Sample records for test case measurements

  1. A test case of the deformation rate analysis (DRA) stress measurement method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dight, P.; Hsieh, A. [Australian Centre for Geomechanics, Univ. of WA, Crawley (Australia); Johansson, E. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Hudson, J.A. [Rock Engineering Consultants (United Kingdom); Kemppainen, K.


    As part of Posiva's site and ONKALO investigations, the in situ rock stress has been measured by a variety of techniques, including hydraulic fracturing, overcoring, and convergence measurements. All these techniques involve direct measurements in a drillhole or at the rock surface. An alternative method is to test drillhole core in a way that enables estimation of the magnitudes and orientations of the in situ rock stress. The Kaiser Effect (KE) and Deformation Rate Analysis (DRA) are two ways to do this. In the work reported here, a 'blind' DRA test was conducted on core obtained from the POSE (Posiva's Olkiluoto Spalling Experiment) niche in the ONKALO. The term 'blind' means that the two first authors of this report, who conducted the tests at the Australian Centre for Geomechanics, did not know the depths below surface at which the cores had been obtained. The results of this DRA Test Case are presented, together with an explanation of the DRA procedure. Also, additional information that would help in such DRA testing and associated analysis is explained. One of the problems in comparing the DRA results with the known Olkiluoto stress field is that the latter is highly variable across the site, as experienced by the previous in situ stress measurements and as predicted by numerical analysis. The variability is mainly caused by the presence of the large brittle deformation zones which perturb the local stress state. However, this variability reduces with depth and the stress field becomes more stable at the {approx} 350 m at which the drillhole cores were obtained. Another compounding difficulty is that the stress quantity, being a second order tensor, requires six independent components for its specification. In other words, comparison of the DRA results and the known stress field requires comparison of six different quantities. In terms of the major principal stress orientation, the DRA results predict an orientation completely

  2. Case report of modified Box and Blocks test with motion capture to measure prosthetic function. (United States)

    Hebert, Jacqueline S; Lewicke, Justin


    This case study report demonstrates the use of motion analysis with a modification of the Box and Blocks test. The goal was to quantify observed improvements in compensatory movements and simultaneous control in a subject using different prostheses before and after targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) surgery. This is a single case study with data collection using a body-powered prosthesis pre-TMR surgery and 6 mo postfitting with a TMR myoelectric prosthesis. The Box and Blocks test was modified for cyclical motion within a motion capture laboratory. With the TMR myoelectric prosthesis, the subject was able to simultaneously activate the hand and elbow. Task performance was slower, but there was improved elbow flexion and less trunk compensatory motion than with the body-powered prosthesis. There are several limitations to the case study because there is no direct comparison of myoelectric performance before and after TMR surgery; however, the current report presents a potential method to quantify quality of motion and compensatory movements of prosthetic users. With further study, this test procedure has the potential to be a useful outcome measure for future standardized assessments of upper-limb prosthetic function.

  3. Case studies on the impact of poor traceability in testing and measurement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, EL


    Full Text Available The importance of traceability for every measurement that is made cannot be over-emphasised. For calibration and testing laboratories, traceability is normally imported through calibration of the standards and equipment used in the laboratory. When...

  4. Thermal Testing Measurements Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wagner


    The purpose of the Thermal Testing Measurements Report (Scientific Analysis Report) is to document, in one report, the comprehensive set of measurements taken within the Yucca Mountain Project Thermal Testing Program since its inception in 1996. Currently, the testing performed and measurements collected are either scattered in many level 3 and level 4 milestone reports or, in the case of the ongoing Drift Scale Test, mostly documented in eight informal progress reports. Documentation in existing reports is uneven in level of detail and quality. Furthermore, while all the data collected within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Thermal Testing Program have been submitted periodically to the Technical Data Management System (TDMS), the data structure--several incremental submittals, and documentation formats--are such that the data are often not user-friendly except to those who acquired and processed the data. The documentation in this report is intended to make data collected within the YMP Thermal Testing Program readily usable to end users, such as those representing the Performance Assessment Project, Repository Design Project, and Engineered Systems Sub-Project. Since either detailed level 3 and level 4 reports exist or the measurements are straightforward, only brief discussions are provided for each data set. These brief discussions for different data sets are intended to impart a clear sense of applicability of data, so that they will be used properly within the context of measurement uncertainty. This approach also keeps this report to a manageable size, an important consideration because the report encompasses nearly all measurements for three long-term thermal tests. As appropriate, thermal testing data currently residing in the TDMS have been reorganized and reformatted from cumbersome, user-unfriendly Input-Data Tracking Numbers (DTNs) into a new set of Output-DTNs. These Output-DTNs provide a readily usable data structure

  5. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

     This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....... This document includes a definition of the comparative test cases DSF200_3 and DSF200_4, which previously described in the comparative test case specification for the test cases DSF100_3 and DSF200_3 [Ref.1]....

  6. Gravity measurement, processing and evaluation: Test cases de Peel and South Limburg (United States)

    Nohlmans, Ron


    A general overview of the process of the measurement and the adjustment of a gravity network and the computation of some output parameters of gravimetry, gravity values, gravity anomalies and mean block anomalies, is given. An overview of developments in gravimetry, globally and in the Netherlands, until now is given. The basic theory of relative gravity measurements is studied and a description of the most commonly used instrument, the LaCoste and Romberg gravimeter is given. The surveys done in the scope of this study are descibed. A more detailed impression of the adjustment procedure and the results of the adjustment are given. A closer look is taken at the more geophysical side of gravimetry: gravity reduction, the computation of anomalies and the correlation with elevation. The interpolation of gravity and the covariance of gravity anomalies are addressed.

  7. Hot wire anemometer measurements in the unheated air flow tests of the SRB nozzle-to-case joint (United States)

    Ramachandran, N.


    Hot-Wire Anemometer measurements made in the Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) nozzle-to-case joint are discussed. The study was undertaken to glean additional information on the circumferential flow induced in the SRB nozzle joint and the effect of this flow on the insulation bonding flaws. The tests were conducted on a full-scale, 2-D representation of a 65-in long segment of the SRB nozzle joint, with unheated air as the working fluid. Both the flight Mach number and Reynolds number were matched simultaneously and different pressure gradients imposed along the joint face were investigated. Hot-wire anemometers were used to obtain velocity data for different joint gaps and debond configurations. The procedure adopted for hot-wire calibration and use is outlined and the results from the tests summarized.

  8. Comparative Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. In the comp....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases. The comparative test cases include: ventilation, shading and geometry....

  9. Theory-Testing With Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hak (Tony); J. Dul (Jan)


    textabstractTheory-testing with cases is ascertaining whether the empirical evidence in a case or in a sample of cases either supports or does not support the theory. There are two methodologies for theory-testing with cases, (a) testing in a single case (‘theory-testing single case study’), and (b)

  10. Automated Test Case Generation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    I would like to present the concept of automated test case generation. I work on it as part of my PhD and I think it would be interesting also for other people. It is also the topic of a workshop paper that I am introducing in Paris. (abstract below) Please note that the talk itself would be more general and not about the specifics of my PhD, but about the broad field of Automated Test Case Generation. I would introduce the main approaches (combinatorial testing, symbolic execution, adaptive random testing) and their advantages and problems. (oracle problem, combinatorial explosion, ...) Abstract of the paper: Over the last decade code-based test case generation techniques such as combinatorial testing or dynamic symbolic execution have seen growing research popularity. Most algorithms and tool implementations are based on finding assignments for input parameter values in order to maximise the execution branch coverage. Only few of them consider dependencies from outside the Code Under Test’s scope such...

  11. Empirical Test Case Specification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalyanova, Olena; Heiselberg, Per

    This document includes the empirical specification on the IEA task of evaluation building energy simulation computer programs for the Double Skin Facades (DSF) constructions. There are two approaches involved into this procedure, one is the comparative approach and another is the empirical one. I....... In the comparative approach the outcomes of different software tools are compared, while in the empirical approach the modelling results are compared with the results of experimental test cases....

  12. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman


    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  13. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille


    testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....

  14. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus...... on the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications for research...... design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive...

  15. RSG Deployment Case Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owsley, Stanley L.; Dodson, Michael G.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Seim, Thomas A.; Alexander, David L.; Hawthorne, Woodrow T.


    The RSG deployment case design is centered on taking the RSG system and producing a transport case that houses the RSG in a safe and controlled manner for transport. The transport case was driven by two conflicting constraints, first that the case be as light as possible, and second that it meet a stringent list of Military Specified requirements. The design team worked to extract every bit of weight from the design while striving to meet the rigorous Mil-Spec constraints. In the end compromises were made primarily on the specification side to control the overall weight of the transport case. This report outlines the case testing results.

  16. Review of the Reported Measures of Clinical Validity and Clinical Utility as Arguments for the Implementation of Pharmacogenetic Testing: A Case Study of Statin-Induced Muscle Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen E. Jansen


    Full Text Available Advances from pharmacogenetics (PGx have not been implemented into health care to the expected extent. One gap that will be addressed in this study is a lack of reporting on clinical validity and clinical utility of PGx-tests. A systematic review of current reporting in scientific literature was conducted on publications addressing PGx in the context of statins and muscle toxicity. Eighty-nine publications were included and information was selected on reported measures of effect, arguments, and accompanying conclusions. Most authors report associations to quantify the relationship between a genetic variation an outcome, such as adverse drug responses. Conclusions on the implementation of a PGx-test are generally based on these associations, without explicit mention of other measures relevant to evaluate the test's clinical validity and clinical utility. To gain insight in the clinical impact and select useful tests, additional outcomes are needed to estimate the clinical validity and utility, such as cost-effectiveness.

  17. Strain measurement based battery testing (United States)

    Xu, Jeff Qiang; Steiber, Joe; Wall, Craig M.; Smith, Robert; Ng, Cheuk


    A method and system for strain-based estimation of the state of health of a battery, from an initial state to an aged state, is provided. A strain gauge is applied to the battery. A first strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at a selected charge capacity of the battery and at the initial state of the battery. A second strain measurement is performed on the battery, using the strain gauge, at the selected charge capacity of the battery and at the aged state of the battery. The capacity degradation of the battery is estimated as the difference between the first and second strain measurements divided by the first strain measurement.

  18. Compensation of Unavailable Test Frequencies During Immunity Measurements (United States)

    Gronwald, F.; Kebel, R.; Stadtler, T.


    Radiated immunity tests usually are performed in shielded test environments, such as anechoic chambers, GTEM-cells, and mode stirred chambers, for example. Then, if testing is performed in the frequency domain, the corresponding EMC-standards often specify test frequencies that have to be used. These requirements may become incompatible in case of large test objects, such as passenger aircraft, that cannot be placed in shielded test environments but only can be tested in open environments where, for regulatory reasons, not all required test frequencies can be applied. In this contribution it is investigated whether incomplete test procedures due to unavailable test frequencies can be compensated by alternative measurement setups.

  19. Proposal of Testing Diagrams for Visualizing Test Cases in Software Testing


    浦田, 聖也; 片山, 徹郎


    A software system becomes a large scale in recent years. As a result, test cases used in software testing have become a large scale. It is difficult to understand where the software system is tested by a large quantity of test cases. For this reason, testing diagrams to visualize test cases are proposed. To generate the testing diagrams, the test case and UML (Unified Modeling Language) diagram are compared and their common information is added to the UML diagram. This paper uses communicatio...

  20. General measure of Enterprising Tendency test


    Caird, Sally


    The General measure of Enterprising Tendency test (GET2) is a measure of enterprising tendency developed for educational use and self assessment. It measures five entrepreneurial attributes, namely Need for achievement, Need for Autonomy, Creative Tendency, Calculated Risk taking and Locus of control, providing interpretation for this enterprising attributes. Since 1998 there has been considerable worldwide interest in the test of General Enterprising Tendency (GET test) developed and tested ...

  1. Adaptive Test Case Execution in Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Calamé (Jens)


    htmlabstractBehavior-oriented Adaptation in Testing (BAiT) is a toolset, which supports test generation and execution for deterministic and nondeterministic systems with data. It covers the generation of test cases from a (formal) system specification and test purposes, the identification and

  2. What do educational test scores really measure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    measure of pure cognitive ability. We find that variables which are not closely associated with traditional notions of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture, attitudes......, and possible incentive problems make it more difficult to elicit true values of what the tests measure....

  3. The Couplex test cases: models and lessons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgeat, A. [Lyon-1 Univ., MCS, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Kern, M. [Institut National de Recherches Agronomiques (INRA), 78 - Le Chesnay (France); Schumacher, S.; Talandier, J. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France)


    The Couplex test cases are a set of numerical test models for nuclear waste deep geological disposal simulation. They are centered around the numerical issues arising in the near and far field transport simulation. They were used in an international contest, and are now becoming a reference in the field. We present the models used in these test cases, and show sample results from the award winning teams. (authors)

  4. Most incompatible measurements for robust steering tests (United States)

    Bavaresco, Jessica; Quintino, Marco Túlio; Guerini, Leonardo; Maciel, Thiago O.; Cavalcanti, Daniel; Cunha, Marcelo Terra


    We address the problem of characterizing the steerability of quantum states under restrictive measurement scenarios, i.e., the problem of determining whether a quantum state can demonstrate steering when subjected to N measurements of k outcomes. We consider the cases of either general positive operator-valued measures (POVMs) or specific kinds of measurements (e.g., projective or symmetric). We propose general methods to calculate lower and upper bounds for the white-noise robustness of a d -dimensional quantum state under different measurement scenarios that are also applicable to the study of the noise robustness of the incompatibility of sets of unknown qudit measurements. We show that some mutually unbiased bases, symmetric informationally complete measurements, and other symmetric choices of measurements are not optimal for steering the isotropic states and provide candidates for the most incompatible sets of measurements in each case. Finally, we provide numerical evidence that nonprojective POVMs do not improve over projective ones for this task.

  5. Validation of measured friction by process tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Morten; Henningsen, Poul; Tan, Xincai

    The objective of sub-task 3.3 is to evaluate under actual process conditions the friction formulations determined by simulative testing. As regards task 3.3 the following tests have been used according to the original project plan: 1. standard ring test and 2. double cup extrusion test. The task...... has, however, been extended to include a number of new developed process tests: 3. forward rod extrusion test, 4. special ring test at low normal pressure, 5. spike test (especially developed for warm and hot forging). Validation of the measured friction values in cold forming from sub-task 3.1 has...... been made with forward rod extrusion, and very good agreement was obtained between the measured friction values in simulative testing and process testing....

  6. Measuring Task Proficiency with Tailored Response Testing. (United States)

    Baker, Herbert George; And Others

    Tailored Response Testing (TRT) is a new type of test that has demonstrated its applicability to the evaluation of human performance in a wide variety of occupations and work settings. The Navy is using TRT to measure the technical proficiency of job incumbents in three of its jobs. The methodology holds great promise for testing aboard ships as…

  7. Measurement of children's creativity by tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksić Slavica B.


    Full Text Available After over a 50-year permanent development of tests designed to measure creativity and the results they produced, a question is raised if creativity can be measured by tests at all. A special problem are procedures for measuring creative potential in younger children because children, unlike adults, do not possess creative products that are a single reliable evidence of creativity in the real world. The paper considers test reliability and validity in measuring creativity as well as the dilemma: how much justifiable it is to measure children's creativity by tests if it is not clear what they measure and if there is not a significant relationship between creativity scores and creativity in life. Unsatisfactory creativity test reliability and validity does not mean those tests should be given up the majority of researchers agree. Of the tests of creativity administered in work with the young, the status of Urban-Jellen Test of Creative Thinking - Drawing Production (TCT-DP is given prominence due to the fact that over the past ten years or so it has been used in a larger number of studies as well as in some studies carried out in this country. In TCT-DP scoring is not based on statistical uncommonness of the figures produced but on a number of criteria derived from Gestalt psychology. The factor analyses of the defined criteria of creativity, applied on samples in various settings yielded that the test contains an essential factor of creativity "novelty".

  8. Assembling tests for the measurement of multiple traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.


    For the measurement of multiple traits, this paper pro poses assembling tests based on the targets for the (as ymptotic) variance functions of the estimators of each of the traits. A linear programming model is presented that can be used to computerize the assembly process. Several cases of test

  9. Laboratory testing & measurement on optical imaging systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, B


    Full Text Available The purpose of the workshop was for participants to interactively discuss (with regard to optical imaging or optical imaging systems): Local end-user needs; What those needs imply for associated new & existing laboratory testing & measurement...

  10. The Case for Measuring Adults' Numeracy Practices (United States)

    Coben, Diana; Alkema, Anne


    In this article, we make the case for the development of a numeracy practices measure in the light of a review of relevant research and extant measures. We argue that a numeracy practices measure would acknowledge and validate adult learners' practice gains and inform teaching geared to their circumstances, needs and interests.

  11. Kepler-93b: A terrestrial world measured to within 120 km, and a test case for a new Spitzer observing mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballard, Sarah [University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Chaplin, William J.; Davies, Guy R.; Campante, Tiago L.; Handberg, Rasmus; Elsworth, Yvonne; Hekker, Saskia [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Charbonneau, David; Fressin, Francois; Zeng, Li [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Désert, Jean-Michel [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder CO 80309 (United States); Werner, Michael W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aguirre, Victor Silva; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Jørgen; Metcalfe, Travis S.; Karoff, Christoffer [Stellar Astrophysics Centre (SAC), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney 2006 (Australia); Gilliland, Ronald L., E-mail: [Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); and others


    We present the characterization of the Kepler-93 exoplanetary system, based on three years of photometry gathered by the Kepler spacecraft. The duration and cadence of the Kepler observations, in tandem with the brightness of the star, enable unusually precise constraints on both the planet and its host. We conduct an asteroseismic analysis of the Kepler photometry and conclude that the star has an average density of 1.652 ± 0.006 g cm{sup –3}. Its mass of 0.911 ± 0.033 M{sub ☉} renders it one of the lowest-mass subjects of asteroseismic study. An analysis of the transit signature produced by the planet Kepler-93b, which appears with a period of 4.72673978 ± 9.7 × 10{sup –7} days, returns a consistent but less precise measurement of the stellar density, 1.72{sub −0.28}{sup +0.02} g cm{sup –3}. The agreement of these two values lends credence to the planetary interpretation of the transit signal. The achromatic transit depth, as compared between Kepler and the Spitzer Space Telescope, supports the same conclusion. We observed seven transits of Kepler-93b with Spitzer, three of which we conducted in a new observing mode. The pointing strategy we employed to gather this subset of observations halved our uncertainty on the transit radius ratio R{sub P} /R{sub *}. We find, after folding together the stellar radius measurement of 0.919 ± 0.011 R{sub ☉} with the transit depth, a best-fit value for the planetary radius of 1.481 ± 0.019 R{sub ⊕}. The uncertainty of 120 km on our measurement of the planet's size currently renders it one of the most precisely measured planetary radii outside of the solar system. Together with the radius, the planetary mass of 3.8 ± 1.5 M{sub ⊕} corresponds to a rocky density of 6.3 ± 2.6 g cm{sup –3}. After applying a prior on the plausible maximum densities of similarly sized worlds between 1 and 1.5 R{sub ⊕}, we find that Kepler-93b possesses an average density within this group.

  12. Direct friction measurement in draw bead testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam; Bay, Niels; Andreasen, Jan Lasson


    The application of draw beads in sheet metal stamping ensures controlled drawing-in of flange parts. Lubrication conditions in draw beads are severe due to sliding under simultaneous bending. Based on the original draw bead test design by Nine [1] comprehensive studies of friction in draw beads...... have been reported in literature. A major drawback in all these studies is that friction is not directly measured, but requires repeated measurements of the drawing force with and without relative sliding between the draw beads and the sheet material. This implies two tests with a fixed draw bead tool...... and a freely rotating tool respectively, an approach, which inevitably implies large uncertainties due to scatter in the experimental conditions. In order to avoid this problem a new draw bead test is proposed by the authors measuring the friction force acting on the tool radius directly by a build...

  13. What grades and achievement tests measure. (United States)

    Borghans, Lex; Golsteyn, Bart H H; Heckman, James J; Humphries, John Eric


    Intelligence quotient (IQ), grades, and scores on achievement tests are widely used as measures of cognition, but the correlations among them are far from perfect. This paper uses a variety of datasets to show that personality and IQ predict grades and scores on achievement tests. Personality is relatively more important in predicting grades than scores on achievement tests. IQ is relatively more important in predicting scores on achievement tests. Personality is generally more predictive than IQ on a variety of important life outcomes. Both grades and achievement tests are substantially better predictors of important life outcomes than IQ. The reason is that both capture personality traits that have independent predictive power beyond that of IQ.

  14. A Framework for Testing Scientific Software: A Case Study of Testing Amsterdam Discrete Dipole Approximation Software (United States)

    Shao, Hongbing

    Software testing with scientific software systems often suffers from test oracle problem, i.e., lack of test oracles. Amsterdam discrete dipole approximation code (ADDA) is a scientific software system that can be used to simulate light scattering of scatterers of various types. Testing of ADDA suffers from "test oracle problem". In this thesis work, I established a testing framework to test scientific software systems and evaluated this framework using ADDA as a case study. To test ADDA, I first used CMMIE code as the pseudo oracle to test ADDA in simulating light scattering of a homogeneous sphere scatterer. Comparable results were obtained between ADDA and CMMIE code. This validated ADDA for use with homogeneous sphere scatterers. Then I used experimental result obtained for light scattering of a homogeneous sphere to validate use of ADDA with sphere scatterers. ADDA produced light scattering simulation comparable to the experimentally measured result. This further validated the use of ADDA for simulating light scattering of sphere scatterers. Then I used metamorphic testing to generate test cases covering scatterers of various geometries, orientations, homogeneity or non-homogeneity. ADDA was tested under each of these test cases and all tests passed. The use of statistical analysis together with metamorphic testing is discussed as a future direction. In short, using ADDA as a case study, I established a testing framework, including use of pseudo oracles, experimental results and the metamorphic testing techniques to test scientific software systems that suffer from test oracle problems. Each of these techniques is necessary and contributes to the testing of the software under test.

  15. Testing for Distortions in Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam


    Distorted performance measures in compensation contracts elicit suboptimal behavioral responses that may even prove to be dysfunctional (gaming). This paper applies the empirical test developed by Courty and Marschke (Review of Economics and Statistics, 90, 428-441) to detect whether the widely...... used class of residual income-based performance measures-such as economic value added (EVA)-is distorted, leading to unintended agent behavior. The paper uses a difference-in-differences approach to account for changes in economic circumstances and the self-selection of firms using EVA. Our findings...... indicate that EVA is a distorted performance measure that elicits the gaming response....

  16. Testing for Distortions in Performance Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloof, Randolph; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Distorted performance measures in compensation contracts elicit suboptimal behavioral responses that may even prove to be dysfunctional (gaming). This paper applies the empirical test developed by Courty and Marschke (2008) to detect whether the widely used class of Residual Income based...... performance measures —such as Economic Value Added (EVA)— is distorted, leading to unintended agent behavior. The paper uses a difference-in-differences approach to account for changes in economic circumstances and the self-selection of firms using EVA. Our findings indicate that EVA is a distorted...... performance measure that elicits the gaming response....

  17. Accurate test limits under nonnormal measurement error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Otten, G.D.


    When screening a production process for nonconforming items the objective is to improve the average outgoing quality level. Due to measurement errors specification limits cannot be checked directly and hence test limits are required, which meet some given requirement, here given by a prescribed

  18. Work zone performance measures pilot test. (United States)


    Currently, a well-defined and validated set of metrics to use in monitoring work zone performance do not : exist. This pilot test was conducted to assist state DOTs in identifying what work zone performance : measures can and should be targeted, what...

  19. Measurement on Tinetti test: instrumentation and procedures. (United States)

    Lombardi, R; Buizza, A; Gandolfi, R; Vignarelli, C; Guaita, A; Panella, L


    A measurement system and associate signal processing procedures for quantifying subject's performance during the performance-oriented assessment of balance as defined in Tinetti test (TT) is described. It is based on two inclinometers measuring trunk inclination in two orthogonal planes. Signals from the transducers are acquired by a PC through A/DC board. Signal processing consists in computing morphological parameters describing the main features of subject movement during the different TT maneuvers. The system is simple, cheap, user friendly, causes no discomfort to the patient and can easily be modified to comply with either new requirements or the needs of other performance tests dealing with trunk movement. Preliminary results of measurements on both normals and patients suggest the viability of this approach and the possibility of discriminating normal from abnormal performance, based on the values of the morphological parameters.

