is by radioimaging using Technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals. Several different radio imaging agents such as Tc99m radiopharmaceutical were developed as radiagnostic agent in determining the CHD especially in identifying the blockage of the coronary artery of the heart muscle. Despite the success of Tc99m-sestamibi and Tc99m-tetrofosmin as effective agents for myocardial perfusion study, the search for other Tc99m heart imaging agents has never been interrupted. This report described the formulation of the Tc99m-saccharic acid radiopharmaceutical kit, radiolabelling of the kit, radiochemical purity evaluation of the Tc99m labeled saccharaic acid, and animal study involving radio imaging using gamma camera. The animal are then sacrificed and the biological distribution of the Tc99m-saccharic acid in-vivo was determined. Comparative study was also conducted using commercially available Tc99m-tetrafosmin, a CHD radiopharmaceutical kit. The Tc99m-saccharic acid developed gave a very high labeling efficiency of >92% with Tc99m and good uptake in the heart muscle. The saccharic acid kit developed was also found to be comparable in quality to the commercially available Tc99-tetrafosmin kit. (author)

  7. Microbial reduction of 99Tc in organic matter-rich soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelouas, A.; Grambow, B.; Fattahi, M.; Andres, Y.; Leclerc-Cessac, E.

    2005-01-01

    For safety assessment purposes, it is necessary to study the mobility of long-lived radionuclides in the geosphere and the biosphere. Within this framework, we studied the behaviour of 99 Tc in biologically active organic matter-rich soils. To simulate the redox conditions in soils, we stimulated the growth of aerobic and facultative denitrifying and anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In the presence of either a pure culture of denitrifiers (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) or a consortium of soil denitrifiers, the solubility of TcO 4 - was not affected. The nonsorption of TcO 4 - onto bacteria was confirmed in biosorption experiments with washed cells of P. aeruginosa regardless of the pH. At the end of denitrification with indigenous denitrifiers in soil/water batch experiments, the redox potential (E H ) dropped and this was accompanied by an increase of Fe concentration in solution as a result of reduction of less soluble Fe(III) to Fe(II) from the soil particles. It is suggested that this is due to the growth of a consortium of anaerobic bacteria (e.g., Fe-reducing bacteria). The drop in E H was accompanied by a strong decrease in Tc concentration as a result of Tc(VII) reduction to Tc(IV). Thermodynamic calculations suggested the precipitation of TcO 2 . The stimulation of the growth of indigenous sulphate-reducing bacteria in soil/water systems led to even lower E H with final Tc concentration of 10 -8 M. Experiments with glass columns filled with soil reproduced the results obtained with batch cultures. Sequential chemical extraction of precipitated Tc in soils showed that this radionuclide is strongly immobilised within soil particles under anaerobic conditions. More than 90% of Tc is released together with organic matter (60-66%) and Fe-oxyhydroxides (23-31%). The present work shows that ubiquitous indigenous anaerobic bacteria in soils play a major role in Tc immobilisation. In addition, organic matter plays a key role in the stability of the reduced Tc

  8. TcI, TcII and TcVI Trypanosoma cruzi samples from Chagas disease patients with distinct clinical forms and critical analysis of in vitro and in vivo behavior, response to treatment and infection evolution in murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Maykon Tavares de; Branquinho, Renata Tupinambá; Alessio, Gláucia Diniz; Mello, Carlos Geraldo Campos; Nogueira-de-Paiva, Nívia Carolina; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Toledo, Max Jean de Ornelas; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis Martins; Lana, Marta de

    2017-03-01

    The clonal evolution of Trypanosoma cruzi sustains scientifically the hypothesis of association between parasite's genetic, biological behavior and possibly the clinical aspects of Chagas disease in patients from whom they were isolated. This study intended to characterize a range of biological properties of TcI, TcII and TcVI T. cruzi samples in order to verify the existence of these associations. Several biological features were evaluated, including in vitro epimastigote-growth, "Vero"cells infectivity and growth, along with in vivo studies of parasitemia, polymorphism of trypomastigotes, cardiac inflammation, fibrosis and response to treatment by nifurtimox during the acute and chronic murine infection. The global results showed that the in vitro essays (acellular and cellular cultures) TcII parasites showed higher values for all parameters (growth and infectivity) than TcVI, followed by TcI. In vivo TcII parasites were more virulent and originated from patients with severe disease. Two TcII isolates from patients with severe pathology were virulent in mice, while the isolate from a patient with the indeterminate form of the disease caused mild infection. The only TcVI sample, which displayed low values in all parameters evaluated, was also originated of an indeterminate case of Chagas disease. Response to nifurtimox was not associated to parasite genetic and biology, as well as to clinical aspects of human disease. Although few number of T. cruzi samples have been analyzed, a discreet correlation between parasite genetics, biological behavior in vitro and in vivo (murine model) and the clinical form of human disease from whom the samples were isolated was verified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evolution of 99Tc Species in Cementitious Nuclear Waste Form

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, Woo Yong; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-01-01

    Technetium (Tc) is produced in large quantities as a fission product during the irradiation of 235 U-enriched fuel for commercial power production and plutonium genesis for nuclear weapons. The most abundant isotope of Tc present in the wastes is 99 Tc because of its high fission yield (∼6%) and long half-life (2.13x10 5 years). During the Cold War era, generation of fissile 239 Pu for use in America's atomic weapons arsenal yielded nearly 1900 kg of 99 Tc at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Most of this 99 Tc is present in fuel reprocessing wastes temporarily stored in underground tanks awaiting retrieval and permanent disposal. After the wastes are retrieved from the storage tanks, the bulk of the high-level waste (HLW) and lowactivity waste (LAW) stream is scheduled to be converted into a borosilicate glass waste form that will be disposed of in a shallow burial facility called the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) at the Hanford Site. Even with careful engineering controls, volatilization of a fraction of Tc during the vitrification of both radioactive waste streams is expected. Although this volatilized Tc can be captured in melter off-gas scrubbers and returned to the melter, some of the Tc is expected to become part of the secondary waste stream from the vitrification process. The off-gas scrubbers downstream from the melters will generate a high pH, sodium-ammonium carbonate solution containing the volatilized Tc and other fugitive species. Effective and cost-efficient disposal of Tc found in the off-gas scrubber solution remains difficult. A cementitious waste form (Cast Stone) is one of the nuclear waste form candidates being considered to solidify the secondary radioactive liquid waste that will be generated by the operation of the waste treatment plant (WTP) at the Hanford Site. Because Tc leachability from the waste form is closely related with Tc speciation or oxidation state in both the simulant

  10. Determination of 99Mo contamination in 99mTc elute obtained from 99Mo/99mTc- generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momennezhad, M.; Zakavi, S. R.; Sadeghi, R.

    2010-01-01

    99m Tc is a widely used radioisotope in nuclear medicine centers which is obtained by elution from Mo-99/Tc-99m generators. Usually the generators are either supplied by the Iran Atomic Energy Agency or by private companies from foreign countries. In this study we have measured 99 Mo contamination in 99m Tc elute from different generators in a period of one year. Materials and Methods: The radionuclide impurity of the 99m Tc elute were studied in two types of radionuclide generators (A: produced in Iran and B: Imported from other country). In-vitro measurements were performed using dose calibrator. Direct measurements were made, using a standard canister at the time of milking of the generators and also in Subsequent hours after milking. Results: The results showed a mean of 99 Mo impurity in generators A and B to be 0.00932±0.0043 and 0.0170±0.0127 respectively. Although the results showed that the 99 Mo contamination in 99 mTc elute was lesser than the maximum accepted activity limit of 0.015%, the difference in these two types may reflect different methods of productions of generator, as well as the quality control procedures. Conclusion: The mean of 99 Mo contamination in generators produced in Iran Atomic Energy Organization was lesser than generators imported from foreign origin.

  11. 77 FR 54908 - TC Offshore, LLC; Notice Establishing Deadline for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. RP12-908-000] TC Offshore, LLC; Notice Establishing Deadline for Comments On August 29, 2012, TC Offshore, LLC (TC Offshore... is hereby given that participants in the captioned proceedings may file comments to TC Offshsore's...

