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Sample records for test cases shows

  1. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

     This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....... This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....

  2. Migraine patients consistently show abnormal vestibular bedside tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Teixeira Maranhão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs.Objective To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls.Method Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals – thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls.Results Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity.Conclusion Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.

  3. Migraine patients consistently show abnormal vestibular bedside tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Eliana Teixeira; Maranhão-Filho, Péricles; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Vincent, Maurice Borges

    2016-01-01

    Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs. To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR) responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls. Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals - thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls. Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity). Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.

  4. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. In the comp....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases. The comparative test cases include: ventilation, shading and geometry....

  5. Limonene hydroperoxide analogues show specific patch test reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensson, Johanna Bråred; Hellsén, Staffan; Börje, Anna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2014-05-01

    The fragrance terpene R-limonene is a very weak sensitizer, but forms allergenic oxidation products upon contact with air. The primary oxidation products of oxidized limonene, the hydroperoxides, have an important impact on the sensitizing potency of the oxidation mixture. One analogue, limonene-1-hydroperoxide, was experimentally shown to be a significantly more potent sensitizer than limonene-2-hydroperoxide in the local lymph node assay with non-pooled lymph nodes. To investigate the pattern of reactivity among consecutive dermatitis patients to two structurally closely related limonene hydroperoxides, limonene-1-hydroperoxide and limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Limonene-1-hydroperoxide, limonene-2-hydroperoxide, at 0.5% in petrolatum, and oxidized limonene 3.0% pet. were tested in 763 consecutive dermatitis patients. Of the tested materials, limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave most reactions, with 2.4% of the patients showing positive patch test reactions. Limonene-2-hydroperoxide and oxidized R-limonene gave 1.7% and 1.2% positive patch test reactions, respectively. Concomitant positive patch test reactions to other fragrance markers in the baseline series were frequently noted. The results are in accordance with the experimental studies, as limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave more positive patch test reactions in the tested patients than limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Furthermore, the results support the specificity of the allergenic activity of the limonene hydroperoxide analogues and the importance of oxidized limonene as a cause of contact allergy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Automated Test Case Generation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    I would like to present the concept of automated test case generation. I work on it as part of my PhD and I think it would be interesting also for other people. It is also the topic of a workshop paper that I am introducing in Paris. (abstract below) Please note that the talk itself would be more general and not about the specifics of my PhD, but about the broad field of Automated Test Case Generation. I would introduce the main approaches (combinatorial testing, symbolic execution, adaptive random testing) and their advantages and problems. (oracle problem, combinatorial explosion, ...) Abstract of the paper: Over the last decade code-based test case generation techniques such as combinatorial testing or dynamic symbolic execution have seen growing research popularity. Most algorithms and tool implementations are based on finding assignments for input parameter values in order to maximise the execution branch coverage. Only few of them consider dependencies from outside the Code Under Test’s scope such...

  7. A case of osseous scintigraphy showing focuses of multifocal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faurous-Vanaud, R.; Faurous, P.; Kalfa, G.; Collet, H.; Couty, H.; Artus, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Incidence of tuberculosis in developed countries presents in the last years a spectacular boost. However, the osteo-articular system is afflicted by tuberculosis only in a few percent of cases and the multifocal character represents less than 5% of osseous tuberculosis. It is presented here a case of multifocal osseous tuberculosis only to stress its rarity. A woman 28 years old from Djibouti presents since 8 months an asthenia and dorsal pains long thought as psychalgia. The examination has shown a major vertebral stiffness and limitation of right haunch. The radiographs showed a scoliosis centered on D8 with modifications. The biologic data are VS = 90, CRP = 124 and the hemogram is normal. The intradermal reaction (10 U of tuberculin) is phlyctenular. The TDM indicates lytic vertebral extension on D7 - D8, the osseous scintigraphy with MDP - 99 mTc indicates no anomaly in the vascular arrival time; a few minutes after injection: dorsal and upper and of right femur hyperactivity; 2 h after injection: hyper-fixation of D7 to D9 and of the upper end of right femur. The IRM indicates para-vertebral abscess of D7 to D9 with epidural abscess; abscess in the upper part of the loge of right adductors with osseous affliction of the femur's upper end; a bacillary infectious process was a priori evoked. The patient was then placed under quadruple antibiotic-therapy anti-tuberculous care. In case of anomalous multifocal osseous scintigraphy the tuberculous affliction is part of the differential diagnosis, particularly in the immigrant populations or in HIV+ persons

  8. Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. I....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases....

  9. Case Report: HIV test misdiagnosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Study: HIV test misdiagnosis 124. Case Report: HIV ... A positive rapid HIV test does not require ... 3 College of Medicine - Johns Hopkins Research Project, Blantyre,. Malawi ... test results: a pilot study of three community testing sites.

  10. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  11. Case Study Shows Disconnect on Civic Journalism's Role

    OpenAIRE

    Tully, M.; Harmsen, S.; Singer, J.; Ekdale, B.

    2017-01-01

    This in-depth case study examines attempts to transform a traditional newsroom to one oriented around civic journalism principles, offering a unique look at the resistance toward those principles even in a digital environment that facilitates new audience relationships. Civic journalism emphasizes understanding and addressing community concerns from a citizen perspective. This study finds that journalists still struggle to integrate citizens’ contributions into newsroom practice in meaningful...

  12. An autopsied case of tuberculous meningitis showing interesting CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiko, Takashi; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Imada, Ryuichi; Nagai, Kenichi

    1983-01-01

    A 61-year-old female patient died of a neurological disorder of unknown origin one month after the first visit and was found to have had tuberculous meningitis at autopsy. CT revealed a low density area showing an enlargement of the cerebral ventricle but did not reveal contrast enhancement in the basal cistern peculiar to tuberculous meningitis. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different...... research paths....

  14. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    2006-01-01

    on the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications for research...... design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive......Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus...

  15. RSG Deployment Case Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owsley, Stanley L.; Dodson, Michael G.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Seim, Thomas A.; Alexander, David L.; Hawthorne, Woodrow T.

    2005-09-01

    The RSG deployment case design is centered on taking the RSG system and producing a transport case that houses the RSG in a safe and controlled manner for transport. The transport case was driven by two conflicting constraints, first that the case be as light as possible, and second that it meet a stringent list of Military Specified requirements. The design team worked to extract every bit of weight from the design while striving to meet the rigorous Mil-Spec constraints. In the end compromises were made primarily on the specification side to control the overall weight of the transport case. This report outlines the case testing results.

  16. The Couplex test cases: models and lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeat, A.; Kern, M.; Schumacher, S.; Talandier, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Couplex test cases are a set of numerical test models for nuclear waste deep geological disposal simulation. They are centered around the numerical issues arising in the near and far field transport simulation. They were used in an international contest, and are now becoming a reference in the field. We present the models used in these test cases, and show sample results from the award winning teams. (authors)

  17. Automating Test Activities: Test Cases Creation, Test Execution, and Test Reporting with Multiple Test Automation Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Loke Mun Sei

    2015-01-01

    Software testing has become a mandatory process in assuring the software product quality. Hence, test management is needed in order to manage the test activities conducted in the software test life cycle. This paper discusses on the challenges faced in the software test life cycle, and how the test processes and test activities, mainly on test cases creation, test execution, and test reporting is being managed and automated using several test automation tools, i.e. Jira, ...

  18. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Pernille Dissing; Løkke, Ann-Kristina

    2006-01-01

    design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive...

  19. Case studies in ultrasonic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, V.; Satheesh, C.; Varde, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing is widely used Non Destructive Testing (NDT) method and forms the essential part of In-service inspection programme of nuclear reactors. Main application of ultrasonic testing is for volumetric scanning of weld joints followed by thickness gauging of pipelines and pressure vessels. Research reactor Dhruva has completed the first In Service Inspection programme in which about 325 weld joints have been volumetrically scanned, in addition to thickness gauging of 300 meters of pipe lines of various sizes and about 24 nos of pressure vessels. Ultrasonic testing is also used for level measurements, distance measurements and cleaning and decontamination of tools. Two case studies are brought out in this paper in which ultrasonic testing is used successfully for identification of butterfly valve opening status and extent of choking in pipe lines in Dhruva reactor systems

  20. Two cases of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome showing interesting CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Masahiro; Hara, Yuzo; Ito, Noritaka; Nishimura, Mieko; Onishi, Yoshitaka; Hasuo, Kanehiro

    1982-01-01

    CT showed the lesion at the orbital apex in both of the 2 cases of Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Steroid therapy resulted in improvement of clinical symptoms and regression of the lesion which was confirmed by CT. (Chiba, N.)

  1. A case showing a blistering disorder in radiation dermatitis during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonoshita, Takeshi; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki

    2007-01-01

    We experienced a case showing a blistering disorder in radiation dermatitis during radiation therapy for thymic cancer. Application of steroid to the lesion improved blisters. The literature on bullous eruption including radiation-induced bullous pemhigoid was critically reviewed. (author)

  2. Investigating CSI: portrayals of DNA testing on a forensic crime show and their potential effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Barbara L; Jankowski, Natalie; Brewer, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    The popularity of forensic crime shows such as CSI has fueled debate about their potential social impact. This study considers CSI's potential effects on public understandings regarding DNA testing in the context of judicial processes, the policy debates surrounding crime laboratory procedures, and the forensic science profession, as well as an effect not discussed in previous accounts: namely, the show's potential impact on public understandings of DNA and genetics more generally. To develop a theoretical foundation for research on the "CSI effect," it draws on cultivation theory, social cognitive theory, and audience reception studies. It then uses content analysis and textual analysis to illuminate how the show depicts DNA testing. The results demonstrate that CSI tends to depict DNA testing as routine, swift, useful, and reliable and that it echoes broader discourses about genetics. At times, however, the show suggests more complex ways of thinking about DNA testing and genetics.

  3. A Case of Esophageal Leiomyoma Showing High FDG Uptake on F-18 FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen [College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jin Sook [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    An esophageal leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the esophagus mainly occurred in intramural portion. Occasionally, it is difficult to discriminate esophageal malignancy from large leiomyoma. Although F-18 FDG PET has been used for differentiating malignant from benign disease, false-positive cases have been reported. Recently, uterine leiomyoma has been reported to have relatively high F-18 FDG uptake in some patients but little is known about how an esophageal leiomyoma might be showed on F-18 FDG PET. We report a case of esophageal leiomyoma that showed high FDG uptake on PET images.

  4. A Case of Esophageal Leiomyoma Showing High FDG Uptake on F-18 FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen; Ryu, Jin Sook

    2008-01-01

    An esophageal leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the esophagus mainly occurred in intramural portion. Occasionally, it is difficult to discriminate esophageal malignancy from large leiomyoma. Although F-18 FDG PET has been used for differentiating malignant from benign disease, false-positive cases have been reported. Recently, uterine leiomyoma has been reported to have relatively high F-18 FDG uptake in some patients but little is known about how an esophageal leiomyoma might be showed on F-18 FDG PET. We report a case of esophageal leiomyoma that showed high FDG uptake on PET images

  5. Differences in MRI findings in cases showing ring-enhancement on a CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwa, Kaichi; Hashimoto, Takashi; Miyasaka, Yoshio; Yada, Kenzoh; Kan, Shinichi; Takagi, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    It is sometimes difficult to differentiate between a brain abscess and a tumor, for both show ring-enhancement on a CT scan. The present authors have studied the benefit of MRI for the differential diagnosis of these two lesions. The subjects of this study were 6 cases of brain abscess and 10 cases of brain tumor, all of them showing ring-enhancement on a CT scan. The MRI findings were compared with those of the CT scan taken at almost the same time, especially focussing on the difference in the ring-enhancement. In 5 out of the 6 cases of brain abscess, T 2 -weighted MRI demonstrated a comparatively thin and homogeneous low-intensity, round rim. In the cases of brain tumor, however, none of the cases demonstrated this typical low-intensity, round rim; rather, in them the rim was thick and irregular. The authors can conclude that those MRI findings can serve as important differential diagnostic findings between brain abscess and tumor; also, MRI may be used as a landmark for terminating the administration of antibiotics in cases of brain abscess. (author)

  6. Older people experiencing homelessness show marked impairment on tests of frontal lobe function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoz, Astrid; Burke, David

    2016-03-01

    Reported rates of mild and moderate cognitive impairment in older people experiencing homelessness range from 5-80%. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of cognitive impairment in older people experiencing homelessness in the inner city of Sydney, Australia. Men and women experiencing homelessness aged 45 years and over in the inner city were screened for cognitive impairment. Participants who scored 26 or below on the mini-mental state examination and/or were impaired on any one of the clock-drawing test, the verbal fluency test and the trail-making test, part B were then assessed with a semi-structured interview, including the 21-item Depression Anxiety Stress Scale and the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Screening of 144 men and 27 women aged between 45 years and 93 years identified cognitive impairment in 78%. Subsequently, high rates of mental and physical illness were identified, and 75% of subjects who were cognitively impaired performed poorly on frontal lobe tests. The trail-making test, part B was the most sensitive measure of frontal function. This study demonstrated that a large majority of older people experiencing homelessness, in the inner city of a high-income country, showed impairment on tests of frontal lobe function, a finding that could have significant implications for any medical or psychosocial intervention. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Cases report of ossifying fibroma showing various radiographic appearances in posterior mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Do; Oh, Seung Hwan; Son, Hyun Jin

    2010-01-01

    Common radiographic appearances of ossifying fibroma (OF) are well demarcated margin, radiolucent or mixed lesion. Lesions for the radiographic differential diagnosis with OF include fibrous dysplasia, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. Other confusing lesions might be the mixed lesions such as calcifying odontogenic cyst, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, and benign cementoblastoma. We reported three cases of OF in posterior mandible. These cases showed a little distinguished radiographic features of OF and diagnosed from a combination of clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic information. We need to further refine radiographic and histopathological features of OF and other confusing lesions with literatures review because some cases of these lesions are not easily differentiated radiographically and histopathologically.

  8. Cases report of ossifying fibroma showing various radiographic appearances in posterior mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Do; Oh, Seung Hwan [School of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hyun Jin [Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Eulji University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Common radiographic appearances of ossifying fibroma (OF) are well demarcated margin, radiolucent or mixed lesion. Lesions for the radiographic differential diagnosis with OF include fibrous dysplasia, focal cemento-osseous dysplasia. Other confusing lesions might be the mixed lesions such as calcifying odontogenic cyst, adenomatoid odontogenic tumor, calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumor, and benign cementoblastoma. We reported three cases of OF in posterior mandible. These cases showed a little distinguished radiographic features of OF and diagnosed from a combination of clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic information. We need to further refine radiographic and histopathological features of OF and other confusing lesions with literatures review because some cases of these lesions are not easily differentiated radiographically and histopathologically.

  9. Ten cases of severe oral lichen planus showing granular C3 deposition in oral mucosal basement membrane zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takashi; Fukuda, Aoi; Himejima, Akio; Morita, Shosuke; Tsuruta, Daisuke; Koga, Hiroshi; Krol, Rafal P; Ishii, Norito

    2015-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) may show depositions of immunoglobulins and complement components in oral mucosal basement membrane zone (BMZ) in direct immunofluorescence, although these finding are not frequently seen. We collected and examined ten cases of severe OLP showing granular C3 deposition in BMZ. In addition to clinical, histopathological and direct immunofluorescence assessments, we performed various immune-serological tests, including indirect immunofluorescence of normal human skin and 1M NaCl-split skin, immunoblotting of normal human epidermal and dermal extracts, recombinant proteins of BP180 NC16a and C-terminal domains, concentrated culture supernatant of HaCaT cells and purified human laminin-332, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for BP230 and BP180. Direct immunofluorescence showed C3 deposition in BMZ exclusively of granular pattern in 7 cases and of both granular and linear patterns in 3 cases. The 10 cases showed no positive reactivity for either IgG or IgA antibodies in any immuno-serological tests. Detailed analyses of clinical, histopathological and immunological findings revealed striking female prevalence, although other parameters were in general characteristic of OLP. Granular C3 deposition in oral BMZ may be one of the characteristic features of severe OLP, although mechanisms for C3 deposition and its pathogenic role in OLP are currently unknown.

  10. Solitary eccrine syringofibroadenoma: a case report showing papillary tubular adenoma-like features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Yamamoto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We herein describe a case showing eccrine syringofibroadenoma occurred on the dorsum of the right foot of a 46-year-old Japanese female. Histopathologic examination revealed anastomosing cords and strands of cuboidal epithelial cells extending from the epidermis to the upper dermis, with a number of well-defined ducts suggesting eccrine ductal origin. In addition, there were papillary tubular adenoma-like ductal structures lined by a few rows of epithelial cells with papillary projections into the lumen surrounded by fibrous stroma in the mid-dermis. It is of note that various histologic features showing different differentiation were seen in a single lesion of eccrine syringofibroadenoma.

  11. A Case of Cardiac Cephalalgia Showing Reversible Coronary Vasospasm on Coronary Angiogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, YoungSoon; Jin, Dong Gyu; Jang, Il Mi; Jang, YoungHee; Na, Hae Ri; Kim, SanYun

    2010-01-01

    Background Under certain conditions, exertional headaches may reflect coronary ischemia. Case Report A 44-year-old woman developed intermittent exercise-induced headaches with chest tightness over a period of 10 months. Cardiac catheterization followed by acetylcholine provocation demonstrated a right coronary artery spasm with chest tightness, headache, and ischemic effect of continuous electrocardiography changes. The patient's headache disappeared following intra-arterial nitroglycerine injection. Conclusions A coronary angiogram with provocation study revealed variant angina and cardiac cephalalgia, as per the International Classification of Headache Disorders (code 10.6). We report herein a patient with cardiac cephalalgia that manifested as reversible coronary vasospasm following an acetylcholine provocation test. PMID:20607049

  12. Physical Stress Echocardiography: Prediction of Mortality and Cardiac Events in Patients with Exercise Test showing Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Pereira de Araujo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have demonstrated the diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of physical stress echocardiography in coronary artery disease. However, the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia is limited. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of physical stress echocardiography in the prediction of mortality and major cardiac events in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort in which 866 consecutive patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia, and who underwent physical stress echocardiography were studied. Patients were divided into two groups: with physical stress echocardiography negative (G1 or positive (G2 for myocardial ischemia. The endpoints analyzed were all-cause mortality and major cardiac events, defined as cardiac death and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction. Results: G2 comprised 205 patients (23.7%. During the mean 85.6 ± 15.0-month follow-up, there were 26 deaths, of which six were cardiac deaths, and 25 non-fatal myocardial infarction cases. The independent predictors of mortality were: age, diabetes mellitus, and positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.69; 95% confidence interval: 1.20 - 6.01; p = 0.016. The independent predictors of major cardiac events were: age, previous coronary artery disease, positive physical stress echocardiography (hazard ratio: 2.75; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 - 6.53; p = 0.022 and absence of a 10% increase in ejection fraction. All-cause mortality and the incidence of major cardiac events were significantly higher in G2 (p < 0. 001 and p = 0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Physical stress echocardiography provides additional prognostic information in patients with exercise test positive for myocardial ischemia.

  13. Guppies Show Behavioural but Not Cognitive Sex Differences in a Novel Object Recognition Test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato

    Full Text Available The novel object recognition (NOR test is a widely-used paradigm to study learning and memory in rodents. NOR performance is typically measured as the preference to interact with a novel object over a familiar object based on spontaneous exploratory behaviour. In rats and mice, females usually have greater NOR ability than males. The NOR test is now available for a large number of species, including fish, but sex differences have not been properly tested outside of rodents. We compared male and female guppies (Poecilia reticulata in a NOR test to study whether sex differences exist also for fish. We focused on sex differences in both performance and behaviour of guppies during the test. In our experiment, adult guppies expressed a preference for the novel object as most rodents and other species do. When we looked at sex differences, we found the two sexes showed a similar preference for the novel object over the familiar object, suggesting that male and female guppies have similar NOR performances. Analysis of behaviour revealed that males were more inclined to swim in the proximity of the two objects than females. Further, males explored the novel object at the beginning of the experiment while females did so afterwards. These two behavioural differences are possibly due to sex differences in exploration. Even though NOR performance is not different between male and female guppies, the behavioural sex differences we found could affect the results of the experiments and should be carefully considered when assessing fish memory with the NOR test.

  14. Testing Cases under Title VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Michael; Werden, Gregory J.

    This paper discusses Congressional and judicial attempts to deal with the problem of employment practices which lead to discriminatory outcomes but which may not be discriminatory in intent. The use of paper and pencil tests as standards for hiring and promotion is focused on as an example of this type of employment practice. An historical account…

  15. Usability Testing: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisman, Janet; Walbridge, Sharon; Diller, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the development and results of usability testing of Washington State University's Web-based OPAC (online public access catalog); examines how easily users could navigate the catalog and whether they understood what they were seeing; and identifies problems and what action if any was taken. (LRW)

  16. Tools for Test Case Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belinfante, Axel; Frantzen, Lars; Schallhart, Christian; Broy, Manfred; Jonsson, Bengt; Katoen, Joost P.; Leucker, Martin; Pretschner, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The preceding parts of this book have mainly dealt with test theory, aimed at improving the practical techniques which are applied by testers to enhance the quality of soft- and hardware systems. Only if these academic results can be efficiently and successfully transferred back to practice, they

  17. Simulation of Test Case B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, M.; Nielsen, Peter V.

    This report shows the results of the simulations given in research item 1.19 (isothermal forced convection) within the work of International Energy Agency (lEA), Annex 20 subtask 1. The title of this work is "Air Flow within Buildings" and the working title for subtask 1 is "Room Air...

  18. A case showing effective radiotherapy for a radiation-induced glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukui, Kimiko; Inamura, Takanori; Nakamizo, Akira; Ikezaki, Kiyonobu; Inoha, Satoshi; Nakamura, Kazumasa; Matsuzaki, Akinobu; Fukui, Masashi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Medical Sciences

    2001-07-01

    Radiation-induced glioblastoma is usually resistant to all treatments. We report a case with radiation-induced glioblastoma, in which radiotherapy was remarkably effective. A 14-year-old female with a history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the age of 7, underwent 15 Gy of radiotherapy to the whole brain. She was admitted to our department due to the development of headache and nausea. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an irregularly enhanced mass in the left frontal lobe. Partial removal of the mass was performed and histological examination showed it to be glioblastoma with a high MIB-1 index. The patient underwent 40 Gy of local radiotherapy and chemotherapy with ACNU and Interferon-{beta} for 2 years. The residual tumor disappeared after the radiotherapy, and her status is still ''complete remission'', 29 months after the onset. (author)

  19. A case of parotid tumor showing remarkable regression following hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimura, Takashi; Yonemura, Yutaka; Kamata, Toru

    1987-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman developed adenocarcinoma of the left parotid gland. Because of the excessive size of her tumor and the fact that she suffered from severe liver dysfunction, she was treated by hyperthermo-chemo-radiotherapy (HCR therapy). After ten sessions of radiofrequency hyperthermia with HEH 500 (13.56 MHz radiofrequency wave), 50-Gy irradiation from a linac and administration of 33.0 g of tegafur in suppository form, the tumor mass showed remarkable regression decreasing in size by as much as 84 % on computed tomography. Histologically, the tumor which was resected under local anesthesia, showed almost total necrosis. The multidisciplinary HCR therapy was well tolerated and effective as a therapy for cancer in this case. (author)

  20. A Case of Porokeratosis Showing Different Clinical Patterns of the Disease with Anogenital Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Karabudak

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Porokeratosis (PK is a group of cutaneous entities characterized by marginate scaling lesions, histologically showing a column of parakeratotic keratinocytes (cornoid lamella. Various forms are recognized such as porokeratosis of Mibelli (PM, linear porokeratosis, disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis, punctate parakeratosis. PM should be treated because of the possibility of developing malignant epithelial tumors. We are presenting a 21 year old male patient suffering from PM on the back of the hands, foot, scrotum, oral mucosa and anal region. The histological biopsy specimens showed the characteristic features of porokeratosis. We destroyed the lesions by cryotherapy sessions. Here, we present a case of PM since it is rarely seen as multiple lesions with oral, anal and scrotal involvements altogether. (Turkderm 2008; 42: 97-9

  1. A case of falx meningiomas showing an unusual extension on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuha, Mitsuru; Fudaba, Hiroyoshi; Orita, Tetsuji; Wakuta, Yukio; Aoki, Hideo

    1986-01-01

    It is well known that homogeneous high-density areas with well-defined borders and marked contrast enhancements on CT scans are characteristic features of meningiomas. However, there are a few cases of meningiomas which are more difficult to diagnose because of their unusual CT findings. We have, for example, recently experienced a case of falx meningioma with a small attachment to the flax and a large exophytic component in the brain parenchyma. This 53-year-old female had complained of dull headaches for several years. She had then suffered speech disturbance in June, 1983, followed by a weakness of her right arm. She was referred to our clinic on Oct. 31, 1983. The neurological findings on admission were dyscalculia, mild motor dysphasia, and right hemiparesis to a minor degree. CT revealed a left frontal iso- and high-density mass lesion and also central, partly visible, low-density areas. A postinfusion study showed a moderate contrast enhancement. Also noted were a partial attachment of these tumors to the falx and a more prominent contrast enhancement of these areas than those of other tumor sites. A left internal carotid angiogram revealed a frontal tumor stain, fed by the left ACA and MCAs; early venous drainage was also seen. Moreover, left external carotid angiography showed a small tumor stain adjacent to the falx. Left frontoparietal craniotomy, on Nov. 14, 1983, revealed a soft, well-defined tumor, partly attached to the tumor. Histology indicated a meningioma with partial anisocytosis and mitoses of tumor cells; this was consequently diagnosed as a malignant meningioma. Intracranial meningiomas with a small attachment to the falx and large areas of exophytic components are rare CT findings. In addition to the CT findings mentioned above, the heterogeneity of the absorption coefficients of meningiomas on CT and differential diagnosis were discussed. (author)

  2. Measuring Test Case Similarity to Support Test Suite Understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greiler, M.S.; Van Deursen, A.; Zaidman, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Preprint of paper published in: TOOLS 2012 - Proceedings of the 50th International Conference, Prague, Czech Republic, May 29-31, 2012; doi:10.1007/978-3-642-30561-0_8 In order to support test suite understanding, we investigate whether we can automatically derive relations between test cases. In

  3. Test case preparation using a prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Treharne, Helen; Draper, J.; Schneider, Steve A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the preparation of test cases using a prototype within the context of a formal development. It describes an approach to building a prototype using an example. It discusses how a prototype contributes to the testing activity as part of a lifecycle based on the use of formal methods. The results of applying the approach to an embedded avionics case study are also presented.

  4. Spinal meningeal melanocytoma with benign histology showing leptomeningeal spread: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Seon Jeong; Choo, Hye Jung; Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hoon; Lee, In Sook

    2013-01-01

    Meningeal melanocytoma is a rare benign tumor with relatively good prognosis. However, local aggressive behavior of meningeal melanocytoma has been reported, especially in cases of incomplete surgical resection. Malignant transformation was raised as possible cause by prior reports to explain this phenomenon. We present an unusual case of meningeal melanocytoma associated with histologically benign leptomeningeal spread and its subsequent aggressive clinical course, and describe its radiological findings.

  5. Spinal meningeal melanocytoma with benign histology showing leptomeningeal spread: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Kim, Seon Jeong; Choo, Hye Jung; Lee, Sun Joo; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hoon [Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Sook [Dept. of Radiology, Busan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Meningeal melanocytoma is a rare benign tumor with relatively good prognosis. However, local aggressive behavior of meningeal melanocytoma has been reported, especially in cases of incomplete surgical resection. Malignant transformation was raised as possible cause by prior reports to explain this phenomenon. We present an unusual case of meningeal melanocytoma associated with histologically benign leptomeningeal spread and its subsequent aggressive clinical course, and describe its radiological findings.

  6. Sample test cases using the environmental computer code NECTAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponting, A.C.

    1984-06-01

    This note demonstrates a few of the many different ways in which the environmental computer code NECTAR may be used. Four sample test cases are presented and described to show how NECTAR input data are structured. Edited output is also presented to illustrate the format of the results. Two test cases demonstrate how NECTAR may be used to study radio-isotopes not explicitly included in the code. (U.K.)

  7. Boys with autism spectrum disorders show superior performance on the adult Embedded Figures Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlooz, W.A.J.M.; Hulstijn, W.

    2014-01-01

    Weak central coherence is frequently studied using the Embedded Figures Test (EFT) yielding mixed and ambiguous results. In this study, the performance of 36 boys (9–14 years) with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) is compared with that of 46 typical peers using both the children's and the adult

  8. Automation of Test Cases for Web Applications : Automation of CRM Test Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Seyoum, Alazar

    2012-01-01

    The main theme of this project was to design a test automation framework for automating web related test cases. Automating test cases designed for testing a web interface provide a means of improving a software development process by shortening the testing phase in the software development life cycle. In this project an existing AutoTester framework and iMacros test automation tools were used. CRM Test Agent was developed to integrate AutoTester to iMacros and to enable the AutoTester,...

  9. Test case prioritization using Cuscuta search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Mann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Most companies are under heavy time and resource constraints when it comes to testing a software system. Test prioritization technique(s allows the most useful tests to be executed first, exposing faults earlier in the testing process. Thus makes software testing more efficient and cost effective by covering maximum faults in minimum time. But test case prioritization is not an easy and straightforward process and it requires huge efforts and time. Number of approaches is available with their proclaimed advantages and limitations, but accessibility of any one of them is a subject dependent. In this paper, artificial Cuscuta search algorithm (CSA inspired by real Cuscuta parasitism is used to solve time constraint prioritization problem. We have applied CSA for prioritizing test cases in an order of maximum fault coverage with minimum test suite execution and compare its effectiveness with different prioritization ordering. Taking into account the experimental results, we conclude that (i The average percentage of faults detection (APFD is 82.5% using our proposed CSA ordering which is equal to the APFD of optimal and ant colony based ordering whereas No ordering, Random ordering and Reverse ordering has 76.25%, 75%, 68.75% of APFD respectively.

  10. Affiliation, joint venture or PSO? Case studies show why provider strategies differ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Joint venture, affiliation or PSO? Here are three case studies of providers who chose different paths under Medicare risk, plus some key questions you'll want to ask of your own provider organization. Learn from these examples so you'll make the best contracting decisions.

  11. Testing Delays Resulting in Increased Identification Accuracy in Line-Ups and Show-Ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekle, Dawn J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated time delays (immediate, two-three days, one week) between viewing a staged theft and attempting an eyewitness identification. Compared lineups to one-person showups in a laboratory analogue involving 412 subjects. Results show that across all time delays, participants maintained a higher identification accuracy with the showup…

  12. To Show or Not to Show: The Effects of Item Stems and Answer Options on Performance on a Multiple-Choice Listening Comprehension Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Kozo; Green, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether the choice between three multiple-choice listening comprehension test formats results in any difference in listening comprehension test performance. The three formats entail (a) allowing test takers to preview both the question stem and answer options prior to listening; (b) allowing test takers to…

  13. Testing the rationality assumption using a design difference in the TV game show 'Jeopardy'

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren Lindquist, Gabriella; Säve-Söderbergh, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Abstract This paper empirically investigates the rationality assumption commonly applied in economic modeling by exploiting a design difference in the game-show Jeopardy between the US and Sweden. In particular we address the assumption of individuals’ capabilities to process complex mathematical problems to find optimal strategies. The vital difference is that US contestants are given explicit information before they act, while Swedish contestants individually need to calculate the same info...

  14. In vitro and ex vivo testing of tenofovir shows it is effective as an HIV-1 microbicide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C Rohan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tenofovir gel has entered into clinical trials for use as a topical microbicide to prevent HIV-1 infection but has no published data regarding pre-clinical testing using in vitro and ex vivo models. To validate our findings with on-going clinical trial results, we evaluated topical tenofovir gel for safety and efficacy. We also modeled systemic application of tenofovir for efficacy.Formulation assessment of tenofovir gel included osmolality, viscosity, in vitro release, and permeability testing. Safety was evaluated by measuring the effect on the viability of vaginal flora, PBMCs, epithelial cells, and ectocervical and colorectal explant tissues. For efficacy testing, PBMCs were cultured with tenofovir or vehicle control gels and HIV-1 representing subtypes A, B, and C. Additionally, polarized ectocervical and colorectal explant cultures were treated apically with either gel. Tenofovir was added basolaterally to simulate systemic application. All tissues were challenged with HIV-1 applied apically. Infection was assessed by measuring p24 by ELISA on collected supernatants and immunohistochemistry for ectocervical explants. Formulation testing showed the tenofovir and vehicle control gels were >10 times isosmolar. Permeability through ectocervical tissue was variable but in all cases the receptor compartment drug concentration reached levels that inhibit HIV-1 infection in vitro. The gels were non-toxic toward vaginal flora, PBMCs, or epithelial cells. A transient reduction in epithelial monolayer integrity and epithelial fracture for ectocervical and colorectal explants was noted and likely due to the hyperosmolar nature of the formulation. Tenofovir gel prevented HIV-1 infection of PBMCs regardless of HIV-1 subtype. Topical and systemic tenofovir were effective at preventing HIV-1 infection of explant cultures.These studies provide a mechanism for pre-clinical prediction of safety and efficacy of formulated microbicides. Tenofovir was effective

  15. A case of linear nevus sebaceous syndrome showing abnormalities by head CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoshio; Kuraya, Kazue; Sumiyoshi, Minoru; Seki, Shuichiro; Murakami, Naoki

    1982-01-01

    A female baby weighing 2,702 g, who was delivered spontaneously after 37 weeks of gestation, showed linear nevus sebaceous syndrome with abnormalities on EEG and head CT scan. Immediately after birth, the baby showed abnormalities of the skin in the left half of the body, especially from the head to the face. At the same time, EEG showed a low voltage on the affected side, and head CT scan showed expansion of the lateral ventricle. Funduscopic findings showed retinochoroidal toxoplasmosis-like degeneration. This disease has been rarely reported. An early diagnosis is seemed to be important since the skin lesion per se was premalignant, and generalized abnormalities including those of the central nervous system occurred concurrently. (Chiba, N.)

  16. Testing an emerging paradigm in migration ecology shows surprising differences in efficiency between flight modes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam E Duerr

    Full Text Available To maximize fitness, flying animals should maximize flight speed while minimizing energetic expenditure. Soaring speeds of large-bodied birds are determined by flight routes and tradeoffs between minimizing time and energetic costs. Large raptors migrating in eastern North America predominantly glide between thermals that provide lift or soar along slopes or ridgelines using orographic lift (slope soaring. It is usually assumed that slope soaring is faster than thermal gliding because forward progress is constant compared to interrupted progress when birds pause to regain altitude in thermals. We tested this slope-soaring hypothesis using high-frequency GPS-GSM telemetry devices to track golden eagles during northbound migration. In contrast to expectations, flight speed was slower when slope soaring and eagles also were diverted from their migratory path, incurring possible energetic costs and reducing speed of progress towards a migratory endpoint. When gliding between thermals, eagles stayed on track and fast gliding speeds compensated for lack of progress during thermal soaring. When thermals were not available, eagles minimized migration time, not energy, by choosing energetically expensive slope soaring instead of waiting for thermals to develop. Sites suited to slope soaring include ridges preferred for wind-energy generation, thus avian risk of collision with wind turbines is associated with evolutionary trade-offs required to maximize fitness of time-minimizing migratory raptors.

  17. Testing an emerging paradigm in migration ecology shows surprising differences in efficiency between flight modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Adam E; Miller, Tricia A; Lanzone, Michael; Brandes, Dave; Cooper, Jeff; O'Malley, Kieran; Maisonneuve, Charles; Tremblay, Junior; Katzner, Todd

    2012-01-01

    To maximize fitness, flying animals should maximize flight speed while minimizing energetic expenditure. Soaring speeds of large-bodied birds are determined by flight routes and tradeoffs between minimizing time and energetic costs. Large raptors migrating in eastern North America predominantly glide between thermals that provide lift or soar along slopes or ridgelines using orographic lift (slope soaring). It is usually assumed that slope soaring is faster than thermal gliding because forward progress is constant compared to interrupted progress when birds pause to regain altitude in thermals. We tested this slope-soaring hypothesis using high-frequency GPS-GSM telemetry devices to track golden eagles during northbound migration. In contrast to expectations, flight speed was slower when slope soaring and eagles also were diverted from their migratory path, incurring possible energetic costs and reducing speed of progress towards a migratory endpoint. When gliding between thermals, eagles stayed on track and fast gliding speeds compensated for lack of progress during thermal soaring. When thermals were not available, eagles minimized migration time, not energy, by choosing energetically expensive slope soaring instead of waiting for thermals to develop. Sites suited to slope soaring include ridges preferred for wind-energy generation, thus avian risk of collision with wind turbines is associated with evolutionary trade-offs required to maximize fitness of time-minimizing migratory raptors.

  18. Idiopathic cases of male infertility from a region in India show low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    9 (azoospermia – 8 and oligoasthenospermia – 1) showed partial deletion of AZF ... such as diabetes, obesity, varicocele, cystic fibrosis or .... ing pregnancy was maintained for each patient. .... rized as Sertoli cell only syndrome type 1 (SCO I).

  19. The Visual Cultures of Showing ‘Nourishment’ in a Glass Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Mie

    2016-01-01

    by placing it where you cannot touch it, eat it, smell it, taste it – in other words of turning it into an exhibition item? By removing the characteristics from food, it would in all probability be even more difficult to attain the purpose of exhibiting it: to sell it to students and staff. My discussion...... of the phenomenon of nourishment in glass cases draws on approaches developed and discussed as visual culture methodology. With a visual culture approach, visuals work as constructions of visual knowledge and as indicators of the relation between an observer's glance and the phenomenon observed. The implication...

  20. SOD1 aggregation in ALS mice shows simplistic test tube behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Lisa; Zetterström, Per; Brännström, Thomas; Marklund, Stefan L; Danielsson, Jens; Oliveberg, Mikael

    2015-08-11

    A longstanding challenge in studies of neurodegenerative disease has been that the pathologic protein aggregates in live tissue are not amenable to structural and kinetic analysis by conventional methods. The situation is put in focus by the current progress in demarcating protein aggregation in vitro, exposing new mechanistic details that are now calling for quantitative in vivo comparison. In this study, we bridge this gap by presenting a direct comparison of the aggregation kinetics of the ALS-associated protein superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in vitro and in transgenic mice. The results based on tissue sampling by quantitative antibody assays show that the SOD1 fibrillation kinetics in vitro mirror with remarkable accuracy the spinal cord aggregate buildup and disease progression in transgenic mice. This similarity between in vitro and in vivo data suggests that, despite the complexity of live tissue, SOD1 aggregation follows robust and simplistic rules, providing new mechanistic insights into the ALS pathology and organism-level manifestation of protein aggregation phenomena in general.

  1. The Construction of National Memory Through Popular Culture. The Case of the Argentinian TV Show,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizondo Oviedo, María Verónica

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the borders of the complex television sign through the analysis of the Argentinian TV show "Peter Capusotto y sus videos". In it we find that humor is used as a mechanism to dismantle binary hierarchic political and social oppositions. The program is presented as a musical and comedy TV show where concepts such as popular culture and mass culture are questioned through different false musicians. We focus our attention in the character of Bombita Rodríguez, el Palito Ortega montonero due to the controversy generated in the cultural scene by the fact of bringing up recent aspects of Argentinian history.

  2. A case of supratentorial intra-axial ependymoma showing exophytic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Woo; Kim, Eung Yeop [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-11-15

    A 17-year-old female had headache for several weeks and she developed an episode of seizure one day prior to admission. She underwent both CT and MRI, which both revealed a large tumor with cystic and solid portions at the right frontoparietal convexity. During operation, a well-defined tumor was found to have a stalk connecting the tumor itself with the brain parenchyma, proving that it was growing exophytically and expanding into the subarachnoid space. Histopathological examination revealed an anaplastic ependymoma with high cellularity. We report here on this case of an unusual supratentorial ependymoma with exophytic growth, and this can be mistaken as another exophytic growing intra-axial tumor or even as an extra-axial tumor.

  3. Hepatic scar in a case of healed candidiasis showing prolonged enhancement on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itai, Yuji; Yashiro, Naobumi

    1987-01-01

    A patient with acute myelocytic leukemia recovering from hepatic candidiasis after long-term administration of amphotericin B had large scar in the liver which showed prominent prolonged enhancement on postcontrast CT. Prolonged enhancement can occur in regions other than hepatic masses. (author)

  4. Hepatic scar in a case of healed candidiasis showing prolonged enhancement on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Yuji; Yashiro, Naobumi

    1987-08-01

    A patient with acute myelocytic leukemia recovering from hepatic candidiasis after long-term administration of amphotericin B had large scar in the liver which showed prominent prolonged enhancement on postcontrast CT. Prolonged enhancement can occur in regions other than hepatic masses.

  5. Carcinoma Showing Thymus-Like Differentiation (CASTLE of Thyroid: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong-Perng Chan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE is a rare malignant neoplasm that occurs in the thyroid gland, or head and neck. This tumor arises from either ectopic thymus tissue or remnants of branchial pouches, which retain the potential to differentiate along the thymus line. Clinical presentation and imaging can be consistent with a malignant lesion such as thyroid cancer or thymic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining with CD5 can differentiate CASTLE from other malignant thyroid neoplasms. A 54-year-old male had initially presented with a painless, left neck mass for 3 months. He underwent left thyroid lobectomy via a median sternotomy approach. Carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation was the final histopathologic diagnosis. After 36 months of follow-up, no evidence of recurrence was observed. A median sternotomy is an excellent approach for CASTLE with anterior mediastinum involvement. Complete resection is important to improve the long-term survival rate and the locoregional recurrence rate.

  6. Tolosa-Hunt syndrome: is it really necessary to show granuloma? - The report of eight cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podgorac Ana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tolosa–Hunt syndrome (THS is a rare entity, characterized by unilateral orbital pain associated with paresis of one or more of the oculomotor cranial nerves and caused by a granulomatous inflammation in the cavernous sinus, superior orbital fissure or orbit. The low prevalence of THS with a broad spectrum of other disorders that could cause painful ophtalmoplegia resulted in a stricter diagnostic criteria of THS in the latest edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Current criteria require demonstration of granuloma by magnetic resonance imaging or biopsy. The diagnosis could be difficult and the initiation of treatment delayed due to a high variablity of clinical presentation of TSH. Reducing the number of patients that, based on clinical presentation, could be classified as having THS, but do not fullfil all diagnostic criteria further complicates establishing of correct diagnosis. Case report. Hereby we presented eight patients diagnosed with and treated for THS. Inspite the exclusion of other causes of painful ophtalmoplegia, granuloma could not be demonstrated in a half of patients. Clinical presentation of THS in patients with and without shown granuloma, did not significantly differ concerning headache characteristics (localization, intensity, quality, duration preceding cranial nerve palsy, response to steroids, the affected cranial nerve, disease course and response to the treatment, as well as types of diagnostic procedures that were performed in ruling out other diseases from the extensive differential diagnosis of painful ophthalmoplegia. Conclusion. There is no significant difference between the THS patients with and without demonstrated granuloma.

  7. Autoimmune Hepatitis and Celiac Disease: Case Report Showing an Entero-Hepatic Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Tovoli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder primarily targeting the small bowel, although extraintestinal extensions have been reported. The autoimmune processes can affect the liver with manifestations such as primary biliary cirrhosis and autoimmune hepatitis. We describe a 61-year-old woman with celiac disease and an increased levels of aminotransferases. The persistence of increased levels of aminotransferases after 1 year of gluten-free diet and the positivity for an anti-nuclear and anti-double-strand DNA antibodies led to a misdiagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus-related hepatitis. Based on these findings the patient was placed on steroids, which after a few months were stopped because of the onset of diabetes mellitus. Soon after steroid withdrawal, the patient had a marked increase in aminotransferases and γ-globulins, and a liver biopsy revealed chronic active hepatitis. A course of three months of steroids and azathioprine normalized both biochemical and clinical parameters. Currently the patient is symptom-free and doing well. In conclusion, a hypertransaminasemia persisting after a gluten-free diet should be interpreted as a sign of coexisting autoimmune liver disease. Any autoantibody positivity (in this case to ANA and anti-dsDNA should be carefully considered in order to avoid misdiagnosis delaying appropriate clinical management.

  8. A case of chronic subdural hematoma showing a double-loculated type on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, Bin; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Shibata, Taichiro; Nagai, Hajime; Takagi, Terumasa.

    1982-01-01

    A 69-year-old woman sustained a minor head trauma. One month later she came to the hospital complaining of right motor weakness. This slight right-sided hemiparesis almost completely improved, without surgical treatment, within several days. The same hemiparesis recurred 10 days later. A plain CT scan showed a double-loculated crescent lesion which was separated by a bandlike high-density line, over the left cerebral hemisphere. The outer crescent lesion was mixed in density, low density in the upper section and high-density in the lower portion. The inner crescent lesion was low density. Although a chronic subdural hematoma was found and evacuated at operation, fluid accumulated again 10 days later. The hematoma was thus evacuated again, and the thick neo-membranes were removed as extensively as possible. The outer most neo-membrane just under the dura mater and the intermediate neo-membrane coinciding with a high-density line on CT were in the same proliferation stage, consisting of loose connective tissue with hypertrophic fibroblasts, well-developed sinusoids, and numerous hemosiderine granules. They also showed partial calcium deposition, evidence that these neo-membranes were very old, pre-existing ones. Based on the above-mentioned facts, it was speculated that the outer hematoma was formed by a splitting of a pre-existing, old outer membrane of an inner hematoma due to multiple intra-membraneous bleedings. (J.P.N.)

  9. Radiance Assimilation Shows Promise for Snowpack Characterization: A 1-D Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Michael; Kim, Edward; Margulis, Steve

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate an ensemble-based radiometric data assimilation (DA) methodology for estimating snow depth and snow grain size using ground-based passive microwave (PM) observations at 18.7 and 36.5 GHz collected during the NASA CLPX-1, March 2003, Colorado, USA. A land surface model was used to develop a prior estimate of the snowpack states, and a radiative transfer model was used to relate the modeled states to the observations. Snow depth bias was -53.3 cm prior to the assimilation, and -7.3 cm after the assimilation. Snow depth estimated by a non-DA-based retrieval algorithm using the same PM data had a bias of -18.3 cm. The sensitivity of the assimilation scheme to the grain size uncertainty was evaluated; over the range of grain size uncertainty tested, the posterior snow depth estimate bias ranges from -2.99 cm to -9.85 cm, which is uniformly better than both the prior and retrieval estimates. This study demonstrates the potential applicability of radiometric DA at larger scales.

  10. A Case of Carcinoma Showing Thymus-Like Differentiation with a Rapidly Lethal Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Nogami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A 55-year-old woman underwent a total thyroidectomy for carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE. The patient was referred to our hospital after the tumor was found to have directly invaded the cervical esophagus and the entire circumference of the trachea. A total thyroidectomy was performed, followed by end-to-end anastomosis of the trachea, suprahyoid release and dissection of bilateral pulmonary ligaments. No major complications, including anastomotic dehiscence or stenosis, were observed. The patient experienced some swallowing disturbances and hoarseness during the perioperative period but fully recovered. Radiotherapy to the neck was performed as an adjuvant therapy. Eleven months after surgery, lower back pain and right leg numbness developed and led to gait inability. Multiple lung and bone recurrences were observed, but no local recurrence. Palliative radiotherapy to the bone metastasis was performed. The patient died of pleural metastasis 14 months after the initial diagnosis of CASTLE.

  11. A case study of lightning attachment to flat ground showing multiple unconnected upward leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Kenneth L.; Krider, E. Philip; Olbinski, Mike; Holle, Ronald L.

    2018-04-01

    On 10 July 2015, a cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flash that produced two ground terminations was photographed from inside the safety of a truck in southern New Mexico. An analysis of archived NLDN data verified that this was a two-stroke flash, and a close-up view of the first stroke shows that it also initiated at least 12 unconnected, upward leaders (or "streamers") near the ground termination. No unconnected upward leaders were seen near the second ground attachment. After combining an analysis of the photograph with information provided by the NLDN, we infer that the first stroke was of negative (normal) polarity, had modest peak current, and struck about 460 m (± 24%) from the camera. Attachment occurred when an upward-propagating positive leader reached an inferred height of about 21 m above local ground. The second stroke struck ground about 740 m from the camera, and the height of its attachment leader is estimated to be 15 m. The estimated lengths of the unconnected upward leaders in the two-dimensional (2-D) plane of the first stroke range from 2 to 8 m, and all appear to be located within 15 m (2-D) of the main ground termination, with 24% uncertainty. Many of the unconnected upward leaders (inferred to be positive) exhibit multiple upward branches, and most of those branches have upward-directed forks or splits at their ends. This is the first report showing such extensive branching for positive upward leaders in natural lightning strikes to ground. None of the upward leaders can be seen to emanate from the tops of tall, isolated, or pointed objects on the ground, but they likely begin on small plants and rocks, or flat ground. In terms of lightning safety, this photo demonstrates that numerous upward leaders can be produced near a lightning strike point and have the potential to damage or cause injury at more than one specific point on the ground.

  12. Turbine-missile casing exit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Sliter, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plant designers are required to provide safety-related components with adequate protection against hypothetical turbine-missile impacts. In plants with a ''peninsula'' arrangement, protection is provided by installing the turbine axis radially from the reactor building, so that potential missile trajectories are not in line with the plant. In plants with a ''non-peninsula'' arrangement (turbine axis perpendicular to a radius), designers rely on the low probability of a missile strike and on the protection provided by reinforced concrete walls in order to demonstrate an adequate level of protection USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.115). One of the critical first steps in demonstrating adequacy is the determination of the energy and spin of the turbine segments as they exit the turbine casing. The spin increases the probability that a subsequent impact with a protective barrier will be off-normal and therefore less severe than the normal impact assumed in plant designs. Two full-scale turbine-missile casing exit tests which were conducted by Sandia Laboratories at their rocket-sled facility in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are described. Because of wide variations in turbine design details, postulated failure conditions, and missile exit scenarios, the conditions for the two tests were carefully selected to be as prototypical as possible, while still maintaining the well-controlled and well-characterized test conditions needed for generating benchmark data

  13. Prioritizing Test Cases for Memory Leaks in Android Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Qian; Di Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Mobile applications usually can only access limited amount of memory. Improper use of the memory can cause memory leaks, which may lead to performance slowdowns or even cause applications to be unexpectedly killed. Although a large body of research has been devoted into the memory leak diagnosing techniques after leaks have been discovered, it is still challenging to find out the memory leak phenomena at first. Testing is the most widely used technique for failure discovery. However, traditional testing techniques are not directed for the discovery of memory leaks. They may spend lots of time on testing unlikely leaking executions and therefore can be inefficient. To address the problem, we propose a novel approach to prioritize test cases according to their likelihood to cause memory leaks in a given test suite. It firstly builds a prediction model to determine whether each test can potentially lead to memory leaks based on machine learning on selected code features. Then, for each input test case, we partly run it to get its code features and predict its likelihood to cause leaks. The most suspicious test cases will be suggested to run at first in order to reveal memory leak faults as soon as possible. Experimental evaluation on several Android applications shows that our approach is effective.

  14. Test case for a near-surface repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elert, M.; Jones, C.; Nilsson, L.B.; Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M.

    1998-01-01

    A test case is presented for assessment of a near-surface disposal facility for radioactive waste. The case includes waste characterization and repository design, requirements and constraints in an assessment context, scenario development, model description and test calculations

  15. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors for the treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome--three further cases show response to donepezil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Murray; Cochrane, Ashley; Jauhar, Pramod; Ashton, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Three patients diagnosed with Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome were treated with the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, for periods of 6 to 8 months. Cognitive testing [Alzheimer's disease assessment scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog), Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Clock drawing test and six item 2 min recall] and carer questionnaires [Informant Questionnaire (IQ Code), Neuropsychiatric inventory scale (NPI)] were performed at baseline, mid- and endpoint of the treatment period and post-discontinuation. Progressive partial improvement occurred in cognitive measurements through the treatment period, some of which was sustained after discontinuing donepezil. Carer questionnaires also indicated improvement. Confounding factors necessitate caution when attributing improvements to the medication, but these cases suggest that this option merits further investigation.

  16. Casing pull tests for directionally drilled environmental wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staller, G.E.; Wemple, R.P.; Layne, R.R.

    1994-11-01

    A series of tests to evaluate several types of environmental well casings have been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and it's industrial partner, The Charles Machine Works, Inc. (CMW). A test bed was constructed at the CMW test range to model a typical shallow, horizontal, directionally drilled wellbore. Four different types of casings were pulled through this test bed. The loads required to pull the casings through the test bed and the condition of the casing material were documented during the pulling operations. An additional test was conducted to make a comparison of test bed vs actual wellbore casing pull loads. A directionally drilled well was emplaced by CMW to closely match the test bed. An instrumented casing was installed in the well and the pull loads recorded. The completed tests are reviewed and the results reported

  17. Casing pull tests for directionally drilled environmental wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staller, G.E.; Wemple, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Layne, R.R. [Charles Machine Works, Inc., Perry, OK (United States)

    1994-11-01

    A series of tests to evaluate several types of environmental well casings have been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and it`s industrial partner, The Charles Machine Works, Inc. (CMW). A test bed was constructed at the CMW test range to model a typical shallow, horizontal, directionally drilled wellbore. Four different types of casings were pulled through this test bed. The loads required to pull the casings through the test bed and the condition of the casing material were documented during the pulling operations. An additional test was conducted to make a comparison of test bed vs actual wellbore casing pull loads. A directionally drilled well was emplaced by CMW to closely match the test bed. An instrumented casing was installed in the well and the pull loads recorded. The completed tests are reviewed and the results reported.

  18. Tests of spinning turbine fragment impact on casing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbeck, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    Ten 1/11-scale model turbine missile impact tests were conducted at a Naval spin chamber test facility to assess turbine missile effects in nuclear plant design. The objective of the tests was to determine the effects of missile spin, blade crush, and target edge conditions on the impact of turbine disk fragments on the steel casing. The results were intended for use in making realistic estimates for the initial conditions of fragments that might escape the casing in the event of a disk burst in a nuclear plant. The burst of a modified gas turbine rotor in a high-speed spin chamber provided three missiles with the proper rotational and translational velocities of actual steam turbine fragments. Tests of bladed, spinning missiles were compared with previous tests of unbladed, nonspinning missiles. The total residual energy of the spinning missiles, as observed from high-speed photographs of disk burst, was the same as that of the nonspinning missiles launched in a piercing orientation. Tests with bladed missiles showed that for equal burst speeds, the residual energy of bladed missiles is less than that of unbladed missiles. Impacts of missiles near the edge of targets resulted in residual missile velocities greater than for central impact. (orig.)

  19. Ethical Disputes and Public Service Televison. Case Study: Otvoreno Political Talk Show, Broadcasted on 21st of January, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Škaljac Narančić

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ratings of the television programs as well as commercial effects become crucial measures of the media success and journalists’ efficiency neglecting minimal ethical standards. The profit maximisation logic and mere survival in times of the economic crisis also has the impact on preserving the sensitive ethical standards. In this respect, the television, as the most influential medium, especially public television, has the biggest responsibility. Violation of the ethical norms on public television means that it does not fulfil its key role – the role of public service. In important cases of the violation of ethical rules, the lack of clear responses of the regulators is the other side of the problem. The case study in this text shows us how easy it is to turn to the contempt of the professional journalistic standards and, consequently, ethical norms. This leads us to think how difficult is today to remain professional and ethical in times of the tangible commercialism and sensationalism.

  20. HYBRID DATA APPROACH FOR SELECTING EFFECTIVE TEST CASES DURING THE REGRESSION TESTING

    OpenAIRE

    Mohan, M.; Shrimali, Tarun

    2017-01-01

    In the software industry, software testing becomes more important in the entire software development life cycle. Software testing is one of the fundamental components of software quality assurances. Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC)is a process involved in testing the complete software, which includes Regression Testing, Unit Testing, Smoke Testing, Integration Testing, Interface Testing, System Testing & etc. In the STLC of Regression testing, test case selection is one of the most importan...

  1. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Specific Deficits in a Test Battery of Motor Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfré, Giuseppe; Clemensson, Erik K H; Kyriakou, Elisavet I; Clemensson, Laura E; van der Harst, Johanneke E; Homberg, Judith R; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2017-01-01

    Rationale : Huntington disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms. HD is usually diagnosed by the appearance of motor deficits, resulting in skilled hand use disruption, gait abnormality, muscle wasting and choreatic movements. The BACHD transgenic rat model for HD represents a well-established transgenic rodent model of HD, offering the prospect of an in-depth characterization of the motor phenotype. Objective : The present study aims to characterize different aspects of motor function in BACHD rats, combining classical paradigms with novel high-throughput behavioral phenotyping. Methods : Wild-type (WT) and transgenic animals were tested longitudinally from 2 to 12 months of age. To measure fine motor control, rats were challenged with the pasta handling test and the pellet reaching test. To evaluate gross motor function, animals were assessed by using the holding bar and the grip strength tests. Spontaneous locomotor activity and circadian rhythmicity were assessed in an automated home-cage environment, namely the PhenoTyper. We then integrated existing classical methodologies to test motor function with automated home-cage assessment of motor performance. Results : BACHD rats showed strong impairment in muscle endurance at 2 months of age. Altered circadian rhythmicity and locomotor activity were observed in transgenic animals. On the other hand, reaching behavior, forepaw dexterity and muscle strength were unaffected. Conclusions : The BACHD rat model exhibits certain features of HD patients, like muscle weakness and changes in circadian behavior. We have observed modest but clear-cut deficits in distinct motor phenotypes, thus confirming the validity of this transgenic rat model for treatment and drug discovery purposes.