  20. RSRM top hat cover simulator lightning test, volume 2. Appendix A: Resistance measurements. Appendix B: Lightning test data plots (United States)


    Resistance measurements are given in graphical for when a simulated lightning discharge strikes on an exposed top hat cover simulator. The test sequence was to measure the electric and magnetic fields induced inside a redesigned solid rocket motor case.

  1. High-voltage test and measuring techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Hauschild, Wolfgang


    It is the intent of this book to combine high-voltage (HV) engineering with HV testing technique and HV measuring technique. Based on long-term experience gained by the authors as lecturer and researcher as well as member in international organizations, such as IEC and CIGRE, the book will reflect the state of the art as well as the future trends in testing and diagnostics of HV equipment to ensure a reliable generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy. The book is intended not only for experts but also for students in electrical engineering and high-voltage engineering.

  2. Educational Testing as an Accountability Measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydesen, Christian


    This article reveals perspectives based on experiences from twentieth-century Danish educational history by outlining contemporary, test-based accountability regime characteristics and their implications for education policy. The article introduces one such characteristic, followed by an empirical...... analysis of the origins and impacts of test-based accountability measures applying both top-down and bottom-up perspectives. These historical perspectives offer the opportunity to gain a fuller understanding of this contemporary accountability concept and its potential, appeal, and implications...... for continued use in contemporary educational settings. Accountability measures and practices serve as a way to govern schools; by analysing the history of accountability as the concept has been practised in the education sphere, the article will discuss both pros and cons of such a methodology, particularly...

  3. Test Beam Measurements on Picosec Gaseous Detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Sohl, Lukas


    In the Picosec project micro pattern gaseous detectors with a time resolution of some ten picoseconds are developed. The detectors are based on Micromegas detectors. With a cherenkov window and a photocathode the time jitter from different position of the primary ionization clusters can be substituted. This reports describes the beam setup and measurements of different Picosec prototypes. A time resolution of under 30 ps has been measured during the test beam. This report gives an overview of my work as a Summer Student. I set up and operated a triple-GEM tracker and a trigger system for the beam. During the beam I measured different prototypes of Picosec detectors and analysed the data.

  4. Nevada Test Site seismic: telemetry measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, J N; Parker, L E; Horton, E H


    The feasibility and limitations of surface-to-tunnel seismic telemetry at the Nevada Test Site were explored through field measurements using current technology. Range functions for signaling were determined through analysis of monofrequency seismic signals injected into the earth at various sites as far as 70 km (43 mi) from installations of seismometers in the G-Tunnel complex of Rainier Mesa. Transmitted signal power at 16, 24, and 32 Hz was measured at two locations in G-Tunnel separated by 670 m (2200 ft). Transmissions from 58 surface sites distributed primarily along three azimuths from G-Tunnel were studied. The G-Tunnel noise environment was monitored over the 20-day duration of the field tests. Noise-power probability functions were calculated for 20-s and 280-s seismic-record populations. Signaling rates were calculated for signals transmitted from superior transmitter sites to G-Tunnel. A detection threshold of 13 dB re 1 nm/sup 2/ displacement power at 95% reliability was demanded. Consideration of field results suggests that even for the frequency range used in this study, substantially higher signaling rates are likely to be obtained in future work in view of the present lack of information relevant to hardware-siting criteria and the seismic propagation paths at the Nevada Test Site. 12 references.

  5. Temperature buffer test design, instrumentation and measurements (United States)

    Sandén, Torbjörn; Goudarzi, Reza; de Combarieu, Michel; Åkesson, Mattias; Hökmark, Harald

    The Temperature Buffer Test, TBT, is a heated full-scale field experiment carried out jointly by ANDRA and SKB at the SKB Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in Southeast Sweden. An existing 8 m deep, 1.8 m diameter KBS-3-type deposition hole located at -420 m level has been selected for the test. The objectives are to improve the general understanding of Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical, THM, behavior of buffer materials submitted to severe thermal conditions with temperatures well over 100 °C during water uptake of partly saturated bentonite-based buffer materials, and to check, in due time, their properties after water saturation. The test includes two carbon steel heating canisters each 3 m high and 0.6 m diameter, surrounded by 0.6 m of buffer material. There is a 0.2 m thick sand shield between the upper heater and the surrounding bentonite, while the lower heater is surrounded by bentonite only. On top of the stack of bentonite blocks is a confining plug anchored to the rock. In the slot between buffer and rock wall is a sand filter equipped with pipes to control the water pressure at the boundary, which is seldom done with an EBS in situ experiment. Both heater mid-height planes are densely instrumented in order to follow, with direct or indirect methods, buffer THM evolution. Temperature, relative humidity, stress and pore pressure have been monitored since the test start in March 2003. Total water inflow is also monitored. Firstly, the present paper describes the test design, the instrumentation, the plug anchoring system and the system for water boundary pressure control. Second, having described the test, the paper shows different measurements that illustrate evolution of temperature, saturation, suction and swelling pressure in the upper and the lower buffer.

  6. Arc Jet Testing of Thermal Protection Materials: 3 Case Studies (United States)

    Johnson, Sylvia; Conley, Joe


    Arc jet testing is used to simulate entry to test thermal protection materials. This paper discusses the usefulness of arc jet testing for 3 cases. Case 1 is MSL and PICA, Case 2 is Advanced TUFROC, and Case 3 is conformable ablators.

  7. Measurement Theory in Language Testing: Past Traditions and Current Trends (United States)

    Salmani-Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali


    A good test is one that has at least three qualities: reliability, or the precision with which a test measures what it is supposed to measure; validity, i.e., if the test really measures what it is supposed to measure, and practicality, or if the test, no matter how sound theoretically, is practicable in reality. These are the sine qua non for any…

  8. Standardized Testing: Measurement of Academic Achievement (United States)

    Weaver, Keshia


    Standardized testing has been a very important issue in education today. Many schools use the testing score to determine whether a child should continue to the next grade level. As we review the methods teachers use to prepare students for these types of tests, the amount of instruction time utilized to cover test materials, and the level of…

  9. Measurements of rope elongation or deflection in impact destructive testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szade


    Full Text Available The computation of energy dissipation in mechanical protective systems and the corresponding determination of their safe use in mine shafts, requires a precise description of their bending and elongation, for instance, in conditions of dynamic, transverse loading induced by the falling of mass. The task aimed to apply a fast parallactic rangefinder and then to mount it on a test stand, which is an original development of the Central Mining Institute's Laboratory of Rope Testing in Katowice. In the solution presented in this paper, the measuring method and equipment in which the parallactic laser rangefinder, provided with a fast converter and recording system, ensures non-contact measurement of elongation, deflection or deformation of the sample (construction during impact loading. The structure of the unit, and metrological parameters are also presented. Additionally, the method of calibration and examples of the application in the impact tests of steel wire ropes are presented. The measurement data obtained will provide a basis for analysis, the prediction of the energy of events and for applying the necessary means to maintain explosion-proofness in the case of destructive damage to mechanical elements in the mine atmosphere. What makes these measurements novel is the application of a fast and accurate laser rangefinder to the non-contact measurement of crucial impact parameters of dynamic events that result in the destruction of the sample. In addition, the method introduces a laser scanning vibrometer with the aim of evaluating the parameters of the samples before and after destruction.

  10. W-8 Acoustic Casing Treatment Test Overview (United States)

    Bozak, Rick; Podboy, Gary; Dougherty, Robert


    During February 2017, aerodynamic and acoustic testing was performed on a scale-model high bypass ratio turbofan rotor, R4, in an internal flow component test facility. An overview of the testing completed is presented.

  11. Casing pull tests for directionally drilled environmental wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staller, G.E.; Wemple, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Layne, R.R. [Charles Machine Works, Inc., Perry, OK (United States)


    A series of tests to evaluate several types of environmental well casings have been conducted by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and it`s industrial partner, The Charles Machine Works, Inc. (CMW). A test bed was constructed at the CMW test range to model a typical shallow, horizontal, directionally drilled wellbore. Four different types of casings were pulled through this test bed. The loads required to pull the casings through the test bed and the condition of the casing material were documented during the pulling operations. An additional test was conducted to make a comparison of test bed vs actual wellbore casing pull loads. A directionally drilled well was emplaced by CMW to closely match the test bed. An instrumented casing was installed in the well and the pull loads recorded. The completed tests are reviewed and the results reported.

  12. Cumulative Measurement Errors for Dynamic Testing of Space Flight Hardware (United States)

    Winnitoy, Susan


    measurements during hardware motion and contact. While performing dynamic testing of an active docking system, researchers found that the data from the motion platform, test hardware and two external measurement systems exhibited frame offsets and rotational errors. While the errors were relatively small when considering the motion scale overall, they substantially exceeded the individual accuracies for each component. After evaluating both the static and dynamic measurements, researchers found that the static measurements introduced significantly more error into the system than the dynamic measurements even though, in theory, the static measurement errors should be smaller than the dynamic. In several cases, the magnitude of the errors varied widely for the static measurements. Upon further investigation, researchers found the larger errors to be a consequence of hardware alignment issues, frame location and measurement technique whereas the smaller errors were dependent on the number of measurement points. This paper details and quantifies the individual and cumulative errors of the docking system and describes methods for reducing the overall measurement error. The overall quality of the dynamic docking tests for flight hardware verification was improved by implementing these error reductions.

  13. Pressure Change Measurement Leak Testing Errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryor, Jeff M [ORNL; Walker, William C [ORNL


    A pressure change test is a common leak testing method used in construction and Non-Destructive Examination (NDE). The test is known as being a fast, simple, and easy to apply evaluation method. While this method may be fairly quick to conduct and require simple instrumentation, the engineering behind this type of test is more complex than is apparent on the surface. This paper intends to discuss some of the more common errors made during the application of a pressure change test and give the test engineer insight into how to correctly compensate for these factors. The principals discussed here apply to ideal gases such as air or other monoatomic or diatomic gasses; however these same principals can be applied to polyatomic gasses or liquid flow rate with altered formula specific to those types of tests using the same methodology.

  14. TDS and BMT for CASES ADF (ADF RAMS), acceptance test (United States)

    Davis, Hugh W.


    The Controls, Astrophysics, and Structures Experiment (CASES) is a proposed experiment to collect x ray images of the galactic center and solar disk with unprecedented resolution. This requires precision pointing and suppression of vibrations in the long, flexible structure that comprises the 32-m x ray telescope optical bench. Two separate electro-optical sensors systems are provided for the ground test facility (GTF). The Boom Motion Tracker (BMT) measures eigenvector data for post-mission use in system identification. The Tip Displacement Sensor (TDS) measures boom tip position and is used as feedback for the closed-loop control system that stabilizes the boom. The deployment and testing of the BMT and TDS systems is summarized.

  15. A test chip for automatic reliability measurements of interconnect vias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippe, K.; Lippe, K.; Hasper, A.; Hasper, A.; Elfrink, G.W.; Niehof, J.; Niehof, J.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.


    A test circuit for electromigration reliability measurements was designed and tested. The device under test (DUT) is a via-hole chain. The test circuit permits simultaneous measurements of a number of DUTs, and a fatal error of one DUT does not influence the measurement results of the other DUTs.

  16. Measuring test coverage of SoA services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sneed, Harry M.; Verhoef, Chris


    One of the challenges of testing in a SoA environment is that testers do not have access to the source code of the services they are testing. Therefore they are not able to measure test coverage at the code level, as is done in conventional white-box testing. They are compelled to measure test

  17. Anxiety in Language Testing: The APTIS Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette de Fátima Valencia Robles


    Full Text Available The requirement of holding a diploma which certifies proficiency level in a foreign language is constantly increasing in academic and working environments. Computer-based testing has become a prevailing tendency for these and other educational purposes. Each year large numbers of students take online language tests everywhere in the world. In fact, there is a tendency to use these tests more and more. However, many students might not feel comfortable when taking this type of exams. This paper describes a study regarding the fairly new APTIS Test (British Council. Thirty-one students took the test and responded to a structured online questionnaire on their feelings while taking it. Results indicate that the test brings a considerable amount of anxiety along with it.

  18. Testing of PZT shifters for interferometric measurements (United States)

    Schmit, Joanna; Piatkowski, Tadeusz


    Nowadays PZT shifters are widely used for interferometric measurements by phase shifting methods. The required accuracy of single step is very high. There for the methods of measuring metrological features of PZT shifters are described specificly intensity methods in Michelson and Sagnac interferometers and Lissajoux figures method 1-D and 2-D Fourier transform method (FTM) in Fizeau interferometer. The 1-D FTM is found most convenient for real time calibration in experimental setup.

  19. 40 CFR 401.13 - Test procedures for measurement. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Test procedures for measurement. 401.13... AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.13 Test procedures for measurement. The test procedures for measurement which are prescribed at part 136 of this chapter shall apply to expressions of pollutant amounts...

  20. Standard Test Method for Measuring Dose for Use in Linear Accelerator Pulsed Radiation Effects Tests

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers a calorimetric measurement of the total dose delivered in a single pulse of electrons from an electron linear accelerator or a flash X-ray machine (FXR, e-beam mode) used as an ionizing source in radiation-effects testing. The test method is designed for use with pulses of electrons in the energy range from 10 to 50 MeV and is only valid for cases in which both the calorimeter and the test specimen to be irradiated are“thin” compared to the range of these electrons in the materials of which they are constructed. 1.2 The procedure described can be used in those cases in which (1) the dose delivered in a single pulse is 5 Gy (matl) (500 rd (matl)) or greater, or (2) multiple pulses of a lower dose can be delivered in a short time compared to the thermal time constant of the calorimeter. Matl refers to the material of the calorimeter. The minimum dose per pulse that can be acceptably monitored depends on the variables of the particular test, including pulse rate, pulse uniformity...

  1. Axial force measurement for esophageal function testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Flemming Holbæk; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Gregersen, Hans


    The esophagus serves to transport food and fluid from the pharynx to the stomach. Manometry has been the "golden standard" for the diagnosis of esophageal motility diseases for many decades. Hence, esophageal function is normally evaluated by means of manometry even though it reflects the squeeze...... force (force in radial direction) whereas the bolus moves along the length of esophagus in a distal direction. Force measurements in the longitudinal (axial) direction provide a more direct measure of esophageal transport function. The technique used to record axial force has developed from external...

  2. Competency measurements: testing convergent validity for two measures. (United States)

    Cowin, Leanne S; Hengstberger-Sims, Cecily; Eagar, Sandy C; Gregory, Linda; Andrew, Sharon; Rolley, John


    This paper is a report of a study to investigate whether the Australian National Competency Standards for Registered Nurses demonstrate correlations with the Finnish Nurse Competency Scale. Competency assessment has become popular as a key regulatory requirement and performance indicator. The term competency, however, does not have a globally accepted definition and this has the potential to create controversy, ambiguity and confusion. Variations in meaning and definitions adopted in workplaces and educational settings will affect the interpretation of research findings and have implications for the nursing profession. A non-experimental cross-sectional survey design was used with a convenience sample of 116 new graduate nurses in 2005. The second version of the Australian National Competency Standards and the Nurse Competency Scale was used to elicit responses to self-assessed competency in the transitional year (first year as a Registered Nurse). Correlational analysis of self-assessed levels of competence revealed a relationship between the Australian National Competency Standards (ANCI) and the Nurse Competency Scale (NCS). The correlational relation between ANCI domains and NCS factors suggests that these scales are indeed used to measure related dimensions. A statistically significant relationship (r = 0.75) was found between the two competency measures. Although the finding of convergent validity is insufficient to establish construct validity for competency as used in both measures in this study, it is an important step towards this goal. Future studies on relationships between competencies must take into account the validity and reliability of the tools.

  3. [Efficiency of color vision tests in hereditary dyschromatopsia: case report]. (United States)

    Fernandes, Luciene Chaves; Urbano, Lúcia Carvalho de Ventura


    The authors describe two cases of hereditary dyschromatopsia and discuss the efficiency of the color vision tests. The patients were disapproved in different federal public examinations because Ishihara's test diagnosed hereditary dyschromatopsia. Ophthalmological evaluation was normal. No symptoms related to dyschromatopsia were presented. Panels D15 and Roth D 28 were normal. Desaturated D 15 showed deuteranomaly in case one. In the second case the comparative color vision tests showed nonspecific disorder. The diagnosis of dyschromatopsia is complex. The authors recommend comparative color vision tests to complement the Ishihara test for a better understanding of the color deficiency.

  4. Test case for a near-surface repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elert, M.; Jones, C. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, L.B. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Co, Stockholm (Sweden); Skagius, K.; Wiborgh, M. [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    A test case is presented for assessment of a near-surface disposal facility for radioactive waste. The case includes waste characterization and repository design, requirements and constraints in an assessment context, scenario development, model description and test calculations 6 refs, 12 tabs, 16 figs

  5. Building and Supporting a Case for Test Use (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.


    The fields of language testing and educational and psychological measurement have not, as yet, developed a set of principles and procedures for linking test scores and score-based inferences to test use and the consequences of test use. Although Messick (1989) discusses test use and consequences, his framework provides virtually no guidance on how…

  6. Electrical resistance tomography from measurements inside a steel cased borehole (United States)

    Daily, William D.; Schenkel, Clifford; Ramirez, Abelardo L.


    Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) produced from measurements taken inside a steel cased borehole. A tomographic inversion of electrical resistance measurements made within a steel casing was then made for the purpose of imaging the electrical resistivity distribution in the formation remotely from the borehole. The ERT method involves combining electrical resistance measurements made inside a steel casing of a borehole to determine the electrical resistivity in the formation adjacent to the borehole; and the inversion of electrical resistance measurements made from a borehole not cased with an electrically conducting casing to determine the electrical resistivity distribution remotely from a borehole. It has been demonstrated that by using these combined techniques, highly accurate current injection and voltage measurements, made at appropriate points within the casing, can be tomographically inverted to yield useful information outside the borehole casing.

  7. Origin of honeycombs: Testing the hydraulic and case hardening hypotheses (United States)

    Bruthans, Jiří; Filippi, Michal; Slavík, Martin; Svobodová, Eliška


    Cavernous weathering (cavernous rock decay) is a global phenomenon, which occurs in porous rocks around the world. Although honeycombs and tafoni are considered to be the most common products of this complex process, their origin and evolution are as yet not fully understood. The two commonly assumed formation hypotheses - hydraulic and case hardening - were tested to elucidate the origin of honeycombs on sandstone outcrops in a humid climate. Mechanical and hydraulic properties of the lips (walls between adjacent pits) and backwalls (bottoms of pits) of the honeycombs were determined via a set of established and novel approaches. While the case hardening hypothesis was not supported by the determinations of either tensile strength, drilling resistance or porosity, the hydraulic hypothesis was clearly supported by field measurements and laboratory tests. Fluorescein dye visualization of capillary zone, vapor zone, and evaporation front upon their contact, demonstrated that the evaporation front reaches the honeycomb backwalls under low water flow rate, while the honeycomb lips remain dry. During occasional excessive water flow events, however, the evaporation front may shift to the lips, while the backwalls become moist as a part of the capillary zone. As the zone of evaporation corresponds to the zone of potential salt weathering, it is the spatial distribution of the capillary and vapor zones which dictates whether honeycombs are created or the rock surface is smoothed. A hierarchical model of factors related to the hydraulic field was introduced to obtain better insights into the process of cavernous weathering.

  8. Test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material (United States)

    Reese, Matthew; Dameron, Arrelaine; Kempe, Michael


    A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. An exemplary device comprises a test card having a thin-film conductor-pattern formed thereon and an edge seal which seals the test card to the barrier material. Another exemplary embodiment is an electrical calcium test device comprising: a test card an impermeable spacer, an edge seal which seals the test card to the spacer and an edge seal which seals the spacer to the barrier material.

  9. Relative Power of the Wilcoxon Test, the Friedman Test, and Repeated-Measures ANOVA on Ranks. (United States)

    Zimmerman, Donald W.; Zumbo, Bruno D.


    Comparisons of the Wilcoxon test, Friedman test, and repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) on ranks in a computer simulation show that the Friedman test performs like the sign test whereas the ANOVA performs like the Wilcoxon test. Classification of these tests in introductory statistics textbooks should be revised. (SLD)

  10. The C-Test: An Integrative Measure of Crystallized Intelligence


    Purya Baghaei; Mona Tabatabaee


    Crystallized intelligence is a pivotal broad ability factor in the major theories of intelligence including the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model, the three-stratum model, and the extended Gf-Gc (fluid intelligence-crystallized intelligence) model and is usually measured by means of vocabulary tests and other verbal tasks. In this paper the C-Test, a text completion test originally proposed as a test of general proficiency in a foreign language, is introduced as an integrative measure of cryst...

  11. Measures used by medical students to reduce test anxiety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Afzal, Hasnain; Afzal, Sara; Siddique, Saad Ahmed; Naqvi, Syed Anwar Ahmad


    .... The 10-item Westside Test Anxiety Scale, was used to measure anxiety and the pre-designed questionnaire asked the students about the frequent measures used by them to overcome anxiety during exams...

  12. Ethical Test Preparation Practice: The Case of the TOEFL. (United States)

    Hamp-Lyons, Liz


    This discussion focuses on the role of textbooks in test washback, using the case of the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) to examine prevalent practices in test preparation and the materials used in such preparation. (Author/VWL)

  13. Rapid core measure improvement through a "business case for quality". (United States)

    Perlin, Jonathan B; Horner, Stephen J; Englebright, Jane D; Bracken, Richard M


    Incentives to improve performance are emerging as revenue or financial penalties are linked to the measured quality of service provided. The HCA "Getting to Green" program was designed to rapidly increase core measure performance scores. Program components included (1) the "business case for quality"-increased awareness of how quality drives financial performance; (2) continuous communication of clinical and financial performance data; and (3) evidence-based clinical protocols, incentives, and tools for process improvement. Improvement was measured by comparing systemwide rates of adherence to national quality measures for heart failure (HF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), pneumonia (PN), and surgical care (SCIP) to rates from all facilities reporting to the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). As of the second quarter of 2011, 70% of HCA total measure set composite scores were at or above the 90th percentile of CMS scores. A test of differences in regression coefficients between the CMS national average and the HCA average revealed significant differences for AMI (p = .001), HF (p = .012), PN (p quality, transparency in performance data, and clearly defined goals could cultivate the desire to use improvement tools and resources to raise performance. © 2012 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  14. Improving measurement-invariance assessments: correcting entrenched testing deficiencies


    Hayduk, Leslie A


    Background Factor analysis historically focused on measurement while path analysis employed observed variables as though they were error-free. When factor- and path-analysis merged as structural equation modeling, factor analytic notions dominated measurement discussions ? including assessments of measurement invariance across groups. The factor analytic tradition fostered disregard of model testing and consequently entrenched this deficiency in measurement invariance assessments. Discussion ...

  15. Herbalife hepatotoxicity: Evaluation of cases with positive reexposure tests. (United States)

    Teschke, Rolf; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Eickhoff, Axel


    To analyze the validity of applied test criteria and causality assessment methods in assumed Herbalife hepatotoxicity with positive reexposure tests. We searched the Medline database for suspected cases of Herbalife hepatotoxicity and retrieved 53 cases including eight cases with a positive unintentional reexposure and a high causality level for Herbalife. First, analysis of these eight cases focused on the data quality of the positive reexposure cases, requiring a baseline value of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) Herbalife in these eight cases were probable (n = 1), unlikely (n = 4), and excluded (n = 3). Confounding variables included low data quality, alternative diagnoses, poor exclusion of important other causes, and comedication by drugs and herbs in 6/8 cases. More specifically, problems were evident in some cases regarding temporal association, daily doses, exact start and end dates of product use, actual data of laboratory parameters such as ALT, and exact dechallenge characteristics. Shortcomings included scattered exclusion of hepatitis A-C, cytomegalovirus and Epstein Barr virus infection with only globally presented or lacking parameters. Hepatitis E virus infection was considered in one single patient and found positive, infections by herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus were excluded in none. Only one case fulfilled positive reexposure test criteria in initially assumed Herbalife hepatotoxicity, with lower CIOMS based causality gradings for the other cases than hitherto proposed.