  12. Neutrophil labeling with [99mTc]-technetium stannous colloid is complement receptor 3-mediated and increases the neutrophil priming response to lipopolysaccharide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, Hayley; Ramsay, Stuart C.; Barnes, Jodie; Maggs, Jacqueline; Cassidy, Nathan; Ketheesan, Natkunam

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: [ 99m Tc]-technetium stannous colloid (TcSnC)-labeled white cells are used to image inflammation. Neutrophil labeling with TcSnC is probably phagocytic, but the phagocytic receptor involved is not known. We hypothesised that complement receptor 3 (CR3) plays a key role. Phagocytic labeling could theoretically result in neutrophil activation or priming, affecting the behaviour of labeled cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis side scatter measurements can assess neutrophil activation and priming. Methods: We tested whether TcSnC neutrophil labeling is CR3-mediated by assessing if neutrophil uptake of TcSnC was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed at the CD11b component of CR3. We tested if TcSnC-labeled neutrophils show altered activation or priming status, comparing FACS side scatter in labeled and unlabeled neutrophils and examining the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a known priming agent. Results: Anti-CD11b mAb reduced neutrophil uptake of TcSnC in a dose-dependent fashion. Labeled neutrophils did not show significantly increased side scatter compared to controls. LPS significantly increased side scatter in control cells and labeled neutrophils. However, the increase was significantly greater in labeled neutrophils than unlabeled cells. Conclusions: Neutrophil labeling with TcSnC is related to the function of CR3, a receptor which plays a central role in phagocytosis. TcSnC labeling did not significantly activate or prime neutrophils. However, labeled neutrophils showed a greater priming response to LPS. This could result in labeled neutrophils demonstrating increased adhesion on activated endothelium at sites of infection

  13. 99mTc-interleukin-2 scintigraphy for the in vivo imaging of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annovazzi, Alessio; D'Alessandria, Calogero; Scopinaro, Francesco; Bonanno, Elena; Spagnoli, Luigi G.; Arca, Marcello; Marcoccia, Antonella; Violi, Francesco; Toma, Giorgio De; Signore, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Several histopathological studies have demonstrated that vulnerable plaques are enriched in inflammatory cells. The aims of this study were: (1a) to test the ability of 99m Tc-labelled interleukin-2 ( 99m Tc-IL2) to bind to IL2R-positive (IL2R+) cells in carotid plaques and (1b) to correlate the plaque uptake of 99m Tc-IL2, measured in vivo, with the number of IL2R+ cells within the plaque, measured ex vivo by histology (transversal study, TS), and (2) to evaluate changes in 99m Tc-IL2 uptake in plaques, before and after treatment with a statin or a hypocholesterolaemic diet (longitudinal study, LS). Ultrasound scan was performed for plaque characterisation and localisation. Fourteen patients (16 plaques) eligible for endoarterectomy were recruited for the TS and underwent 99m Tc-IL2 scintigraphy before surgery. Nine patients (13 plaques) were recruited for the LS; these patients received atorvastatin or a standard hypocholesterolaemic diet and 99m Tc-IL2 scintigraphy was performed before and after 3 months of treatment. The degree of 99m Tc-IL2 uptake was expressed as the plaque/background (T/B) ratio. In patients from TS, T/B ratios correlated with the percentage of IL2R+ cells at histology (r=0.707; p=0.002) and the number of IL2R+ cells at flow cytometry (r=0.711; p=0.006). No correlations were observed between ultrasound scores and either scintigraphic or histological findings. In patients from the LS, the mean 99m Tc-IL2 uptake decreased in statin-treated patients (1.75±0.50 vs 2.16±0.44; p=0.012), while it was unchanged in the patients on the hypocholesterolaemic diet (2.33±0.45 vs 2.34±0.5). 99m Tc-IL2 accumulates in vulnerable carotid plaques; this accumulation is correlated with the amount of IL2R+ cells and is influenced by lipid-lowering treatment with a statin. (orig.)

  14. Pharmaceutical grade sodium (99mTc) pertechnetate from 99Mo/99mTc-TCM-Autosolex generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Barua, Luna; Das, Sujata Saha

    2014-01-01

    Technetium-99m (T 1/2 = 6.02h; 140.51 keV (89%)) is the most useful radioisotope in diagnostic nuclear medicine. More than 80% of all diagnostic procedures done worldwide in nuclear medicine centre are performed with 99m Tc. Worldwide crisis of fission 99 Mo based generator in recent past had put the nuclear medicine fraternity in very harsh situation. In order to have an indigenous solution of this problem, we tried to develop a computer controlled semi automated 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator using MEK solvent extraction technique, which utilizes abundantly available 99 Mo produced by (n,γ) reaction in BARC reactors. The aim of this work is to provide a more reliable, computer controlled module (TCM- AUTOSOLEX) for the recovery of pharmaceutical grade 99m Tc from low specific activity 99 Mo based on solvent extraction methodology

  15. Role of /sup 99/mTc pertechnetate uptake in the evaluation of thyroid function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sucupira, M.S.; Camargo, E.E.; Nickoloff, E.L.; Alderson, P.O.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of the 20 min /sup 99/mTc-pertechnetate uptake test, the records of 246 consecutive patients were reviewed. Of these, 192 patients (151 females, 41 males; 10 weeks to 78 years) had at least one year clinical follow-up or a confirmed diagnosis by biopsy or surgery and were included in our study. In these patients, the /sup 99/mTc pertechnetate uptake and hormonal values (T3 resin uptake, T4 RIA, T-index) were obtained. These results were then compared to the clinical diagnosis at the time of the uptake and one year later. All patients received an i.v. injection of 5 mCi of /sup 99/mTc pertechnetate. Imaging was performed using a pinhole collimator and a scintillation camera interfaced to a computer. Regions of interest for the thyroid and the background were used to calculate the 20 min /sup 99/mTc pertechnetate uptake as a percentage of the injected dose. /sup 99/mTc uptake and hormonal values were confirmatory in 158 patients (82.3%): 138 were euthyroid, 18 were hyperthyroid and 2 were hypothyroid. In 29 other patients (15.1%) the pertechnetate uptake provided useful additional information and helped to identify Hashimoto's thyroiditis (8 patients); thyroid suppression by exogenous iodide, steroids or T4 (7 patients); overtreated hyperthyroidism (1 patient); persistent hyperthyroidism (5 patients); different stages of Grave's disease (4 patients); and toxic nodular goiter (4 patients). The /sup 99/mTc uptake was misleading in 5 euthyroid patients (2.6%). We have found the /sup 99/mTc pertechnetate uptake a useful adjunct to measurement of hormonal levels in patients with suspected thyroid disease.

  16. Clinical usefulness of Tc-99m hexakis 2-methoxybutyl isonitrile gated SPECT in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: retrospective analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Z.R.; Khan, A.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Background: In Dilated cardiomyopathy the heart is enlarged and ventricles are dilated. Gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography is considered state of the art for myocardial perfusion imaging. A retrospective analysis was conducted to evaluate patients with dilated cardiomyopathy with Tc-99m sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography to evaluate its clinical utility. Methods: A 10 year retrospective medical record review was done from 1991 to 2001 at Wake Forest University, North Carolina, USA. Eligibility criteria included a diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy and availability of coronary angiography and Tc-99m sestamibi cardiac imaging results. 26 cases were selected for the final review and inclusion in the study. The study was done with standard protocols for cardiac sestamibi imaging. Results: A total of 26 cases were included in the final analysis. Cases were divided into two main groups. Group-A included 16 patients with no correlation between Tc-99m sestamibi and cardiac catheterisation reports. Group-B included 10 patients with good correlation between the above tests. There were no significant differences between the left ventricular ejection fraction, angina history, sex distribution and diabetic status between the two groups. We applied Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test and z-test to quantify the difference between the two groups. Data was tabulated and z-test was performed. The calculated p value was <0.0001. This is significantly less than the tabulated p-value at 5% level of significance, i.e., 1.96. Significant differences exist between Group-A and Group-B. Conclusion: Tc-99m sestamibi is an excellent agent for investigating myocardial perfusion in dilated cardiomyopathy. The reversible and fixed perfusion defects (small to medium sized) seen in dilated cardiomyopathy after performance of Tc-99m sestamibi gated single photon emission computed tomography imaging may not be due to coronary