  2. Perinatal findings of Seckel syndrome: a case report of a fetus showing primordial dwarfism and severe microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Keiko Miyachi; Kikuchi, Akihiko; Yokoyama, Akiko; Ono, Kyoko; Iwasawa, Yuki; Sunagawa, Sorahiro; Takagi, Kimiyo; Kawame, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Tomohiko

    2008-01-01

    Seckel syndrome is a rare form of primordial dwarfism and most of the previous reports have been limited to postnatal findings. We report on a fetus showing severe microcephaly, intrauterine growth restriction and a few gyri with shallow sulci on the fetal brain suggesting cortical dysplasia, followed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in the prenatal period. Cardiotocograph revealed a reassuring fetal status throughout the whole pregnancy period. A male infant weighing 1,556 g was delivered at 39 weeks' gestation, and a diagnosis of Seckel syndrome was made based on postnatal typical findings. Although previous reports on prenatal findings of Seckel syndrome are quite limited, we think that our case presents typical features of a fetus affected by this syndrome. When prenatal ultrasound shows severe microcephaly and intrauterine growth restriction, this rare syndrome should be included in the differential diagnosis. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging of the affected fetal brain provides further diagnostic clues. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Integration testing through reusing representative unit test cases for high-confidence medical software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Youngsul; Choi, Yunja; Lee, Woo Jin

    2013-06-01

    As medical software is getting larger-sized, complex, and connected with other devices, finding faults in integrated software modules gets more difficult and time consuming. Existing integration testing typically takes a black-box approach, which treats the target software as a black box and selects test cases without considering internal behavior of each software module. Though it could be cost-effective, this black-box approach cannot thoroughly test interaction behavior among integrated modules and might leave critical faults undetected, which should not happen in safety-critical systems such as medical software. This work anticipates that information on internal behavior is necessary even for integration testing to define thorough test cases for critical software and proposes a new integration testing method by reusing test cases used for unit testing. The goal is to provide a cost-effective method to detect subtle interaction faults at the integration testing phase by reusing the knowledge obtained from unit testing phase. The suggested approach notes that the test cases for the unit testing include knowledge on internal behavior of each unit and extracts test cases for the integration testing from the test cases for the unit testing for a given test criteria. The extracted representative test cases are connected with functions under test using the state domain and a single test sequence to cover the test cases is produced. By means of reusing unit test cases, the tester has effective test cases to examine diverse execution paths and find interaction faults without analyzing complex modules. The produced test sequence can have test coverage as high as the unit testing coverage and its length is close to the length of optimal test sequences. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Moss

    Full Text Available Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot. Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%. Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56 years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%. Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add

  5. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Penny; Whitnell, Jasmine; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot). Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%). Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56) years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%). Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add validity and

  6. Case report of a young stroke patient showing interim normalization of the MRI diffusion-weighted imaging lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostwaldt, Ann-Christin; Usnich, Tatiana; Nolte, Christian H.; Villringer, Kersten; Fiebach, Jochen B.

    2015-01-01

    In acute ischemic stroke, diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) shows hyperintensities and is considered to indicate irreversibly damaged tissue. We present the case of a young stroke patient with unusual variability in the development of signal intensities within the same vessel territory. A 35-year-old patient presented with symptoms of global aphasia and hypesthesia of the left hand. MRI demonstrated a scattered lesion in the MCA territory. After rtPA therapy the patient received further MRI examination, three times on day 1, and once on day 2, 3, 5 and 43. The posterior part of the lesion showed the usual pattern with increasing DWI hyperintensity and decreased ADC, as well as delayed FLAIR positivity. However, the anterior part of the lesion, which was clearly visible in the first examination completely normalized on the first day and only reappeared on day 2. This was accompanied by a normalization of the ADC as well as an even further delayed FLAIR positivity. We showed that interim normalization of DWI and ADC in the acute phase can not only be found in rodent models of stroke, but also in humans. We propose that DWI lesion development might be more variable during the first 24 h after stroke than previously assumed

  7. Case Reports Showing a Long-Term Effect of Subanesthetic Ketamine Infusion in Reducing L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott J. Sherman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine is an FDA-approved drug with a known safety profile. Low-dose subanesthetic intravenous ketamine infusion treatment has led to long-term reduction of treatment-resistant depression and of chronic pain states. We report on low-dose subanesthetic intravenous ketamine infusion treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD patients by 5 case studies and show a long-lasting therapeutic benefit to reduce L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID, improve on time, and reduce depression. Based on the literature we hypothesize that low-dose ketamine may act as a ‘chemical deep brain stimulation', by desynchronizing hypersynchronous oscillatory brain activity, including in the basal ganglia and the motor cortex. The presented PD case reports indicate tolerability, safety and long-term beneficial effects of low-dose ketamine infusion that should be further investigated in a properly controlled prospective clinical trial for treatment of LID, as well as the prevalent nonmotor features pain and depression in PD patients.

  8. Wong-Type Dermatomyositis Showing Porokeratosis-Like Changes (Columnar Dyskeratosis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Umanoff

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Wong-type dermatomyositis (DM exhibits simultaneous pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP features. Case Report: A 50-year-old woman presented with a heliotrope rash, Gottron's papules, and a poikilodermic, erythematous rash in shawl distribution without evidence of muscle weakness. Despite topical corticosteroids, the eruption progressed 9 months later to include generalized hyperkeratotic follicular papules, islands of sparing, and atrophic macules with a collarette of scale suggestive of porokeratosis. Mild dysphonia was the only sign of muscle weakness. Serology showed positive ANA. Histopathology revealed interface dermatitis with dermal mucin and melanophages, irregular psoriasiform hyperplasia, alternating mounds of para- and orthokeratosis, and tiers of dyskeratotic cells (columnar dyskeratosis. Systemic corticosteroid therapy was not tolerated; acitretin diminished the hyperkeratosis. While hyperpigmentation persisted, no progression of cutaneous or muscular symptoms has occurred after 22 months of follow-up and cessation of the therapy. Overall, her course did not differ from the natural history documented in the literature review of Wong-type DM. The most similar case also exhibited pseudocornoid lamella changes. Conclusion: Wong-type DM is a clinicopathologic DM-PRP hybrid that can also exhibit porokeratosis-like features best described as columnar dyskeratosis. Recognizing these types of lesions in DM is warranted in order to make an accurate assessment of their prognostic significance.

  9. [Case of distal renal tubular acidosis complicated with renal diabetes insipidus, showing aggravation of symptoms with occurrence of diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hexing; Tomoda, Fumihiro; Koike, Tsutomu; Ohara, Maiko; Nakagawa, Taizo; Kagitani, Satoshi; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    We report herein a 27-year-old male case of inherited distal renal tubular acidosis complicated with renal diabetes insipidus, the symptoms of which were aggravated by the occurrence of diabetes mellitus. At 2 months after birth, he was diagnosed as having inherited distal renal tubular acidosis and thereafter supplementation of both potassium and alkali was started to treat his hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. At the age of 4 years, calcification of the bilateral renal medulla was detected by computed tomography. Subsequently his urinary volume gradually increased and polyuria of approximately 4 L/day persisted. At the age of 27 years, he became fond of sugar-sweetened drinks and also often forgot to take the medicine. He was admitted to our hospital due to polyuria of more than 10 L day, muscle weakness and gait disturbance. Laboratory tests disclosed worsening of both hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis in addition to severe hyperglycemia. It seemed likely that occurrence of diabetes mellitus and cessation of medications can induce osmotic diuresis and aggravate hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. Consequently, severe dehydration, hypokalemia-induced damage of his urinary concentration ability and enhancement of the renin angiotensin system occurred and thereby possibly worsened his hypokalemia and metabolic acidosis. As normalization of hyperglycemia and metabolic acidosis might have exacerbated hypokalemia further, dehydration and hypokalemia were treated first. Following intensive treatment, these abnormalities were improved, but polyuria persisted. Elevated plasma antidiuretic hormone (12.0 pg/mL) and deficit of renal responses to antidiuretic hormone suggested that the polyuria was attributable to the preexisting renal diabetes insipidus possibly caused by bilateral renal medulla calcification. Thiazide diuretic or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were not effective for the treatment of diabetes insipidus in the present case.

  10. Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements of the thyroid gland: report of three cases including one case with breast cancer history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanjun; Liu, Xi; Huang, Wei; Li, Xiaofeng; Johnstone, Marianne; Deng, Yuan; Ke, Yongqiang; Nunes, Quentin M; Wang, Hongyan; Wang, Yili; Zhang, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    Carcinoma showing thymus-like elements (CASTLE) is a rare malignant tumor of the thyroid or adjacent neck soft tissues, whose histogenesis is still debated. It may resemble other primary or metastatic poorly differentiated tumors histologically and the differential diagnosis is crucial for CASTLE has a better prognosis. However, CASTLE as a second primary tumor has not been reported in the literature. We report three cases of thyroid CASTLE, including a unique tumor following breast-conserving surgery for early-stage breast invasive carcinoma. There were two female and one male. All three tumors were located in the right lobe of the thyroid, and one tumor showed extension into the surrounding soft tissue. Histologically, all tumors showed expansive growth and consisted of cords, nests or sheets of epithelial cells divided into irregularly shaped lobules by fibrous connective tissue with lymphoplasmacytic infiltration. Focal squamous differentiation resembling Hassall's corpuscles were observed. All cases stained positively for CD5, CD117, high molecular weight cytokeratin, cytokeratin, P63, carcinoembryonic antigen and epithelial membrane antigen. Positive staining for Bcl-2 in two cases and chromogranin A in one case was noted. Ki-67 expression ranged from 15 to 25%. Thyroid transcription factor and CD3 were negative. There was no evidence of recurrent or metastatic disease at following surgery. These features demonstrated CASTLE may arise from branchial pouch remnants, the thyroid solid cell nests. CASTLE is a rare entity, awareness of its occurrence as a second primary tumor is important to avoid overtreatment because it is associated with a favorable prognosis.

  11. Computerized Adaptive Testing. A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    Vocational Interest Blank in 1927 [Dubois 1970]. 3. German Contributions Cattell also studied for a period of three years in Leipzig under Wilhelm Wundt in the...world’s first psychological laboratory, 2 founded by Wundt in 1879 [Heidbreder 1933]. 2William James’ laboratory, established at Harvard in 1875, did...have become important parts of psychological test theory. Under Wundt , Spearman’s principal endeavor was experimental psychology, but he also found time

  12. Test case for a near-surface repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elert, M.; Jones, C. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, L.B. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Co, Stockholm (Sweden); Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1998-09-01

    A test case is presented for assessment of a near-surface disposal facility for radioactive waste. The case includes waste characterization and repository design, requirements and constraints in an assessment context, scenario development, model description and test calculations 6 refs, 12 tabs, 16 figs

  13. The speed of memory errors shows the influence of misleading information: Testing the diffusion model and discrete-state models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starns, Jeffrey J; Dubé, Chad; Frelinger, Matthew E

    2018-05-01

    In this report, we evaluate single-item and forced-choice recognition memory for the same items and use the resulting accuracy and reaction time data to test the predictions of discrete-state and continuous models. For the single-item trials, participants saw a word and indicated whether or not it was studied on a previous list. The forced-choice trials had one studied and one non-studied word that both appeared in the earlier single-item trials and both received the same response. Thus, forced-choice trials always had one word with a previous correct response and one with a previous error. Participants were asked to select the studied word regardless of whether they previously called both words "studied" or "not studied." The diffusion model predicts that forced-choice accuracy should be lower when the word with a previous error had a fast versus a slow single-item RT, because fast errors are associated with more compelling misleading memory retrieval. The two-high-threshold (2HT) model does not share this prediction because all errors are guesses, so error RT is not related to memory strength. A low-threshold version of the discrete state approach predicts an effect similar to the diffusion model, because errors are a mixture of responses based on misleading retrieval and guesses, and the guesses should tend to be slower. Results showed that faster single-trial errors were associated with lower forced-choice accuracy, as predicted by the diffusion and low-threshold models. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Resective surgical approach shows a high performance in the management of advanced cases of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: a retrospective survey of 347 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Filippo; Vescovi, Paolo; Campisi, Giuseppina; Favia, Gianfranco; Gabriele, Mario; Gaeta, Giovanni Maria; Gennai, Stefano; Goia, Franco; Miccoli, Mario; Peluso, Franco; Scoletta, Matteo; Solazzo, Luigi; Colella, Giuseppe

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of the surgical treatment of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in a large cohort. A retrospective cohort multicenter study was designed. Patients were enrolled if they were diagnosed with BRONJ and received operative treatment. Data on demographic, health status, perioperative, and surgical factors were collected retrospectively. The primary outcome variable was a change in BRONJ staging (improvement, worsening, or no change). Interventions were grouped by local debridement and resective surgery. Data were collected for other variables as cofactors. Univariate analysis and logistic regressions were then performed. Of the 347 BRONJ-affected subjects, 59% showed improvement, 30% showed no change, and 11% showed worsening. Improvement was observed in 49% of cases treated with local debridement and 68% of cases treated with resective surgery. Multivariate analysis indicated that maxillary location, resective surgery, and no additional corticosteroid treatment were associated with a positive outcome. Surgical treatment of BRONJ appeared to be more effective when resective procedures were performed. Nonetheless, other factors, such as the absence of symptoms and the types of drug administration, should be taken into account before clinical decisions are made. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prolonged ELS test with the marine flatfish sole (Solea solea) shows delayed toxic effects of previous exposure to PCB 126

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.; Deerenberg, C.M.; Murk, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the dioxin-like PCB 126 (3,3¿,4,4¿,5-pentachlorobiphenyl) on the early development of the marine flatfish sole (Solea solea) was tested in a newly developed early life stage (ELS) test that includes the metamorphosis of the symmetric larvae into an asymmetrical flatfish. Early life

  16. Validation test case generation based on safety analysis ontology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Chin-Feng; Wang, Wen-Shing

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Current practice in validation test case generation for nuclear system is mainly ad hoc. ► This study designs a systematic approach to generate validation test cases from a Safety Analysis Report. ► It is based on a domain-specific ontology. ► Test coverage criteria have been defined and satisfied. ► A computerized toolset has been implemented to assist the proposed approach. - Abstract: Validation tests in the current nuclear industry practice are typically performed in an ad hoc fashion. This study presents a systematic and objective method of generating validation test cases from a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). A domain-specific ontology was designed and used to mark up a SAR; relevant information was then extracted from the marked-up document for use in automatically generating validation test cases that satisfy the proposed test coverage criteria; namely, single parameter coverage, use case coverage, abnormal condition coverage, and scenario coverage. The novelty of this technique is its systematic rather than ad hoc test case generation from a SAR to achieve high test coverage.

  17. INTRAVAL test case 1b - modelling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakob, A.; Hadermann, J.

    1991-07-01

    This report presents results obtained within Phase I of the INTRAVAL study. Six different models are fitted to the results of four infiltration experiments with 233 U tracer on small samples of crystalline bore cores originating from deep drillings in Northern Switzerland. Four of these are dual porosity media models taking into account advection and dispersion in water conducting zones (either tubelike veins or planar fractures), matrix diffusion out of these into pores of the solid phase, and either non-linear or linear sorption of the tracer onto inner surfaces. The remaining two are equivalent porous media models (excluding matrix diffusion) including either non-linear sorption onto surfaces of a single fissure family or linear sorption onto surfaces of several different fissure families. The fits to the experimental data have been carried out by Marquardt-Levenberg procedure yielding error estimates of the parameters, correlation coefficients and also, as a measure for the goodness of the fits, the minimum values of the χ 2 merit function. The effects of different upstream boundary conditions are demonstrated and the penetration depth for matrix diffusion is discussed briefly for both alternative flow path scenarios. The calculations show that the dual porosity media models are significantly more appropriate to the experimental data than the single porosity media concepts. Moreover, it is matrix diffusion rather than the non-linearity of the sorption isotherm which is responsible for the tailing part of the break-through curves. The extracted parameter values for some models for both the linear and non-linear (Freundlich) sorption isotherms are consistent with the results of independent static batch sorption experiments. From the fits, it is generally not possible to discriminate between the two alternative flow path geometries. On the basis of the modelling results, some proposals for further experiments are presented. (author) 15 refs., 23 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Experimental impact testing and analysis of composite fan cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Klok, Andrew Joe

    ) diameter single stage gas gun was developed. A thermodynamic based relationship between the required gas pressure and targeted velocity was proposed. The predicted velocity was within +/-7%. Quantitative measurements of force and displacement were attempted. The transmitted impact force was measured with load cells. The out-of-plane deformation was measured with a projection grating profilometry method. The composite panels and fan cases used in this work were made of S2-glass plain weave fabrics with API SC-15 toughened epoxy resin using the vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) method. Using the gas gun, the impact behavior of the composite was investigated at velocities ranging from 984ft/s to 1502ft/s (300m/s to 458m/s) following a draft ASTM testing standard. To compare the ballistic protection capability of different materials, a new parameter EBL, the projectile kinetic energy at the target ballistic limit normalized by the contact area of the projectile, was proposed. S2-glass/epoxy composite is ranked very high in EBL per areal weight. Finally, a testing method for replicating spin pit testing with a gas gun test was developed. Major differences between the two tests are the initial conditions of the blade upon contact with the target. In spin testing, the released blade has two velocity components, rotational and translational whereas in gas gun testing, the projectile has only the translational velocity. To account for the influence of the rotational velocity, three projectile designs were experimentally investigated. The results show that to generate similar damage modes in gas gun testing, it is critical to ensure the deformation of the projectile before testing is similar to that of a released blade. With the pre-bent blade, the gas gun experiment was able to replicate the damage modes of the fan case in FBO test on flat composite panels.

  19. Automatic Generation of Test Cases from UML Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constanza Pérez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available [Context] The growing demand for high-quality software has caused the industry to incorporate processes to enable them to comply with these standards, but increasing the cost of development. A strategy to reduce this cost is to incorporate quality evaluations from early stages of software development. A technique that facilitates this evaluation is the model-based testing, which allows to generate test cases at early phases using as input the conceptual models of the system. [Objective] In this paper, we introduce TCGen, a tool that enables the automatic generation of abstract test cases starting from UML conceptual models. [Method] The design and implementation of TCGen, a technique that applies different testing criteria to class diagrams and state transition diagrams to generates test cases, is presented as a model-based testing approach. To do that, TCGen uses UML models, which are widely used at industry and a set of algorithms that recognize the concepts in the models in order to generate abstract test cases. [Results] An exploratory experimental evaluation has been performed to compare the TCGen tool with traditional testing. [Conclusions] Even though the exploratory evaluation shows promising results, it is necessary to perform more empirical evaluations in order to generalize the results. Abstract (in Spanish: [Contexto] La creciente demanda de software de alta calidad ha provocado que la industria incorpore procesos para permitirles cumplir con estos estándares, pero aumentando el costo del desarrollo. Una estrategia para reducir este costo es incorporar evaluaciones de calidad desde las primeras etapas del desarrollo del software. Una técnica que facilita esta evaluación es la prueba basada en modelos, que permite generar casos de prueba en fases tempranas utilizando como entrada los modelos conceptuales del sistema. [Objetivo] En este artículo, presentamos TCGen, una herramienta que permite la generación automática de casos de

  20. Herbalife hepatotoxicity: Evaluation of cases with positive reexposure tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Eickhoff, Axel

    2013-07-27

    To analyze the validity of applied test criteria and causality assessment methods in assumed Herbalife hepatotoxicity with positive reexposure tests. We searched the Medline database for suspected cases of Herbalife hepatotoxicity and retrieved 53 cases including eight cases with a positive unintentional reexposure and a high causality level for Herbalife. First, analysis of these eight cases focused on the data quality of the positive reexposure cases, requiring a baseline value of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) Herbalife in these eight cases were probable (n = 1), unlikely (n = 4), and excluded (n = 3). Confounding variables included low data quality, alternative diagnoses, poor exclusion of important other causes, and comedication by drugs and herbs in 6/8 cases. More specifically, problems were evident in some cases regarding temporal association, daily doses, exact start and end dates of product use, actual data of laboratory parameters such as ALT, and exact dechallenge characteristics. Shortcomings included scattered exclusion of hepatitis A-C, cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus infection with only globally presented or lacking parameters. Hepatitis E virus infection was considered in one single patient and found positive, infections by herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus were excluded in none. Only one case fulfilled positive reexposure test criteria in initially assumed Herbalife hepatotoxicity, with lower CIOMS based causality gradings for the other cases than hitherto proposed.

  1. Transfer of drug dissolution testing by statistical approaches: Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Kamarany, Mohammed Amood; EL Karbane, Miloud; Ridouan, Khadija; Alanazi, Fars K.; Hubert, Philippe; Cherrah, Yahia; Bouklouze, Abdelaziz

    2011-01-01

    The analytical transfer is a complete process that consists in transferring an analytical procedure from a sending laboratory to a receiving laboratory. After having experimentally demonstrated that also masters the procedure in order to avoid problems in the future. Method of transfers is now commonplace during the life cycle of analytical method in the pharmaceutical industry. No official guideline exists for a transfer methodology in pharmaceutical analysis and the regulatory word of transfer is more ambiguous than for validation. Therefore, in this study, Gauge repeatability and reproducibility (R&R) studies associated with other multivariate statistics appropriates were successfully applied for the transfer of the dissolution test of diclofenac sodium as a case study from a sending laboratory A (accredited laboratory) to a receiving laboratory B. The HPLC method for the determination of the percent release of diclofenac sodium in solid pharmaceutical forms (one is the discovered product and another generic) was validated using accuracy profile (total error) in the sender laboratory A. The results showed that the receiver laboratory B masters the test dissolution process, using the same HPLC analytical procedure developed in laboratory A. In conclusion, if the sender used the total error to validate its analytical method, dissolution test can be successfully transferred without mastering the analytical method validation by receiving laboratory B and the pharmaceutical analysis method state should be maintained to ensure the same reliable results in the receiving laboratory. PMID:24109204

  2. A simple spatial working memory and attention test on paired symbols shows developmental deficits in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Zhang, Kai; Sun, Jinhua; Ma, Lina; Jesse, Forrest Fabian; Teng, Xiaochun; Zhou, Ying; Bao, Hechen; Chen, Shiqing; Wang, Shuai; Yang, Beimeng; Chu, Xixia; Ding, Wenhua; Du, Yasong; Cheng, Zaohuo; Wu, Bin; Chen, Shanguang; He, Guang; He, Lin; Chen, Xiaoping; Li, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    People with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia often display deficits in spatial working memory and attention. Evaluating working memory and attention in schizophrenia patients is usually based on traditional tasks and the interviewer's judgment. We developed a simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols (SWAPS). It takes only several minutes to complete, comprising 101 trials for each subject. In this study, we tested 72 schizophrenia patients and 188 healthy volunteers in China. In a healthy control group with ages ranging from 12 to 60, the efficiency score (accuracy divided by reaction time) reached a peak in the 20-27 age range and then declined with increasing age. Importantly, schizophrenia patients failed to display this developmental trend in the same age range and adults had significant deficits compared to the control group. Our data suggests that this simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols can be a useful tool for studies of spatial working memory and attention in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  3. A Simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols Shows Developmental Deficits in Schizophrenia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Song

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available People with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia often display deficits in spatial working memory and attention. Evaluating working memory and attention in schizophrenia patients is usually based on traditional tasks and the interviewer’s judgment. We developed a simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols (SWAPS. It takes only several minutes to complete, comprising 101 trials for each subject. In this study, we tested 72 schizophrenia patients and 188 healthy volunteers in China. In a healthy control group with ages ranging from 12 to 60, the efficiency score (accuracy divided by reaction time reached a peak in the 20–27 age range and then declined with increasing age. Importantly, schizophrenia patients failed to display this developmental trend in the same age range and adults had significant deficits compared to the control group. Our data suggests that this simple Spatial Working Memory and Attention Test on Paired Symbols can be a useful tool for studies of spatial working memory and attention in neuropsychiatric disorders.

  4. Making System Dynamics Cool IV : Teaching & Testing with Cases & Quizzes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.

    2012-01-01

    This follow-up paper presents cases and multiple choice questions for teaching and testing System Dynamics modeling. These cases and multiple choice questions were developed and used between January 2012 and April 2012 a large System Dynamics course (250+ 2nd year BSc and 40+ MSc students per year)

  5. Making System Dynamics Cool III : New Hot Teaching & Testing Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.

    2011-01-01

    This follow-up paper presents seven actual cases for testing and teaching System Dynamics developed and used between January 2010 and January 2011 for one of the largest System Dynamics courses (250+ students per year) at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. The cases presented in this

  6. Sex and stress: Men and women show different cortisol responses to psychological stress induced by the Trier social stress test and the Iowa singing social stress test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke-Hernández, Alaine E; Okerstrom, Katrina L; Bowles Edwards, Angela; Tranel, Daniel

    2017-01-02

    Acute psychological stress affects each of us in our daily lives and is increasingly a topic of discussion for its role in mental illness, aging, cognition, and overall health. A better understanding of how such stress affects the body and mind could contribute to the development of more effective clinical interventions and prevention practices. Over the past 3 decades, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) has been widely used to induce acute stress in a laboratory setting based on the principles of social evaluative threat, namely, a judged speech-making task. A comparable alternative task may expand options for examining acute stress in a controlled laboratory setting. This study uses a within-subjects design to examine healthy adult participants' (n = 20 men, n = 20 women) subjective stress and salivary cortisol responses to the standard TSST (involving public speaking and math) and the newly created Iowa Singing Social Stress Test (I-SSST). The I-SSST is similar to the TSST but with a new twist: public singing. Results indicated that men and women reported similarly high levels of subjective stress in response to both tasks. However, men and women demonstrated different cortisol responses; men showed a robust response to both tasks, and women displayed a lesser response. These findings are in line with previous literature and further underscore the importance of examining possible sex differences throughout various phases of research, including design, analysis, and interpretation of results. Furthermore, this nascent examination of the I-SSST suggests a possible alternative for inducing stress in the laboratory. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Generating custom test plans for CASE{sup *}Dictionary 5.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkins, K.D. [Boeing Computer Services, Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Most database development organizations use a formal software development methodology that requires a certain amount of formal testing. The amount of formal testing that will be performed will vary from methodology to methodology and from site to site. If a very detailed formal test plan is required for each module in a system, the work involved to produce the test plan can be tedious and costly. After a system has been designed and developed using Oracle*CASE, there is much useful information in the CASE*Dictionary repository. If this information could be tied to specific test requirements, a test plan could be generated automatically, saving much time and resources. This paper shows how CASE*Dictionary can be used to store test plan information that can then be used to generate a specific test plan for each module based on it`s detailed data usage.

  8. A unique case of primary effusion lymphoma-like lymphoma showing disappearance and recurrence of the body cavity effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeda, Chikahiko; Sato, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yuki; Usui, Yuta; Kunugida, Fusanori; Ogawa, Muneyoshi

    2017-03-01

    Primary effusion lymphoma-like lymphoma (PEL-LL) is a rare B-cell lymphoma that the etiology remains unclear. We describe a case of PEL-LL with a pleuropericardial effusion. Diagnosis required long period of time as it followed a unique progress of disappearance and recurrence of the body cavity effusion. We finally had a diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma by the immunocytochemistry of effusion using the cell block procedure. Authors consider that it is valuable to actively try the cell block procedure at the time of the first drainage for early diagnosis, if the body cavity effusion due to the malignancy is suspected.

  9. Polysomy of chromosome 17 in breast cancer tumors showing an overexpression of ERBB2: a study of 175 cases using fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salido, Marta; Solé, Francesc; Tusquets, Ignasi; Corominas, Josep M; Suarez, Marta; Espinet, Blanca; Corzo, Cristina; Bellet, Meritxell; Fabregat, Xavier; Serrano, Sergi

    2005-01-01

    One of the most common genetic aberrations associated with breast cancer is the amplification and overexpression of the ERBB2 proto-oncogene located at chromosome 17, bands q12-21. The amplification/overexpression occurs in 25 to 30% of all breast cancers. In breast cancer, aneusomy of chromosome 17, either monosomy or polysomy, is frequently observed by conventional cytogenetics and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The aim of this study was to discover whether or not numerical aberrations on chromosome 17 have a correlation to the amplification or overexpression of the ERBB2 gene and to analyze their clinical implications in subgroups showing 2+ or 3+ positive scores by immunohistochemistry (IHC). We used FISH on a series of 175 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded breast carcinomas to detect ERBB2 amplification, using a dual-probe system for the simultaneous enumeration of the ERBB2 gene and the centromeric region of chromosome 17, as well as using IHC to detect overexpression. We analyzed clinical and pathological variables in a subgroup of patients with 2+ and 3+ IHC scores (147 patients), to describe any differences in clinicopathological characteristics between polysomic and non-polysomic cases with the use of the χ 2 test. We found 13% of cases presenting polysomy, and three cases presented monosomy 17 (2%). According to the status of the ERBB2 gene, instances of polysomy 17 were more frequently observed in non-amplified cases than in FISH-amplified cases, suggesting that the mechanism for ERBB2 amplification is independent of polysomy 17. Polysomy 17 was detected in patients with 2+ and 3+ IHC scores. We found that nodal involvement was more frequent in polysomic than in non-polysomic cases (P = 0.046). The determination of the copy number of chromosome 17 should be incorporated into the assesment of ERBB2 status. It might also be helpful to differentiate a subgroup of breast cancer patients with polysomy of chromosome 17 and overexpression of ERBB2

  10. Testing Projected Climate Change Conditions on the Endoconidiophora polonica / Norway spruce Pathosystem Shows Fungal Strain Specific Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riikka Linnakoski

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes, exemplified by increased temperatures and CO2 concentration, pose a global threat to forest health. Of particular concern are pests and pathogens, with a warming climate altering their distributions and evolutionary capacity, while impairing the ability of some plants to respond to infections. Progress in understanding and mitigating such effects is currently hindered by a lack of empirical research. Norway spruce (Picea abies is one of the most economically important tree species in northern Europe, and is considered highly vulnerable to changes in climate. It is commonly infected by the fungus Endoconidiophora polonica, and we hypothesized that damage caused to trees will increase under future climate change predictions. To test this hypothesis an in vivo greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of a changed growing environment on E. polonica infected Norway spruce seedlings, comparing ambient conditions to predicted temperatures and CO2 levels in Finland for the years 2030 and 2100. In total, 450 seedlings were randomized amongst the three treatments, with 25 seedlings from each allocated to inoculation with one of five different fungal strains or mock-inoculation. Seedlings were monitored throughout the thermal growing season for mortality, and lesion length and depth indices were measured at the experiment conclusion. Disease severity (mortality and lesions was consistently greater in fungal-inoculated than mock-inoculated seedlings. However, substantial differences were observed among fungal strains in response to climate scenarios. For example, although overall seedling mortality was highest under the most distant (and severe climate change expectations, of the two fungal strains with the highest mortality counts (referred to as F4 and F5, one produced greater mortality under the 2030 and 2100 scenarios than ambient conditions, whereas climate scenario had no effect on the other. This study contributes

  11. The International intraval project. Phase 1 test cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains a description of the test cases adopted in Phase 1 of the international cooperation project INTRAVAL. Seventeen test cases based on bench-scale experiments in laboratory, field tests and natural analogue studies, have been included in the study. The test cases are described in terms of experimental design and types of available data. In addition, some quantitative examples of available data are given as well as references to more extensive documentation of the experiments on which the test cases are based. Fithteen test cases examples are given: 1 Mass transfer through clay by diffusion and advection. 2 Uranium migration in crystalline bore cores, small scale pressure infiltration experiments. 3 Radionuclide migration in single natural fractures in granite. 4 Tracer tests in a deep basalt flow top. 5 Flow and tracer experiment in crystalline rock based on the Stripa 3-D experiment. 6 Tracer experiment in a fracture zone at the Finnsjon research area. 7 Synthetic data base, based on single fracture migration experiments in Grimsel rock laboratory. 8 Natural analogue studies at Pocos de Caldas, Minais Gerais, Brazil. Redox-front and radionuclide movement in an open pit uranium mine. 9 Natural analogue studies at the Koongarra site in the Alligator Rivers area of the Northern Territory, Australia. 10 Large block migration experiments in a block of crystalline rock. 11 Unsaturated flow and transport experiments performed at Las Cruces, New Mexico. 12 Flow and transport experiment in unsaturated fractured rock performed at the Apache Leap Tuff site, Arizona. 13 Experiments in partially saturated tuffaceous rocks performed in the G-tunnel underground facility at the Nevada Test site, USA. 14 Experimental study of brine transport in porous media. 15 Groundwater flow in the vicinity of the Gorleben Salt Dome, Federal Republic of Germany

  12. [A case of a geriatric patient with stage IV anal canal cancer showing complete response to chemoradiation therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Masatoshi; Hirai, Ryuji; Ikeda, Eiji; Tsuji, Hisashi; Takagi, Shoji; Yamano, Toshihisa; Yoshitomi, Seiji

    2012-11-01

    We present a case in which chemoradiation therapy was effective in a geriatric patient with Stage IV anal canal cancer. The patient is an 81-year-old woman who complained of proctorrhagia and anal pain. She was referred to us by her family doctor who suspected rectal cancer. Tumors as large as 6.5 cm in diameter mainly on the right side of the rectum as well as 2 palpable enlarged lymph nodes on the right inguinal area, were found during the initial physical examination. Squamous cell carcinoma was elevated to 16 ng/mL. A CT scan revealed that irregularly shaped masses as large as 7 cm in diameter were externally exposed on the right side of the rectum along with enlarged lymph nodes on the right inguinal area and metastasis at S7 lesion in the liver. Squamous cell carcinoma was diagnosed from biopsy results. Due to her age, the chemotherapy regimen was S-1+CDDP with radiation therapy and 4-port irradiation (50.4 Gy) of the primary tumor, interior of the pelvis, and inguinal lymph nodes. Partial response was observed upon completion of treatment, and complete response was obtained after 6 months. She is currently an outpatient taking S-1: 60 mg/day orally. There is no indication of cancer recurrence after 1 year and 3 months, and she continues to visit an outpatient clinic for regular follow-ups. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of chemoradiation therapy for geriatric patients with Stage IV anal canal cancer.

  13. Highly Automated Agile Testing Process: An Industrial Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Berłowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a description of an agile testing process in a medium size software project that is developed using Scrum. The research methods used is the case study were as follows: surveys, quantifiable project data sources and qualitative project members opinions were used for data collection. Challenges related to the testing process regarding a complex project environment and unscheduled releases were identified. Based on the obtained results, we concluded that the described approach addresses well the aforementioned issues. Therefore, recommendations were made with regard to the employed principles of agility, specifically: continuous integration, responding to change, test automation and test driven development. Furthermore, an efficient testing environment that combines a number of test frameworks (e.g. JUnit, Selenium, Jersey Test with custom-developed simulators is presented.

  14. OCL-BASED TEST CASE GENERATION USING CATEGORY PARTITIONING METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jalila

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of fault detection techniques during initial stages of software development life cycle urges to improve reliability of a software product. Specification-based testing is one of the major criterions to detect faults in the requirement specification or design of a software system. However, due to the non-availability of implementation details, test case generation from formal specifications become a challenging task. As a novel approach, the proposed work presents a methodology to generate test cases from OCL (Object constraint Language formal specification using Category Partitioning Method (CPM. The experiment results indicate that the proposed methodology is more effective in revealing specification based faults. Furthermore, it has been observed that OCL and CPM form an excellent combination for performing functional testing at the earliest to improve software quality with reduced cost.

  15. GENERATING TEST CASES FOR PLATFORM INDEPENDENT MODEL BY USING USE CASE MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Hesham A. Hassan,; Zahraa. E. Yousif

    2010-01-01

    Model-based testing refers to testing and test case generation based on a model that describes the behavior of the system. Extensive use of models throughout all the phases of software development starting from the requirement engineering phase has led to increased importance of Model Based Testing. The OMG initiative MDA has revolutionized the way models would be used for software development. Ensuring that all user requirements are addressed in system design and the design is getting suffic...

  16. An Iterative Procedure for Efficient Testing of B2B: A Case in Messaging Service Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL

    2007-03-01

    Testing is a necessary step in systems integration. Testing in the context of inter-enterprise, business-to-business (B2B) integration is more difficult and expensive than intra-enterprise integration. Traditionally, the difficulty is alleviated by conducting the testing in two stages: conformance testing and then interoperability testing. In conformance testing, systems are tested independently against a reference system. In interoperability testing, they are tested simultaneously against one another. In the traditional approach for testing, these two stages are performed sequentially with little feedback between them. In addition, test results and test traces are left only to human analysis or even discarded if the solution passes the test. This paper proposes an approach where test results and traces from both the conformance and interoperability tests are analyzed for potential interoperability issues; conformance test cases are then derived from the analysis. The result is that more interoperability issues can be resolved in the lower-cost conformance testing mode; consequently, time and cost required for achieving interoparble solutions are reduced.

  17. Making System Dynamics Cool? Using Hot Testing & Teaching Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of ‘hot’ real-world cases for both testing and teaching purposes such as in the Introductory System Dynamics course at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. The paper starts with a brief overview of the System Dynamics curriculum. Then the problem-oriented

  18. Couplex1 test case nuclear - Waste disposal far field simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This first COUPLEX test case is to compute a simplified Far Field model used in nuclear waste management simulation. From the mathematical point of view the problem is of convection diffusion type but the parameters are highly varying from one layer to another. Another particularity is the very concentrated nature of the source, both in space and in time. (author)

  19. Gifted and Talented Education: A National Test Case in Peoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.

    1986-01-01

    This article presents a study of a program in Peoria, Illinois, for the gifted and talented that serves as a national test case for gifted education and minority enrollment. It was concluded that referral, identification, and selection were appropriate for the program model but that inequalities resulted from socioeconomic variables. (Author/LMO)

  20. FARO base case post-test analysis by COMETA code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annunziato, A.; Addabbo, C. [Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    The paper analyzes the COMETA (Core Melt Thermal-Hydraulic Analysis) post test calculations of FARO Test L-11, the so-called Base Case Test. The FARO Facility, located at JRC Ispra, is used to simulate the consequences of Severe Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants under a variety of conditions. The COMETA Code has a 6 equations two phase flow field and a 3 phases corium field: the jet, the droplets and the fused-debris bed. The analysis shown that the code is able to pick-up all the major phenomena occurring during the fuel-coolant interaction pre-mixing phase.

  1. Test cases for interface tracking methods: methodology and current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebaigue, O.; Jamet, D.; Lemonnier, E.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows:In the past decade, a large number of new methods have been developed to deal with interfaces in the numerical simulation of two-phase flows. We have collected a set of 36 test cases, which can be seen as a tool to help engineers and researchers selecting the most appropriate method(s) for their specific fields of application. This set can be use: - To perform an initial evaluation of the capabilities of available methods with regard to the specificity of the final application and the most important features to be recovered from the simulation. - To measure the maximum mesh size to be used for a given physical problem in order to obtain an accurate enough solution. - To assess and quantify the performances of a selected method equipped with its set of physical models. The computation of a well-documented test case allows estimating the error due to the numerical technique by comparison with reference solutions. This process is compulsory to gain confidence and credibility on the prediction capabilities of a numerical method and its physical models. - To broaden the capabilities of a given numerical technique. The test cases may be used to identify the need for improvement of the overall numerical scheme or to determine the physical part of the model, which is responsible for the observed limitations. Each test case falls within one of the following categories: - Analytical solutions of well-known sets of equations corresponding to simple geometrical situations. - Reference numerical solutions of moderately complex problems, produced by accurate methods (e.g., boundary Fitted coordinate method) on refined meshes. - Separate effects analytical experiments. The presentation will suggest how to use the test cases for assessing the physical models and the numerical methods. The expected fallout of using test cases is indeed on the one hand to identify the merits of existing methods and on the other hand to orient further research towards

  2. Negative Exercise Stress Test: Does it Mean Anything? Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its low sensitivity and specificity (67% and 72%, respectively, exercise testing has remained one of the most widely used noninvasive tests to determine the prognosis in patients with suspected or established coronary disease.As a screening test for coronary artery disease, the exercise stress test is useful in that it is relatively simple and inexpensive. It has been considered particularly helpful in patients with chest pain syndromes who have moderate probability for coronary artery disease, and in whom the resting electrocardiogram (ECG is normal. The following case presentation and discussion will question the predictive value of a negative stress testing in patients with moderate probability for coronary artery disease.

  3. Paternity tests in Mexico: Results obtained in 3005 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Aceves, M E; Romero Rentería, O; Díaz-Navarro, X X; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2018-04-01

    National and international reports regarding the paternity testing activity scarcely include information from Mexico and other Latin American countries. Therefore, we report different results from the analysis of 3005 paternity cases analyzed during a period of five years in a Mexican paternity testing laboratory. Motherless tests were the most frequent (77.27%), followed by trio cases (20.70%); the remaining 2.04% included different cases of kinship reconstruction. The paternity exclusion rate was 29.58%, higher but into the range reported by the American Association of Blood Banks (average 24.12%). We detected 65 mutations, most of them involving one-step (93.8% and the remaining were two-step mutations (6.2%) thus, we were able to estimate the paternal mutation rate for 17 different STR loci: 0.0018 (95% CI 0.0005-0.0047). Five triallelic patterns and 12 suspected null alleles were detected during this period; however, re-amplification of these samples with a different Human Identification (HID) kit confirmed the homozygous genotypes, which suggests that most of these exclusions actually are one-step mutations. HID kits with ≥20 STRs detected more exclusions, diminishing the rate of inconclusive results with isolated exclusions (Powerplex 21 kit (20 STRs) and Powerplex Fusion kit (22 STRs) offered similar PI (p = 0.379) and average number of exclusions (PE) (p = 0.339) when a daughter was involved in motherless tests. In brief, besides to report forensic parameters from paternity tests in Mexico, results describe improvements to solve motherless paternity tests using HID kits with ≥20 STRs instead of one including 15 STRs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  4. Full scale turbine-missile casing exit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Schamaun, J.T.; Sliter, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    Two full-scale tests have simulated the impact of a fragment from a failed turbine disk upon the steel casing of a low-pressure steam turbine with the objective of providing data for making more realistic assessments of turbine missile effects for nuclear power plant designers. Data were obtained on both the energy-absorbing mechanisms of the impact process and the post-impact trajectory of the fragment. (orig.)

  5. DWPF PCCS version 2.0 test case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.G.; Pickett, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    To verify the operation of the Product Composition Control System (PCCS), a test case specific to DWPF operation was developed. The values and parameters necessary to demonstrate proper DWPF product composition control have been determined and are presented in this paper. If this control information (i.e., for transfers and analyses) is entered into the PCCS as illustrated in this paper, and the results obtained correspond to the independently-generated results, it can safely be said that the PCCS is operating correctly and can thus be used to control the DWPF. The independent results for this test case will be generated and enumerated in a future report. This test case was constructed along the lines of the normal DWPF operation. Many essential parameters are internal to the PCCS (e.g., property constraint and variance information) and can only be manipulated by personnel knowledgeable of the Symbolics reg-sign hardware and software. The validity of these parameters will rely on induction from observed PCCS results. Key process control values are entered into the PCCS as they would during normal operation. Examples of the screens used to input specific process control information are provided. These inputs should be entered into the PCCS database, and the results generated should be checked against the independent, computed results to confirm the validity of the PCCS

  6. A Human Proximity Operations System test case validation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Justin; Straub, Jeremy

    A Human Proximity Operations System (HPOS) poses numerous risks in a real world environment. These risks range from mundane tasks such as avoiding walls and fixed obstacles to the critical need to keep people and processes safe in the context of the HPOS's situation-specific decision making. Validating the performance of an HPOS, which must operate in a real-world environment, is an ill posed problem due to the complexity that is introduced by erratic (non-computer) actors. In order to prove the HPOS's usefulness, test cases must be generated to simulate possible actions of these actors, so the HPOS can be shown to be able perform safely in environments where it will be operated. The HPOS must demonstrate its ability to be as safe as a human, across a wide range of foreseeable circumstances. This paper evaluates the use of test cases to validate HPOS performance and utility. It considers an HPOS's safe performance in the context of a common human activity, moving through a crowded corridor, and extrapolates (based on this) to the suitability of using test cases for AI validation in other areas of prospective application.

  7. Predictive validity of the Biomedical Admissions Test: an evaluation and case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, I C; Ferguson, Eamonn; Wakeford, Richard; Powis, David; James, David

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increase in the use of pre-admission selection tests for medicine. Such tests need to show good psychometric properties. Here, we use a paper by Emery and Bell [2009. The predictive validity of the Biomedical Admissions Test for pre-clinical examination performance. Med Educ 43:557-564] as a case study to evaluate and comment on the reporting of psychometric data in the field of medical student selection (and the comments apply to many papers in the field). We highlight pitfalls when reliability data are not presented, how simple zero-order associations can lead to inaccurate conclusions about the predictive validity of a test, and how biases need to be explored and reported. We show with BMAT that it is the knowledge part of the test which does all the predictive work. We show that without evidence of incremental validity it is difficult to assess the value of any selection tests for medicine.

  8. EXPLORATION WELL TEST CASE HISTORY CONFIRMS IMPORTANCE OF DST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Damjanić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Drill stem testing of the exploration well consisted of two flow and two pressure build-up periods. Gas was obtained. Modified isochronal test was used during testing the well after completion. Except gas, small quantity of condensate and traces of oil and water were obtained. Both pressure build-up analyses showed that formation permeability is low. DST pressure build-up analysis showed that wellbore damage is present. This was proved later, when acid treatment was performed, by which skin was removed and production increased significantly. Data obtained by well testing are very important for future productivity prediction and determination of optimal well completion and surface facility construction (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of maxilla showing sarcomatous change in an edentulous site with a history of tooth extraction following periodontitis: A case report with discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biniraj, K R; Janardhanan, Mahija

    2014-05-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare tumor of uncertain origin with variable biological behavior ranging from reactive lesions to highly aggressive malignancy. Oral IMTs are extremely rare and only 25 cases had been reported so far. A case of IMT with sarcomatous transformation in an extraction site with a history of tooth extraction following tooth mobility of an upper left molar tooth is presented here. The tooth was extracted following a complaint of gingival swelling and mobility of tooth. Though malignant transformation in IMTs had been documented in the extra oral sites, wide search of associated literature suggests, this is the first case of oral IMT showing malignant change associated with gingiva. The case report attempts to highlight the variant possibilities of tooth mobility other than periodontitis and the importance of assessing the primary cause of such conditions.

  10. Dose Prediction for surface nuclear explosions: case studies for Semipalatinsk and Lop Nur tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takada, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Dose prediction method RAPS after surface nuclear explosion has been developed by using the empirical dose function of USA nuclear test. This method which provides us external total dose, dose rate at any distant, at any time for any yield of nuclear explosion, is useful for radiation protection in case of nuclear events such as terrorism and nuclear war. The validity of RAPS has been confirmed by application to historical surface nuclear test explosions. The first test case study which was done for the first test explosion of the former USSR at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site on August 29th 1949, shows a good agreement with luminescence dosimetry on a brick. This dose prediction method was applied nuclear tests in Lop Nur. The results indicate dangerous nuclear radiation influences including fatal risk in the wide Uygur area. (author)

  11. Metamorphic Testing Integer Overflow Faults of Mission Critical Program: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanwei Hui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For mission critical programs, integer overflow is one of the most dangerous faults. Different testing methods provide several effective ways to detect the defect. However, it is hard to validate the testing outputs, because the oracle of testing is not always available or too expensive to get, unless the program throws an exception obviously. In the present study, the authors conduct a case study, where the authors apply a metamorphic testing (MT method to detect the integer overflow defect and alleviate the oracle problem in testing critical program of Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS. Experimental results show that, in revealing typical integer mutations, compared with traditional safety property testing method, MT with a novel symbolic metamorphic relation is more effective than the traditional method in some cases.

  12. Security Testing in Agile Web Application Development - A Case Study Using the EAST Methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Erdogan, Gencer

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for improved security testing methodologies specialized for Web applications and their agile development environment. The number of web application vulnerabilities is drastically increasing, while security testing tends to be given a low priority. In this paper, we analyze and compare Agile Security Testing with two other common methodologies for Web application security testing, and then present an extension of this methodology. We present a case study showing how our Extended Agile Security Testing (EAST) performs compared to a more ad hoc approach used within an organization. Our working hypothesis is that the detection of vulnerabilities in Web applications will be significantly more efficient when using a structured security testing methodology specialized for Web applications, compared to existing ad hoc ways of performing security tests. Our results show a clear indication that our hypothesis is on the right track.

  13. Concept Test of a Smoking Cessation Smart Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comello, Maria Leonora G; Porter, Jeannette H

    2018-04-05

    Wearable/portable devices that unobtrusively detect smoking and contextual data offer the potential to provide Just-In-Time Adaptive Intervention (JITAI) support for mobile cessation programs. Little has been reported on the development of these technologies. To address this gap, we offer a case report of users' experiences with a prototype "smart" cigarette case that automatically tracks time and location of smoking. Small-scale user-experience studies are typical of iterative product design and are especially helpful when proposing novel ideas. The purpose of the study was to assess concept acceptability and potential for further development. We tested the prototype case with a small sample of potential users (n = 7). Participants used the hardware/software for 2 weeks and reconvened for a 90-min focus group to discuss experiences and provide feedback. Participants liked the smart case in principle but found the prototype too bulky for easy portability. The potential for the case to convey positive messages about self also emerged as a finding. Participants indicated willingness to pay for improved technology (USD $15-$60 on a one-time basis). The smart case is a viable concept, but design detail is critical to user acceptance. Future research should examine designs that maximize convenience and that explore the device's ability to cue intentions and other cognitions that would support cessation. This study is the first to our knowledge to report formative research on the smart case concept. This initial exploration provides insights that may be helpful to other developers of JITAI-support technology.

  14. Large block migration experiments: INTRAVAL phase 1, Test Case 9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gureghian, A.B.; Noronha, C.J. (Battelle, Willowbrook, IL (USA). Office of Waste Technology Development); Vandergraaf, T.T. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada))

    1990-08-01

    The development of INTRAVAL Test Case 9, as presented in this report, was made possible by a past subsidiary agreement to the bilateral cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) encompassing various aspects of nuclear waste disposal research. The experimental aspect of this test case, which included a series of laboratory experiments designed to quantify the migration of tracers in a single, natural fracture, was undertaken by AECL. The numerical simulation of the results of these experiments was performed by the Battelle Office of Waste Technology Development (OWTD) by calibrating an in-house analytical code, FRACFLO, which is capable of predicting radionuclide transport in an idealized fractured rock. Three tracer migration experiments were performed, using nonsorbing uranine dye for two of them and sorbing Cs-137 for the third. In addition, separate batch experiments were performed to determine the fracture surface and rock matrix sorption coefficients for Cs-137. The two uranine tracer migration experiment were used to calculate the average fracture aperture and to calibrate the model for the fracture dispersivity and matrix diffusion coefficient. The predictive capability of the model was then tested by simulating the third, Cs-137, tracer test without changing the parameter values determined from the other experiments. Breakthrough curves of both the experimental and numerical results obtained at the outlet face of the fracture are presented for each experiment. The reported spatial concentration profiles for the rock matrix are based solely on numerical predictions. 22 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. A case of typical atrioventricular nodal (AVN) reentrant tachycardia confined to the compact AV node, showing a variety of rare electrophysiological findings, including eccentric AVN echoes

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Kazushi; Shiotani, Shinji; Fukuda, Keisuke; Fujihara, Masahiko; Higashimori, Akihiro; Morioka, Nobuyuki; Yokoi, Yoshiaki; Fujimura, Osamu

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report the case of a 49-year-old woman with typical atrioventricular nodal (AVN) reentrant tachycardia, confined to the compact atrioventricular node, showing numerous rare electrophysiological findings such as unique AVN reentrant echoes, double ventricular responses, latent retrograde dual AVN pathways, antegrade triple AVN pathways, and longitudinal dissociation within the lower final common pathway.

  16. A case of typical atrioventricular nodal (AVN reentrant tachycardia confined to the compact AV node, showing a variety of rare electrophysiological findings, including eccentric AVN echoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushi Tanaka, M.D., Ph.D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report the case of a 49-year-old woman with typical atrioventricular nodal (AVN reentrant tachycardia, confined to the compact atrioventricular node, showing numerous rare electrophysiological findings such as unique AVN reentrant echoes, double ventricular responses, latent retrograde dual AVN pathways, antegrade triple AVN pathways, and longitudinal dissociation within the lower final common pathway.

  17. Discussions On Worst-Case Test Condition For Single Event Burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sandra; Zafrani, Max; Sherman, Phillip

    2011-10-01

    This paper discusses the failure characteristics of single- event burnout (SEB) on power MOSFETs based on analyzing the quasi-stationary avalanche simulation curves. The analyses show the worst-case test condition for SEB would be using the ion that has the highest mass that would result in the highest transient current due to charge deposition and displacement damage. The analyses also show it is possible to build power MOSFETs that will not exhibit SEB even when tested with the heaviest ion, which have been verified by heavy ion test data on SEB sensitive and SEB immune devices.

  18. Automated Test Case Generation for an Autopilot Requirement Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Rungta, Neha; Feary, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Designing safety-critical automation with robust human interaction is a difficult task that is susceptible to a number of known Human-Automation Interaction (HAI) vulnerabilities. It is therefore essential to develop automated tools that provide support both in the design and rapid evaluation of such automation. The Automation Design and Evaluation Prototyping Toolset (ADEPT) enables the rapid development of an executable specification for automation behavior and user interaction. ADEPT supports a number of analysis capabilities, thus enabling the detection of HAI vulnerabilities early in the design process, when modifications are less costly. In this paper, we advocate the introduction of a new capability to model-based prototyping tools such as ADEPT. The new capability is based on symbolic execution that allows us to automatically generate quality test suites based on the system design. Symbolic execution is used to generate both user input and test oracles user input drives the testing of the system implementation, and test oracles ensure that the system behaves as designed. We present early results in the context of a component in the Autopilot system modeled in ADEPT, and discuss the challenges of test case generation in the HAI domain.

  19. 31-Year-Old Female Shows Marked Improvement in Depression, Agitation, and Panic Attacks after Genetic Testing Was Used to Inform Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case describes a 31-year-old female Caucasian patient with complaints of ongoing depression, agitation, and severe panic attacks. The patient was untreated until a recent unsuccessful trial of citalopram followed by venlafaxine which produced a partial response. Genetic testing was performed to assist in treatment decisions and revealed the patient to be heterozygous for polymorphisms in 5HT2C, ANK3, and MTHFR and homozygous for a polymorphism in SLC6A4 and the low activity (Met/Met COMT allele. In response to genetic results and clinical presentation, venlafaxine was maintained and lamotrigine was added leading to remission of agitation and depression.

  20. Relational Constraint Driven Test Case Synthesis for Web Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Fu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a relational constraint driven technique that synthesizes test cases automatically for web applications. Using a static analysis, servlets can be modeled as relational transducers, which manipulate backend databases. We present a synthesis algorithm that generates a sequence of HTTP requests for simulating a user session. The algorithm relies on backward symbolic image computation for reaching a certain database state, given a code coverage objective. With a slight adaptation, the technique can be used for discovering workflow attacks on web applications.

  1. Automatic WSDL-guided Test Case Generation for PropEr Testing of Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Sagonas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With web services already being key ingredients of modern web systems, automatic and easy-to-use but at the same time powerful and expressive testing frameworks for web services are increasingly important. Our work aims at fully automatic testing of web services: ideally the user only specifies properties that the web service is expected to satisfy, in the form of input-output relations, and the system handles all the rest. In this paper we present in detail the component which lies at the heart of this system: how the WSDL specification of a web service is used to automatically create test case generators that can be fed to PropEr, a property-based testing tool, to create structurally valid random test cases for its operations and check its responses. Although the process is fully automatic, our tool optionally allows the user to easily modify its output to either add semantic information to the generators or write properties that test for more involved functionality of the web services.