  16. Measuring Writing Ability with the Cloze Test is not Closed. (United States)

    Esau, Helmut; Yost, Carlson

    This paper describes an experiment that was undertaken to examine the usefulness of the cloze test as an objective measure of a native speaker's writing ability. A modified version of the cloze test used by Oller and others to measure integrative language skills in non-native speakers was given to 100 freshman English students. The test…

  17. When is Crowdsourcing Advantageous? The Case of Crowdsourced Software Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leicht, Niklas; Knop, Nicolas; Blohm, Ivo


    , we present two case studies from the domain of crowdsourced software testing. We systematically analyze two organizations that applied crowdtesting to test a mobile applcation. As both organizations tested the application via crowdtesting and their traditional in-house testing, we are able to relate...... the effectiveness of crowdtesting and the associated costs to the effective-ness and costs of in-house testing. We find that crowdtesting is comparable in terms of testing quality and costs, but provides large advantages in terms of speed, heterogeneity of testers and user feedback as added value. We contribute...

  18. 40 CFR 86.154-98 - Measurement procedure; refueling test. (United States)


    ... measurement portion of the refueling test shall be performed as follows: (1) The line from the fuel tank(s) to... Administrator conducts the non-integrated system partial refueling test, the fuel flow shall continue until the... refueling tests. The fuel flow shall continue until the refueling nozzle automatic shut-off is activated...

  19. Path-oriented test cases generation based adaptive genetic algorithm. (United States)

    Bao, Xiaoan; Xiong, Zijian; Zhang, Na; Qian, Junyan; Wu, Biao; Zhang, Wei


    The automatic generation of test cases oriented paths in an effective manner is a challenging problem for structural testing of software. The use of search-based optimization methods, such as genetic algorithms (GAs), has been proposed to handle this problem. This paper proposes an improved adaptive genetic algorithm (IAGA) for test cases generation by maintaining population diversity. It uses adaptive crossover rate and mutation rate in dynamic adjustment according to the differences between individual similarity and fitness values, which enhances the exploitation of searching global optimum. This novel approach is experimented and tested on a benchmark and six industrial programs. The experimental results confirm that the proposed method is efficient in generating test cases for path coverage.

  20. Score-based tests of measurement invariance: Use in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting eWang


    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a family of recently-proposed measurement invariance tests that are based on the scores of a fitted model. This family can be used to test for measurement invariance w.r.t. a continuous auxiliary variable, without pre-specification of subgroups. Moreover, the family can be used when one wishes to test for measurement invariance w.r.t. an ordinal auxiliary variable, yielding test statistics that are sensitive to violations that are monotonically related to the ordinal variable (and less sensitive to non-monotonic violations. The paper is specifically aimed at potential users of the tests who may wish to know (i how the tests can be employed for their data, and (ii whether the tests can accurately identify specific models parameters that violate measurement invariance (possibly in the presence of model misspecification. After providing an overview of the tests, we illustrate their general use via the R packages lavaan and strucchange. We then describe two novel simulations that provide evidence of the tests' practical abilities. As a whole, the paper provides researchers with the tools and knowledge needed to apply these tests to general measurement invariance scenarios.

  1. Specification of a Two-Dimensional Test Case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    This paper describes the geometry and other boundary conditions for a test case which can be used to test different two-dimensional CFD codes in the lEA Annex 20 work. The given supply opening is large compared with practical openings. Therefore, this geometry will reduce the need for a high number...

  2. The C-Test: An Integrative Measure of Crystallized Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purya Baghaei


    Full Text Available Crystallized intelligence is a pivotal broad ability factor in the major theories of intelligence including the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC model, the three-stratum model, and the extended Gf-Gc (fluid intelligence-crystallized intelligence model and is usually measured by means of vocabulary tests and other verbal tasks. In this paper the C-Test, a text completion test originally proposed as a test of general proficiency in a foreign language, is introduced as an integrative measure of crystallized intelligence. Based on the existing evidence in the literature, it is argued that the construct underlying the C-Test closely matches the abilities underlying the language component of crystallized intelligence, as defined in the well-established theories of intelligence. It is also suggested that by carefully selecting texts from pertinent knowledge domains, the factual knowledge component of crystallized intelligence could also be measured by the C-Test.

  3. NedWind 25 Blade Testing at NREL for the European Standards Measurement and Testing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larwood, S.; Musial, W.; Freebury, G.; Beattie, A.G.


    In the mid-90s the European community initiated the Standards, Measurements, and Testing (SMT) program to harmonize testing and measurement procedures in several industries. Within the program, a project was carried out called the European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Development. The second part of that project, called Blade Test Methods and Techniques, included the United States and was devised to help blade-testing laboratories harmonize their testing methods. This report provides the results of those tests conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  4. Measuring and Modeling Change in Examinee Effort on Low-Stakes Tests across Testing Occasions (United States)

    Sessoms, John; Finney, Sara J.


    Because schools worldwide use low-stakes tests to make important decisions, value-added indices computed from test scores must accurately reflect student learning, which requires equal test-taking effort across testing occasions. Evaluating change in effort assumes effort is measured equivalently across occasions. We evaluated the longitudinal…

  5. Using Fuzzy Logic in Test Case Prioritization for Regression Testing Programs with Assertions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali M. Alakeel


    Full Text Available Program assertions have been recognized as a supporting tool during software development, testing, and maintenance. Therefore, software developers place assertions within their code in positions that are considered to be error prone or that have the potential to lead to a software crash or failure. Similar to any other software, programs with assertions must be maintained. Depending on the type of modification applied to the modified program, assertions also might have to undergo some modifications. New assertions may also be introduced in the new version of the program, while some assertions can be kept the same. This paper presents a novel approach for test case prioritization during regression testing of programs that have assertions using fuzzy logic. The main objective of this approach is to prioritize the test cases according to their estimated potential in violating a given program assertion. To develop the proposed approach, we utilize fuzzy logic techniques to estimate the effectiveness of a given test case in violating an assertion based on the history of the test cases in previous testing operations. We have conducted a case study in which the proposed approach is applied to various programs, and the results are promising compared to untreated and randomly ordered test cases.

  6. Developing and testing pediatric oral healthcare quality measures. (United States)

    Herndon, Jill Boylston; Crall, James J; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Catalanotto, Frank A; Huang, I-Chan; Rudner, Nancy; Tomar, Scott L; Shenkman, Elizabeth A


    This study describes processes used to develop and test pediatric oral healthcare quality measures and provides recommendations for implementation. At the request of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Dental Quality Alliance (DQA) was formed in 2008 as a multi-stakeholder group to develop oral healthcare quality measures. For its initial focus on pediatric care, measure development processes included a literature review and environmental scan to identify relevant measure concepts, which were rated on importance, feasibility, and validity using the RAND/UCLA modified Delphi approach. These measure concepts and a gap assessment led to the development of a proposed set of measures that were tested for feasibility, reliability, and validity. Of 112 measure concepts identified, 59 met inclusion criteria to undergo formal rating. Twenty-one of 59 measure concepts were rated as "high scoring." Subsequently, 11 quality and related care delivery measures comprising a proposed pediatric starter set were developed and tested; 10 measures met feasibility, reliability, and validity criteria and were approved by the DQA stakeholder membership. These measures are currently being incorporated into Medicaid, Children's Health Insurance Program, and commercial quality improvement programs. Broad stakeholder engagement, rigorous measure development and testing processes, and regular opportunities for public input contributed to the development and validation of the first set of fully specified and tested pediatric oral healthcare quality measures, which have high feasibility for implementation in both public and private sectors. This achievement marks an important essential step toward improving oral healthcare and oral health outcomes for children. © 2015 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  7. 76 FR 1136 - Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Electroshock Weapons Test and Measurement Workshop AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), United States Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice...

  8. Canadian Health Measures Survey pre-test: design, methods, results. (United States)

    Tremblay, Mark; Langlois, Renée; Bryan, Shirley; Esliger, Dale; Patterson, Julienne


    The Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS) pre-test was conducted to provide information about the challenges and costs associated with administering a physical health measures survey in Canada. To achieve the specific objectives of the pre-test, protocols were developed and tested, and methods for household interviewing and clinic testing were designed and revised. The cost, logistics and suitability of using fixed sites for the CHMS were assessed. Although data collection, transfer and storage procedures are complex, the pre-test experience confirmed Statistics Canada's ability to conduct a direct health measures survey and the willingness of Canadians to participate in such a health survey. Many operational and logistical procedures worked well and, with minor modifications, are being employed in the main survey. Fixed sites were problematic, and survey costs were higher than expected.

  9. Pressure-Decay Measurements Improve Bubble-Point Test (United States)

    Silkey, J. S.; Orton, G. F.


    Technique reduces by factor of about 100 minimum detectable flaw size in bubble-point test. By measuring rate of slow leakage, flaws as small as about 10-4 in. 2 (0.06mm2) are detected. Since technique does not require observation of screen, tests run on screens already installed inside tanks and pipes.

  10. A Measure of Failure: The Political Origins of Standardized Testing (United States)

    Garrison, Mark J.


    How did standardized tests become the measure of performance in our public schools? In this compelling work, Mark J. Garrison attempts to answer this question by analyzing the development of standardized testing, from the days of Horace Mann and Alfred Binet to the current scene. Approaching the issue from a sociohistorical perspective, the author…

  11. The "Test of Financial Literacy": Development and Measurement Characteristics (United States)

    Walstad, William B.; Rebeck, Ken


    The "Test of Financial Literacy" (TFL) was created to measure the financial knowledge of high school students. Its content is based on the standards and benchmarks stated in the "National Standards for Financial Literacy" (Council for Economic Education 2013). The test development process involved extensive item writing and…

  12. Test Station for Measuring Aluminum Tube Geometrical Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Oansea, D; Gongadze, A L; Gostkin, M I; Dedovich, D V; Evtoukhovitch, P G; Comanescu, B; Kotov, S A; Necsoiu, T; Potrap, I N; Rogalev, E V; Tskhadadze, E G; Chelkov, G A


    A test station for quality control of aluminum tube outer diameter and wall thickness is presented. The tested tubes are used for drift detector assembly of ATLAS (LHC, CERN) muon system. The outer diameter and wall thickness of aluminium tubes are measured by means of noncontact optical and ultrasonic methods respectively with the accuracy of 3 {\\mu}m. The testing process is automatic and interacts with the production data base.

  13. When is Crowdsourcing Advantageous? The Case of Crowdsourced Software Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leicht, Niklas; Knop, Nicolas; Blohm, Ivo


    , we present two case studies from the domain of crowdsourced software testing. We systematically analyze two organizations that applied crowdtesting to test a mobile applcation. As both organizations tested the application via crowdtesting and their traditional in-house testing, we are able to relate......Crowdsourcing describes a novel mode of value creation in which organizations broadcast tasks that have been previously performed in-house to a large magnitude of Internet users that perform these tasks. Although the concept has gained maturity and has proven to be an alternative way of problem...

  14. Highly Automated Agile Testing Process: An Industrial Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Berłowski


    Full Text Available This paper presents a description of an agile testing process in a medium size software project that is developed using Scrum. The research methods used is the case study were as follows: surveys, quantifiable project data sources and qualitative project members opinions were used for data collection. Challenges related to the testing process regarding a complex project environment and unscheduled releases were identified. Based on the obtained results, we concluded that the described approach addresses well the aforementioned issues. Therefore, recommendations were made with regard to the employed principles of agility, specifically: continuous integration, responding to change, test automation and test driven development. Furthermore, an efficient testing environment that combines a number of test frameworks (e.g. JUnit, Selenium, Jersey Test with custom-developed simulators is presented.

  15. Computerized adaptive testing for measuring development of young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobusse, G.; Buuren, S. van


    Developmental indicators that are used for routine measurement in The Netherlands are usually chosen to optimally identify delayed children. Measurements on the majority of children without problems are therefore quite imprecise. This study explores the use of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) to

  16. Validating Grammaticality Judgment Tests: Evidence from Two New Psycholinguistic Measures (United States)

    Vafaee, Payman; Suzuki, Yuichi; Kachisnke, Ilina


    Several previous factor-analytic studies on the construct validity of grammaticality judgment tests (GJTs) concluded that untimed GJTs measure explicit knowledge (EK) and timed GJTs measure implicit knowledge (IK) (Bowles, 2011; R. Ellis, 2005; R. Ellis & Loewen, 2007). It has also been shown that, irrespective of the time condition chosen,…

  17. Electromagnetic induction moisture measurement system acceptance test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargo, G.J.


    This document presents the results of the acceptance test for the hardware and software that was developed to operate the ElectroMagnetic Induction (EMI) moisture measurement system to be used for in-tank moisture measurements. This document satisfies EP 4.1, ``Design Verification Requirements``.

  18. Radiometric instrumentation and measurements guide for photovoltaic performance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D.


    The Photovoltaic Module and Systems Performance and Engineering Project at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory performs indoor and outdoor standardization, testing, and monitoring of the performance of a wide range of photovoltaic (PV) energy conversion devices and systems. The PV Radiometric Measurements and Evaluation Team (PVSRME) within that project is responsible for measurement and characterization of natural and artificial optical radiation which stimulates the PV effect. The PV manufacturing and research and development community often approaches project members for technical information and guidance. A great area of interest is radiometric instrumentation, measurement techniques, and data analysis applied to understanding and improving PV cell, module, and system performance. At the Photovoltaic Radiometric Measurements Workshop conducted by the PVSRME team in July 1995, the need to communicate knowledge of solar and optical radiometric measurements and instrumentation, gained as a result of NREL`s long-term experiences, was identified as an activity that would promote improved measurement processes and measurement quality in the PV research and manufacturing community. The purpose of this document is to address the practical and engineering need to understand optical and solar radiometric instrument performance, selection, calibration, installation, and maintenance applicable to indoor and outdoor radiometric measurements for PV calibration, performance, and testing applications. An introductory section addresses radiometric concepts and definitions. Next, concepts essential to spectral radiometric measurements are discussed. Broadband radiometric instrumentation and measurement concepts are then discussed. Each type of measurement serves as an important component of the PV cell, module, and system performance measurement and characterization process.

  19. A Comparison of the Abilities Measured by the Cambridge and Educational Testing Service EFL Test Batteries. (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle F.; And Others


    The abilities measured by the First Certificate of English (FCE) administered by the Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate are compared with the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) administered by the Educational Testing Service. The analyses suggest that the FCE and TOEFL appear to measure the same common aspect of language…

  20. [Electronic eikonometer: Measurement tests displayed on stereoscopic screen]. (United States)

    Bourdy, C; James, Y


    We propose the presentation on a stereoscopic screen of the electronic eikonometer tests intended for analysis and measurement of perceptual effects of binocular disparity. These tests, so-called "built-in magnification tests" are constructed according to the same principle as those of preceding eikonometers (disparity variation parameters being included in each test presentation, which allows, for test observation and measurements during the examination, the removing of any intermediate optical system). The images of these tests are presented separately to each eye, according to active or passive stereoscopic screen technology: (1) Ogle Spatial Test to measure aniseikonia; (2) Fixation Disparity test: binocular nonius; (3) retinal correspondence test evaluated by nonius horopter; (4) stereoscopic test using Julesz' random-dot stereograms (RDS). All of these tests, with their variable parameters included, are preprogrammed by means of an associated mini-computer. This new system (a single screen for the presentation of tests for the right eye and left eye) will be much simpler to reproduce and install for all practitioners interested in the functional exploration of binocular vision. We develop the suitable methodology adapted to each type of examination, as well as manipulations to be performed by the operator. We then recall the possibilities for reducing aniseikonia thanks to some theoretical studies previously performed by matrix calculation of the size of the retinal images for different types of eye (emmetropia, axial or conformation anisometropia, aphakia) and for different means of correction (glasses, contact lenses, implants). Software for achieving these different tests is available, on request, at this address: Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Psychometric Testing of the Method of Generations’ Mentality Type Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlada I. Pishchik


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the mentality phenomenon in psychology and states the lack of clear, definite positions, concerning mentality, presents author's concept of mentality system, including nuclear and peripheral elements. On this basis, the initial survey, helping to develop the method of mentality measurement was conducted. The article presents author's method of generations’ mentality type measurement, carries out psychometric testing of method paragraphs. The paragraphs were tested on reliability-stability, reliability-conformity, factorial, convergent, constructive and empirical validities. The data of method testing on different samples are cited


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Zhukovytskyy


    Full Text Available Purpose. The article describes the process of developing the information-measuring test system of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission, which gives the possibility to obtain baseline data to conduct further studies for the determination of the technical condition of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission. The improvement of factory technology of post-repair tests of hydraulic transmissions by automating the existing hydraulic transmission test stands according to the specifications of the diesel locomotive repair enterprises was analyzed. It is achieved based on a detailed review of existing foreign information-measuring test systems for hydraulic transmission of diesel locomotives, BelAZ earthmover, aircraft tug, slag car, truck, BelAZ wheel dozer, some brands of tractors, etc. The problem for creation the information-measuring test systems for diesel locomotive hydraulic transmission is being solved, starting in the first place from the possibility of automation of the existing test stand of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission at Dnipropetrovsk Diesel Locomotive Repair Plant "Promteplovoz". Methodology. In the work the researchers proposed the method to create a microprocessor automated system of diesel locomotives hydraulic transmission stand testing in the locomotive plant conditions. It acts by justifying the selection of the necessary sensors, as well as the application of the necessary hardware and software for information-measuring systems. Findings. Based on the conducted analysis there was grounded the necessity of improvement the plant hydraulic transmission stand testing by creating a microprocessor testing system, supported by the experience of developing such systems abroad. Further research should be aimed to improve the accuracy and frequency of data collection by adopting the more modern and reliable sensors in tandem with the use of filtering software for electromagnetic and other interference. Originality. The

  3. Modal test - Measurement and analysis requirements. [for Viking Orbiter (United States)

    Wada, B. K.


    Data from the Viking Orbiter Modal Test Program are used to illustrate modal test measurement and analysis requirements. The test was performed using a multiple shake dwell technique where data were acquired one channel at a time and recorded on paper tape. Up to ten shakers were used simultaneously, with a complete set of data consisting of 290 strain-gage readings and 125 accelerometer readings. The data analysis provided information sufficient to minimize errors in the data. The list of analyses in order of value is orthogonality, residual mass, frequency sweep, data checks to assure good test data, multilevel trends, global kinetic energy, and global strain energy.

  4. Test-retest reliability for aerodynamic measures of voice. (United States)

    Awan, Shaheen N; Novaleski, Carolyn K; Yingling, Julie R


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intrasubject reliability of aerodynamic characteristics of the voice within typical/normal speakers across testing sessions using the Phonatory Aerodynamic System (PAS 6600; KayPENTAX, Montvale, NJ). Participants were 60 healthy young adults (30 males and 30 females) between the ages 18 and 31 years with perceptually typical voice. Participants were tested using the PAS 6600 (Phonatory Aerodynamic System) on two separate days with approximately 1 week between each session at approximately the same time of day. Four PAS protocols were conducted (vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, comfortable sustained phonation, and voicing efficiency) and measures of expiratory volume, maximum phonation time, mean expiratory airflow (during vowel production) and target airflow (obtained via syllable repetition), peak air pressure, aerodynamic power, aerodynamic resistance, and aerodynamic efficiency were obtained during each testing session. Associated acoustic measures of vocal intensity and frequency were also collected. All phonations were elicited at comfortable pitch and loudness. All aerodynamic and associated variables evaluated in this study showed useable test-retest reliability (ie, intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] ≥ 0.60). A high degree of mean test-retest reliability was found across all subjects for aerodynamic and associated acoustic measurements of vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, glottal resistance, and vocal intensity (all with ICCs > 0.75). Although strong ICCs were observed for measures of glottal power and mean expiratory airflow in males, weaker overall results for these measures (ICC range: 0.60-0.67) were observed in females subjects and sizable coefficients of variation were observed for measures of power, resistance, and efficiency in both men and women. Differences in degree of reliability from measure to measure were revealed in greater detail using methods such as ICCs and

  5. Maternal death and near miss measurement: a case for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maternal death and near miss measurement: a case for implementation in developing countries in the sustainable development agenda, a review article. ... There was recognition of the need for improved measurement and data quality in other to track the progress or lack of it as we approach 2030. Maternal health services ...

  6. Knowledge measurement with automated e-tests in adult education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Rebolj


    Full Text Available The author presents the automated e-test as a result of technological advancement and development of pedagogy. In a brief historic review she recalls the mistakes which in the past prevented the tests of this type from being widely accepted. She highlights the added value of automated e-tests, comparing them with the classical tests. Due to their complex technology, the need for interpretation and use of feedback they are more suitable for adult education. They bring solutions for several problems which classical tests did not provide. They clearly reveal all the redundancies in measurement of knowledge, devised upon constructivist theories and economic requirements. The author stresses that numerous unnecessary test ele- ments can be discarded, which will foster dignity in adult knowledge measurement and contribute to creation of a more equal relationship between the testee and the testor, whose primary role is preparing the test and not supervising the testee. In expert environments of pedagogically and technologically highly developed educational institutions and IT compani- es, automatic testing has been practiced for decades. Outside this field, it is practiced less frequently; the occurrence in this country is modest and given little attention. Nevertheless, this article, cautious in generalizations, presents a review of the practice, in order to encourage innovativeness in andragogy. Certain past and present e-testing deficiencies may be used to show the way to future developments.

  7. Measuring innovation culture: Application at four case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ramón Tejeiro Koller


    efforts of measuring innovation culture, advanced by other authors and applies a set of indicators, which hadn’t been tested before, to practical cases. It manages to distill a tool, using a perspective, which is at the same time deductive and inductive, following up on a methodology priory used.

  8. Testing of Tools for Measurement Vibration in Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin JURÁNEK


    Full Text Available This work is specialized on testing of several sensors for measurement vibration, that be applicable for measurement on vehicles also behind running. These sensors are connected to PC and universal mobile measuring system cRIO (National Instruments with analog I/O module for measurement vibration, that is described in diploma work: [JURÁNEK 2008]. This system has upped mechanical and heat imunity, small proportions and is therefore acceptable also measurement behind ride vehicles. It compose from two head parts. First is measuring part, composite from instruments cRIO. First part is controlled and monitored by PDA there is connected of wireless (second part hereof system. To system cRIO is possible connect sensors by four BNC connector or after small software change is possible add sensor to other analog modul cRIO. Here will be test several different types of accelerometers (USB sensor company Phidgets, MEMS sensor company Freescale, piezoresistiv and Delta Tron accelerometers company Brüel&Kjær. These sensors is attach to stiff board, board is attach to vibrator and excite by proper signal. Testing will realized with reference to using for measurement in cars. Results will be compared with professional signal analyser LabShop pulse from company Brüel&Kjær.

  9. Using Model Checking to Generate Test Cases for Android Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosario Espada


    Full Text Available The behavior of mobile devices is highly non deterministic and barely predictable due to the interaction of the user with its applications. In consequence, analyzing the correctness of applications running on a smartphone involves dealing with the complexity of its environment. In this paper, we propose the use of model-based testing to describe the potential behaviors of users interacting with mobile applications. These behaviors are modeled by composing specially-designed state machines. These composed state machines can be exhaustively explored using a model checking tool to automatically generate all possible user interactions. Each generated trace model checker can be interpreted as a test case to drive a runtime analysis of actual applications. We have implemented a tool that follows the proposed methodology to analyze Android devices using the model checker Spin as the exhaustive generator of test cases.