  17. Pharmacokinetic model of myocardial 99mTc-sestamibi washout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Tsubasa; Monzen, Hajime; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Hara, Masatake

    2013-01-01

    Technetium-99m sestamibi ( 99m Tc-MIBI) scintigraphy has been reported to be a functional imaging tool for in vivo detection of mitochondrial dysfunction in myocardium and multidrug resistance-associated protein expression in tumors. The purpose of this study was to propose a clinically applicable pharmacokinetic model with metabolic equilibrium of 99m Tc-MIBI and to evaluate the accuracy of the model. For this study, eight healthy men received 99m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy. The planar images were obtained at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h after 99m Tc-MIBI injection. The measured time series 99m Tc-MIBI counts were fitted to our model by nonlinear regression analysis. The predictive performance of the model was determined by comparing the residuals between measured and predicted values. We obtained a good regression by fitting data from 0.25 to 6 h after 99m Tc-MIBI injection, with excellent correlation between measured and predicted 99m Tc-MIBI counts (R 2 =0.9792) and a slope near unity. The 95% confidence interval of the mean prediction error included 0, which means that the prediction was not significantly biased. The precision of the prediction was also excellent. Our model shows good predictive capacity, with favorable bias and accuracy. By comparing the predictive values of this model with measured values, mitochondrial 99m Tc-MIBI washout can be quantified. 99m Tc-MIBI washout rates are reported to be a promising method for evaluating cardiac function in patients with cardiac diseases and P-glycoprotein expression in tumor cells. Therefore, this quantification could be useful for mitochondrial functional imaging, especially in patients with cardiac diseases or tumors. (author)

  18. Single isotope dual-phase scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-tetrofosmin combined with SPECT technique in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botushanova, A.; Yaneva, M.; Botushanov, N.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Preoperative parathyroid scintigraphy is highly beneficial when used for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy. The aim is to examine the diagnostic value of single isotope dual-phase scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-etrofosmin combined with SPECT technique in preoperative localization of hyperplastic parathyroid glands in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The study included 15 patients aged 37 to 73 years (8 women and 7 men) with proven secondary hyperparathyroidism with increased serum calcium and parathyroid hormone. All patients were on chroniodialysis and treatment with Calcitriol. The examination was done with two-headed SPECT gamma camera SIMBIA by protocol for single isotope dual-phase scintigraphy and SPECT technique. 740 MBq 99mTc-MIBI were applied intravenously in 6 of the patients, and in 9 patients were administered 740 MBq 99mTc-tetrofosmin. The scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI visualized a focus of residual activity in 4 patients, and in 2 we received negative scintigraphy. The scintigraphy with 99mTc-tetrofosmin combined with SPECT showed an area of hyperfixation in both phases on SPECT images in 1 patient. In 2 patients hyperfixating areas suspicious for abnormal parathyroid glands were registered only in the early SPECT images. In 6 patients the scintigraphic results were negative. Negative scintigraphic results can be explained with the ability to suppress the uptake of 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc - tetrofosmin by the parathyroid cells as a result of taking Calcitriol. Scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI and 99mTc-tetrofosmin did not show high sensitivity in identifying the hyperplastic parathyroid glands, although it was capable to distinguish patients with nodular hyperplasia of those with diffuse hyperplasia

  19. In vivo tumor angiogenesis imaging with site-specific labeled 99mTc-HYNIC-VEGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blankenberg, Francis G.; Backer, Marina V.; Patel, Vimalkumar; Backer, Joseph M.; Levashova, Zoia

    2006-01-01

    We recently developed a cysteine-containing peptide tag (C-tag) that allows for site-specific modification of C-tag-containing fusion proteins with a bifunctional chelator, HYNIC (hydrazine nicotinamide)-maleimide. We then constructed and expressed C-tagged vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and labeled it with HYNIC. We wished to test 99m Tc-HYNIC-C-tagged VEGF ( 99m Tc-HYNIC-VEGF) for the imaging of tumor vasculature before and after antiangiogenic (low continuous dosing, metronomic) and tumoricidal (high-dose) cyclophosphamide treatment. HYNIC-maleimide was reacted with the two thiol groups of C-tagged VEGF without any effect on biologic activity in vitro. 99m Tc-HYNIC-VEGF was prepared using tin/tricine as an exchange reagent, and injected via the tail vein (200-300 μCi, 1-2 μg protein) followed by microSPECT imaging 1 h later. Sequencing analysis of HYNIC-containing peptides obtained after digestion confirmed the site-specific labeling of the two accessible thiol groups of C-tagged VEGF. Tumor vascularity was easily visualized with 99m Tc/VEGF in Balb/c mice with 4T1 murine mammary carcinoma 10 days after implantation into the left axillary fat pad in controls (12.3±5.0 tumor/bkg, n=27) along with its decrease following treatment with high (150 mg/kg q.o.d. x 4; 1.14±0.48 tumor/bkg, n=9) or low (25 mg/kg q.d. x 7; 1.03±0.18 tumor/bkg, n=9) dose cyclophosphamide. Binding specificity was confirmed by observing a 75% decrease in tumor uptake of 99m Tc/biotin-inactivated VEGF, as compared with 99m Tc-HYNIC-VEGF. 99m Tc can be loaded onto C-tagged VEGF in a site-specific fashion without reducing its bioactivity. 99m Tc-HYNIC-VEGF can be rapidly prepared for the imaging of tumor vasculature and its response to different types of chemotherapy. (orig.)

  20. Tc(V)-DMS tumor localization mechanism: a pH-sensitive Tc(V)-DMS-enhanced target/nontarget ratio by glucose-mediated acidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, Kazuko; Saji, Hideo; Yokoyama, Akira

    1998-01-01

    Since the conception of the pentavalent technetium polynuclear complex of dimercaptosuccinic acid, Tc(V)-DMS, a great number of papers published on its clinical applicability forced us to question ''how tumor tissue appropriates the Tc(V)-DMS.'' Preliminary in vitro studies with Ehrlich ascites tumor cells (EATC) indicated the pH-sensitive character of this tumor agent. From this finding and the well-established notion that malignant tumors are more acidic than normal tissue, the in vivo correlation of Tc(V)-DMS accumulation in tumor tissue with its tissue acidification was considered of interest. The systemic lowering of tumor tissue pH by the stimulation of aerobic glycolysis has been well reported. In the present paper, the response of Tc(V)-DMS tumor accumulation to acidification induced by the glucose administration was explored in EATC-bearing mice. Measurement of tumor tissue pH was carried out by direct microelectrode technique and by histochemical umbelliferone technique in tumor tissue excised from EATC bearing mice. The regional acidity distribution is correlated with the regional radioactivity distribution registered by autoradiography. Evidence related to the pH sensitiveness of Tc(V)-DMS in response to glycolytic acidification was gathered; the pH measurement and the in vivo biodistribution of the double-tracer macroautoradiography with C-14 deoxyglucose (C-14-DG) demonstrated that the regional tissue distribution of Tc(V)-DMS was superimposed to that of C-14-DG. The glucose interventional modality offers the premier foundation for the interpretation of Tc(V)-DMS accumulation in diagnostic studies of malignant tumors

  1. Status and future application of pilot lead-bismuth target circuit TC-1 for ADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignatiev, S.; Leonchuk, M.; Orlov, Y.; Pankratov, D.; Reshetnikova, O.; Suvorov, G.; Zabudko, A. [Institute for Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (Russian Federation); Stepanov, V.; Klimov, N. [Experimental and Design Organization, Gidropress, Podolsk (Russian Federation); Hechanova, A.; Ma, J. [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States); Li, N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Gudowski, W. [International Science and Technology Center, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    A complicated evolution, status and future application of the pilot molten lead-bismuth target circuit of 1 MW proton beam power (TC-1) as an important part of a target-blanket accelerator driven system (ADS), that has been developed, created and twice tested under the auspice of the International Science and Technology Center (ISTC), is analyzed. The target complex TC-1 is a circulation lead-bismuth loop whose beam window is made of ferritic steel EP-823 (this steel was used in the past as material of fuel rods cladding in reactors cooled with lead-bismuth). At present TC-1 is operating at coolant temperature up to 300 C degrees and will be used to study different issues linked to the use of lead-bismuth: -) interaction with air, water and hydrogen, -) different regimes of flow, -) corrosion, -) filtering, or -) slag formation.