  2. Origin of honeycombs: Testing the hydraulic and case hardening hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruthans, Jiří; Filippi, Michal; Slavík, Martin; Svobodová, Eliška

    2018-02-01

    Cavernous weathering (cavernous rock decay) is a global phenomenon, which occurs in porous rocks around the world. Although honeycombs and tafoni are considered to be the most common products of this complex process, their origin and evolution are as yet not fully understood. The two commonly assumed formation hypotheses - hydraulic and case hardening - were tested to elucidate the origin of honeycombs on sandstone outcrops in a humid climate. Mechanical and hydraulic properties of the lips (walls between adjacent pits) and backwalls (bottoms of pits) of the honeycombs were determined via a set of established and novel approaches. While the case hardening hypothesis was not supported by the determinations of either tensile strength, drilling resistance or porosity, the hydraulic hypothesis was clearly supported by field measurements and laboratory tests. Fluorescein dye visualization of capillary zone, vapor zone, and evaporation front upon their contact, demonstrated that the evaporation front reaches the honeycomb backwalls under low water flow rate, while the honeycomb lips remain dry. During occasional excessive water flow events, however, the evaporation front may shift to the lips, while the backwalls become moist as a part of the capillary zone. As the zone of evaporation corresponds to the zone of potential salt weathering, it is the spatial distribution of the capillary and vapor zones which dictates whether honeycombs are created or the rock surface is smoothed. A hierarchical model of factors related to the hydraulic field was introduced to obtain better insights into the process of cavernous weathering.

  3. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Signs of Fronto-Striatal Dysfunction in Two Operant Conditioning Tests of Short-Term Memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Karl Håkan Clemensson

    Full Text Available The BACHD rat is a recently developed transgenic animal model of Huntington disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons. Cognitive impairments are common among patients, and characterization of similar deficits in animal models of the disease is therefore of interest. The present study assessed the BACHD rats' performance in the delayed alternation and the delayed non-matching to position test, two Skinner box-based tests of short-term memory function. The transgenic rats showed impaired performance in both tests, indicating general problems with handling basic aspects of the tests, while short-term memory appeared to be intact. Similar phenotypes have been found in rats with fronto-striatal lesions, suggesting that Huntington disease-related neuropathology might be present in the BACHD rats. Further analyses indicated that the performance deficit in the delayed alternation test might be due to impaired inhibitory control, which has also been implicated in Huntington disease patients. The study ultimately suggests that the BACHD rats might suffer from neuropathology and cognitive impairments reminiscent of those of Huntington disease patients.

  4. The BACHD Rat Model of Huntington Disease Shows Signs of Fronto-Striatal Dysfunction in Two Operant Conditioning Tests of Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemensson, Erik Karl Håkan; Clemensson, Laura Emily; Riess, Olaf; Nguyen, Huu Phuc

    2017-01-01

    The BACHD rat is a recently developed transgenic animal model of Huntington disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extensive loss of striatal neurons. Cognitive impairments are common among patients, and characterization of similar deficits in animal models of the disease is therefore of interest. The present study assessed the BACHD rats' performance in the delayed alternation and the delayed non-matching to position test, two Skinner box-based tests of short-term memory function. The transgenic rats showed impaired performance in both tests, indicating general problems with handling basic aspects of the tests, while short-term memory appeared to be intact. Similar phenotypes have been found in rats with fronto-striatal lesions, suggesting that Huntington disease-related neuropathology might be present in the BACHD rats. Further analyses indicated that the performance deficit in the delayed alternation test might be due to impaired inhibitory control, which has also been implicated in Huntington disease patients. The study ultimately suggests that the BACHD rats might suffer from neuropathology and cognitive impairments reminiscent of those of Huntington disease patients.

  5. Time-Optimal Real-Time Test Case Generation using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Anders; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nielsen, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Testing is the primary software validation technique used by industry today, but remains ad hoc, error prone, and very expensive. A promising improvement is to automatically generate test cases from formal models of the system under test. We demonstrate how to automatically generate real...... test purposes or generated automatically from various coverage criteria of the model.......-time conformance test cases from timed automata specifications. Specifically we demonstrate how to fficiently generate real-time test cases with optimal execution time i.e test cases that are the fastest possible to execute. Our technique allows time optimal test cases to be generated using manually formulated...

  6. 30 CFR 250.520 - When do I have to perform a casing diagnostic test?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When do I have to perform a casing diagnostic... Operations Casing Pressure Management § 250.520 When do I have to perform a casing diagnostic test? (a) You must perform a casing diagnostic test within 30 days after first observing or imposing casing pressure...

  7. Test Automation Process Improvement A case study of BroadSoft

    OpenAIRE

    Gummadi, Jalendar

    2016-01-01

    This master thesis research is about improvement of test automation process at BroadSoft Finland as a case study. Test automation project recently started at BroadSoft but the project is not properly integrated in to existing process. Project is about converting manual test cases to automation test cases. The aim of this thesis is about studying existing BroadSoft test process and studying different test automation frameworks. In this thesis different test automation process are studied ...

  8. Pumping tests in nonuniform aquifers - The radially symmetric case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Traditionally, pumping-test-analysis methodology has been limited to applications involving aquifers whose properties are assumed uniform in space. This work attempts to assess the applicability of analytical methodology to a broader class of units with spatially varying properties. An examination of flow behavior in a simple configuration consisting of pumping from the center of a circular disk embedded in a matrix of differing properties is the basis for this investigation. A solution describing flow in this configuration is obtained through Laplace-transform techniques using analytical and numerical inversion schemes. Approaches for the calculation of flow properties in conditions that can be roughly represented by this simple configuration are proposed. Possible applications include a wide variety of geologic structures, as well as the case of a well skin resulting from drilling or development. Of more importance than the specifics of these techniques for analysis of water-level responses is the insight into flow behavior during a pumping test that is provided by the large-time form of the derived solution. The solution reveals that drawdown during a pumping test can be considered to consist of two components that are dependent and independent of near-well properties, respectively. Such an interpretation of pumping-test drawdown allows some general conclusions to be drawn concerning the relationship between parameters calculated using analytical approaches based on curve-matching and those calculated using approaches based on the slope of a semilog straight line plot. The infinite-series truncation that underlies the semilog analytical approaches is shown to remove further contributions of near-well material to total drawdown. In addition, the semilog distance-drawdown approach is shown to yield an expression that is equivalent to the Thiem equation. These results allow some general recommendations to be made concerning observation-well placement for pumping

  9. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2015-07-01

    administration. There were no cases in which a urine drug screen alone altered the outcome of a case. In summary, hair toxicology testing proved clinically useful in the evaluation of a child for suspected abuse; in contrast, urine drug testing showed low clinical yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. DECOVALEX I - Test Case 1: Coupled stress-flow model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosengren, L.; Christianson, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents the results of the coupled stress-flow model, test case 1 of Decovalex. The model simulates the fourth loading cycle of a coupled stress-flow test and subsequent shearing up to and beyond peak shear resistance. The first loading sequence (A) consists of seven normal loading steps: 0, 5, 15, 25, 15, 5, 0 MPa. The second loading sequence (B) consists of the following eight steps: unstressed state, normal boundary loading of 25 MPa (no shearing), and then shearing of 0.5, 0.8, 2, 4, 2, 0 mm. Two different options regarding the rock joint behaviour were modeled in accordance with the problem definition. In option 1 a linear elastic joint model with Coulomb slip criterion was used. In option 2 a non-linear empirical (i.e. Barton-Bandis) joint model was used. The hydraulic condition during both load sequence A and B was a constant head of 5 m at the inlet point and 0 m at the outlet point. All model runs presented in this report were performed using the two-dimensional distinct element computer code UDEC, version 1.8. 30 refs, 36 figs

  11. Using a Bedside Video-assisted Test Tube Test to Assess Stoma Viability: A Report of 4 Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Sarwat; Turner, Keli; Shah, Paulesh; Diaz, Jose

    2016-07-01

    Mucosal discoloration of an intestinal stoma may indicate self-limited venous congestion or necrosis necessitating operative revision. A common bedside technique to assess stoma viability is the "test tube test". A clear tube is inserted into the stoma and a hand-held light is used to assess the color of the stoma. A technique (video-assisted test tube test [VATTT]) developed by the authors utilizes a standard video bronchoscope inserted into a clear plastic blood collection tube to visually inspect and assess the mucosa. This technique was evaluated in 4 patients (age range 49-72 years, all critically ill) with a discolored stoma after emergency surgery. In each case, physical exam revealed ischemic mucosa at the surface either immediately after surgery or after worsening hypotension weeks later. Serial test tube test assessments were ambiguous when trying to assess deeper mucosa. The VATTT assessment showed viable pink mucosa beneath the surface and until the fascia was revealed in 3 patients. One (1) patient had mucosal ischemia down to the fascia, which prompted operative revision of the stoma. The new stoma was assessed with a VATTT and was viable for the entire length of the stoma. VATTT provided an enhanced, magnified, and clearer way to visually assess stoma viability in the postoperative period that can be performed at the bedside with no adverse events. It may prevent unnecessary relaparotomy or enable earlier diagnosis of deep ostomy necrosis. Validity and reliability studies are warranted.

  12. Social marketing's unique contribution to mental health stigma reduction and HIV testing: two case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackeray, Rosemary; Keller, Heidi; Heilbronner, Jennifer Messenger; Dellinger, Laura K Lee

    2011-03-01

    Since its inception in 2005, articles in Health Promotion Practice's social marketing department have focused on describing social marketing's unique contributions and the application of each to the practice of health promotion. This article provides a brief review of six unique features (marketing mix, consumer orientation, segmentation, exchange, competition, and continuous monitoring) and then presents two case studies-one on reducing stigma related to mental health and the other a large-scale campaign focused on increasing HIV testing among African American youth. The two successful case studies show that social marketing principles can be applied to a wide variety of topics among various population groups.

  13. Validation of new CFD release by Ground-Coupled Heat Transfer Test Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sehnalek Stanislav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article is presented validation of ANSYS Fluent with IEA BESTEST Task 34. Article stars with outlook to the topic, afterward are described steady-state cases used for validation. Thereafter is mentioned implementation of these cases on CFD. Article is concluded with presentation of the simulated results with a comparison of those from already validated simulation software by IEA. These validation shows high correlation with an older version of tested ANSYS as well as with other main software. The paper ends by discussion with an outline of future research.

  14. Syringe test screening of microbial gas production activity: Cases denitrification and biogas formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østgaard, Kjetill; Kowarz, Viktoria; Shuai, Wang; Henry, Ingrid A; Sposob, Michal; Haugen, Hildegunn Hegna; Bakke, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Mass produced plastic syringes may be applied as vessels for cheap, simple and large scale batch culture testing. As illustrated for the cases of denitrification and of biogas formation, metabolic activity was monitored by direct reading of the piston movement due to the gas volume formed. Pressure buildup due to friction was shown to be moderate. A piston pull and slide back routine can be applied before recording gas volume to minimize experimental errors due to friction. Inoculum handling and activity may be conveniently standardized as illustrated by applying biofilm carriers. A robust set of positive as well as negative controls ("blanks") should be included to ensure quality of the actual testing. The denitrification test showed saturation response at increasing amounts of inoculum in the form of adapted moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) carriers, with well correlated nitrate consumption vs. gas volume formed. As shown, the denitrification test efficiently screened different inocula at standardized substrates. Also, different substrates were successfully screened and compared at standardized inocula. The biogas potential test showed efficient screening of different substrates with effects of relative amounts of carbohydrate, protein, fat. A second case with CO 2 capture reclaimer waste as substrate demonstrated successful use of co-feeding to support waste treatment and how temperature effects on kinetics and stoichiometry can be observed. In total, syringe test screening of microbial gas production seems highly efficient at a low cost when properly applied. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 30 CFR 250.522 - When do I have to repeat casing diagnostic testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When do I have to repeat casing diagnostic... Operations Casing Pressure Management § 250.522 When do I have to repeat casing diagnostic testing? Casing diagnostic testing must be repeated according to the following table: When * * * you must repeat diagnostic...

  16. Giant cell tumor with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst shows heterogeneous metabolic pattern on {sup 18}F-FDG PET.CT: A case reort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Jeong; Kwon, Seong Young; Yoon, Yeon Hong [Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Huasun (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho Chun; Kim, Sung Sun; Park, Jin Gyoon [Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a generally benign bone tumor accounting for approximately 5 % of all primary bone neoplasms. Cystic components in GCTs that indicate secondary aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are reported in 14 % of GCTs. Although both of them have been described separately in previous reports that may show considerable fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake despite their benign nature, the findings of GCT with secondary ABC on 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have not been well-known. We report a case of GCT with secondary ABC in a 26-year-old woman. 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed a heterogeneous hypermetabolic lesion in the left proximal femur with the maximum standardized uptake value of 4.7. The solid components of the tumor showed higher FDG uptake than the cystic components. These observations suggest that the ABC components in GCTs show heterogeneous metabolic patterns on {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT.

  17. Giant cell tumor with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst shows heterogeneous metabolic pattern on "1"8F-FDG PET.CT: A case reort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Jeong; Kwon, Seong Young; Yoon, Yeon Hong; Cho, Sang Geon; Kim, Jahae; Song, Ho Chun; Kim, Sung Sun; Park, Jin Gyoon

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a generally benign bone tumor accounting for approximately 5 % of all primary bone neoplasms. Cystic components in GCTs that indicate secondary aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are reported in 14 % of GCTs. Although both of them have been described separately in previous reports that may show considerable fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake despite their benign nature, the findings of GCT with secondary ABC on 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) have not been well-known. We report a case of GCT with secondary ABC in a 26-year-old woman. 18F-FDG PET/CT revealed a heterogeneous hypermetabolic lesion in the left proximal femur with the maximum standardized uptake value of 4.7. The solid components of the tumor showed higher FDG uptake than the cystic components. These observations suggest that the ABC components in GCTs show heterogeneous metabolic patterns on "1"8F-FDG PET/CT

  18. BEAT: A Web-Based Boolean Expression Fault-Based Test Case Generation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T. Y.; Grant, D. D.; Lau, M. F.; Ng, S. P.; Vasa, V. R.

    2006-01-01

    BEAT is a Web-based system that generates fault-based test cases from Boolean expressions. It is based on the integration of our several fault-based test case selection strategies. The generated test cases are considered to be fault-based, because they are aiming at the detection of particular faults. For example, when the Boolean expression is in…

  19. Situation testing: the case of health care refusal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Després, C; Couralet, P-E

    2011-04-01

    Situation testing to assess physicians' refusal to provide healthcare is increasingly used in research studies. This paper aims to explain the relevance and limits of this method. Conducted in 2008-2009, this study was designed to assess the rate of healthcare refusal among several categories of private practitioners toward patients covered by the French public means-tested complementary health insurance (CMUc) when they requested a first appointment by phone. The other objectives were to study the determinants of healthcare refusal and assess the method. The study was conducted on a representative sample of Paris-based dentists and physicians in five categories: general practitioners, medical gynecologists, ophthalmologists, radiologists, and dentists. The method was based on two protocols. In the first scenario, an actor pretended to be a CMUc beneficiary and, in the second one, he did not give information about his health coverage but hinted at a low socioeconomic status. The two protocols were compared and procedures checking the relation between refusal and CMUc coverage were implemented in each of them. In the scenario in which the patient declared being a CMUc beneficiary, the results showed different refusal rates depending on the type of practitioner, physician, or dentist, their specialty, and whether or not, they charge more than the standard set fee. In the second scenario, refusal rates were much lower. The comparison of the two protocols seems to confirm the existence of discrimination based on CMUc affiliation rather than patients' socioeconomic status. The discussion presents the limits of situation testing, which remains an experimental instrument because it does not observe reality but reveals behaviors in situation. The findings cannot be extrapolated and are limited in time. The statistical analysis is only valid if the procedure followed is precise and applied consistently using a preset scenario. In addition, the discriminatory nature of the

  20. In Vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Animal Nocardia Isolated from Field Cases of Skin Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Oyekunle

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In vitro antimicrobial tests were carried out on strains of Nocardia isolated from field cases of cutaneous nocardiosis in farm animals. Results with the disc diffusion test showed the multiresistant nature of the isolates, but 23.81 and 21.43% were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and gentamycin, respectively. The MIC mode and range for oxytetracycline were 12.5 and 3.12–25 μg/ml, respectively, while those of erythromycin were 3.12 and 0.78–6.25 μg/ml, respectively.

  1. Laparoscopy shows superiority over endoscopy for early detection of malignant atrophic papulosis gastrointestinal complications: a case report and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, A E; Shapiro, L S; Farrell, J F; Magro, C M; Polito, J

    2015-11-02

    The malignant form of atrophic papulosis (Köhlmeier-Degos disease) is a rare thrombo-occlusive vasculopathy that can affect multiple organ systems. Patients typically present with distinctive skin lesions reflective of vascular drop out. The small bowel is the most common internal organ involved, resulting in considerable morbidity and mortality attributable to ischemic microperforations. Determination of the presence of gastrointestinal lesions is critical in distinguishing systemic from the benign, cutaneous only disease and in identifying candidates for treatment. We describe an 18 year old male who first presented with cutaneous atrophic papulosis but became critically ill from small bowel microperforations. He had an almost immediate and dramatic response to treatment. Prior to his presentation with acute abdomen he had upper and lower endoscopy showing areas of nonspecific patchy erythema. At laparotomy, innumerable characteristic lesions with central pearly hue and erythematous border were seen. PubMed was used for a literature search using the keywords malignant atrophic papulosis, Degos disease, endoscopy, laparoscopy and laparotomy. This search yielded 200 articles which were further analyzed for diagnostic procedures and findings. Among the 200 articles we identified only 11 cases in which endoscopy was performed. Results of endoscopy and laparotomy in our patient with malignant atrophic papulosis were compared to those in the literature. Endoscopy of the gastrointestinal tract has shown gastritis and non-specific inflammation whereas laparoscopy shows white plaques with red borders on the serosal surface of the small bowel and the peritoneum. From personal communications with other physicians worldwide, we identified three additional unpublished cases in which endoscopy revealed only minimal changes while laparoscopy showed dramatic lesions. From our experience the endoscopic findings are often subtle and nonspecific, whereas laparascopy or laparotomy

  2. CONFIDENCE LEVELS AND/VS. STATISTICAL HYPOTHESIS TESTING IN STATISTICAL ANALYSIS. CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILEANA BRUDIU

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Estimated parameters with confidence intervals and testing statistical assumptions used in statistical analysis to obtain conclusions on research from a sample extracted from the population. Paper to the case study presented aims to highlight the importance of volume of sample taken in the study and how this reflects on the results obtained when using confidence intervals and testing for pregnant. If statistical testing hypotheses not only give an answer "yes" or "no" to some questions of statistical estimation using statistical confidence intervals provides more information than a test statistic, show high degree of uncertainty arising from small samples and findings build in the "marginally significant" or "almost significant (p very close to 0.05.

  3. How many cervical cancer cases can potentially be prevented using a more sensitive screening test at young age?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M.C.M. de Kok (Inge); J.M. van Rosmalen (Joost); K. Rozemeijer (Kirsten); C. Penning (Corine); M. van Ballegooijen (Marjolein)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA test has higher sensitivity than cytology for cervical cancer screening. Therefore, cervical cancer cases that are missed by cytology could potentially be identified if we use primary HPV testing. Studies showed that HPV screening is the preferred

  4. Chimpanzees show a developmental increase in susceptibility to contagious yawning: a test of the effect of ontogeny and emotional closeness on yawn contagion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elainie Alenkær Madsen

    Full Text Available Contagious yawning has been reported for humans, dogs and several non-human primate species, and associated with empathy in humans and other primates. Still, the function, development and underlying mechanisms of contagious yawning remain unclear. Humans and dogs show a developmental increase in susceptibility to yawn contagion, with children showing an increase around the age of four, when also empathy-related behaviours and accurate identification of others' emotions begin to clearly evince. Explicit tests of yawn contagion in non-human apes have only involved adult individuals and examined the existence of conspecific yawn contagion. Here we report the first study of heterospecific contagious yawning in primates, and the ontogeny of susceptibility thereto in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes verus. We examined whether emotional closeness, defined as attachment history with the yawning model, affected the strength of contagion, and compared the contagiousness of yawning to nose-wiping. Thirty-three orphaned chimpanzees observed an unfamiliar and familiar human (their surrogate human mother yawn, gape and nose-wipe. Yawning, but not nose-wiping, was contagious for juvenile chimpanzees, while infants were immune to contagion. Like humans and dogs, chimpanzees are subject to a developmental trend in susceptibility to contagious yawning, and respond to heterospecific yawn stimuli. Emotional closeness with the model did not affect contagion. The familiarity-biased social modulatory effect on yawn contagion previously found among some adult primates, seem to only emerge later in development, or be limited to interactions with conspecifics. The influence of the 'chameleon effect', targeted vs. generalised empathy, perspective-taking and visual attention on contagious yawning is discussed.

  5. FUMEX cases 1, 2, and 3 calculated pre-test and post-test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefanova, S; Vitkova, M; Passage, G; Manolova, M; Simeonova, V [Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika; Scheglov, A; Proselkov, V [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Kharalampieva, Ts [Kombinat Atomna Energetika, Kozloduj (Bulgaria)

    1994-12-31

    Two versions (modified pre-test and modified post-test) of PIN-micro code were used to analyse the fuel rod behaviour of three FUMEX experiments. The experience of applying PIN-micro code with its simple structure and old conception of the steady-state operation shows significant difficulties in treating the complex processes like those in FUMEX experiments. These difficulties were partially overcame through different model modifications and corrections based on special engineering estimations and the results obtained as a whole do not seem unreasonable. The calculations have been performed by a group from two Bulgarian institutions in collaboration with specialists from the Kurchatov Research Center. 1 tab., 14 figs., 8 refs.

  6. Accelerated ageing tests on repair coatings for offshore wind power structures: Presentation held at European Coatings Show Conference 2017, Nuremberg, Germany, 04th April 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Buchbach, Sascha; Momber, A.; Plagemann, P.; Winkels, I.; Marquardt, T.; Viertel, J.

    2017-01-01

    The paper reports on a statistical investigation into effects of surface preparation method, coating type and coating thickness on the performance of OWEA repair coatings under accelerated testing conditions. DoE (Design of Experiments) is used in order to design the tests and to evaluate the effects of the influencing parameters statistically. The ISO 20340 offshore testing scenario is utilized for the acceretaed ageing of the repair c oatings. The pre-existing coating on the test panel was ...

  7. A new impedance based approach to test the activity of recombinant protein--Semaphorins as a test case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birger, Anastasya; Besser, Elazar; Reubinoff, Benjamin; Behar, Oded

    2015-10-01

    The biological activity of a recombinant protein is routinely measured using a bioassay such as an enzyme assay. However, many proteins have no enzymatic activity and in many cases it is difficult to devise a simple and reliable approach to test their activity. Semaphorins, Ephrins, Slits, Netrins or amylin-assisted proteins have numerous activities affecting many systems and cell types in the human body. Most of them are also able to induce rapid cytoskeleton changes at least in some cell types. We assumed therefore, that such proteins might be tested based on their ability to modulate the cytoskeleton. Here we tested a number of semaphorins in an impedance based label-free platform that allows for dynamic monitoring of subtle morphological and adhesive changes. This system has proved to be a very fast, sensitive and effective way to monitor and determine the activity of such proteins. Furthermore we showed that it is possible to customize a cell-protein system by transfecting the cells with specific receptors and test the cell response following the addition of the recombinant ligand protein. Since other protein families such as Ephrins and Netrins can also influence the cytoskeleton of some cells, this approach may be applicable to a large number of proteins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. HIV Testing among Canadian Tuberculosis Cases from 1997 to 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Harris

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests a global rise in adult tuberculosis (TB cases associated with HIV/AIDS. The World Health Organization, the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the Public Health Agency of Canada advocate universal screening of all TB cases for HIV. The contribution of HIV to the TB burden in Canada remains unclear.

  9. A Case of Plummer-Vinson Syndrome Showing Rapid Improvement of Dysphagia and Esophageal Web after Two Weeks of Iron Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomitsu Tahara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plummer-Vinson syndrome (PVS is a rare entity characterized by upper esophageal webs and iron deficiency anemia. We report a case of PVS whose esophageal web was rapidly improved by iron therapy. A 77-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with complaints of dysphagia, vomiting, shortness of breath and weight loss for 1 month. Physical examination revealed conjunctival pallor, koilonychia, angular cheilitis and smooth tongue, and laboratory findings were consistent with microcytic hypochromic anemia with iron deficiency. Gastrointestinal endoscopy and barium-swallow esophagography detected a web that prevented passage of the endoscope into the upper portion of the esophagus. The patient received oral iron therapy daily; the hemoglobin concentration rose to 8.9 g/dl and the complaints of dysphagia were dramatically improved after 2 weeks, with improvement of luminal stenosis confirmed by gastrointestinal endoscopy and barium-swallow esophagography. The PVS described in this report had a distinct clinical course, showing very rapid improvement of dysphagia and esophageal web after 2 weeks of oral iron therapy.

  10. Business models & business cases for point-of-care testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, A.J.; Meertens, L. O.; Sikkel, N.

    2016-01-01

    Point-Of-Care Testing (POCT) enables clinical tests at or near the patient, with test results that are available instantly or in a very short time frame, to assist caregivers with immediate diagnosis and/or clinical intervention. The goal of POCT is to provide accurate, reliable, fast, and

  11. Orengedoku-to augmentation in cases showing partial response to yokukan-san treatment: a case report and literature review of the evidence for use of these Kampo herbal formulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okamoto H

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hideki Okamoto,1 Atsushi Chino,1 Yoshiro Hirasaki,1 Keigo Ueda,1 Masaomi Iyo,2 Takao Namiki11Department of Japanese-Oriental (Kampo Medicine, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba City, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba City, Japan Background: Yokukan-san, a Japanese traditional herbal (Kampo prescription, has recently gathered increasing attention due to accumulating reports showing its remarkable efficacy in treating a wide variety of diseases refractory to conventional medicine as well as the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. As yokukan-san has become broadly integrated with conventional medicine, augmentation therapy with other Kampo prescriptions has become necessary when the yokukan-san has been only partially efficacious. In this paper, we report three cases in which the addition of orengedoku-to, another Kampo formula, to yokukan-san was remarkably effective.Cases: Case 1 was an 85-year-old man with Alzheimer-type dementia who had become aggressive during the past 2 years. Three milligrams of aripiprazole completely suppressed his problematic behaviors but had to be stopped because of extrapyramidal symptoms. In the second case, a 44-year-old man with methamphetamine-induced psychosis had suffered from serious tardive dystonia for 2 years. No conventional approach had improved his tardive dystonia. The third case was a 29-year-old engineer who often failed to resist aggressive impulses and was diagnosed with intermittent explosive disorder. He was prescribed 5 mg of olanzapine, which did not suppress his extraordinary anger and caused somnolence even though the dose was low.Interventions and outcomes: Yokukan-san was complementarily added to the patients' regular medication and exerted a definitive but partial effect in all cases. The addition of orengedoku-to to yokukan-san exerted the same efficacy as aripiprazole in controlling aggressiveness in Case 1

  12. Spatial Layout of Multi-Environment Test Sites: A Case Study of Maize in Jilin Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuliang Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Variety regional tests based on multiple environments play a critical role in understanding the high yield and adaptability of new crop varieties. However, the current approach mainly depends on experience from breeding experts and is difficulty to promote because of inconsistency between testing and actual situation. We propose a spatial layout method based on the existing systematic regional test network. First, the method of spatial clustering was used to cluster the planting environment. Then, we used spatial stratified sampling to determine the minimum number of test sites in each type of environment. Finally, combined with the factors such as the convenience of transportation and the planting area, we used spatial balance sampling to generate the layout of multi-environment test sites. We present a case study for maize in Jilin Province and show the utility of the method with an accuracy of about 94.5%. The experimental results showed that 66.7% of sites are located in the same county and the unbalanced layout of original sites is improved. Furthermore, we conclude that the set of operational technical ideas for carrying out the layout of multi-environment test sites based on crop varieties in this paper can be applied to future research.

  13. Systemic reaction after performing a food prick-to-prick test. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Estefanía Hernández-Moreno

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Skin prick test is the most widely used test for the diagnosis of IgE-mediated conditions. Commercial extracts are used for its performance, but in the case of fruits and vegetables it is preferable using fresh food. Although both tests possess a good safety profile, hypersensitivity reactions have been recorded. Clinical case: Forty-seven-year old woman with a history of persistent allergic rhinitis, sensitized to the pollen of grasses, olive and salsola; she was referred to an allergology department due to anaphylaxis triggered by the consumption of avocado, cantaloupe, carrots and watermelon. Minutes after skin prick test with standardized extract and skin prick with fresh foods, she developed dyspnea, pruritus, erythema, dizziness and sibilance; she was administered 0.5 mg of intramuscular adrenalin and 4 salbutamol inhalations and placed in the Trendelemburg position. Dyspnea persisted, and vital signs monitoring showed heart and respiratory rates increase and, hence, salbutamol was applied again, together with 2 L/min of oxygen delivered by nasal cannula, intravenous fluids and 100 mg intravenous hydrocortisone; improvement was observed at 40 minutes. The patient was hospitalized for 48 hours. Conclusions: Although skin tests are safe, the risk of hypersensitivity and anaphylactic reactions should not be ruled out, especially in susceptible patients.

  14. Using a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method to determine product usability: A test case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ronggang; Chan, Alan H S

    2017-01-01

    In order to take into account the inherent uncertainties during product usability evaluation, Zhou and Chan [1] proposed a comprehensive method of usability evaluation for products by combining the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and fuzzy evaluation methods for synthesizing performance data and subjective response data. This method was designed to provide an integrated framework combining the inevitable vague judgments from the multiple stages of the product evaluation process. In order to illustrate the effectiveness of the model, this study used a summative usability test case to assess the application and strength of the general fuzzy usability framework. To test the proposed fuzzy usability evaluation framework [1], a standard summative usability test was conducted to benchmark the overall usability of a specific network management software. Based on the test data, the fuzzy method was applied to incorporate both the usability scores and uncertainties involved in the multiple components of the evaluation. Then, with Monte Carlo simulation procedures, confidence intervals were used to compare the reliabilities among the fuzzy approach and two typical conventional methods combining metrics based on percentages. This case study showed that the fuzzy evaluation technique can be applied successfully for combining summative usability testing data to achieve an overall usability quality for the network software evaluated. Greater differences of confidence interval widths between the method of averaging equally percentage and weighted evaluation method, including the method of weighted percentage averages, verified the strength of the fuzzy method.

  15. Tests of selection in pooled case-control data: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udpa, Nitin; Zhou, Dan; Haddad, Gabriel G; Bafna, Vineet

    2011-01-01

    For smaller organisms with faster breeding cycles, artificial selection can be used to create sub-populations with different phenotypic traits. Genetic tests can be employed to identify the causal markers for the phenotypes, as a precursor to engineering strains with a combination of traits. Traditional approaches involve analyzing crosses of inbred strains to test for co-segregation with genetic markers. Here we take advantage of cheaper next generation sequencing techniques to identify genetic signatures of adaptation to the selection constraints. Obtaining individual sequencing data is often unrealistic due to cost and sample issues, so we focus on pooled genomic data. We explore a series of statistical tests for selection using pooled case (under selection) and control populations. The tests generally capture skews in the scaled frequency spectrum of alleles in a region, which are indicative of a selective sweep. Extensive simulations are used to show that these approaches work well for a wide range of population divergence times and strong selective pressures. Control vs control simulations are used to determine an empirical False Positive Rate, and regions under selection are determined using a 1% FPR level. We show that pooling does not have a significant impact on statistical power. The tests are also robust to reasonable variations in several different parameters, including window size, base-calling error rate, and sequencing coverage. We then demonstrate the viability (and the challenges) of one of these methods in two independent Drosophila populations (Drosophila melanogaster) bred under selection for hypoxia and accelerated development, respectively. Testing for extreme hypoxia tolerance showed clear signals of selection, pointing to loci that are important for hypoxia adaptation. Overall, we outline a strategy for finding regions under selection using pooled sequences, then devise optimal tests for that strategy. The approaches show promise for

  16. Reference materials and representative test materials: the nanotechnology case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebben, G.; Rasmussen, K.; Kestens, V.; Linsinger, T. P. J.; Rauscher, H.; Emons, H.; Stamm, H.

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of chemical, physical and biological tests are performed on manufactured nanomaterials for scientific and regulatory purposes. Existing test guidelines and measurement methods are not always directly applicable to or relevant for nanomaterials. Therefore, it is necessary to verify the use of the existing methods with nanomaterials, thereby identifying where modifications are needed, and where new methods need to be developed and validated. Efforts for verification, development and validation of methods as well as quality assurance of (routine) test results significantly benefit from the availability of suitable test and reference materials. This paper provides an overview of the existing types of reference materials and introduces a new class of test materials for which the term ‘representative test material’ is proposed. The three generic concepts of certified reference material, reference material(non-certified) and representative test material constitute a comprehensive system of benchmarks that can be used by all measurement and testing communities, regardless of their specific discipline. This paper illustrates this system with examples from the field of nanomaterials, including reference materials and representative test materials developed at the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre, in particular at the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM), and at the Institute for Health and Consumer Protection (IHCP).

  17. The Relevance of External Quality Assessment for Molecular Testing for ALK Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer : Results from Two Pilot Rounds Show Room for Optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tembuyser, Lien; Tack, Veronique; Zwaenepoel, Karen; Pauwels, Patrick; Miller, Keith; Bubendorf, Lukas; Kerr, Keith; Schuuring, Ed; Thunnissen, Erik; Dequeker, Elisabeth M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Molecular profiling should be performed on all advanced non-small cell lung cancer with non-squamous histology to allow treatment selection. Currently, this should include EGFR mutation testing and testing for ALK rearrangements. ROS1 is another emerging target. ALK

  18. Does Jatropha curcas L. show resistance to drought in the Sahelian zone of West Africa? A case study from Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, P.; Sop, T. K.; Lykke, A. M.; Thiombiano, A.

    2015-05-01

    Land degradation is an environmental problem which weakens agro-sylvo-pastoral productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common manifestation of land degradation is the appearance of denuded land. We carried out an experiment to test the effect of three soil and water conservation techniques on survival and growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings transplanted onto two completely denuded lands in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of Burkina Faso. We implemented an experimental design with three replicates per restoration technique. A total of 174 seedlings were planted in each study site. The results showed that the soil water content varied according to the restoration technique used (df = 2; F = 53.21; p curcas is unsuited to denuded land in the Sahelian zone. Most of the plants died in the Sahel between April and May, which is the peak of the dry season; this may be an indication that J. curcas may not be as drought-resistant as suggested by the prolific literature which has reported on diverse claims surrounding this plant.

  19. Evaluation of Test-Driven Development : An Industrial Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasmus, H.; Gross, H.G.

    2007-01-01

    Test-driven development is a novel software development practice and part of the Extreme Programming paradigm. It is based on the principle that tests should be designed and written for a module iteratively, while the code of the module is devised. This is the opposite of what is usual in current

  20. Tests of Selection in Pooled Case-Control Data: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin eUdpa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available For smaller organisms with faster breeding cycles, artificial selection can be used to create sub-populations with different phenotypic traits. Genetic tests can be employed to identify the causal markers for the phenotypes, as a precursor to engineering strains with a combination of traits. Traditional approaches involve analyzing crosses of inbred strains to test for co-segregation with genetic markers. Here we take advantage of cheaper next generation sequencing techniques to identifygenetic signatures of adaptation to the selection constraints. Obtaining individual sequencing data is often unrealistic due to cost and sample issues, so we focus on pooled genomic data.In this paper, we explore a series of statistical tests for selection using pooled case (under selection and control populations. Extensive simulations are used to show that these approaches work well for a wide range of population divergence times and strong selective pressures. We show that pooling does not have a significant impact on statistical power. The tests are also robust to reasonable variations in several different parameters, including window size, base-calling error rate, and sequencing coverage. We then demonstrate the viability (and the challenges of one of these methods in two independent Drosophila populations (Drosophila melanogaster bred under selectionfor hypoxia and accelerated development, respectively. Testing for extreme hypoxia tolerance showed clear signals of selection, pointing to loci that are important for hypoxia adaptation.Overall, we outline a strategy for finding regions under selection using pooled sequences, then devise optimal tests for that strategy. The approaches show promise for detecting selection, even several generations after fixation of the beneficial allele has occurred.

  1. Integrating non-animal test information into an adaptive testing strategy - skin sensitization proof of concept case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Joanna; Harol, Artsiom; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, G Frank

    2011-01-01

    There is an urgent need to develop data integration and testing strategy frameworks allowing interpretation of results from animal alternative test batteries. To this end, we developed a Bayesian Network Integrated Testing Strategy (BN ITS) with the goal to estimate skin sensitization hazard as a test case of previously developed concepts (Jaworska et al., 2010). The BN ITS combines in silico, in chemico, and in vitro data related to skin penetration, peptide reactivity, and dendritic cell activation, and guides testing strategy by Value of Information (VoI). The approach offers novel insights into testing strategies: there is no one best testing strategy, but the optimal sequence of tests depends on information at hand, and is chemical-specific. Thus, a single generic set of tests as a replacement strategy is unlikely to be most effective. BN ITS offers the possibility of evaluating the impact of generating additional data on the target information uncertainty reduction before testing is commenced.

  2. Developing a quality by design approach to model tablet dissolution testing: an industrial case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekpe, Ketsia; Abatzoglou, Nicolas; Bataille, Bernard; Gosselin, Ryan; Sharkawi, Tahmer; Simard, Jean-Sébastien; Cournoyer, Antoine

    2017-11-02

    This study applied the concept of Quality by Design (QbD) to tablet dissolution. Its goal was to propose a quality control strategy to model dissolution testing of solid oral dose products according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The methodology involved the following three steps: (1) a risk analysis to identify the material- and process-related parameters impacting the critical quality attributes of dissolution testing, (2) an experimental design to evaluate the influence of design factors (attributes and parameters selected by risk analysis) on dissolution testing, and (3) an investigation of the relationship between design factors and dissolution profiles. Results show that (a) in the case studied, the two parameters impacting dissolution kinetics are active pharmaceutical ingredient particle size distributions and tablet hardness and (b) these two parameters could be monitored with PAT tools to predict dissolution profiles. Moreover, based on the results obtained, modeling dissolution is possible. The practicality and effectiveness of the QbD approach were demonstrated through this industrial case study. Implementing such an approach systematically in industrial pharmaceutical production would reduce the need for tablet dissolution testing.

  3. Unsaturated fatty acids show clear elicitation responses in a modified local lymph node assay with an elicitation phase, and test positive in the direct peptide reactivity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kunihiko; Shinoda, Shinsuke; Hagiwara, Saori; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Itagaki, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guidelines (TG) adopted the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA) and guinea pig maximization test (GPMT) as stand-alone skin sensitization test methods. However, unsaturated carbon-carbon double-bond and/or lipid acids afforded false-positive results more frequently in the LLNA compared to those in the GPMT and/or in human subjects. In the current study, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, fumaric, maleic, and succinic acid and squalene were tested in a modified LLNA with an elicitation phase (LLNA:DAE), and in a direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) to evaluate their skin-sensitizing potential. Oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic and maleic acid were positive in the LLNA:DAE, of which three, linoleic, linolenic, and maleic acid were positive in the DPRA. Furthermore, the results of the cross-sensitizing tests using four LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals were negative, indicating a chemical-specific elicitation response. In a previous report, the estimated concentration needed to produce a stimulation index of 3 (EC3) of linolenic acid, squalene, and maleic acid in the LLNA was LLNA. However, the skin-sensitizing potential of all LLNA:DAE-positive chemicals was estimated as weak. These results suggested that oleic, linoleic, linolenic, undecylenic, and maleic acid had skin-sensitizing potential, and that the LLNA overestimated the skin-sensitizing potential compared to that estimated by the LLNA:DAE.

  4. Complex Parts, Complex Data: Why You Need to Understand What Radiation Single Event Testing Data Does and Doesn't Show and the Implications Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBel, Kenneth A.; Berg, Melanie D.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic parts (integrated circuits) have grown in complexity such that determining all failure modes and risks from single particle event testing is impossible. In this presentation, the authors will present why this is so and provide some realism on what this means. Its all about understanding actual risks and not making assumptions.

  5. Intelligence Tests with Higher G-Loadings Show Higher Correlations with Body Symmetry: Evidence for a General Fitness Factor Mediated by Developmental Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokosch, M.D.; Yeo, R.A.; Miller, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Just as body symmetry reveals developmental stability at the morphological level, general intelligence may reveal developmental stability at the level of brain development and cognitive functioning. These two forms of developmental stability may overlap by tapping into a ''general fitness factor.'' If so, then intellectual tests with higher…

  6. Technology Solutions Case Study: Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Brand, D. Cautley, D. Bohac, P. Francisco, L. Shen, and S. Gloss

    2015-12-01

    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives.

  7. Efficiency of color vision tests in hereditary dyschromatopsia: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Luciene Chaves; Urbano, Lúcia Carvalho de Ventura

    2008-01-01

    As autoras relatam dois casos de discromatopsia hereditária e discutem a eficiência dos testes cromáticos no diagnóstico de uma discromatopsia. Os pacientes foram reprovados em diferentes concursos públicos federais por apresentarem diagnóstico de discromatopsia hereditária pelo teste de Ishihara. Submeteram-se a exame oftalmológico, com resultados dentro da normalidade. Procuraram novo parecer para melhor caracterização da sua discromatopsia. Não havia sintomas relacionados à deficiência. Os...

  8. A new sentinel surveillance system for severe influenza in England shows a shift in age distribution of hospitalised cases in the post-pandemic period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Bolotin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control have highlighted the importance of establishing systems to monitor severe influenza. Following the H1N1 (2009 influenza pandemic, a sentinel network of 23 Trusts, the UK Severe Influenza Surveillance System (USISS, was established to monitor hospitalisations due to confirmed seasonal influenza in England. This article presents the results of the first season of operation of USISS in 2010/11. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A case was defined as a person hospitalised with confirmed influenza of any type. Weekly aggregate numbers of hospitalised influenza cases, broken down by flu type and level of care, were submitted by participating Trusts. Cases in 2010/11 were compared to cases during the 2009 pandemic in hospitals with available surveillance data for both time periods (n = 19. An unexpected resurgence in seasonal A/H1N1 (2009 influenza activity in England was observed in December 2010 with reports of severe disease. Reported cases over the period of 4 October 2010 to 13 February 2011 were mostly due to influenza A/H1N1 (2009. One thousand and seventy-one cases of influenza A/H1N1 (2009 occurred over this period compared to 409 at the same Trusts over the 2009/10 pandemic period (1 April 2009 to 6 January 2010. Median age of influenza A/H1N1 (2009 cases in 2010/11 was 35 years, compared with 20 years during the pandemic (p = <0.0001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Health Protection Agency successfully established a sentinel surveillance system for severe influenza in 2010/11, detecting a rise in influenza cases mirroring other surveillance indicators. The data indicate an upward shift in the age-distribution of influenza A/H1N1 (2009 during the 2010/11 influenza season as compared to the 2009/10 pandemic. Systems to enable the ongoing surveillance of severe influenza will be a key component in understanding and responding to the evolving

  9. Findings concerning testis, vas deference, and epididymis in adult cases with nonpalpable testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun Sahin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to state the relationship between testis, epididymis and vas deference, in adult cases with nonpalpable testis. Between January 1996 and December 2009, we evaluated 154 adult cases with nonpalpable testes. Mean age was 23 years (20-27 years. Explorations were performed by open inguinal incision, laparoscopy, and by inguinal incision and laparoscopy together on 22, 131 and 1 patient, respectively. Of all the unilateral cases, 32 were accepted as vanishing testis. In five of these cases, vas deference was ending inside the abdomen, and in the others, it was ending inside the scrotum. In the remaining 99 unilateral and 22 bilateral cases, 143 testes were found in total. Testes were found in the inguinal canal as atrophic in one case, at the right renal pedicle level with dysmorphic testis in one case, and anterior to the internal ring between the bladder and the common iliac vessels at a smaller than normal size in 119 cases. One (0.69% case did not have epididymis. While epididymis was attached to the testis only at the head and tail locations in 88 (61.53% cases, it was totally attached to the testis in 54 (37.76% cases. There is an obviously high incidence rate of testis and vas deference anomalies, where epididymis is the most frequent one. In cases with abdominal testes, this rate is highest for high localised abdominal testes.

  10. [Partial thyroxine binding globulin deficiency in test tube infants: report of cases and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Y L; Wang, C L; Liang, L

    2016-06-02

    To investigate the clinical characteristics of twins with thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) deficiency and to find SERPINA7 gene mutations. Data(2015) related to clinical characteristics, serum biochemistry, gene mutations and pedigree of two children with TBG deficiency were collected in the First Affiliated Hospital of College of Medicine, Zhejiang University. The related literature was searched form China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, National Center for Biotechnology Information and PubMed (up to December 2015) by using search terms "Thyroxine binding globulin deficiency, gene, mutation" . Both patients were diagnosed as central hypothyroidism at the beginning and treated with L-thyroxine. Both of the identical twins of the triplet were observed for mutation in exon3, c. 631G﹥A(p.A211T), a new mutation had not been reported, but their parents and another non-identical triplet brother were normal. Literature review showed that 23 foreign cases with SERPINA7 gene mutation had been reported, however, no Chinese with SERPINA7 gene mutation had been reported. Among reported cases it was shown that SERPINA7 gene mutations located in exon, intron, promoter and enhancer. Up to now, 49 variants had been identified, 41 of them located in the mutated genes. Including these two cases, patients with thyroxine binding globulin deficiency were characterized by reduced serum TH levels, but normal free TH and TSH and absence of clinical manifestations. The new mutation of SERPINA7 gene c. 631G﹥A(p.A211T)is not transmitted via the known X chromosome linked heredity, and as the cases were test tube triplet infants, it is a de novo mutation. The serum thyroid function tests of TBG deficiency showed decreased TT4, TT3 and normal TSH and TBG deficiency is often misdiagnosed as central hypothyroidism.

  11. Testing Affine Term Structure Models in Case of Transaction Costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.J.A.G.; Melenberg, B.; Nijman, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we empirically analyze the impact of transaction costs on the performance of affine interest rate models. We test the implied (no arbitrage) Euler restrictions, and we calculate the specification error bound of Hansen and Jagannathan to measure the extent to which a model is

  12. The Florida State Initial Teacher Certification Test: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Charles M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the development of the art certification examination which was designed for the Florida State Initial Teacher Certification Test. Discusses problems of subjectivity, content, and question format. Suggests criteria which can guide the development of viable college art education programs that can adequately prepare teachers in the areas of…

  13. Anterior abdominal wall ectopic testes: A report of two cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undescended testis (UDT) is a common anomaly of the male reproductive system affecting about 2% to 4% of male infants more commonly preterms. If the testis remains in the line of normal descent, it is classified as an UDT. If it is not in the line of normal descent, it is termed an ectopic testis. Common sites of ectopic testes ...

  14. Functional Literacy Tests: A Case of Anticipatory Validity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.; Anderson, Jo Craig

    1981-01-01

    Development of the mathematics functional literacy test (MFLT) is described, issues of predictive and content validity are discussed, and implications for educational policy are presented. Ten basic skill areas identified by the National Council of Supervisors of Mathematics were used as the basis for the development of the MFLT. (RL)

  15. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma of the lung showing mosaic pattern of inhomogeneous attenuation on thin-section CT: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In Jae; Kim, Sung Hwan; Koo, Soo Hyun; Kim, Hyun Beom; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Lee, Kwan Seop; Lee, Yul; Jang, Kee Taek; Kim, Duck Hwan

    2000-01-01

    The authors present a case of histologically proven bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma of the lung in a patient with primary Sjogren's syndrome that manifested on thin-section CT scan as a mosaic pattern of inhomogeneous attenuation due to mixed small airway and infiltrative abnormalities

  16. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma of the lung showing mosaic pattern of inhomogeneous attenuation on thin-section CT: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Jae; Kim, Sung Hwan; Koo, Soo Hyun; Kim, Hyun Beom; Hwang, Dae Hyun; Lee, Kwan Seop; Lee, Yul; Jang, Kee Taek; Kim, Duck Hwan [Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    The authors present a case of histologically proven bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT) lymphoma of the lung in a patient with primary Sjogren's syndrome that manifested on thin-section CT scan as a mosaic pattern of inhomogeneous attenuation due to mixed small airway and infiltrative abnormalities.

  17. Comprehensive behavioral testing in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease shows no benefit from CoQ10 or minocycline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana B Menalled

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of the effects of coenzyme Q10 and minocycline on mouse models of Huntington's disease have produced conflicting results regarding their efficacy in behavioral tests. Using our recently published best practices for husbandry and testing for mouse models of Huntington's disease, we report that neither coenzyme Q10 nor minocycline had significant beneficial effects on measures of motor function, general health (open field, rotarod, grip strength, rearing-climbing, body weight and survival in the R6/2 mouse model. The higher doses of minocycline, on the contrary, reduced survival. We were thus unable to confirm the previously reported benefits for these two drugs, and we discuss potential reasons for these discrepancies, such as the effects of husbandry and nutrition.

  18. The case for bilingual language tests: a study of test adaptation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The justification for the use of language tests in education in multilingual and multicultural societies needs to include both the aims of bilingual education, and evidence that the international standards for tests that are available in two or more languages are being met. In multilingual and multicultural societies, language tests ...

  19. Test of the Bank Lending Channel: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu HSING

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the bank lending channel for Poland based on a simultaneousequation model consisting of demand for and supply of bank loans. The three-stage least squares method is employed in empirical work. This paper finds support for a bank lending channel for Poland. Expansionary monetary policy through a lower money market rate or open market purchase of government bonds to increase bank reserves/deposits would increase bank loan supply.

  20. Proposing and testing SOA governance process: A case study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koumaditis, Konstantinos; Themistocleous, Marinos

    2015-01-01

    Longstanding Healthcare Information Systems (HIS) integration challenges drove healthcare organisations to invest in new paradigms like Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Yet, SOA holds challenges of its own, with SOA Governance surfacing on the top. This research depicts the development......, grounded in the normative literature and further developed to include healthcare aspects. The proposition is tested in a large Greek hospital utilising qualitative methods and the findings presented herein. This proposal aims to pinpoint attributes and guidelines for SOA Governance Process, required...

  1. Making System Dynamics Cool II : New Hot Teaching and Testing Cases of Increasing Complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruyt, E.

    2010-01-01

    This follow-up paper presents several actual cases for testing and teaching System Dynamics. The cases were developed between April 2009 and January 2010 for the Introductory System Dynamics courses at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. They can be used for teaching and testing

  2. The skeletal trauma resulting from a fatal B.A.S.E jump: A case study showing the impact of landing feet-first under extreme vertical deceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbotham, Samantha K; Blau, Soren; Hislop-Jambrich, Jacqueline

    2018-05-01

    The term 'B.A.S.E jump' refers to jumping from a building, antenna, span (i.e., bridge) or earth (i.e., cliff) structure, and parachuting to the ground. There are numerous hazards associated with B.A.S.E jumps which often result in injury and, occasionally, fatality. This case report details the skeletal trauma resulting from a fatal B.A.S.E jump in Australia. In this case, the jumper impacted the ground from a fall of 439m in a feet-first landing position, as a result of a partially deployed parachute, under extreme vertical deceleration. Skeletal trauma was analyzed using full-body post mortem computed tomography (PMCT) and contextual information related to the circumstances of the jump as reported by the Coroner. Trauma to 61 skeletal elements indicates the primary impact was to the feet (i.e., feet-first landing), followed by an anterior impact to the body (i.e., fall forwards). Details of the individual fracture morphologies indicate the various forces and biomechanics involved in this fall event. This case presents the types of fractures that result from a B.A.S.E jump, and highlights the value of using PMCT and coronial data as tools to augment skeletal trauma interpretations. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The universe of ANA testing: a case for point-of-care ANA testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinov, Konstantin N; Rubin, Robert L

    2017-12-01

    Testing for total antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is a critical tool for diagnosis and management of autoimmune diseases at both the primary care and subspecialty settings. Repurposing of ANA from a test for lupus to a test for any autoimmune condition has driven the increase in ANA requests. Changes in ANA referral patterns include early or subclinical autoimmune disease detection in patients with low pre-test probability and use of negative ANA results to rule out underlying autoimmune disease. A positive result can lead to further diagnostic considerations. Currently, ANA tests are performed in centralized laboratories; an alternative would be ANA testing at the clinical point-of-care (POC). By virtue of its near real-time data collection capability, low cost, and ease of use, we believe the POC ANA has the potential to enable a new paradigm shift in autoimmune serology testing.

  4. Spherical symmetry as a test case for unconstrained hyperboloidal evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vañó-Viñuales, Alex; Husa, Sascha; Hilditch, David

    2015-01-01

    We consider the hyperboloidal initial value problem for the Einstein equations in numerical relativity, motivated by the goal to evolve radiating compact objects such as black hole binaries with a numerical grid that includes null infinity. Unconstrained evolution schemes promise optimal efficiency, but are difficult to regularize at null infinity, where the compactified Einstein equations are formally singular. In this work we treat the spherically symmetric case, which already poses nontrivial problems and constitutes an important first step. We have carried out stable numerical evolutions with the generalized BSSN and Z4 equations coupled to a scalar field. The crucial ingredients have been to find an appropriate evolution equation for the lapse function and to adapt constraint damping terms to handle null infinity. (paper)

  5. Exercise electrocardiogram testing in two brothers with different outcome – a case study exercise testing in master cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüst CA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Thomas Rosemann11Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, SwitzerlandAbstract: The cases of two brothers training and competing as master cyclists and both preparing for a cycling tour are presented. The older brother aged 66 years went first to the primary care physician and presented with an asymptomatic depression in the exercise stress test of the ST segment in V5 and V6 during recovery after complete exhaustion. Coronary angiography revealed a multi vessel coronary artery disease and he underwent bypass surgery. One year later, he successfully completed his planned cycling tour of ~600 km in seven stages and covering ~12,000 m of total ascent. The younger brother aged 59 years went a few months later to the primary care physician and also performed asymptomatic exercise stress testing without changes in the ST segments. Unfortunately, 2 months later he suffered a cardiac arrest during his cycling tour and survived following immediate successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation on the road by his cycling colleagues. Immediate invasive coronary arteriography showed a complete stenosis of the trunk of arteria coronaria sinistra (left coronary artery, a 40%–50% stenosis of ramus circumflexus, and a 20% stenosis of arteria coronaria dextra (right coronary artery. The left coronary artery was dilated and he continued cycling 2 months later. In both brothers, familial hypercholesterolemia was the main cardiovascular risk factor for the multi vessel coronary artery disease. A negative exercise electrocardiogram in siblings with an increased risk for coronary artery disease seemed not to exclude an advanced multi vessel coronary artery disease. In master athletes with asymptomatic exercise electrocardiogram but a positive family history, further examinations should be performed in order to detect

  6. 30 CFR 250.523 - How long do I keep records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and diagnostic tests? 250.523 Section 250.523 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE... casing pressure and diagnostic tests? Records of casing pressure and diagnostic tests must be kept at the field office nearest the well for a minimum of 2 years. The last casing diagnostic test for each casing...

  7. Distributed storage and cloud computing: a test case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piano, S; Ricca, G Delia

    2014-01-01

    Since 2003 the computing farm hosted by the INFN Tier3 facility in Trieste supports the activities of many scientific communities. Hundreds of jobs from 45 different VOs, including those of the LHC experiments, are processed simultaneously. Given that normally the requirements of the different computational communities are not synchronized, the probability that at any given time the resources owned by one of the participants are not fully utilized is quite high. A balanced compensation should in principle allocate the free resources to other users, but there are limits to this mechanism. In fact, the Trieste site may not hold the amount of data needed to attract enough analysis jobs, and even in that case there could be a lack of bandwidth for their access. The Trieste ALICE and CMS computing groups, in collaboration with other Italian groups, aim to overcome the limitations of existing solutions using two approaches: sharing the data among all the participants taking full advantage of GARR-X wide area networks (10 GB/s) and integrating the resources dedicated to batch analysis with the ones reserved for dynamic interactive analysis, through modern solutions as cloud computing.

  8. Field Tested Service Oriented Robotic Architecture: Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Utz, Hanz

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the lessons learned from six years of experiments with planetary rover prototypes running the Service Oriented Robotic Architecture (SORA) developed by the Intelligent Robotics Group (IRG) at NASA Ames Research Center. SORA relies on proven software methods and technologies applied to the robotic world. Based on a Service Oriented Architecture and robust middleware, SORA extends its reach beyond the on-board robot controller and supports the full suite of software tools used during mission scenarios from ground control to remote robotic sites. SORA has been field tested in numerous scenarios of robotic lunar and planetary exploration. The results of these high fidelity experiments are illustrated through concrete examples that have shown the benefits of using SORA as well as its limitations.