  10. Robust tests for matched case-control genetic association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Wing


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cochran-Armitage trend test (CATT is powerful in detecting association between a susceptible marker and a disease. This test, however, may suffer from a substantial loss of power when the underlying genetic model is unknown and incorrectly specified. Thus, it is useful to derive tests obtaining the plausible power against all common genetic models. For this purpose, the genetic model selection (GMS and genetic model exclusion (GME methods were proposed recently. Simulation results showed that GMS and GME can obtain the plausible power against three common genetic models while the overall type I error is well controlled. Results Although GMS and GME are powerful statistically, they could be seriously affected by known confounding factors such as gender, age and race. Therefore, in this paper, via comparing the difference of Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium coefficients between the cases and the controls within each sub-population, we propose the stratified genetic model selection (SGMS and exclusion (SGME methods which could eliminate the effect of confounding factors by adopting a matching framework. Our goal in this paper is to investigate the robustness of the proposed statistics and compare them with other commonly used efficiency robust tests such as MAX3 and χ2 with 2 degrees of freedom (df test in matched case-control association designs through simulation studies. Conclusion Simulation results showed that if the mean genetic effect of the heterozygous genotype is between those of the two homozygous genotypes, then the proposed tests and MAX3 are preferred. Otherwise, χ2 with 2 df test may be used. To illustrate the robust procedures, the proposed tests are applied to a real matched pair case-control etiologic study of sarcoidosis.

  11. Negative Exercise Stress Test: Does it Mean Anything? Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Mohamed


    Full Text Available Despite its low sensitivity and specificity (67% and 72%, respectively, exercise testing has remained one of the most widely used noninvasive tests to determine the prognosis in patients with suspected or established coronary disease.As a screening test for coronary artery disease, the exercise stress test is useful in that it is relatively simple and inexpensive. It has been considered particularly helpful in patients with chest pain syndromes who have moderate probability for coronary artery disease, and in whom the resting electrocardiogram (ECG is normal. The following case presentation and discussion will question the predictive value of a negative stress testing in patients with moderate probability for coronary artery disease.

  12. Optical and mechanical nondestructive tests for measuring tomato fruit firmness (United States)

    Manivel-Chávez, Ricardo A.; Garnica-Romo, M. G.; Arroyo-Correa, Gabriel; Aranda-Sánchez, Jorge I.


    Ripening is one of the most important processes to occur in fruits which involve changes in color, flavor, and texture. An important goal in quality control of fruits is to substitute traditional sensory testing methods with reliable nondestructive tests (NDT). In this work we study the firmness of tomato fruits by using optical and mechanical NDT. Optical and mechanical parameters, measured along the tomato shelf life, are shown.

  13. The Influence of Educational Experience on the Development of Cognitive Skills as Measured in Formal Tests and Experiments: A Case Study from the Mexican States of Yucatan and Quintana Roo. Final Report. (United States)

    Sharp, Donald W.; Cole, Michael

    The major purpose of the research reported was to assess whether developmental changes in performance on standard psychological tests may be more a reflection of educational experience than maturation or traditional socialization practices. The investigation was reported in three phases: 1) description of the general and specific experimental…

  14. Motivational aspects of test-taking : measuring test-taking motivation in Swedish national test contexts


    Knekta, Eva


    The overall aim of the work underlying this thesis was to improve the understanding of students’ test-taking motivation in connection to achievement tests for young adolescents. The thesis includes four studies and a summary. All four studies explore test-taking motivation and are all connected to validity in one way of another. The expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation was used as a theoretical framework in the operationalization and measurement of test-taking motivation and the ...

  15. Measuring Software Test Verification for Complex Workpieces based on Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Peili


    Full Text Available Validity and correctness test verification of the measuring software has been a thorny issue hindering the development of Gear Measuring Instrument (GMI. The main reason is that the software itself is difficult to separate from the rest of the measurement system for independent evaluation. This paper presents a Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument (VGMI to independently validate the measuring software. The triangular patch model with accurately controlled precision was taken as the virtual workpiece and a universal collision detection model was established. The whole process simulation of workpiece measurement is implemented by VGMI replacing GMI and the measuring software is tested in the proposed virtual environment. Taking involute profile measurement procedure as an example, the validity of the software is evaluated based on the simulation results; meanwhile, experiments using the same measuring software are carried out on the involute master in a GMI. The experiment results indicate a consistency of tooth profile deviation and calibration results, thus verifying the accuracy of gear measuring system which includes the measurement procedures. It is shown that the VGMI presented can be applied in the validation of measuring software, providing a new ideal platform for testing of complex workpiece-measuring software without calibrated artifacts.

  16. Measuring Software Test Verification for Complex Workpieces based on Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument (United States)

    Yin, Peili; Wang, Jianhua; Lu, Chunxia


    Validity and correctness test verification of the measuring software has been a thorny issue hindering the development of Gear Measuring Instrument (GMI). The main reason is that the software itself is difficult to separate from the rest of the measurement system for independent evaluation. This paper presents a Virtual Gear Measuring Instrument (VGMI) to independently validate the measuring software. The triangular patch model with accurately controlled precision was taken as the virtual workpiece and a universal collision detection model was established. The whole process simulation of workpiece measurement is implemented by VGMI replacing GMI and the measuring software is tested in the proposed virtual environment. Taking involute profile measurement procedure as an example, the validity of the software is evaluated based on the simulation results; meanwhile, experiments using the same measuring software are carried out on the involute master in a GMI. The experiment results indicate a consistency of tooth profile deviation and calibration results, thus verifying the accuracy of gear measuring system which includes the measurement procedures. It is shown that the VGMI presented can be applied in the validation of measuring software, providing a new ideal platform for testing of complex workpiece-measuring software without calibrated artifacts.

  17. Shear Strength Measurement Benchmarking Tests for K Basin Sludge Simulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Carolyn A.; Daniel, Richard C.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Luna, Maria; Schmidt, Andrew J.


    Equipment development and demonstration testing for sludge retrieval is being conducted by the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project (STP) at the MASF (Maintenance and Storage Facility) using sludge simulants. In testing performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (under contract with the CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company), the performance of the Geovane instrument was successfully benchmarked against the M5 Haake rheometer using a series of simulants with shear strengths (τ) ranging from about 700 to 22,000 Pa (shaft corrected). Operating steps for obtaining consistent shear strength measurements with the Geovane instrument during the benchmark testing were refined and documented.

  18. Teaching to the Test: A Controversial Issue in Quantitative Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Styron


    Full Text Available discussion of the pros and cons of focusing curricular and pedagogical decisions primarily on mastery of those skills and concepts measured by standardized tests. This paper presents scholarly discourse based on testing systems and school accountability, along with a presentation of the advantages and disadvantages of what is commonly referred to as 'teaching to the test.' The authors of this document found research studies to be inconclusive with no clear indication of whether or not there is an advantage or disadvantage to the practice of teaching to the test. But most notably, the actual issue connected to this debate may be the lack of understanding of item-teaching and curricular teaching. In the mind of many educators, item teaching, curriculum teaching and teaching to the test are synonymous.

  19. Measurement of ability emotional intelligence: results for two new tests. (United States)

    Austin, Elizabeth J


    Emotional intelligence (EI) has attracted considerable interest amongst both individual differences researchers and those in other areas of psychology who are interested in how EI relates to criteria such as well-being and career success. Both trait (self-report) and ability EI measures have been developed; the focus of this paper is on ability EI. The associations of two new ability EI tests with psychometric intelligence, emotion perception, and the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso EI test (MSCEIT) were examined. The new EI tests were the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM) and the Situational Test of Emotional Understanding (STEU). Only the STEU and the MSCEIT Understanding Emotions branch were significantly correlated with psychometric intelligence, suggesting that only understanding emotions can be regarded as a candidate new intelligence component. These understanding emotions tests were also positively correlated with emotion perception tests, and STEM and STEU scores were positively correlated with MSCEIT total score and most branch scores. Neither the STEM nor the STEU were significantly correlated with trait EI tests, confirming the distinctness of trait and ability EI. Taking the present results as a starting-point, approaches to the development of new ability EI tests and models of EI are suggested.

  20. A Note on Measurement Scales and Statistical Testing (United States)

    Meijer, Rob R.; Oosterloo, Sebie J.


    In elementary books on applied statistics (e.g., Siegel, 1988; Agresti, 1990) and books on research methodology in psychology and personality assessment (e.g., Aiken, 1999), it is often suggested that the choice of a statistical test and the choice of statistical operations should be determined by the level of measurement of the data. Although…

  1. Cluster bias: Testing measurement invariance in multilevel data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, S.


    In this thesis we presented methods and procedures to test and account for measurement bias in multilevel data. Multilevel data are data with a clustered structure, for instance data of children grouped in classrooms, or data of employees in teams. For example, with data of children in classes, we

  2. Data Modeling for Measurements in the Metrology and Testing Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Pavese, Franco


    Offers a comprehensive set of modeling methods for data and uncertainty analysis. This work develops methods and computational tools to address general models that arise in practice, allowing for a more valid treatment of calibration and test data and providing an understanding of complex situations in measurement science

  3. Three Experiments Involving Probability Measurement Procedures with Mathematics Test Items. (United States)

    Romberg, Thomas A.; And Others

    This is a report from the Project on Individually Guided Mathematics, Phase 2 Analysis of Mathematics Instruction. The report outlines some of the characteristics of probability measurement procedures for scoring objective tests, discusses hypothesized advantages and disadvantages of the methods, and reports the results of three experiments…

  4. On the Behaviour of Information Measures for Test Selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sent, D.; van der Gaag, L.C.; Bellazzi, R; Abu-Hanna, A; Hunter, J


    tests that are expected to yield the largest decrease in the uncertainty about a patient’s diagnosis. For capturing diagnostic uncertainty, often an information measure is used. In this paper, we study the Shannon entropy, the Gini index, and the misclassification error for this purpose. We argue

  5. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.


    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument

  6. Validation Testing for Automated Solubility Measurement Equipment Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lachut, J. S. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)


    Laboratory tests have been completed to test the validity of automated solubility measurement equipment using sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions (see test plan WRPS-1404441, “Validation Testing for Automated Solubility Measurement Equipment”). The sodium nitrate solution results were within 2-3% of the reference values, so the experiment is considered successful using the turbidity meter. The sodium chloride test was done by sight, as the turbidity meter did not work well using sodium chloride. For example, the “clear” turbidity reading was 53 FNU at 80 °C, 107 FNU at 55 °C, and 151 FNU at 20 °C. The sodium chloride did not work because it is granular and large; as the solution was stirred, the granules stayed to the outside of the reactor and just above the stir bar level, having little impact on the turbidity meter readings as the meter was aimed at the center of the solution. Also, the turbidity meter depth has an impact. The salt tends to remain near the stir bar level. If the meter is deeper in the slurry, it will read higher turbidity, and if the meter is raised higher in the slurry, it will read lower turbidity (possibly near zero) because it reads the “clear” part of the slurry. The sodium chloride solution results, as measured by sight rather than by turbidity instrument readings, were within 5-6% of the reference values.

  7. Visualizing and Measuring Enterprise Application Architecture: An Exploratory Telecom Case


    Lagerstroem, Robert; Baldwin, Carliss Y.; MacCormack, Alan D.; Aier, Stephan


    We test a method for visualizing and measuring enterprise application architectures. The method was designed and previously used to reveal the hidden internal architectural structure of software applications. The focus of this paper is to test if it can also uncover new facts about the applications and their relationships in an enterprise architecture, i.e., if the method can reveal the hidden external structure between software applications. Our test uses data from a large international tele...

  8. Improving measurement-invariance assessments: correcting entrenched testing deficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie A. Hayduk


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factor analysis historically focused on measurement while path analysis employed observed variables as though they were error-free. When factor- and path-analysis merged as structural equation modeling, factor analytic notions dominated measurement discussions – including assessments of measurement invariance across groups. The factor analytic tradition fostered disregard of model testing and consequently entrenched this deficiency in measurement invariance assessments. Discussion Applying contemporary model testing requirements to the so-called configural model initiating invariance assessments will improve future assessments but a substantial backlog of deficient assessments remain to be overcome. This article summarizes the issues, demonstrates the problem using a recent example, illustrates a superior model assessment strategy, and documents disciplinary entrenchment of inadequate testing as exemplified by the journal Organizational Research Methods. Summary Employing the few methodologically and theoretically best, rather than precariously-multiple, indicators of latent variables increases the likelihood of achieving properly causally specified structural equation models capable of displaying measurement invariance. Just as evidence of invalidity trumps reliability, evidence of configural model misspecification trumps invariant estimates of misspecified coefficients.

  9. Improving measurement-invariance assessments: correcting entrenched testing deficiencies. (United States)

    Hayduk, Leslie A


    Factor analysis historically focused on measurement while path analysis employed observed variables as though they were error-free. When factor- and path-analysis merged as structural equation modeling, factor analytic notions dominated measurement discussions - including assessments of measurement invariance across groups. The factor analytic tradition fostered disregard of model testing and consequently entrenched this deficiency in measurement invariance assessments. Applying contemporary model testing requirements to the so-called configural model initiating invariance assessments will improve future assessments but a substantial backlog of deficient assessments remain to be overcome. This article summarizes the issues, demonstrates the problem using a recent example, illustrates a superior model assessment strategy, and documents disciplinary entrenchment of inadequate testing as exemplified by the journal Organizational Research Methods. Employing the few methodologically and theoretically best, rather than precariously-multiple, indicators of latent variables increases the likelihood of achieving properly causally specified structural equation models capable of displaying measurement invariance. Just as evidence of invalidity trumps reliability, evidence of configural model misspecification trumps invariant estimates of misspecified coefficients.

  10. Psychometric Testing of a Simulation Rubric for Measuring Interprofessional Communication. (United States)

    Reising, Deanna L; Carr, Douglas E; Tieman, Sarah; Feather, Rebecca; Ozdogan, Zulfukar


    The aim of this study was to establish psychometric testing of the Indiana University Simulation Integration Rubric (IUSIR), a tool for measuring interprofessional communication in simulations. Educators engage in a wide variety of activities to promote interprofessional education, with many of these activities involving simulation. As interprofessional education evolves, tools are needed to measure the effectiveness of interventions. A sample of 229 pre-licensure bachelor of science in nursing students and 66 pre-licensure first- and second-year medical students was evaluated using the IUSIR. Cronbach's alpha, inter-item and inter-total correlations, and interrater agreement were used to evaluate reliability of the tool. An ANOVA to test for difference between the two levels of students was used to establish validity. Reliability and validity were supported for all individual items for nursing and medical students, and for all team items The IUSIR is a reliable and valid measure for interprofessional communication.

  11. A surface EMG test tool to measure proportional prosthetic control. (United States)

    Sturma, Agnes; Roche, Aidan D; Göbel, Peter; Herceg, Malvina; Ge, Nan; Fialka-Moser, Veronika; Aszmann, Oskar


    In upper limb amputees, prosthetic control training is recommended before and after fitting. During rehabilitation, the focus is on selective proportional control signals. For functional monitoring, many different tests are available. None can be used in the early phase of training. However, an early assessment is needed to judge if a patient has the potential to control a certain prosthetic set-up. This early analysis will determine if further training is needed or if other strategies would be more appropriate. Presented here is a tool that is capable of predicting achievable function in voluntary EMG control. This tool is applicable to individual muscle groups to support preparation of training and fitting. In four of five patients, the sEMG test tool accurately predicted the suitability for further myoelectric training based on SHAP outcome measures. (P1: "Poor" function in the sEMG test tool corresponded to 54/100 in the SHAP test; P2: Good: 85; P3: Good: 81; P4: Average: 78). One patient scored well during sEMG testing, but was unmotivated during SHAP testing. (Good: 50) Therefore, the surface EMG test tool may predict achievable control skills to a high extent, validated with the SHAP, but requires further clinical testing to validate this technique.

  12. Failing Tests: Commentary on "Adapting Educational Measurement to the Demands of Test-Based Accountability" (United States)

    Thissen, David


    In "Adapting Educational Measurement to the Demands of Test-Based Accountability" Koretz takes the time-honored engineering approach to educational measurement, identifying specific problems with current practice and proposing minimal modifications of the system to alleviate those problems. In response to that article, David Thissen…

  13. [Death in exercise test: immediate angiographic findings in 2 cases]. (United States)

    Fernández de Almeida, C A; Peteiro, J; Barba, J; Aparici, M; Rifón, J; Sanz, P


    We present two cases of mortality during a stress test after which coronary arteriography was performed after the acute event. In both patients, left coronary arteries presented eccentric lesions with irregular bordes and intraluminal lucencies. We have discussed the probable pathophysiologic mechanisms involved in view of the angiographic findings. We concluded that the cracking of the plaque was an essential event in the pathogenesis of this picture.

  14. Testing limits to airflow perturbation device (APD measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshidi Shaya


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Airflow Perturbation Device (APD is a lightweight, portable device that can be used to measure total respiratory resistance as well as inhalation and exhalation resistances. There is a need to determine limits to the accuracy of APD measurements for different conditions likely to occur: leaks around the mouthpiece, use of an oronasal mask, and the addition of resistance in the respiratory system. Also, there is a need for resistance measurements in patients who are ventilated. Method Ten subjects between the ages of 18 and 35 were tested for each station in the experiment. The first station involved testing the effects of leaks of known sizes on APD measurements. The second station tested the use of an oronasal mask used in conjunction with the APD during nose and mouth breathing. The third station tested the effects of two different resistances added in series with the APD mouthpiece. The fourth station tested the usage of a flexible ventilator tube in conjunction with the APD. Results All leaks reduced APD resistance measurement values. Leaks represented by two 3.2 mm diameter tubes reduced measured resistance by about 10% (4.2 cmH2O·sec/L for control and 3.9 cm H2O·sec/L for the leak. This was not statistically significant. Larger leaks given by 4.8 and 6.4 mm tubes reduced measurements significantly (3.4 and 3.0 cm cmH2O·sec/L, respectively. Mouth resistance measured with a cardboard mouthpiece gave an APD measurement of 4.2 cm H2O·sec/L and mouth resistance measured with an oronasal mask was 4.5 cm H2O·sec/L; the two were not significantly different. Nose resistance measured with the oronasal mask was 7.6 cm H2O·sec/L. Adding airflow resistances of 1.12 and 2.10 cm H2O·sec/L to the breathing circuit between the mouth and APD yielded respiratory resistance values higher than the control by 0.7 and 2.0 cm H2O·sec/L. Although breathing through a 52 cm length of flexible ventilator tubing reduced the APD

  15. Testing the validity of implicit measures of wanting and liking. (United States)

    Tibboel, Helen; De Houwer, Jan; Spruyt, Adriaan; Field, Matt; Kemps, Eva; Crombez, Geert


    Over the last decade, there has been a surge of studies examining implicit processes underlying addiction. Some implicit measures are assumed to reflect "liking" whereas other implicit measures are assumed to reflect "wanting". There is, however, little evidence to back up this claim. We examined whether implicit and explicit measures of wanting and of liking are differentially sensitive to manipulations of wanting and expected that these manipulations would affect primarily measures of wanting. Smokers and non-smokers performed both implicit and explicit measures that are assumed to assess wanting and liking for smoking. Smokers were tested once immediately after smoking, and once after 12 h of nicotine-deprivation. IAT results suggested that smokers showed more implicit liking for nicotine when they were deprived than when they were satiated, whereas there were no differences in wanting. Smokers also seemed to show both more implicit wanting and more implicit liking for nicotine compared to non-smokers. Explicit measures did yield the expected results in that smokers reported to want nicotine more when they were deprived, whereas there were smaller differences in liking. We found little support for the assumption that implicit measures of wanting and liking capture different processes. Researchers should thus be cautious in drawing conclusions about wanting and liking on the basis of these measures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Standard test method for measurement of fatigue crack growth rates

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers the determination of fatigue crack growth rates from near-threshold to Kmax controlled instability. Results are expressed in terms of the crack-tip stress-intensity factor range (ΔK), defined by the theory of linear elasticity. 1.2 Several different test procedures are provided, the optimum test procedure being primarily dependent on the magnitude of the fatigue crack growth rate to be measured. 1.3 Materials that can be tested by this test method are not limited by thickness or by strength so long as specimens are of sufficient thickness to preclude buckling and of sufficient planar size to remain predominantly elastic during testing. 1.4 A range of specimen sizes with proportional planar dimensions is provided, but size is variable to be adjusted for yield strength and applied force. Specimen thickness may be varied independent of planar size. 1.5 The details of the various specimens and test configurations are shown in Annex A1-Annex A3. Specimen configurations other than t...

  17. Performance Measures of Academic Faculty--A Case Study (United States)

    Davidovitch, Nitza; Soen, Dan; Sinuani-Stern, Zila


    This case study is the first to track the method used by an Israeli institution of higher education to assess and reward faculty members using a set of performance measures ("Excellence criteria"). The study profiles faculty members who received financial rewards for excellence during 2005-2007, based on the previous year's activities,…

  18. Cloze tests and word reading tests: Enabling teachers to measure learners' reading-related abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klapwijk, Nanda M.


    Full Text Available ‘How can I measure my learners’ reading ability in order to manage my instruction more effectively?’ This seems to be the refrain of many teachers these days. However, while teachers are taught new methods of instruction and new reading methods, they do not seem to be taught about reliable ways to measure their learners’ reading-related ability independently. In this article, a recommendation is made for the use of two measurements by teachers: a word reading test (which measures word recognition and Cloze tests (which measure a reader’s ability to comprehend at more than word level. While acknowledging the difficulties related to measuring reading ability, in particular comprehension, the author of this article provides evidence that, when combined, a word reading test and a Cloze test can provide teachers with a reliable indicator of their learners’ reading-related abilities. The article concludes with a list of benefits that can be gained from obtaining such measurements.

  19. Conformity assessment of the measurement accuracy in testing laboratories using a software application (United States)

    Diniţă, A.


    This article presents a method for assessing the accuracy of the measurements obtained at different tests conducted in laboratories by implementing the interlaboratory comparison method (organization, performance and evaluation of measurements of tests on the same or similar items by two or more laboratories under predetermined conditions). The program (independent software application), realised by the author and described in this paper, analyses the measurement accuracy and performance of testing laboratory by comparing the results obtained from different tests, using the modify Youden diagram, helping identify different types of errors that can occur in measurement, according to ISO 13528:2015, Statistical methods for use in proficiency testing by interlaboratory comparison. A case study is presented in the article by determining the chemical composition of identical samples from five different laboratories. The Youden diagram obtained from this study case was used to identify errors in the laboratory testing equipment. This paper was accepted for publication in Proceedings after double peer reviewing process but was not presented at the Conference ROTRIB’16

  20. Mass properties measurement for drag-free test masses (United States)

    Conklin, John W.; Swank, Aaron; Sun, Ke-Xun; DeBra, Dan B.


    Space-borne gravitational wave observatories like the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and those beyond, which may utilize a Modular Gravitational Reference Sensor (MGRS), greatly benefit from precise knowledge of the mass center location and moment of inertia tensor of the test mass prior to launch. The motion of the mass center of a drag-free test mass, which follows a pure geodesic, must be inferred from measurements of the surface. Therefore, knowledge of the mass center is critical for calibration of the cross-coupling between rotational and translational degrees of freedom. Together with the moment of inertia tensor, the mass center can also provide an estimate of the material density inhomogeneity to quadratic order, and the gravitational potential to second order, which improves modeling of self gravitation forces. These benefits, which are independent of the test mass shape, motivate the development of three new techniques for improving mass center and moment of inertia measurements beyond the current state of the art. A static pendulum is proposed to determine the mass center of a cubic test mass to ~ 1 μm by measuring the equilibrium position with the cube in up to 24 different orientations relative to the pendulum platform. Measuring the natural frequency of a dynamic torsion pendulum can determine both the mass center and moment of inertia tensor of arbitrarily shaped objects to ~ 5 μm and 1 part in ~ 104 respectively. The velocity modulation technique for measuring the mass center of a sphere has raised the bar in precision to ~ 150 nm, a factor of 20 improvement over the work presented at the LISA 6th symposium. This new technique involves rolling the sphere down a set of parallel rails to spectrally shift the mass center offset information to the rolling rate frequency, in order to avoid the 1/f noise that typically prevents other techniques from achieving precision below 1 μm.