  2. The study of x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy of 99mTc-RBC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chunyi

    1994-01-01

    99m Tc-RBC are widely used as visualization agents for a blood pool. In this research 99m Tc-RBC was prepared by in vivo labeling. The chemical state and changes of 99m Tc atoms in 99m Tc-RBC was determined by x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). The stability of 99m Tc-RBC is best shown by the determination of XPS at one hour or at two hours after labeling. There are two ways of coordination of bonding of RBC and 99m Tc: One is the coordination of 99m Tc with the oxygen atom which carries a negative charge of the carboxyl radical on the polypeptide bond, the other is the coordination of 99m Tc with a sulfur atom which caries the negative charge of cysteine. From the E b value of 99m Tc-RBC 99m Tc 3d5/2, it can be inferred that 99m Tc of 99m Tc-RBC is less than a trivalent. At the same time, the results of the determination by XPS with the compounds containing 99 TcO 4 - , 99 Tc(V), 99 Tc(IV) and 99 Tc(III) show that the chemical shift is lowered as the reduction state is lowered. Experimental results coincide with theoretical inferences

  3. Sacral-neuromodulation CT-guided; Nuova tecnica di centraggio TC-assistista nella neuromodulazione sacrale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, Lamberto; Ricci, Stefano [INRCA, Ancona (Italy). Dipartimento di radiologia e medicina nucleare; Pelliccioni, Giuseppe; Scarpino, Osvaldo [INRCA, Ancona (Italy). Unita' operativa di radiologia; Ghiselli, Roberto; Saba, Vittorio [INRCA, Ancona (Italy). Dipartimento di chirurgia

    2005-04-01

    in una stimolazione temporanea attraverso un elettrocatetere posizionato mediante puntura percutanea nella radice sacrale S3 al fine di testare l'integrite anatomica della radice. Il test PNE ? eseguito normalmente sotto guida fluoroscopica. Questa tecnica pue se valida, pui presentare alcuni inconvenienti, quali l'esposizione radiogena per gli operatori, la mancata visualizzazione del foro sacrale per gli artefatti da gas colico e l'impossibilite di valutare correttamente la profondita e la sede d'impianto dell'elettrodo-stimolatore. Scopo del lavoro e stato quello di perimentare una tecnica alternativa utilizzando la guida TC al fine di valutarne vantaggi e un possibile uso routinario. Materiale e metodi: Abbiamo testato con PNE test in guida TC 30 pazienti (16 maschi e 14 femmine) affetti da gravi disfunzioni pelviche refrattari agli usuali regimi terapeutici. Ventisette pazienti presentavano una relativa integrit? anatomica del bacino e del sacro, 3 pazienti invece erano portatori du anomalie morfologiche dei forami sacrali. Si e proceduto all'identificazione dei fori sacrali mediante scansioni TC volumetriche, a paziente prono, utilizzando un apparecchio TC spirale dotato di una seconda consolle per le ricostruzioni tridimensionali. Identificata la sede dei forami S3, viene preparato il campo sterile e s'introduce l'ago verificandone la corretta posizione con una scansione TC di controllo. Si passa successivamente all'introduzionedell'elettrodo dopo avere verificato la corretta risposta contrattile muscolare e la precisa posizione con una ulteriore scansione TC. Risultati: Trenta pazienti sono stati sottoposti a PNE test sotto guida TC, per un totale di 38 centraggi. In 8 pazienti e stata eseguito il PNE test su entrambi i fori S3. Il forame sacrale e stato centrato al primo tentativo in 36/38 casi. In due casi sono stati necessari pi? tentativi per centrare correttamente il forame. In 4/30 pazienti e stato

  4. Current status of research and development of 99Mo/99mTc generator in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, U.J.; Lee, J.S.; Son, K.J.; Nam, S.S.; Kwak, S.I.; Han, H.S.

    2006-01-01

    To supply 99m Tc in stable and economical manner in Korea, a chromatographic generator has been under development at KAERI since late 1980's. The chromatographic type of technetium generator is preferred in hospital because it is more convenient and less time-restricted for applications. Hence, the demand of 99m Tc in medical applications is keep increasing. In Korea, there are more than 200 gamma cameras including SPECT in hospitals. For these applications, approximately 100 units/week of 99m Tc generators of which annual cost reached 3 million US dollars were required in 2002. Hence, the development of 99m Tc generators and technology of fission 99 Mo processing were started while installing the generator loading facility (GLF) at KAERI. This facility is currently on a trial run for the commercial production of 99m Tc generators and expected to produce more than 200 generators per week in 2004. For the fission 99 Mo production, an annulus U foil target was considered as the LEU target. The designed LEU target is being used for target manufacturing test and accident analysis. The develop gel type 99m Tc generators by using a poly zirconium complex (PZC) and alumina column, KAERI has cooperated with a Japanese company since late 1990's. In 2003, experimental studies for molybdate adsorption capacity and elution characteristics of the PZC samples from three different batches produced by Kaken Co. were carried out. (author)

  5. The risk analysis used to manufacture 99Mo/99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fano Machín, Yoiz; Alberti Ramírez, Alejandro; Gamboa Marrero, Regla; Suárez Beyríes, Karina; Cruz Morales, Amed

    2016-01-01

    In this work the steps to be followed for the risk analysis in the process of production of 99 Mo / 99m Tc generators in CENTIS, using the methodology of analysis of modes and effects of failures are collected. The analysis of the type and probability of occurrence of the failures in the process, as well as the impact on the quality of the same and the probability of detection of such failures, were used for the use of techniques used in quality assurance such as: storm Ideas and cause-effect diagram. Scales were established for the determination of severity, probability of occurrence, probability of detection and calculation of the number of risk probabilities. The guidelines were laid down for the future application of this technique, which will establish a decision-making process regarding the risks associated with the production process of 99 Mo / 99m Tc generators. (author)

  6. Post meningitis subdural hygroma: Anatomical and functional evaluation with 99mTc-ehylene cysteine dimer single photon emission tomography/computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Punit; Mishra, Ajiv; Arora, Geetanjali; Tripathi, Madhavi; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Subdural hygroma is the collection of cerebrospinal fluid in the subdural space. Most often these resolve spontaneously. However, in cases with neurological complications surgical drainage may be needed. We here, present the case of an 8-year-old boy with post meningitis subdural hygroma. 99mTc-ehylene cysteine dimer (99mTc-ECD) hybrid single photon emission tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) carried out in this patient, demonstrated the subdural hygroma as well as the associated cereb...

  7. Production of radiopharmaceutical 99mTc using wasteless reactor Zr-Mo gel-technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savushkin, I.; Gurko, O.; Ravkova, E.

    2002-01-01

    An original methodology and technological process of the wasteless reactor gel-technology of 99m Tc producing on the basis of centralised Zr-Mo gel-generator have been developed by the Institute of Power Engineering Problems, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus in co-operation with the Research Institute of Oncology and Medical Radiology, Ministry of Health of Belarus. This approach allows 99m Tc to be produced on the basis of MoO 3 with an 99 Mo activity of 3-20 Ci. The technological process of 99m Tc sodium pertechnetate production is remotely controlled and automated. Based on clinical tests performed by the Ministry of Health of Belarus, the clinical application of 99m Tc produced by this technology has been approved. The irradiation conditions of the target, consequence of technological process, technological yield of objective product on the example of operation of one generator, reprocessing and rendering of the wastes are analysed and described. The distinctive features of the technology developed are as follows: (a) Use of native molybdenum as the starting target. (b) Absence of deleterious and toxic impurities from the final product (nitrates, organics, etc.). (c) Application of a modified method of 99m Tc extraction from 99 Mo with the help of the Zr-Mo-gel (that is, application of a true gel, not the powder obtained by gel drying), reducing the number of process stages and simplifying the technology. (d) Easy automation and remote control. (e) Simplicity of design and compactness, opening up wide application fields for the unit. It is suggested that clinical centres should be equipped with centralised high-performance 99m Tc generators. Such centres can supply 99m Tc sodium pertechnetate daily to radioisotope laboratories within the radius of 100 km. Technical and economic calculations show that the centralised gel-generators possess industrial, technical and economic parameters making them superior to small/portable generators based on loading with

  8. 99mTc-UBI Biokinetics: A Specific Peptide for Infection Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Cortés, J.; Meléndez-Alafort, L.; Herrera-Rodríguez, R.; Ferro-Flores, G.; Mitsoura, E.; Martínez-Duncker, C.