  9. Automatic Model-Based Generation of Parameterized Test Cases Using Data Abstraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calamé, Jens R.; Ioustinova, Natalia; Romijn, J.M.T.; Smith, G.; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis

    2007-01-01

    Developing test suites is a costly and error-prone process. Model-based test generation tools facilitate this process by automatically generating test cases from system models. The applicability of these tools, however, depends on the size of the target systems. Here, we propose an approach to

  10. Method of case hardening depth testing by using multifunctional ultrasonic testing instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salchak, Y A; Sednev, D A; Ardashkin, I B; Kroening, M

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes usability of ultrasonic case hardening depth control applying standard instrument of ultrasonic inspections. The ultrasonic method of measuring the depth of the hardened layer is proposed. Experimental series within the specified and multifunctional ultrasonic equipment are performed. The obtained results are compared with the results of a referent method of analysis. (paper)

  11. Correlations of Consumers, Leisure Motivation and Leisure Value with Leisure Benefits ─A Case Study on Taiwan International Orchid Show

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Yan

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the correlations of consumers’ Leisure Motivation and Leisure Value with Leisure Benefits. Leisure Motivation contains the dimensions of Intellectual Factor, Social Factor, Competence-Mastery, and Stimulus-Avoidance; and, Leisure Value covers Product Value, Service Value, and Experience Value. Visitors to Taiwan International Orchid Show are selected as the research samples for the questionnaire survey. Total 600 copies are distributed on site and 488 valid ones are...

  12. HR 1362 - A test case for stellar dynamo theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassmeier, K.G.; Hall, D.S.; Barksdale, W.S.; Jusick, A.T.; Henry, G.W.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of 11 yr of photometry of HR 1362 = EK Eri has shown a well-established photometric period of 335 days. This confirms an earlier period determination of about 310 days from 3 yr of APT data and is consistent with a new v sin i determination of 2 + or - 2 km/s. Recent Ca II H and K observations show moderately strong H and K emission lines at a flux level of log F prime (K) of about 6.5 ergs sq m/s. If the photometric period is interpreted as the rotation period, this surface flux is more than one order of magnitude larger than what can be expected from empirical activity versus rotation relationships. The spectrum and the U-B and B-V colors are consistent with a single G8 III-IV spectral classification, while the V-R and V-I values indicate a small color excess, typical of chromospherically active stars. 27 refs

  13. Seismic waveform inversion best practices: regional, global and exploration test cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modrak, Ryan; Tromp, Jeroen

    2016-09-01

    Reaching the global minimum of a waveform misfit function requires careful choices about the nonlinear optimization, preconditioning and regularization methods underlying an inversion. Because waveform inversion problems are susceptible to erratic convergence associated with strong nonlinearity, one or two test cases are not enough to reliably inform such decisions. We identify best practices, instead, using four seismic near-surface problems, one regional problem and two global problems. To make meaningful quantitative comparisons between methods, we carry out hundreds of inversions, varying one aspect of the implementation at a time. Comparing nonlinear optimization algorithms, we find that limited-memory BFGS provides computational savings over nonlinear conjugate gradient methods in a wide range of test cases. Comparing preconditioners, we show that a new diagonal scaling derived from the adjoint of the forward operator provides better performance than two conventional preconditioning schemes. Comparing regularization strategies, we find that projection, convolution, Tikhonov regularization and total variation regularization are effective in different contexts. Besides questions of one strategy or another, reliability and efficiency in waveform inversion depend on close numerical attention and care. Implementation details involving the line search and restart conditions have a strong effect on computational cost, regardless of the chosen nonlinear optimization algorithm.

  14. Idealized tropical cyclone simulations of intermediate complexity: A test case for AGCMs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Reed

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a moist, deterministic test case of intermediate complexity for Atmospheric General Circulation Models (AGCMs. We suggest pairing an AGCM dynamical core with simple physical parameterizations to test the evolution of a single, idealized, initially weak vortex into a tropical cyclone. The initial conditions are based on an initial vortex seed that is in gradient-wind and hydrostatic balance. The suggested ``simple-physics'' package consists of parameterizations of bulk aerodynamic surface fluxes for moisture, sensible heat and momentum, boundary layer diffusion, and large-scale condensation. Such a configuration includes the important driving mechanisms for tropical cyclones, and leads to a rapid intensification of the initial vortex over a forecast period of ten days. The simple-physics test paradigm is not limited to tropical cyclones, and can be universally applied to other flow fields. The physical parameterizations are described in detail to foster model intercomparisons.The characteristics of the intermediate-complexity test case are demonstrated with the help of four hydrostatic dynamical cores that are part of the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM 5 developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR. In particular, these are the Finite-Volume, Spectral Element, and spectral transform Eulerian and semi-Lagrangian dynamical cores that are coupled to the simple-physics suite. The simulations show that despite the simplicity of the physics forcings the models develop the tropical cyclone at horizontal grid spacings of about 55 km and finer. The simple-physics simulations reveal essential differences in the storm's structure and strength due to the choice of the dynamical core. Similar differences are also seen in complex full-physics aqua-planet experiments with CAM 5 which serve as a motivator for this work. The results suggest that differences in complex full-physics simulations can be, at least

  15. [A 53-year-old man with herpes encephalitis showing acceleration of improvement in higher brain function after general anesthesia with sevoflurane: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Naohiko; Kaida, Kenichi; Hongo, Yu; Ogawa, Go; Ishikawa, Yukinobu; Takeda, Katsuhiko; Kamakura, Keiko

    2014-01-01

    We experienced a right-handed 53-year-old man who presented with disturbance of consciousness and fever. Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) was diagnosed based on the detection of herpes simplex virus DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid. The administration of acyclovir for 42 days improved his consciousness level. Drowsiness, fever and seizures reappeared 20 days after stopping acyclovir treatment (day 67) and he responded well to vidarabine and methylprednisolone pulse therapy. An assessment of aphasia on day 98 revealed transcortical sensory aphasia. Brain MRI showed lesion in the left temporal lobe, bilateral insular cortexes and bilateral frontal lobe. His higher brain dysfunction continued. On day 156, he underwent hip replacement arthroplasty under general anesthesia sevoflurane. His higher brain dysfunction rapidly improved thereafter. We concluded that the accelerated improvement in our patient's higher brain function was related to the protective effect of sevoflurane. Some reports also show the protective effects of sevoflurane in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by inhibition of T cell activation. These protective and anti-inflammatory effects may explain the accelerated improvement in higher brain function after general anesthesia.

  16. An Extended Quadratic Frobenius Primality Test with Average and Worst Case Error Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg

    2003-01-01

    We present an Extended Quadratic Frobenius Primality Test (EQFT), which is related to an extends the Miller-Rabin test and the Quadratic Frobenius test (QFT) by Grantham. EQFT takes time about equivalent to 2 Miller-Rabin tests, but has much smaller error probability, namely 256/331776t for t...... for the error probability of this algorithm as well as a general closed expression bounding the error. For instance, it is at most 2-143 for k = 500, t = 2. Compared to earlier similar results for the Miller-Rabin test, the results indicates that our test in the average case has the effect of 9 Miller......-Rabin tests, while only taking time equivalent to about 2 such tests. We also give bounds for the error in case a prime is sought by incremental search from a random starting point....

  17. An Extended Quadratic Frobenius Primality Test with Average- and Worst-Case Error Estimate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg

    2006-01-01

    We present an Extended Quadratic Frobenius Primality Test (EQFT), which is related to an extends the Miller-Rabin test and the Quadratic Frobenius test (QFT) by Grantham. EQFT takes time about equivalent to 2 Miller-Rabin tests, but has much smaller error probability, namely 256/331776t for t...... for the error probability of this algorithm as well as a general closed expression bounding the error. For instance, it is at most 2-143 for k = 500, t = 2. Compared to earlier similar results for the Miller-Rabin test, the results indicates that our test in the average case has the effect of 9 Miller......-Rabin tests, while only taking time equivalent to about 2 such tests. We also give bounds for the error in case a prime is sought by incremental search from a random starting point....

  18. An Extended Quadratic Frobenius Primality Test with Average Case Error Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg

    2001-01-01

    We present an Extended Quadratic Frobenius Primality Test (EQFT), which is related to an extends the Miller-Rabin test and the Quadratic Frobenius test (QFT) by Grantham. EQFT takes time about equivalent to 2 Miller-Rabin tests, but has much smaller error probability, namely 256/331776t for t...... for the error probability of this algorithm as well as a general closed expression bounding the error. For instance, it is at most 2-143 for k = 500, t = 2. Compared to earlier similar results for the Miller-Rabin test, the results indicates that our test in the average case has the effect of 9 Miller......-Rabin tests, while only taking time equivalent to about 2 such tests. We also give bounds for the error in case a prime is sought by incremental search from a random starting point....

  19. [A case of transverse colon cancer with multiple liver metastases and hepatic pedicle lymph node involvement showing pathological complete response by XELOX plus bevacizumab].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Toshiki; Akiyoshi, Takashi; Koga, Rintaro; Arita, Junichi; Saiura, Akio; Ikeda, Atsushi; Nagasue, Yasutomo; Oikawa, Yoshinori; Yamakawa, Keiko; Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Fujimoto, Yoshiya; Nagayama, Satoshi; Fukunaga, Yosuke; Ueno, Masashi; Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Mizunuma, Nobuyuki; Shinozaki, Eiji; Yamamoto, Chiriko; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu

    2012-12-01

    A 70-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography(CT)and colonoscopy revealed transverse colon cancer with multiple liver metastases, with involvement of the hepatic pedicle and superior mesenteric artery lymph nodes. The patient received eight courses of XELOX plus bevacizumab, and CT showed a decrease in the size of the liver metastases and hepatic pedicle lymphadenopathy. Right hemicolectomy, partial hepatectomy, and hepatic pedicle lymph node resection were performed. Histopathological examination of the resected tissue revealed no residual cancer cells, suggesting a pathological complete response. The patient remains well 7 months after operation, without any signs of recurrence. Surgical resection should be considered for patients with initially unresectable colon cancer with liver metastases and hepatic pedicle lymph nodes involvement if systemic chemotherapy is effective.

  20. An unusual case showing fatal rupture of a gastric ulcer or gastromalacia? The importance/role of histology for differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Giorgio, Fabio; Lodise, Maria; Pascali, Vincenzo L; Spagnolo, Antonio G; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Arena, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Gastromalacia is the acute autolytic erosion of the gastric wall. It generally occurs postmortem, and it appears as a slimy brownish black region of the wall which occurs principally in the gastric fundus. A 59-year-old woman died in the Emergency Department following a 2-day period of mild abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. A forensic autopsy was performed which revealed a rupture of the gastric fundus that had caused leakage of gastric content into the abdominal cavity. There was no macroscopic evidence of peritonitis, and the stomach wall adjacent to the rupture site showed marked thinning. The gross appearance was typical of gastromalacia. In contrast, histological observations revealed the presence of an ulcer at the site of perforation and a severe acute inflammatory reaction indicating a robust reaction with an antemortem rupture. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Sharptooth catfish shows its metal: a case study of metal contamination at two impoundments in the Olifants River, Limpopo river system, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Antoinette; Marr, Sean M; Addo-Bediako, Abraham; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-02-01

    Clarias gariepinus is increasing in importance as a global aquaculture species with a 100 fold increase in production over the past decade but this species still remains one of the most important wild harvested freshwater food fish throughout rural Africa. However, this species has been shown to accumulate metals from contaminated inland waters. In this paper, the metal concentrations in muscle tissue of C. gariepinus from two main-stem impoundments in the Olifants River, Limpopo Basin, were measured and a desktop risk assessment based on the US-EPA methodology completed to evaluate whether long-term consumption of C. gariepinus from these impoundments may pose a health risk to rural communities. Our results show that metals are accumulating in the muscle tissue of C. gariepinus and have appeared to have increased in the last two decades. Risk assessment generated Hazard quotients (HQ) greater than 1 indicate that long term consumption of fish from these impoundments may cause adverse health impacts. We found that lead (HQ=9), antimony (HQ=14), cobalt (HQ=2) and chromium (HQ=1) at one impoundment and lead (HQ=2) at the other impoundment were above acceptable levels for weekly consumption of 150 g C. gariepinus muscle tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Unstandardized Measures: A Cross-Case Analysis of Test Prep in Two Urban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Ted

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a cross-case analysis of two fourth-grade teachers' instruction while preparing their students for an English language arts test. Both teachers taught in high-needs urban public schools and were

  3. Integration of genome-scale metabolic networks into whole-body PBPK models shows phenotype-specific cases of drug-induced metabolic perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordes, Henrik; Thiel, Christoph; Baier, Vanessa; Blank, Lars M; Kuepfer, Lars

    2018-01-01

    Drug-induced perturbations of the endogenous metabolic network are a potential root cause of cellular toxicity. A mechanistic understanding of such unwanted side effects during drug therapy is therefore vital for patient safety. The comprehensive assessment of such drug-induced injuries requires the simultaneous consideration of both drug exposure at the whole-body and resulting biochemical responses at the cellular level. We here present a computational multi-scale workflow that combines whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models and organ-specific genome-scale metabolic network (GSMN) models through shared reactions of the xenobiotic metabolism. The applicability of the proposed workflow is illustrated for isoniazid, a first-line antibacterial agent against Mycobacterium tuberculosis , which is known to cause idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injuries (DILI). We combined GSMN models of a human liver with N-acetyl transferase 2 (NAT2)-phenotype-specific PBPK models of isoniazid. The combined PBPK-GSMN models quantitatively describe isoniazid pharmacokinetics, as well as intracellular responses, and changes in the exometabolome in a human liver following isoniazid administration. Notably, intracellular and extracellular responses identified with the PBPK-GSMN models are in line with experimental and clinical findings. Moreover, the drug-induced metabolic perturbations are distributed and attenuated in the metabolic network in a phenotype-dependent manner. Our simulation results show that a simultaneous consideration of both drug pharmacokinetics at the whole-body and metabolism at the cellular level is mandatory to explain drug-induced injuries at the patient level. The proposed workflow extends our mechanistic understanding of the biochemistry underlying adverse events and may be used to prevent drug-induced injuries in the future.

  4. Incidence of tuberculosis and the predictive value of ELISPOT and Mantoux tests in Gambian case contacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C Hill

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of Tuberculosis (TB case contacts are increasingly being utilised for understanding the relationship between M. tuberculosis and the human host and for assessing new interventions and diagnostic tests. We aimed to identify the incidence rate of new TB cases among TB contacts and to relate this to their initial Mantoux and ELISPOT test results.After initial Mantoux and ELISPOT tests and exclusion of co-prevalent TB cases, we followed 2348 household contacts of sputum smear positive TB cases. We visited them at 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months, and investigated those with symptoms consistent with TB. Those who were diagnosed separately at a government clinic had a chest x-ray. Twenty six contacts were diagnosed with definite TB over 4312 person years of follow-up (Incidence rate 603/100,000 person years; 95% Confidence Interval, 370-830. Nine index and secondary case pairs had cultured isolates available for genotyping. Of these, 6 pairs were concordant and 3 were discordant. 2.5% of non-progressors were HIV positive compared to 12% of progressors (HR 6.2; 95% CI 1.7-22.5; p = 0.010. 25 secondary cases had initial Mantoux results, 14 (56% were positive ; 21 had initial ELISPOT results, 11 (52% were positive; 15 (71% of 21 tested were positive by one or the other test. Of the 6 contacts who had concordant isolates with their respective index case, 4 (67% were Mantoux positive at recruitment, 3 (50% were ELISPOT positive; 5 (83% were positive by one or other of the two tests. ELISPOT positive contacts, and those with discordant results, had a similar rate of progression to those who were Mantoux positive. Those negative on either or both tests had the lowest rate of progression.The incidence rate of TB disease in Gambian TB case contacts, after screening for co-prevalent cases, was 603/100,000 person years. Since initial ELISPOT test and Mantoux tests were each positive in only just over half of cases, but 71% were

  5. Mothers Who Kill Their Offspring: Testing Evolutionary Hypothesis in a 110-Case Italian Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea S.; Fontanesi, Lilybeth

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This research aimed to identify incidents of mothers in Italy killing their own children and to test an adaptive evolutionary hypothesis to explain their occurrence. Methods: 110 cases of mothers killing 123 of their own offspring from 1976 to 2010 were analyzed. Each case was classified using 13 dichotomic variables. Descriptive…

  6. Effectiveness of test driven development and continuous integration - a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrit, Chintan; Meijberg, Yoni

    2018-01-01

    In this article we describe the implementation of hybrid agile practices, namely Test Driven Development (TDD) and Continuous Integration (CI) at a Dutch SME. The quality and productivity outcomes of the case study were compared to a performance baseline set by a reference case, a preceding

  7. Huntington's disease predictive testing: the case for an assessment approach to requests from adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binedell, J; Soldan, J R; Scourfield, J; Harper, P S

    1996-01-01

    Adolescents who are actively requesting Huntington's predictive testing of their own accord pose a dilemma to those providing testing. In the absence of empirical evidence as regards the impact of genetic testing on minors, current policy and guidelines, based on the ethical principles of non-maleficence and respect for individual autonomy and confidentiality, generally exclude the testing of minors. It is argued that adherence to an age based exclusion criterion in Huntington's disease predictive testing protocols is out of step with trends in UK case law concerning minors' consent to medical treatment. Furthermore, contributions from developmental psychology and research into adolescents' decision making competence suggest that adolescents can make informed choices about their health and personal lives. Criteria for developing an assessment approach to such requests are put forward and the implications of a case by case evaluation of competence to consent in terms of clinicians' tolerance for uncertainty are discussed. PMID:8950670

  8. Sport-specific fitness testing and intervention for an adolescent with cerebral palsy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Lisa K; Sleeper, Mark D; Tovin, Melissa M

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes the development, implementation, and outcomes of a fitness-related intervention program that addressed the sport-specific goals of an adolescent with cerebral palsy. The participant in this case was a 16-year-old African American male with spastic diplegia. The participant joined his high school wrestling team and asked to focus his physical therapy on interventions that would improve his wrestling performance. An examination was performed using the muscle power sprint test, the 10 x 5-m sprint test, strength tests, the 10-m shuttle run test, and the Gross Motor Function Measure. The intervention consisted of interval training, which focused on the demands of wrestling. Scores on all tests and measures were higher after the intervention. The outcomes of this case report seem to support the use of a fitness-related intervention program for addressing the sport-specific goals of an adolescent with cerebral palsy.

  9. GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    GEANT4 simulation diagram showing the architecture of the ATLAS test line: the detectors are positioned to receive the beam from the SPS. A muon particle which enters the magnet and crosses all detectors is shown (blue line).

  10. Testing the Suitability of Mediation of Child Support Orders in Title IV-D Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraufnagel, Scot; Li, Quan

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to test mediation versus a traditional court process for the establishment or modification of child support orders. The intention is to determine which dispute resolution process is associated with greater client satisfaction and compliance. An auxiliary objective is to test the type of cases which are most…

  11. Class hierarchical test case generation algorithm based on expanded EMDPN model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jun-yi; GONG Hong-fang; HU Ji-ping; ZOU Bei-ji; SUN Jia-guang

    2006-01-01

    A new model of event and message driven Petri network(EMDPN) based on the characteristic of class interaction for messages passing between two objects was extended. Using EMDPN interaction graph, a class hierarchical test-case generation algorithm with cooperated paths (copaths) was proposed, which can be used to solve the problems resulting from the class inheritance mechanism encountered in object-oriented software testing such as oracle, message transfer errors, and unreachable statement. Finally, the testing sufficiency was analyzed with the ordered sequence testing criterion(OSC). The results indicate that the test cases stemmed from newly proposed automatic algorithm of copaths generation satisfies synchronization message sequences testing criteria, therefore the proposed new algorithm of copaths generation has a good coverage rate.

  12. Simulation of VVER MCCI reactor test case with ASTEC V2/MEDICIS computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, A.; Grudev, P.; Gencheva, R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an application of the ASTEC v2, module MEDICIS for simulation of VVER Molten core concrete interaction test (MCCI) case without water injection. The main purpose of performed calculation is verification and improvement of module MEDICIS/ASTECv2 for better simulation of core concrete interaction processes. The VVER-1000 reference nuclear power plant was chosen as SARNET2 benchmark MCCI test-case. The initial conditions for MCCI test are taken after SBO scenario calculated with ASTEC version 1.3R2 by INRNE. (authors)

  13. A Multi-Process Test Case to Perform Comparative Analysis of Coastal Oceanic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemarié, F.; Burchard, H.; Knut, K.; Debreu, L.

    2016-12-01

    Due to the wide variety of choices that need to be made during the development of dynamical kernels of oceanic models, there is a strong need for an effective and objective assessment of the various methods and approaches that predominate in the community. We present here an idealized multi-scale scenario for coastal ocean models combining estuarine, coastal and shelf sea scales at midlatitude. The bathymetry, initial conditions and external forcings are defined analytically so that any model developer or user could reproduce the test case with its own numerical code. Thermally stratified conditions are prescribed and a tidal forcing is imposed as a propagating coastal Kelvin wave. The following physical processes can be assessed from the model results: estuarine process driven by tides and buoyancy gradients, the river plume dynamics, tidal fronts, and the interaction between tides and inertial oscillations. We show results obtained using the GETM (General Estuarine Transport Model) and the CROCO (Coastal and Regional Ocean Community model) models. Those two models are representative of the diversity of numerical methods in use in coastal models: GETM is based on a quasi-lagrangian vertical coordinate, a coupled space-time approach for advective terms, a TVD (Total Variation Diminishing) tracer advection scheme while CROCO is discretized with a quasi-eulerian vertical coordinate, a method of lines is used for advective terms, and tracer advection satisfies the TVB (Total Variation Bounded) property. The multiple scales are properly resolved thanks to nesting strategies, 1-way nesting for GETM and 2-way nesting for CROCO. Such test case can be an interesting experiment to continue research in numerical approaches as well as an efficient tool to allow intercomparison between structured-grid and unstructured-grid approaches. Reference : Burchard, H., Debreu, L., Klingbeil, K., Lemarié, F. : The numerics of hydrostatic structured-grid coastal ocean models: state of

  14. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  15. Test of magnetic shielding cases for a 3'' phototube attached to a lead glass counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, K.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takasaki, F.

    1985-09-01

    Effect of a magnetic shielding for a phototube of 3'' diameter attached to a lead glass counter has been studied using permalloy shielding cases with two kinds of shapes. Both cases show sufficient shielding effect with magnetic field up to around 30 gauss. (author)

  16. Code cases for implementing risk-based inservice testing in the ASME OM code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.W.

    1996-12-01

    Historically inservice testing has been reasonably effective, but quite costly. Recent applications of plant PRAs to the scope of the IST program have demonstrated that of the 30 pumps and 500 valves in the typical plant IST program, less than half of the pumps and ten percent of the valves are risk significant. The way the ASME plans to tackle this overly-conservative scope for IST components is to use the PRA and plant expert panels to create a two tier IST component categorization scheme. The PRA provides the quantitative risk information and the plant expert panel blends the quantitative and deterministic information to place the IST component into one of two categories: More Safety Significant Component (MSSC) or Less Safety Significant Component (LSSC). With all the pumps and valves in the IST program placed in MSSC or LSSC categories, two different testing strategies will be applied. The testing strategies will be unique for the type of component, such as centrifugal pump, positive displacement pump, MOV, AOV, SOV, SRV, PORV, HOV, CV, and MV. A series of OM Code Cases are being developed to capture this process for a plant to use. One Code Case will be for Component Importance Ranking. The remaining Code Cases will develop the MSSC and LSSC testing strategy for type of component. These Code Cases are planned for publication in early 1997. Later, after some industry application of the Code Cases, the alternative Code Case requirements will gravitate to the ASME OM Code as appendices.

  17. Code cases for implementing risk-based inservice testing in the ASME OM code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Historically inservice testing has been reasonably effective, but quite costly. Recent applications of plant PRAs to the scope of the IST program have demonstrated that of the 30 pumps and 500 valves in the typical plant IST program, less than half of the pumps and ten percent of the valves are risk significant. The way the ASME plans to tackle this overly-conservative scope for IST components is to use the PRA and plant expert panels to create a two tier IST component categorization scheme. The PRA provides the quantitative risk information and the plant expert panel blends the quantitative and deterministic information to place the IST component into one of two categories: More Safety Significant Component (MSSC) or Less Safety Significant Component (LSSC). With all the pumps and valves in the IST program placed in MSSC or LSSC categories, two different testing strategies will be applied. The testing strategies will be unique for the type of component, such as centrifugal pump, positive displacement pump, MOV, AOV, SOV, SRV, PORV, HOV, CV, and MV. A series of OM Code Cases are being developed to capture this process for a plant to use. One Code Case will be for Component Importance Ranking. The remaining Code Cases will develop the MSSC and LSSC testing strategy for type of component. These Code Cases are planned for publication in early 1997. Later, after some industry application of the Code Cases, the alternative Code Case requirements will gravitate to the ASME OM Code as appendices

  18. A case study testing the cavity mode model of the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Sarafopoulos

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on a case study we test the cavity mode model of the magnetosphere, looking for eigenfrequencies via multi-satellite and multi-instrument measurements. Geotail and ACE provide information on the interplanetary medium that dictates the input parameters of the system; the four Cluster satellites monitor the magnetopause surface waves; the POLAR (L=9.4 and LANL 97A (L=6.6 satellites reveal two in-situ monochromatic field line resonances (FLRs with T=6 and 2.5 min, respectively; and the IMAGE ground magnetometers demonstrate latitude dependent delays in signature arrival times, as inferred by Sarafopoulos (2004b. Similar dispersive structures showing systematic delays are also extensively scrutinized by Sarafopoulos (2005 and interpreted as tightly associated with the so-called pseudo-FLRs, which show almost the same observational characteristics with an authentic FLR. In particular for this episode, successive solar wind pressure pulses produce recurring ionosphere twin vortex Hall currents which are identified on the ground as pseudo-FLRs. The BJN ground magnetometer records the pseudo-FLR (alike with the other IMAGE station responses associated with an intense power spectral density ranging from 8 to 12 min and, in addition, two discrete resonant lines with T=3.5 and 7 min. In this case study, even though the magnetosphere is evidently affected by a broad-band compressional wave originated upstream of the bow shock, nevertheless, we do not identify any cavity mode oscillation within the magnetosphere. We fail, also, to identify any of the cavity mode frequencies proposed by Samson (1992.

    Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Magnetosphereionosphere interactions; Solar wind-magnetosphere interactions; MHD waves and instabilities

  19. Testing independence between two Poisson-generated multinomial variables in case-series and cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocine, Mounia; Guillemot, Didier; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale; Moreau, Thierry

    2005-12-30

    In case-series or cohort studies, we propose a test of independence between the occurrences of two types of recurrent events (such as two repeated infections) related to an intermittent exposure (such as an antibiotic treatment). The test relies upon an extension of a recent method for analysing case-series data, in the presence of one type of recurrent event. The test statistic is derived from a bivariate Poisson generated-multinomial distribution. Simulations for checking the validity of the test concerning the type I error and the power properties are presented. The test is illustrated using data from a cohort on antibiotics bacterial resistance in schoolchildren. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Excess cases of prostate cancer and estimated overdiagnosis associated with PSA testing in East Anglia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashayan, N; Powles, J; Brown, C; Duffy, S W

    2006-01-01

    This study aimed to estimate the extent of ‘overdiagnosis' of prostate cancer attributable to prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing in the Cambridge area between 1996 and 2002. Overdiagnosis was defined conceptually as detection of prostate cancer through PSA testing that otherwise would not have been diagnosed within the patient's lifetime. Records of PSA tests in Addenbrookes Hospital were linked to prostate cancer registrations by NHS number. Differences in prostate cancer registration rates between those receiving and not receiving prediagnosis PSA tests were calculated. The proportion of men aged 40 years or over with a prediagnosis PSA test increased from 1.4 to 5.2% from 1996 to 2002. The rate of diagnosis of prostate cancer was 45% higher (rate ratios (RR)=1.45, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.02–2.07) in men with a history of prediagnosis PSA testing. Assuming average lead times of 5 to 10 years, 40–64% of the PSA-detected cases were estimated to be overdiagnosed. In East Anglia, from 1996 to 2000, a 1.6% excess of cases was associated with PSA testing (around a quarter of the 5.3% excess incidence cases observed in East Anglia from 1996 to 2000). Further quantification of the overdiagnosis will result from continued surveillance and from linkage of incidence to testing in other hospitals. PMID:16832417

  1. Hubble Diagram Test of Expanding and Static Cosmological Models: The Case for a Slowly Expanding Flat Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laszlo A. Marosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new redshift (RS versus photon travel time ( test including 171 supernovae RS data points. We extended the Hubble diagram to a range of z = 0,0141–8.1 in the hope that at high RSs, the fitting of the calculated RS/ diagrams to the observed RS data would, as predicted by different cosmological models, set constraints on alternative cosmological models. The Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM, the static universe model, and the case for a slowly expanding flat universe (SEU are considered. We show that on the basis of the Hubble diagram test, the static and the slowly expanding models are favored.

  2. Linking Errors between Two Populations and Tests: A Case Study in International Surveys in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Hastedt

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This simulation study was prompted by the current increased interest in linking national studies to international large-scale assessments (ILSAs such as IEA's TIMSS, IEA's PIRLS, and OECD's PISA. Linkage in this scenario is achieved by including items from the international assessments in the national assessments on the premise that the average achievement scores from the latter can be linked to the international metric. In addition to raising issues associated with different testing conditions, administrative procedures, and the like, this approach also poses psychometric challenges. This paper endeavors to shed some light on the effects that can be expected, the linkage errors in particular, by countries using this practice. The ILSA selected for this simulation study was IEA TIMSS 2011, and the three countries used as the national assessment cases were Botswana, Honduras, and Tunisia, all of which participated in TIMSS 2011. The items selected as items common to the simulated national tests and the international test came from the Grade 4 TIMSS 2011 mathematics items that IEA released into the public domain after completion of this assessment. The findings of the current study show that linkage errors seemed to achieve acceptable levels if 30 or more items were used for the linkage, although the errors were still significantly higher compared to the TIMSS' cutoffs. Comparison of the estimated country averages based on the simulated national surveys and the averages based on the international TIMSS assessment revealed only one instance across the three countries of the estimates approaching parity. Also, the percentages of students in these countries who actually reached the defined benchmarks on the TIMSS achievement scale differed significantly from the results based on TIMSS and the results for the simulated national assessments. As a conclusion, we advise against using groups of released items from international assessments in national

  3. A framework for assessing health system resilience in an economic crisis: Ireland as a test case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Steve; Keegan, Conor; Barry, Sarah; Layte, Richard; Jowett, Matt; Normand, Charles

    2013-10-30

    The financial crisis that hit the global economy in 2007 was unprecedented in the post war era. In general the crisis has created a difficult environment for health systems globally. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for assessing the resilience of health systems in terms of how they have adjusted to economic crisis. Resilience can be understood as the capacity of a system to absorb change but continue to retain essentially the same identity and function. The Irish health system is used as a case study to assess the usefulness of this framework. The authors identify three forms of resilience: financial, adaptive and transformatory. Indicators of performance are presented to allow for testing of the framework and measurement of system performance. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to yield data for the Irish case study. Quantitative data were collected from government documents and sources to understand the depth of the recession and the different dimensions of the response. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key decision makers to understand the reasons for decisions made. In the Irish case there is mixed evidence on resilience. Health funding was initially protected but was then followed by deep cuts as the crisis deepened. There is strong evidence for adaptive resilience, with the health system showing efficiency gains from the recession. Nevertheless, easy efficiencies have been made and continued austerity will mean cuts in entitlements and services. The prospects for building and maintaining transformatory resilience are unsure. While the direction of reform is clear, and has been preserved to date, it is not certain whether it will remain manageable given continued austerity, some loss of sovereignty and capacity limitations. The three aspects of resilience proved a useful categorisation of performance measurement though there is overlap between them. Transformatory resilience may be more difficult to assess

  4. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  5. A prevalence-based association test for case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckman, Kelli K; Jiang, Lan; Li, Chun; Bartlett, Jacquelaine; Haines, Jonathan L; Williams, Scott M

    2008-11-01

    Genetic association is often determined in case-control studies by the differential distribution of alleles or genotypes. Recent work has demonstrated that association can also be assessed by deviations from the expected distributions of alleles or genotypes. Specifically, multiple methods motivated by the principles of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) have been developed. However, these methods do not take into account many of the assumptions of HWE. Therefore, we have developed a prevalence-based association test (PRAT) as an alternative method for detecting association in case-control studies. This method, also motivated by the principles of HWE, uses an estimated population allele frequency to generate expected genotype frequencies instead of using the case and control frequencies separately. Our method often has greater power, under a wide variety of genetic models, to detect association than genotypic, allelic or Cochran-Armitage trend association tests. Therefore, we propose PRAT as a powerful alternative method of testing for association.

  6. Cystic fibrosis of the pancreas with test of negative iontophoresis. Case study and literature revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaramillo B, Lina

    2000-01-01

    A case study is presented about a 6-month-old infant with repetitive respiratory symptoms. It is documented as cystic fibrosis, even though traditional diagnostic criteria are not met, such as a negative iontophoresis. The possible causes of this case are discussed, as well as diagnostic alternatives in these circumstances. Even though the iontophoresis test is negative the need to not eliminate this disease especially when the symptoms are very suspicious, is insisted greatly

  7. Reliability of case definitions for public health surveillance assessed by Round-Robin test methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Hermann

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case definitions have been recognized to be important elements of public health surveillance systems. They are to assure comparability and consistency of surveillance data and have crucial impact on the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of a surveillance system. The reliability of case definitions has rarely been investigated systematically. Methods We conducted a Round-Robin test by asking all 425 local health departments (LHD and the 16 state health departments (SHD in Germany to classify a selection of 68 case examples using case definitions. By multivariate analysis we investigated factors linked to classification agreement with a gold standard, which was defined by an expert panel. Results A total of 7870 classifications were done by 396 LHD (93% and all SHD. Reporting sensitivity was 90.0%, positive predictive value 76.6%. Polio case examples had the lowest reporting precision, salmonellosis case examples the highest (OR = 0.008; CI: 0.005–0.013. Case definitions with a check-list format of clinical criteria resulted in higher reporting precision than case definitions with a narrative description (OR = 3.08; CI: 2.47–3.83. Reporting precision was higher among SHD compared to LHD (OR = 1.52; CI: 1.14–2.02. Conclusion Our findings led to a systematic revision of the German case definitions and build the basis for general recommendations for the creation of case definitions. These include, among others, that testable yes/no criteria in a check-list format is likely to improve reliability, and that software used for data transmission should be designed in strict accordance with the case definitions. The findings of this study are largely applicable to case definitions in many other countries or international networks as they share the same structural and editorial characteristics of the case definitions evaluated in this study before their revision.

  8. A Method to Select Test Input Cases for Safety-critical Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Heeeun; Kang, Hyungook; Son, Hanseong

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new testing methodology for effective and realistic quantification of RPS software failure probability. Software failure probability quantification is important factor in digital system safety assessment. In this study, the method for software test case generation is briefly described. The test cases generated by this method reflect the characteristics of safety-critical software and past inputs. Furthermore, the number of test cases can be reduced, but it is possible to perform exhaustive test. Aspect of software also can be reflected as failure data, so the final failure data can include the failure of software itself and external influences. Software reliability is generally accepted as the key factor in software quality since it quantifies software failures which can make a powerful system inoperative. In the KNITS (Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control Systems) project, the software for the fully digitalized reactor protection system (RPS) was developed under a strict procedure including unit testing and coverage measurement. Black box testing is one type of Verification and validation (V and V), in which given input values are entered and the resulting output values are compared against the expected output values. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) were used in implementing critical systems and function block diagram (FBD) is a commonly used implementation language for PLC

  9. Mathematical Basis and Test Cases for Colloid-Facilitated Radionuclide Transport Modeling in GDSA-PFLOTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-07-31

    This report provides documentation of the mathematical basis for a colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport modeling capability that can be incorporated into GDSA-PFLOTRAN. It also provides numerous test cases against which the modeling capability can be benchmarked once the model is implemented numerically in GDSA-PFLOTRAN. The test cases were run using a 1-D numerical model developed by the author, and the inputs and outputs from the 1-D model are provided in an electronic spreadsheet supplement to this report so that all cases can be reproduced in GDSA-PFLOTRAN, and the outputs can be directly compared with the 1-D model. The cases include examples of all potential scenarios in which colloid-facilitated transport could result in the accelerated transport of a radionuclide relative to its transport in the absence of colloids. Although it cannot be claimed that all the model features that are described in the mathematical basis were rigorously exercised in the test cases, the goal was to test the features that matter the most for colloid-facilitated transport; i.e., slow desorption of radionuclides from colloids, slow filtration of colloids, and equilibrium radionuclide partitioning to colloids that is strongly favored over partitioning to immobile surfaces, resulting in a substantial fraction of radionuclide mass being associated with mobile colloids.

  10. Non-pathological complete paternal uniparental isodisomy of chromosome 2 revealed in a maternity testing case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Man; Jiang, Jian; Li, Chen; Ren, He; Chen, Wei; Liu, Zhiyong; Cheng, Feng; Zhao, Jing; Chen, Tong; Chen, Chuguang; Yan, Jiangwei

    2018-05-25

    We present a duo paternity test case to assess the biological relationship between a woman and her female child. After analyzing 57 autosomal and 19 X-chromosomal short tandem repeat loci, mother-daughter exclusions were discovered at four loci, which were all located on chromosome 2. Further testing of whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphisms confirmed that the daughter had complete uniparental disomy (UPD) of chromosome 2. This study presents a cautionary case demonstrating that hasty decisions of parentage exclusion should not be made when genetic markers on the same chromosome do not conform to Mendel's laws due to UPD.

  11. TESTING INFORMATIONAL EFFICIENCY: THE CASE OF U.E. AND BRIC EMERGENT MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    OPREAN Camelia

    2012-01-01

    Empirical finance has brought together a considerable number of studies in determining the market efficiency in terms of information in the case of an emerging financial market. Conflicting results have been generated by these researches in efficient market hypothesis (EMH), so efficiency tests in the emerging financial markets are rarely definitive in reaching a conclusion about the existence of informational efficiency. This paper tests weak-form market efficiency of eight emerging markets:...

  12. Location tests for biomarker studies: a comparison using simulations for the two-sample case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinhardt, M O; Ziegler, A

    2013-01-01

    Gene, protein, or metabolite expression levels are often non-normally distributed, heavy tailed and contain outliers. Standard statistical approaches may fail as location tests in this situation. In three Monte-Carlo simulation studies, we aimed at comparing the type I error levels and empirical power of standard location tests and three adaptive tests [O'Gorman, Can J Stat 1997; 25: 269 -279; Keselman et al., Brit J Math Stat Psychol 2007; 60: 267- 293; Szymczak et al., Stat Med 2013; 32: 524 - 537] for a wide range of distributions. We simulated two-sample scenarios using the g-and-k-distribution family to systematically vary tail length and skewness with identical and varying variability between groups. All tests kept the type I error level when groups did not vary in their variability. The standard non-parametric U-test performed well in all simulated scenarios. It was outperformed by the two non-parametric adaptive methods in case of heavy tails or large skewness. Most tests did not keep the type I error level for skewed data in the case of heterogeneous variances. The standard U-test was a powerful and robust location test for most of the simulated scenarios except for very heavy tailed or heavy skewed data, and it is thus to be recommended except for these cases. The non-parametric adaptive tests were powerful for both normal and non-normal distributions under sample variance homogeneity. But when sample variances differed, they did not keep the type I error level. The parametric adaptive test lacks power for skewed and heavy tailed distributions.

  13. IASI's sensitivity to near-surface carbon monoxide (CO): Theoretical analyses and retrievals on test cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauduin, Sophie; Clarisse, Lieven; Theunissen, Michael; George, Maya; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2017-03-01

    Separating concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the boundary layer from the rest of the atmosphere with nadir satellite measurements is of particular importance to differentiate emission from transport. Although thermal infrared (TIR) satellite sounders are considered to have limited sensitivity to the composition of the near-surface atmosphere, previous studies show that they can provide information on CO close to the ground in case of high thermal contrast. In this work we investigate the capability of IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) to retrieve near-surface CO concentrations, and we quantitatively assess the influence of thermal contrast on such retrievals. We present a 3-part analysis, which relies on both theoretical forward simulations and retrievals on real data, performed for a large range of negative and positive thermal contrast situations. First, we derive theoretically the IASI detection threshold of CO enhancement in the boundary layer, and we assess its dependence on thermal contrast. Then, using the optimal estimation formalism, we quantify the role of thermal contrast on the error budget and information content of near-surface CO retrievals. We demonstrate that, contrary to what is usually accepted, large negative thermal contrast values (ground cooler than air) lead to a better decorrelation between CO concentrations in the low and the high troposphere than large positive thermal contrast (ground warmer than the air). In the last part of the paper we use Mexico City and Barrow as test cases to contrast our theoretical predictions with real retrievals, and to assess the accuracy of IASI surface CO retrievals through comparisons to ground-based in-situ measurements.

  14. Design and Testing of Braided Composite Fan Case Materials and Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Pereira, J. Michael; Braley, Michael S.; Arnold, William a.; Dorer, James D.; Watson, William R/.

    2009-01-01

    Triaxial braid composite materials are beginning to be used in fan cases for commercial gas turbine engines. The primary benefit for the use of composite materials is reduced weight and the associated reduction in fuel consumption. However, there are also cost benefits in some applications. This paper presents a description of the braided composite materials and discusses aspects of the braiding process that can be utilized for efficient fabrication of composite cases. The paper also presents an approach that was developed for evaluating the braided composite materials and composite fan cases in a ballistic impact laboratory. Impact of composite panels with a soft projectile is used for materials evaluation. Impact of composite fan cases with fan blades or blade-like projectiles is used to evaluate containment capability. A post-impact structural load test is used to evaluate the capability of the impacted fan case to survive dynamic loads during engine spool down. Validation of these new test methods is demonstrated by comparison with results of engine blade-out tests.

  15. Testing Adaptive Hypotheses of Convergence with Functional Landscapes: A Case Study of Bone-Cracking Hypercarnivores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Zhijie Jack

    2013-01-01

    Morphological convergence is a well documented phenomenon in mammals, and adaptive explanations are commonly employed to infer similar functions for convergent characteristics. I present a study that adopts aspects of theoretical morphology and engineering optimization to test hypotheses about adaptive convergent evolution. Bone-cracking ecomorphologies in Carnivora were used as a case study. Previous research has shown that skull deepening and widening are major evolutionary patterns in convergent bone-cracking canids and hyaenids. A simple two-dimensional design space, with skull width-to-length and depth-to-length ratios as variables, was used to examine optimized shapes for two functional properties: mechanical advantage (MA) and strain energy (SE). Functionality of theoretical skull shapes was studied using finite element analysis (FEA) and visualized as functional landscapes. The distribution of actual skull shapes in the landscape showed a convergent trend of plesiomorphically low-MA and moderate-SE skulls evolving towards higher-MA and moderate-SE skulls; this is corroborated by FEA of 13 actual specimens. Nevertheless, regions exist in the landscape where high-MA and lower-SE shapes are not represented by existing species; their vacancy is observed even at higher taxonomic levels. Results highlight the interaction of biomechanical and non-biomechanical factors in constraining general skull dimensions to localized functional optima through evolution. PMID:23734244

  16. Testing adaptive hypotheses of convergence with functional landscapes: a case study of bone-cracking hypercarnivores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Jack Tseng

    Full Text Available Morphological convergence is a well documented phenomenon in mammals, and adaptive explanations are commonly employed to infer similar functions for convergent characteristics. I present a study that adopts aspects of theoretical morphology and engineering optimization to test hypotheses about adaptive convergent evolution. Bone-cracking ecomorphologies in Carnivora were used as a case study. Previous research has shown that skull deepening and widening are major evolutionary patterns in convergent bone-cracking canids and hyaenids. A simple two-dimensional design space, with skull width-to-length and depth-to-length ratios as variables, was used to examine optimized shapes for two functional properties: mechanical advantage (MA and strain energy (SE. Functionality of theoretical skull shapes was studied using finite element analysis (FEA and visualized as functional landscapes. The distribution of actual skull shapes in the landscape showed a convergent trend of plesiomorphically low-MA and moderate-SE skulls evolving towards higher-MA and moderate-SE skulls; this is corroborated by FEA of 13 actual specimens. Nevertheless, regions exist in the landscape where high-MA and lower-SE shapes are not represented by existing species; their vacancy is observed even at higher taxonomic levels. Results highlight the interaction of biomechanical and non-biomechanical factors in constraining general skull dimensions to localized functional optima through evolution.

  17. Efficiency and effectiveness in case of disaster: a visual damage assessment test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Kristien; Åhlén, Julia; Seipel, Stefan

    2018-05-01

    A user study is conducted to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of two types of visualizations to identify damages sites in case of disaster. The test consists out 36 trials (18 for each visualisation) and in each trial an area of 1 × 1 km, located in Ghent, is displayed on a screen. This image shows the combined height information from before and after the disaster. The first visualisation, page flipping, is based on greyscale images with height information from the pre- and post-disaster situation between which users can switch manually. The second visualisation, difference image, is a result of subtracting the heights (before versus after) and assigning a blue-white-red colour ramp. In order to simulate the urgency with which the data is captured, systematic and random imperfections are introduced in the post-disaster data. All participants' mouse and key interactions are logged, which is further complemented by the registration of their eye movements. This give insights the visualizations' efficiency, effectiveness and the overall search strategies of the participants.

  18. Utility of Post-Mortem Genetic Testing in Cases of Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahrouchi, Najim; Raju, Hariharan; Lodder, Elisabeth M.; Papatheodorou, Efstathios; Ware, James S.; Papadakis, Michael; Tadros, Rafik; Cole, Della; Skinner, Jonathan R.; Crawford, Jackie; Love, Donald R.; Pua, Chee J.; Soh, Bee Y.; Bhalshankar, Jaydutt D.; Govind, Risha; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Winkel, Bo G.; van der Werf, Christian; Wijeyeratne, Yanushi D.; Mellor, Greg; Till, Jan; Cohen, Marta C.; Tome-Esteban, Maria; Sharma, Sanjay; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Cook, Stuart A.; Bezzina, Connie R.; Sheppard, Mary N.; Behr, Elijah R.

    2017-01-01

    Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) describes a sudden death with negative autopsy and toxicological analysis. Cardiac genetic disease is a likely etiology. This study investigated the clinical utility and combined yield of post-mortem genetic testing (molecular autopsy) in cases of SADS and

  19. Technology Solutions Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Fibrous Insulation and Tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-11-01

    This case study by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Building Science Corporation is a test implementation of an unvented tile roof assembly in a hot-humid climate (Orlando, Florida; zone 2A), insulated with air-permeable insulation (netted and blown fiberglass).

  20. A case of natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with repeated negative CSF JCV testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazda, Monica E; Brosch, Jared R; Wiens, Andrea L; Bonnin, José M; Kamer, Aaron P; Mattson, David H; Snook, Riley J

    2013-05-01

    The development of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients treated with natalizumab is a well-known potential risk. Diagnosis of PML can be confounded in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) if new demyelinating lesions develop, and the sensitivity of existing diagnostic tests is less than ideal. In the case presented here, four samples of cerebrospinal fluid tested negative for John Cunningham virus (JCV) DNA by polymerase chain reaction, yet brain biopsy eventually proved positive by immunohistochemistry. A review of the limitations of existing clinical diagnostic tests is addressed, and we review the most recent literature on the proper management of natalizumab-treated MS patients.

  1. PedGenie: meta genetic association testing in mixed family and case-control designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen-Brady Kristina

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- PedGenie software, introduced in 2006, includes genetic association testing of cases and controls that may be independent or related (nuclear families or extended pedigrees or mixtures thereof using Monte Carlo significance testing. Our aim is to demonstrate that PedGenie, a unique and flexible analysis tool freely available in Genie 2.4 software, is significantly enhanced by incorporating meta statistics for detecting genetic association with disease using data across multiple study groups. Methods- Meta statistics (chi-squared tests, odds ratios, and confidence intervals were calculated using formal Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel techniques. Simulated data from unrelated individuals and individuals in families were used to illustrate meta tests and their empirically-derived p-values and confidence intervals are accurate, precise, and for independent designs match those provided by standard statistical software. Results- PedGenie yields accurate Monte Carlo p-values for meta analysis of data across multiple studies, based on validation testing using pedigree, nuclear family, and case-control data simulated under both the null and alternative hypotheses of a genotype-phenotype association. Conclusion- PedGenie allows valid combined analysis of data from mixtures of pedigree-based and case-control resources. Added meta capabilities provide new avenues for association analysis, including pedigree resources from large consortia and multi-center studies.

  2. A Method to Select Software Test Cases in Consideration of Past Input Sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Eun; Kim, Bo Gyung; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2015-01-01

    In the Korea Nuclear I and C Systems (KNICS) project, the software for the fully-digitalized reactor protection system (RPS) was developed under a strict procedure. Even though the behavior of the software is deterministic, the randomness of input sequence produces probabilistic behavior of software. A software failure occurs when some inputs to the software occur and interact with the internal state of the digital system to trigger a fault that was introduced into the software during the software lifecycle. In this paper, the method to select test set for software failure probability estimation is suggested. This test set reflects past input sequence of software, which covers all possible cases. In this study, the method to select test cases for software failure probability quantification was suggested. To obtain profile of paired state variables, relationships of the variables need to be considered. The effect of input from human operator also have to be considered. As an example, test set of PZR-PR-Lo-Trip logic was examined. This method provides framework for selecting test cases of safety-critical software

  3. The comparative performance of PMI estimation in skeletal remains by three methods (C-14, luminol test and OHI): analysis of 20 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Annalisa; Gibelli, Daniele; Muccino, Enrico; Scarpulla, Valentina; Cerutti, Elisa; Caruso, Valentina; Sguazza, Emanuela; Mazzarelli, Debora; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-01-27

    When estimating post-mortem interval (PMI) in forensic anthropology, the only method able to give an unambiguous result is the analysis of C-14, although the procedure is expensive. Other methods, such as luminol tests and histological analysis, can be performed as preliminary investigations and may allow the operators to gain a preliminary indication concerning PMI, but they lack scientific verification, although luminol testing has been somewhat more accredited in the past few years. Such methods in fact may provide some help as they are inexpensive and can give a fast response, especially in the phase of preliminary investigations. In this study, 20 court cases of human skeletonized remains were dated by the C-14 method. For two cases, results were chronologically set after the 1950s; for one case, the analysis was not possible technically. The remaining 17 cases showed an archaeological or historical collocation. The same bone samples were also screened with histological examination and with the luminol test. Results showed that only four cases gave a positivity to luminol and a high Oxford Histology Index (OHI) score at the same time: among these, two cases were dated as recent by the radiocarbon analysis. Thus, only two false-positive results were given by the combination of these methods and no false negatives. Thus, the combination of two qualitative methods (luminol test and microscopic analysis) may represent a promising solution to cases where many fragments need to be quickly tested.

  4. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  5. Real-Time Extended Interface Automata for Software Testing Cases Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunkun Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing and verification of the interface between software components are particularly important due to the large number of complex interactions, which requires the traditional modeling languages to overcome the existing shortcomings in the aspects of temporal information description and software testing input controlling. This paper presents the real-time extended interface automata (RTEIA which adds clearer and more detailed temporal information description by the application of time words. We also establish the input interface automaton for every input in order to solve the problems of input controlling and interface covering nimbly when applied in the software testing field. Detailed definitions of the RTEIA and the testing cases generation algorithm are provided in this paper. The feasibility and efficiency of this method have been verified in the testing of one real aircraft braking system.

  6. Real-Time Extended Interface Automata for Software Testing Cases Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shunkun; Xu, Jiaqi; Man, Tianlong; Liu, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Testing and verification of the interface between software components are particularly important due to the large number of complex interactions, which requires the traditional modeling languages to overcome the existing shortcomings in the aspects of temporal information description and software testing input controlling. This paper presents the real-time extended interface automata (RTEIA) which adds clearer and more detailed temporal information description by the application of time words. We also establish the input interface automaton for every input in order to solve the problems of input controlling and interface covering nimbly when applied in the software testing field. Detailed definitions of the RTEIA and the testing cases generation algorithm are provided in this paper. The feasibility and efficiency of this method have been verified in the testing of one real aircraft braking system. PMID:24892080

  7. Does provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling lead to higher HIV testing rate and HIV case finding in Rwandan clinics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kayigamba, Felix R.; van Santen, Daniëla; Bakker, Mirjam I.; Lammers, Judith; Mugisha, Veronicah; Bagiruwigize, Emmanuel; de Naeyer, Ludwig; Asiimwe, Anita; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2016-01-01

    Provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling (PITC) is promoted as a means to increase HIV case finding. We assessed the effectiveness of PITC to increase HIV testing rate and HIV case finding among outpatients in Rwandan health facilities (HF). PITC was introduced in six HFs in 2009-2010. HIV

  8. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  9. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  11. High-dose calcium stimulation test in a case of insulinoma masquerading as hysteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshio; Doi, Ryuichiro; Kohno, Yasuhiro; Shimono, Dai; Kuwamura, Naomitsu; Inoue, Koichi; Koshiyama, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Masayuki

    2002-11-01

    It is reported that some cases with insulinoma present with neuropsychiatric symptoms and are often misdiagnosed as psychosis. Here we report a case of insulinoma masquerading as hysteria, whose final diagnosis could be made using high-dose calcium stimulation test. A 28-yr-old woman was referred presenting with substupor, mutism, mannerism, restlessness, and incoherence. Laboratory examinations revealed hypoglycemia (33 mg/dL) and detectable insulin levels (9.7 microU/mL), suggesting the diagnosis of insulinoma. However, neither imaging studies nor selective arterial calcium injection (SACI) test with a conventional dose of calcium (0.025 mEq/kg) indicated the tumor. High-dose calcium injection (0.05 mEq/kg) evoked insulin secretion when injected into superior mesenteric artery. A solitary tumor in the head of the pancreas was resected, and her plasma glucose returned to normal. Postoperatively, iv injection of secretin resulted in a normal response of insulin, which was not found preoperatively. This case suggests the usefulness of the SACI test with high-dose of calcium in the case of insulinoma when the standard dose fails to detect such a tumor.

  12. Developing and pilot testing of a tool for "clinicosocial case study" assessment of community medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, Manisha; Singh, Uday Shankar; Bhanderi, Dinesh; Phatak, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Practical and clinical skills teaching should constitute a core part of the postgraduate curriculum of Community Medicine. The clinicosocial case study is a method to enhance learners' skills but there is no generally accepted organized system of formative assessment and structured feedback to guide students. A new tool based on the principles of mini-Clinical Evaluation Exercise (mini CEX) was developed and pilot tested as a 'clinicosocial case study' assessment of community medicine residents with feedback as a core component. Ten core domains of clinicosocial skills were identified after reviewing the relevant literature and input from local experts in community medicine and medical education. We pilot tested the tool with eight faculty members to assess five residents during clinicosocial case presentations on a variety of topics. Kappa statistic and Bland Altman plots were used to assess agreement between faculty members' average assessment scores. Cronbach's alpha was used to test the internal consistency with faculty members as domains. All 95% confidence limits using the Bland-Altman method were within the predetermined limit of 2 points. The overall Kappa between two faculty members was fair ranging from 0.2 to 0.3. Qualitative feedback revealed that both faculty and residents were enthusiastic about the process but faculty suggested further standardization, while residents suggested streamlining of the process. This new assessment tool is available for objective and unbiased assessment of residents through 'clinicosocial case study,' which enriches learning through comprehensive feedback. Further validation in different settings is needed.

  13. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  14. Two cases of Cokeromyces recurvatus in liquid-based Papanicolaou tests and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odronic, Shelley I; Scheidemantel, Thomas; Tuohy, Marion J; Chute, Deborah; Procop, Gary W; Booth, Christine N

    2012-12-01

    We present 2 cases of Cokeromyces recurvatus in routine, liquid-based Papanicolaou tests (ThinPrep). Patient 1 is a healthy, asymptomatic, 26-year-old woman with no pertinent past medical history. Patient 2 is a healthy, asymptomatic, 47-year-old woman with no pertinent past medical history. The Papanicolaou tests from both patients showed many fungal-like elements as globose, yeastlike forms measuring 10 to 30 µm in diameter with multiple, narrowly attached apparent "daughter" buds. This morphology was consistent with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. However, broad-range fungal polymerase chain reaction and deoxyribonucleic acid sequence analysis performed with GenBank Basic Local Alignment Search Tool showed an exact match for C recurvatus. Our cases highlight the importance of molecular techniques to prevent misdiagnosis of C recurvatus as P brasiliensis, based on morphology alone. There have been 8 previously published cases of C recurvatus infection in humans, 3 of which were reported in the female genital tract.