  1. Developing and Testing a Bayesian Analysis of Fluorescence Lifetime Measurements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Kaye

    Full Text Available FRET measurements can provide dynamic spatial information on length scales smaller than the diffraction limit of light. Several methods exist to measure FRET between fluorophores, including Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy (FLIM, which relies on the reduction of fluorescence lifetime when a fluorophore is undergoing FRET. FLIM measurements take the form of histograms of photon arrival times, containing contributions from a mixed population of fluorophores both undergoing and not undergoing FRET, with the measured distribution being a mixture of exponentials of different lifetimes. Here, we present an analysis method based on Bayesian inference that rigorously takes into account several experimental complications. We test the precision and accuracy of our analysis on controlled experimental data and verify that we can faithfully extract model parameters, both in the low-photon and low-fraction regimes.

  2. Standards for measurements and testing of wind turbine power quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Gerdes, G.; Klosse, R.; Santjer, F. [DEWI, Wilhelmshaven (Germany); Robertson, N.; Davy, W. [NEL, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Koulouvari, M.; Morfiadakis, E. [CRES, Pikermi (Greece); Larsson, Aa. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)


    The present paper describes the work done in power quality sub-task of the project `European Wind Turbine Testing Procedure Developments` funded by the EU SMT program. The objective of the power quality sub-task has been to make analyses and new recommendation(s) for the standardisation of measurement and verification of wind turbine power quality. The work has been organised in three major activities. The first activity has been to propose measurement procedures and to verify existing and new measurement procedures. This activity has also involved a comparison of the measurements and data processing of the participating partners. The second activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with constant rotor speed. The third activity has been to investigate the influence of terrain, grid properties and wind farm summation on the power quality of wind turbines with variable rotor speed. (au)

  3. Experimental temperature measurements for the energy amplifier test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calero, J. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Madrid (Spain); Cennini, P. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gallego, E. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Galvez, J. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Garcia Tabares, L. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez, E. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Jaren, J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Lopez, C. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Lorente, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Martinez Val, J.M. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Oropesa, J. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rubbia, C. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rubio, J.A. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)]|[Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Saldana, F. [European Laboratory for Particle Physics, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Tamarit, J. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Madrid (Spain); Vieira, S. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (UAM), E-28049 Madrid (Spain)


    A uranium thermometer has been designed and built in order to make local power measurements in the first energy amplifier test (FEAT). Due to the experimental conditions power measurements of tens to hundreds of nW were required, implying a sensitivity in the temperature change measurements of the order of 1 mK. A uranium thermometer accurate enough to match that sensitivity has been built. The thermometer is able to determine the absolute energetic gain obtained in a tiny subcritical uranium assembly exposed to a proton beam of kinetic energies between 600 MeV and 2.75 GeV. In addition, the thermometer measurements have provided information about the spatial power distribution and the shape of the neutron spallation cascade. (orig.).

  4. Constructing three emotion knowledge tests from the invariant measurement approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana R. Delgado


    Full Text Available Background Psychological constructionist models like the Conceptual Act Theory (CAT postulate that complex states such as emotions are composed of basic psychological ingredients that are more clearly respected by the brain than basic emotions. The objective of this study was the construction and initial validation of Emotion Knowledge measures from the CAT frame by means of an invariant measurement approach, the Rasch Model (RM. Psychological distance theory was used to inform item generation. Methods Three EK tests—emotion vocabulary (EV, close emotional situations (CES and far emotional situations (FES—were constructed and tested with the RM in a community sample of 100 females and 100 males (age range: 18–65, both separately and conjointly. Results It was corroborated that data-RM fit was sufficient. Then, the effect of type of test and emotion on Rasch-modelled item difficulty was tested. Significant effects of emotion on EK item difficulty were found, but the only statistically significant difference was that between “happiness” and the remaining emotions; neither type of test, nor interaction effects on EK item difficulty were statistically significant. The testing of gender differences was carried out after corroborating that differential item functioning (DIF would not be a plausible alternative hypothesis for the results. No statistically significant sex-related differences were found out in EV, CES, FES, or total EK. However, the sign of d indicate that female participants were consistently better than male ones, a result that will be of interest for future meta-analyses. Discussion The three EK tests are ready to be used as components of a higher-level measurement process.

  5. A controlled single case study with repeated fMRI measurements during the treatment of a patient with obsessive-compulsive disorder: testing the nonlinear dynamics approach to psychotherapy. (United States)

    Schiepek, Günter; Tominschek, Igor; Karch, Susanne; Lutz, Jürgen; Mulert, Christoph; Meindl, Thomas; Pogarell, Oliver


    There is increasing evidence that obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is associated with a dysfunction of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical neuronal circuits. In order to examine treatment-related changes in neuronal processes, a drug-naive female patient with OCD (subtype: washing/contamination fear) and an age- and gender-matched healthy control were repeatedly tested using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the presentation of a symptom provocation task. Patient-specific visual stimuli of symptom provoking situations were compared with disgust provoking and neutral pictures. FMRI scanning was conducted at the beginning, during and upon completion of an inpatient treatment. During the treatment period of more than eight weeks (combined behavioural and systemic couple therapy) the patient filled out a therapy process questionnaire (TPQ) which was administered daily. Results show a phase transition-like change characterized by a sudden reduction of clinical symptoms as assessed by the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) in the middle of the treatment period. Before the discontinuous symptom reduction occurred, the dynamic complexity of the TPQ-time series increased which might be indicative for a critical instability of the system. The fMRI results at the beginning of the treatment suggest strong activities in various brain regions, especially in the anterior cingulate cortex. The results of the second and third acquisition revealed comparably smaller OCD-related neuronal responses. The results may indicate that important clinical changes are taking place during the psychotherapy process which correspond to changing patterns of brain activation as well as to critical instabilities and phase-transition like phenomena in the time-series of the patient's daily self-report data.

  6. Measuring and testing awareness of emotional face expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Bibby, Bo Martin; Overgaard, Morten


    Comparison of behavioural measures of consciousness has attracted much attention recently. In a recent article, Szczepanowski et al. conclude that confidence ratings (CR) predict accuracy better than both the perceptual awareness scale (PAS) and post-decision wagering (PDW) when using stimuli...... with emotional content (fearful vs. neutral faces). Although we find the study interesting, we disagree with the conclusion that CR is superior to PAS because of two methodological issues. First, the conclusion is not based on a formal test. We performed this test and found no evidence that CR predicted accuracy...

  7. Limitations of push-out test in bond strength measurement. (United States)

    Chen, Weng-Pin; Chen, Yen-Yin; Huang, Shih-Hao; Lin, Chun-Pin


    The push-out test has been widely performed to measure the bond strength of intracanal materials in dentistry. However, it is difficult to compare equitably the bond strengths from different testing specimens. The aim of this study was to investigate how a specimen's geometric parameters and the elastic moduli of dentin and intracanal filling materials may affect the bond strength measurement. Finite element analysis was used to simulate a push-out test. A base model was established, and 3 parameters were modified: the diameter of the pin, the specimen's thickness, and the elastic modulus of the intracanal filler. The analytic stress results and the calculated bond strengths derived from the original formula for the push-out test were compared at the interfaces. Specifically, the following observations were made: the interfacial stress distributions are mostly unaffected when the ratio of the pin diameter to the specimen's diameter is less than 0.85, and the ratio of the specimen's thickness to the specimen's diameter is greater than 0.6. Two correction factors were suggested for fillers with diverse elastic moduli with respect to the dentin modulus. Two modified formulas for the push-out bond strength test for the test specimens using different bonded composite materials were proposed. The results showed that geometric parameters and materials have certain effects on the push-out bond strength. A more rigorous standard for the push-out test can be established for future applications. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A Procedure for Accurately Measuring the Shaker Overturning Moment During Random Vibration Tests (United States)

    Nayeri, Reza D.


    Motivation: For large system level random vibration tests, there may be some concerns about the shaker's capability for the overturning moment. It is the test conductor's responsibility to predict and monitor the overturning moment during random vibration tests. If the predicted moment is close to the shaker's capability, test conductor must measure the instantaneous moment at low levels and extrapolate to higher levels. That data will be used to decide whether it is safe to proceed to the next test level. Challenge: Kistler analog formulation for computing the real-time moment is only applicable to very limited cases in which we have 3 or 4 load cells installed at shaker interface with hardware. Approach: To overcome that limitation, a simple procedure was developed for computing the overturning moment time histories using the measured time histories of the individual load cells.

  9. Test-re-test reproducibility of activity capacity measures for children with an acquired brain injury. (United States)

    Baque, Emmah; Barber, Lee; Sakzewski, Leanne; Boyd, Roslyn N


    To determine test-re-test reproducibility of the Timed Up & Go (TUG) test, 30-second repetition maximum (repmax) of functional exercises, 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and High-level Mobility Assessment Tool (HiMAT) in children with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI). Secondarily, to assess the accuracy between hand-timed and video-timed scores for the TUG test and HiMAT. Thirty children at least 1 year post-ABI (mean age at assessment = 11 years 11 months, SD = 2 years 4 months; 14 males; Gross Motor Function Classification Scale I = 17, II = 13) were assessed twice. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), standard error of measurement and minimum detectable change (MDC) were determined. The Bland-Altman method and 95% limits of agreement (LOA) were used to assess the agreement between hand and video-timed TUG test and HiMAT scores. Test-re-test reproducibility was acceptable for the TUG test (ICC = 0.92; MDC = 1.2s); repmax of functional exercises (ICC = 0.84-0.98; MDC = 4-8 reps); 6MWT (ICC = 0.90; MDC = 69.38 m) and HiMAT (ICC = 0.98; MDC = 6). Comparison of hand and video scores for the TUG test and HiMAT demonstrated a mean difference of 0.23 (LOA = -0.3-0.7) and -0.07 (LOA = -1.99-1.85), respectively. Conclusions Test-re-test reproducibility of lower limb activity capacity measures in children with ABI are acceptable. The MDC scores provide a useful reference to interpret treatment effectiveness. Video timing was more accurate than hand-timing for the TUG test.

  10. Measurement of PCB emissions from building surfaces using a novel portable emission test cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, Helle Vibeke


    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used in building materials like caulks and paints from 1930 e1970s and in some cases that caused elevated PCB concentrations in the indoor air at levels considered harmful to occupant health. PCBs are semivolatile organic compounds and capable of spreading from...... and there is a need to prioritise remediation measures on different materials. An inexpensive and portable emission test cell was developed to resemble indoor conditions in relation to the area specific ventilation rate. Emissions were measured using the test cell in the laboratory on freshly made PCB paint. Further...

  11. Infrared Thermography for Temperature Measurement and Non-Destructive Testing (United States)

    Usamentiaga, Rubèn; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G.


    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed. PMID:25014096

  12. Infrared thermography for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing. (United States)

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G


    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed.

  13. Pico Reentry Probes: Affordable Options for Reentry Measurements and Testing (United States)

    Ailor, William H.; Kapoor, Vinod B.; Allen, Gay A., Jr.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James O.; Rasky, Daniel J.


    It is generally very costly to perform in-space and atmospheric entry experiments. This paper presents a new platform - the Pico Reentry Probe (PREP) - that we believe will make targeted flight-tests and planetary atmospheric probe science missions considerably more affordable. Small, lightweight, self-contained, it is designed as a "launch and forget" system, suitable for experiments that require no ongoing communication with the ground. It contains a data recorder, battery, transmitter, and user-customized instrumentation. Data recorded during reentry or space operations is returned at end-of-mission via transmission to Iridium satellites (in the case of earth-based operations) or a similar orbiting communication system for planetary missions. This paper discusses possible applications of this concept for Earth and Martian atmospheric entry science. Two well-known heritage aerodynamic shapes are considered as candidates for PREP: the shape developed for the Planetary Atmospheric Experiment Test (PAET) and that for the Deep Space II Mars Probe.

  14. A measure of success: nursing students and test anxiety. (United States)

    Edelman, Maryann; Ficorelli, Carmel


    Anxiety reactions are common to situations perceived as threatening; however, excessive anxiety may paralyze an individual and interfere with effective functioning. Nursing students and nursing orientees face multiple stressors as they progress through a competitive and oftentimes grueling nursing program or job orientation. This article will focus on the experience of test anxiety in nursing students and new orientees and measures the nurse educator may employ in reducing this anxiety to facilitate learner progression through a nursing program or orientation.

  15. [Digital blood flow measurement by venous occlusion plethysmography in Raynaud's phenomenon. Value of the rewarming test]. (United States)

    Cristol, R; Debray, J


    The fingertip blood flow measured by mercury strain gauge plethysmography with venous occlusion, at 22 degrees C room temperature, had significantly lower mean values in 190 patients with Raynaud's phenomenon (55 men aged 49 yrs +/- 16, 135 women aged 48 yrs +/- 16) than in 40 age and sex matched controls: 18 ml/100 ml/minute +/- 14.6 versus 35 ml/100 ml/minute +/- 15 at level p less than 0.01. The mean fingertip blood flow was significantly lower (p less than 0.01) in 31 cases of scleroderma and 32 cases of pulpar necrosis (respectively 13 ml +/- 13 and 11 ml +/- 8) than in 55 cases of primary Raynaud's disease (no detectable etiology and normal capillaroscopy 5 years after onset) or in 34 cases of mild Raynaud's phenomenon (respectively 21.6 +/- 16 and 24.4 +/- 18). A warming test (both hands in water at 45 degrees C during 3 minutes) was performed in 50 cases with low basal fingertip blood flow. It induced a "normalized" flow in 22 cases (mostly primary or mild Raynaud), a partly improved flow in 20 cases (mostly secondary Raynaud) and no improvement in 8 cases (scleroderma). The warming test appears to be clinically useful to assess the vasospasm and the vasodilating capabilities.

  16. Solutions for acceleration measurement in vehicle crash tests (United States)

    Dima, D. S.; Covaciu, D.


    Crash tests are useful for validating computer simulations of road traffic accidents. One of the most important parameters measured is the acceleration. The evolution of acceleration versus time, during a crash test, form a crash pulse. The correctness of the crash pulse determination depends on the data acquisition system used. Recommendations regarding the instrumentation for impact tests are given in standards, which are focused on the use of accelerometers as impact sensors. The goal of this paper is to present the device and software developed by authors for data acquisition and processing. The system includes two accelerometers with different input ranges, a processing unit based on a 32-bit microcontroller and a data logging unit with SD card. Data collected on card, as text files, is processed with a dedicated software running on personal computers. The processing is based on diagrams and includes the digital filters recommended in standards.

  17. Clinical laboratory test prices in Zimbabwe: A case of profiteering? (United States)

    Musarurwa, C; Nyamayaro, T; Mujaji, W B; Matarira, H T; Gomo, Z A R


    To compare the prices charged for clinical laboratory tests in Zimbabwean institutions with those of similar institutions abroad. An online analytical cross sectional study was conducted. An online survey. We did an online survey of clinical laboratories that published prices of the tests offered on their websites. We also extracted price information from documents published by fees regulatory authorities. Laboratory test prices for independent institutions, Laboratory test prices for State institutions. Overally for all countries, laboratory test prices were lower in state laboratories compared to the independent laboratories. In Zimbabwe, state laboratories generally charged about 50% of the independent laboratory tariff for most tests. However prices from both Zimbabwean institutions were generally much higher than those of the comparison countries (United Kingdom, South Africa, India, United States of America and New Zealand). Prices of laboratory tests are indeed higher in Zimbabwean institutions compared to other centres abroad. These higher prices could be attributed to challenges in consumable procurement logistics. We also present measures that could be put in place to reduce the costs and therefore prices.

  18. Implementation of Moderator Circulation Test Temperature Measurement System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yeong Muk; Hong, Seok Boong; Kim, Min Seok; Choi, Hwa Rim [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyung Shin [Chungnam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Moderator Circulation Test(MCT) facility is 1/4 scale facility designed to reproduce the important characteristics of moderator circulation in a CANDU6 calandria under a range of operating conditions. MCT is an equipment with 380 acrylic pipes instead of the heater rods and a preliminary measurement of velocity field using PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) is performed under the iso-thermal test conditions. The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started implementation of MCT Temperature Measurement System (TMS) using multiple infrared sensors. To control multiple infrared sensors, MCT TMS is implemented using National Instruments (NI) LabVIEW programming language. The MCT TMS is implemented to measure sensor data of multiple infrared sensors using the LabVIEW. The 35 sensor pipes of MCT TMS are divided into 2 ports to meet the minimum measurement time of 0.2 seconds. The software of MCT TMS is designed using collection function and processing function. The MCT TMS has the function of monitoring the states of multiple infrared sensors. The GUI screen of MCT TMS is composed of sensor pipe categories for user.

  19. Development and testing of a community flood resilience measurement tool (United States)

    Keating, Adriana; Campbell, Karen; Szoenyi, Michael; McQuistan, Colin; Nash, David; Burer, Meinrad


    Given the increased attention on resilience strengthening in international humanitarian and development work, there is a growing need to invest in its measurement and the overall accountability of resilience strengthening initiatives. The purpose of this article is to present our framework and tool for measuring community-level resilience to flooding and generating empirical evidence and to share our experience in the application of the resilience concept. At the time of writing the tool is being tested in 75 communities across eight countries. Currently 88 potential sources of resilience are measured at the baseline (initial state) and end line (final state) approximately 2 years later. If a flood occurs in the community during the study period, resilience outcome measures are recorded. By comparing pre-flood characteristics to post-flood outcomes, we aim to empirically verify sources of resilience, something which has never been done in this field. There is an urgent need for the continued development of theoretically anchored, empirically verified, and practically applicable disaster resilience measurement frameworks and tools so that the field may (a) deepen understanding of the key components of disaster resilience in order to better target resilience-enhancing initiatives, and (b) enhance our ability to benchmark and measure disaster resilience over time, and (c) compare how resilience changes as a result of different capacities, actions and hazards.

  20. Testing THEMIS wave measurements against the cold plasma theory (United States)

    Taubenschuss, Ulrich; Santolik, Ondrej; Le Contel, Olivier; Bonnell, John


    The THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) mission records a multitude of electromagnetic waves inside Earth's magnetosphere and provides data in the form of high-resolution electric and magnetic waveforms. We use multi-component measurements of whistler mode waves and test them against the theory of wave propagation in a cold plasma. The measured ratio cB/E (c is speed of light in vacuum, B is magnetic wave amplitude, E is electric wave amplitude) is compared to the same quantity calculated from cold plasma theory over linearized Faraday's law. The aim of this study is to get estimates for measurement uncertainties, especially with regard to the electric field and the cold plasma density, as well as evaluating the validity of cold plasma theory inside Earth's radiation belts.

  1. Automated Test Case Generation for an Autopilot Requirement Prototype (United States)

    Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Rungta, Neha; Feary, Michael


    Designing safety-critical automation with robust human interaction is a difficult task that is susceptible to a number of known Human-Automation Interaction (HAI) vulnerabilities. It is therefore essential to develop automated tools that provide support both in the design and rapid evaluation of such automation. The Automation Design and Evaluation Prototyping Toolset (ADEPT) enables the rapid development of an executable specification for automation behavior and user interaction. ADEPT supports a number of analysis capabilities, thus enabling the detection of HAI vulnerabilities early in the design process, when modifications are less costly. In this paper, we advocate the introduction of a new capability to model-based prototyping tools such as ADEPT. The new capability is based on symbolic execution that allows us to automatically generate quality test suites based on the system design. Symbolic execution is used to generate both user input and test oracles user input drives the testing of the system implementation, and test oracles ensure that the system behaves as designed. We present early results in the context of a component in the Autopilot system modeled in ADEPT, and discuss the challenges of test case generation in the HAI domain.

  2. AULA virtual reality test as an attention measure: convergent validity with Conners' Continuous Performance Test. (United States)

    Díaz-Orueta, Unai; Garcia-López, Cristina; Crespo-Eguílaz, Nerea; Sánchez-Carpintero, Rocío; Climent, Gema; Narbona, Juan


    The majority of neuropsychological tests used to evaluate attention processes in children lack ecological validity. The AULA Nesplora (AULA) is a continuous performance test, developed in a virtual setting, very similar to a school classroom. The aim of the present study is to analyze the convergent validity between the AULA and the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) of Conners. The AULA and CPT were administered correlatively to 57 children, aged 6-16 years (26.3% female) with average cognitive ability (IQ mean = 100.56, SD = 10.38) who had a diagnosis of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. Spearman correlations analyses were conducted among the different variables. Significant correlations were observed between both tests in all the analyzed variables (omissions, commissions, reaction time, and variability of reaction time), including for those measures of the AULA based on different sensorial modalities, presentation of distractors, and task paradigms. Hence, convergent validity between both tests was confirmed. Moreover, the AULA showed differences by gender and correlation to Perceptual Reasoning and Working Memory indexes of the WISC-IV, supporting the relevance of IQ measures in the understanding of cognitive performance in ADHD. In addition, the AULA (but not Conners' CPT) was able to differentiate between ADHD children with and without pharmacological treatment for a wide range of measures related to inattention, impulsivity, processing speed, motor activity, and quality of attention focus. Additional measures and advantages of the AULA versus Conners' CPT are discussed.

  3. Automatic WSDL-guided Test Case Generation for PropEr Testing of Web Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Sagonas


    Full Text Available With web services already being key ingredients of modern web systems, automatic and easy-to-use but at the same time powerful and expressive testing frameworks for web services are increasingly important. Our work aims at fully automatic testing of web services: ideally the user only specifies properties that the web service is expected to satisfy, in the form of input-output relations, and the system handles all the rest. In this paper we present in detail the component which lies at the heart of this system: how the WSDL specification of a web service is used to automatically create test case generators that can be fed to PropEr, a property-based testing tool, to create structurally valid random test cases for its operations and check its responses. Although the process is fully automatic, our tool optionally allows the user to easily modify its output to either add semantic information to the generators or write properties that test for more involved functionality of the web services.

  4. Relational Constraint Driven Test Case Synthesis for Web Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Fu


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a relational constraint driven technique that synthesizes test cases automatically for web applications. Using a static analysis, servlets can be modeled as relational transducers, which manipulate backend databases. We present a synthesis algorithm that generates a sequence of HTTP requests for simulating a user session. The algorithm relies on backward symbolic image computation for reaching a certain database state, given a code coverage objective. With a slight adaptation, the technique can be used for discovering workflow attacks on web applications.

  5. Standard test method for measuring pH of soil for use in corrosion testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the pH of a soil in corrosion testing. The principle use of the test is to supplement soil resistivity measurements and thereby identify conditions under which the corrosion of metals in soil may be accentuated (see G 57 - 78 (1984)). 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. On invariant measures of stochastic recursions in a critical case


    Buraczewski, Dariusz


    We consider an autoregressive model on ℝ defined by the recurrence equation Xn=AnXn−1+Bn, where {(Bn, An)} are i.i.d. random variables valued in ℝ×ℝ+ and $\\mathbb{E}[\\log A_{1}]=0$ (critical case). It was proved by Babillot, Bougerol and Elie that there exists a unique invariant Radon measure of the process {Xn}. The aim of the paper is to investigate its behavior at infinity. We describe also stationary measures of two other stochastic recursions, including one arising in queuing theory....

  7. Predictive Software Measures based on Z Specifications - A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bollin


    Full Text Available Estimating the effort and quality of a system is a critical step at the beginning of every software project. It is necessary to have reliable ways of calculating these measures, and, it is even better when the calculation can be done as early as possible in the development life-cycle. Having this in mind, metrics for formal specifications are examined with a view to correlations to complexity and quality-based code measures. A case study, based on a Z specification and its implementation in ADA, analyzes the practicability of these metrics as predictors.

  8. What do tests of formal reasoning actually measure? (United States)

    Lawson, Anton E.