    2003-09-01

    Recently, antimicrobial peptides have been proposed as new agents to distinguish between bacterial infections and sterile inflammatory processes. Based on these considerations, Ubiquicidin peptide 29-41 (UBI) has been labeled with 99mTc using a new direct method showing a radiochemical purity > 97 %, high stability in human serum, and low protein binding. In addition 99mTc-UBI showed a specific in vitro and in vivo binding to bacteria. However its biokinetic parameters have not been evaluated since it is one of the new generation radiopharmaceuticals based on peptide structures. Therefore the aim of this project was to establish the biokinetic model for 99mTc-UBI. An activity from 74 to 148 MBq was injected to patients with bone infection and 5 whole body scans were taken at 1, 30, 120, 240 min and 24 h after radiopharmaceutical administration, with a dual head scanner. Urine was collected for 24 h. An antropomorphic phantom was previously used to calculate the effect of attenuation and scattered radiation on the gamma camera acquisition images. ROIs of the selected organs in patients (kidney, liver, heart, bone, soft tissue and lesion) were drawn, and attenuation and scatter corrected. The % urine elimination at 24 h and time integrated ROIs (cpm/pixel/ROIs) were used to obtain the residence time (τ) in each tissue and to establish the biokinetic model. Pharmacokinetic data show that blood clearance is biexponential with a mean residence time in the central compartment of 0.52 h. The images showed non-accumulation in metabolic organs. More than 75 % of the injected activity was eliminated by renal clearance 4 h after 99mTc-UBI administration. The mean radiation dose calculated according to the MIRD formalism was 0.130 mGy/MBq for kidney and the effective dose was 4.29 × 10-3 mSv/MBq.

  9. Tc-99m Glu-Cys-Gly-His-Gly-Lys (ECG-HGK), a novel Tc-99m labeled hexapeptide for molecular tumor imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Weung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Chang Guhn

    2016-03-01

    Domain 5 of kinin-free high molecular weight kininogen inhibits the adhesion of many tumor cell lines, and it has been reported that the histidine-glycine-lysine (HGK)-rich region might be responsible for inhibition of cell adhesion. The authors developed HGK-containing hexapeptide, glutamic acid-cysteine-glycine (ECG)-HGK, and evaluated the utility of Tc-99m ECG-HGK for tumor imaging. Hexapeptide, ECG-HGK was synthesized using Fmoc solid-phase peptide synthesis. Radiolabeling efficiency was evaluated. The uptake of Tc-99m ECG-HGK within HT-1080 cells was evaluated in vitro. In HT-1080 tumor-bearing mice, gamma imaging and biodistribution studies were performed. The complexes Tc-99m ECG-HGK was prepared in high yield. The uptake of Tc-99m ECG-HGK within the HT-1080 tumor cells had been demonstrated by in vitro studies. The gamma camera imaging in the murine model showed that Tc-99m ECG-HGK was accumulated substantially in the HT-1080 tumor (tumor-to-muscle ratio = 5.7 ± 1.4 at 4 h), and the tumoral uptake was blocked by the co-injection of excess HGK (tumor-to-muscle ratio = 2.8 ± 0.6 at 4 h). In the present study, Tc-99m ECG-HGK was developed as a new tumor imaging agents. Our in vitro and in vivo studies revealed specific function of Tc-99m ECG-HGK for tumor imaging. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Concentration of 99Tc in seawater by coprecipitation with iron hydroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momoshima, Noriyuki; Eto, Ichiro; Muhammad Sayad; Takashima, Yoshimasa

    1991-01-01

    A method for accumulation of 99 Tc in seawater has been developed. Technetium tracer in +VII oxidation state was added to the seawater together with reducing agent, potassium pyrosulfite, and coprecipitation agent, ferric chloride. After reduction of Tc(VII) at pH 4, Tc(IV) was coprecipitated as iron hydroxide by addition of sodium hydroxide to pH 9. The reduction and coprecipitation was quantitative and overall recovery of Tc was more than 98%. The green color of iron precipitate formed at pH 9 suggested that Tc(VII) as well as ferric ion was reduced under this condition. Adsorption of Tc(IV), however, was poor for iron hydroxide which was prepared in advance indicating active surface of freshly precipitated iron hydroxide is necessary for quantitative recovery of Tc(IV). A repeating coprecipitation technique was examined for enrichment of Tc in seawater that the same iron was used repeatedly as coprecipitater. After separation of iron hydroxide with Tc(IV) from supernatant, the precipitate was dissolved by addition of acid and then new seawater which contained reducing agent and Tc(VII) was added. Reduction and coprecipitation was again carried out. Good recovery was attained for 7 repeats. The proposed repeating coprecipitation technique was applicable to a large amount of seawater without increasing the amount of iron hydroxide which is subjected to radiochemical analysis. (author)

  11. Photo-production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc with electron linear accelerator beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avagyan, R; Avetisyan, A; Kerobyan, I; Dallakyan, R

    2014-09-01

    We report on the development of a relatively new method for the production of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc. The method involves the irradiation of natural molybdenum using high-intensity bremsstrahlung photons from the electron beam of the LUE50 linear electron accelerator located at the Yerevan Physics Institute (YerPhi). The production method has been developed and shown to be successful. The linear electron accelerator at YerPhi was upgraded to allow for significant increases of the beam intensity and spatial density. The LUE50 was also instrumented by a remote control system for ease of operation. We have developed and tested the (99m)Tc extraction from the irradiation of natural MoO3. This paper reports on the optimal conditions of our method of (99)Mo production. We show the success of this method with the production and separation of the first usable amounts of (99m)Tc. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. /sup 99m/Tc-labelled hepatobiliary radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, G.; Maini, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    During the last 15 years many compounds labelled with /sup 99m/Tc have been proposed for use in cholescintigraphy. A short chronological list includes: toluidine blue, penicillamine, tetracycline, dihydrothioctic acid, mercaptoisubutyric acid, pyridoxals, pyridoxylideneaminates, carboxyl-hydroxyquinoline, substituted acetanilide iminodiacetates (so called IDAs), ethylenediamine-N, N-diacetate derivatives (such as sulfonyl-EDDA and benzoyl-EDDA), and orthoiodohippurate analogues. Among all these compounds the IDAs have been those most extensively used for basic and clinical research. A large series of IDA derivatives has been developed, and the properties of 33 of them have recently been tested

  13. Technetium 99mTc Pertechnetate Brain Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Sang Min; Park, Jin Yung; Lee, Ahn Ki; Chung, Choo Il; Hong, Chang Gi; Rhee, Chong Heon; Koh, Chang Soon

    1968-01-01

    Technetium 99 mTc pertechnetate brain scanning were performed in 3 cases of head injury (2 chronic subdural hematomas and 1 acute epidural hematoma), 2 cases of brain abscess and 1 case of intracerebral hematoma associated with arteriovenous anomaly. In all the cases brain scintigrams showed 'hot areas.' Literatures on radioisotope scanning of intracranial lesions were briefly reviewed. With the improvement of radioisotope scanner and development of new radiopharmaceuticals brain scanning became a safe and useful screening test for diagnosis of intracranial lesions. Brain scanning can be easily performed even to a moribund patient without any discomfort and risk to the patient which are associated with cerebral angiography or pneumoencephalography. Brain scanning has been useful in diagnosis of brain tumor, brain abscess, subdural hematoma, and cerebral vascular diseases. In 80 to 90% of brain tumors positive scintigrams can be expected. Early studies were done with 203 Hg-Neohydrin or 131 I-serum albumin. With these agents, however, patients receive rather much radiation to the whole body and kidneys. In 1965 Harper introduced 99 mTc to reduce radiation dose to the patient and improve statistical variation in isotope scanning.