  15. Should all suspected tuberculosis cases in high income countries be tested with GeneXpert?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Venanzio; Broda, Agnieszka; Drobniewski, Francis

    2018-05-01

    In countries with a low incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), universal testing with GeneXpert might not be always cost-effective. This study provides hospital managers in low MDR-TB incidence countries with criteria on when decentralised universal GeneXpert testing would make sense. The alternatives taken into consideration include: universal microbiological culture and drug susceptibility testing (DST) only (comparator); as above but with concurrent centralized GeneXpert in a referral laboratory vs a decentralized GeneXpert system in every hospital to test smear-positive cases only; as above but testing all samples with GeneXpert regardless of smear status. The parameters were from the national TB statistics for England and from a systematic review. Decentralised GeneXpert to test any suspected TB case was the most cost-effective option when 6% or more TB patients belonged to the high-risk group, defined as previous TB diagnosis and or being born in countries with a high MDR-TB incidence. Hospital managers in England and other low MDR-TB incidence countries could use these findings to decide when to invest in GeneXpert or other molecular diagnostics with similar performance criteria for TB diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  17. Case Management Reduces Length of Stay, Charges, and Testing in Emergency Department Frequent Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameel Sughair

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Case management is an effective, short-term means to reduce emergency department (ED visits in frequent users of the ED. This study sought to determine the effectiveness of case management on frequent ED users, in terms of reducing ED and hospital length of stay (LOS, accrued costs, and utilization of diagnostic tests. Methods: The study consisted of a retrospective chart review of ED and inpatient visits in our hospital’s ED case management program, comparing patient visits made in the one year prior to enrollment in the program, to the visits made in the one year after enrollment in the program. We examined the LOS, use of diagnostic testing, and monetary charges incurred by these patients one year prior and one year after enrollment into case management. Results: The study consisted of 158 patients in case management. Comparing the one year prior to enrollment to the one year after enrollment, ED visits decreased by 49%, inpatient admissions decreased by 39%, the use of computed tomography imaging decreased 41%, the use of ultrasound imaging decreased 52%, and the use of radiographs decreased 38%. LOS in the ED and for inpatient admissions decreased by 39%, reducing total LOS for these patients by 178 days. ED and hospital charges incurred by these patients decreased by 5.8 million dollars, a 41% reduction. All differences were statistically significant. Conclusion: Case management for frequent users of the ED is an effective method to reduce patient visits, the use of diagnostic testing, length of stay, and cost within our institution.

  18. Specific antigen serologic tests in leprosy: implications for epidemiological surveillance of leprosy cases and household contacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Ana Paula Mendes; Coelho, Angélica da Conceição Oliveira; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Lana, Francisco Carlos Félix

    2017-09-01

    There is a lack of straightforward tests for field application and known biomarkers for predicting leprosy progression in infected individuals. The aim was to analyse the response to infection by Mycobacterium leprae based on the reactivity of specific antigens: natural disaccharide linked to human serum albumin via an octyl (NDOHSA), a semisynthetic phenolic glycolipid-I (PGL-I); Leprosy Infectious Disease Research Institute Diagnostic-1 (LID-1) and natural disaccharide octyl - Leprosy Infectious Disease Research Institute Diagnostic-1 (NDOLID). The study population consisted of 130 leprosy cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 and 277 household contacts. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to analyse the reactivity of antibodies against NDOHSA, LID-1 and NDOLID. The samples and controls were tested in duplicate, and the antibody titer was expressed as an ELISA index. Data collection was made by home visits with application of questionnaire and dermatological evaluation of all household contacts to identify signs and symptoms of leprosy. Significant differences in the median ELISA results were observed among leprosy cases in treatment, leprosy cases that had completed treatment and household contacts. Higher proportions of seropositivity were observed in leprosy cases in treatment. Seropositivity was also higher in multibacillary in relation to paucibacillary, with the difference reaching statistical significance. Lower titers were observed among cases with a longer treatment time or discharge. For household contacts, the differences according to the clinical characteristics of the leprosy index case were less pronounced than expected. Other factors, such as the endemicity of leprosy, exposure outside the residence and genetic characteristics, appeared to have a greater influence on the seropositivity. Serologic tests could be used as auxiliary tools for determining the operational classification, in addition to identifying infected individuals

  19. Retrospective testing and case series study of porcine delta coronavirus in U.S. swine herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Brian J; Haley, Charles; Rovira, Albert; Main, Rodger; Zhang, Yan; Barder, Sunny

    2016-01-01

    Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was first reported in the United States (US) in February 2014. This was the second novel swine enteric coronavirus detected in the US since May 2013. In this study, we conducted retrospective testing of samples submitted to three veterinary diagnostic laboratories where qualifying biological samples were derived from previously submitted diagnostic case submissions from US commercial swine farms with a clinical history of enteric disease or from cases that had been previously tested for transmissible gastroenteritis virus, PEDV, or rotavirus. Overall, 2286 banked samples were tested from 27 States. Samples were collected in 3 separate years and in 17 different months. Test results revealed 4 positive samples, 3 collected in August 2013 and 1 collected in October 2013. In addition, a case series including 42 operations in 10 States was conducted through administration of a survey. Survey data collected included information on characteristics of swine operations that had experienced PDCoV clinical signs. Special emphasis was placed on obtaining descriptive estimates of biosecurity practices and disease status over time of each operation. Clinical signs of PDCoV were reported to be similar to those of PEDV. The average number of animals on each operation exhibiting clinical signs (morbidity) and the average number of case fatalities was greatest for suckling and weaned pigs. Average operation-level weaned pig morbidity was greatest in the first week of the outbreak while average operation-level suckling pig case fatality was greatest in the second week of the outbreak. The survey included questions regarding biosecurity practices for visitors and operation employees; trucks, equipment and drivers; and feed sources. These questions attempted to identify a likely pathway of introduction of PDCoV onto the operations surveyed. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Use of combinatorial pharmacogenomic testing in two cases from community psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fields ES

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Eve S Fields,1 Raymond A Lorenz,2 Joel G Winner2 1Northwest Center for Community Mental Health, Reston, VA, USA; 2Assurex Health, Mason, OH, USA Abstract: This report describes two cases in which pharmacogenomic testing was utilized to guide medication selection for difficult to treat patients. The first patient is a 29-year old male with bipolar disorder who had severe akathisia due to his long acting injectable antipsychotic. The second patient is a 59-year old female with major depressive disorder who was not ­responding to her medication. In both cases, a proprietary combinatorial pharmacogenomic test was used to inform medication changes and improve patient outcomes. The first patient was switched to a long acting injectable that was not affected by his genetic profile and his adverse effects abated. The second patient had her medications discontinued due to the results of the genetic testing and more intense psychotherapy initiated. While pharmacogenomic testing may be ­helpful in cases such as these presented here, it should never serve as a proxy for a comprehensive biopsychosocial approach. The pharmacogenomic information may be selectively added to this comprehensive approach to support medication treatment. Keywords: pharmacogenomics, adverse effects, risperidone, nortriptyline, paliperidone

  1. Trends of reporTed ouTpaTienT malaria cases To assess The TesT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: kenya reports over six million malaria cases annually. in 2012 the country adopted the Test, Treat and Track (T3) policy to ensure that all suspected .... cases increased by about half in all ages (50% in + 5 ...

  2. Unit and integration testing of Lustre programs: a case study from the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thevenod-Fosse, P.

    1998-01-01

    LUSTRE belongs to the class of synchronous data flow languages which have been designed for programming reactive and real-time systems having safety-critical requirements. It is implemented in the SCADE tool. SCADE is a software development environment for real-time systems which consists of a graphical and textual editor, and a C code generator. In previous work, a testing approach specific to LUSTRE programs has been defined, which may be applied at either the unit or integration testing levels of a gradual testing process. The paper reports on an industrial case study we have performed to exemplify the feasibility of the testing strategy. The software module, called SRIC (Source Range Instrumentation channel), was developed by SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC in the SCADE environment. SRIC is extracted from a monitoring software system of a nuclear reactor: it approximates 2600 lines of C code automatically generated by SCADE. Section 2 outlines the testing strategy. Then, Section 3 presents the results related to the program SRIC, for which four testing levels were defined (unit testing followed by three successive integration testing levels). First conclusions and direction for future work are proposed in Section 4. (author)

  3. Case report: BRCA in the Ashkenazi population: are current testing guidelines too exclusive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saunders Katherine H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The BRCA1/2 genes account for a significant portion of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers and they are especially prevalent in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. Women who have a mutation can prevent breast and ovarian cancer with surgical intervention. We describe an Ashkenazi Jewish patient who illustrates that current testing criteria are too restrictive, particularly for this population of patients. The patient's sister was diagnosed with breast cancer at age 33; however, she was not a mutation carrier. Based on practice guidelines, the patient was not recommended genetic testing. She subsequently underwent direct-to-consumer (DTC testing and discovered that she was a mutation carrier. This case demonstrates the need for clinicians to be aware of the higher prevalence of BRCA mutations in the Ashkenazi population. It also exemplifies the need to involve medical professionals, including genetic counselors, in the dissemination of DNA test results.

  4. Testing biological effects of hand-washing grey water for reuse in irrigation on an urban farm: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Zain; Sim, Yei Lin; Lin, Yang Jian; Lai, Ka Man

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility of reusing hand-washing grey water contaminated with antibacterial hand-washing liquid for irrigation purposes in an urban farm is explored in this case study. Experiments are carried out to investigate if the quality of this grey water allows for its reuse in agriculture as per the guidelines established by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, there is no guideline to test the biological effect of grey water prior to agricultural use. It is plausible that the antibacterial property of the grey water can harm the soil microbial system and plants when applied to land, even if all other water quality parameters satisfy the WHO limit. We use algae (Chlorella vulgaris) and indigenous soil bacteria as initial plant and soil bacteria indicators, respectively, to test the potential inhibition of the water on plants and soil bacteria. Results show that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the grey water is 10% higher than the WHO permissible level, while all other water quality parameters are within the limits after four days of our experimental period. An inhibitory effect is observed in all of the biological tests. However, the inhibitory effect on algae and soil bacteria is not observed after the four-day period. The case study demonstrates a new approach for testing the biological effect of grey water, which can be used in conjunction with the WHO guideline, and provides data for this urban farm to set up a future water treatment system for grey-water reuse in irrigation.

  5. Field survey and laboratory tests on composite materials case of GRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester tubes for water suply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Hariga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Moldova land, were made two lines of water adduction, having 6000 m length and 40 m slope, or 1/150 slope. The water supply component tubes were disposed under the plant: The tubes are made of glass – reinforced thermosetting plastics (GRP. After about 180 days of operation, one of the lines showed severe deterioration of the quality pipe components. This paper deals with some laboratory tests in order to detect the failure cases of the pipelines components.

  6. Objective effect manifestation of pectus excavatum on load-stressed pulmonary function testing: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Jason

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pectus excavatum is the most common congenital deformity of the anterior chest wall that, under certain conditions, may pose functional problems due to cardiopulmonary compromise and exercise intolerance. Case presentation We present the case of an otherwise physically-adept 21-year-old Chinese sportsman with idiopathic pectus excavatum, whose symptoms manifested only on bearing a loaded body vest and backpack during physical exercise. Corroborative objective evidence was obtained via load-stressed pulmonary function testing, which demonstrated restrictive lung function. Conclusion This report highlights the possible detrimental synergism of thoracic load stress and pectus excavatum on cardiopulmonary function. Thoracic load-stressed pulmonary function testing provides objective evidence in support of such a synergistic relationship.

  7. Post-mortem diagnostics in cases of sepsis. Part 1. Aetiology, epidemiology and microbiological tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rorat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical practice has an effective methodology of diagnostic procedures to be followed in cases of sepsis. However, there are as yet no corresponding standards of action in post-mortem diagnostics. The scope of examinations is limited to an autopsy and histopathological tests. This situation may lead to errors in medico-legal opinions on the cause of death and in the assessment of appropriateness of medical procedures. In cases of suspected sepsis, medico-legal investigations require obtaining detailed information about the circumstances of death (including symptoms and results of intravital examinations before autopsy is performed, as well as sterile collection of specimens for microbiological tests and interpretation of their results on the basis of knowledge of epidemiology, pathophysiology and clinical progression of sepsis.

  8. Testing the Market Model – A Case Study of Fondul Proprietatea (FP)

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin Claudiu Radu

    2014-01-01

    The financial theory related to the bond portfolio analysis was coined by Harry Markowitz, an authentic’ pioneer of the modern bond theory’, and his well-thought interpretation of the bond selection model may be found in his research papers “Portfolio Selection” (Markowitz M. Harry, 1952) and “Portfolio Selection: Efficient Diversification of Investments” (Markowitz M. Harry 1960). This paper is proposed to test the market model in the Romanian stock market, case of Property Fund.

  9. Analysis of the imbalance price scheme in the Spanish electricity market: A wind power test case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno-Lorenzo, Miriam; Moreno, M. Ángeles; Usaola, Julio

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the interaction between wind power and electricity markets. The paper is focused on balancing markets pricing policies. The proposal of a new imbalance price scheme is included and conveniently evaluated. This proposed scheme tries to minimise the use of ancillary services to compensate for deviations in searching for a more efficient market design. The effectiveness of imbalance prices as market signals is also examined, and policy recommendations regarding imbalance services are discussed. Two test cases are included that analyse the participation of a wind power producer in the Spanish electricity market using a stochastic optimisation strategy. For this purpose, the uncertainty of the variables is considered, i.e., wind power production and prediction, intraday and imbalance prices. Test cases were run with real data for 10 months, and realistic results are presented along with a hypothetical test case. The regulation of the imbalance prices may not be adequate for the Spanish electricity market because an error drop is not sufficiently encouraged. Therefore, we suggest the application of a new imbalance price scheme, which includes an additional constraint. The conclusions of this paper can be assumed to be general policy recommendations

  10. A comparative study of the typhidot (Dot-EIA) and Widal tests in blood culture positive cases of typhoid fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoharo, Haji Khan

    2011-07-01

    Seventy-six blood culture positive typhoid cases and forty-eight controls were studied. The typhidot test was positive in 74 (97.36%) cases, with a sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of 96%, 89.5%, and 95%, respectively, compared to the Widal test which was positive in 56 (73.68%) cases with a sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of 72%, 87%, and 87%, respectively (P = 0.001). In the control group, seven (14.5%) cases tested positive for the Widal test and two (4.16%) for the typhidot (P = 0.001), yielding the sensitivity and specificity for the Widal test and the typhidot test of 63% and 83%, and 85% and 97%, respectively. We conclude that the Dot-EIA (enzyme immunoassay; typhidot) is a more sensitive and specific test which is easy to perform and more reliable compared to the Widal test and that it is useful in early therapy.

  11. Visualizing the Bayesian 2-test case: The effect of tree diagrams on medical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Karin; Krauss, Stefan; Bruckmaier, Georg; Marienhagen, Jörg

    2018-01-01

    In medicine, diagnoses based on medical test results are probabilistic by nature. Unfortunately, cognitive illusions regarding the statistical meaning of test results are well documented among patients, medical students, and even physicians. There are two effective strategies that can foster insight into what is known as Bayesian reasoning situations: (1) translating the statistical information on the prevalence of a disease and the sensitivity and the false-alarm rate of a specific test for that disease from probabilities into natural frequencies, and (2) illustrating the statistical information with tree diagrams, for instance, or with other pictorial representation. So far, such strategies have only been empirically tested in combination for "1-test cases", where one binary hypothesis ("disease" vs. "no disease") has to be diagnosed based on one binary test result ("positive" vs. "negative"). However, in reality, often more than one medical test is conducted to derive a diagnosis. In two studies, we examined a total of 388 medical students from the University of Regensburg (Germany) with medical "2-test scenarios". Each student had to work on two problems: diagnosing breast cancer with mammography and sonography test results, and diagnosing HIV infection with the ELISA and Western Blot tests. In Study 1 (N = 190 participants), we systematically varied the presentation of statistical information ("only textual information" vs. "only tree diagram" vs. "text and tree diagram in combination"), whereas in Study 2 (N = 198 participants), we varied the kinds of tree diagrams ("complete tree" vs. "highlighted tree" vs. "pruned tree"). All versions were implemented in probability format (including probability trees) and in natural frequency format (including frequency trees). We found that natural frequency trees, especially when the question-related branches were highlighted, improved performance, but that none of the corresponding probabilistic visualizations did.

  12. Pre-examination factors affecting molecular diagnostic test results and interpretation: A case-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Deborah A; Baluchova, Katarina; Peoc'h, Katell H; van Schaik, Ron H N; Chan, K C Allen; Maekawa, Masato; Mamotte, Cyril; Russomando, Graciela; Rousseau, François; Ahmad-Nejad, Parviz

    2017-04-01

    Multiple organizations produce guidance documents that provide opportunities to harmonize quality practices for diagnostic testing. The International Organization for Standardization ISO 15189 standard addresses requirements for quality in management and technical aspects of the clinical laboratory. One technical aspect addresses the complexities of the pre-examination phase prior to diagnostic testing. The Committee for Molecular Diagnostics of the International Federation for Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (also known as, IFCC C-MD) conducted a survey of international molecular laboratories and determined ISO 15189 to be the most referenced guidance document. In this review, the IFCC C-MD provides case-based examples illustrating the value of select pre-examination processes as these processes relate to molecular diagnostic testing. Case-based examples in infectious disease, oncology, inherited disease and pharmacogenomics address the utility of: 1) providing information to patients and users, 2) designing requisition forms, 3) obtaining informed consent and 4) maintaining sample integrity prior to testing. The pre-examination phase requires extensive and consistent communication between the laboratory, the healthcare provider and the end user. The clinical vignettes presented in this paper illustrate the value of applying select ISO 15189 recommendations for general laboratory to the more specialized area of Molecular Diagnostics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. In response to 'Can sugars be produced from fatty acids? A test case for pathway analysis tools'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Karoline; Croes, Didier; van Helden, Jacques

    2009-12-01

    In their article entitled 'Can sugars be produced from fatty acids? A test case for pathway analysis tools' de Figueiredo and co-authors assess the performance of three pathway prediction tools (METATOOL, PathFinding and Pathway Hunter Tool) using the synthesis of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) from acetyl-CoA in humans as a test case. We think that this article is biased for three reasons: (i) the metabolic networks used as input for the respective tools were of very different sizes; (ii) the 'assessment' is restricted to two study cases; (iii) developers are inherently more skilled to use their own tools than those developed by other people. We extended the analyses led by de Figueiredo and clearly show that the apparent superior performance of their tool (METATOOL) is partly due to the differences in input network sizes. We also see a conceptual problem in the comparison of tools that serve different purposes. In our opinion, metabolic path finding and elementary mode analysis are answering different biological questions, and should be considered as complementary rather than competitive approaches. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  14. Specification of test criteria and probabilistic approach: the case of plutonium air transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, P.; Pages, P.; Ringot, C.; Tomachewsky, E.

    1989-03-01

    The safety of international transportation relies on compliance with IAEA regulations which specify a serie of test which the package is supposed to withstand. For Plutonium air transport some national regulations are more stringent than the IAEA one, namely the US one. For example the drop test is to be performed at 129 m.s -1 instead of 13.4 m.s -1 . The development of international Plutonium exchanges has raised the question of the adequacy of both those standards. The purpose of this paper is to show how a probabilistic approach helps in assessing the efficiency of a move towards more stringent tests

  15. Unconsented HIV testing in cases of occupational exposure: ethics, law, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Ethan; Macklin, Ruth

    2012-10-01

    Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) has substantially reduced the risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) after an occupational exposure; nevertheless, exposure to HIV remains a concern for emergency department providers. According to published guidelines, PEP should be taken only when source patients are HIV-positive or have risk factors for HIV. Initiating PEP when source patients are uninfected puts exposed persons at risk from taking toxic drugs with no compensating benefit. Forgoing PEP if the source is infected results in increased risk of acquiring HIV. What should be done if source patients refuse HIV testing? Is it justifiable to test the blood of these patients over their autonomous objection? The authors review current law and policy and perform an ethical analysis to determine if laws permitting unconsented testing in cases of occupational exposure can be ethically justified. © 2012 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  16. Ballistic and Cyclic Rig Testing of Braided Composite Fan Case Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, William R.; Roberts, Gary D.; Pereira, J. Michael; Braley, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    FAA fan blade-out certification testing on turbofan engines occurs very late in an engine's development program and is very costly. It is of utmost importance to approach the FAA Certification engine test with a high degree of confidence that the containment structure will not only contain the high-energy debris, but that it will also withstand the cyclic loads that occur with engine spooldown and continued rotation as the non-running engine maintains a low rotor RPM due to forced airflow as the engine-out aircraft returns to an airport. Accurate rig testing is needed for predicting and understanding material behavior of the fan case structure during all phases of this fan blade-out event.

  17. A brief overview of the distribution test grids with a distributed generation inclusion case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević Aleksandar M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of the electric distribution test grids issued by different technical institutions. They are used for testing different scenarios in operation of a grid for research, benchmarking, comparison and other purposes. Their types, main characteristics, features as well as application possibilities are shown. Recently, these grids are modified with inclusion of distributed generation. An example of modification and application of the IEEE 13-bus for testing effects of faults in cases without and with a distributed generator connection to the grid is presented. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III 042004: Smart Electricity Distribution Grids Based on Distribution Management System and Distributed Generation

  18. Optimized periodic verification testing blended risk and performance-based MOV inservice test program an application of ASME code case OMN-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellers, C.; Fleming, K.; Bidwell, D.; Forbes, P. [and others

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents an application of ASME Code Case OMN-1 to the GL 89-10 Program at the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS). Code Case OMN-1 provides guidance for a performance-based MOV inservice test program that can be used for periodic verification testing and allows consideration of risk insights. Blended probabilistic and deterministic evaluation techniques were used to establish inservice test strategies including both test methods and test frequency. Described in the paper are the methods and criteria for establishing MOV safety significance based on the STPEGS probabilistic safety assessment, deterministic considerations of MOV performance characteristics and performance margins, the expert panel evaluation process, and the development of inservice test strategies. Test strategies include a mix of dynamic and static testing as well as MOV exercising.

  19. Optimized periodic verification testing blended risk and performance-based MOV inservice test program an application of ASME code case OMN-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, C.; Fleming, K.; Bidwell, D.; Forbes, P.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an application of ASME Code Case OMN-1 to the GL 89-10 Program at the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS). Code Case OMN-1 provides guidance for a performance-based MOV inservice test program that can be used for periodic verification testing and allows consideration of risk insights. Blended probabilistic and deterministic evaluation techniques were used to establish inservice test strategies including both test methods and test frequency. Described in the paper are the methods and criteria for establishing MOV safety significance based on the STPEGS probabilistic safety assessment, deterministic considerations of MOV performance characteristics and performance margins, the expert panel evaluation process, and the development of inservice test strategies. Test strategies include a mix of dynamic and static testing as well as MOV exercising

  20. Airside HVAC BESTEST. Adaptation of ASHRAE RP 865 Airside HVAC Equipment Modeling Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140. Volume 1, Cases AE101-AE445

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymark, J. [J. Neymark & Associates, Golden, CO (United States); Kennedy, M. [Mike D. Kennedy, Inc., Townsend, WA (United States); Judkoff, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gall, J. [AAON, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States); Knebel, D. [AAON, Inc., Tulsa, OK (United States); Henninger, R. [GARD Analytics, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Witte, M. [GARD Analytics, Inc., Arlington Heights, IL (United States); Hong, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); McDowell, T. [Thermal Energy System Specialists, Madison, WI (United States); Yan, D. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Zhou, X. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2016-03-01

    This report documents a set of diagnostic analytical verification cases for testing the ability of whole building simulation software to model the air distribution side of typical heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) equipment. These cases complement the unitary equipment cases included in American National Standards Institute (ANSI)/American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs, which test the ability to model the heat-transfer fluid side of HVAC equipment.

  1. LCT-coil design: Mechanical interaction between composite winding and steel casing under various test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolensky, B.; Messemer, G.; Zehlein, H.; Erb, J.

    1981-01-01

    Finite element computations for the structural design of the large superconducting toroidal field coil contributed by EURATOM to the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) at ORNL, USA were performed at KfK, using the ASKA code. The layout of the coil must consider different types of requirements: firstly, an optimal D-shaped contour minimizing circumferential stress gradients under normal operation in the toroidal arrangement must be defined. Secondly, the three-dimensional real design effects due to the actual support conditions, manufacturing tolerances etc. must be mastered for different basic operational and failure load cases. And, thirdly, the design must stand a single coil qualification test in the TOSKA-facility at KfK, Karlsruhe, FRG, before it is plugged into the LCTF. The emphasis of the paper is three-pronged according to these requirements: i) the 3D magnetic body forces as well as the underlying magnetic fields as computed by the HEDO-code are described. ii) The mechanical interaction between casing and winding as given elsewhere in terms of high stress regions, gaps, slide movements and contact forces for various load cases representing the LCTF test conditions is illustrated here by a juxtaposition of the operational deformations and stresses within the LCTF and the TOSKA. iii) Particular effects like the restraint imposed by a corset-type reinforcement of the coil in the TOSKA test facility to limit the breathing deformation are parametrically studied. Moreover, the possibilities to derive scaling laws which make essential results transferable to larger coils by extracting a 1D mechanical response from the 3D finite element model is also demonstrated. (orig./GG)

  2. Modeling erosion of unsaturated compacted bentonite by groundwater flow; pinhole erosion test case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurila, T.; Sane, P.; Olin, M.; Koskinen, K.

    2012-01-01

    swelling rate to erosion rate. Expressing eroded mass as a function of time as M(t) ∝ tβ. we note that for non-swelling material the wall shear -based erosion model gives β = 0,5. We find this limit in our model by suppressing swelling, and we observe that β increases when ratio of swelling to erosion increases, approaching values β ≅ 1 for strong swelling. It follows that the long term erosion of backfill and buffer materials are expected to differ, with erosion rates in the more compact buffer dropping slower. The result also suggests that the lower the initial erosion, the longer one can expect that rate to be maintained. We solve the model in cylindrically symmetric coordinates using COMSOL Multiphysics software, and fit parameters to match pinhole experiments on MX-80 bentonite with different salinities of the water inflow. Significant scatter within the experimental data makes it difficult to definitively validate models. Figure 1 shows erosion behavior in the model at the limit of vanishing swelling, and contrasts it to the highly-swelling case. Observations from the pinhole experiments, as well as from down-scaled piping erosion tests, show that erosion rates in buffer material don't drop significantly in time, suggesting a consistent with high swelling. In the larger piping erosion tests a seemingly steady state in the erosion rate is reached for an extended amount of time. The effects of scatter are reduced using statistical analysis of this state. An important experimental finding of unsaturated erosion is that larger salinities lead to larger erosion rates, in contrast to saturated erosion where the opposite has been observed. We expect this effect to be due to the processes of saturation, suction and permeability. Future work aims to model the dominant processes in this effect, as pertains to Posiva reference conditions for the Olkiluoto site, without going to the full complexity of (T)HM modeling, such as the Barcelona expansible model

  3. Characteristics of special-case wastes potentially destined for disposal at the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, L.L.; Duran, F.A.

    1994-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for disposing of a variety of radioactive and mixed wastes, some of which are considered special-case waste because they do not currently have a clear disposal option. It may be possible to dispose of some of the DOE's special-case waste using greater confinement disposal techniques at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The DOE asked Sandia National Laboratories to investigate this possibility by performing system configuration analyses. The first step in performing system configuration analyses is to estimate the characteristics of special-case waste that might be destined for disposal at the NTS. The objective of this report is to characterize this special-case waste based upon information available in the literature. No waste was sampled and analyzed specifically for this report. The waste compositions given are not highly detailed, consisting of grains and curies of specific radionuclides per cubic meter. However, such vague waste characterization is adequate for the purposes of the system configuration task. In some previous work done on this subject, Kudera et al. [1990] identified nine categories of special-case radioactive waste and estimated volumes and activities for these categories. It would have been difficult to develop waste compositions based on the categories proposed by Kudera et al. [1990], so we created five groups of waste on which to base the waste compositions. These groups are (1) transuranic waste, (2) fission product waste, (3) activation product waste, (4) mobile/volatile waste, and (5) sealed sources. The radionuclides within a given group share common characteristics (e.g., alpha-emitters, heat generators), and we believe that these groups adequately represent the DOE's special-case waste potentially destined for greater confinement disposal at the NTS

  4. HIV testing in community based research: a case study of female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Female genital schistosomiasis prevalence found was 10.3%, Trichomonas vaginalis, 2.1%, Candida albicans, 9.6%, Gardnerella vaginalis, 11.8% and HIV 6.6%. The study also showed that, the location of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) services in rural communities in the Volta Basin were unavailable. The use ...

  5. [Analysis of sequelae of the latissimus dorsi flap removal. Report of 44 cases reviewed and tested].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legré, R; Boghossian, V; Servant, J M; Magalon, G; Bureau, H

    1990-01-01

    Since Tanzini, the latissimus dorsi muscle flap has been widely used in plastic surgery. Based on the experience of two plastic surgery units, we decided to try to define the sequelae of this operation. In order to simplify our analysis we only considered free flaps. Out study is based on 42 patients (26 pure muscular flaps and 16 musculo-cutaneous flaps). The sequelae were analysed in terms of aesthetic and functional criteria. The aesthetic sequelae appeared to be minima in the case of pure muscular flaps, but more severe in the case of musculo-cutaneous flaps. Functional sequelae in the shoulder were observed on muscle testing in 30% of cases, although there were no repercussions on sport or work activities. Analysis of spinal posture demonstrated a modification in the frontal plane in 40% of cases although this could not be clearly attributed to the donor site. On the basis of this study, we can conclude that the latissimus dorsi flap retains an important place in the therapeutic arsenal of plastic surgery due to its reliability and its minor cicatricial and functional sequelae at the donor site.

  6. Nuclear code case development of printed-circuit heat exchangers with thermal and mechanical performance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakre, Shaun R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Jentz, Ian W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Anderson, Mark H. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2018-03-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy has agreed to fund a three-year integrated research project to close technical gaps involved with compact heat exchangers to be used in nuclear applications. This paper introduces the goals of the project, the research institutions, and industrial partners working in collaboration to develop a draft Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Case for this technology. Heat exchanger testing, as well as non-destructive and destructive evaluation, will be performed by researchers across the country to understand the performance of compact heat exchangers. Testing will be performed using coolants and conditions proposed for Gen IV Reactor designs. Preliminary observations of the mechanical failure mechanisms of the heat exchangers using destructive and non-destructive methods is presented. Unit-cell finite element models assembled to help predict the mechanical behavior of these high-temperature components are discussed as well. Performance testing methodology is laid out in this paper along with preliminary modeling results, an introduction to x-ray and neutron inspection techniques, and results from a recent pressurization test of a printed-circuit heat exchanger. The operational and quality assurance knowledge gained from these models and validation tests will be useful to developers of supercritical CO2 systems, which commonly employ printed-circuit heat exchangers.

  7. Repeated use of computerized case simulations in a test format does not present a security risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, T G; Zadalis, R J; Schneider, P D

    1999-03-01

    Computer-based examination formats permit evaluation of patient care strategies in a realistic context. Because such examinations are complex and difficult to develop, the same case simulations must often be used on multiple occasions. To determine if repeated, serial administration of computerized case simulations influences performance, 8 simulations were administered over 2 consecutive years to 252 third-year medical students at the conclusion of 16 surgical clerkship rotations (8 per year). One-way analyses of variance were used to compare scores across rotations during the year and to compare scores between 2 consecutive academic years. Scheffe pairwise comparisons were used to identify trends within each academic year. The data demonstrate an increase in scores across rotations during the year. There is, however, no difference between scores in successive years. The data are consistent with an increase in knowledge during the course of the year, without evidence that test information transfer influences the performance of successive classes.

  8. A test case of the deformation rate analysis (DRA) stress measurement method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dight, P.; Hsieh, A. [Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Univ. of WA, Crawley (Australia); Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hudson, J.A. [Rock Engineering Consultants (United Kingdom); Kemppainen, K.

    2012-01-15

    As part of Posiva's site and ONKALO investigations, the in situ rock stress has been measured by a variety of techniques, including hydraulic fracturing, overcoring, and convergence measurements. All these techniques involve direct measurements in a drillhole or at the rock surface. An alternative method is to test drillhole core in a way that enables estimation of the magnitudes and orientations of the in situ rock stress. The Kaiser Effect (KE) and Deformation Rate Analysis (DRA) are two ways to do this. In the work reported here, a 'blind' DRA test was conducted on core obtained from the POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment) niche in the ONKALO. The term 'blind' means that the two first authors of this report, who conducted the tests at the Australian Centre for Geomechanics, did not know the depths below surface at which the cores had been obtained. The results of this DRA Test Case are presented, together with an explanation of the DRA procedure. Also, additional information that would help in such DRA testing and associated analysis is explained. One of the problems in comparing the DRA results with the known Olkiluoto stress field is that the latter is highly variable across the site, as experienced by the previous in situ stress measurements and as predicted by numerical analysis. The variability is mainly caused by the presence of the large brittle deformation zones which perturb the local stress state. However, this variability reduces with depth and the stress field becomes more stable at the {approx} 350 m at which the drillhole cores were obtained. Another compounding difficulty is that the stress quantity, being a second order tensor, requires six independent components for its specification. In other words, comparison of the DRA results and the known stress field requires comparison of six different quantities. In terms of the major principal stress orientation, the DRA results predict an orientation completely

  9. A test case of the deformation rate analysis (DRA) stress measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dight, P.; Hsieh, A.; Johansson, E.; Hudson, J.A.; Kemppainen, K.

    2012-01-01

    As part of Posiva's site and ONKALO investigations, the in situ rock stress has been measured by a variety of techniques, including hydraulic fracturing, overcoring, and convergence measurements. All these techniques involve direct measurements in a drillhole or at the rock surface. An alternative method is to test drillhole core in a way that enables estimation of the magnitudes and orientations of the in situ rock stress. The Kaiser Effect (KE) and Deformation Rate Analysis (DRA) are two ways to do this. In the work reported here, a 'blind' DRA test was conducted on core obtained from the POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment) niche in the ONKALO. The term 'blind' means that the two first authors of this report, who conducted the tests at the Australian Centre for Geomechanics, did not know the depths below surface at which the cores had been obtained. The results of this DRA Test Case are presented, together with an explanation of the DRA procedure. Also, additional information that would help in such DRA testing and associated analysis is explained. One of the problems in comparing the DRA results with the known Olkiluoto stress field is that the latter is highly variable across the site, as experienced by the previous in situ stress measurements and as predicted by numerical analysis. The variability is mainly caused by the presence of the large brittle deformation zones which perturb the local stress state. However, this variability reduces with depth and the stress field becomes more stable at the ∼ 350 m at which the drillhole cores were obtained. Another compounding difficulty is that the stress quantity, being a second order tensor, requires six independent components for its specification. In other words, comparison of the DRA results and the known stress field requires comparison of six different quantities. In terms of the major principal stress orientation, the DRA results predict an orientation completely different to the NW-SE regional

  10. The Test Case of HD 26965: Difficulties Disentangling Weak Doppler Signals from Stellar Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Matías R.; Jenkins, James S.; Tuomi, Mikko; Butler, R. Paul; Soto, Maritza G.; Teske, Johanna K.; Feng, Fabo; Shectman, Stephen A.; Arriagada, Pamela; Crane, Jeffrey D.; Thompson, Ian B.; Vogt, Steven S.

    2018-03-01

    We report the discovery of a radial velocity signal that can be interpreted as a planetary-mass candidate orbiting the K dwarf HD 26965, with an orbital period of 42.364 ± 0.015 days, or alternatively, as the presence of residual, uncorrected rotational activity in the data. Observations include data from HIRES, PFS, CHIRON, and HARPS, where 1111 measurements were made over 16 years. Our best solution for HD 26965 b is consistent with a super-Earth that has a minimum mass of 6.92 ± 0.79 {M}\\oplus orbiting at a distance of 0.215 ± 0.008 au from its host star. We have analyzed the correlation between spectral activity indicators and the radial velocities from each instrument, showing moderate correlations that we include in our model. From this analysis, we recover a ∼38-day signal, which matches some literature values of the stellar rotation period. However, from independent Mt. Wilson HK data for this star, we find evidence for a significant 42-day signal after subtraction of longer period magnetic cycles, casting doubt on the planetary hypothesis for this period. Although our statistical model strongly suggests that the 42-day signal is Doppler in origin, we conclude that the residual effects of stellar rotation are difficult to fully model and remove from this data set, highlighting the difficulties to disentangle small planetary signals and photospheric noise, particularly when the orbital periods are close to the rotation period of the star. This study serves as an excellent test case for future works that aim to detect small planets orbiting “Sun-like” stars using radial velocity measurements. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  11. The role of Metals in Amyloid Aggregation: A Test Case for ab initio Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minicozzi, V.; Rossi, G. C.; Stellato, F.; Morante, S.

    2007-01-01

    First principle ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of the Car-Parrinello type have proved to be of invaluable help in understanding the microscopic mechanisms of chemical bonding both in solid state physics and in structural biophysics. In this work we present as test cases the study of the Cu coordination mode in two especially important examples: Prion protein and β-amyloids. Using medium size PC-clusters as well as larger parallel platforms, we are able to deal with systems comprising 300 to 500 atoms and 1000 to 1500 electrons for as long as 2-3 ps. We present structural results which confirm indications coming from NMR and XAS data

  12. Packaging and transport case of test fuel assembly irradiated in the Creys-Malville reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffroy, J.; Vivien, J.; Pouard, M.; Dujardin, G.N.; Veron, B.; Michoux, H.

    1986-06-01

    Some irradiated fuel assemblies from the fast neutron Creys Malville reactor will be sent to hot laboratories to follow fuel behavior. These test assemblies will be examined after a limited cooling time and transport is realized at high residual power (about 10kW) and cladding temperature should not rise over 500deg C. The fuel assemblies are not dismantled and transported into sodium. The assembly is placed into a case containing sodium plugged and put into a packaging. Dimensioning, thermal behavior, radiation protection and containment are examined [fr

  13. Downscale cascades in tracer transport test cases: an intercomparison of the dynamical cores in the Community Atmosphere Model CAM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kent

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The accurate modeling of cascades to unresolved scales is an important part of the tracer transport component of dynamical cores of weather and climate models. This paper aims to investigate the ability of the advection schemes in the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5 to model this cascade. In order to quantify the effects of the different advection schemes in CAM5, four two-dimensional tracer transport test cases are presented. Three of the tests stretch the tracer below the scale of coarse resolution grids to ensure the downscale cascade of tracer variance. These results are compared with a high resolution reference solution, which is simulated on a resolution fine enough to resolve the tracer during the test. The fourth test has two separate flow cells, and is designed so that any tracer in the western hemisphere should not pass into the eastern hemisphere. This is to test whether the diffusion in transport schemes, often in the form of explicit hyper-diffusion terms or implicit through monotonic limiters, contains unphysical mixing.

    An intercomparison of three of the dynamical cores of the National Center for Atmospheric Research's Community Atmosphere Model version 5 is performed. The results show that the finite-volume (CAM-FV and spectral element (CAM-SE dynamical cores model the downscale cascade of tracer variance better than the semi-Lagrangian transport scheme of the Eulerian spectral transform core (CAM-EUL. Each scheme tested produces unphysical mass in the eastern hemisphere of the separate cells test.

  14. Testing for Stationarity and Nonlinearity of Daily Streamflow Time Series Based on Different Statistical Tests (Case Study: Upstream Basin Rivers of Zarrineh Roud Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Fathian

    2017-02-01

    arenot specified. Keenan test has also been proposed for assessing the linearity or nonlinearitybehavior of a time series in time series analysis. Keenan (1985 derived a test for nonlinearity analogous to Tukey’s degree of freedom for nonadditivity test. Keenan’s test is motivated by approximation a nonlinear stationary time series by a second-order Volterra expansion. While Keenan’s test for nonlinearity is designed for detecting quadratic nonlinearity, it may not be sensitive to threshold nonlinearity. Here, we applied the likelihood ratio test (TLRT with the threshold model as the specific alternative.The null hypothesis of the TLRT approach for threshold nonlinearity is the fitted model to the series is an AR (p model, and the alternative hypothesis is the fitted model to the series is a threshold autoregressive (TAR model with autoregressive order p in each regime. Results and Discussion: Because both the ADF and KPSS tests are based on linear regression, which has the normal distribution assumption, logarithmization can convert exponential trend possibly present in the data into a linear trend. In the case of stationary analysis, the results showed the standardized daily streamflow time series of all stations are significantly stationary. According to KPSS stationary test, the daily standardized streamflow time series are stationary around a fixed level, but they are not stationary around a trend stationaryin low lag values. Based on the BDS test, the results showed the daily streamflowseries have strong nonlinear structure, but based on the Keenan test, it can be seen the linear structure in thembyusing logarithmization and deseasonalization operators, and it means the coefficients of the double sum part are zero. It should be considered the Keenan test is used to detect quadratic nonlinearity, and it cannot be adequatelyfor threshold autoregressive models since they are linear in each regime. Conclusion: Streamflow processes of main rivers at 6 stations

  15. Interpretation, with respect to ASME code Case N-318, of limit moment and fatigue tests of lugs welded to pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, D.C.; Van Duyne, D.A.; Budlong, L.A.; Muffett, J.W.; Wais, E.A.; Streck, G.; Rodabaugh, E.C.

    1990-01-01

    Two nonmandatory ASME code cases have been used often in the evaluation of lugs on nuclear-power- plant piping systems. ASME Code Case N-318 provides guidance for evaluation of the design of rectangular cross-section attachments on Class 2 or 3 piping, and ASME Code Case N-122 provides guidance for evaluation of lugs on Class 1 piping. These code cases have been reviewed and evaluated based on available test data. The results indicate that the Code cases are overly conservative. Recommendations for revisions to the cases are presented which, if adopted, will reduce the overconservatism

  16. Laparoscopic hysterectomy with bilateral orchidectomy for Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome with seminoma testes: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilnathan Palanisamy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS is one of the three rare intersex disorders caused by defective anti-mullerian hormone or its receptor, characterized by undescended testes with presence of underdeveloped derivatives of mullerian duct in genetically male infant or adult with normal external genitals and virilization. This population will essentially have normal, 46(XY, phenotype. We hereby present a case of PMDS, presented with incarcerated left inguinal hernia associated with cryptorchidism and seminoma of right testes. Patient underwent laparoscopic hernia repair with bilateral orchidectomy and hysterectomy with uneventful postoperative recovery. Here we highlight the importance of minimal access approach for this scenario in terms of better visualization, less blood loss, combining multiple procedures along with early return to work and excellent cosmetic outcome.

  17. What every clinical geneticist should know about testing for osteogenesis imperfecta in suspected child abuse cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Melanie G; Byers, Peter H

    2015-12-01

    Non-accidental injury (NAI) is a major medical concern in the United States. One of the challenges in evaluation of children with unexplained fractures is that genetic forms of bone fragility are one of the differential diagnoses. Infants who present with fractures with mild forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) (OI type I or OI type IV), the most common genetic form of bone disease leading to fractures might be missed if clinical evaluation alone is used to make the diagnosis. Diagnostic clinical features (blue sclera, dentinogenesis imperfecta, Wormian bones on X-rays or positive family history) may not be present or apparent at the age of evaluation. The evaluating clinician faces the decision about whether genetic testing is necessary in certain NAI cases. In this review, we outline clinical presentations of mild OI and review the history of genetic testing for OI in the NAI versus OI setting. We summarize our data of molecular testing in the Collagen Diagnostic Laboratory (CDL) from 2008 to 2014 where NAI was noted on the request for DNA sequencing of COL1A1 and COL1A2. We provide recommendations for molecular testing in the NAI versus OI setting. First, DNA sequencing of COL1A1, COL1A2, and IFITM5 simultaneously and duplication/deletion testing is recommended. If a causative variant is not identified, in the absence of a pathologic clinical phenotype, no additional gene testing is indicated. If a VUS is found, parental segregation studies are recommended. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Modeling of a Parabolic Trough Solar Field for Acceptance Testing: A Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M. J.; Mehos, M. S.; Kearney, D. W.; McMahan, A. C.

    2011-01-01

    As deployment of parabolic trough concentrating solar power (CSP) systems ramps up, the need for reliable and robust performance acceptance test guidelines for the solar field is also amplified. Project owners and/or EPC contractors often require extensive solar field performance testing as part of the plant commissioning process in order to ensure that actual solar field performance satisfies both technical specifications and performance guaranties between the involved parties. Performance test code work is currently underway at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in collaboration with the SolarPACES Task-I activity, and within the ASME PTC-52 committee. One important aspect of acceptance testing is the selection of a robust technology performance model. NREL1 has developed a detailed parabolic trough performance model within the SAM software tool. This model is capable of predicting solar field, sub-system, and component performance. It has further been modified for this work to support calculation at subhourly time steps. This paper presents the methodology and results of a case study comparing actual performance data for a parabolic trough solar field to the predicted results using the modified SAM trough model. Due to data limitations, the methodology is applied to a single collector loop, though it applies to larger subfields and entire solar fields. Special consideration is provided for the model formulation, improvements to the model formulation based on comparison with the collected data, and uncertainty associated with the measured data. Additionally, this paper identifies modeling considerations that are of particular importance in the solar field acceptance testing process and uses the model to provide preliminary recommendations regarding acceptable steady-state testing conditions at the single-loop level.

  19. Eficiência dos testes cromáticos de comparação na discromatopsia hereditária: relato de casos Efficiency of color vision tests in hereditary dyschromatopsia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene Chaves Fernandes

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available As autoras relatam dois casos de discromatopsia hereditária e discutem a eficiência dos testes cromáticos no diagnóstico de uma discromatopsia. Os pacientes foram reprovados em diferentes concursos públicos federais por apresentarem diagnóstico de discromatopsia hereditária pelo teste de Ishihara. Submeteram-se a exame oftalmológico, com resultados dentro da normalidade. Procuraram novo parecer para melhor caracterização da sua discromatopsia. Não havia sintomas relacionados à deficiência. Os testes Panel D15 simples, D28 de Roth mostraram-se normais e o D15 dessaturado confirmou deutanomalia no caso 1. No segundo caso os testes de comparação mostraram alterações sem significado cromático. O diagnóstico de uma discromatopsia é muito complexo. As autoras destacam a importância de realização de testes de visão cromática complementares ao teste de Ishihara para diagnóstico de uma discromatopsia.The authors describe two cases of hereditary dyschromatopsia and discuss the efficiency of the color vision tests. The patients were disapproved in different federal public examinations because Ishihara's test diagnosed hereditary dyschromatopsia. Ophthalmological evaluation was normal. No symptoms related to dyschromatopsia were presented. Panels D15 and Roth D 28 were normal. Desaturated D 15 showed deuteranomaly in case one. In the second case the comparative color vision tests showed nonspecific disorder. The diagnosis of dyschromatopsia is complex. The authors recommend comparative color vision tests to complement the Ishihara test for a better understanding of the color deficiency.

  20. Testing the EKC hypothesis by considering trade openness, urbanization, and financial development: the case of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozatac, Nesrin; Gokmenoglu, Korhan K; Taspinar, Nigar

    2017-07-01

    This study investigates the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for the case of Turkey from 1960 to 2013 by considering energy consumption, trade, urbanization, and financial development variables. Although previous literature examines various aspects of the EKC hypothesis for the case of Turkey, our model augments the basic model with several covariates to develop a better understanding of the relationship among the variables and to refrain from omitted variable bias. The results of the bounds test and the error correction model under autoregressive distributed lag mechanism suggest long-run relationships among the variables as well as proof of the EKC and the scale effect in Turkey. A conditional Granger causality test reveals that there are causal relationships among the variables. Our findings can have policy implications including the imposition of a "polluter pays" mechanism, such as the implementation of a carbon tax for pollution trading, to raise the urban population's awareness about the importance of adopting renewable energy and to support clean, environmentally friendly technology.

  1. A Case of Fundus Oculi Albinoticus Diagnosed as Angelman Syndrome by Genetic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurie Fukiyama

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of fundus oculi albinoticus diagnosed as Angelman syndrome (AS via genetic testing. Case Report: This study reports on a 4-year-old boy. Since he had been having respiratory disturbance since birth, he underwent a complete physical examination to investigate the cause. The results indicated that he had various brain congenital abnormalities, such as a thin corpus callosum, as well as hydronephrosis, an atrial septal defect, and skin similar to patients with fundus oculi albinoticus. Examination revealed bilateral fundus oculi albinoticus, mild iridic hypopigmentation, optic atrophy, and poor visual tracking. Genetic testing revealed a deletion in the Prader-Willi syndrome/AS region on chromosome 15, and together with the results of methylation analysis, his condition was diagnosed as AS. Follow-up examinations revealed no change in the fundus oculi albinoticus and optic atrophy, nor did they indicate poor visual tracking. Conclusions: When fundus oculi albinoticus and optic atrophy are observed in patients with multiple malformations, AS should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  2. Test case specifications for coupled neutronics-thermal hydraulics calculation of Gas-cooled Fast Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuský, F.; Bahdanovich, R.; Farkas, G.; Haščík, J.; Tikhomirov, G. V.

    2017-01-01

    The paper is focused on development of the coupled neutronics-thermal hydraulics model for the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor. It is necessary to carefully investigate coupled calculations of new concepts to avoid recriticality scenarios, as it is not possible to ensure sub-critical state for a fast reactor core under core disruptive accident conditions. Above mentioned calculations are also very suitable for development of new passive or inherent safety systems that can mitigate the occurrence of the recriticality scenarios. In the paper, the most promising fuel material compositions together with a geometry model are described for the Gas-cooled fast reactor. Seven fuel pin and fuel assembly geometry is proposed as a test case for coupled calculation with three different enrichments of fissile material in the form of Pu-UC. The reflective boundary condition is used in radial directions of the test case and vacuum boundary condition is used in axial directions. During these condition, the nuclear system is in super-critical state and to achieve a stable state (which is numerical representation of operational conditions) it is necessary to decrease the reactivity of the system. The iteration scheme is proposed, where SCALE code system is used for collapsing of a macroscopic cross-section into few group representation as input for coupled code NESTLE.

  3. Cavitating Propeller Performance in Inclined Shaft Conditions with OpenFOAM: PPTC 2015 Test Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggero, Stefano; Villa, Diego

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present our analysis of the non-cavitating and cavitating unsteady performances of the Potsdam Propeller Test Case (PPTC) in oblique flow. For our calculations, we used the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation (RANSE) solver from the open-source OpenFOAM libraries. We selected the homogeneous mixture approach to solve for multiphase flow with phase change, using the volume of fluid (VoF) approach to solve the multiphase flow and modeling the mass transfer between vapor and water with the Schnerr-Sauer model. Comparing the model results with the experimental measurements collected during the Second Workshop on Cavitation and Propeller Performance - SMP'15 enabled our assessment of the reliability of the open-source calculations. Comparisons with the numerical data collected during the workshop enabled further analysis of the reliability of different flow solvers from which we produced an overview of recommended guidelines (mesh arrangements and solver setups) for accurate numerical prediction even in off-design conditions. Lastly, we propose a number of calculations using the boundary element method developed at the University of Genoa for assessing the reliability of this dated but still widely adopted approach for design and optimization in the preliminary stages of very demanding test cases.

  4. Individual external exposures from Nevada Test Site fallout for Utah leukemia cases and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, R.D.; Gren, D.C.; Simon, S.L.; Wrenn, M.E.; Hawthorne, H.A.; Lotz, T.M.; Stevens, W.; Till, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    External gamma-ray exposures from fallout originating at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) have been assigned to 6,507 individual subjects (1,177 leukemia cases and 5,330 control subjects) who died as Utah residents between 1952 and 1981. Leukemia cases were identified, confirmed, and classified by cell type from the Utah Cancer Registry, Utah State vital records, and medical records. Residential histories were obtained from the Deceased Membership File (DMF) of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS), supplemented by information from the LDS Church Census Records that were taken in 1950, 1955, and 1960-62. Control subjects were selected randomly within age strata from the DMF and were frequency-matched to the cases by age at death and for sex. Individual radiation exposures were assigned as a function of residence location and time interval for each residence during the fallout period (1951-1958) using geographic exposure data taken from the literature. Temporal distribution of exposure for subjects who resided in more than one locality or who were born or died during the fallout period was determined from data of other investigators. Calculated gamma-ray exposures for each place of residence were summed for each subject to yield the exposure to fallout from the NTS

  5. Validation of transport models for use in repository performance assessments: a view illustrated for INTRAVAL test case 1b

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.P.; Lever, D.A.; Sumner, P.J.

    1991-03-01

    We present our views on validation. We consider that validation is slightly different for general models and specific models. We stress the importance of presenting for review the case for (or against) a model. We outline a formal framework for validation, which helps to ensure that all the issues are addressed. Our framework includes calibration, testing predictions, comparison with alternative models, which we consider particularly important, analysis of discrepancies, presentation, consideration of implications and suggested improved experiments. We illustrate the approach by application to an INTRAVAL test case based on laboratory experiments. Three models were considered: a simple model that included the effects of advection, dispersion and equilibrium sorption, a model that also included the effects of rock-matrix diffusion, and a model with kinetic sorption. We show that the model with rock-matrix diffusion is the only one to provide a good description of the data. We stress the implications of extrapolating to larger length and time scales for repository performance assessments. (author)

  6. Analysis of motorcycle exhaust regular testing data--a case study of Taipei City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Chi; Chen, Lu-Yen; Jeng, Fu-Tien

    2009-06-01

    In Taiwan, a continuous increase in the number of motorcycles has made exhaust pollution one of the major emission sources of air pollutants. The regular testing program carried out by the Republic of China Environmental Protection Agency was designed to reduce air pollutant emissions by enhancing maintenance and repair. During the execution period, abundant testing results were accumulated to discuss pollutant emissions from motorcycles. Exhaust testing data of motorcycles in Taipei City from 1996 to 2005 were chosen as the basic data to survey changes in motorcycle exhaust. Effects of motorcycle age and mileage on exhaust pollution were studied. The introduction of advanced emission standards enhances the elimination of high-emitting motorcycles. The testing data indicate that the testing rate rose from approximately 50 to 70% and the failure rate changed from approximately 15 to 10%. The operation cycles of two-stroke motorcycles make them high-emitting vehicles. Concentrations of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons are higher in two-stroke motorcycle exhaust than that in four-stroke motorcycles. In contrast, the concentration of carbon dioxide produced from complete oxidation processes is lower in exhaust from two-stroke motorcycles. Therefore, failure rates of two-stroke motorcycles are higher than those of four-stroke motorcycles and were also observed to deactivate more easily. On the basis of analytical results of testing data, we found that failure rates show a gradually increasing trend for motorcycles older than 3 yr or used for mileages greater than 10,000 km, and failure rates are highly correlated to the age/mileage of motorcycles. We reason that the accumulation of age or mileage means accumulating usage time of engines and emission control systems. Concentrations of pollutant emissions would increase because of engine wear and emission control system deactivation. After discussing changes of failure rates and pollutant emissions, some suggestions are

  7. Comparison of ORSAT and SCARAB Reentry Analysis Tools for a Generic Satellite Test Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Robert L.; Hill, Nicole M.; Rochelle, W. C.; Johnson, Nicholas L.; Lips, T.

    2010-01-01

    Reentry analysis is essential to understanding the consequences of the full life cycle of a spacecraft. Since reentry is a key factor in spacecraft development, NASA and ESA have separately developed tools to assess the survivability of objects during reentry. Criteria such as debris casualty area and impact energy are particularly important to understanding the risks posed to people on Earth. Therefore, NASA and ESA have undertaken a series of comparison studies of their respective reentry codes for verification and improvements in accuracy. The NASA Object Reentry Survival Analysis Tool (ORSAT) and the ESA Spacecraft Atmospheric Reentry and Aerothermal Breakup (SCARAB) reentry analysis tools serve as standard codes for reentry survivability assessment of satellites. These programs predict whether an object will demise during reentry and calculate the debris casualty area of objects determined to survive, establishing the reentry risk posed to the Earth's population by surviving debris. A series of test cases have been studied for comparison and the most recent uses "Testsat," a conceptual satellite composed of generic parts, defined to use numerous simple shapes and various materials for a better comparison of the predictions of these two codes. This study is an improvement on the others in this series because of increased consistency in modeling techniques and variables. The overall comparison demonstrated that the two codes arrive at similar results. Either most objects modeled resulted in close agreement between the two codes, or if the difference was significant, the variance could be explained as a case of semantics in the model definitions. This paper presents the main results of ORSAT and SCARAB for the Testsat case and discusses the sources of any discovered differences. Discussion of the results of previous comparisons is made for a summary of differences between the codes and lessons learned from this series of tests.

  8. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX); Phase 1 Test Procedure: Building Thermal Fabric Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, Ron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States; Polly, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States; Bianchi, Marcus [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States; Neymark, Joel [J. Neymark & Associates, Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This report documents the initial Phase 1 test process for testing the reliability of software models that predict retrofit energy savings of existing homes, including their associated calibration methods.

  9. A case report of motor neuron disease in a patient showing significant level of DDTs, HCHs and organophosphate metabolites in hair as well as levels of hexane and toluene in blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanavouras, Konstantinos; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N.; Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Plaitakis, Andreas; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M.