    Tests of formal operational reasoning derived from Piagetian theory have been found to be effective predictors of academic achievement. Yet Piaget's theory regarding the underlying nature of formal operations and their employment in specific contexts has run into considerable empirical difficulty. The primary purpose of this study was to present the core of an alternative theory of the nature of advanced scientific reasoning. That theory, referred to as the multiple-hypothesis theory, argues that tests of formal operational reasoning actually measure the extent to which persons have acquired the ability to initiate reasoning with more than one specific antecedent condition, or if they are unable to imagine more than one antecedent condition, they are aware that more than one is possible; therefore conclusions that are drawn are tempered by this possibility. As a test of this multiple-hypothesis theory of advanced reasoning and the contrasting Piagetian theory of formal operations, a sample of 922 college students were first classified as concrete operational, transitional, or formal operational, based upon responses to standard Piagetian measures of formal operational reasoning. They were then administered seven logic tasks. Actual response patterns to the tasks were analyzed and found to be similar to predicted response patterns derived from the multiple-hypothesis theory and were different from those predicted by Piagetian theory. Therefore, support was obtained for the multiple-hypothesis theory. The terms intuitive and reflective were suggested to replace the terms concrete operational and formal operational to refer to persons at varying levels of intellectual development.

  9. CARS temperature measurements in a hypersonic propulsion test facility (United States)

    Jarrett, O., Jr.; Smith, M. W.; Antcliff, R. R.; Northam, G. B.; Cutler, A. D.


    Static-temperature measurements performed in a reacting vitiated air-hydrogen Mach-2 flow in a duct in Test Cell 2 at NASA LaRC by using a coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) system are discussed. The hypersonic propulsion Test Cell 2 hardware is outlined with emphasis on optical access ports and safety features in the design of the Test Cell. Such design considerations as vibration, noise, contamination from flow field or atmospheric-borne dust, unwanted laser- and electrically-induced combustion, and movement of the sampling volume in the flow are presented. The CARS system is described, and focus is placed on the principle and components of system-to-monochromator signal coupling. Contour plots of scramjet combustor static temperature in a reacting-flow region are presented for three stations, and it is noted that the measurements reveal such features in the flow as maximum temperature near the model wall in the region of the injector footprint.

  10. Helium measurements in support of MHTGR lithium target testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, B.M. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Rocketdyne Div.; Rogers, J.W. [EG and G-Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.


    The New Production-Modular High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (NP-MHTGR) development program sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) has as part of its task the irradiation testing of the lithium target material. The lithium target material tritium ({sup 3}H) production is predominantly through the {sup 6}Li (n,{alpha}){sup 3}H reaction which also produces equal amounts of {sup 4}He ({alpha}). The tritium produced decays to {sup 3}He (12.38 year half-life), with some of this {sup 3}He being converted back to tritium during irradiation via the {sup 3}He(n,p){sup 3}H reaction. From these reactions, and the irradiation time-history, the measurement of the {sup 4}He and {sup 3}He content of a lithium monitor or target material sample can be used to determine several important variables associated with the target material performance, as well as to independently determine the neutron fields associated with the test environment. Helium measurements have been used to determine lithium burnup, tritium retention in target pellets, pellet material composition and variation and threshold temperature for helium release from the pellets. The present paper presents selected results obtained form the various helium measurements and discusses their relevance and importance to the MHTGR target development program.

  11. Measures used by medical students to reduce test anxiety. (United States)

    Afzal, Hasnain; Afzal, Sara; Siddique, Saad Ahmed; Naqvi, Syed Anwar Ahmad


    To determine test anxiety in medical students and to assess the measures used by them to reduce it. The cross-sectional study was conducted in August 2009 at the Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, and involved 388 medical students who were voluntary participants. The 10-item Westside Test Anxiety Scale, was used to measure anxiety and the pre-designed questionnaire asked the students about the frequent measures used by them to overcome anxiety during exams and their past Grade Point Average. All data was coded and analysed using SPSS version 16 with a prior set alpha level of 0.05. Of the 450 students who were initially considered for the study, 388 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Among them, 101 (25.3%) were male students with a mean anxiety level of 2.55 +/- 1.27, and 287 (71.8%) were females with a mean anxiety level of 3.07 +/- 1.43 (pexam anxiety. Students in their fourth and final years of studies showed a higher level of anxiety compared to those in the 2nd and 3rd years. The study indicated high levels of exam anxiety among the medical students, showing that there is a need for anxiety-reduction programmes in medical colleges.

  12. Binary Hypothesis Testing via Measure Transformed Quasi-Likelihood Ratio Test (United States)

    Halay, Nir; Todros, Koby; Hero, Alfred O.


    In this paper, the Gaussian quasi likelihood ratio test (GQLRT) for non-Bayesian binary hypothesis testing is generalized by applying a transform to the probability distribution of the data. The proposed generalization, called measure-transformed GQLRT (MT-GQLRT), selects a Gaussian probability model that best empirically fits a transformed probability measure of the data. By judicious choice of the transform we show that, unlike the GQLRT, the proposed test is resilient to outliers and involves higher-order statistical moments leading to significant mitigation of the model mismatch effect on the decision performance. Under some mild regularity conditions we show that the MT-GQLRT is consistent and its corresponding test statistic is asymptotically normal. A data driven procedure for optimal selection of the measure transformation parameters is developed that maximizes an empirical estimate of the asymptotic power given a fixed empirical asymptotic size. A Bayesian extension of the proposed MT-GQLRT is also developed that is based on selection of a Gaussian probability model that best empirically fits a transformed conditional probability distribution of the data. In the Bayesian MT-GQLRT the threshold and the measure transformation parameters are selected via joint minimization of the empirical asymptotic Bayes risk. The non-Bayesian and Bayesian MT-GQLRTs are applied to signal detection and classification, in simulation examples that illustrate their advantages over the standard GQLRT and other robust alternatives.

  13. Standardization of Solar Mirror Reflectance Measurements - Round Robin Test: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyen, S.; Lupfert, E.; Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Kennedy, C.


    Within the SolarPaces Task III standardization activities, DLR, CIEMAT, and NREL have concentrated on optimizing the procedure to measure the reflectance of solar mirrors. From this work, the laboratories have developed a clear definition of the method and requirements needed of commercial instruments for reliable reflectance results. A round robin test was performed between the three laboratories with samples that represent all of the commercial solar mirrors currently available for concentrating solar power (CSP) applications. The results show surprisingly large differences in hemispherical reflectance (sh) of 0.007 and specular reflectance (ss) of 0.004 between the laboratories. These differences indicate the importance of minimum instrument requirements and standardized procedures. Based on these results, the optimal procedure will be formulated and validated with a new round robin test in which a better accuracy is expected. Improved instruments and reference standards are needed to reach the necessary accuracy for cost and efficiency calculations.

  14. Measuring and testing awareness of emotional face expressions. (United States)

    Sandberg, Kristian; Bibby, Bo Martin; Overgaard, Morten


    Comparison of behavioural measures of consciousness has attracted much attention recently. In a recent article, Szczepanowski et al. conclude that confidence ratings (CR) predict accuracy better than both the perceptual awareness scale (PAS) and post-decision wagering (PDW) when using stimuli with emotional content (fearful vs. neutral faces). Although we find the study interesting, we disagree with the conclusion that CR is superior to PAS because of two methodological issues. First, the conclusion is not based on a formal test. We performed this test and found no evidence that CR predicted accuracy better than PAS (p=.4). Second, Szczepanowski et al. used the present version of PAS in a manner somewhat different from how it was originally intended, and the participants may not have been adequately instructed. We end our commentary with a set of recommendations for future studies using PAS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Results from laboratory and field testing of nitrate measuring spectrophotometers (United States)

    Snazelle, Teri T.


    Five ultraviolet (UV) spectrophotometer nitrate analyzers were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) during a two-phase evaluation. In Phase I, the TriOS ProPs (10-millimeter (mm) path length), Hach NITRATAX plus sc (5-mm path length), Satlantic Submersible UV Nitrate Analyzer (SUNA, 10-mm path length), and S::CAN Spectro::lyser (5-mm path length) were evaluated in the HIF Water-Quality Servicing Laboratory to determine the validity of the manufacturer's technical specifications for accuracy, limit of linearity (LOL), drift, and range of operating temperature. Accuracy specifications were met in the TriOS, Hach, and SUNA. The stock calibration of the S::CAN required two offset adjustments before the analyzer met the manufacturer's accuracy specification. Instrument drift was observed only in the S::CAN and was the result of leaching from the optical path insert seals. All tested models, except for the Hach, met their specified LOL in the laboratory testing. The Hach's range was found to be approximately 18 milligrams nitrogen per liter (mg-N/L) and not the manufacturer-specified 25 mg-N/L. Measurements by all of the tested analyzers showed signs of hysteresis in the operating temperature tests. Only the SUNA measurements demonstrated excessive noise and instability in temperatures above 20 degrees Celsius (°C). The SUNA analyzer was returned to the manufacturer at the completion of the Phase II field deployment evaluation for repair and recalibration, and the performance of the sensor improved significantly.

  16. Influence of selected test parameters on measured values during the MSCR test (United States)

    Benešová, Lucie; Valentin, Jan


    One of today’s most commonly used test on a Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) is the Multiple Stress Creep Recovery (MSCR) test. The test is described in the standard EN 16659, which is valid in the Czech Republic since October 2016. The principle of the test is based on repeated loading and recovering of a bitumen sample, according to which it is possible to determine the percentage of elastic recovery (R) and non-recoverable creep compliance (Jnr) of the bituminous binder. This method has been recently promoted as the most suitable test for assessing the resistance of bituminous binders to permanent deformation. The test is performed at higher temperatures and is particularly suitable for modified bituminous binders. The paper deals with the comparison of the different input parameters set on the DSR device - different levels of stress, temperature of test, the geometry of the measuring device and also a comparison of the results for a different number of loading cycles. The research study was focused mainly on modified bituminous binders, but to compare the MSCR test it is performed even with conventional paving grade binders.

  17. Intelligence Is What the Intelligence Test Measures. Seriously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han L. J. van der Maas


    Full Text Available The mutualism model, an alternative for the g-factor model of intelligence, implies a formative measurement model in which “g” is an index variable without a causal role. If this model is accurate, the search for a genetic of brain instantiation of “g” is deemed useless. This also implies that the (weighted sum score of items of an intelligence test is just what it is: a weighted sum score. Preference for one index above the other is a pragmatic issue that rests mainly on predictive value.

  18. Innovative testing and measurement solutions for smart grid

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Qi; Yi, Jianbo; Zhen, Wei


    Focuses on sensor applications and smart meters in the newly developing interconnected smart grid Focuses on sensor applications and smart meters in the newly developing interconnected smart grid Presents the most updated technological developments in the measurement and testing of power systems within the smart grid environment Reflects the modernization of electric utility power systems with the extensive use of computer, sensor, and data communications technologies, providing benefits to energy consumers and utility companies alike The leading author heads a group of researchers focusing on

  19. Testing the consistency between cosmological measurements of distance and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remya Nair


    Full Text Available We present a model independent method to test the consistency between cosmological measurements of distance and age, assuming the distance duality relation. We use type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and observational Hubble data, to reconstruct the luminosity distance DL(z, the angle-averaged distance DV(z and the Hubble rate H(z, using Gaussian processes regression technique. We obtain estimate of the distance duality relation in the redshift range 0.1

  20. [Using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure implicit shyness]. (United States)

    Aikawa, Atsushi; Fujii, Tsutomu


    Previous research has shown that implicitly measured shyness predicted spontaneous shy behavior in social situations, while explicit self-ratings of shyness predicted controlled shy behavior (Asendorpf, Banse, & Mücke, 2002). The present study examined whether these same results would be replicated in Japan. In Study 1, college students (N=47) completed a shyness Implicit Association Test (IAT for shyness) and explicit self-ratings of shyness. In Study 2, friends (N=69) of the Study 1 participants rated those participants on various personality scales. Covariance structure analysis, revealed that only implicit self-concept measured by the shyness IAT predicted other-rated high interpersonal tension (spontaneous shy behavior). Also, only explicit self-concept predicted other-rated low praise seeking (controlled shy behavior). The results of this study are similar to the findings of the previous research.

  1. Performance Improvement of a Measurement Station for Superconducting Cable Test

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, P; Montenero, G; Le Naour, S


    A fully digital system, improving measurements flexibility, integrator drift, and current control of superconducting transformers for cable test, is proposed. The system is based on a high-performance integration of Rogowski coil signal and a flexible direct control of the current into the secondary windings. This allows state-of-the-art performance to be overcome by means of out-of-the-shelf components: on a full-scale of 32 kA, current measurement resolution of 1 A, stability below 0.25 Amin-1, and controller ripple less than 50 ppm. The system effectiveness has been demonstrated experimentally on the superconducting transformer of the Facility for the Research of Superconducting Cables at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN).


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Retrievals under current criteria require that approximately 2,000,000 gallons of double-shell tank (DST) waste storage space not be used to prevent creating new tanks that might be susceptible to buoyant displacement gas release events (BDGRE). New criteria are being evaluated, based on actual sludge properties, to potentially show that sludge wastes do not exhibit the same BDGRE risk. Implementation of the new criteria requires measurement of in situ waste shear strength. Cone penetrometers were judged the best equipment for measuring in situ shear strength and an A.P. van den berg Hyson 100 kN Light Weight Cone Penetrometer (CPT) was selected for evaluation. The CPT was procured and then evaluated at the Hanford Site Cold Test Facility. Evaluation demonstrated that the equipment with minor modification was suitable for use in Tank Farms.

  3. Large scale intender test program to measure sub gouge displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Been, Ken; Lopez, Juan [Golder Associates Inc, Houston, TX (United States); Sancio, Rodolfo [MMI Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States)


    The production of submarine pipelines in an offshore environment covered with ice is very challenging. Several precautions must be taken such as burying the pipelines to protect them from ice movement caused by gouging. The estimation of the subgouge displacements is a key factor in pipeline design for ice gouged environments. This paper investigated a method to measure subgouge displacements. An experimental program was implemented in an open field to produce large scale idealized gouges on engineered soil beds (sand and clay). The horizontal force required to produce the gouge, the subgouge displacements in the soil and the strain imposed by these displacements were monitored on a buried model pipeline. The results showed that for a given keel, the gouge depth was inversely proportional to undrained shear strength in clay. The subgouge displacements measured did not show a relationship with the gouge depth, width or soil density in sand and clay tests.

  4. Computer-adaptive test to measure community reintegration of Veterans. (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Tian, Feng; Ni, Pengsheng; Jette, Alan


    The Community Reintegration of Injured Service Members (CRIS) measure consists of three scales measuring extent of, perceived limitations in, and satisfaction with community reintegration. Length of the CRIS may be a barrier to its widespread use. Using item response theory (IRT) and computer-adaptive test (CAT) methodologies, this study developed and evaluated a briefer community reintegration measure called the CRIS-CAT. Large item banks for each CRIS scale were constructed. A convenience sample of 517 Veterans responded to all items. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were used to identify the dimensionality within each domain, and IRT methods were used to calibrate items. Accuracy and precision of CATs of different lengths were compared with the full-item bank, and data were examined for differential item functioning (DIF). CFAs supported unidimensionality of scales. Acceptable item fit statistics were found for final models. Accuracy of 10-, 15-, 20-, and variable-item CATs for all three scales was 0.88 or above. CAT precision increased with number of items administered and decreased at the upper ranges of each scale. Three items exhibited moderate DIF by sex. The CRIS-CAT demonstrated promising measurement properties and is recommended for use in community reintegration assessment.

  5. Measuring worst-case errors in a robot workcell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, R.W.; Brost, R.C.; Kholwadwala, D.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center


    Errors in model parameters, sensing, and control are inevitably present in real robot systems. These errors must be considered in order to automatically plan robust solutions to many manipulation tasks. Lozano-Perez, Mason, and Taylor proposed a formal method for synthesizing robust actions in the presence of uncertainty; this method has been extended by several subsequent researchers. All of these results presume the existence of worst-case error bounds that describe the maximum possible deviation between the robot`s model of the world and reality. This paper examines the problem of measuring these error bounds for a real robot workcell. These measurements are difficult, because of the desire to completely contain all possible deviations while avoiding bounds that are overly conservative. The authors present a detailed description of a series of experiments that characterize and quantify the possible errors in visual sensing and motion control for a robot workcell equipped with standard industrial robot hardware. In addition to providing a means for measuring these specific errors, these experiments shed light on the general problem of measuring worst-case errors.

  6. Mounted Smartphones as Measurement and Control Platforms for Motor-Based Laboratory Test-Beds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared A. Frank


    Full Text Available Laboratory education in science and engineering often entails the use of test-beds equipped with costly peripherals for sensing, acquisition, storage, processing, and control of physical behavior. However, costly peripherals are no longer necessary to obtain precise measurements and achieve stable feedback control of test-beds. With smartphones performing diverse sensing and processing tasks, this study examines the feasibility of mounting smartphones directly to test-beds to exploit their embedded hardware and software in the measurement and control of the test-beds. This approach is a first step towards replacing laboratory-grade peripherals with more compact and affordable smartphone-based platforms, whose interactive user interfaces can engender wider participation and engagement from learners. Demonstrative cases are presented in which the sensing, computation, control, and user interaction with three motor-based test-beds are handled by a mounted smartphone. Results of experiments and simulations are used to validate the feasibility of mounted smartphones as measurement and feedback control platforms for motor-based laboratory test-beds, report the measurement precision and closed-loop performance achieved with such platforms, and address challenges in the development of platforms to maintain system stability.

  7. Mounted Smartphones as Measurement and Control Platforms for Motor-Based Laboratory Test-Beds † (United States)

    Frank, Jared A.; Brill, Anthony; Kapila, Vikram


    Laboratory education in science and engineering often entails the use of test-beds equipped with costly peripherals for sensing, acquisition, storage, processing, and control of physical behavior. However, costly peripherals are no longer necessary to obtain precise measurements and achieve stable feedback control of test-beds. With smartphones performing diverse sensing and processing tasks, this study examines the feasibility of mounting smartphones directly to test-beds to exploit their embedded hardware and software in the measurement and control of the test-beds. This approach is a first step towards replacing laboratory-grade peripherals with more compact and affordable smartphone-based platforms, whose interactive user interfaces can engender wider participation and engagement from learners. Demonstrative cases are presented in which the sensing, computation, control, and user interaction with three motor-based test-beds are handled by a mounted smartphone. Results of experiments and simulations are used to validate the feasibility of mounted smartphones as measurement and feedback control platforms for motor-based laboratory test-beds, report the measurement precision and closed-loop performance achieved with such platforms, and address challenges in the development of platforms to maintain system stability. PMID:27556464

  8. Testing MODFLOW-LGR for simulating flow around buried Quaternary valleys - synthetic test cases (United States)

    Vilhelmsen, T. N.; Christensen, S.


    In this study the Local Grid Refinement (LGR) method developed for MODFLOW-2005 (Mehl and Hill, 2005) is utilized to describe groundwater flow in areas containing buried Quaternary valley structures. The tests are conducted as comparative analysis between simulations run with a globally refined model, a locally refined model, and a globally coarse model, respectively. The models vary from simple one layer models to more complex ones with up to 25 model layers. The comparisons of accuracy are conducted within the locally refined area and focus on water budgets, simulated heads, and simulated particle traces. Simulations made with the globally refined model are used as reference (regarded as “true” values). As expected, for all test cases the application of local grid refinement resulted in more accurate results than when using the globally coarse model. A significant advantage of utilizing MODFLOW-LGR was that it allows increased numbers of model layers to better resolve complex geology within local areas. This resulted in more accurate simulations than when using either a globally coarse model grid or a locally refined model with lower geological resolution. Improved accuracy in the latter case could not be expected beforehand because difference in geological resolution between the coarse parent model and the refined child model contradicts the assumptions of the Darcy weighted interpolation used in MODFLOW-LGR. With respect to model runtimes, it was sometimes found that the runtime for the locally refined model is much longer than for the globally refined model. This was the case even when the closure criteria were relaxed compared to the globally refined model. These results are contradictory to those presented by Mehl and Hill (2005). Furthermore, in the complex cases it took some testing (model runs) to identify the closure criteria and the damping factor that secured convergence, accurate solutions, and reasonable runtimes. For our cases this is judged to

  9. Potential Worst-case System for Testing EMI Filters Tested on Simple Filter Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Raida


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the approximate worst-case test method for testing the insertion loss of the EMI filters. The systems with 0.1 Ω and 100 Ω impedances are usually used for this testing. These systems are required by the international CISPR 17 standard. The main disadvantage of this system is the use of two impedance transformers. Especially the impedance transformer with 0.1 Ω output impedance is not easy to be produced. These transformers have usually narrow bandwidth. This paper discusses the alternative system with 1 Ω and 100 Ω impedances. The performance of these systems was tested on several filters’ models and the obtained data are depicted, too. The performance comparison of several filters in several systems is also included. The performance of alternate worst-case system is discussed in the conclusion.

  10. Contact sponge water absorption test implemented for in situ measures (United States)

    Gaggero, Laura; Scrivano, Simona


    The contact sponge method is a non-destructive in-situ methodology used to estimate a water uptake coefficient. The procedure, unlike other in-situ measurement was proven to be directly comparable to the water uptake laboratory measurements, and was registered as UNI 11432:2011. The UNI Normal procedure requires to use a sponge with known density, soaked in water, weighed, placed on the material for 1 minute (UNI 11432, 2011; Pardini & Tiano, 2004), then weighed again. Difficulties arise in operating on test samples or on materials with porosity varied for decay. While carrying on the test, fluctuations in the bearing of the environmental parameters were negligible, but not the pressure applied to the surface, that induced the release of different water amounts towards the material. For this reason we designed a metal piece of the same diameter of the plate carrying the sponge, to be screwed at the tip of a pocket penetrometer. With this instrument the sponge was kept in contact with the surface for 1 minute applying two different loads, at first pushed with 0.3 kg/cm2 in order to press the sponge, but not its holder, against the surface. Then, a load of 1.1 kg/ cm2 was applied, still avoiding deviating the load to the sponge holder. We applied both the current and our implemented method to determine the water absorption by contact sponge on 5 fresh rock types (4 limestones: Fine - and Coarse grained Pietra di Vicenza, Rosso Verona, Breccia Aurora, and the silicoclastic Macigno sandstone). The results show that 1) the current methodology imply manual skill and experience to produce a coherent set of data; the variable involved are in fact not only the imposed pressure but also the compression mechanics. 2) The control on the applied pressure allowed reproducible measurements. Moreover, 3) the use of a thicker sponge enabled to apply the method even on rougher surfaces, as the device holding the sponge is not in contact with the tested object. Finally, 4) the

  11. Testing for measurement equivalence of individuals’ left-right orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebke Weber


    Full Text Available Subjective variables such as opinions, attitudes or preferences cannot be measured directly. Researchers have to rely on the answers people give in surveys, and whenever those answers shall be compared it is required that people answer these questions in the same way. Only then a concept can be used in different contexts. This paper deals with the measurement of the left-right concept: it analyses whether people make a distinction between a scale labelled 0 left and 10 right to one which is labelled 0 extreme left and 10 extreme right and tests whether the instrument is equivalent across groups. Following the three steps of invariance testing, configural, metric and scalar invariance, we find that the left-right response scale is on average equivalent across groups with different levels of political interest and different levels of education. This finding holds also in 23 of the 25 European countries tested, with the exception of the eastern part of Germany, Finland and France. In order to estimate how serious the difference between these two groups of countries is, we compare the observed means (which are affected by the difference to the latent means (which are free of those effects, and the effect of the observed variable “attitude towards government’s intervention in the economy” on the observed variable “left-right self-placement” with the effect between these variables after correcting for scale difference. It was found that countries’ means can be compared but that the relationship with other variables might not be comparable among East Germany, Finland, France and the remaining countries.

  12. Optical Testing Using Portable Laser Coordinate Measuring Instruments (United States)

    Khreishi, M.; Ohl, R.; Mclean, K.; Hadjimichael, T.; Hayden, J.


    High precision, portable coordinate measuring instruments (CMI) such as laser radars (LR) and laser trackers (LT) have been used for optical system alignment and integration. The LRs ability to perform a non-contact scan of surfaces was previously utilized to characterize large spherical and aspheric mirrors. In this paper, we explore the use of a CMI as an accurate, fast, robust, and non-contact tool for prescription characterization of powered optical surfaces. Using Nikons MV-224350 LR and Leicas Absolute Tracker AT401402 instruments, proof of concept measurements were performed to characterize a variety of optical components by measuring the actual and apparent, or equivalently the direct and through (DT), coordinates of calibrated metrology targets. Custom macros in metrology software and other data reduction code were developed to compute surface-ray intercepts and surface slopes from the DT shots. The calculated data is fit to an aspheric surface formula to obtain the optimum prescription. The results were compared to the nominal parameters and were crosschecked using LR scans or other approaches. We discuss potential applications across the fields of optical component fabrication and system alignment and testing.