  14. Experimental study of per-rectal portal scintigraphy using 99mTc-EHIDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Satoshi; Shinotsuka, Akira; Takenaka, Hiroki

    1991-01-01

    We discovered that 99m Tc-diethyl iminodiacetic acid ( 99m Tc-EHIDA) commonly used for hepatobiliary scintigraphy could also be administered per-rectally, with adequate absorption and optimal visualization of the portal system. To evaluate its usefulness, we experimented on rabbits using the method. Portal scintigraphy with rectal administration of 99m Tc-EHIDA, 123 I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) and 99m Tc-red blood cell ( 99m Tc-RBC) were performed in normal rabbits and in extrahepatic portal shunt model rabbits. Images of the liver and thorax were obtained and shunt indices were calculated from the count values of liver and lung or heart. Then the shunt indices were compared with shunt rate derived from direct injection of 99m Tc-macroaglutinated albumin ( 99m Tc-MAA) into inferior mesenteric vein. Correlation between shunt rate of 99m Tc-MAA and shunt indices of 99m Tc-RBC, 123 I-IMP and 99m Tc-EHIDA were 0.64, 0.75 and 0.78, respectively, with 99m Tc-EHIDA having the most favorable results. We concluded that 99m Tc-EHIDA per-rectal portal scintigraphy is a noninvasive, quantitative, inexpensive and simple method for evaluation of portal circulation system. Also, we think that this method would be applicable to human usage from our experience with normal volunteers. (author)

  15. sup(99m)Tc-PI as safe and easy scintigraphy after hepatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terui, Shoji; Oyamada, Hiyoshimaru; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    1980-01-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc-PI was performed on 16 patients after various types of hepatectomy for either primary or secondary liver tumor. sup(99m)Tc-PI scintigraphy was found very useful, especially in regard to clinical evaluation of indistinct low-uptake areas observed on a sup(99m)Tc colloid liver scintigram in the regenerating liver after hepatectomy. Both tests were conducted successively within a couple of weeks. Colloid scintigrams after hepatectomy were divided into two groups according to the sites of indistinct low-uptake areas; one showed them near the resected margin of the regenerating liver (Type I), and the other showed them in both marginal and intrahepatic regions (Type II). Of these 16 patients, 8 showed Type I and 7 showed Type II. The remaining one was excluded for postsurgical complications. By comparing the colloid scintigram with the sup(99m)Tc-PI scintigram, in all the cases of Type I indistinct low-uptake areas were found to be the hilum with a shifted common bile duct. On the other hand, in 2 cases of Type II indistinct low-uptake areas were caused by the hilum accompanied by the dilated bile ducts. In the remaining 5, indistinct low-uptake areas were not identified as bile ducts but were confirmed to be a recurrence of the tumor. (author)

  16. Novel Tc-99m radiotracers for brain imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Boschi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel class of Tc-99m complexes able to cross the blood brain barrier has been investigated and described here. These compounds are formed by reacting the bis-substituted nitrido precusors [99mTc(N(PS2] (PS = phosphino-thiol ligand with triethylborane (BEt3 under strictly anhydrous conditions and using non-aqueous solvents. The molecular structure of these tracers was not fully established, but preliminary experimental evidence suggests that they result from the interaction of the Lewis base [99mTc(N(PS2] with the Lewis acid BEt3, which leads to the formation of the novel -B-Nº Tc- adduct. After purification and recovery in a physiological solution, the new borane-nitrido Tc-99m derivatives were injected in rats for evaluating their in vivo biological behavior. Results showed a significant accumulation in brain tissue, thus indicating that these complexes are capable of penetrating the intact blood brain barrier. Uptake in the central nervous system was confirmed by imaging the distribution of activity on the integrated living animal using a YAP(SSPECT small animal scanner.Uma nova classe de complexos de Tc-99m capazes de atravessar a barreira hemato-encefálica foi investigada e descrita neste trabalho. Estes compostos são formados reagindo os precursores bissubstituídos do nitrido [99mTc(N(PS2] (PS = phosphino-tiol ligante com trietillborano (BEt3 sob restritas condições anidras e usando solventes não aquosos. A estrutura molecular desses traçadores não foi totalmente estabelecida, mas evidências experimentais preliminares sugerem que eles resultam da interação da base de Lewis [99mTc(N(PS2] com o ácido de Lewis BEt3, levando a formação do novo aducto -B-Nº Tc-. Após purificação e recuperação em uma solução fisiológica, os novos derivados borano-nitrido-Tc-99m foram injetados em ratos para avaliação de seu comportamento biológico in vivo. Os resultados mostraram uma acumulação significativa no tecido cerebral

  17. Preparation and biological characteristics of 99mTc-diol a renal agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castanheira, I.; Paulo, A.; Neves, M.; Patricio, L.; Sawas-Dimopoulou, C.

    1993-01-01

    The present work concerns the production of 1,2-dihydroxypropyl-1-phosphonic acid (diol) by acid hydrolysis of (-cis) 1,2-epoxypropylphosphonic acid (phosphomycin), and its formation as a kit easily labeled with [ 99m Tc]pertechnetate. Biodistribution studies and whole-body autoradiographies in mice show that 99m Tc-diol has a specific affinity for the kidneys: it is rapidly cleared from the blood and excreted in urine. Part of the injected activity remains in the kidney cortex sufficiently long to permit kidney imaging. In comparison with other agents which also localize in the kidney cortex, such as 99m Tc-DMSA and 99m Tc-glucoheptonate ( 99m Tc-GHA), the main differences are the following: the peak of renal activity is reached early in the 5 min post-injection period for 99m Tc-diol, only at about 10 min post-injection for 99m Tc-GHA and after 3 h post-injection for 99m Tc-DMSA. The uptake of 99m Tc-diol by other organs, especially by bones, is much smaller than in the case of 99m Tc-DMSA. Unlike 99m Tc-DMSA, the biodistribution of 99m Tc-diol is not significantly influenced by acid-base imbalance. Moreover, the retention effect of hyperuricemia on 99m Tc-diol blood clearance and kidney excretion could be the result of a competition mechanism between this radiopharmaceutical and uric acid for a common transport system. The above biological characteristics suggest that 99m Tc-diol is a kidney radiopharmaceutical with an ability for functional and imaging studies. (author)

  18. Clinical translation of a PSMA inhibitor for 99mTc-based SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro-Flores, Guillermina; Luna-Gutiérrez, Myrna; Ocampo-García, Blanca; Santos-Cuevas, Clara; Azorín-Vega, Erika; Jiménez-Mancilla, Nallely; Orocio-Rodríguez, Emmanuel; Davanzo, Jenny; García-Pérez, Francisco O.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly over-expressed in advanced prostate cancers. 68 Ga-labeled PSMA inhibitors (iPSMA) are currently used for prostate cancer detection by PET imaging. The availability of simple, efficient and reproducible radiolabeling procedures is essential for developing new SPECT radiopharmaceuticals for clinical translation. The aim of this research was to prepare 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-Lys(Nal)-Urea-Glu ( 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA) obtained from lyophilized kit formulations and evaluate the in vitro and in vivo radiopharmaceutical binding to prostate cancer cells over-expressing PSMA, as well as the 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA normal biodistribution in humans and the preliminary uptake in patients with prostate cancer. Methods: 99m Tc labeling was performed by adding sodium pertechnetate solution and a 0.2 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) to a lyophilized formulation containing HYNIC-iPSMA, EDDA, tricine, mannitol and stannous chloride. The radiochemical purity was evaluated by reversed-phase HPLC and ITLC-SG analyses. Stability studies in human serum were performed by size-exclusion HPLC. In vitro cell uptake was tested using prostate cancer cells (LNCaP) with blocked and non-blocked receptors. Biodistribution and tumor uptake were determined in LNCaP tumor-bearing nude mice with blocked and non-blocked receptors, and images were obtained using a micro-SPECT/CT. Whole-body images from three healthy men and two patients with histologically-confirmed prostate cancer (one of them with a previous 68 Ga-PSMA-617scan) were acquired at 1 h and 3 h after 99m Tc-EDDA/HYNIC-iPSMA administration with radiochemical purities of >98%. Results: In vitro and in vivo studies showed high radiopharmaceutical stability in human serum, specific recognition for PSMA, high tumor uptake (10.22 ± 2.96% ID/g at 1 h) with rapid blood clearance and mainly kidney elimination. Preliminary images in patients demonstrated the ability of 99m Tc

  19. Production of 99Tc generators with automatic elution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengatti, J.; Yanagawa, S.T.I.; Mazzarro, E.; Gasiglia, H.T.; Rela, P.R.; Silva, C.P.G. da; Pereira, N.P.S. de.