    2011-01-01

    Motor neuron disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition, with the majority of sporadic, non-familial cases being of unknown etiology. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that occupational exposure to chemicals may be associated with disease pathogenesis. We report the case of a patient developing progressive motor neuron disease, who was chronically exposed to pesticides and organic solvents. The patient presented with leg spasticity and developed gradually clinical signs suggestive of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which was supported by the neurophysiologic and radiological findings. Our report is an evidence based case of combined exposure to organochlorine (DDTs), organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and organic solvents as confirmed by laboratory analysis in samples of blood and hair confirming systematic exposure. The concentration of non-specific dialkylphosphates metabolites (DAPs) of OPs in hair (dimethyphopshate (DMP) 1289.4 pg/mg and diethylphosphate (DEP) 709.4 pg/mg) and of DDTs (opDDE 484.0 pg/mg, ppDDE 526.6 pg/mg, opDDD 448.4 pg/mg, ppDDD + opDDT 259.9 pg/mg and ppDDT 573.7 pg/mg) were considerably significant. Toluene and n-hexane were also detected in blood on admission at hospital and quantified (1.23 and 0.87 μg/l, respectively), while 3 months after hospitalization blood testing was found negative for toluene and n-hexane and hair analysis was provided decrease levels of HCHs, DDTs and DAPs. -- Highlights: ► Exposure to pesticides and organic solvents might be a risk factor for sporadic MND. ► We report a patient who developed progressive upper and lower motor neuron disease. ► The patient had a history of occupational exposure to pesticides and solvents. ► High DDTs’ levels and increased levels of DMP and DEP were measured in his hair. ► The patients’ exposure to chemicals might have played a role in MND development.

  10. A case report of motor neuron disease in a patient showing significant level of DDTs, HCHs and organophosphate metabolites in hair as well as levels of hexane and toluene in blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanavouras, Konstantinos [Department of Neurology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tzatzarakis, Manolis N. [Center of Toxicology Science and Research, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Mastorodemos, Vasileios; Plaitakis, Andreas [Department of Neurology, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Tsatsakis, Aristidis M., E-mail: aris@med.uoc.gr [Center of Toxicology Science and Research, University of Crete, Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2011-11-15

    Motor neuron disease is a devastating neurodegenerative condition, with the majority of sporadic, non-familial cases being of unknown etiology. Several epidemiological studies have suggested that occupational exposure to chemicals may be associated with disease pathogenesis. We report the case of a patient developing progressive motor neuron disease, who was chronically exposed to pesticides and organic solvents. The patient presented with leg spasticity and developed gradually clinical signs suggestive of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which was supported by the neurophysiologic and radiological findings. Our report is an evidence based case of combined exposure to organochlorine (DDTs), organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and organic solvents as confirmed by laboratory analysis in samples of blood and hair confirming systematic exposure. The concentration of non-specific dialkylphosphates metabolites (DAPs) of OPs in hair (dimethyphopshate (DMP) 1289.4 pg/mg and diethylphosphate (DEP) 709.4 pg/mg) and of DDTs (opDDE 484.0 pg/mg, ppDDE 526.6 pg/mg, opDDD 448.4 pg/mg, ppDDD + opDDT 259.9 pg/mg and ppDDT 573.7 pg/mg) were considerably significant. Toluene and n-hexane were also detected in blood on admission at hospital and quantified (1.23 and 0.87 {mu}g/l, respectively), while 3 months after hospitalization blood testing was found negative for toluene and n-hexane and hair analysis was provided decrease levels of HCHs, DDTs and DAPs. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exposure to pesticides and organic solvents might be a risk factor for sporadic MND. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a patient who developed progressive upper and lower motor neuron disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patient had a history of occupational exposure to pesticides and solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High DDTs' levels and increased levels of DMP and DEP were measured in his hair. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The patients' exposure to chemicals might

  11. Accountability Issues in Testing Academic Literacy: The Case of the Test of Academic Literacy for Postgraduate Students (TALPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambiritch, Avasha

    2015-01-01

    Applied linguists should strive to ensure that the tests they design and use are not only fair and socially acceptable, but also have positive effects--this, in light of the fact that tests can sometimes have far-reaching and often detrimental effects on test-takers. What this paper will attempt to do, is highlight how this concern for responsible…

  12. Assuring consumer safety without animal testing: a feasibility case study for skin sensitisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Gavin; Aleksic, Maja; Aptula, Aynur; Carmichael, Paul; Fentem, Julia; Gilmour, Nicola; Mackay, Cameron; Pease, Camilla; Pendlington, Ruth; Reynolds, Fiona; Scott, Daniel; Warner, Guy; Westmoreland, Carl

    2008-11-01

    Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD; chemical-induced skin sensitisation) represents a key consumer safety endpoint for the cosmetics industry. At present, animal tests (predominantly the mouse Local Lymph Node Assay) are used to generate skin sensitisation hazard data for use in consumer safety risk assessments. An animal testing ban on chemicals to be used in cosmetics will come into effect in the European Union (EU) from March 2009. This animal testing ban is also linked to an EU marketing ban on products containing any ingredients that have been subsequently tested in animals, from March 2009 or March 2013, depending on the toxicological endpoint of concern. Consequently, the testing of cosmetic ingredients in animals for their potential to induce skin sensitisation will be subject to an EU marketing ban, from March 2013 onwards. Our conceptual framework and strategy to deliver a non-animal approach to consumer safety risk assessment can be summarised as an evaluation of new technologies (e.g. 'omics', informatics), leading to the development of new non-animal (in silico and in vitro) predictive models for the generation and interpretation of new forms of hazard characterisation data, followed by the development of new risk assessment approaches to integrate these new forms of data and information in the context of human exposure. Following the principles of the conceptual framework, we have been investigating existing and developing new technologies, models and approaches, in order to explore the feasibility of delivering consumer safety risk assessment decisions in the absence of new animal data. We present here our progress in implementing this conceptual framework, with the skin sensitisation endpoint used as a case study. 2008 FRAME.

  13. INTRAVAL Working group 2 summary report on Phase 2 analysis of the Finnsjoen test case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Peter; Winberg, A.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive series of tracer tests on a relatively large scale have been performed by SKB at Finnsjoen, Sweden, to increase understanding of transport phenomena which govern migration of radionuclides in major fracture zones. The conducted experiments were subsequently selected as a test in the international INTRAVAL Project, in part because the tests at Finnsjoe invite to direct address of validation of geosphere models. This report summarizes the study of the Finnsjoe test case within INTRAVAL Phase 2, which has involved nine project teams from seven countries. Porous media approaches in two dimensions dominated, although some project teams utilized one-dimensional transport models, and even three-dimensional approaches on a larger scale. The dimensionality employed did not appear to be decisive for the ability to reproduce the observed field responses. It was also demonstrated that stochastic approaches can be used in a validation process. Only four out of nine project teams studied more than one process. The general conclusion drawn is that flow and transport in the studied zone is governed by advection and that hydrodynamic dispersion is needed to explain the breakthrough curves. Matrix diffusion is assumed to have small or negligible effect. The performed analysis is dominated by numerical approaches applied on scales on the order of a 1000m. Taking scale alone into account, the results of most teams are possible to compare. A variety of validation aspects have been considered. Five teams utilized a model calibrated on one test, to predict another, whereas the two teams utilizing stochastic continuum approaches addressed; 1) validity of extrapolation of a model calibrated on one transport scale to a larger scale, 2) performance assessment implications of choice of underlying distribution model for hydraulic conductivity, respectively. 37 refs

  14. Sensitivity analysis methods and a biosphere test case implemented in EIKOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekstroem, P.A.; Broed, R.

    2006-05-01

    Computer-based models can be used to approximate real life processes. These models are usually based on mathematical equations, which are dependent on several variables. The predictive capability of models is therefore limited by the uncertainty in the value of these. Sensitivity analysis is used to apportion the relative importance each uncertain input parameter has on the output variation. Sensitivity analysis is therefore an essential tool in simulation modelling and for performing risk assessments. Simple sensitivity analysis techniques based on fitting the output to a linear equation are often used, for example correlation or linear regression coefficients. These methods work well for linear models, but for non-linear models their sensitivity estimations are not accurate. Usually models of complex natural systems are non-linear. Within the scope of this work, various sensitivity analysis methods, which can cope with linear, non-linear, as well as non-monotone problems, have been implemented, in a software package, EIKOS, written in Matlab language. The following sensitivity analysis methods are supported by EIKOS: Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (CC), Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient (RCC), Partial (Rank) Correlation Coefficients (PCC), Standardized (Rank) Regression Coefficients (SRC), Sobol' method, Jansen's alternative, Extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (EFAST) as well as the classical FAST method and the Smirnov and the Cramer-von Mises tests. A graphical user interface has also been developed, from which the user easily can load or call the model and perform a sensitivity analysis as well as uncertainty analysis. The implemented sensitivity analysis methods has been benchmarked with well-known test functions and compared with other sensitivity analysis software, with successful results. An illustration of the applicability of EIKOS is added to the report. The test case used is a landscape model consisting of several linked

  15. Sensitivity analysis methods and a biosphere test case implemented in EIKOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekstroem, P.A.; Broed, R. [Facilia AB, Stockholm, (Sweden)

    2006-05-15

    Computer-based models can be used to approximate real life processes. These models are usually based on mathematical equations, which are dependent on several variables. The predictive capability of models is therefore limited by the uncertainty in the value of these. Sensitivity analysis is used to apportion the relative importance each uncertain input parameter has on the output variation. Sensitivity analysis is therefore an essential tool in simulation modelling and for performing risk assessments. Simple sensitivity analysis techniques based on fitting the output to a linear equation are often used, for example correlation or linear regression coefficients. These methods work well for linear models, but for non-linear models their sensitivity estimations are not accurate. Usually models of complex natural systems are non-linear. Within the scope of this work, various sensitivity analysis methods, which can cope with linear, non-linear, as well as non-monotone problems, have been implemented, in a software package, EIKOS, written in Matlab language. The following sensitivity analysis methods are supported by EIKOS: Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (CC), Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient (RCC), Partial (Rank) Correlation Coefficients (PCC), Standardized (Rank) Regression Coefficients (SRC), Sobol' method, Jansen's alternative, Extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (EFAST) as well as the classical FAST method and the Smirnov and the Cramer-von Mises tests. A graphical user interface has also been developed, from which the user easily can load or call the model and perform a sensitivity analysis as well as uncertainty analysis. The implemented sensitivity analysis methods has been benchmarked with well-known test functions and compared with other sensitivity analysis software, with successful results. An illustration of the applicability of EIKOS is added to the report. The test case used is a landscape model consisting of several

  16. Value of renal scintigraphy with captopril test in the exploration of renovascular hypertension: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghfir, I.; Berehou, F.Z.; Ben Rais, N.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Dynamic renal scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DTPA and captopril test is a non-invasive functional method for the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. It allows differentiating between hypertension induced by renal arterial stenosis from primary arterial hypertension with an incidental stenosis. Case report A 14-year-old girl, without previous medical history, developed a severe arterial hypertension with cephalalgia and ears buzzing. Auscultation revealed a murmur in the left lumbar pit. Renal angiography objectified a stenosis of the infra renal aorta due to a circumferential parietal thickening associated to renal arteries stenosis more marked in the left side. Dynamic renal scintigraphy after administration of captopril highlighted a marked collapse of the rate of tracer uptake exceeding 40% on the left side with an increase in the time of collecting on the right side testifying a frankly positive test prevailing on the left. A transluminal angioplasty of the left renal artery and a revascularization surgery on the right side were carried out. The evolution was marked by an improvement of blood pressure figures. Discussion Dynamic renal scintigraphy using 99m Tc-DTPA with captopril test constitutes a non-invasive process with a low dosimetry for the patients. Its principal goal is to affirm the role of renovascular stenosis in the origin of arterial hypertension and to determine which hypertensive patients with renal arterial stenosis can be treated successfully by surgical or endoscopic revascularization of the kidney. (authors)

  17. BASHH 2016 UK national audit and survey of HIV testing, risk assessment and follow-up: case note audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaduri, Sumit; Curtis, Hilary; McClean, Hugo; Sullivan, Ann K

    2018-01-01

    This national audit demonstrated discrepancies between actual practice and that indicated by clinic policies following enquiry about alcohol, recreational drugs and chemsex use. Clinics were more likely to enquire about risk behaviour if this was clinic policy or routine practice. Previous testing was the most common reason for refusing HIV testing, although 33% of men who have sex with men had a prior test of more than three months ago. Of the group declining due to recent exposure in the window period, 21/119 cases had an exposure within the four weeks prior to presentation, but had a previous risk not covered by previous testing. Recommendations include provision of risk assessments for alcohol, recreational drug use and chemsex, documenting reasons for HIV test refusal, provision of HIV point-of-care testing, follow-up for cases at higher risk of HIV and advice about community testing or self-sampling/testing.

  18. Strength and fatigue testing of large size wind turbines rotors. Vol. II: Full size natural vibration and static strength test, a reference case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, F.; Soria, E.

    1996-12-01

    This report shows the methods and procedures selected to define a strength test for large size wind turbine, anyway in particular it application on a 500 kW blade and it results obtained in the test carried out in july of 1995 in Asinel`s test plant (Madrid). Henceforth, this project is designed in an abbreviate form whit the acronym SFAT. (Author)

  19. Strength and fatigue testing of large size wind turbines rotors. Volume II. Full size natural vibration and static strength test, a reference case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias, F.; Soria, E.

    1996-01-01

    This report shows the methods and procedures selected to define a strength test for large size wind turbine, anyway in particularly it application on a 500 kW blade and it results obtained in the test carried out in july of 1995 in Asinel test plant (Madrid). Henceforth, this project is designed in an abbreviate form whit the acronym SFAT. (Author)

  20. A practical model-based statistical approach for generating functional test cases: application in the automotive industry

    OpenAIRE

    Awédikian , Roy; Yannou , Bernard

    2012-01-01

    International audience; With the growing complexity of industrial software applications, industrials are looking for efficient and practical methods to validate the software. This paper develops a model-based statistical testing approach that automatically generates online and offline test cases for embedded software. It discusses an integrated framework that combines solutions for three major software testing research questions: (i) how to select test inputs; (ii) how to predict the expected...

  1. A report on the piloting of a novel computer-based medical case simulation for teaching and formative assessment of diagnostic laboratory testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarence D. Kreiter

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Insufficient attention has been given to how information from computer-based clinical case simulations is presented, collected, and scored. Research is needed on how best to design such simulations to acquire valid performance assessment data that can act as useful feedback for educational applications. This report describes a study of a new simulation format with design features aimed at improving both its formative assessment feedback and educational function. Methods: Case simulation software (LabCAPS was developed to target a highly focused and well-defined measurement goal with a response format that allowed objective scoring. Data from an eight-case computer-based performance assessment administered in a pilot study to 13 second-year medical students was analyzed using classical test theory and generalizability analysis. In addition, a similar analysis was conducted on an administration in a less controlled setting, but to a much large sample (n=143, within a clinical course that utilized two random case subsets from a library of 18 cases. Results: Classical test theory case-level item analysis of the pilot assessment yielded an average case discrimination of 0.37, and all eight cases were positively discriminating (range=0.11–0.56. Classical test theory coefficient alpha and the decision study showed the eight-case performance assessment to have an observed reliability of σ=G=0.70. The decision study further demonstrated that a G=0.80 could be attained with approximately 3 h and 15 min of testing. The less-controlled educational application within a large medical class produced a somewhat lower reliability for eight cases (G=0.53. Students gave high ratings to the logic of the simulation interface, its educational value, and to the fidelity of the tasks. Conclusions: LabCAPS software shows the potential to provide formative assessment of medical students’ skill at diagnostic test ordering and to provide valid feedback to

  2. Building Energy Simulation Test for Existing Homes (BESTEST-EX); Phase 1 Test Procedure: Building Thermal Fabric Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R.; Polly, B.; Bianchi, M.; Neymark, J.

    2010-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy tasked NREL to develop a process for testing the reliability of models that predict retrofit energy savings, including their associated calibration methods. DOE asked NREL to conduct the work in phases so that a test procedure would be ready should DOE need it to meet legislative requirements related to residential retrofits in FY 2010. This report documents the initial 'Phase 1' test procedure.

  3. Digital test assembly of truck parts with the IMMA-tool--an illustrative case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, L; Högberg, D; Söderholm, M

    2012-01-01

    Several digital human modelling (DHM) tools have been developed for simulation and visualisation of human postures and motions. In 2010 the DHM tool IMMA (Intelligently Moving Manikins) was introduced as a DHM tool that uses advanced path planning techniques to generate collision free and biomechanically acceptable motions for digital human models (as well as parts) in complex assembly situations. The aim of the paper is to illustrate how the IPS/IMMA tool is used at Scania CV AB in a digital test assembly process, and to compare the tool with other DHM tools on the market. The illustrated case of using the IMMA tool, here combined with the path planner tool IPS, indicates that the tool is promising. The major strengths of the tool are its user friendly interface, the motion generation algorithms, the batch simulation of manikins and the ergonomics assessment methods that consider time.

  4. Positive results of serological tests for syphilis in pregnancy – diagnostic and therapeutic problems, report of two cases

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Koper; Agnieszka B. Serwin; Anna Baran; Iwona Flisiak

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Undiagnosed and untreated syphilis in pregnancy may result in subsequent complications: early fetal loss, stillbirth, low birth weight of infants and newborns with congenital syphilis. Objective. To analyze diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas of positive results of serological tests for syphilis (STS) in pregnancy. Case reports. We present two cases of pregnant women, hospitalized in our department due to positive results of serological tests for syphilis, pe...

  5. Avoiding pitfalls in molecular genetic testing: case studies of high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization testing in the definitive diagnosis of Mowat-Wilson syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluk, Michael Joseph; An, Yu; James, Philip; Coulter, David; Harris, David; Wu, Bai-Lin; Shen, Yiping

    2011-05-01

    The molecular testing options available for the diagnosis of genetic disorders are numerous and include a variety of different assay platforms. The consultative input of molecular pathologists and cytogeneticists, working closely with the ordering clinicians, is often important for definitive diagnosis. Herein, we describe two patients who had long histories of unexplained signs and symptoms with a high clinical suspicion of an underlying genetic etiology. Initial molecular testing in both cases was negative, but the application of high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization technology lead to definitive diagnosis in both cases. We summarize the clinical findings and molecular testing in each case, discuss the differential diagnoses, and review the clinical and pathological findings of Mowat-Wilson syndrome. This report highlights the importance for those involved in molecular testing to know the nature of the underlying genetic abnormalities associated with the suspected diagnosis, to recognize the limitations of each testing platform, and to persistently pursue repeat testing using high-resolution technologies when indicated. This concept is applicable to both germline and somatic molecular genetic testing. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. HIV testing, antiretroviral therapy, and treatment outcomes in new cases of tuberculosis in Brazil, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Torrens

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To assess the implementation of HIV-related interventions for patients with tuberculosis (TB, as well as TB treatment outcomes in patients coinfected with HIV in Brazil in 2011. Methods This was a cross-sectional, operational research study of HIV-related interventions among TB cases and the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of TB-HIV coinfected patients. It also used a retrospective cohort design to determine the association between antiretroviral therapy (ART and favorable TB treatment outcomes. The source of data was a linkage of 2011 administrative health databases used by the National TB and HIV/AIDS Programs. Results Of 73 741 new cases of TB reported, 63.6% (46 865 patients were tested for HIV; 10.3% were positive. Of patients with HIV, 45.9% or 3 502 were on ART. TB favorable outcome was achieved in 63.1% or 2 205 coinfected patients on ART and in only 35.4% or 1 459 of those not on ART. On multivariate analysis, the relative risk for the association between ART and TB treatment success was 1.72 (95% Confidence Interval = 1.64–1.81. Conclusions The linkage between national TB and HIV datasets has created a convenient baseline for ongoing monitoring of HIV testing, ART use, and TB treatment outcomes among coinfected patients. The low rates of HIV screening and ART use in 2011 need to be improved. The association between ART and treatment success adds to the evidence supporting timely initiation of ART for all patients with TB-HIV coinfection.

  7. IPRT polarized radiative transfer model intercomparison project - Three-dimensional test cases (phase B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emde, Claudia; Barlakas, Vasileios; Cornet, Céline; Evans, Frank; Wang, Zhen; Labonotte, Laurent C.; Macke, Andreas; Mayer, Bernhard; Wendisch, Manfred

    2018-04-01

    Initially unpolarized solar radiation becomes polarized by scattering in the Earth's atmosphere. In particular molecular scattering (Rayleigh scattering) polarizes electromagnetic radiation, but also scattering of radiation at aerosols, cloud droplets (Mie scattering) and ice crystals polarizes. Each atmospheric constituent produces a characteristic polarization signal, thus spectro-polarimetric measurements are frequently employed for remote sensing of aerosol and cloud properties. Retrieval algorithms require efficient radiative transfer models. Usually, these apply the plane-parallel approximation (PPA), assuming that the atmosphere consists of horizontally homogeneous layers. This allows to solve the vector radiative transfer equation (VRTE) efficiently. For remote sensing applications, the radiance is considered constant over the instantaneous field-of-view of the instrument and each sensor element is treated independently in plane-parallel approximation, neglecting horizontal radiation transport between adjacent pixels (Independent Pixel Approximation, IPA). In order to estimate the errors due to the IPA approximation, three-dimensional (3D) vector radiative transfer models are required. So far, only a few such models exist. Therefore, the International Polarized Radiative Transfer (IPRT) working group of the International Radiation Commission (IRC) has initiated a model intercomparison project in order to provide benchmark results for polarized radiative transfer. The group has already performed an intercomparison for one-dimensional (1D) multi-layer test cases [phase A, 1]. This paper presents the continuation of the intercomparison project (phase B) for 2D and 3D test cases: a step cloud, a cubic cloud, and a more realistic scenario including a 3D cloud field generated by a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model and typical background aerosols. The commonly established benchmark results for 3D polarized radiative transfer are available at the IPRT website (http

  8. Institutionalizing provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling for children: an observational case study from Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutanga, Jane N; Raymond, Juliette; Towle, Megan S; Mutembo, Simon; Fubisha, Robert Captain; Lule, Frank; Muhe, Lulu

    2012-01-01

    Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC) is a priority strategy for increasing access for HIV-exposed children to prevention measures, and infected children to treatment and care interventions. This article examines efforts to scale-up paediatric PITC at a second-level hospital located in Zambia's Southern Province, and serving a catchment area of 1.2 million people. Our retrospective case study examined best practices and enabling factors for rapid institutionalization of PITC in Livingstone General Hospital. Methods included clinical observations, key informant interviews with programme management, and a desk review of hospital management information systems (HMIS) uptake data following the introduction of PITC. After PITC roll-out, the hospital experienced considerably higher testing uptake. In a 36-month period following PITC institutionalization, of total inpatient children eligible for PITC (n = 5074), 98.5% of children were counselled, and 98.2% were tested. Of children tested (n = 4983), 15.5% were determined HIV-infected; 77.6% of these results were determined by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing in children under the age of 18 months. Of children identified as HIV-infected in the hospital's inpatient and outpatient departments (n = 1342), 99.3% were enrolled in HIV care, including initiation on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. A number of good operational practices and enabling factors in the Livingstone General Hospital experience can inform rapid PITC institutionalization for inpatient and outpatient children. These include the placement of full-time nurse counsellors at key areas of paediatric intake, who interface with patients immediately and conduct testing and counselling. They are reinforced through task-shifting to peer counsellors in the wards. Nurse counsellor capacity to draw specimen for DNA PCR for children under 18 months has significantly enhanced early infant diagnosis. The hospital's bolstered antiretroviral

  9. Institutionalizing provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling for children: an observational case study from Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane N Mutanga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC is a priority strategy for increasing access for HIV-exposed children to prevention measures, and infected children to treatment and care interventions. This article examines efforts to scale-up paediatric PITC at a second-level hospital located in Zambia's Southern Province, and serving a catchment area of 1.2 million people. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our retrospective case study examined best practices and enabling factors for rapid institutionalization of PITC in Livingstone General Hospital. Methods included clinical observations, key informant interviews with programme management, and a desk review of hospital management information systems (HMIS uptake data following the introduction of PITC. After PITC roll-out, the hospital experienced considerably higher testing uptake. In a 36-month period following PITC institutionalization, of total inpatient children eligible for PITC (n = 5074, 98.5% of children were counselled, and 98.2% were tested. Of children tested (n = 4983, 15.5% were determined HIV-infected; 77.6% of these results were determined by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing in children under the age of 18 months. Of children identified as HIV-infected in the hospital's inpatient and outpatient departments (n = 1342, 99.3% were enrolled in HIV care, including initiation on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. A number of good operational practices and enabling factors in the Livingstone General Hospital experience can inform rapid PITC institutionalization for inpatient and outpatient children. These include the placement of full-time nurse counsellors at key areas of paediatric intake, who interface with patients immediately and conduct testing and counselling. They are reinforced through task-shifting to peer counsellors in the wards. Nurse counsellor capacity to draw specimen for DNA PCR for children under 18 months has significantly enhanced early

  10. Testing the Molecular Clock Using the Best Fossil Record: Case Studies from the Planktic Foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, B. A.; Kucera, M.; Darling, K.

    2004-12-01

    Criticism of molecular clock studies often centres on inadequate calibration and a perceived lack of correlation between reproductive isolation and recognisable morphological evolution. Since many major groups (e.g. birds, mammals, reptiles) have a poor fossil record, it is often difficult to test and refute these limitations. Planktic foraminifera represent an exception to this rule. Deep-sea sediments are super-abundant in foraminifera, and large numbers of specimens and occurrences are easily garnered from Ocean Drilling Programme cores. Planktic foraminifera therefore represent an ideal model group with which to test and refine molecular clock studies. Since the 1990AƒAøAøâ_sA¬Aøâ_zAøs, genetic sequences (principally 18S r-RNA) have been extracted from living planktic foraminifera, and a large genetic library has developed. Our study attempts to contextualise and test molecular data, particularly AƒAøAøâ_sA¬Agenetic studies have suggested that these two AƒAøAøâ_sA¬A<Å"super-speciesAƒAøAøâ_sA¬Aøâ_zAø in fact consist of a number of isolated forms, with contrasting ecologies and longevities, which in Recent and sub-Recent sediments can be distinguished either on the basis of pore ultrastructure (Gl. siphonifera) or test colouration (Gs. ruber). In both cases, molecular clock estimates are indicative of ancient (7-11 Ma) intra-species cryptic divergences, which seem to be considerably older than fossil dates. In particular, the calculated molecular split between the two forms of Gs. ruber (AƒAøAøâ_sA¬A<Å"whiteAƒAøAøâ_sA¬Aøâ_zAø and AƒAøAøâ_sA¬A<Å"pinkAƒAøAøâ_sA¬Aøâ_zAø) of around 11 Ma is considerably discordant with the fossil date of around 0.7 Ma. At first glance, this may appear to be a classic case of molecular over-estimation, often a feature of clock models, especially where, as in the foraminifera, substitution rates may vary widely. However, there is good reason to suspect that fossil range of the

  11. Outline of sodium-water reaction test in case of large leak with SWAT-3 testing equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Minoru

    1978-01-01

    The key component in sodium-cooled fast reactors in steam generators, and the sodium-water reaction owing to the break of heating tubes may cause serious damages in equipments and pipings. The main factor controlling this phenomenon is the rate of leak of water. When the rate of water leak is small, the propagation of heating tube breaking may occur owing to ''wastage phenomenon'', on the other hand, when the rate of water leak is large, the phenomena of explosive pressure and flow occur due to the reaction heat and a large quantity of hydrogen generated by the reaction. In PNC, the testing equipments of SWAT-2 for small water leak and SWAT-1 for large leak were constructed, and the development test has been carried out to establish the method of safety design experimentally. The synthetic test equipment for the safety of steam generators, SWAT-3, was constructed to carry out the large water leak test in the scale close to actual plants. The object of the test, the outline of the test equipment, the phenomena of pressure and flow in the water injection test, the confirmation of the occurrence of secondary breaking of adjacent heating tubes, and the disposal of reaction products are described in this paper. This test is till going on, and the final conclusion will be reported later. (Kako, I.)

  12. Informed Choice in Direct-to-Consumer Genetic Testing for Alzheimer and Other Diseases: Lessons from Two Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messner, Donna A

    2011-01-01

    Health-related direct-to-consumer (DTC) genetic testing has been a controversial practice. Especially problematic is predictive testing for Alzheimer disease (AD), since the disease is incurable, prevention is inconclusive, and testing does not definitively predict an individual's future disease status. In this paper, I examine two contrasting cases of subjects who learn through genetic testing that they have an elevated risk of developing AD later in life. In these cases, the subject's emotional response to the result is related to how well prepared she was for the real-life personal implications of possible test results. Analysis leads to the conclusion that when groups of health-related genetic tests are offered as packages by DTC companies, informed consumer choice is rendered impossible. Moreover, I argue, this marketing approach contravenes U.S. Federal Trade Commission policies for non-deceptive commercial communications. I conclude by suggesting ways to improve the prospects for informed consumer choice in DTC testing.

  13. Simplifying consent for HIV testing is associated with an increase in HIV testing and case detection in highest risk groups, San Francisco January 2003-June 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola M Zetola

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Populations at highest risk for HIV infection face multiple barriers to HIV testing. To facilitate HIV testing procedures, the San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center eliminated required written patient consent for HIV testing in its medical settings in May 2006. To describe the change in HIV testing rates in different hospital settings and populations after the change in HIV testing policy in the SFDH medical center, we performed an observational study using interrupted time series analysis.Data from all patients aged 18 years and older seen from January 2003 through June 2007 at the San Francisco Department of Public Health (SFDPH medical care system were included in the analysis. The monthly HIV testing rate per 1000 had patient-visits was calculated for the overall population and stratified by hospital setting, age, sex, race/ethnicity, homelessness status, insurance status and primary language.By June 2007, the average monthly rate of HIV tests per 1000 patient-visits increased 4.38 (CI, 2.17-6.60, p<0.001 over the number predicted if the policy change had not occurred (representing a 44% increase. The monthly average number of new positive HIV tests increased from 8.9 (CI, 6.3-11.5 to 14.9 (CI, 10.6-19.2, p<0.001, representing a 67% increase. Although increases in HIV testing were seen in all populations, populations at highest risk for HIV infection, particularly men, the homeless, and the uninsured experienced the highest increases in monthly HIV testing rates after the policy change.The elimination of the requirement for written consent in May 2006 was associated with a significant and sustained increase in HIV testing rates and HIV case detection in the SFDPH medical center. Populations facing the higher barriers to HIV testing had the highest increases in HIV testing rates and case detection in response to the policy change.

  14. Gravitational quadrupolar coupling to equivalence principle test masses: the general case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockerbie, N A

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the quadrupolar gravitational force in the context of test masses destined for use in equivalence principle (EP) experiments, such as STEP and MICROSCOPE. The relationship between quadrupolar gravity and rotational inertia for an arbitrary body is analysed, and the special, gravitational, role of a body's principal axes of inertia is revealed. From these considerations the gravitational quadrupolar force acting on a cylindrically symmetrical body, due to a point-like attracting source mass, is derived in terms of the body's mass quadrupole tensor. The result is shown to be in agreement with that obtained from MacCullagh's formula (as the starting point). The theory is then extended to cover the case of a completely arbitrary solid body, and a compact formulation for the quadrupolar force on such a body is derived. A numerical example of a dumb-bell's attraction to a local point-like gravitational source is analysed using this theory. Close agreement is found between the resulting quadrupolar force on the body and the difference between the net and the monopolar forces acting on it, underscoring the utility of the approach. A dynamical technique for experimentally obtaining the mass quadrupole tensors of EP test masses is discussed, and a means of validating the results is noted

  15. Investigation of Nonlinear Site Response and Seismic Compression from Case History Analysis and Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Eric

    In this thesis I address a series of issues related to ground failure and ground motions during earthquakes. A major component is the evaluation of cyclic volumetric strain behavior of unsaturated soils, more commonly known as seismic compression, from advanced laboratory testing. Another major component is the application of nonlinear and equivalent linear ground response analyses to large-strain problems involving highly nonlinear dynamic soil behavior. These two components are merged in the analysis of a truly unique and crucial field case history of nonlinear site response and seismic compression. My first topic concerns dynamic soil testing for relatively small strain dynamic soil properties such as threshold strains, gammatv. Such testing is often conducted using specialized devices such as dual-specimen simple-shear, as devices configured for large strain testing produce noisy signals in the small strain range. Working with a simple shear device originally developed for large-strain testing, I extend its low-strain capabilities by characterizing noisy signals and utilizing several statistical methods to extract meaningful responses in the small strain range. I utilize linear regression of a transformed variable to estimate the cyclic shear strain from a noisy signal and the confidence interval on its amplitude. I utilize Kernel regression with the Nadaraya-Watson estimator and a Gaussian kernel to evaluate vertical strain response. A practical utilization of these techniques is illustrated by evaluating threshold shear strains for volume change with a procedure that takes into account uncertainties in the measured shear and vertical strains. My second topic concerns the seismic compression characteristics of non-plastic and low-plasticity silty sands with varying fines content (10 ≤ FC ≤ 60%). Simple shear testing was performed on various sand-fines mixtures at a range of modified Proctor relative compaction levels ( RC) and degrees-of-saturation (S

  16. Validity test of purchasing power parity doctrine: An Indonesian case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahabudin Sidiq

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to analyze the doctrine purchasing power parity (PPP in Indonesia with the case study of the rupiah exchange rate to U.S. dollar. The autoregressive is used to estimate the relationship between the change of exchange rate and the difference Indonesia–USA inflation rate. The data used in this study are quarterly data obtained from the International Financial Statistics (IFS and Bank Indonesia (BI with the period 1997Q4-2013Q4. The exchange rate that used in this study is using the rate on rupiah to U S dollar. The price data used consumer price index in Indonesia and the United States with a base year of 2000. The results of this study show, that rupiah to the U.S. dollar is undervalued during the free floating exchange rate system and, the PPP doctrine to the case of the rupiah to the U.S. dollar is not valid in the period of this study.

  17. The Rorschach test and Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: a pilot case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balottin, Umberto; Rossi, Maura; Rossi, Giorgio; Viganò, Lucia; Nanti, Marta; Salini, Silvia; Lanzi, Giovanni; Termine, Cristiano

    2009-10-01

    To date only three studies, all lacking a control group, have investigated the personality style underlying tic disorders or Tourette's syndrome (TS), using the projective Rorschach test. Despite the recent controversy about its proper use in clinical practice and research, the Rorschach test may be useful to explore personality organization in TS. The research hypothesis under investigation in this exploratory study was that young TS patients exhibit a peculiar personality organization, with significantly increased indicators of poor emotional control, aggression, anxiety and depression, on the Rorschach test, compared to healthy controls. We analyed the Rorschach protocols of 17 newly diagnosed paediatric TS patients and 17 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Compared with the controls young TS patients recorded significantly lower mean percentages of F and F+ responses and a significantly higher number of FM and FC responses, thus showing reduced control of emotions and difficulty in integrating aggressivity. Furthermore, associations emerged between comorbidity with ADHD and increased emotional instability and between severity of tics and of OCD and a pattern of emotional hyper-control and application of rigid defensive mechanisms. These results seem to confirm the existence of a peculiar personality style in young TS patients and may have important implications, both pathogenetic and therapeutic.

  18. Test plan for qualification of the S-type fiberglass materials for use as the liquid observation well casing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    This test plan presents the guidelines and requirements for acceptance of the S-type fiberglass material for use as the liquid observation well casing material. The plan for evaluating the physical properties of the candidate fiberglass materials when subjected to radiation, corrosive chemicals, and high temperatures typically found in the waste tanks are outlined. The tests also include tube connection evaluations. Finally, the test plan identifies the participants, their responsibilities, and the schedule for completion of the work

  19. A case report and literature review of Fanconi Anemia (FA) diagnosed by genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Ponnumony John; Margaret, Priya; Rajendran, Ramya; Ramalingam, Revathy; Menezes, Godfred A; Shirley, Alph S; Lee, Seung Jun; Seong, Moon-Woo; Park, Sung Sup; Seol, Dodam; Seo, Soo Hyun

    2015-05-08

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital malformations, hematological problems and predisposition to malignancies. The genes that have been found to be mutated in FA patients are called FANC. To date 16 distinct FANC genes have been reported. Among these, mutations in FANCA are the most frequent among FA patients worldwide which account for 60- 65%. In this study, a nine years old male child was brought to our hospital one year ago for opinion and advice. He was the third child born to consanguineous parents. The mutation analyses were performed for proband, parents, elder sibling and the relatives [maternal aunt and maternal aunt's son (cousin)]. Molecular genetic testing [targeted next-generation sequencing (MiSeq, Illumina method)] was performed by mutation analysis in 15 genes involved. Entire coding exons and their flanking regions of the genes were analysed. Sanger sequencing [(ABI 3730 analyzer by Applied Biosystems)] was performed using primers specific for 43 coding exons of the FANCA gene. A novel splice site mutation, c.3066 + 1G > T, (IVS31 + 1G > T), homozygote was detected by sequencing in the patient. The above sequence variant was identified in heterozygous state in his parents. Further, the above sequence variant was not identified in other family members (elder sibling, maternal aunt and cousin). It is concluded that genetic study should be done if possible in all the cases of suspected FA, including siblings, parents and close blood relatives. It will help us to plan appropriate treatment and also to select suitable donor for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and to plan for genetic counseling. In addition to the case report, the main focus of this manuscript was to review literature on role of FANCA gene in FA since large number of FANCA mutations and polymorphisms have been identified.

  20. Evaluation of PDA Technical Report No 33. Statistical Testing Recommendations for a Rapid Microbiological Method Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Thomas; Schwedock, Julie; Nguyen, Kham; Mills, Anna; Jones, David

    2015-01-01

    New recommendations for the validation of rapid microbiological methods have been included in the revised Technical Report 33 release from the PDA. The changes include a more comprehensive review of the statistical methods to be used to analyze data obtained during validation. This case study applies those statistical methods to accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and equivalence data obtained using a rapid microbiological methods system being evaluated for water bioburden testing. Results presented demonstrate that the statistical methods described in the PDA Technical Report 33 chapter can all be successfully applied to the rapid microbiological method data sets and gave the same interpretation for equivalence to the standard method. The rapid microbiological method was in general able to pass the requirements of PDA Technical Report 33, though the study shows that there can be occasional outlying results and that caution should be used when applying statistical methods to low average colony-forming unit values. Prior to use in a quality-controlled environment, any new method or technology has to be shown to work as designed by the manufacturer for the purpose required. For new rapid microbiological methods that detect and enumerate contaminating microorganisms, additional recommendations have been provided in the revised PDA Technical Report No. 33. The changes include a more comprehensive review of the statistical methods to be used to analyze data obtained during validation. This paper applies those statistical methods to analyze accuracy, precision, ruggedness, and equivalence data obtained using a rapid microbiological method system being validated for water bioburden testing. The case study demonstrates that the statistical methods described in the PDA Technical Report No. 33 chapter can be successfully applied to rapid microbiological method data sets and give the same comparability results for similarity or difference as the standard method. © PDA, Inc

  1. What's in a voice? Prosody as a test case for the Theory of Mind account of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Coralie; Noveck, Ira; Happé, Francesca; Wilson, Deirdre

    2011-02-01

    The human voice conveys a variety of information about people's feelings, emotions and mental states. Some of this information relies on sophisticated Theory of Mind (ToM) skills, whilst others are simpler and do not require ToM. This variety provides an interesting test case for the ToM account of autism, which would predict greater impairment as ToM requirements increase. In this paper, we draw on psychological and pragmatic theories to classify vocal cues according to the amount of mindreading required to identify them. Children with a high functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder and matched controls were tested in three experiments where the speakers' state had to be extracted from their vocalizations. Although our results confirm that people with autism have subtle difficulties dealing with vocal cues, they show a pattern of performance that is inconsistent with the view that atypical recognition of vocal cues is caused by impaired ToM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of molecular subtypes for the increased HER2 equivocal cases caused by application of the updated 2013 ASCO/CAP HER2 testing guidelines in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lei; Yuan, Pei; Zhang, Jing; Ling, Yun; Li, Wenbin; Zhao, Bohui; Ying, Jianming; Xuan, Lixue

    2017-11-01

    Accurate testing of the status of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) is a prerequisite for HER2-directed therapy. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) and the College of American Pathologists (CAP) published joint guideline recommendations for HER2 testing in breast cancer in 2007 and it was updated in 2013. We compared the HER2 gene amplification status based on these two guidelines and analyzed the molecular characteristics of the equivocal cases. A total of 1894 patient samples were analyzed for both immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). HER2 FISH amplification was examined and re-assessed using 2013 guidelines. According to the 2013 ASCO/CAP recommendations, 763 (40.3%) cases were classified as HER2 positive compared with 729 (38.5%) cases defined by 2007 guidelines. There was a significant increase of 6.1% in the proportion of HER2 FISH equivocal cases that were interpreted using ASCO/CAP 2013 (7.3%) compared with 2007 (1.2%) guidelines (P guidelines, 125 cases were IHC2+ and 13 cases were IHC1+. These 125 cases included 4 double equivocal cases which were defined as equivocal by both 2007 and 2013 guidelines and 121 cases whose status was changed from negative defined by 2007 guidelines to equivocal defined by 2013 guidelines. Compared with luminal A type and luminal B type respectively, these 121 equivocal cases demonstrated no significant difference with luminal B type in T stage and N stage (P = 0.192, P = 0.421). When we divided the luminal B type into two parts that included HER2 negative cases and HER2 positive cases, the equivocal cases also showed no significant difference with these two subtypes in T stage and N stage. Our study suggested that implementation of the revised ASCO/CAP 2013 guidelines resulted in an increase of 1.7% in overall HER2 positivity rate and of 6.1% in equivocal cases. Pathological analysis revealed that these equivocal cases exhibit similar biological

  3. Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System for Turbofan Engines. Volume 3; Validation and Test Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Bruce L.

    2010-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney has developed a Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System (BFaNS) for turbofan engines. This system computes the noise generated by turbulence impinging on the leading edges of the fan and fan exit guide vane, and noise generated by boundary-layer turbulence passing over the fan trailing edge. BFaNS has been validated on three fan rigs that were tested during the NASA Advanced Subsonic Technology Program (AST). The predicted noise spectra agreed well with measured data. The predicted effects of fan speed, vane count, and vane sweep also agreed well with measurements. The noise prediction system consists of two computer programs: Setup_BFaNS and BFaNS. Setup_BFaNS converts user-specified geometry and flow-field information into a BFaNS input file. From this input file, BFaNS computes the inlet and aft broadband sound power spectra generated by the fan and FEGV. The output file from BFaNS contains the inlet, aft and total sound power spectra from each noise source. This report is the third volume of a three-volume set documenting the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System: Volume 1: Setup_BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; Volume 2: BFaNS User s Manual and Developer s Guide; and Volume 3: Validation and Test Cases. The present volume begins with an overview of the Broadband Fan Noise Prediction System, followed by validation studies that were done on three fan rigs. It concludes with recommended improvements and additional studies for BFaNS.

  4. Testing Pneumonia Vaccines in the Elderly: Determining a Case Definition for Pneumococcal Pneumonia in the Absence of a Gold Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokinen, Jukka; Snellman, Marja; Palmu, Arto A; Saukkoriipi, Annika; Verlant, Vincent; Pascal, Thierry; Devaster, Jeanne-Marie; Hausdorff, William P; Kilpi, Terhi M

    2017-12-15

    Clinical assessments of vaccines to prevent pneumococcal (Pnc) community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) require sensitive and specific case definitions, but there is no gold standard diagnostic test. To develop a new case definition suitable for vaccine efficacy studies, we applied latent class analysis (LCA) to the results from seven diagnostic tests for Pnc etiology on clinical specimens from 323 elderly radiologically-confirmed pneumonia cases enrolled in The Finnish Community-Acquired Pneumonia Epidemiology study during 2005-2007. Compared to the conventional use of LCA, which is mainly to determine sensitivities and specificities of different tests, we instead used LCA as an appropriate instrument to predict the probability of Pnc etiology for each CAP case based on their test profiles, and utilized the predictions to minimize the sample size that would be needed for a vaccine efficacy trial. When compared to the conventional laboratory criteria of encapsulated Pnc in blood culture or in high-quality sputum culture or urine antigen positivity, our optimized case definition for PncCAP resulted in a trial sample size which was almost 20,000 subjects smaller. We believe that our novel application of LCA detailed here to determine a case definition for PncCAP could also be similarly applied to other diseases without a gold standard. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  5. Strategy to Identify and Test Putative Light-Sensitive Non-Opsin G-Protein-Coupled Receptors: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faggionato, Davide; Serb, Jeanne M

    2017-08-01

    The rise of high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and de novo transcriptome assembly has had a transformative impact on how we identify and study genes in the phototransduction cascade of non-model organisms. But the advantage provided by the nearly automated annotation of RNA-seq transcriptomes may at the same time hinder the possibility for gene discovery and the discovery of new gene functions. For example, standard functional annotation based on domain homology to known protein families can only confirm group membership, not identify the emergence of new biochemical function. In this study, we show the importance of developing a strategy that circumvents the limitations of semiautomated annotation and apply this workflow to photosensitivity as a means to discover non-opsin photoreceptors. We hypothesize that non-opsin G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) proteins may have chromophore-binding lysines in locations that differ from opsin. Here, we provide the first case study describing non-opsin light-sensitive GPCRs based on tissue-specific RNA-seq data of the common bay scallop Argopecten irradians (Lamarck, 1819). Using a combination of sequence analysis and three-dimensional protein modeling, we identified two candidate proteins. We tested their photochemical properties and provide evidence showing that these two proteins incorporate 11-cis and/or all-trans retinal and react to light photochemically. Based on this case study, we demonstrate that there is potential for the discovery of new light-sensitive GPCRs, and we have developed a workflow that starts from RNA-seq assemblies to the discovery of new non-opsin, GPCR-based photopigments.

  6. Objective Tests and Their Discriminating Power in Business Courses: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard B. Cornachione Jr.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating students’ learning experiences outcomes cannot be considered a simple task. This paper aims at investigating students’ overall performance and the discriminating power of particular tests’ items in the context of business courses. The purpose of this paper is to contribute with this issue while analyzing it, with scientific approach, from an accounting information systems standpoint: two experiments based on a database management system (DBMS undergraduate course, involving 66 and 62 students (experiments E1 and E2, respectively. The discriminant analysis generated discriminant functions with high canonical correlations (E1=0.898 and E2= 0.789. As a result, high percentages of original grouped cases were correctly classified (E1=98.5% and E2= 95.2% based on a relatively small number of items: 7 out of 22 items from E1 (multiple-choice, and 3 out of 6 from E2 (short-answer. So, with only a few items from the analyzed instruments it is possible todiscriminate “good” or “bad” academic performance, and this is a measure of quality of the observed testing instruments. According to these findings, especially in business area, instructors and institutions, together, are able to analyze and act towards improving their assessment methods, to be of minimum influence whileevaluating students’ performance.

  7. A test case of computer aided motion planning for nuclear maintenance operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitzberger, E.; Bouchet, J.L. [Electricite de France (EDF), Dept. Surveillance Diagnostic Maintenance, 78 - Chatou (France); Schmitzberger, E. [Institut National Polytechnique, CRAN, 54 - Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)

    2001-07-01

    Needs for improved tools for nuclear power plant maintenance preparation are expressed by EDF engineering. These are an easier and better management of logistics constraints such as free spaces for motions or handling tasks. The lack of generic or well suited tools and the specificity of nuclear maintenance operation have led EDF R and D to develop its own motion planning tools in collaboration with LAAS-CNRS, Utrecht University and the software publisher CADCENTRE within the framework of the three years Esprit LTR project MOLOG. EDF users needs will be summed up in the first part of the paper under the title ''Motion feasibility studies for maintenance operation'' and then compared to the current industrial offer in the ''Software's background'''s part. The definition and objectives ''Towards motion planning tools'' follows. It explains why maintenance preparation pertains to automatic motion planning and how it makes studies much simpler. The ''MOLOG's Benchmark and first result'''s part describes the test-case used to evaluate the MOLOG project and gives an outlook at the results obtained so far. (author)

  8. Water and Sediment Output Evaluation Using Cellular Automata on Alpine Catchment: Soana, Italy - Test Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasculli, Antonio; Audisio, Chiara; Sciarra, Nicola

    2017-12-01

    In the alpine contest, the estimation of the rainfall (inflow) and the discharge (outflow) data are very important in order to, at least, analyse historical time series at catchment scale; determine the hydrological maximum and minimum estimate flood and drought frequency. Hydrological researches become a precious source of information for various human activities, in particular for land use management and planning. Many rainfall- runoff models have been proposed to reflect steady, gradually-varied flow condition inside a catchment. In these last years, the application of Reduced Complexity Models (RCM) has been representing an excellent alternative resource for evaluating the hydrological response of catchments, within a period of time up to decades. Hence, this paper is aimed at the discussion of the application of the research code CAESAR, based on cellular automaton (CA) approach, in order to evaluate the water and the sediment outputs from an alpine catchment (Soana, Italy), selected as test case. The comparison between the predicted numerical results, developed through parametric analysis, and the available measured data are discussed. Finally, the analysis of a numerical estimate of the sediment budget over ten years is presented. The necessity of a fast, but reliable numerical support when the measured data are not so easily accessible, as in Alpine catchments, is highlighted.

  9. Development of a codon optimization strategy using the efor RED reporter gene as a test case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Chee-Hoo; Yarkoni, Orr; Ajioka, James; Wan, Kiew-Lian; Nathan, Sheila

    2018-04-01

    Synthetic biology is a platform that enables high-level synthesis of useful products such as pharmaceutically related drugs, bioplastics and green fuels from synthetic DNA constructs. Large-scale expression of these products can be achieved in an industrial compliant host such as Escherichia coli. To maximise the production of recombinant proteins in a heterologous host, the genes of interest are usually codon optimized based on the codon usage of the host. However, the bioinformatics freeware available for standard codon optimization might not be ideal in determining the best sequence for the synthesis of synthetic DNA. Synthesis of incorrect sequences can prove to be a costly error and to avoid this, a codon optimization strategy was developed based on the E. coli codon usage using the efor RED reporter gene as a test case. This strategy replaces codons encoding for serine, leucine, proline and threonine with the most frequently used codons in E. coli. Furthermore, codons encoding for valine and glycine are substituted with the second highly used codons in E. coli. Both the optimized and original efor RED genes were ligated to the pJS209 plasmid backbone using Gibson Assembly and the recombinant DNAs were transformed into E. coli E. cloni 10G strain. The fluorescence intensity per cell density of the optimized sequence was improved by 20% compared to the original sequence. Hence, the developed codon optimization strategy is proposed when designing an optimal sequence for heterologous protein production in E. coli.

  10. Role reversal and problem solving in international negotiations: the Partial Nuclear Test Ban case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, T.D.

    1978-01-01

    To facilitate finding bargaining space and to reinforce cooperative potential, a number of analysts have promoted the use of role reversal and problem solving. Role reversal involves restating the positions of one's adversary to demonstrate understanding and to develop empathy, while problem solving involves searching for alternatives that promote joint interests. The case of the negotiations in the Eighteen Nation Disarmament Conference from 1962--1963 leading to the Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty provided the context for examining bargaining relationships involving role reversal and problem solving. Interactions among the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union, as recorded in transcripts of 112 sessions, were coded using Bargaining Process Analysis II, a content analysis instrument used to classify negotiation behaviors. Role reversal was measured by the frequency of paraphrases of the adversary's positions. Problem solving was measured by the frequency of themes promoting the exploration of alternatives and the search for mutually beneficial outcomes. The findings on the use of paraphrasing suggest that it can be used to restrict exploration as well as to promote it. The exploratory focus of problem solving was somewhat limited by its use in association with demands, suggesting that problem solving was interpreted as a sign of weakness

  11. Gravitational quadrupolar coupling to equivalence principle test masses: the general case

    CERN Document Server

    Lockerbie, N A

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the quadrupolar gravitational force in the context of test masses destined for use in equivalence principle (EP) experiments, such as STEP and MICROSCOPE. The relationship between quadrupolar gravity and rotational inertia for an arbitrary body is analysed, and the special, gravitational, role of a body's principal axes of inertia is revealed. From these considerations the gravitational quadrupolar force acting on a cylindrically symmetrical body, due to a point-like attracting source mass, is derived in terms of the body's mass quadrupole tensor. The result is shown to be in agreement with that obtained from MacCullagh's formula (as the starting point). The theory is then extended to cover the case of a completely arbitrary solid body, and a compact formulation for the quadrupolar force on such a body is derived. A numerical example of a dumb-bell's attraction to a local point-like gravitational source is analysed using this theory. Close agreement is found between th...

  12. A test case of computer aided motion planning for nuclear maintenance operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitzberger, E.; Bouchet, J.L.; Schmitzberger, E.

    2001-01-01

    Needs for improved tools for nuclear power plant maintenance preparation are expressed by EDF engineering. These are an easier and better management of logistics constraints such as free spaces for motions or handling tasks. The lack of generic or well suited tools and the specificity of nuclear maintenance operation have led EDF R and D to develop its own motion planning tools in collaboration with LAAS-CNRS, Utrecht University and the software publisher CADCENTRE within the framework of the three years Esprit LTR project MOLOG. EDF users needs will be summed up in the first part of the paper under the title ''Motion feasibility studies for maintenance operation'' and then compared to the current industrial offer in the ''Software's background'''s part. The definition and objectives ''Towards motion planning tools'' follows. It explains why maintenance preparation pertains to automatic motion planning and how it makes studies much simpler. The ''MOLOG's Benchmark and first result'''s part describes the test-case used to evaluate the MOLOG project and gives an outlook at the results obtained so far. (author)

  13. The feasibility of ambitious climate agreements. Norway as an early test case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Steinar; Kolshus, Hans H.; Torvanger, Asbjoern

    2002-09-01

    There are considerable differences between developed countries as to how difficult it will be to meet their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. 'High-cost abatement countries' are particularly interesting as they can be seen as 'test-cases' for other nations in more ambitious climate policy agreements. We assume that a country's objective is to develop an efficient climate policy, achieving cost effectiveness and environmental effectiveness, and that also is politically feasible. Norway is among the countries that will have a hard time in meeting their obligations. Our study suggests that Norway's climate policy has emphasized an international approach, whereas the domestic performance on cost effectiveness has been more moderate. An obvious reason for this is the lower cost associated with the international approach. A 'political cost' associated with such a policy can be criticism from environmental NGOs and other countries. At least in the near term there is little reason to expect 'climate enthusiasm' from the public or many countries of the world. Therefore, just like Norway, they will want emissions reductions carried out as cheaply as possible, which could imply extensive international quota trading, whereas compromises with regard to cost effectiveness are struck at the domestic scene for political feasibility reasons. (author)

  14. Pisgah Lava Cave Communication Test: Science Case Study for the Networked Constellations Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, K.; Ellison, D.; Fraeman, A.

    2017-01-01

    As part of the science case study for the Networked Constellations initiative, a team of JPL scientists explore the possibility of a mission to study the lava caves on Mars. Natural caves on Mars and the Moon present a unique opportunity to learn about the planetary geology and to provide a shelter for human explorers. Due to power and communication challenges, a network of assets has significant advantages over a single asset sent inside a cave. However, communication between the assets and the data downlink present significant difficulties due to the presence of rough walls, boulders, and other obstacles with unknown dielectric constant inside a typical cave, disturbing the propagation of the radio waves. A detailed study is needed to establish the limitations of the current communication technologies and to develop requirements for the new communication technology applicable to the cave environment. On May 4 of 2017, Konstantin Belov, Doug Ellison, and Abby Fraeman visited a lava cave in Pisgah, CA. The purpose of the visit was to build a 3D map of the cave, which could be used to create a model of radio wave propagation, and to conduct a series of communication tests using off-the-shelf equipment to verify the in-cave communication challenges. This experiment should be considered as a simple 'proof of concept' and is the subject of this report.

  15. Testing the role of fiscal policy in the environmental degradation: the case of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katircioglu, Salih; Katircioglu, Setareh

    2018-02-01

    This study introduces a new research topic that investigates the relationship between fiscal development and carbon emissions in Turkey through testing Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis. Annual data covering the period, 1960-2013, has been used and in addition to gross domestic product and energy consumption, fiscal policy variables have been regressed on the level of carbon emissions in Turkey. Results reveal that fiscal policies and carbon emissions are in long-term equilibrium relationship in Turkey; carbon dioxide emission level converges towards long-term paths as contributed by fiscal policy. The effects of fiscal aggregates on the level of carbon dioxide emissions are negatively significant revealing that growth in fiscal aggregates leads to declines on the levels of carbon emissions. This proves that as far as environmental effects are concerned, fiscal policies regarding energy sector is successful in Turkey. Thus, the major finding of this study confirmed the validity of the fiscal policy-induced EKC hypothesis in the case of Turkey.