  13. Test case set generation method on MC/DC based on binary tree (United States)

    Wang, Jun-jie; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Yuan


    Exploring efficient, reliable test case design methods has been tester pursuit of the goal. Along with the aerospace software logic complexity of improving and software scale enlarging, this requirement also gets more compelling. Test case design techniques suited for MC/DC improved test case design efficiency, increase the test coverage. It is suitable to test the software that logical relationship is complicated comparatively. Some software test tools provide the function to calculate the test coverage. And it can assess the test cases whether on the MC/DC or not. But the software tester needs the reverse thinking. The paper puts forward that design the test case by Unique-cause and Masking approach. And it proposes automatic generation method of test case on MC/DC. It improved the efficiency and correctness of generation the test case set on DC/DC.

  14. [Measurement of scotopic pupils comparing green light test and wave-front analyser WASCA]. (United States)

    Schulze, S; Sekundo, W


    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy and the reproducibility of scotopic pupil measurements using 2 different methods. Scotopic pupil diameter was measured in 56 eyes of 28 volunteers and the results were compared between the green light test at the slit lamp (Haag-Streit, Switzerland) and the automatic measurements of the wave-front analyser WASCA (Carl-Zeiss-Meditec) by 2 independent examiners. Non-parametric sign test as well as All Pairwise Multiple Comparison Procedures (Student-Newman-Keuls method) were performed for the comparison of means for each individual eye as well as the results of both eyes tested by both examiners. Mean age of the subjects was 34.9 years. The colour of iris was green or blue in 22 cases and brown in 6 cases. REPRODUCIBILITY: For the green light test we found for the first investigator in the right eye a mean pupil diameter of 6.58 mm (SD 0.68). The measurement of the second investigator for the same eye was 6.64 mm (SD 0.61). The left eye values were as follows: 6.36 mm (SD 0.68) and 6.75 mm (SD 0.68). For WASCA we found for the first investigator in the right eye 6.33 mm (SD 0.64) vs. 6.30 mm (SD 0.64) for the second investigator, in the left eye 6.39 mm (SD 0.69) vs. 6.36 mm (SD 0.60). There was a statistically significant difference between the two investigators when the green light test was used (6.47 mm vs. 6.69 mm for both eyes). No difference was found using the WASCA integrated pupillometer (6.35 mm vs. 6.33 mm). There was a significant difference between the means of combined data for both measurement methods: 6.58 mm for the green light test (SD 0.57) vs. 6.34 mm for WASCA (SD 0.62). The integrated pupillometry of the WASCA analyser showed better reproducibility of measurements than the green light test. The green light test measures a slightly larger diameter (in the mean by 0.25 mm) than WASCA. Because of the fair and clinically sufficient reproducibility as well as virtually non-existing additional costs

  15. Paternity testing in case of brother-sister incest. (United States)

    Macan, Marijana; Uvodić, Petra; Botica, Vladimir


    We performed a paternity test in a case of incest between brother and sister. DNA from blood samples of the alleged parents and their two children was obtained with Chelex DNA extraction method and quantified with Applied Biosystems QuantiBlot quantitation kit. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of DNA samples was performed with AmpFlSTR SGM Plus PCR amplification kit and GenePrint PowerPlex PCR amplification kit. The amplified products were separated and detected by using the Perkin Elmer's ABI PRISM trade mark 310 Genetic Analyser. DNA and data analysis of 17 loci and Amelogenin confirmed the suspicion of brother-sister incest. Since both children had inherited all of the obligate alleles from the alleged father, we could confirm with certainty of 99.999999% that the oldest brother in the family was the biological father of both children. Calculated data showed that even in a case of brother-sister incest, paternity could be proved by the analysis of Amelogenin and 17 DNA loci.

  16. Advanced material distribution measurement in multiphase flows: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, D.L.; Ceccio, S.L. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); O`Hern, T.J.; Shollenberger, K.A.; Torczynski, J.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center


    A variety of tomographic techniques that have been applied to multiphase flows are described. The methods discussed include electrical impedance tomography (EIT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT), radiative particle tracking (RDT), X-ray imaging, and acoustic tomography. Also presented is a case study in which measurements were made with EIT and GDT in two-phase flows. Both solid-liquid and gas-liquid flows were examined. EIT and GDT were applied independently to predict mean and spatially resolved phase volume fractions. The results from the two systems compared well.

  17. Using both cases and controls for testing hardy-weinberg proportions in a genetic association study. (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Shete, Sanjay


    Assessment of the Hardy-Weinberg proportion (HWP) in controls has been widely used as a quality control measure in case-control association studies. However, when the disease being studied is common, controls might not represent the general population, which could result in inaccurate HWP test results. Such results could lead investigators to discard important single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that could potentially be causal. In this paper, we showed the inappropriateness of the HWP test in controls and proposed a mixture HWP (mHWP) exact test using a mixture sample that mimics the general population. The mHWP exact test estimates HWP in a mixture sample that is a combination of both cases and controls proportional to the prevalence of disease. We implemented a re-sampling procedure to construct mixture samples and then obtained the empirical p value of HWP in the general population. Simulation studies were performed to investigate the performance of the proposed mHWP exact test. The method was also applied to a genetic association study of obesity. The results showed that the mHWP exact test is more likely than either the traditional HWP method in controls or the likelihood-based approach to keep causal SNPs for further analysis when the disease is more common. The mHWP exact test using a mixture sample is a better HWP test for case-control genetic association studies than the traditional HWP in controls or the likelihood-based approach, and it will improve our ability to keep causal SNPs in the case-control genetic association studies. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Time-Optimal Real-Time Test Case Generation using UPPAAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Anders; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Nielsen, Brian


    Testing is the primary software validation technique used by industry today, but remains ad hoc, error prone, and very expensive. A promising improvement is to automatically generate test cases from formal models of the system under test. We demonstrate how to automatically generate real......-time conformance test cases from timed automata specifications. Specifically we demonstrate how to fficiently generate real-time test cases with optimal execution time i.e test cases that are the fastest possible to execute. Our technique allows time optimal test cases to be generated using manually formulated...

  19. Measuring consumer outcomes: Development and testing of the Australian Community Care Outcomes Measure. (United States)

    Cardona, Beatriz; Fine, Michael; Stebbing, Adam; Duncan, Cathy; Samsa, Peter; Eagar, Kathy


    In the increasingly competitive environment of aged care in Australasia, how can providers and consumers be sure that the care support delivered is efficient and makes a positive difference? Monitoring outcomes has long been emphasised for ensuring quality service delivery, yet there is currently no consistently applied approach available. This paper considers the importance of measuring outcomes in community care and reports on the development and field trial of the Australian Community Care Outcomes Measure (ACCOM). The ACCOM combines data already collected by services on the capabilities and care needs of individual consumers and their demographic characteristics with a short questionnaire on quality of life based on the Adult Social Care Outcomes Toolkit (ASCOT). It is completed by consumers and staff. In the first round of a field test of the ACCOM (2016), baseline data were successfully collected for over 200 individual aged care clients, each receiving consumer-directed care (CDC) packages at home. Results show the measure to be practical and easy to use. A second round to measure change and enable the calculation of outcomes for each consumer was successfully completed 6 months later. Field testing of the ACCOM shows promising results. More extensive trials of the measure are planned across Australia. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  20. Testing and Estimating Shape-Constrained Nonparametric Density and Regression in the Presence of Measurement Error

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond J.


    In many applications we can expect that, or are interested to know if, a density function or a regression curve satisfies some specific shape constraints. For example, when the explanatory variable, X, represents the value taken by a treatment or dosage, the conditional mean of the response, Y , is often anticipated to be a monotone function of X. Indeed, if this regression mean is not monotone (in the appropriate direction) then the medical or commercial value of the treatment is likely to be significantly curtailed, at least for values of X that lie beyond the point at which monotonicity fails. In the case of a density, common shape constraints include log-concavity and unimodality. If we can correctly guess the shape of a curve, then nonparametric estimators can be improved by taking this information into account. Addressing such problems requires a method for testing the hypothesis that the curve of interest satisfies a shape constraint, and, if the conclusion of the test is positive, a technique for estimating the curve subject to the constraint. Nonparametric methodology for solving these problems already exists, but only in cases where the covariates are observed precisely. However in many problems, data can only be observed with measurement errors, and the methods employed in the error-free case typically do not carry over to this error context. In this paper we develop a novel approach to hypothesis testing and function estimation under shape constraints, which is valid in the context of measurement errors. Our method is based on tilting an estimator of the density or the regression mean until it satisfies the shape constraint, and we take as our test statistic the distance through which it is tilted. Bootstrap methods are used to calibrate the test. The constrained curve estimators that we develop are also based on tilting, and in that context our work has points of contact with methodology in the error-free case.

  1. [A clinical case of occupational allergy to piperacilline. A novel diagnostic method: basophil activation test (BAT)]. (United States)

    Marraccini, P; Digiesi, G; Pignatti, Patrizia; Bordini, L; Previdi, M


    Piperacillin, unlike other antibiotics, rarely causes immediate allergic reactions. Only two cases related to occupational exposure are reported in the literature. Adoption of new methods for diagnosis of occupational allergy to drugs. An atopic nurse, aged 30 years, was referred to our hospital for an allergic work-related reaction to piperacillin. The patient had suffered two successive episodes with immediate cutaneous reaction, angioedema and dyspnoea after preparing piperacillin. Almost four years previously she had suffered from similar symptoms after taking amoxicillin. She was submitted to a clinical examination and a routine allergic test, performing also specific IgE (Phadia Pharmacia ImmunoCap) and BAT (Basophil Activation Test) for Beta-lactam antibiotics. A positive response to piperacillin was observed in our case using BAT a new non-invasive and safe method, that proved useful for diagnosis of allergy. Moreover, we observed a change from an allergic reaction for therapeutic use of amoxicillin to a work-related adverse reaction to another beta-lactam, piperacillin. In previous clinical cases cutaneous and specific challenge tests were performed for diagnosis. At present, availability of an in vitro test, such as BAT may provide new diagnostic opportunities, and a useful tool for studying clinical cases other than, in perspective, monitoring exposed workers. Preventive measures were taken in the workplace to lower the risk of sensitization and allergic response. The nurse was transferred to a well controlled job.

  2. Fabrication and Testing of Viscosity Measuring Instrument (Viscometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. HASSAN


    Full Text Available This paper presents the fabrication and testing of a simple and portable viscometer for the measurement of bulk viscosity of different Newtonian fluids. It is aimed at making available the instrument in local markets and consequently reducing or eliminating the prohibitive cost of importation. The method employed is the use of a D.C motor to rotate a disc having holes for infra-red light to pass through and fall on a photo-diode thus undergoing amplification and this signal being translated on a moving-coil meter as a deflection. The motor speed is kept constant but varies with changes in viscosity of the fluid during stirring, which alter signals being read on the meter. The faster is revolution per minute of the disc, the less the deflection on the meter and vise-versa. From the results of tests conducted on various sample fluids using data on standard Newtonian fluids as reliable guide the efficiency of the viscometer was 76.5%.

  3. Reactivity to alcohol assessment measures: an experimental test. (United States)

    Walters, Scott T; Vader, Amanda M; Harris, T Robert; Jouriles, Ernest N


    Previous research has suggested that alcohol screening and assessment may affect drinking. This study was a randomized test of reactivity to alcohol assessment questionnaires among a group of heavy drinking college students. A total of 147 university students completed a screening questionnaire and were randomized to either immediate assessment or delayed assessment. The immediate assessment group completed a set of drinking questionnaires at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months, while the delayed assessment group completed questionnaires only at 12 months. Primary outcomes included overall volume of drinking, risky drinking and use of risk reduction behaviors. We found a significant effect of assessment on measures of risky drinking and risk reduction behaviors, but not on overall volume of drinking. Specifically, at 12 months, participants who had previously completed drinking assessments had a lower peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) (d = -0.373), were more likely to report a low score on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT; odds ratio = 2.55) and tended to use more strategies to moderate their alcohol consumption (d = 0.352). Risk reduction behaviors that were affected tended to be those that limited alcohol consumption, rather than those that minimized consequences. These results may have implications for the development of brief interventions.

  4. Design and Reliability of a Novel Heel Rise Test Measuring Device for Plantarflexion Endurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy D. Sman


    Full Text Available Background. Plantarflexion results from the combined action of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in the calf. The heel rise test is commonly used to test calf muscle endurance, function, and performance by a wide variety of professionals; however, no uniform description of the test is available. This paper aims to document the construction and reliability of a novel heel rise test device and measurement protocol that is suitable for the needs of most individuals. Methods. This device was constructed from compact and lightweight materials and is fully adjustable, enabling the testing of a wide variety of individuals. It is easy to assemble and disassemble, ensuring that it is portable for use in different settings. Findings. We tested reliability on 40 participants, finding excellent interrater reliability (ICC2,1 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94 to 0.98. Limits of agreement were less than two repetitions in 90% of cases and the Bland-Altman plot showed no bias. Interpretation. We have designed a novel, standardized, simple, and reliable device and measurement protocol for the heel rise test which can be used by researchers and clinicians in a variety of settings.

  5. Design and reliability of a novel heel rise test measuring device for plantarflexion endurance. (United States)

    Sman, Amy D; Hiller, Claire E; Imer, Adam; Ocsing, Aldrin; Burns, Joshua; Refshauge, Kathryn M


    Plantarflexion results from the combined action of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in the calf. The heel rise test is commonly used to test calf muscle endurance, function, and performance by a wide variety of professionals; however, no uniform description of the test is available. This paper aims to document the construction and reliability of a novel heel rise test device and measurement protocol that is suitable for the needs of most individuals. This device was constructed from compact and lightweight materials and is fully adjustable, enabling the testing of a wide variety of individuals. It is easy to assemble and disassemble, ensuring that it is portable for use in different settings. We tested reliability on 40 participants, finding excellent interrater reliability (ICC2,1 0.97, 95% CI: 0.94 to 0.98). Limits of agreement were less than two repetitions in 90% of cases and the Bland-Altman plot showed no bias. We have designed a novel, standardized, simple, and reliable device and measurement protocol for the heel rise test which can be used by researchers and clinicians in a variety of settings.

  6. Re-measurement of $^{32}$Ar to test the IMME

    CERN Multimedia

    The Isobaric Multiplet Mass Equation (IMME) has been subject to extensive studies in the low-mass region. Especially at the A = 32 quintet, the predicted quadratic form could not be confirmed, possible explanations being the insufficient accuracy of input parameters or higher-order interactions within the nucleon. For this quintet, the uncertainty on the mass-excess values of four of the five T = 2 multiplet members is extremely low: 0.6 keV for $^{32}$Cl, 0.3 keV for $^{32}$S, 0.2 keV for $^{32}$P, and 0.7 keV for $^{32}$Si. In the case of $^{32}$Ar, however, the uncertainty is as large as 1.8 keV. State-of-the-art high-precision Penning-trap mass spectrometry makes it possible to decrease this uncertainty. We propose to remeasure the mass of $^{32}$Ar at the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP thus decreasing the uncertainty by a factor of 3-5. The proposed measurement is part of an experimental collaboration with JYFLTRAP, where the remaining masses of the T = 2 isospin quintet at A = 32 will be remeas...

  7. A characterization of performance measures for measuring postponement strategies: case studies in food companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Araújo Ferreira


    Full Text Available The postponement strategy is more and more used by companies with the increasing complexity and variety of products, currently required by the market. In essence, the postponement is used to delay as much as possible the final configuration and/or movement of products and services, until the demand known. Despite the increasing attention to the subject, little is known about is implementation, especially in the Brazilian food industry. This research aims to investigate how the postponement strategy is applied to food companies and what performance measures that can be used to evaluate the results of this application. To meet these goals were developed six exploratory case studies in orange juice and fruits processing companies. The results allow comparing the performance measures found in the literature with those obtained in empirical research and systematize them in order to obtain a list of performance measures for measuring postponement strategies.

  8. An Improved Measure of Reading Skill: The Cognitive Structure Test

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sorrells, Robert


    This study compared the construct validity and the predictive validity of a new test, called the Cognitive Structure Test, to multiple-choice tests of reading skill, namely the Armed Forces Vocational...

  9. Description, calibration, and preliminary testing of the coal liquefaction heat transfer coefficient measurement test unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulcahey, T.P.; Lo, R.N.K.; Bump, T.R.; Mulcahey, M.E.; Fischer, J.; Cannon, T.F.; Brock, R.E.; Wilson, W.I.; Bowyer, D.


    The efficiency of energy utilization within coal-liquefaction process is of major significance to the commercialization of the process. Heat exchange equipment is also one of the major economic investments in new plants. Consequently, reliable heat transfer data are required for the economical design of heat exchange equipment. Since accurate heat transfer coefficients of coal slurries, especially with a gas phase present, cannot be accurately calculated from known physical data for the operational conditions found in the coal-liquefaction process, experimentally determined heat transfer coefficients under actual process conditions are needed. A liquefaction heat-transfer-coefficient measurement test unit for a nominal one-half-ton-per-day coal slurry was constructed, calibrated, and operated at ANL. This test unit was built to determine heat transfer coefficients needed for design of feed-heat and effluent-heat exchangers used in coal-liquefaction processes. The heat-transfer test module was substituted for the preheater and reactor used in the normal coal-liquefaction process. The heat transfer coefficient can be evaluated for the heat transfer between the three-phase feed and effluent fluids in turbulent flow and a heated or cooled stainless steel surface. A description is presented of the unit and its capabilities, calibration procedures and results, and preliminary operation and data analysis. Recommendations are made that should improve accuracy and ease of operation and data analysis of the test unit.

  10. Standard practices for verification of displacement measuring systems and devices used in material testing machines

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 These practices cover procedures and requirements for the calibration and verification of displacement measuring systems by means of standard calibration devices for static and quasi-static testing machines. This practice is not intended to be complete purchase specifications for testing machines or displacement measuring systems. Displacement measuring systems are not intended to be used for the determination of strain. See Practice E83. 1.2 These procedures apply to the verification of the displacement measuring systems associated with the testing machine, such as a scale, dial, marked or unmarked recorder chart, digital display, etc. In all cases the buyer/owner/user must designate the displacement-measuring system(s) to be verified. 1.3 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems m...

  11. Resource estimation from historical data: Mercury, a test case (United States)

    Cargill, S.M.; Root, D.H.; Bailey, E.H.


    A simple technique based on historical records of tonnage and grade of ore produced provides a means for calculating how much of a mineral product will be available in the future at various average grades. Estimates made on this basis are independent of geologic considerations or changing economic and political factors, although they are based on mining history, which was largely determined by these factors. The relatively minor element, mercury, was used for the test case reported here, but the method has been found applicable to forecasts of resources for other mineral products. Mercury resources available in ore in which the average grade is as low as 0.1% are estimated to be 53 ??106kg (1.5 ??106flasks) for the United States and 1551 ??106kg (45 ??106flasks) for the world; this amount is more than adequate to meet predicted demand to the year 2000. The expectable price of mercury in 1978 dollars at this 0.1% grade is projected to be $58.75 per kg ($2,025 per flask), but at a 10% annual inflation rate, it would be more than $12,000 per flask. To satisfy just the projected U.S. demand for mercury by 2000, the price is calculated to be $48.96 per kg ($1,688 per flask) in 1978 dollars at an average annual grade of 0.12%. ?? 1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  12. Case Studies for the Statistical Design of Experiments Applied to Powered Rotor Wind Tunnel Tests (United States)

    Overmeyer, Austin D.; Tanner, Philip E.; Martin, Preston B.; Commo, Sean A.


    The application of statistical Design of Experiments (DOE) to helicopter wind tunnel testing was explored during two powered rotor wind tunnel entries during the summers of 2012 and 2013. These tests were performed jointly by the U.S. Army Aviation Development Directorate Joint Research Program Office and NASA Rotary Wing Project Office, currently the Revolutionary Vertical Lift Project, at NASA Langley Research Center located in Hampton, Virginia. Both entries were conducted in the 14- by 22-Foot Subsonic Tunnel with a small portion of the overall tests devoted to developing case studies of the DOE approach as it applies to powered rotor testing. A 16-47 times reduction in the number of data points required was estimated by comparing the DOE approach to conventional testing methods. The average error for the DOE surface response model for the OH-58F test was 0.95 percent and 4.06 percent for drag and download, respectively. The DOE surface response model of the Active Flow Control test captured the drag within 4.1 percent of measured data. The operational differences between the two testing approaches are identified, but did not prevent the safe operation of the powered rotor model throughout the DOE test matrices.

  13. Model-Invariant Hybrid Computations of Separated Flows for RCA Standard Test Cases (United States)

    Woodruff, Stephen


    NASA's Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences (RCA) subproject has identified several smooth-body separated flows as standard test cases to emphasize the challenge these flows present for computational methods and their importance to the aerospace community. Results of computations of two of these test cases, the NASA hump and the FAITH experiment, are presented. The computations were performed with the model-invariant hybrid LES-RANS formulation, implemented in the NASA code VULCAN-CFD. The model- invariant formulation employs gradual LES-RANS transitions and compensation for model variation to provide more accurate and efficient hybrid computations. Comparisons revealed that the LES-RANS transitions employed in these computations were sufficiently gradual that the compensating terms were unnecessary. Agreement with experiment was achieved only after reducing the turbulent viscosity to mitigate the effect of numerical dissipation. The stream-wise evolution of peak Reynolds shear stress was employed as a measure of turbulence dynamics in separated flows useful for evaluating computations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Drubetskyi


    Full Text Available Purpose. In the paper it is necessary: 1 to familiarize the reader with the modern classification of measurement and diagnostics, familiarize with problems of automating the measurement of basic parameters during program execution of qualification tests of traction motors; 2 to make recommendations to improve the measurement ac-curacy, reduce labor intensity of work for carrying out measurements, and reduce the requirements for the qualification of the staff; 3 to provide practical implementation of measurement system, built on the basis of the practical recommendations contained in the article. Methodology. The work presents the classification of measurement and diagnostic tools. The author considered a list of equipment that can be used in measurement systems, as well as third-party options for measuring complex and measuring complex using stand management system. Their functional schemes were proposed. The author compared the advantages and disadvantages of these schemes to make recommendations on areas of their optimal use. Findings. Having analyzed the functional scheme of measuring systems, it was found that the use of the control system microcontroller as a measuring complex is expedient if the measurements have largely a test process control function. The use of a third-party measuring complex is more appropriate in cases when it is required: to eliminate dependence on the stand management system, to provide high mobility and reduce the requirements for the qualification of the staff. Originality. The work presents a brief over-view of the measurement means. The author developed the functional schemes of measuring systems using stand management system and third-party measuring complex, proposed the criteria for evaluating their optimal use. Practical value. Based on the proposed functional diagram, the measuring system on National Instruments hard-ware and software basis was set up. The sensors by LEM Company were used as primary

  15. Can atom-surface potential measurements test atomic structure models? (United States)

    Lonij, Vincent P A; Klauss, Catherine E; Holmgren, William F; Cronin, Alexander D


    van der Waals (vdW) atom-surface potentials can be excellent benchmarks for atomic structure calculations. This is especially true if measurements are made with two different types of atoms interacting with the same surface sample. Here we show theoretically how ratios of vdW potential strengths (e.g., C₃(K)/C₃(Na)) depend sensitively on the properties of each atom, yet these ratios are relatively insensitive to properties of the surface. We discuss how C₃ ratios depend on atomic core electrons by using a two-oscillator model to represent the contribution from atomic valence electrons and core electrons separately. We explain why certain pairs of atoms are preferable to study for future experimental tests of atomic structure calculations. A well chosen pair of atoms (e.g., K and Na) will have a C₃ ratio that is insensitive to the permittivity of the surface, whereas a poorly chosen pair (e.g., K and He) will have a ratio of C₃ values that depends more strongly on the permittivity of the surface.