    1983-10-01

    The improvements performed on the routine production of sup(99m) Tc-generators at the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-CNEN/SP, are described. The old model generators (manual elution of sup(99m) Tc) were substituted by automatically eluted generators (Vacuum system). The alumina column, elution system and acessories were modified; the elution time was reduced from 60 to 20-30 seconds. The new generators give 80-90% elution yields using six mililiters of sodium chloride 0,9% as sup(99m) Tc eluant instead of the 10 mililiters necessary to eluate the old generators. So, the radioactive concentrations are now 70% higher. The radioactive, radiochemical, chemical and microbiological criteria were examinated for sup(99m) Tc solutions. Like old generators, automatic generators were considered safe for medical purpose. (Author) [pt

  20. TcCYPR04, a Cacao Papain-Like Cysteine-Protease Detected in Senescent and Necrotic Tissues Interacts with a Cystatin TcCYS4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Thyago Hermylly Santana; Freitas, Ana Camila Oliveira; Andrade, Bruno Silva; Sousa, Aurizangela Oliveira de; Santiago, André da Silva; Koop, Daniela Martins; Gramacho, Karina Peres; Alvim, Fátima Cerqueira; Micheli, Fabienne; Pirovani, Carlos Priminho

    2015-01-01

    The interaction amongst papain-like cysteine-proteases (PLCP) and their substrates and inhibitors, such as cystatins, can be perceived as part of the molecular battlefield in plant-pathogen interaction. In cacao, four cystatins were identified and characterized by our group. We identified 448 proteases in cacao genome, whereof 134 were cysteine-proteases. We expressed in Escherichia coli a PLCP from cacao, named TcCYSPR04. Immunoblottings with anti-TcCYSPR04 exhibited protein increases during leaf development. Additional isoforms of TcCYSPR04 appeared in senescent leaves and cacao tissues infected by Moniliophthora perniciosa during the transition from the biotrophic to the saprophytic phase. TcCYSPR04 was induced in the apoplastic fluid of Catongo and TSH1188 cacao genotypes, susceptible and resistant to M. perniciosa, respectively, but greater intensity and additional isoforms were observed in TSH1188. The fungal protein MpNEP induced PLCP isoform expression in tobacco leaves, according to the cross reaction with anti-TcCYSPR04. Several protein isoforms were detected at 72 hours after treatment with MpNEP. We captured an active PLCP from cacao tissues, using a recombinant cacao cystatin immobilized in CNBr-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry showed that this protein corresponds to TcCYSPR04. A homology modeling was obtained for both proteins. In order to become active, TcCYSPR04 needs to lose its inhibitory domain. Molecular docking showed the physical-chemical complementarities of the interaction between the cacao enzyme and its inhibitor. We propose that TcCYSPR04 and its interactions with cacao cystatins are involved in the senescence and necrosis events related to witches' broom symptoms. This molecular interaction may be the target for future interventions to control witches' broom disease.

  1. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD perform differently in typically hypoperfused areas in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koulibaly, Pierre Malick [Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis (France); Laboratoire de Biophysique, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, UFR de Medecine, 28 Avenue de Valombrose, 06107, Nice Cedex 2 (France); Nobili, Flavio; Vitali, Paolo; Girtler, Nicola; Rodriguez, Guido [Clinical Neurophysiology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Genoa (Italy); Migneco, Octave; Darcourt, Jacques [Nuclear Medicine Department, Centre Antoine Lacassagne, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis (France); Robert, Philippe H. [Memory Center, Federation of Clinical Neuroscience, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2003-07-01

    Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) and {sup 99m}Tc-N,N''-1,2-ethylene diylbis-l-cysteine diethyl ester dihydrochloride (ECD) yield significantly different images of cerebral perfusion owing to their particular pharmacokinetics. The aim of this study was to assess the topography, extension and statistical significance of these differences in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sixty-four patients with mild to moderate AD were retrospectively selected by two European centres. Two series of patients, including 32 studied with {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and 32 studied with {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET, were matched for sex, age ({+-}3 years) and severity of cognitive impairment as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) ({+-}2 points), following a case-control procedure. SPET data were processed using SPM99 software (uncorrected height threshold: P=0.001). {sup 99m}Tc-ECD SPET gave significantly higher uptake ratio values than {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET in several symmetrical clusters, including the right and left occipital cuneus, the left occipital and parietal precuneus, and the left superior and middle temporal gyri. {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO SPET gave significantly higher uptake ratio values than ECD in two smaller clusters, including the hippocampus in both hemispheres. In AD, relative brain uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO and {sup 99m}Tc-ECD is different in several brain regions, some of which are typically involved in AD, such as the precuneus and the hippocampus. These differences confirm the need for specific normal databases, but their impact on routine SPET reports in AD is not known and deserves an ad hoc investigation. (orig.)

  2. Development of Tc-99m labeled myocardial imaging agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J. M.; Jang, Y. S.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, Y. S.; Kim, H. W.; Ray, G.; Lee, M. S.

    2006-02-01

    Lipophilic cations have been widely used for myocardial SPECT. We synthesized novel +1 charged lipophilic Tc-99m-labeled N,N'-disubstituted N2S2 derivatives and investigated their biodistribution. The N,N'-dimethyl-, N,N'-diethyl-, N,N'-bis(methoxyethyl)-, and N,N'-bis(ethoxyethyl)N2S2 derivatives were synthesized by alkylating disulfide form of N2S2 with corresponding alkyl halides and subsequently reduced with LAH in THF. To label with Tc-99m, 50% gluconic acid (0.1 ml), SnCl2·2H2O (10 μg), Tc-99m-pertechnetate (370 MBq/2.5 ml) and 0.5 M Na2CO3 (0.3 ml) were added to the compounds. These mixtures were reacted in boiling water bath for 30∼60 min. Radiochemical purities were checked by Whatman No.1 chromatography (normal saline, Rf 0.3∼0.4). Biodistribution of each compound was investigated after injecting 74 kBq (0.1 ml) of each Tc-99m-labeled compound to ICR-mice through the tail vein. Chemical structures of synthesized compounds were confirmed by GC-MSD and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. All of the Tc-99m-labeled compound showed labeling efficiencies of higher than 93%. In biodistribution study, the myocardial uptake of Tc-99m-N,N'-dimethylN2S2, Tc-99m-N,N'-diethylN2S2, Tc-99m-N,N'-bis(methoxyethyl)N2S2 and Tc-99m-N,N'-bis(ethoxyethyl)N2S2 were 5.38 ±0.96, 2.98 ±0.16, 4.27 ±0.47, 7.24 ±1.01% ID/g at 10 min and 5.34 ±1.57, 2.05 ±0.40, 1.02 ±0.16, 1.69 ±0.04% ID/g at 2 hr, respectively. We successfully synthesized Tc-99m-labeled N,N-disubstituted N2S2 derivatives that are novel lipophilic +1 charged compounds. We thought our results prove the feasibility of these compounds to use for myocardial SPECT agent

  3. Neutrophil labeling with [{sup 99m}Tc]-technetium stannous colloid is complement receptor 3-mediated and increases the neutrophil priming response to lipopolysaccharide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, Hayley [School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Ramsay, Stuart C. [School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland (Australia) and Townsville Nuclear Medicine, Mater Hospital, Townsville, Queensland 4812 (Australia)]. E-mail: stuart.ramsey@jcu.edu.au; Barnes, Jodie [School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Maggs, Jacqueline [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Townsville Hospital, Townsville, Queensland 4814 (Australia); Cassidy, Nathan [Townsville Nuclear Medicine, Mater Hospital, Townsville, Queensland 4812 (Australia); Ketheesan, Natkunam [School of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); School of Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland (Australia)