  16. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  17. Empirical tests of the Chicago model and the Easterlin hypothesis: a case study of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohbuchi, H

    1982-05-01

    The objective of this discussion is to test the applicability of economic theory of fertility with special reference to postwar Japan and to find a clue for forecasting the future trend of fertility. The theories examined are the "Chicago model" and the "Easterlin hypothesis." The major conclusion common among the leading economic theories of fertility, which have their origin with Gary S. Becker (1960, 1965) and Richard A. Easterlin (1966), is the positive income effect, i.e., that the relationship between income and fertility is positive despite the evidence that higher income families have fewer children and that fertility has declined with economic development. To bridge the gap between theory and fact is the primary purpose of the economic theory of fertility, and each offers a different interpretation for it. The point of the Chicago model, particularly of the household decision making model of the "new home economics," is the mechanism that a positive effect of husband's income growth on fertility is offset by a negative price effect caused by the opportunity cost of wife's time. While the opportunity cost of wife's time is independent of the female wage rate for an unemployed wife, it is directly associated with the wage rate for a gainfully employed wife. Thus, the fertility response to female wages occurs only among families with an employed wife. The primary concern of empirical efforts to test the Chicago model has been with the determination of income and price elasticities. An attempt is made to test the relevance of the Chicago model and the Easterlin hypothesis in explaning the fertility movement in postwar Japan. In case of the Chicago model, the statistical results appeared fairly successful but did not match with the theory. The effect on fertility of a rise in women's real wage (and, therefore in the opportunity cost of mother's time) and of a rise in labor force participation rate of married women of childbearing age in recent years could not

  18. Bioreactor tests preliminary to landfill in situ aeration: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, Roberto, E-mail: roberto.raga@unipd.it [ICEA Department, University of Padova. Via Marzolo, 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Cossu, Raffaello [ICEA Department, University of Padova. Via Marzolo, 9, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Carbon and nitrogen mass balances in aerated landfill simulation reactors. ► Waste stabilization in aerated landfill simulation reactors. ► Effect of temperature on biodegradation processes in aerated landfills. - Abstract: Lab scale tests in bioreactor were carried out in the framework of the characterization studies of a landfill where in situ aeration (possibly followed by landfill mining) had been proposed as part of the novel waste management strategy in a region in northern Italy. The tests were run to monitor the effects produced by aerobic conditions at different temperatures on waste sampled at different depths in the landfill, with focus on the carbon and nitrogen conversion during aeration. Temperatures ranging from 35 to 45 °C were chosen, in order to evaluate possible inhibition of biodegradation processes (namely nitrification) at 45 °C in the landfill. The results obtained showed positive effects of the aeration on leachate quality and a significant reduction of waste biodegradability. Although a delay of biodegradation processes was observed in the reactor run at 45 °C, biodegradation rates increased after 2 months of aeration, providing very low values of the relevant parameters (as in the other aerated reactors) by the end of the study. Mass balances were carried out for TOC and N-NH{sub 4}{sup +}; the findings obtained were encouraging and provided evidence of the effectiveness of carbon and nitrogen conversion processes in the aerated landfill simulation reactors.

  19. Bioreactor tests preliminary to landfill in situ aeration: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Carbon and nitrogen mass balances in aerated landfill simulation reactors. ► Waste stabilization in aerated landfill simulation reactors. ► Effect of temperature on biodegradation processes in aerated landfills. - Abstract: Lab scale tests in bioreactor were carried out in the framework of the characterization studies of a landfill where in situ aeration (possibly followed by landfill mining) had been proposed as part of the novel waste management strategy in a region in northern Italy. The tests were run to monitor the effects produced by aerobic conditions at different temperatures on waste sampled at different depths in the landfill, with focus on the carbon and nitrogen conversion during aeration. Temperatures ranging from 35 to 45 °C were chosen, in order to evaluate possible inhibition of biodegradation processes (namely nitrification) at 45 °C in the landfill. The results obtained showed positive effects of the aeration on leachate quality and a significant reduction of waste biodegradability. Although a delay of biodegradation processes was observed in the reactor run at 45 °C, biodegradation rates increased after 2 months of aeration, providing very low values of the relevant parameters (as in the other aerated reactors) by the end of the study. Mass balances were carried out for TOC and N-NH 4 + ; the findings obtained were encouraging and provided evidence of the effectiveness of carbon and nitrogen conversion processes in the aerated landfill simulation reactors

  20. [Video-nystagmography and vibration test in the diagnosis of vestibular schwannoma. Review of 100 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Négrevergne, M; Ribeiro, S; Moraes, C L; Maunsell, R; Morata, G Celis; Darrouzet, V

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate informations given by the combination of videonystagmography (VNG) including vibratory tests and auditory brainstem responses (ABR) in patients suffering vestibular schwannoma (VS) and try to find the most conclusive test(s). Combination of different functional tests is supposed to improve diagnosis and preoperative evaluation and precise indication for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) facing audiological and vestibular symptoms. A prospective study of 100 patients with VS. All patients underwent a preoperative work-up including complete audiometry, auditory brainstem response (ABR) and videonystagmography (VNG). VNG protocol included caloric testing, rotatory tests, oculometry tests (saccade testing, optokinetic testing) and spontaneous and gaze-evoked nystagmus. From these six tests a score of positivity could be set, from 0 to 6. The vibratory test is non invasive and easy to realize. Were observed: 1/ a good sensitivity in vibratory test to elicit nystagmus in this context. 2/ a good correlation between subliminal rotatory chair tests and vibratory tests 3/ a better control of caloric testing using vibratory test. 4/ a good but deficient sensitivity of ABR alone with regard to VS (95%) 5/ an increase of sensitivity of VNG when coupling it with ABR and using as a criterion the score of positivity: no patient had all tests negative. The vibratory test is a non-invasive, fast examination with an easy execution. It reinforces VNG-ABR association screening power to diagnose VS. It constitutes, combined to caloric testing a good tool to diagnose and evaluate unilateral vestibular weakness.

  1. Demonstration of anticoagulation patient self-testing feasibility at an Indian Health Service facility: A case series analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schupbach RR

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anticoagulation patient self-testing (PST represents an alternative approach to warfarin monitoring by enabling patients to use coagulometers to test their international normalized ratio (INR values. PST offers several advantages that potentially improve warfarin management. Objective: To describe implementation and associated performance of a PST demonstration program at an Indian Health Service (IHS facility. Methods: A non-consecutive case series analysis of patients from a pharmacy-managed PST demonstration program was performed at an IHS facility in Oklahoma between July 2008 and February 2009.Results: Mean time in therapeutic range (TTR for the seven patients showed a small, absolute increase during the twelve weeks of PST compared to the twelve weeks prior to PST. Four of the seven patients had an increase in TTR during the twelve week course of PST compared to their baseline TTR. Three of four patients with increased TTR in the final eight week period of PST achieved a TTR of 100%. Of the three patients who experienced a decrease in TTR after initiating self-testing, two initially presented with a TTR of 100% prior to PST and one patient had a TTR of 100% for the final eight weeks of PST. The two patients not achieving a TTR of 100% during the twelve week PST period demonstrated an increase in TTR following the first four weeks of PST. Conclusion: Although anticoagulation guidelines now emphasize patient self-management (PSM only, optimal PST remains an integral process in PSM delivery. In the patients studied, the results of this analysis suggest that PST at the IHS facility provided a convenient, alternative method for management of chronic warfarin therapy for qualified patients. More than half of the patients demonstrated improvement in TTR. Although there is a learning curve immediately following PST initiation, the mean TTR for the entire PST period increased modestly when compared to the time period prior to PST.

  2. Testing modified gravity with globular clusters: the case of NGC 2419

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llinares, Claudio

    2018-05-01

    The dynamics of globular clusters has been studied in great detail in the context of general relativity as well as with modifications of gravity that strongly depart from the standard paradigm such as Modified Newtonian Dynamics. However, at present there are no studies that aim to test the impact that less extreme modifications of gravity (e.g. models constructed as alternatives to dark energy) have on the behaviour of globular clusters. This Letter presents fits to the velocity dispersion profile of the cluster NGC 2419 under the symmetron-modified gravity model. The data show an increase in the velocity dispersion towards the centre of the cluster which could be difficult to explain within general relativity. By finding the best-fitting solution associated with the symmetron model, we show that this tension does not exist in modified gravity. However, the best-fitting parameters give a model that is inconsistent with the dynamics of the Solar system. Exploration of different screening mechanisms should give us the chance to understand if it is possible to maintain the appealing properties of the symmetron model when it comes to globular clusters and at the same time recover the Solar system dynamics properly.

  3. Diagnosis of penicillin allergy revisited: the value of case history, skin testing, specific IgE and prolonged challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortlund, J; Mortz, C G; Skov, P S; Bindslev-Jensen, C

    2013-08-01

    Skin testing in duplicate, correlation between case history of immediate and nonimmediate reactions and challenge outcome and prolonged oral treatment with penicillin in the diagnostic evaluation of allergic reactions to β-lactam antibiotics, mimicking real-life situations, have only been addressed in few studies. A total of 342 patients suspected of having β-lactam allergy were investigated according to the European Network for Drug Allergy (ENDA) guidelines and patients found to be negative in the ENDA program were supplemented with a 7-day oral treatment with penicillin. Skin testing with penicillins was performed in duplicate. Patients with case histories of reactions to other β-lactams were also subsequently challenged with the culprit drug. Nineteen patients were IgE-sensitized to penicillin. Then, intracutaneous tests (ICTs) were performed, in which 35 patients tested positive for allergy, 21 with delayed and 14 with immediate reactions. Only three patients tested positive for the major (PPL) and/or minor (MDM) penicillin determinants, all being positive for penicillin G in ICT. The remaining 291 patients were challenged with penicillin: 10 tested positive in single-dose challenge and 23 tested positive in the 7-day challenge. A total of 17 of 78 patients with a negative penicillin challenge tested positive during challenges with other β-lactams. We found no correlation between case histories of immediate and nonimmediate reactions and reaction time during challenge. The data suggest that case history is often insufficient to discriminate between immediate reactors and nonimmediate reactors. A 7-day challenge with the culprit β-lactam may yield more positive reactions than the accepted one- or 2-day challenge. Interpretation of skin testing should be made with caution. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Research and field tests of staged fracturing technology for casing deformation sections in horizontal shale gas wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimeng Liao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Horizontal shale gas well fracturing is mostly carried out by pumping bridge plugs. In the case of casing deformation, the bridge plug can not be pumped down to the designated position, so the hole sections below the deformation could not be stimulated according to the design program. About 30% of horizontal shale gas wells in the Changning and Weiyuan Blocks, Sichuan Basin, suffer various casing deformation after fracturing. Previously, the hole sections which could not be stimulated due to casing deformation were generally abandoned. As a result, the resources controlled by shale gas wells weren't exploited effectively and the fracturing effect was impacted greatly. There are a lot of difficulties in investigating casing deformation, such as complex mechanisms, various influencing factors and unpredictable deformation time. Therefore, it is especially important to seek a staged fracturing technology suitable for the casing deformation sections. In this paper, the staged fracturing technology with sand plugs inside fractures and the staged fracturing technology with temporary plugging balls were tested in casing deformation wells. The staged fracturing technology with sand plugs inside fractures was carried out in the mode of single-stage perforation and single-stage fracturing. The staged fracturing technology with temporary plugging balls was conducted in the mode of single perforation, continuous fracturing and staged ball dropping. Then, two kinds of technologies were compared in terms of their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, they were tested on site. According to the pressure response, the pressure monitoring of the adjacent wells and the microseismic monitoring in the process of actual fracturing, both technologies are effective in the stimulation of the casing deformation sections, realizing well control reserves efficiently and guaranteeing fracturing effects. Keywords: Shale gas, Horizontal well, Casing deformation, Staged

  5. A stochastic approach for quantifying immigrant integration: the Spanish test case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Contucci, Pierluigi; Sandell, Richard; Vernia, Cecilia

    2014-10-01

    We apply stochastic process theory to the analysis of immigrant integration. Using a unique and detailed data set from Spain, we study the relationship between local immigrant density and two social and two economic immigration quantifiers for the period 1999-2010. As opposed to the classic time-series approach, by letting immigrant density play the role of ‘time’ and the quantifier the role of ‘space,’ it becomes possible to analyse the behavior of the quantifiers by means of continuous time random walks. Two classes of results are then obtained. First, we show that social integration quantifiers evolve following diffusion law, while the evolution of economic quantifiers exhibits ballistic dynamics. Second, we make predictions of best- and worst-case scenarios taking into account large local fluctuations. Our stochastic process approach to integration lends itself to interesting forecasting scenarios which, in the hands of policy makers, have the potential to improve political responses to integration problems. For instance, estimating the standard first-passage time and maximum-span walk reveals local differences in integration performance for different immigration scenarios. Thus, by recognizing the importance of local fluctuations around national means, this research constitutes an important tool to assess the impact of immigration phenomena on municipal budgets and to set up solid multi-ethnic plans at the municipal level as immigration pressures build.

  6. The Chandra Deep Field South as a test case for Global Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portaluri, E.; Viotto, V.; Ragazzoni, R.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bergomi, M.; Greggio, D.; Biondi, F.; Dima, M.; Magrin, D.; Farinato, J.

    2017-04-01

    The era of the next generation of giant telescopes requires not only the advent of new technologies but also the development of novel methods, in order to exploit fully the extraordinary potential they are built for. Global Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics (GMCAO) pursues this approach, with the goal of achieving good performance over a field of view of a few arcmin and an increase in sky coverage. In this article, we show the gain offered by this technique to an astrophysical application, such as the photometric survey strategy applied to the Chandra Deep Field South as a case study. We simulated a close-to-real observation of a 500 × 500 arcsec2 extragalactic deep field with a 40-m class telescope that implements GMCAO. We analysed mock K-band images of 6000 high-redshift (up to z = 2.75) galaxies therein as if they were real to recover the initial input parameters. We attained 94.5 per cent completeness for source detection with SEXTRACTOR. We also measured the morphological parameters of all the sources with the two-dimensional fitting tools GALFIT. The agreement we found between recovered and intrinsic parameters demonstrates GMCAO as a reliable approach to assist extremely large telescope (ELT) observations of extragalactic interest.

  7. Modelling ground rupture due to groundwater withdrawal: applications to test cases in China and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, A.; Teatini, P.; Janna, C.; Ferronato, M.; Gambolati, G.; Ye, S.; Carreón-Freyre, D.

    2015-11-01

    The stress variation induced by aquifer overdraft in sedimentary basins with shallow bedrock may cause rupture in the form of pre-existing fault activation or earth fissure generation. The process is causing major detrimental effects on a many areas in China and Mexico. Ruptures yield discontinuity in both displacement and stress field that classic continuous finite element (FE) models cannot address. Interface finite elements (IE), typically used in contact mechanics, may be of great help and are implemented herein to simulate the fault geomechanical behaviour. Two main approaches, i.e. Penalty and Lagrangian, are developed to enforce the contact condition on the element interface. The incorporation of IE incorporation into a three-dimensional (3-D) FE geomechanical simulator shows that the Lagrangian approach is numerically more robust and stable than the Penalty, thus providing more reliable solutions. Furthermore, the use of a Newton-Raphson scheme to deal with the non-linear elasto-plastic fault behaviour allows for quadratic convergence. The FE - IE model is applied to investigate the likely ground rupture in realistic 3-D geologic settings. The case studies are representative of the City of Wuxi in the Jiangsu Province (China), and of the City of Queretaro, Mexico, where significant land subsidence has been accompanied by the generation of several earth fissures jeopardizing the stability and integrity of the overland structures and infrastructure.

  8. A stochastic approach for quantifying immigrant integration: the Spanish test case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agliari, Elena; Barra, Adriano; Contucci, Pierluigi; Sandell, Richard; Vernia, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    We apply stochastic process theory to the analysis of immigrant integration. Using a unique and detailed data set from Spain, we study the relationship between local immigrant density and two social and two economic immigration quantifiers for the period 1999–2010. As opposed to the classic time-series approach, by letting immigrant density play the role of ‘time’ and the quantifier the role of ‘space,’ it becomes possible to analyse the behavior of the quantifiers by means of continuous time random walks. Two classes of results are then obtained. First, we show that social integration quantifiers evolve following diffusion law, while the evolution of economic quantifiers exhibits ballistic dynamics. Second, we make predictions of best- and worst-case scenarios taking into account large local fluctuations. Our stochastic process approach to integration lends itself to interesting forecasting scenarios which, in the hands of policy makers, have the potential to improve political responses to integration problems. For instance, estimating the standard first-passage time and maximum-span walk reveals local differences in integration performance for different immigration scenarios. Thus, by recognizing the importance of local fluctuations around national means, this research constitutes an important tool to assess the impact of immigration phenomena on municipal budgets and to set up solid multi-ethnic plans at the municipal level as immigration pressures build. (paper)

  9. Sensitivity analysis for near-surface disposal in argillaceous media using NAMMU-HYROCOIN Level 3-Test case 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.R.; Paige, R.W.

    1988-07-01

    HYDROCOIN is an international project for comparing groundwater flow models and modelling strategies. Level 3 of the project concerns the application of groundwater flow models to repository performance assessment with emphasis on the treatment of sensitivity and uncertainty in models and data. Level 3, test case 1 concerns sensitivity analysis of the groundwater flow around a radioactive waste repository situated in a near surface argillaceous formation. Work on this test case has been carried out by Harwell and will be reported in full in the near future. This report presents the results obtained using the computer program NAMMU. (author)

  10. Developing and Testing a 3d Cadastral Data Model a Case Study in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aien, A.; Kalantari, M.; Rajabifard, A.; Williamson, I. P.; Shojaei, D.

    2012-07-01

    and physical extent of 3D properties and associated interests. The data model extends the traditional cadastral requirements to cover other applications such as urban planning and land valuation and taxation. A demonstration of a test system on the proposed data model is also presented. The test is based on a case study in Victoria, Australia to evaluate the effectiveness of the data model.

  11. The Impact of Test Case Summaries on Bug Fixing Performance : An Empirical Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panichella, S.; Panichella, A.; Beller, M.; Zaidman, A.E.; Gall, H.

    2015-01-01

    Automated test generation tools have been widely investigated with the goal of reducing the cost of testing activities. However, generated tests have been shown not to help developers in detecting and finding more bugs even though they reach higher structural coverage compared to manual testing. The

  12. The Impact of Test Case Summaries on Bug Fixing Performance : An Empirical Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panichella, Sebastiano; Panichella, A.; Beller, M.M.; Zaidman, A.E.; Gall, Harald C.

    2016-01-01

    Automated test generation tools have been widely investigated with the goal of reducing the cost of testing activities. However, generated tests have been shown not to help developers in detecting and finding more bugs even though they reach higher structural coverage compared to manual testing.

  13. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. A test case based on data from the Aespoe HRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, John A

    2002-06-01

    In anticipation of the SKB Site Investigations for radioactive waste disposal, an approach has been developed for the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. This approach was tested by predicting the rock mechanics properties of a 600 m x 180 m x 120 m rock volume at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) using limited borehole data of the type typically obtained during a site investigation. These predicted properties were then compared with 'best estimate' properties obtained from a study of the test rock volume using additional information, mainly tunnel data. The exercise was known as the Test Case, and is the subject of this Report. Three modelling techniques were used to predict the rock properties: the 'empirical approach' - the rock properties were estimated using rock mass classification schemes and empirical correlation formulae; the 'theoretical approach' - the rock properties were estimated using numerical modelling techniques; and the 'stress approach' - the rock stress state was estimated using primary data and numerical modelling. These approaches are described separately and respectively. Following an explanation of the context for the Test Case within the strategy for developing the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model, conditions at the Aespoe HRL are described in Chapter 2. The Test Case organization and the suite of nine Protocols used to ensure that the work was appropriately guided and co-ordinated are described in Chapter 3. The methods for predicting the rock properties and the rock stress, and comparisons with the 'best estimate' properties of the actual conditions, are presented in Chapters 4 and 5. Finally, the conclusions from this Test Case exercise are given in Chapter 6. General recommendations for the management of this type of Test Case are also included

  14. Strategy for a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. A test case based on data from the Aespoe HRL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, John A (ed.) [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City (United Kingdom)

    2002-06-01

    In anticipation of the SKB Site Investigations for radioactive waste disposal, an approach has been developed for the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model. This approach was tested by predicting the rock mechanics properties of a 600 m x 180 m x 120 m rock volume at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL) using limited borehole data of the type typically obtained during a site investigation. These predicted properties were then compared with 'best estimate' properties obtained from a study of the test rock volume using additional information, mainly tunnel data. The exercise was known as the Test Case, and is the subject of this Report. Three modelling techniques were used to predict the rock properties: the 'empirical approach' - the rock properties were estimated using rock mass classification schemes and empirical correlation formulae; the 'theoretical approach' - the rock properties were estimated using numerical modelling techniques; and the 'stress approach' - the rock stress state was estimated using primary data and numerical modelling. These approaches are described separately and respectively. Following an explanation of the context for the Test Case within the strategy for developing the Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Model, conditions at the Aespoe HRL are described in Chapter 2. The Test Case organization and the suite of nine Protocols used to ensure that the work was appropriately guided and co-ordinated are described in Chapter 3. The methods for predicting the rock properties and the rock stress, and comparisons with the 'best estimate' properties of the actual conditions, are presented in Chapters 4 and 5. Finally, the conclusions from this Test Case exercise are given in Chapter 6. General recommendations for the management of this type of Test Case are also included.

  15. Variations in the Contouring of Organs at Risk: Test Case From a Patient With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelms, Benjamin E., E-mail: alpha@canislupusllc.com [Canis Lupus LLC, Merrimac, WI (United States); Tome, Wolfgang A. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Robinson, Greg [Radiation Oncology Resources, Goshen, IN (United States); Wheeler, James [Department of Radiation Oncology, Goshen Health System Goshen, IN (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Anatomy contouring is critical in radiation therapy. Inaccuracy and variation in defining critical volumes will affect everything downstream: treatment planning, dose-volume histogram analysis, and contour-based visual guidance used in image-guided radiation therapy. This study quantified: (1) variation in the contouring of organs at risk (OAR) in a clinical test case and (2) corresponding effects on dosimetric metrics of highly conformal plans. Methods and Materials: A common CT data set with predefined targets from a patient with oropharyngeal cancer was provided to a population of clinics, which were asked to (1) contour OARs and (2) design an intensity-modulated radiation therapy plan. Thirty-two acceptable plans were submitted as DICOM RT data sets, each generated by a different clinical team. Using those data sets, we quantified: (1) the OAR contouring variation and (2) the impact this variation has on dosimetric metrics. New technologies were employed, including a software tool to quantify three-dimensional structure comparisons. Results: There was significant interclinician variation in OAR contouring. The degree of variation is organ-dependent. We found substantial dose differences resulting strictly from contouring variation (differences ranging from -289% to 56% for mean OAR dose; -22% to 35% for maximum dose). However, there appears to be a threshold in the OAR comparison metric beyond which the dose differences stabilize. Conclusions: The effects of interclinician variation in contouring organs-at-risk in the head and neck can be large and are organ-specific. Physicians need to be aware of the effect that variation in OAR contouring can play on the final treatment plan and not restrict their focus only to the target volumes.

  16. Integrated socio-environmental modelling: A test case in coastal Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazar, Attila

    2013-04-01

    though the coastal Bangladesh test case.

  17. Application of mycorrhizas to ornamental horticultural crops: lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) as a test case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Ornamental crops are high-cash crops, grown under greenhouse conditions in semi-arid regions in Israel where a reduction in the native population of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is expected due to routine soil disinfection. The application of AMF inoculum to the soil has been shown to be effective at improving plant growth and enhancing plant resilience to abiotic and biotic stresses. One of our aims is to introduce mycorrhizal application to ornamental crops, and a test case is presented here for two cultivars of lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum), one of the major ornamental crops grown in Israel. Several different methods of AMF application and their effects on growth, yield and vase life were examined in lisianthus grown in two different semi-arid locations in southern Israel. AMF enhanced lisianthus growth and yield, especially when introduced to the growth medium during seeding and to the pit hole during planting. Significantly enhanced growth and yield parameters included flowering stem length (58 {+-} 0.7 and 65.1 {+-} 0.7 cm for control and AMF treated, respectively) and number of flowering stems per square meter (73 {+-} 9 and 106 {+-} 6 for control and AMF treated, respectively); positive but non-significant effects were recorded on stem weight, number of flowers per stem and vase life of cut flowers. Yield enhancement was recorded under both low and regular phosphorus conditions. Although not significant, higher resilience against two pathogenic fungi was also recorded following AMF inoculation (23 {+-} 13 and 41 {+-} 10 surviving plants for control and AMF treated, respectively). Hence, AMF is suggested to be a useful growth amendment for promotion of lisianthus commercial production, and may potentially be applied to additional ornamental crops. (Author) 23 refs.

  18. Simple Algorithms to Calculate Asymptotic Null Distributions of Robust Tests in Case-Control Genetic Association Studies in R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Kam Fung

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The case-control study is an important design for testing association between genetic markers and a disease. The Cochran-Armitage trend test (CATT is one of the most commonly used statistics for the analysis of case-control genetic association studies. The asymptotically optimal CATT can be used when the underlying genetic model (mode of inheritance is known. However, for most complex diseases, the underlying genetic models are unknown. Thus, tests robust to genetic model misspecification are preferable to the model-dependant CATT. Two robust tests, MAX3 and the genetic model selection (GMS, were recently proposed. Their asymptotic null distributions are often obtained by Monte-Carlo simulations, because they either have not been fully studied or involve multiple integrations. In this article, we study how components of each robust statistic are correlated, and find a linear dependence among the components. Using this new finding, we propose simple algorithms to calculate asymptotic null distributions for MAX3 and GMS, which greatly reduce the computing intensity. Furthermore, we have developed the R package Rassoc implementing the proposed algorithms to calculate the empirical and asymptotic p values for MAX3 and GMS as well as other commonly used tests in case-control association studies. For illustration, Rassoc is applied to the analysis of case-control data of 17 most significant SNPs reported in four genome-wide association studies.

  19. Reactor protection system software test-case selection based on input-profile considering concurrent events and uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaquzzaman, M.; Lee, Seung Jun; Cho, Jaehyun; Jung, Wondea

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the input-profile-based testing for safety critical software has been proposed for determining the number of test cases and quantifying the failure probability of the software. Input-profile of a reactor protection system (RPS) software is the input which causes activation of the system for emergency shutdown of a reactor. This paper presents a method to determine the input-profile of a RPS software which considers concurrent events/transients. A deviation of a process parameter value begins through an event and increases owing to the concurrent multi-events depending on the correlation of process parameters and severity of incidents. A case of reactor trip caused by feedwater loss and main steam line break is simulated and analyzed to determine the RPS software input-profile and estimate the number of test cases. The different sizes of the main steam line breaks (e.g., small, medium, large break) with total loss of feedwater supply are considered in constructing the input-profile. The uncertainties of the simulation related to the input-profile-based software testing are also included. Our study is expected to provide an option to determine test cases and quantification of RPS software failure probability. (author)

  20. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: a case study on the Upper Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-01-01

    Water temperature is an important driver of many processes in riverine ecosystems. If reservoirs are present, their releases can greatly influence downstream water temperatures. Models are important tools in understanding the influence these releases may have on the thermal regimes of downstream rivers. In this study, we developed and tested a suite of models to predict river temperature at a location downstream of two reservoirs in the Upper Delaware River (USA), a section of river that is managed to support a world-class coldwater fishery. Three empirical models were tested, including a Generalized Least Squares Model with a cosine trend (GLScos), AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). We also tested one mechanistic Heat Flux Model (HFM) that was based on energy gain and loss. Predictor variables used in model development included climate data (e.g., solar radiation, wind speed, etc.) collected from a nearby weather station and temperature and hydrologic data from upstream U.S. Geological Survey gages. Models were developed with a training dataset that consisted of data from 2008 to 2011; they were then independently validated with a test dataset from 2012. Model accuracy was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), and index of agreement (d) statistics. Model forecast success was evaluated using baseline-modified prime index of agreement (md) at the one, three, and five day predictions. All five models accurately predicted daily mean river temperature across the entire training dataset (RMSE = 0.58–1.311, NSE = 0.99–0.97, d = 0.98–0.99); ARIMA was most accurate (RMSE = 0.57, NSE = 0.99), but each model, other than ARIMA, showed short periods of under- or over-predicting observed warmer temperatures. For the training dataset, all models besides ARIMA had overestimation bias (PBIAS = −0.10 to −1.30). Validation analyses showed all models performed

  1. Developing and testing temperature models for regulated systems: A case study on the Upper Delaware River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jeffrey C.; Maloney, Kelly O.; Schmid, Matthias; McKenna, James E.

    2014-11-01

    Water temperature is an important driver of many processes in riverine ecosystems. If reservoirs are present, their releases can greatly influence downstream water temperatures. Models are important tools in understanding the influence these releases may have on the thermal regimes of downstream rivers. In this study, we developed and tested a suite of models to predict river temperature at a location downstream of two reservoirs in the Upper Delaware River (USA), a section of river that is managed to support a world-class coldwater fishery. Three empirical models were tested, including a Generalized Least Squares Model with a cosine trend (GLScos), AutoRegressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). We also tested one mechanistic Heat Flux Model (HFM) that was based on energy gain and loss. Predictor variables used in model development included climate data (e.g., solar radiation, wind speed, etc.) collected from a nearby weather station and temperature and hydrologic data from upstream U.S. Geological Survey gages. Models were developed with a training dataset that consisted of data from 2008 to 2011; they were then independently validated with a test dataset from 2012. Model accuracy was evaluated using root mean square error (RMSE), Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), percent bias (PBIAS), and index of agreement (d) statistics. Model forecast success was evaluated using baseline-modified prime index of agreement (md) at the one, three, and five day predictions. All five models accurately predicted daily mean river temperature across the entire training dataset (RMSE = 0.58-1.311, NSE = 0.99-0.97, d = 0.98-0.99); ARIMA was most accurate (RMSE = 0.57, NSE = 0.99), but each model, other than ARIMA, showed short periods of under- or over-predicting observed warmer temperatures. For the training dataset, all models besides ARIMA had overestimation bias (PBIAS = -0.10 to -1.30). Validation analyses showed all models performed well; the

  2. Building America Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Fibrous Insulation and Tiles, Orlando, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-11-01

    This research is a test implementation of an unvented tile roof assembly in a hot-humid climate (Orlando, FL; Zone 2A), insulated with air permeable insulation (netted and blown fiberglass). Given the localized moisture accumulation and failures seen in previous unvented roof field work, it was theorized that a 'diffusion vent' (water vapor open, but air barrier 'closed') at the highest points in the roof assembly might allow for the wintertime release of moisture, to safe levels. The 'diffusion vent' is an open slot at the ridge and hips, covered with a water-resistant but vapor open (500+ perm) air barrier membrane. As a control comparison, one portion of the roof was constructed as a typical unvented roof (self-adhered membrane at ridge). The data collected to date indicate that the diffusion vent roof shows greater moisture safety than the conventional, unvented roof design. The unvented roof had extended winter periods of 95-100% RH, and wafer (wood surrogate RH sensor) measurements indicating possible condensation; high moisture levels were concentrated at the roof ridge. In contrast, the diffusion vent roofs had drier conditions, with most peak MCs (sheathing) below 20%. In the spring, as outdoor temperatures warmed, all roofs dried well into the safe range (10% MC or less). Some roof-wall interfaces showed moderately high MCs; this might be due to moisture accumulation at the highest point in the lower attic, and/or shading of the roof by the adjacent second story. Monitoring will be continued at least through spring 2016 (another winter and spring).

  3. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Sioux County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  4. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Johnson County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  5. Demonstration of load rating capabilities through physical load testing : Ida County bridge case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this work, Pilot Project - Demonstration of Capabilities and Benefits of Bridge Load Rating through Physical Testing, was to demonstrate the capabilities for load testing and rating bridges in Iowa, study the economic benefit of perf...

  6. Automated Test Case Generation from Highly Reliable System Requirements Models, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Software testing is a complex and expensive phase of the software development cycle. Effective software testing is especially important in mission-critical software,...

  7. THE SLUGGS SURVEY: NGC 3115, A CRITICAL TEST CASE FOR METALLICITY BIMODALITY IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Conroy, Charlie; Arnold, Jacob A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J. [University of California Observatories and Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Usher, Christopher; Forbes, Duncan A. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Strader, Jay, E-mail: brodie@ucolick.org [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2012-11-10

    Due to its proximity (9 Mpc) and the strongly bimodal color distribution of its spectroscopically well-sampled globular cluster (GC) system, the early-type galaxy NGC 3115 provides one of the best available tests of whether the color bimodality widely observed in GC systems generally reflects a true metallicity bimodality. Color bimodality has alternatively been attributed to a strongly nonlinear color-metallicity relation reflecting the influence of hot horizontal-branch stars. Here, we couple Subaru Suprime-Cam gi photometry with Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to accurately measure GC colors and a CaT index that measures the Ca II triplet. We find the NGC 3115 GC system to be unambiguously bimodal in both color and the CaT index. Using simple stellar population models, we show that the CaT index is essentially unaffected by variations in horizontal-branch morphology over the range of metallicities relevant to GC systems (and is thus a robust indicator of metallicity) and confirm bimodality in the metallicity distribution. We assess the existing evidence for and against multiple metallicity subpopulations in early- and late-type galaxies and conclude that metallicity bi/multimodality is common. We briefly discuss how this fundamental characteristic links directly to the star formation and assembly histories of galaxies.

  8. THE SLUGGS SURVEY: NGC 3115, A CRITICAL TEST CASE FOR METALLICITY BIMODALITY IN GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodie, Jean P.; Conroy, Charlie; Arnold, Jacob A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Usher, Christopher; Forbes, Duncan A.; Strader, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Due to its proximity (9 Mpc) and the strongly bimodal color distribution of its spectroscopically well-sampled globular cluster (GC) system, the early-type galaxy NGC 3115 provides one of the best available tests of whether the color bimodality widely observed in GC systems generally reflects a true metallicity bimodality. Color bimodality has alternatively been attributed to a strongly nonlinear color-metallicity relation reflecting the influence of hot horizontal-branch stars. Here, we couple Subaru Suprime-Cam gi photometry with Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy to accurately measure GC colors and a CaT index that measures the Ca II triplet. We find the NGC 3115 GC system to be unambiguously bimodal in both color and the CaT index. Using simple stellar population models, we show that the CaT index is essentially unaffected by variations in horizontal-branch morphology over the range of metallicities relevant to GC systems (and is thus a robust indicator of metallicity) and confirm bimodality in the metallicity distribution. We assess the existing evidence for and against multiple metallicity subpopulations in early- and late-type galaxies and conclude that metallicity bi/multimodality is common. We briefly discuss how this fundamental characteristic links directly to the star formation and assembly histories of galaxies.

  9. Hypersonic ground test capabilities for T and E testing above mach 8 ''a case where S and T meets T and E''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constantino, M; Miles, R; Brown, G; Laster, M; Nelson, G

    1999-01-01

    Simulation of hypersonic flight in ground test and evaluation (T and E) facilities is a challenging and formidable task, especially to fully duplicate the flight environment above approximately Mach 8 for most all hypersonic flight systems that have been developed, conceived, or envisioned. Basically, and for many years, the enabling technology to build such a ground test wind tunnel facility has been severely limited in the area of high-temperature, high-strength materials and thermal protection approaches. To circumvent the problems, various approaches have been used, including partial simulation and use of similarity laws and reduced test time. These approaches often are not satisfactory, i.e. operability and durability testing for air-breathing propulsion development and thermal protection development of many flight systems. Thus, there is a strong need for science and technology (S and T) community involvement in technology development to address these problems. This paper discusses a specific case where this need exists and where significant S and T involvement has made and continues to make significant contributions. The case discussed will be an Air Force research program currently underway to develop enabling technologies for a Mach 8-15 hypersonic true temperature wind tunnel with relatively long run time. The research is based on a concept proposed by princeton University using radiant or beamed energy into the supersonic nozzle flow

  10. Negotiating the COAPRT Learning Outcomes Transition Using Quality Management Tools: A Case Study of the COAPRT Beta Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Gary D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a case study. It tells the story of the process that the Council on Accreditation for Parks, Recreation, Tourism and Related Professions beta test site created its learning outcomes assessment program. A planning process was used that has evolved from quality management philosophy and practice: DMADV. Use of DMADV required precise…

  11. An Explanatory Item Response Theory Approach for a Computer-Based Case Simulation Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilüfer

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Practitioners working with multiple-choice tests have long utilized Item Response Theory (IRT) models to evaluate the performance of test items for quality assurance. The use of similar applications for performance tests, however, is often encumbered due to the challenges encountered in working with complicated data sets in which local…

  12. In-home versus laboratory sensory testing using non-expert consumers: A comparable study using testing of varieties of Danish strawberries as cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Peder

    varieties of strawberries, which are able to satisfy both consumer and producer demands, in which both testing approaches have been used. As part of the project the following methodological steps were taken in order to identify consumer preferences for strawberries: focus group interviews aiming at finding...... the relevant question for a large scale survey among Danish households (n=1162), showing the households general knowledge, attitudes and behaviour when buying and consuming strawberries. From this large scale survey n=120 persons were randomly selected for participation in experiments, where 9 new varieties...... and 2 well-known varieties of strawberries were tested. The testing used a split-over design where each person participated in sensory testing of 5 different varieties of strawberries. Besides all the participant in the experiment were asked to do an in-home test of 2 of the 5 varieties of strawberries...

  13. Methods for identifying the cost effective case definition cut-off for sequential monitoring tests: an extension of Phelps and Mushlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Roberta; Baxter, Paul; Hall, Peter; Hewison, Jenny; Afshar, Mehran; Hall, Geoff; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The arrival of personalized medicine in the clinic means that treatment decisions will increasingly rely on test results. The challenge of limited health care resources means that the dissemination of these technologies will be dependent on their value in relation to their cost; i.e. their cost effectiveness. Phelps and Mushlin have described how to optimize tests to meet cost effectiveness target. However, when tests are applied repeatedly the case mix of the patients tested changes with each administration, and this impacts upon the value of each subsequent test administration. In this paper we present a modification of Phelps and Mushlin’s framework for diagnostic tests; to identify the cost effective cut-off for monitoring tests. Using the Ca125 test monitoring for relapse in Ovarian Cancer, we show how the repeated use of the initial cut-off can lead to a substantially increased false negative rate compared to the monitoring cut-off – over 20% higher than in this example – with the associated harms for individual and population health. PMID:24488576

  14. 389 Allergic Reactions to Local Anesthetics: Detection by Skin Tests and Subcutaneous Provocation. Analysis of 160 Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcanjo, Luiz; Gonçalves Tavares, Tania Maria; Delcourt, Nathalia; Baroni, Juliana; Rios, João; Rios, José Luiz

    2012-01-01

    Background Adverse reactions to local anesthetics (LA) are frequent and often referred to as allergic. Although immune-mediated reactions are rare, it should be investigated for suspected cases. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of positive skin test to these drugs in patients with a suspected history of allergic reactions and describe the main socio-demographic characteristics of these individuals. Methods Retrospective study of medical records of patients attended at Policlínica Geral do Rio de Janeiro Allergic Clinic, between 2008 and 2011. The parameters evaluated were the test indication and the patient ages and gender. The drug tested was that the patient had a history of suspicion. Patients underwent skin prick and intradermal tests and subcutaneous provocation. Descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed. Results It was performed 160 tests (125 female). Three of this total was excluded due to inconclusive results. In women, the highest proportion of tests was in the age group from 41 to 60 years (43%), while in males the higher concentration was at a youngest age group: 21 to 40 years (41%). The most common indication (103 cases, 65%) for the tests was a previous suspected anaphylactic reaction by LA. Seven of 157 tests had a positive result (4.4%), 6 of them occurred in women (4.8%). Only one test resulted in a type of anaphylactic reaction response (0.67%). All patients who presented positive response to the test had a history of per-anesthetic reaction that suggested an immune-mediated mechanism. Conclusions In patients with a history of previous reaction to local anesthetics, the skin tests with these drugs have a key role in the prevention of anaphylaxis, and on guidance for adequate anesthetic procedures.

  15. The impact of introducing malaria rapid diagnostic tests on fever case management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruxvoort, Katia J; Leurent, Baptiste; Chandler, Clare I R

    2017-01-01

    , to evaluate the impact of mRDT introduction on case management across settings that vary in malaria endemicity and healthcare provider type. This synthesis includes 562,368 outpatient encounters (study size range 2,400-432,513). mRDTs were associated with significantly lower ACT prescription (range 8......RDTs increased referral of patients to other providers. This synthesis provides an overview of shifts in case management that may be expected with mRDT introduction and highlights areas of focus to improve design and implementation of future case management programs....

  16. Robust Tests for Additive Gene-Environment Interaction in Case-Control Studies Using Gene-Environment Independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Gang; Lee, Seunggeun; Lee, Alice W

    2018-01-01

    test with case-control data. Our simulation studies suggest that the EB approach uses the gene-environment independence assumption in a data-adaptive way and provides power gain compared to the standard logistic regression analysis and better control of Type I error when compared to the analysis......There have been recent proposals advocating the use of additive gene-environment interaction instead of the widely used multiplicative scale, as a more relevant public health measure. Using gene-environment independence enhances the power for testing multiplicative interaction in case......-control studies. However, under departure from this assumption, substantial bias in the estimates and inflated Type I error in the corresponding tests can occur. This paper extends the empirical Bayes (EB) approach previously developed for multiplicative interaction that trades off between bias and efficiency...

  17. Development of Test Rig for Robotization of Mining Technological Processes - Oversized Rock Breaking Process Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawel, Stefaniak; Jacek, Wodecki; Jakubiak, Janusz; Zimroz, Radoslaw

    2017-12-01

    Production chain (PCh) in underground copper ore mine consists of several subprocesses. From our perspective implementation of so called ZEPA approach (Zero Entry Production Area) might be very interesting [16]. In practice, it leads to automation/robotization of subprocesses in production area. In this paper was investigated a specific part of PCh i.e. a place when cyclic transport by LHDs is replaced with continuous transport by conveying system. Such place is called dumping point. The objective of dumping points with screen is primary classification of the material (into coarse and fine material) and breaking oversized rocks with hydraulic hammer. Current challenges for the underground mining include e.g. safety improvement as well as production optimization related to bottlenecks, stoppages and operational efficiency of the machines. As a first step, remote control of the hydraulic hammer has been introduced, which not only transferred the operator to safe workplace, but also allowed for more comfortable work environment and control over multiple technical objects by a single person. Today literature analysis shows that current mining industry around the world is oriented to automation and robotization of mining processes and reveals technological readiness for 4th industrial revolution. The paper is focused on preliminary analysis of possibilities for the use of the robotic system to rock-breaking process. Prototype test rig has been proposed and experimental works have been carried out. Automatic algorithms for detection of oversized rocks, crushing them as well as sweeping and loosening of material have been formulated. Obviously many simplifications have been assumed. Some near future works have been proposed.

  18. Potential and pitfalls of eukaryotic metagenome skimming: a test case for lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greshake, Bastian; Zehr, Simonida; Dal Grande, Francesco; Meiser, Anjuli; Schmitt, Imke; Ebersberger, Ingo

    2016-03-01

    Whole-genome shotgun sequencing of multispecies communities using only a single library layout is commonly used to assess taxonomic and functional diversity of microbial assemblages. Here, we investigate to what extent such metagenome skimming approaches are applicable for in-depth genomic characterizations of eukaryotic communities, for example lichens. We address how to best assemble a particular eukaryotic metagenome skimming data, what pitfalls can occur, and what genome quality can be expected from these data. To facilitate a project-specific benchmarking, we introduce the concept of twin sets, simulated data resembling the outcome of a particular metagenome sequencing study. We show that the quality of genome reconstructions depends essentially on assembler choice. Individual tools, including the metagenome assemblers Omega and MetaVelvet, are surprisingly sensitive to low and uneven coverages. In combination with the routine of assembly parameter choice to optimize the assembly N50 size, these tools can preclude an entire genome from the assembly. In contrast, MIRA, an all-purpose overlap assembler, and SPAdes, a multisized de Bruijn graph assembler, facilitate a comprehensive view on the individual genomes across a wide range of coverage ratios. Testing assemblers on a real-world metagenome skimming data from the lichen Lasallia pustulata demonstrates the applicability of twin sets for guiding method selection. Furthermore, it reveals that the assembly outcome for the photobiont Trebouxia sp. falls behind the a priori expectation given the simulations. Although the underlying reasons remain still unclear, this highlights that further studies on this organism require special attention during sequence data generation and downstream analysis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Surveillance testing of onsite electrical power systems, several cases of standards misinterpretation in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recarte, I.; Cid, R. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Sor Angela de la Cruz, 3, Madrid 28016 (Spain)

    1986-02-15

    Two events related with the onsite electric Systems of Spanish nuclear power plants are discussed. The first of them is related with diesel generators, its compliance with technical specifications; with the valid test, failure classification and frequency of tests as defined in Regulatory Guide 1.108. The other problem concerns of the direct current batteries. Presently they are subject by technical specifications to testing of a discharge cycle for which they were not designed. (authors)

  20. System testing software deployments using Docker and Kubernetes in gitlab CI: EOS + CTA use case

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    It needs to be seamlessly integrated with `EOS`, which has become the de facto disk storage system at CERN. `CTA` and `EOS` integration requires parallel development of features in both software that needs to be **synchronized and systematically tested** on a specific distributed development infrastructure for each commit in the code base. This presentation describes the full gitlab continuous integration work flow that builds, tests, deploys and run system tests of the full software stack in docker containers on our specific kubernetes infrastructure.

  1. Explanatory item response modelling of an abstract reasoning assessment: A case for modern test design

    OpenAIRE

    Helland, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Assessment is an integral part of society and education, and for this reason it is important to know what you measure. This thesis is about explanatory item response modelling of an abstract reasoning assessment, with the objective to create a modern test design framework for automatic generation of valid and precalibrated items of abstract reasoning. Modern test design aims to strengthen the connections between the different components of a test, with a stress on strong theory, systematic it...

  2. ETHICS OF MANDATORY PREMARITAL HIV TESTING IN AFRICA: THE CASE OF GOMA, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    RENNIE, STUART; MUPENDA, BAVON

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of prevention efforts, millions of persons worldwide continue to become infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) every year. This urgent problem of global epidemic control has recently lead to significant changes in HIV testing policies. Provider-initiated approaches to HIV testing have been embraced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization, such as those that routinely inform persons that they will be tested for HIV unless they explicitly refuse (‘opt out’). While these policies appear to increase uptake of testing, they raise a number of ethical concerns that have been debated in journals and at international AIDS conferences. However, one special form of ‘provider-initiated’ testing is being practiced and promoted in various parts of the world, and has advocates within international health agencies, but has received little attention in the bioethical literature: mandatory premarital HIV testing. This article analyses some of the key ethical issues related to mandatory premarital HIV testing in resource-poor settings with generalized HIV epidemics. We will first briefly mention some mandatory HIV premarital testing proposals, policies and practices worldwide, and offer a number of conceptual and factual distinctions to help distinguish different types of mandatory testing policies. Using premarital testing in Goma (Democratic Republic of Congo) as a point of departure, we will use influential public health ethics principles to evaluate different forms of mandatory testing. We conclude by making concrete recommendations concerning the place of mandatory premarital testing in the struggle against HIV/AIDS. PMID:19143089

  3. A/B Testing in Improving Conversion on a Website : Case: Sanoma Entertainment Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Arento, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study marketing possibilities of improved conversion rates on websites. The study was made for Sanoma Entertainment Oy’s Gaming & Online unit. The main objective was to explore A/B testing as a tool to improve conversion rates by increasing click-through rates. The secondary objective was to test Google Website Optimizer as an A/B testing tool in comparison to current methods of A/B testing in Sanoma Entertainment Oy. The results of this study will be used as ...

  4. Validating a UAV artificial intelligence control system using an autonomous test case generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy; Huber, Justin

    2013-05-01

    The validation of safety-critical applications, such as autonomous UAV operations in an environment which may include human actors, is an ill posed problem. To confidence in the autonomous control technology, numerous scenarios must be considered. This paper expands upon previous work, related to autonomous testing of robotic control algorithms in a two dimensional plane, to evaluate the suitability of similar techniques for validating artificial intelligence control in three dimensions, where a minimum level of airspeed must be maintained. The results of human-conducted testing are compared to this automated testing, in terms of error detection, speed and testing cost.

  5. A case report of locally advanced triple negative breast cancer showing pathological complete response to weekly paclitaxel with bevacizumab treatment following disease progression during anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Shigematsu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Although the addition of bevacizumab to standard adjuvant chemotherapy is not recommended in unselected triple negative breast cancer, the potent effect on tumor shrinkage should be considered in the treatment of locally advanced triple negative breast cancer showing disease progression during standard NAC.

  6. Case Report: Diagnosis of hypogeusia after oral exposure to commercial cleaning agent and considerations for clinical taste testing [version 2; referees: 2 approved, 1 not approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Jetté

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Few reports in the literature document acute taste disturbance following exposure to toxic chemicals. We describe the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with primary complaint of tongue numbness and persistent problems with taste 1.5 years following oral exposure to a commercial cleaning agent. A test of olfaction revealed normosmia for age and gender. Lingual tactile two-point discrimination testing showed reduced somatosensation. Taste threshold testing using a 3-drop method demonstrated severe hypogeusia, though the patient was able to discriminate tastants at lower concentrations with a whole mouth swish and spit test. We conclude that clinical evaluation of dysgeusia can be performed using a number of previously published testing methods, however, determining causative factors may be confounded by duration since exposure, lack of knowledge of baseline taste function, and medications. Although many testing options exist, basic taste testing can be performed with minimal expertise or specialized equipment, depending on the patient history and goals of evaluation.

  7. Evaluation of surveillance case definition in the diagnosis of leptospirosis, using the Microscopic Agglutination Test: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassanayake, Dinesh L B; Wimalaratna, Harith; Agampodi, Suneth B; Liyanapathirana, Veranja C; Piyarathna, Thibbotumunuwe A C L; Goonapienuwala, Bimba L

    2009-04-22

    Leptospirosis is endemic in both urban and rural areas of Sri Lanka and there had been many out breaks in the recent past. This study was aimed at validating the leptospirosis surveillance case definition, using the Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The study population consisted of patients with undiagnosed acute febrile illness who were admitted to the medical wards of the Teaching Hospital Kandy, from 1st July 2007 to 31st July 2008. The subjects were screened to diagnose leptospirosis according to the leptospirosis case definition. MAT was performed on blood samples taken from each patient on the 7th day of fever. Leptospirosis case definition was evaluated in regard to sensitivity, specificity and predictive values, using a MAT titre >or= 1:800 for confirming leptospirosis. A total of 123 patients were initially recruited of which 73 had clinical features compatible with the surveillance case definition. Out of the 73 only 57 had a positive MAT result (true positives) leaving 16 as false positives. Out of the 50 who didn't have clinical features compatible with the case definition 45 had a negative MAT as well (true negatives), therefore 5 were false negatives. Total number of MAT positives was 62 out of 123. According to these results the test sensitivity was 91.94%, specificity 73.77%, positive predictive value and negative predictive values were 78.08% and 90% respectively. Diagnostic accuracy of the test was 82.93%. This study confirms that the surveillance case definition has a very high sensitivity and negative predictive value with an average specificity in diagnosing leptospirosis, based on a MAT titre of >or= 1: 800.

  8. The Empirical Dimension of Communicative Language Tests: The Case of Selected Philippine Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Alejandro S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the "communicativeness" of 22 English language tests designed and administered by 22 English instructors from 22 different colleges and universities in the Philippines. Its key objective was to answer the question "How communicative are the language tests used in assessing students' competence (knowledge of the…

  9. The consequences of English language testing for international health professionals and students: An Australian case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumsey, Michele; Thiessen, Jodi; Buchan, James; Daly, John

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the perceptions about the International English Language Testing System (IELTS) and its impact on migration and practice of migrant health professionals in Australia. Thematic analysis of interviews with 14 health industry participants and 35 migrated health professionals in Australia. Language testing is a barrier to health professional registration for migrant health workers in Australia. While two English language tests are recognised by the registration authorities in Australia, it is the International English Language Testing System that is most commonly used. This paper reports that study participants had underlying negative perceptions of the International English Language Testing System which they report, affect their move to Australia. These negative perceptions are caused by: frustration due to changes to processes for migration and registration; challenges regarding the structure of IELTS including timing of when test results expire, scoring requirements, cost, and suitability; and the resulting feelings of inadequacy caused by the test itself. This study has shown that some respondents have experienced difficulties in relation to the International English Language Testing System as part of their migration process. It was found that there is very little research into the effectiveness of the IELTS as it is currently administered for overseas health care professionals. Several recommendations are provided including areas for further research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessor Decision Making While Marking a Note-Taking Listening Test: The Case of the OET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Luke; Pill, John; Ryan, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates assessor decision making when using and applying a marking guide for a note-taking task in a specific purpose English language listening test. In contexts where note-taking items are used, a marking guide is intended to stipulate what kind of response should be accepted as evidence of the ability under test. However,…

  11. Testing the External Effect of Household Behavior: The Case of the Demand for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbin; Zhang, Junsen

    2009-01-01

    This paper tests the external effect of household childbearing behavior by drawing on microfertility data from China. The test is executed by regressing one woman's fertility on the average fertility of neighboring women. China's unique affirmative birth control policy provides us with quasi-experimental fertility variation that facilities…

  12. Usability Testing of an Academic Library Web Site: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battleson, Brenda; Booth, Austin; Weintrop, Jane

    2001-01-01

    Discusses usability testing as a tool for evaluating the effectiveness and ease of use of academic library Web sites; considers human-computer interaction; reviews major usability principles; and explores the application of formal usability testing to an existing site at the University at Buffalo (NY) libraries. (Author/LRW)

  13. The Arctic as a test case for an assessment of climate impacts on national security.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Mark A.; Zak, Bernard Daniel; Backus, George A.; Ivey, Mark D.; Boslough, Mark Bruce Elrick

    2008-11-01

    The Arctic region is rapidly changing in a way that will affect the rest of the world. Parts of Alaska, western Canada, and Siberia are currently warming at twice the global rate. This warming trend is accelerating permafrost deterioration, coastal erosion, snow and ice loss, and other changes that are a direct consequence of climate change. Climatologists have long understood that changes in the Arctic would be faster and more intense than elsewhere on the planet, but the degree and speed of the changes were underestimated compared to recent observations. Policy makers have not yet had time to examine the latest evidence or appreciate the nature of the consequences. Thus, the abruptness and severity of an unfolding Arctic climate crisis has not been incorporated into long-range planning. The purpose of this report is to briefly review the physical basis for global climate change and Arctic amplification, summarize the ongoing observations, discuss the potential consequences, explain the need for an objective risk assessment, develop scenarios for future change, review existing modeling capabilities and the need for better regional models, and finally to make recommendations for Sandia's future role in preparing our leaders to deal with impacts of Arctic climate change on national security. Accurate and credible regional-scale climate models are still several years in the future, and those models are essential for estimating climate impacts around the globe. This study demonstrates how a scenario-based method may be used to give insights into climate impacts on a regional scale and possible mitigation. Because of our experience in the Arctic and widespread recognition of the Arctic's importance in the Earth climate system we chose the Arctic as a test case for an assessment of climate impacts on national security. Sandia can make a swift and significant contribution by applying modeling and simulation tools with internal collaborations as well as with

  14. A case of Candida famata sepsis in a very low birth weight infant successfully treated with fluconazole following antifungal susceptibility testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpee Raturi

    2015-01-01

    This case report highlights the growing number of cases arising due to nonalbicans Candida infections in the neonatal intensive care units and the usefulness of antifungal susceptibility testing in deciding optimal antifungal therapy and preventing the emergence of drug resistance.

  15. Butterfly extracts show antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extracts of several British butterfly species were tested and shown to possess powerful bactericidal activity against the gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The active compounds were identified as hydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) related to loline with nitrogen at C-...

  16. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  17. Assessing New and Old Methods in Paleomagnetic Paleothermometry: A Test Case at Mt. St. Helens, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, J. A.; Gerzich, D.; Jackson, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Paleomagnetic data can be used to estimate deposit temperatures (Tdep) of pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). The typical method is to thermally demagnetize oriented lithic clasts incorporated into the PDC. If Tdep is less than the maximum Curie temperature (Tc), the clast is partially remagnetized in the PDC, and the unblocking temperature (Tub) at which this remagnetization is removed is an estimate of Tdep. In principle, juvenile clasts can also be used, and Tub-max is taken as the minimum Tdep. This all assumes blocking (Tb) and unblocking temperatures are equivalent and that the blocking spectrum remains constant through time. Recent evidence shows that Tc in many titanomagnetites is a strong function of thermal history due to a crystal-chemical reordering process. We therefore undertake a study designed to test some of these assumptions and to assess the extent to which the method may be biased by a Tb spectrum that shifts to higher T during cooling. We also explore a new magnetic technique that relies only on stratigraphic variations in Tc. Samples are from the May 18, 1980 PDCs at Mt. St. Helens, USA. Direct temperature measurements of the deposits were 297 - 367°C. At sites with oriented lithics, standard methods provide a Tdep range that overlaps with measured temperatures, but is systematically higher by a few 10s of °C. By contrast, pumice clasts all give Tdep_min estimates that greatly exceed lithic estimates and measured temperatures. We attribute this overestimate to two causes: 1) Tc and Tub systematically increase with depth as a result of the reordering process. This results in Tdep_min estimates that vary by 50°C and increase with depth. 2) MSH pumice is multi-domain, where Tub > Tb, resulting in a large overestimate in Tdep. At 5 sites, stratigraphic variations in Tc were conservatively interpreted in terms of Tdep as 300°C. More sophisticated modeling of the time-temperature-depth evolution of Tc allows us to place tighter constraints on

  18. [A case showing a complete response by weekly paclitaxel associated with severe empyema and mediastinal abscess caused by reduction of a recurrent lung metastatic tumor originating from adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction after primary operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Akiharu; Hiramatsu, Kiyoshi; Sakuragawa, Tadayuki; Ito, Takaaki; Otsuji, Hidehiko; Tsuchiya, Tomonori; Hara, Tomohiro; Maeda, Takao; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Machiki, Yuichi; Hosoya, Jun; Kojima, Tsuyoshi; Kato, Kenji

    2010-02-01

    The patient was a 57-year-old man who presented with cancer of the esophagogastric junction. He underwent total gastrectomy, lower esophagectomy, distal pancreatectomy and splenectomy with para-aortic lymphnode dissection by the transthoracoabdominal approach. He was given a daily dose of 100 mg of S-1 as adjuvant chemotherapy. About one year after the operation, lung metastasis was recognized by enhanced CT examination. He began weekly paclitaxel as second-line chemotherapy. Paclitaxel was infused once a week. About two weeks after the first infusion therapy, he was admitted to our hospital with fever and dyspnea. A chest enhanced CT revealed remarkable empyema and mediastinal abscess. Chest drainage and mediastinal drainage were performed.After one month of drainage, the empyema and mediastinal abscess had improved. The metastastic tumor of the lung disappeared at the time of discharge. CR has been maintained for more than a year without chemotherapy.This case suggests that remarkable reduction of the tumor induced by chemotherapy may have caused the empyema and mediastinal abscess.