    2006-04-15

    Introduction: [{sup 99m}Tc]-technetium stannous colloid (TcSnC)-labeled white cells are used to image inflammation. Neutrophil labeling with TcSnC is probably phagocytic, but the phagocytic receptor involved is not known. We hypothesised that complement receptor 3 (CR3) plays a key role. Phagocytic labeling could theoretically result in neutrophil activation or priming, affecting the behaviour of labeled cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) analysis side scatter measurements can assess neutrophil activation and priming. Methods: We tested whether TcSnC neutrophil labeling is CR3-mediated by assessing if neutrophil uptake of TcSnC was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed at the CD11b component of CR3. We tested if TcSnC-labeled neutrophils show altered activation or priming status, comparing FACS side scatter in labeled and unlabeled neutrophils and examining the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a known priming agent. Results: Anti-CD11b mAb reduced neutrophil uptake of TcSnC in a dose-dependent fashion. Labeled neutrophils did not show significantly increased side scatter compared to controls. LPS significantly increased side scatter in control cells and labeled neutrophils. However, the increase was significantly greater in labeled neutrophils than unlabeled cells. Conclusions: Neutrophil labeling with TcSnC is related to the function of CR3, a receptor which plays a central role in phagocytosis. TcSnC labeling did not significantly activate or prime neutrophils. However, labeled neutrophils showed a greater priming response to LPS. This could result in labeled neutrophils demonstrating increased adhesion on activated endothelium at sites of infection.

  4. Suprasegmental neurophysiological monitoring with H reflex and TcMEP in spinal surgery. Transient loss due to hypotension. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Saponaro-González

    Full Text Available Objective: H-reflex is a well known neurophysiological test used to evaluate sensory afferent and motor efferent impulses of S1 root. Despite its simplicity and feasibility, it is not used very often in the operating room. Methods: We report the case of a 16-year-old male patient who undergoes a surgical correction for a severe paralytic scoliosis (160°. On account of previous deficits, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring was achieved through TcMEP and H-reflex. Results: Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM showed a transient and simultaneous loss of bilateral TcMEP and H-reflex, coinciding with an abrupt hypotension during pedicle screw placement. After having dismissed mechanical injury and after increasing blood pressure, TcMEP and H-reflex were equivalent to those at baseline. Conclusions: The H-reflex is a classic neurophysiological test not used very frequently in the operating room. It is a feasible and reliable technique that can be helpful during spine surgery IONM, especially in patients with preexisting neurological deficits. Although simultaneous TcMEP and H-reflex monitoring has been previously described, to our knowledge, this is the first recorded case of a decline in both associated with abrupt hypotension. Keywords: Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, TcMEP, H-reflex, Scoliosis, Hypotension

  5. Synthesis, Structure Elucidation, and Redox Properties of (superscript 99)Tc Complexes of Lacunary Wells-Dawson Polyoxometalates: Insights into Molecular (superscript 99)Tc-Metal Oxide Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGregor, Donna; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Howell, Robertha C.; Mbomekalle, Israel M.; Lukens, Wayne W. Jr.; Bian, Fang; Mausolf, Edward; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Francesconi, Lynn C.

    2011-01-01

    The isotope 99 Tc (β max , 293.7; half-life, 2.1 x 10 5 years) is an abundant product of uranium-235 fission in nuclear reactors and is present throughout the radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the Hanford and Savannah River sites. Understanding and controlling the extensive redox chemistry of 99 Tc is important in identifying tunable strategies to separate 99 Tc from spent fuel and from waste tanks and, once separated, to identify and develop an appropriately stable waste form for 99 Tc. Polyoxometalates (POMs), nanometer-sized models for metal oxide solid-state materials, are used in this study to provide a molecular level understanding of the speciation and redox chemistry of incorporated 99 Tc. In this study, 99 Tc complexes of the (α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 10- and (α 1 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 10- isomers were prepared. Ethylene glycol was used as a 'transfer ligand' to minimize the formation of TcO 2 · xH 2 O. The solution structures, formulations, and purity of TcVO(α 1 /α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 7- were determined by multinuclear NMR. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of the complexes is in agreement with the formulation and structures determined from 31 P and 183 W NMR. Preliminary electrochemistry results are consistent with the EXAFS results, showing a facile reduction of the TcVO(α 1 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 7- species compared to the TcVO(α 2 -P 2 W 17 O 61 ) 7- analog. The α 1 defect is unique in that a basic oxygen atom is positioned toward the α 1 site, and the Tc V O center appears to form a dative metal-metal bond with a framework W site. These attributes may lead to the assistance of protonation events that facilitate reduction. Electrochemistry comparison shows that the ReV analogs are about 200 mV more difficult to reduce in accordance with periodic trends.

  6. Significance of delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT scintigraphy in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Comparison between /sup 99m/Tc-PMT and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Nakano, Shunichi; Hashizume, Terumi and others

    1985-03-01

    The usefulness of delayed hepatobiliary imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-PMT in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was studied in 30 patients with histologically verified hepatocellular carcinoma. Of 30 patients, delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images showed 13 patients (43 %) of increased radioactivity and 4 (13 %) of equilibrated radioactivity in carcinoma as compared with that in the surrounding normal liver tissues. Furthermore, 3 of 6 patients who showed no filling defects in /sup 99m/Tc-Sn colloid liver images, showed increased uptake of radioactivity in carcinoma in delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images. These results suggest that the complementary use of delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT imaging to /sup 99m/Tc-Sn colloid liver imaging is useful for detecting hepatoma lesions. The hepatic lesions were positively visualized on /sup 99m/Tc-PMT and/or /sup 67/Ga-citrate images in 21 (70 %) of 30 patients. These results indicate that use of delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT and /sup 67/Ga-citrate imaging in combination is useful for positive visualization of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  7. Optimization, validation and standardization of a method of measuring the radiochemical purity of 99mTc-HMDP in Necker hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, A.; Izembart, M.; Barritault, L.

    1997-01-01

    By the end of 1996, the tests of the radiochemical purity (RCP) of preparation of HMDP- 99m Tc at Necker hospital were effected by means of 'Tech-Kit' technique which allowed making evident only one radiochemical impurity, the free TcO 4 - . So, the aim of this work has been the search for another technique able to detect also the reduced hydrolyzed 99m Tc, and then, to optimize, validate and standardize this new technique. Several methods have been tested and compared on different points (the chemical species identified, practical difficulties, duration, reproducibility) in order to chose 'the best' one, consisting in associating two TLC (migration time, 3 minutes): - TLC no.1, ITLC-SG/Methyl-ethyl-ketone; - TLC no.2, ITLC-SG/1M Sodium acetate. This method has been subsequently: - optimized, concerning the quantity of deposed sampling, way of deposit drying, migration range, reading protocol by radio-chromatograph; - validated, by verifying the migration of radiochemical impurities by means of controls and by evaluating its sensitivity; - standardized, by defining the interest zones for interpreting the radio-chromatograms, by evaluating the reproducibility and by calculating the 'normal values' of RCP percentages. This method has been adopted as routine and with current recoil (40 preparations) and our conditions of realizations, the extreme values of the percentages obtained for the impurity zones of interests, have been the following: - TcO 4 - zone, [0.39%-1.07%]; - hydrolyzed reduced Tc zone, [0.96%-5.09%]. By taking into account their distribution we calculated a minimum RCP value of 94% to accept the preparation (the RCP being defined as equal to 100% - % TcO 4 - % hydrolyzed reduced Tc)

  8. Successful labeling of 99mTc-MDP using 99mTc separated from 99Mo produced by 100Mo(n,2n)99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Yasuki; Hatsukawa, Yuichi; Kin, Tadahiro; Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Motoishi, Shoji; Konno, Chikara; Ochiai, Kentaro; Takakura, Kosuke; Sato, Yuichi; Sato, Norihito; Ohta, Akio; Yamabayashi, Hisamichi; Tanase, Masakazu; Fujisaki, Saburo; Kawauchi, Yukimasa; Teranaka, Tomoyuki; Takeuchi, Nobuhiro; Igarashi, Takashi

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