  19. A clinical case of the schizophrenia-like organic personality syndrome after neck hanging with special reference to the brain positron CT showing the lowered functioning in frontal lobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Junzo; Takeuchi, Tatsuo; Ono, Yukio; Kozuki, Hideki; Iio, Masaaki.

    1985-01-01

    A 21-year-old woman developed schizophrenia-like organic personality syndrome subsequent to neck hanging. Brain positron CT with 11 CO, 15 O 2 , and C 15 O 2 showed decreased blood flow in the frontal lobe, decreased glucose metabolism in the frontal and lateral lobes, decreased cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen, and decreased cerebral blood flow, suggesting lowered functioning in the frontal lobe. Since these CT findings were very similar to those in patients with chronic sphizophrenia, clinical symptoms of sphizophrenia seems to be related to lowered functioning in the frontal lobe. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Coaching Tutors: An Instrumental Case Study on Testing an Integrated Framework for Tutoring Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alicia L.; Grant, Chris; Donthamsetty, Reshema

    2017-01-01

    The objective for the current qualitative case study was to examine participants' perceptions on the tutor coaching and session review frameworks. The location of the study was at the tutor coaches' place of business. At the beginning of the study, tutor coaches were trained on how to implement the tutoring coaching framework with their tutors,…

  1. Molar Tooth Sign with Deranged Liver Function Tests: An Indian Case with COACH Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeev, Rama Krishna; Kapoor, Seema; Goyal, Manisha; Kapur, Rajiv; Gleeson, Joseph Gerard

    2015-01-01

    We report the first genetically proven case of COACH syndrome from the Indian subcontinent in a 6-year-old girl who presented with typical features of Joubert syndrome along with hepatic involvement. Mutation analysis revealed compound heterozygous missense mutation in the known gene TMEM67 (also called MKS3).

  2. Fatigue assessment of the ITER TF coil case based on JJ1 fatigue tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, K.; Nakajima, H.; Takano, K.; Kudo, Y.; Tsutsumi, F.; Okuno, K.; Jong, C.

    2005-01-01

    The material of the TF coil case in the ITER requires to withstand cyclic electromagnetic forces applied up to 3 x 10 4 cycles at 4.2 K. A cryogenic stainless steel, JJ1, is used in high stress region of TF coil case. The fatigue characteristics (S-N curve) of JJ1 base metal and welded joint at 4.2 K has been measured. The fatigue strength of base metal and welded joint at 3 x 10 4 cycles are measured as 1032 and 848 MPa, respectively. The design S-N curve is derived from the measured data taking account of the safety factor of 20 for cycle-to-failure and 2 for fatigue strength, and it indicates that an equivalent alternating stress of the case should be kept less than 516 MPa for the base metal and 424 MPa for the welded joint at 3 x 10 4 cycles. It is demonstrated that the TF coil case has enough margins for the cyclic operation. It is also shown the welded joint should be located in low cyclic stress region because a residual stress affects the fatigue life

  3. MARKET INFORMATIONAL EFFICIENCY TESTS AND ITS CRITICS: THE CASE OF EMERGENT CAPITAL MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    OPREAN Camelia; BRATIAN Vasile

    2012-01-01

    Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) has attracted a considerable number of studies in empirical finance, particularly in determining the market efficiency of an emerging financial market. Conflicting and inconclusive outcomes have been generated by various existing studies in EMH. In addition, efficiency tests in the emerging financial markets are rarely definitive in reaching a conclusion about the issue. The paper proposes a critical analysis regarding the testing methods of the informational...

  4. PREDICTABILITY OF FINANCIAL CRISES: TESTING K.R.L. MODEL IN THE CASE OF TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep KARACOR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to test predictability of 2007 Global Economic Crisis which hit Turkey by the help of macroeconomic data of Turkey. K.R.L. model is used to test the predictability. By the method of analyzing various leading early warning indicators, the success of the model in forecasting the crises is surveyed. The findings do not support K.R.L. models. Possible reasons for this are stated at the article.

  5. Test-Taking Strategies and Task-based Assessment: The Case of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Barati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effect of task-based assessment on the type and frequency of test-taking strategies that three proficiency groups of Iranian adult EFL learners used when completing the First Certificate in English FCE reading paper. A total of 70 EFL university undergraduates (53 females and 17 males took part in the main phase of this study. They were divided into three proficiency groups: high, intermediate, and low. A set of Chi-square analyses was used to explore the type and frequency of test-taking strategies used by participants. The results suggested that the intermediate group test takers used the strategies significantly different after completing each task (sub-test in the FCE reading paper. However, the high and low proficient test takers› use of strategies was only significant after completing the third task of the FCE reading paper. The findings also revealed that a pattern could be drawn of the type of strategies used by the three proficiency groups who participated in this study. Nonetheless, such a pattern shifted at times depending on the ability of the test takers and/or the task under study.

  6. Positive results of serological tests for syphilis in pregnancy – diagnostic and therapeutic problems, report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Koper

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Undiagnosed and untreated syphilis in pregnancy may result in subsequent complications: early fetal loss, stillbirth, low birth weight of infants and newborns with congenital syphilis. Objective. To analyze diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas of positive results of serological tests for syphilis (STS in pregnancy. Case reports. We present two cases of pregnant women, hospitalized in our department due to positive results of serological tests for syphilis, performed during the antenatal visit. On the basis of patients' history, physical examination and STS results, early latent syphilis was diagnosed in the first patient; biological false positive reactions were considered in the second one. Both patients received procaine penicillin treatment. Conclusions. Screening for syphilis in pregnancy as a part of antenatal care and appropriate treatment with penicillin are the most effective interventions to prevent complications of syphilis in pregnancy. It is also important to adapt modern European Guidelines for management of syphilis to Polish conditions.

  7. STD screening, testing, case reporting, and clinical and partner notification practices: a national survey of US physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Lawrence, Janet S; Montaño, Daniel E; Kasprzyk, Danuta; Phillips, William R; Armstrong, Keira; Leichliter, Jami S

    2002-11-01

    This study presents results from a national survey of US physicians that assessed screening, case reporting, partner management, and clinical practices for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV infection. Surveys were mailed to a random sample of 7300 physicians to assess screening, testing, reporting, and partner notification for syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV. Fewer than one third of physicians routinely screened men or women (pregnant or nonpregnant) for STDs. Case reporting was lowest for chlamydia (37 percent), intermediate for gonorrhea (44 percent), and higher for syphilis, HIV, and AIDS (53 percent-57 percent). Physicians instructed patients to notify their partners (82 percent-89 percent) or the health department (25 percent-34 percent) rather than doing so themselves. STD screening levels are well below practice guidelines for women and virtually nonexistent for men. Case reporting levels are below those legally mandated; physicians rely instead on patients for partner notification. Health departments must increase collaboration with private physicians to improve the quality of STD care.

  8. Eukaryotic Cell Cycle as a Test Case for Modeling Cellular Regulation in a Collaborative Problem-Solving Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    computer models of cell cycle regulation in a variety of organisms, including yeast cells, amphibian embryos, bacterial cells and human cells. These...and meiosis ), but they do not nullify the central role played by irreversible, alternating START and FINISH transitions in the cell cycle. 32...AFRL-IF-RS-TR-2007-69 Final Technical Report March 2007 EUKARYOTIC CELL CYCLE AS A TEST CASE FOR MODELING CELLULAR REGULATION IN A

  9. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  10. Teaching about genetic testing issues in the undergraduate classroom: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jill Cellars; Taylor, Ann T S

    2011-06-01

    Educating undergraduates about current genetic testing and genomics can involve novel and creative teaching practices. The higher education literature describes numerous pedagogical approaches in the laboratory designed to engage science and liberal arts students. Often these experiences involve students analyzing their own genes for various polymorphisms, some of which are associated with disease states such as an increased risk for developing cancer. While the literature acknowledges possible ethical ramifications of such laboratory exercises, authors do not present recommendations or rubrics for evaluating whether or not the testing is, in fact, ethical. In response, we developed a laboratory investigation and discussion which allowed undergraduate science students to explore current DNA manipulation techniques to isolate their p53 gene, followed by a dialogue probing the ethical implications of examining their sample for various polymorphisms. Students never conducted genotyping on their samples because of ethical concerns, so the discussion served to replace actual genetic testing in the class. A basic scientist led the laboratory portion of the assignment. A genetic counselor facilitated the discussion, which centered around existing ethical guidelines for clinical genetic testing and possible challenges of human genotyping outside the medical setting. In their final papers, students demonstrated an understanding of the practice guidelines established by the genetics community and acknowledged the ethical considerations inherent in p53 genotyping. Given the burgeoning market for personalized medicine, teaching undergraduates about the psychosocial and ethical dimensions of human gene testing seems important and timely, and introduces an additional role genetic counselors can play in educating consumers about genomics.

  11. A case report of Fanconi anemia diagnosed by genetic testing followed by prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwa Jeen; Park, Seungman; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Jun, Jong Kwan; Lee, Jung Ae; Lee, Dong Soon; Park, Sung Sup; Seong, Moon-Woo

    2012-09-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder affecting multiple body systems. Genetic testing, including prenatal testing, is a prerequisite for the diagnosis of many clinical conditions. However, genetic testing is complicated for FA because there are often many genes that are associated with its development, and large deletions, duplications, or sequence variations are frequently found in some of these genes. This study describes successful genetic testing for molecular diagnosis, and subsequent prenatal diagnosis, of FA in a patient and his family in Korea. We analyzed all exons and flanking regions of the FANCA, FANCC, and FANCG genes for mutation identification and subsequent prenatal diagnosis. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis was performed to detect large deletions or duplications in the FANCA gene. Molecular analysis revealed two mutations in the FANCA gene: a frameshift mutation c.2546delC and a novel splice-site mutation c.3627-1G>A. The FANCA mutations were separately inherited from each parent, c.2546delC was derived from the father, whereas c.3627-1G>A originated from the mother. The amniotic fluid cells were c.3627-1G>A heterozygotes, suggesting that the fetus was unaffected. This is the first report of genetic testing that was successfully applied to molecular diagnosis of a patient and subsequent prenatal diagnosis of FA in a family in Korea.

  12. Case fault analysis for the mirror fusion test facility (MFTF) magnet system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldi, R.W.; Poniktera, C.D.

    1979-03-01

    This report describes the stress analysis performed to determine the criticality of selected failures in the magnet case, jacket, and intercoil member. The selected faults were idealized by adding additional nodes coincidental to existing nodes in the baseline finite element model and changing fault boundary plate connectivities. No attempt was made to alter the analysis mesh size adjacent to any fault as this degree of effort was beyond the intent and scope of this task. Results of this analysis indicated that two of the five faults analyzed would be catastrophic in nature. Faults of this cateogry were: Fault No. 1 - A weld joint failure in the minor radius 3 to 5 inch plate inter section in the chamfer region at the centerline of symmetry. Fault No. 5 - Failuree of the 3 to 5 inch transition butt weld joint at the major to minor radius transition on the magnet case top plate

  13. National energy issues: how do we decide. Plutonium as a test case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings and discussions of a Symposium at Argonne National Laboratory. The discussions demonstrate how the variety and diversity of critical inputs contribute directly to the complexity of national energy policy-making. Plutonium was chosen as a case study for this inquiry because of its controversial nature and its important domestic and international implications. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  14. Tissue microarrays for testing basal biomarkers in familial breast cancer cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozany Mucha Dufloth

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The proteins p63, p-cadherin and CK5 are consistently expressed by the basal and myoepithelial cells of the breast, although their expression in sporadic and familial breast cancer cases has yet to be fully defined. The aim here was to study the basal immunopro-file of a breast cancer case series using tissue microarray technology. DESIGN AND SETTING: This was a cross-sectional study at Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil, and the Institute of Pathology and Mo-lecular Immunology, Porto, Portugal. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry using the antibodies p63, CK5 and p-cadherin, and also estrogen receptor (ER and Human Epidermal Receptor Growth Factor 2 (HER2, was per-formed on 168 samples from a breast cancer case series. The criteria for identifying women at high risk were based on those of the Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium. RESULTS: Familial tumors were more frequently positive for the p-cadherin (p = 0.0004, p63 (p < 0.0001 and CK5 (p < 0.0001 than was sporadic cancer. Moreover, familial tumors had coexpression of the basal biomarkers CK5+/ p63+, grouped two by two (OR = 34.34, while absence of coexpression (OR = 0.13 was associ-ated with the sporadic cancer phenotype. CONCLUSION: Familial breast cancer was found to be associated with basal biomarkers, using tissue microarray technology. Therefore, characterization of the familial breast cancer phenotype will improve the understanding of breast carcinogenesis.

  15. Electronic vending machines for dispensing rapid HIV self-testing kits: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Klausner, Jeffrey; Fynn, Risa; Bolan, Robert

    2014-02-01

    This short report evaluates the feasibility of using electronic vending machines for dispensing oral, fluid, rapid HIV self-testing kits in Los Angeles County. Feasibility criteria that needed to be addressed were defined as: (1) ability to find a manufacturer who would allow dispensing of HIV testing kits and could fit them to the dimensions of a vending machine, (2) ability to identify and address potential initial obstacles, trade-offs in choosing a machine location, and (3) ability to gain community approval for implementing this approach in a community setting. To address these issues, we contracted a vending machine company who could supply a customized, Internet-enabled machine that could dispense HIV kits and partnered with a local health center available to host the machine onsite and provide counseling to participants, if needed. Vending machines appear to be feasible technologies that can be used to distribute HIV testing kits.

  16. Cell-mediated immunity as an early diagnostic test for osteosarcoma in human radium cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloyd, E.L.; Menon, M.; Mitchen, J.L.

    1976-01-01

    Lymphocytes from patients carrying a body burden greater than 0.3 μCi of 226 Ra have been tested for specific cytotoxicity to four different osteosarcoma cell lines as well as to normal human fibroblasts. Cytotoxicity indexes (defined as the ratio of the number of target cells remaining, after treatment with the patients' lymphocytes, relative to the values obtained with normal control subjects) have been calculated. With one exception no cytotoxicity was observed. This is in agreement with the fact that no fresh osteosarcomas were diagnosed. The patient in whom cytotoxicity was found was suffering from an inflammatory lesion involving bone as the result of a foreign-body reaction at the time of the first test. When the test was repeated 10 months later, no cytotoxicity was observed. No significant nonspecific cytotoxicity was observed when lymphocytes from normal control subjects were interacted with any of the target cell lines

  17. A Case Study About Why It Can Be Difficult To Test Whether Propensity Score Analysis Works in Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Shadish

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Peikes, Moreno and Orzol (2008 sensibly caution researchers that propensity score analysis may not lead to valid causal inference in field applications. But at the same time, they made the far stronger claim to have performed an ideal test of whether propensity score matching in quasi-experimental data is capable of approximating the results of a randomized experiment in their dataset, and that this ideal test showed that such matching could not do so. In this article we show that their study does not support that conclusion because it failed to meet a number of basic criteria for an ideal test. By implication, many other purported tests of the effectiveness of propensity score analysis probably also fail to meet these criteria, and are therefore questionable contributions to the literature on the effects of propensity score analysis. DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v3i2.16475

  18. A Case Study About Why It Can Be Difficult To Test Whether Propensity Score Analysis Works in Field Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas D. Cook

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peikes, Moreno and Orzol (2008 sensibly caution researchers that propensity score analysis may not lead to valid causal inference in field applications. But at the same time, they made the far stronger claim to have performed an ideal test of whether propensity score matching in quasi-experimental data is capable of approximating the results of a randomized experiment in their dataset, and that this ideal test showed that such matching could not do so. In this article we show that their study does not support that conclusion because it failed to meet a number of basic criteria for an ideal test. By implication, many other purported tests of the effectiveness of propensity score analysis probably also fail to meet these criteria, and are therefore questionable contributions to the literature on the effects of propensity score analysis.

  19. Participation on official proficiency test of the OPCW: case study of Brazilian Army – IDQBRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T. C.; Ferreira, C. N.; Cardozo, M.; de Paula, R. L.

    2018-03-01

    In recent years, Brazil has been the scene of international events, gaining worldwide repercussion. However, this increases the risk of terrorist attacks using chemical warfare agents. It brings the need to achieve proficiency to do a quick and unequivocal identification of these dangerous compounds. Thinking about it, the Laboratory of Chemical Analyzes (LAQ) of Brazilian Army has participated since the end of 2010 in the interlaboratory tests promoted by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). In this article, we discuss about the participation of LAQ in the 40th OPCW Proficiency Test, one more step in the way to become a laboratory designated by OPCW and an international reference.

  20. Monitoring of aquifer pump tests with Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS): a synthetic case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herckenrath, Daan; Auken, E.; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Sounding (MRS) can provide valuable data to constrain and calibrate groundwater flow and transport models. With this non-invasive geophysical technique, measurements of water content and hydraulic conductivity can be obtained. We developed a hydrogeophyiscal forward method, which...... calculates the MRS-signal generated by an aquifer pump test. A synthetic MRS-dataset was subsequently used to determine the hydrogeological parameters in an inverse parameter estimation approach. This was done for a virtual pump test with a partially and a fully penetrating well. With the MRS data we were...

  1. [Ethical case discussions in the intensive care unit : from testing to routine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Zehnder, B; Barandun Schäfer, U; Albisser Schleger, H; Reiter-Theil, S; Pargger, H

    2014-06-01

    The daily work of many healthcare professionals has become more complex and demanding in recent years. Apart from purely medical issues, ethical questions and problems arise quite often. Managing these problems requires ethical knowledge. Questions about the usefulness of a therapy and treatment occur especially at the end of life. So-called medical futility, a useless futile therapy, is often perceived by nurses and physicians in intensive care units who themselves often develop symptoms of depression or burnout. The clinical ethical model METAP (acronym from module, ethics, therapy decision, allocation and process) provides methods and criteria that allow the clinical team to treat and solve ethical issues according to a solution-oriented approach. The ethical decision-making of this model addresses these issues according to a series of sequential stages in the form of a so-called escalation model. When it is not possible to tackle and solve an ethical problem or dilemma in one stage, one moves to the next. The implementation of this approach in everyday practice requires the commitment of all team members in addition to certain basic conditions. In a surgical intensive care unit a fixed date in the schedule is reserved for ethical case discussions (level 3 of the escalation model). At this level a team member who has been specified according to a quarterly plan is responsible for the organization and performance of the discussion. All protocols of the 44 ethical case discussions in 41 patients between January 2011 and July 2012 were collected and summarized. A short questionnaire to all participants recorded their assessment of the benefits for the patient and the team as well as their perception of personal stress reduction. Also queried was the impact of this method on the collaboration between nurses and physicians and the ethical competence. Ethical case discussions among the care team took place regularly (44 case discussions between January 2011 and June

  2. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  3. Bulgarian fuel models developed for implementation in FARSITE simulations for test cases in Zlatograd area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina Dobrinkova; LaWen Hollingsworth; Faith Ann Heinsch; Greg Dillon; Georgi Dobrinkov

    2014-01-01

    As a key component of the cross-border project between Bulgaria and Greece known as OUTLAND, a team from the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences and Rocky Mountain Research Station started a collaborative project to identify and describe various fuel types for a test area in Bulgaria in order to model fire behavior for recent wildfires. Although there have been various...

  4. Testing an MCM for high-energy physics experiments a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Benso, A; Prinetto, P; Giovannetti, S; Mariani, R; Motto, S

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the test strategy adopted at different hierarchical abstraction levels (from board to die level) during the development of a multichannel data acquisition and signal processing MCM, designed for the new generation experiments of high-energy physics on the Large Hadron Collider accelerator at CERN. (10 refs).

  5. Utility of Post-Mortem Genetic Testing in Cases of Sudden Arrhythmic Death Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrouchi, Najim; Raju, Hariharan; Lodder, Elisabeth M

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sudden arrhythmic death syndrome (SADS) describes a sudden death with negative autopsy and toxicological analysis. Cardiac genetic disease is a likely etiology. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the clinical utility and combined yield of post-mortem genetic testing (molecular autopsy...

  6. Usability Testing, User-Centered Design, and LibGuides Subject Guides: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsteby, Alec; DeJonghe, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Usability testing has become a routine way for many libraries to ensure that their Web presence is user-friendly and accessible. At the same time, popular subject guide creation systems, such as LibGuides, decentralize Web content creation and put authorship into the hands of librarians who may not be trained in user-centered design principles. At…

  7. Ergonomics Factors in English as a Foreign Language Testing: The Case of PLEVALEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Laborda, Jesus; Magal-Royo, Teresa; de Siqueira Rocha, Jose Macario; Alvarez, Miguel Fernandez

    2010-01-01

    Although much has been said about ergonomics in interface and in computer tools and interface design, very few articles in major journals have addressed this topic in relation to language testing. This article describes an experiment carried out at the Polytechnic University of Valencia, Spain, in which 27 Media and Communication students provided…

  8. Buyer–supplier interaction in business-to-business services : A typology test using case research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, W.; Wynstra, F.

    2012-01-01

    We empirically test a theory specifying distinct ideal interaction patterns for four business-to-business service types, which differ with regard to how they are used by the buying company. The ideal interaction patterns are conceptualised as configurations of five different interaction dimensions:

  9. Buyer-supplier interaction in business-to-business services : a typology test using case research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der W.; Wynstra, J.Y.F.

    2012-01-01

    We empirically test a theory specifying distinct ideal interaction patterns for four business-to-business service types, which differ with regard to how they are used by the buying company. The ideal interaction patterns are conceptualised as configurations of five different interaction dimensions:

  10. Non-Destructive Testing for Building Diagnostics and Monitoring: Experience Achieved with Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavukçuoğlu Ayşe

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Building inspection on site, in other words in-situ examinations of buildings is a troublesome work that necessitates the use of non-destructive investigation (NDT techniques. One of the main concerns of non-destructive testing studies is to improve in-situ use of NDT techniques for diagnostic and monitoring studies. The quantitative infrared thermography (QIRT and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV measurements have distinct importance in that regard. The joint use of QIRT and ultrasonic testing allows in-situ evaluation and monitoring of historical structures and contemporary ones in relation to moisture, thermal, materials and structural failures while the buildings themselves remain intact. For instances, those methods are useful for detection of visible and invisible cracks, thermal bridges and damp zones in building materials, components and functional systems as well as for soundness assessment of materials and thermal performance assessment of building components. In addition, those methods are promising for moisture content analyses in materials and monitoring the success of conservation treatments or interventions in structures. The in-situ NDT studies for diagnostic purposes should start with the mapping of decay forms and scanning of building surfaces with infrared images. Quantitative analyses are shaped for data acquisition on site and at laboratory from representative sound and problem areas in structures or laboratory samples. Laboratory analyses are needed to support in-situ examinations and to establish the reference data for better interpretation of in situ data. Advances in laboratory tests using IRT and ultrasonic testing are guiding for in-situ materials investigations based on measurable parameters. The knowledge and experience on QIRT and ultrasonic testing are promising for the innovative studies on today’s materials technologies, building science and conservation/maintenance practices. Such studies demand a multi

  11. The Clinical Test of Nano gold Cosmetic for Recovering Skin Damage Due to Chemicals: Special Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufikurohmah, T.; Wardana, A. P.; Tjahjani, S.; Sanjaya, I. G. M.; Baktir, A.; Syahrani, A.

    2018-01-01

    Manufacturing of Nano gold cosmetics was done at PT. Gizi Indonesia. Clinical trials to cosmetics data supported that cosmetics are able to treat skin health which has been reported partially. For special cases, the recovery process of facial skin damage should also receive attention including cases of facial skin damage caused by chemicals such as phenol, HCl, aqua regia or other harsh chemicals. The problem determined whether the Nano gold is able to recover skin damage due to the harsh chemicals. This clinical trial data on the forms of early skin damage caused by phenol was delivered in the forms of facial photos patients. The recovery progress of facial skin condition was obtained every week for two months. The data included the forms of widespread wounds during the recovery process. This statement supported by anova statistical analysis of the widespread wound changing every week for 8 times. The conclusion is skin damage due to Phenol impregnation can be recovered with the use of Nano gold cosmetics for 8 weeks. This results support the manufacturing of Nano gold cosmetics for the needs of society. It also suggest that Nano gold material can be used for medicine manufacturing in the future.

  12. Duchenne muscular dystrophy diagnosed by dystrophin gene deletion test: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathod Kishor G, Dawre Rahul M, Kamble Milind B,Tambe Saleem H

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is an X-linked recessive disease affecting 1 in 3600—6000 live male births. A muscle biopsy is not necessary if a genetic diagnosis is secured first, particularly as some families might view the procedure as traumatic. DMD occurs as a result of mutations (mainly deletions in the dystrophin gene (DMD; locus Xp21.2. Mutations lead to an absence of or defect in the protein dystrophin, which results in progressive muscle degeneration leading to loss of independent ambulation. Ninety percent of out frame mutations result in DMD, while 90% of in-frame mutations result in BMD. Electron microscopy is not required to confirm DMD. Genetic testing is mandatory irrespective of biopsy results. But the muscle biopsy is not required if the diagnosis is secured first by genetic testing.

  13. Thermal Vacuum Test Correlation of a Zero Propellant Load Case Thermal Capacitance Propellant Gauging Analytical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckim, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and correlation of a thermal model that forms the foundation of a thermal capacitance spacecraft propellant load estimator. Specific details of creating the thermal model for the diaphragm propellant tank used on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft using ANSYS and the correlation process implemented are presented. The thermal model was correlated to within plus or minus 3 degrees Celsius of the thermal vacuum test data, and was determined sufficient to make future propellant predictions on MMS. The model was also found to be relatively sensitive to uncertainties in applied heat flux and mass knowledge of the tank. More work is needed to improve temperature predictions in the upper hemisphere of the propellant tank where predictions were found to be 2 to 2.5 C lower than the test data. A road map for applying the model to predict propellant loads on the actual MMS spacecraft toward its end of life in 2017-2018 is also presented.

  14. Testing the Efficacy of Global Biodiversity Hotspots for Insect Conservation: The Case of South African Katydids

    OpenAIRE

    Bazelet, Corinna S.; Thompson, Aileen C.; Naskrecki, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The use of endemism and vascular plants only for biodiversity hotspot delineation has long been contested. Few studies have focused on the efficacy of global biodiversity hotspots for the conservation of insects, an important, abundant, and often ignored component of biodiversity. We aimed to test five alternative diversity measures for hotspot delineation and examine the efficacy of biodiversity hotspots for conserving a non-typical target organism, South African katydids. Using a 1° fishnet...

  15. Rapid Syphilis Tests as Catalysts for Health Systems Strengthening: A Case Study from Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Patricia J.; Cárcamo, César P.; Chiappe, Marina; Valderrama, Maria; La Rosa, Sayda; Holmes, King K.; Mabey, David C. W.; Peeling, Rosanna W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Untreated maternal syphilis leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes. The use of point of care tests (POCT) offers an opportunity to improve screening coverage for syphilis and other aspects of health systems. Our objective is to present the experience of the introduction of POCT for syphilis in Peru and describe how new technology can catalyze health system strengthening. Methods The study was implemented from September 2009–November 2010 to assess the feasibility of the use of a POCT for syphilis for screening pregnant women in Lima, Peru. Outcomes measured included access to syphilis screening, treatment coverage, partner treatment, effect on patient flow and service efficiency, acceptability among providers and patients, and sustainability. Results Before the introduction of POCT, a pregnant woman needed 6 visits to the health center in 27 days before she received her syphilis result. We trained 604 health providers and implemented the POCT for syphilis as the “two for one strategy”, offering with one finger stick both syphilis and HIV testing. Implementation of the POCT resulted in testing and treatment on the first visit. Screening and treatment coverages for syphilis improved significantly compared with the previous year. Implementation of POCT has been scaled up nationally since the study ended, and coverages for screening, treatment and partner treatment have remained over 92%. Conclusions Implementation of POCT for syphilis proved feasible and acceptable, and led to improvement in several aspects of health services. For the process to be effective we highlight the importance of: (1) engaging the authorities; (2) dissipating tensions between providers and identifying champions; (3) training according to the needs; (4) providing monitoring, supervision, support and recognition; (5) sharing results and discussing actions together; (6) consulting and obtaining feedback from users; and (7) integrating with other services such as with rapid HIV

  16. Rapid Syphilis Tests as Catalysts for Health Systems Strengthening: A Case Study from Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J García

    Full Text Available Untreated maternal syphilis leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes. The use of point of care tests (POCT offers an opportunity to improve screening coverage for syphilis and other aspects of health systems. Our objective is to present the experience of the introduction of POCT for syphilis in Peru and describe how new technology can catalyze health system strengthening.The study was implemented from September 2009-November 2010 to assess the feasibility of the use of a POCT for syphilis for screening pregnant women in Lima, Peru. Outcomes measured included access to syphilis screening, treatment coverage, partner treatment, effect on patient flow and service efficiency, acceptability among providers and patients, and sustainability.Before the introduction of POCT, a pregnant woman needed 6 visits to the health center in 27 days before she received her syphilis result. We trained 604 health providers and implemented the POCT for syphilis as the "two for one strategy", offering with one finger stick both syphilis and HIV testing. Implementation of the POCT resulted in testing and treatment on the first visit. Screening and treatment coverages for syphilis improved significantly compared with the previous year. Implementation of POCT has been scaled up nationally since the study ended, and coverages for screening, treatment and partner treatment have remained over 92%.Implementation of POCT for syphilis proved feasible and acceptable, and led to improvement in several aspects of health services. For the process to be effective we highlight the importance of: (1 engaging the authorities; (2 dissipating tensions between providers and identifying champions; (3 training according to the needs; (4 providing monitoring, supervision, support and recognition; (5 sharing results and discussing actions together; (6 consulting and obtaining feedback from users; and (7 integrating with other services such as with rapid HIV testing.

  17. Thermal Vacuum Test Correlation of A Zero Propellant Load Case Thermal Capacitance Propellant Gauging Analytics Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Stephen A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and test data validation of the thermal model that is the foundation of a thermal capacitance spacecraft propellant load estimator. Specific details of creating the thermal model for the diaphragm propellant tank used on NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale spacecraft using ANSYS and the correlation process implemented to validate the model are presented. The thermal model was correlated to within plus or minus 3 degrees Centigrade of the thermal vacuum test data, and was found to be relatively insensitive to uncertainties in applied heat flux and mass knowledge of the tank. More work is needed, however, to refine the thermal model to further improve temperature predictions in the upper hemisphere of the propellant tank. Temperatures predictions in this portion were found to be 2-2.5 degrees Centigrade lower than the test data. A road map to apply the model to predict propellant loads on the actual MMS spacecraft toward its end of life in 2017-2018 is also presented.

  18. Assuring safety without animal testing: the case for the human testis in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Robert E; Boekelheide, Kim; Cortvrindt, Rita; van Duursen, Majorie B M; Gant, Tim; Jegou, Bernard; Marczylo, Emma; van Pelt, Ans M M; Post, Janine N; Roelofs, Maarke J E; Schlatt, Stefan; Teerds, Katja J; Toppari, Jorma; Piersma, Aldert H

    2013-08-01

    From 15 to 17 June 2011, a dedicated workshop was held on the subject of in vitro models for mammalian spermatogenesis and their applications in toxicological hazard and risk assessment. The workshop was sponsored by the Dutch ASAT initiative (Assuring Safety without Animal Testing), which aims at promoting innovative approaches toward toxicological hazard and risk assessment on the basis of human and in vitro data, and replacement of animal studies. Participants addressed the state of the art regarding human and animal evidence for compound mediated testicular toxicity, reviewed existing alternative assay models, and brainstormed about future approaches, specifically considering tissue engineering. The workshop recognized the specific complexity of testicular function exemplified by dedicated cell types with distinct functionalities, as well as different cell compartments in terms of microenvironment and extracellular matrix components. This complexity hampers quick results in the realm of alternative models. Nevertheless, progress has been achieved in recent years, and innovative approaches in tissue engineering may open new avenues for mimicking testicular function in vitro. Although feasible, significant investment is deemed essential to be able to bring new ideas into practice in the laboratory. For the advancement of in vitro testicular toxicity testing, one of the most sensitive end points in regulatory reproductive toxicity testing, such an investment is highly desirable. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Usefulness of laser-evoked potentials and quantitative sensory testing in the diagnosis of neuropathic spinal cord injury pain: a multiple case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, G; Berger, M F; Stockinger, L; Opsommer, E

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective study. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and quantitative sensory testing (QST) to the diagnosis of neuropathic pain in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) and inconclusive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. A multidisciplinary pain center. QST (DFNS protocol) and Tm-YAG-laser stimulation of the skin were applied within the pain site corresponding with dermatomes of altered sensation. Available MRI scans were reviewed. Thirteen individuals (50±16 years) with SCI were examined. In four cases with no detectable neural lesion on MRI, all QST but three LEP were abnormal. In four patients with poorly defined spinal lesion on MRI, all QST but three LEP only were abnormal. In four cases where pain was not matching adequately with MRI lesions, all patients had abnormal LEP and QST. In one patient showing a spinal cord atrophy, LEP was normal but QST was abnormal. Findings supported the diagnoses at-level (n=5) and below-level (n=8) SCI pain. Spinothalamic tract function assessed by LEP was normal in three cases, but QST was abnormal in all cases. As QST is a psychophysical examination depending on patient cooperation, we suggest that the combination of QST and LEP might be a valuable diagnostic tool to detect lesions of the somatosensory system in a subgroup of patients with neuropathic spinal cord injury pain and inconclusive MRI findings.

  20. Considerations for test design to accommodate energy-budget models in ecotoxicology: a case study for acetone in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Alpar; Jager, Tjalling; Collinet, Marc; Lagadic, Laurent; Ducrot, Virginie

    2014-07-01

    Toxicokinetic-toxicodynamic (TKTD) modeling offers many advantages in the analysis of ecotoxicity test data. Calibration of TKTD models, however, places different demands on test design compared with classical concentration-response approaches. In the present study, useful complementary information is provided regarding test design for TKTD modeling. A case study is presented for the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis exposed to the narcotic compound acetone, in which the data on all endpoints were analyzed together using a relatively simple TKTD model called DEBkiss. Furthermore, the influence of the data used for calibration on accuracy and precision of model parameters is discussed. The DEBkiss model described toxic effects on survival, growth, and reproduction over time well, within a single integrated analysis. Regarding the parameter estimates (e.g., no-effect concentration), precision rather than accuracy was affected depending on which data set was used for model calibration. In addition, the present study shows that the intrinsic sensitivity of snails to acetone stays the same across different life stages, including the embryonic stage. In fact, the data on egg development allowed for selection of a unique metabolic mode of action for the toxicant. Practical and theoretical considerations for test design to accommodate TKTD modeling are discussed in the hope that this information will aid other researchers to make the best possible use of their test animals. © 2014 SETAC.

  1. Delayed Measurement of Eosin-5'-Maleimide Binding May Affect the Test Results of Highly Hemolyzed Samples In Vivo and In Vitro-A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Olga; Adamowicz-Salach, Anna; Zdziechowicz, Izabela; Kotuła, Iwona

    2016-11-01

    Diagnosis of hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is based on clinical evaluation and eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) test. A decrease in EMA fluorescence compared with healthy individuals is typical for HS and serves as a basis for HS diagnosis. Sensitivity and specificity of the test is high and false-positive results rarely occur. Studies have shown that anticoagulated blood sample when stored at 4°C for 7 days do not affect the test results. This case study is about an autoimmune hemolytic anemia patient who showed a primary positive result for EMA test (decrease in EMA fluorescence-47% compared with 100% for samples of healthy individual), when the test was performed in the sample stored for 48 hours after venipuncture and before staining. An irrelevant decrease (92.5% compared with 100% for samples of healthy individual) was found when freshly collected sample was analyzed. On the basis of the results obtained, it is recommended that EMA staining should be performed on the same day of blood collection for patients with significant hemolysis.

  2. Pitfalls of establishing DNA barcoding systems in protists: the cryptophyceae as a test case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoef-Emden, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    A DNA barcode is a preferrably short and highly variable region of DNA supposed to facilitate a rapid identification of species. In many protistan lineages, a lack of species-specific morphological characters hampers an identification of species by light or electron microscopy, and difficulties to perform mating experiments in laboratory cultures also do not allow for an identification of biological species. Thus, testing candidate barcode markers as well as establishment of accurately working species identification systems are more challenging than in multicellular organisms. In cryptic species complexes the performance of a potential barcode marker can not be monitored using morphological characters as a feedback, but an inappropriate choice of DNA region may result in artifactual species trees for several reasons. Therefore a priori knowledge of the systematics of a group is required. In addition to identification of known species, methods for an automatic delimitation of species with DNA barcodes have been proposed. The Cryptophyceae provide a mixture of systematically well characterized as well as badly characterized groups and are used in this study to test the suitability of some of the methods for protists. As species identification method the performance of blast in searches against badly to well-sampled reference databases has been tested with COI-5P and 5'-partial LSU rDNA (domains A to D of the nuclear LSU rRNA gene). In addition the performance of two different methods for automatic species delimitation, fixed thresholds of genetic divergence and the general mixed Yule-coalescent model (GMYC), have been examined. The study demonstrates some pitfalls of barcoding methods that have to be taken care of. Also a best-practice approach towards establishing a DNA barcode system in protists is proposed.

  3. Pitfalls of establishing DNA barcoding systems in protists: the cryptophyceae as a test case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Hoef-Emden

    Full Text Available A DNA barcode is a preferrably short and highly variable region of DNA supposed to facilitate a rapid identification of species. In many protistan lineages, a lack of species-specific morphological characters hampers an identification of species by light or electron microscopy, and difficulties to perform mating experiments in laboratory cultures also do not allow for an identification of biological species. Thus, testing candidate barcode markers as well as establishment of accurately working species identification systems are more challenging than in multicellular organisms. In cryptic species complexes the performance of a potential barcode marker can not be monitored using morphological characters as a feedback, but an inappropriate choice of DNA region may result in artifactual species trees for several reasons. Therefore a priori knowledge of the systematics of a group is required. In addition to identification of known species, methods for an automatic delimitation of species with DNA barcodes have been proposed. The Cryptophyceae provide a mixture of systematically well characterized as well as badly characterized groups and are used in this study to test the suitability of some of the methods for protists. As species identification method the performance of blast in searches against badly to well-sampled reference databases has been tested with COI-5P and 5'-partial LSU rDNA (domains A to D of the nuclear LSU rRNA gene. In addition the performance of two different methods for automatic species delimitation, fixed thresholds of genetic divergence and the general mixed Yule-coalescent model (GMYC, have been examined. The study demonstrates some pitfalls of barcoding methods that have to be taken care of. Also a best-practice approach towards establishing a DNA barcode system in protists is proposed.

  4. Pitfalls of Establishing DNA Barcoding Systems in Protists: The Cryptophyceae as a Test Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoef-Emden, Kerstin

    2012-01-01

    A DNA barcode is a preferrably short and highly variable region of DNA supposed to facilitate a rapid identification of species. In many protistan lineages, a lack of species-specific morphological characters hampers an identification of species by light or electron microscopy, and difficulties to perform mating experiments in laboratory cultures also do not allow for an identification of biological species. Thus, testing candidate barcode markers as well as establishment of accurately working species identification systems are more challenging than in multicellular organisms. In cryptic species complexes the performance of a potential barcode marker can not be monitored using morphological characters as a feedback, but an inappropriate choice of DNA region may result in artifactual species trees for several reasons. Therefore a priori knowledge of the systematics of a group is required. In addition to identification of known species, methods for an automatic delimitation of species with DNA barcodes have been proposed. The Cryptophyceae provide a mixture of systematically well characterized as well as badly characterized groups and are used in this study to test the suitability of some of the methods for protists. As species identification method the performance of blast in searches against badly to well-sampled reference databases has been tested with COI-5P and 5′-partial LSU rDNA (domains A to D of the nuclear LSU rRNA gene). In addition the performance of two different methods for automatic species delimitation, fixed thresholds of genetic divergence and the general mixed Yule-coalescent model (GMYC), have been examined. The study demonstrates some pitfalls of barcoding methods that have to be taken care of. Also a best-practice approach towards establishing a DNA barcode system in protists is proposed. PMID:22970104

  5. Case studies on the impact of poor traceability in testing and measurement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, EL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available chemical solutions. The mass balance is only calibrated at fixed points in the scale. The test method calls for a measurement at a value that is between two of the calibration points. In table 2 the results extracted from the calibration certificate... will definitely not mean that a true mass of 180 g was placed on the balance. Furthermore, neither of the uncertainties at 150 g or 200 g can directly be applied to the required measurement point of 180 g. Therefore the estimated uncertainty...

  6. Measuring and testing for gender discrimination in professions: the case of English family doctors

    OpenAIRE

    H Gravelle; A Risa Hole

    2008-01-01

    In 2004 the income of female GPs was 70%, and their wages (income per hour) were 91%, of those of male GPs. We compare estimates of gender discrimination from Oaxaca decompositions using models of wages (income/hours), OLS and 2SLS models of income, and propensity score matching. We propose a new direct test for within workplace gender discrimination based on a comparison of the differences in income of female and male GPs in practices in which all GPs are of the same gender with the differen...

  7. Evidence of system: A network model case-study of seventh grade science assessment practices from classrooms to the state test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piety, Philip John

    With science education in the United States entering a period of greater accountability, this study investigated how student learning in science was assessed by educators within one state, asking what systemic assessment approaches existed and how the information from them was used. Conducted during the 20o6-2007 school year, this research developed and piloted a network-model case study design that included teachers, principals, administrators, and the state test development process, as well as several state-level professional associations. The data analyzed included observations, interviews, surveys, and both public and private documents. Some data were secondary. This design produced an empirical depiction of practice with a web of related cases. The network model expands on the hierarchical (nested) models often assumed in the growing literature on how information is used in educational contexts by showing multiple ways in which individuals are related through organizational structures. Seven case study teachers, each employing assessment methods largely unique and invisible to others in their schools, illustrate one set of assessment practices. The only alternative to classroom assessments that could be documented was the annual state accountability test. These two assessment species were neither tightly coupled nor distinct. Some teachers were partners in developing state test instruments, and in some cases the annual test could be seen as a school management resource. Boundary practices---activities where these two systems connected---were opportunities to identify challenges to policy implementation in science education. The challenges include standards, cognition, vocabulary, and classroom equipment. The boundary practices, along with the web of connections, provide the outlines of potential (and often unrealized) synergistic relationships. This model shows diverse indigenous practices and adaptations by actors responding to pressures of change and

  8. Mass transfer of PBDEs from plastic TV casing to indoor dust via three migration pathways — A test chamber investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauert, C.; Harrad, S.

    2015-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely detected in humans with substantial exposure thought to occur in indoor environments and particularly via contact with indoor dust. Despite this, knowledge of how PBDEs migrate to indoor dust from products within which they are incorporated is scarce. This study utilises an in-house designed and built test chamber to investigate the relative significance of different mechanisms via which PBDEs transfer from source materials to dust, using a plastic TV casing treated with the Deca-BDE formulation as a model source. Experiments at both room temperature and 60 °C revealed no detectable transfer of PBDEs from the TV casing to dust via volatilisation and subsequent partitioning. In contrast, substantial transfer of PBDEs to dust was detected when the TV casing was abraded using a magnetic stirrer bar. Rapid and substantial PBDE transfer to dust was also observed in experiments in which dust was placed in direct contact with the source. Based on these experiments, we suggest that for higher molecular weight PBDEs like BDE-209; direct dust:source contact is the principal pathway via which source-to-dust transfer occurs. - Highlights: • Transfer from a TV casing to dust of high molecular weight PBDEs examined. • Direct source:dust contact effected rapid and most substantial transfer. • Substantial source:dust transfer also occurred via abrasion of source

  9. A hybrid model for combining case-control and cohort studies in systematic reviews of diagnostic tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Yulun; Ning, Jing; Cormier, Janice; Chu, Haitao

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews of diagnostic tests often involve a mixture of case-control and cohort studies. The standard methods for evaluating diagnostic accuracy only focus on sensitivity and specificity and ignore the information on disease prevalence contained in cohort studies. Consequently, such methods cannot provide estimates of measures related to disease prevalence, such as population averaged or overall positive and negative predictive values, which reflect the clinical utility of a diagnostic test. In this paper, we propose a hybrid approach that jointly models the disease prevalence along with the diagnostic test sensitivity and specificity in cohort studies, and the sensitivity and specificity in case-control studies. In order to overcome the potential computational difficulties in the standard full likelihood inference of the proposed hybrid model, we propose an alternative inference procedure based on the composite likelihood. Such composite likelihood based inference does not suffer computational problems and maintains high relative efficiency. In addition, it is more robust to model mis-specifications compared to the standard full likelihood inference. We apply our approach to a review of the performance of contemporary diagnostic imaging modalities for detecting metastases in patients with melanoma. PMID:25897179

  10. Functional Case Test Design to Optimize the Software Development in Italian Tax Processes (Part I: Methodology Definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolli Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Europe's general context of economic integration, the National States have preserved a few competences. Among them, the most important competence is taxation management, which has now become an important lever to stabilize the State's budget and to meet the economic parameters set by the European Agreements. From this perspective, it is crucial to identify a software development mode to reduce the time spent for the implementation/adjustment of the tax payment software application and, at the same time, to minimize the overall risk level. In software development, approximately 40% of time is spent in a series of testing activities: this stage of the development process is mostly placed at the end of the implementation activities. Consequently, since many testing activities have to be waived in order to meet the deadlines for software delivery, applications that are not entirely in compliance with the user's needs and/or entailing non-compliance are more likely to be introduced. This paper focuses on improving the testing process in tax procedures. The proposed method aims to improve the process, by introducing an integrated procedure based on Axiomatic Design. The approach developed will facilitate a reduction both in the testing preparation time and in performing the test cases. In this scenario, it will be possible to optimize the data compilation process, to verify the compliance within the technical specifications as provided by the Italian Revenue Agency, to identify possible critical scenarios with a proactive approach, and to avoid classes of non-conformities.

  11. International Energy Agency Building Energy Simulation Test and Diagnostic Method for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST); Volume 1: Cases E100-E200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neymark, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the Building Energy Simulation Test for Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Equipment Models (HVAC BESTEST) project conducted by the Tool Evaluation and Improvement International Energy Agency (IEA) Experts Group. The group was composed of experts from the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Programme, Task 22, Subtask A. The current test cases, E100-E200, represent the beginning of work on mechanical equipment test cases; additional cases that would expand the current test suite have been proposed for future development.

  12. Building America Case Study: Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol, Chicago Illinois, and Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-12-01

    "9Combustion safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  13. Robust electrochemical analysis of As(III) integrating with interference tests: A case study in groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhong-Gang [Nanomaterials and Environmental Detection Laboratory, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Chen, Xing; Liu, Jin-Huai [Nanomaterials and Environmental Detection Laboratory, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Huang, Xing-Jiu, E-mail: xingjiuhuang@iim.ac.cn [Nanomaterials and Environmental Detection Laboratory, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Robust determination of As(III) in Togtoh water samples has been demonstrated. • The results were comparable to that obtained by ICP–AES. • No obvious interference was observed after a series of interference tests. • Robust stability was obtained in long-term measurements. - Abstract: In Togtoh region of Inner Mongolia, northern China, groundwater encountered high concentrations As contamination (greater than 50 μg L{sup −1}) causes an increasing concern. This work demonstrates an electrochemical protocol for robust (efficient and accurate) determination of As(III) in Togtoh water samples using Au microwire electrode without the need of pretreatment or clean-up steps. Considering the complicated conditions of Togtoh water, the efficiency of Au microwire electrode was systematically evaluated by a series of interference tests, stability and reproducibility measurements. No obvious interference on the determination of As(III) was observed. Especially, the influence of humic acid (HA) was intensively investigated. Electrode stability was also observed with long-term measurements (70 days) in Togtoh water solution and under different temperatures (0–35 °C). Excellent reproducibility (RSD:1.28%) was observed from different batches of Au microwire electrodes. The results obtained at Au microwire electrode were comparable to that obtained by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP–AES), indicating a good accuracy. These evaluations (efficiency, robustness, and accuracy) demonstrated that the Au microwire electrode was able to determine As(III) in application to real environmental samples.

  14. We need more replication research - A case for test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppink, Jimmie; Pérez-Fuster, Patricia

    2017-06-01

    Following debates in psychology on the importance of replication research, we have also started to see pleas for a more prominent role for replication research in medical education. To enable replication research, it is of paramount importance to carefully study the reliability of the instruments we use. Cronbach's alpha has been the most widely used estimator of reliability in the field of medical education, notably as some kind of quality label of test or questionnaire scores based on multiple items or of the reliability of assessment across exam stations. However, as this narrative review outlines, Cronbach's alpha or alternative reliability statistics may complement but not replace psychometric methods such as factor analysis. Moreover, multiple-item measurements should be preferred above single-item measurements, and when using single-item measurements, coefficients as Cronbach's alpha should not be interpreted as indicators of the reliability of a single item when that item is administered after fundamentally different activities, such as learning tasks that differ in content. Finally, if we want to follow up on recent pleas for more replication research, we have to start studying the test-retest reliability of the instruments we use.

  15. An Uncommon Severe Case of Pulmonary Hypertension - From Genetic Testing to Benefits of Home Anticoagulation Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varga Andreea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A 62 year-old caucasian male was admitted in our pulmonary hypertension expert center with initial diagnosis of pulmonary veno-occlusive disease for validation and specific treatment approach. Routine examinations revealed no apparent cause of pulmonary hypertension. Patient was referred for a thorax contrast enhanced multi-slice computed tomography which revealed extensive bilateral thrombi in pulmonary lower lobe arteries, pleading for chronic post embolic lesions. A right heart catheterization and pulmonary angiography confirmed the diagnosis of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH. Following the local regulations, the patient underwent thrombophilia screening including molecular genetic testing, with positive findings for heterozygous for VCORK1 -1639G>A gene single nucleotide polymorphism, PAI-1 4G/5G and factor II G20210A gene. With heterozygous genetic profile of 3 mutations he has a genetic predisposition for developing a thrombophilic disease which could be involved in the etiology of CTEPH. Familial screening was extended to descendants; the unique son was tested with positive results for the same three genes. Supportive pulmonary hypertension drug therapy was initiated together with patient self-monitoring management of oral anticoagulation therapy. For optimal control of targeted anticoagulation due to a very high risk of thrombotic state the patient used a point-of-care device (CoaguChek®XS System, Roche Diagnostics for coagulation self-monitoring.

  16. Genetic Testing for Type 2 Diabetes in High-Risk Children: the Case for Primordial Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Wessel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research now demonstrates that lifestyle modification can significantly lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D in high-risk adults. In children, the evidence for lifestyle modification is not as robust, but the rapidly rising rate of obesity in children coupled with the substantial difficulty in changing behaviors later in life illuminates the need to implement prevention efforts early in the life course of children. Genetic data can now be used early in the life course to identify children at high-risk of developing T2D before traditional clinical measures can detect the presence of prediabetes; a metabolic condition associated with obesity that significantly increases risk for developing T2D.  Such early detection of risk may enable the promotion of “primordial prevention” in which parents implement behavior change for their at risk children.  Young children with genetic risk are a novel target population.  Here we review the literature on genetic testing for prevention as it relates to chronic diseases and specifically use T2D as a model. We discuss the history of primordial prevention, the need for primordial prevention of T2D and the role genetic testing has in primordial prevention of high-risk families.

  17. INQUIRE: a case study in evaluating the potential of online MCQ tests in a discursive subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Clarke

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been a wealth of investigation into the use of online multiple-choice questions as a means of summative assessment, however the research into the use of formative MCQs by the same mode of delivery still remains patchy. Similarly, research and implementation has been largely concentrated within the Sciences and Medicine rather than the more discursive subjects within the Humanities and Social Sciences. The INQUIRE (Interactive Questions Reinforcing Education Evaluation Project was jointly conducted by two groups at the University of Oxford–the Saïd Business School and the Academic Computing Development Team to evaluate the use of online MCQs as a mechanism to reinforce and extend student learning. This initial study used a small set of highly focused MCQ tests that were designed to complement an introductory series of first-year undergraduate management lectures. MCQ is a simple and well-established technology, and hence the emphasis was very much on situating the tests within the student experience. The paper will cover how the online MCQs are intended to fit into the Oxford Undergraduate study agenda, and how a simple evaluation was executed and planned to investigate their usage and impact. The chosen method of evaluation was to combine focus groups with automated online methods of tracking, and the paper discusses the findings of both of these.

  18. Decision making under internal uncertainty: the case of multiple-choice tests with different scoring rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereby-Meyer, Yoella; Meyer, Joachim; Budescu, David V

    2003-02-01

    This paper assesses framing effects on decision making with internal uncertainty, i.e., partial knowledge, by focusing on examinees' behavior in multiple-choice (MC) tests with different scoring rules. In two experiments participants answered a general-knowledge MC test that consisted of 34 solvable and 6 unsolvable items. Experiment 1 studied two scoring rules involving Positive (only gains) and Negative (only losses) scores. Although answering all items was the dominating strategy for both rules, the results revealed a greater tendency to answer under the Negative scoring rule. These results are in line with the predictions derived from Prospect Theory (PT) [Econometrica 47 (1979) 263]. The second experiment studied two scoring rules, which allowed respondents to exhibit partial knowledge. Under the Inclusion-scoring rule the respondents mark all answers that could be correct, and under the Exclusion-scoring rule they exclude all answers that might be incorrect. As predicted by PT, respondents took more risks under the Inclusion rule than under the Exclusion rule. The results illustrate that the basic process that underlies choice behavior under internal uncertainty and especially the effect of framing is similar to the process of choice under external uncertainty and can be described quite accurately by PT. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  19. A child case of meningitis tuberculosa showing interesting CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sonsu; Inada, Hiroshi; Matsumura, Masahiro; Matsuoka, Osamu; Murata, Ryosuke; Sano, Yoshiko.

    1985-01-01

    A 6-year-old boy is presented in whom plain CT failed to reveal specific findings suggesting inflammation, but enhanced CT revealed noticeably abnormal enhancement along the right middle cerebral artery and linear enhancement at the periphery of the artery. The cause of specific enhancement and its clinical value are discussed. (Namekawa, K.)

  20. Slovenian test case Vrbanski Plato aquifer in the EU HORIZON 2020 FREEWAT project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Kopač

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The Slovenian case study in the EU HORIZON 2020 FREEWAT project was Vrbanski Plato aquifer. Slovenia is divided into two river basin districts: the Danube and the North Adriatic. The Vrbanski Plato aquifer, which he presents both natural and artificial bank filtration from the river Drava, is a part of the Danube river basin district and is the most important water source for 14 municipalities in the northeastern part of Slovenia. We investigated the groundwatersurface water interaction between river Drava and the porous aquifer in the geological old riverbed and possible reduction of city impact. This site is the oldest managed artificial groundwater recharge with riverbank filtration and has more than thirty years of successful operation. It is something special, very abundant in a small space, independent of drought and climate changes, but vulnerable due to the impact of the city. Under the city there is watershed dividing, which is shifting with different water management condition and we would like to have the least possible impact of the city. For optimal water management we decided to use FREEWAT plug-in within QGIS platform. With new developed FREEWAT plug-in in project FREEWAT, we made steady-state and transient groundwater model for presenting this shift of the watershed dividing under the city and optimal water management for this area. The model was designed in a way that it identifies and describes all major aspects of the physical hydrogeological system and water management. During the running of a project, there was an accident with heating oil spillage in city area, right on the watershed dividing. So we oriented with the transient groundwater model as well on heating oil spillage and pumping with additional wells at the place of the accident to present successful rehabilitation and the importance of the managed groundwater recharge. Our experience with FREEWAT platform during the Vrbanski Plato aquifer case study was very