  16. Role and Significance of Uncertainty in HV Measurement of Porcelain Insulators - a Case Study (United States)

    Choudhary, Rahul Raj; Bhardwaj, Pooja; Dayama, Ravindra

    The improved safety margins in complex systems have attained prime importance in the modern scientific environment. The analysis and implementation of complex systems demands the well quantified accuracy and capability of measurements. Careful measurement with properly identified and quantified uncertainties could lead to the actual discovery which further may contribute for social developments. Unfortunately most scientists and students are passively taught to ignore the possibility of definition problems in the field of measurement and are often source of great arguments. Identifying this issue, ISO has initiated the standardisation of methodologies but its Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) has yet to be adapted seriously in tertiary education institutions for understanding the concept of uncertainty. The paper has been focused for understanding the concepts of measurement and uncertainty. Further a case study for calculation and quantification of UOM for high voltage electrical testing of ceramic insulators has been explained.

  17. Test retest reliability and minimal detectable change of a novel submaximal graded exercise test in the measurement of graded exercise test duration. (United States)

    Taylor, James D; Bandy, William D; Whittemore, Joe D


    Measurement of graded exercise test duration is clinically important and can be assessed by maximal graded exercise testing. Yet, limitations of maximal graded exercise testing exist. An alternative to maximal graded exercise testing is submaximal graded exercise testing. However, no studies have investigated the reliability of a submaximal graded exercise test in the measurement of graded exercise test duration. The purpose of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) of a novel submaximal graded exercise test in the measurement of graded exercise test duration. Fifteen people (4 men, 11 women) with a mean age of 26.20 years (SD = 9.04) participated in this study. A novel submaximal graded exercise test was used to measure graded exercise test duration for each participant. Endpoints of the test were either 85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate or voluntarily stopping the test, whichever endpoint occurred first. Heart rate and graded exercise test duration were constantly measured throughout the test. Graded exercise test duration was defined as the total duration (minutes) of the test. For all participants, the submaximal graded exercise test was conducted at baseline and 48-72 hours thereafter. The intraclass correlation coefficient for the test-retest reliability of the test in determining graded exercise test duration was 0.94 (95% CI = 0.83-0.98). The MDC of the test in the measurement of graded exercise test duration was 0.86 minutes. The results suggest that clinicians can use this novel submaximal graded exercise test to reliably measure graded exercise test duration with a measurement error, as expressed by the MDC, of 0.86 minutes.

  18. Perform Thermodynamics Measurements on Fuel Cycle Case Study Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Leigh R. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    This document was prepared to meet FCR&D level 3 milestone M3FT-14IN0304022, “Perform Thermodynamics Measurements on Fuel Cycle Case Study Systems.” This work was carried out under the auspices of the Thermodynamics and Kinetics FCR&D work package. This document reports preliminary work in support of determining the thermodynamic parameters for the ALSEP process. The ALSEP process is a mixed extractant system comprised of a cation exchanger 2-ethylhexyl-phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) and a neutral solvating extractant N,N,N’,N’-tetraoctyldiglycolamide (TODGA). The extractant combination produces complex organic phase chemistry that is challenging for traditional measurement techniques. To neutralize the complexity, temperature dependent solvent extraction experiments were conducted with neat TODGA and scaled down concentrations of the ALSEP formulation to determine the enthalpies of extraction for the two conditions. A full set of thermodynamic data for Eu, Am, and Cm extraction by TODGA from 3.0 M HNO3 is reported. These data are compared to previous extraction results from a 1.0 M HNO3 aqueous medium, and a short discussion of the mixed HEH[EHP]/TODGA system results is offered.

  19. Standardization of Test for Assessment and Comparing of Students' Measurement (United States)

    Osadebe, Patrick U.


    The study Standardized Economics Achievement Test for senior secondary school students in Nigeria. Three research questions guided the study. The standardized test in Economics was first constructed by an expert as a valid and reliable instrument. The test was then used for standardization in this study. That is, ensuring that the Economics…

  20. Revisiting test stability: further evidence relating to the measurement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In several earlier analyses of two tests of academic literacy – the Test of Academic Literacy Levels (TALL) and its Afrikaans counterpart, the Toets vir Akademiese Geletterdheidsvlakke (TAG) – we have adopted an approach to the problem that tests may be abused (and therefore used to harm people) by discussing various ...

  1. What Does the CBM-Maze Test Measure? (United States)

    Muijselaar, Marloes M. L.; Kendeou, Panayiota; de Jong, Peter F.; van den Broek, Paul W.


    In this study, we identified the code-related (decoding, fluency) and language comprehension (vocabulary, listening comprehension) demands of the CBM-Maze test, a formative assessment, and compared them to those of the Gates-MacGinitie test, a standardized summative assessment. The demands of these reading comprehension tests and their…

  2. Optimally splitting cases for training and testing high dimensional classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Richard M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We consider the problem of designing a study to develop a predictive classifier from high dimensional data. A common study design is to split the sample into a training set and an independent test set, where the former is used to develop the classifier and the latter to evaluate its performance. In this paper we address the question of what proportion of the samples should be devoted to the training set. How does this proportion impact the mean squared error (MSE of the prediction accuracy estimate? Results We develop a non-parametric algorithm for determining an optimal splitting proportion that can be applied with a specific dataset and classifier algorithm. We also perform a broad simulation study for the purpose of better understanding the factors that determine the best split proportions and to evaluate commonly used splitting strategies (1/2 training or 2/3 training under a wide variety of conditions. These methods are based on a decomposition of the MSE into three intuitive component parts. Conclusions By applying these approaches to a number of synthetic and real microarray datasets we show that for linear classifiers the optimal proportion depends on the overall number of samples available and the degree of differential expression between the classes. The optimal proportion was found to depend on the full dataset size (n and classification accuracy - with higher accuracy and smaller n resulting in more assigned to the training set. The commonly used strategy of allocating 2/3rd of cases for training was close to optimal for reasonable sized datasets (n ≥ 100 with strong signals (i.e. 85% or greater full dataset accuracy. In general, we recommend use of our nonparametric resampling approach for determing the optimal split. This approach can be applied to any dataset, using any predictor development method, to determine the best split.

  3. Incorporating single-locus tests into haplotype cladistic analysis in case-control studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Liu


    Full Text Available In case-control studies, genetic associations for complex diseases may be probed either with single-locus tests or with haplotype-based tests. Although there are different views on the relative merits and preferences of the two test strategies, haplotype-based analyses are generally believed to be more powerful to detect genes with modest effects. However, a main drawback of haplotype-based association tests is the large number of distinct haplotypes, which increases the degrees of freedom for corresponding test statistics and thus reduces the statistical power. To decrease the degrees of freedom and enhance the efficiency and power of haplotype analysis, we propose an improved haplotype clustering method that is based on the haplotype cladistic analysis developed by Durrant et al. In our method, we attempt to combine the strengths of single-locus analysis and haplotype-based analysis into one single test framework. Novel in our method is that we develop a more informative haplotype similarity measurement by using p-values obtained from single-locus association tests to construct a measure of weight, which to some extent incorporates the information of disease outcomes. The weights are then used in computation of similarity measures to construct distance metrics between haplotype pairs in haplotype cladistic analysis. To assess our proposed new method, we performed simulation analyses to compare the relative performances of (1 conventional haplotype-based analysis using original haplotype, (2 single-locus allele-based analysis, (3 original haplotype cladistic analysis (CLADHC by Durrant et al., and (4 our weighted haplotype cladistic analysis method, under different scenarios. Our weighted cladistic analysis method shows an increased statistical power and robustness, compared with the methods of haplotype cladistic analysis, single-locus test, and the traditional haplotype-based analyses. The real data analyses also show that our proposed method

  4. Point-of-care testing apparatus. Measurement of coagulation. (United States)

    Hirsch, J; Wendt, T; Kuhly, P; Schaffartzik, W


    Point-of-care testing of coagulation parameters provides a more rapid assessment of test results compared with laboratory testing. A new coagulation monitor (GEM PCL, Instrumentation Laboratory, Kirchheim, Germany) was evaluated. Point-of-care data for activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time (expressed as the international normalised ratio) and turn-around-time were compared. Coagulation parameters were compared in the blood of 57 patients with and without heparin therapy. The point-of-care and laboratory test results showed a bias (SD) of -0.26 (4.55) s for activated partial thromboplastin time and -0.011 (0.150) s for prothrombin time. The average turn-around-time was 3 min for point-of-care testing vs. 52 min for laboratory testing. We conclude that the reliability of point-of-care testing is sufficient for clinical use.

  5. Perception of depth distance of integral photography through the measurement of eye movement and subjective test (United States)

    Yano, Sumio; Suzuki, Makoto; Park, Min-Chul


    We developed a measurement tool for binocular eye movement and examined the perception of depth distance in integral photography images, which is a type of three dimensional image, using the tool we developed. Furthermore, we evaluated the perception of the depth distance in integral photography images by the subjective test, and we considered the perception results of the depth distance, which were these two experimental results. Additionally, we examined the perception of the depth distance in the real objects, and compared with the results in the case of integral photography images and real objects.

  6. Creation and pilot testing of cases for case-based learning: A pedagogical approach for pathology cancer diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Sayed


    Objectives: We aimed to pilot test standardised cancer cases on a group of practising pathologists in sub-Saharan Africa to evaluate case content, clarity of questions and delivery of content. Methods: Expert faculty created cases for the four most commonly diagnosed cancers. The format included mini-cases and bullet cases which were all open-ended. The questions dealt with interpretation of clinical information, gross specimen examination, morphologic characteristics of tumours, ancillary testing, reporting and appropriate communication to clinicians. Results: Cases on breast, cervical, prostate and colorectal cancers were tested on seven practising pathologists. Each case took an average of 45–90 min to complete. Questions that were particularly challenging to testers were on: •  Specimens they should have been but for some reason were not exposed to in routine practice. •  Ancillary testing and appropriate tumour staging. New knowledge gained included tumour grading and assessment of radial margins. Revisions to cases were made based on testers’ feedback, which included rewording of questions to reduce ambiguity and adding of tables to clarify concepts. Conclusion: Cases were created for CBL in Kenya, but these are applicable elsewhere in Africa and beyond to teach cancer diagnosis. The pilot testing of cases prepared faculty for the actual CBL course and feedback provided by the testers assisted in improving the questions and impact on day-to-day practice.

  7. Testing a novel method for measuring sleeping metabolic rate in neonates. (United States)

    Summer, Suzanne S; Pratt, Jesse M; Koch, Elizabeth A; Anderson, Jeffrey B


    Sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) is used as a proxy for basal metabolic rate in infants, when measurement while awake is not practical. Measuring SMR via indirect calorimetry (IC) can be useful for assessing feeding adequacy especially in compromised neonates. Standard IC equipment, including a hood placed over the head, is not designed for the smallest of patients. Our aim was to determine whether a nonstandard smaller hood measures SMR in neonates similarly compared with a standard large hood. SMR was measured in healthy neonates (controls) and those born with single-ventricle congenital heart disease (cases). Two measurements were performed: SMR using a standard large hood and SMR using a smaller hood. Time-to-steady state, minute ventilation (V̇E), and fraction of exhaled carbon dioxide (FĒCO2 ; an indicator of data quality) were also measured. Primary outcome was SMR using both hoods. Results are stated as median (interquartile range). Spearman's correlations measured association between the small and large hoods. We studied 9 controls and 7 cases. SMR in controls was not different between the small and large hoods (35.7 [15.14] vs 37.8 [7.41] kcal/kg/d, respectively). In cases, SMR with the small hood was significantly greater than that with the large hood (45.5 [4.63] vs 34.2 [8] kcal/kg/d, P < .02). FĒCO2 was significantly higher with the small hood versus the large hood in both groups, and V̇E was significantly lower with the small hood versus the large hood in controls only. The SMRs with the small and large hoods were significantly correlated in the control group (r = 0.80, P < .01). Time-to-steady state was similar in both groups regardless of hood size. SMR measured with a small hood yields results similar to those measured with a large hood in healthy neonates without affecting testing time or other aspects of the IC procedure. Furthermore, results in compromised infants suggest that a smaller hood may facilitate SMR testing in this population

  8. Numerical Modelling and Measurement in a Test Secondary Settling Tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, C.; Larsen, Torben; Petersen, O.


    and for comparing measured and calculated result. The numerical model could, fairly accuratly, predict the measured results and both the measured and the calculated results showed a flow field pattern identical to flow fields in full-scale secondary setling tanks. A specific calibration of the Bingham plastic...

  9. Standardized Tests as Outcome Measures for Evaluating Instructional Interventions in Mathematics and Science (United States)

    Sussman, Joshua Michael

    This three-paper dissertation explores problems with the use of standardized tests as outcome measures for the evaluation of instructional interventions in mathematics and science. Investigators commonly use students' scores on standardized tests to evaluate the impact of instructional programs designed to improve student achievement. However, evidence suggests that the standardized tests may not measure, or may not measure well, the student learning caused by the interventions. This problem is special case of a basic problem in applied measurement related to understanding whether a particular test provides accurate and useful information about the impact of an educational intervention. The three papers explore different aspects of the issue and highlight the potential benefits of (a) using particular research methods and of (b) implementing changes to educational policy that would strengthen efforts to reform instructional intervention in mathematics and science. The first paper investigates measurement problems related to the use of standardized tests in applied educational research. Analysis of the research projects funded by the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) Mathematics and Science Education Program permitted me to address three main research questions. One, how often are standardized tests used to evaluate new educational interventions? Two, do the tests appear to measure the same thing that the intervention teaches? Three, do investigators establish validity evidence for the specific uses of the test? The research documents potential problems and actual problems related to the use of standardized tests in leading applied research, and suggests changes to policy that would address measurement issues and improve the rigor of applied educational research. The second paper explores the practical consequences of misalignment between an outcome measure and an educational intervention in the context of summative evaluation. Simulated evaluation data and a

  10. A test battery measuring auditory capabilities of listening panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghani, Jody; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Zimmer, Karin


    a battery of tests covering a larger range of auditory capabilities in order to assess individual listeners. The format of all tests is kept as 'objective' as possible by using a three-alternative forced-choice paradigm in which the subject must choose which of the sound samples is different, thus keeping...... the instruction to the subjects simple and common for all tests. Both basic (e.g. frequency discrimination) and complex (e.g. profile analysis) psychoacoustic tests are covered in the battery and a threshold of discrimination or detection is obtained for each test. Data were collected on 24 listeners who had been...... recruited for participation in an expert listening panel for evaluating the sound quality of hi-fi audio systems. The test battery data were related to the actual performance of the listeners when judging the degradation in quality produced by audio codecs....

  11. The symbol trail making test: test development and utility as a measure of cognitive impairment. (United States)

    Barncord, S W; Wanlass, R L


    Although the Trail Making Test (TMT) has proven to be an exceptional clinical tool, its applications have been limited by the instrument's use of the Arabic numeral system and Latin alphabet. Clearly an instrument not limited by a specific alphabet or numerical system could fill this void. This study presents the development and validation of an alternative to the TMT that offers modestly similar psychometric properties and can be used with populations that have no familiarity with the Arabic numerical system or a specific alphabet. The Symbol Trail Making Test (STMT), which employs symbols that are not language or numerically based was administered to a normative sample of 210 participants, including 54 individuals whose first language was not English, for the purpose of collecting normative data. Reliability, assessed through an alternate form administration, and convergent validity, assessed through correlation with the TMT in a nonpatient sample, was deemed acceptable. Significant discriminant validity was obtained comparing non-brain-injured patients to brain-injured patients, particularly on time measures. An analysis of variance found no significant difference between native English speakers and individuals speaking English as a second language on performance on the STMT. This preliminary study provides evidence that the STMT is a clinically useful instrument for discriminating brain-injured from non-brain-injured participants without employing a specific culture-bound symbol system.

  12. Students' Test Motivation in PISA: The Case of Norway (United States)

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Kjaernsli, Marit


    Do students make their best effort in large-scale assessment studies such as the "Programme for International Student Assessment" (PISA)? Despite six cycles of PISA surveys from 2000 to 2015, empirical studies regarding students' test motivation and experience of the tests are sparse. The present study examines students' test motivation…

  13. Vibration measurement-based simple technique for damage detection of truss bridges: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudath C. Siriwardane


    Full Text Available The bridges experience increasing traffic volume and weight, deteriorating of components and large number of stress cycles. Therefore, assessment of the current condition of steel railway bridges becomes necessary. Most of the commonly available approaches for structural health monitoring are based on visual inspection and non-destructive testing methods. The visual inspection is unreliable as those depend on uncertainty behind inspectors and their experience. Also, the non-destructive testing methods are found to be expensive. Therefore, recent researches have noticed that dynamic modal parameters or vibration measurement-based structural health monitoring methods are economical and may also provide more realistic predictions to damage state of civil infrastructure. Therefore this paper proposes a simple technique to locate the damage region of railway truss bridges based on measured modal parameters. The technique is discussed with a case study. Initially paper describes the details of considered railway bridge. Then observations of visual inspection, material testing and in situ load testing are discussed under separate sections. Development of validated finite element model of the considered bridge is comprehensively discussed. Hence, variations of modal parameters versus position of the damage are plotted. These plots are considered as the main reference for locating the damage of the railway bridge in future periodical inspection by comparing the measured corresponding modal parameters. Finally the procedure of periodical vibration measurement and damage locating technique are clearly illustrated.

  14. Some Measurement and Instruction Related Considerations Regarding Computer Assisted Testing. (United States)

    Oosterhof, Albert C.; Salisbury, David F.

    The Assessment Resource Center (ARC) at Florida State University provides computer assisted testing (CAT) for approximately 4,000 students each term. Computer capabilities permit a small proctoring staff to administer tests simultaneously to large numbers of students. Programs provide immediate feedback for students and generate a variety of…

  15. Measurement and interpretation of skin prick test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.M. van der Valk; R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); E.J. Hoorn (Ewout); L. Groenendijk (Laurens); I.M. Groenendijk (Ilse M.); N.W. de Jong (Nicolette)


    textabstractBackground: There are several methods to read skin prick test results in type-I allergy testing. A commonly used method is to characterize the wheal size by its 'average diameter'. A more accurate method is to scan the area of the wheal to calculate the actual size. In both methods, skin

  16. How Is Educational Measurement Supposed to Deal with Test Use? (United States)

    Bachman, Lyle


    At the outset of his thoughtful and thought-provoking article, Haertel (this issue) clearly identifies the issue with which he will be dealing: The disjunct, or gap, in current approaches to evaluating the merits of a given test, between the intended uses of that test and the validity of its score-based interpretations. The author thinks that…

  17. Comparison of test methods for hearing protector attenuation measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben


    the same procedure is used in Europe, USA, Australia and New Zealand, but the methods differ in the way the sound field is established and in the way the test subjects are instructed before the tests. Presently the international standard ISO 4869-1 for hearing protector attenuation is under revision...

  18. Relationship Among Tasks in a Speaking Test : In a Case of Eiken Speaking Test


    籔田, 由己子; 飯野, 厚; 中村, 洋一


    This study investigated Eiken Speaking Test and examined the following three relationships: 1) Relationships between test tasks and total score of speaking test, 2) Relationships among test tasks, and 3) Relationships between test tasks and overall English proficiency. Regarding the relationship between the test tasks and the total score of the speaking test, we found that reading aloud and open-ended questions are related to the total score of the speaking test. As for the relationships amon...

  19. Joint Integration Test Facility (JITF) Engineering II Performance Measurement Plans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Boucher, Joanne


    ..., effectiveness, and accountability in federal programs and spending. The plan establishes six separate performance measurements, which correlate directly to customer satisfaction, Intelligence Mission Application (IMA...

  20. Table 1. Summary of Field Testing and Measurement Data (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Key performance parameters measured during the field demonstration such as lining thickness, compressive strength, Flexural Strength, Modulus of Elasticity, bond...

  1. Teacher Immediacy, Confidence Testing, and the Measurement of Cognitive Learning (United States)

    King, Paul; Witt, Paul


    There is much disagreement among instructional communication scholars concerning the appropriate means to measure cognitive learning. Significant differences have emerged between studies that rely on perceptual versus performance measures of learning and the issue has been the subject of much recent debate in research on teacher immediacy. The…

  2. Testing measurement invariance of the GHQ-28 in stroke patients. (United States)

    Munyombwe, Theresa; West, Robert M; Hill, Kate


    In order to combine self-reported measures data from multiple studies to conduct an integrated data analysis, the construct measured must have the same meaning across the studies. This study investigated the measurement invariance of the General Health questionnaire (GHQ-28) in two stroke studies before combining the data for an integrative data analysis. The study used data from the Stroke Outcomes Study 1 (SOS1, n = 448) and second Stroke Outcomes Study (SOS2, n = 585). The initial analysis was a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) for each study separately to confirm the four-factor structure of GHQ-28 questionnaire. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis (MG-CFA) was used to assess the measurement invariance of the GHQ-28 questionnaire in the two stroke cohorts. Measurement invariance at configural invariance (same items associated with same factor across groups); factor loading invariance (equal factor loadings across groups) and scalar invariance (equal intercepts across groups) was examined. CFA supported all three invariances measured. Results showed that the GHQ-28 questionnaire has comparable measurement properties in the SOS1 and SOS2 stroke studies. Strong measurement invariance was established, and based on the results from this study, integrative data analysis of GHQ-28 scores from the two stroke studies is merited.

  3. 27 CFR 24.170 - Measuring devices and testing instruments. (United States)


    ... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.170... contents of tanks and other storage containers, and scales and measuring devices for weighing and measuring wine, spirits, volatile fruit-flavor concentrate, or materials received and used in the production or...

  4. Test Cases for a Clipped Delta Wing with Pitching and Trailing-Edge Control Surface Oscillations (United States)

    Bennett, Robert M.


    Steady and unsteady measured pressures for a Clipped Delta Wing (CDW) undergoing pitching oscillations and trailing-edge control surface oscillations have been presented . From the several hundred compiled data points, 22 static cases, 12 pitching-oscillation cases, and 12 control-surface-oscillation cases have been proposed for Computational Test Cases to illustrate the trends with Mach number, reduced frequency, and angle of attack. The planform for this wing was derived by simplifying the planform of a proposed design for a supersonic transport which is described as the Boeing 2707-300. The strake was deleted, the resulting planform was approximated by a trapezoid with an unswept trailing edge, and the twist and camber were removed. In order to facilitate pressure instrumentation, the thickness was increased to 6 percent from the typical 2.5 to 3 percent for the supersonic transport. The airfoil is thus a symmetrical circular arc section with t/c = 0.06. A wing of similar planform but with a thinner airfoil of t/c = 0.03 was used in the flutter investigations, and the buffet and stall flutter investigation . Flutter results are also reported both for the 3 per cent thick simplified wing and for a more complex SST model. One of the consequences of the increased thickness of the clipped delta wing is that transonic effects are enhanced for Mach numbers near one. They are significantly stronger than would be the case for the thinner wing. Also, with the combination of high leading edge sweep of 50.5, and the sharp leading edge, a leading edge vortex forms on the wing at relatively low angles of attack, on the order of three degrees. The Appendix discusses some of the vortex flow effects. In addition, a shock develops over the aft portion of the wing at transonic speeds such that at some angles of attack, there is both a leading edge vortex and a shock wave on the wing. Such cases are a computational challenge. Some previous applications of this data set have been

  5. Skin test reactivity among Danish children measured 15 years apart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, SF; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli; Porsbjerg, C


    to most allergens tested, statistically significant; however, only for mugwort and Alternaria iridis. Among subjects, who were sensitized to only one allergen, we found significantly fewer individuals with reactions to D. pteronyssinus and mugwort. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of atopic sensitization...

  6. Does the 'torque test' measure cerebral dominance in adults? (United States)

    Demarest, J; Demarest, L


    The direction of drawing a circle, labeled the 'torque test' (Blau, 1977), was evaluated in 74 normal adults (age 14 to 44 yr.) as a predictor of both handedness and cerebral dominance on the dichotic listening test. The results indicate that torque is related to handedness but not to lateralization of language. We suggest that circle-drawing by adults is dependent more on the muscle mechanics of the hand than on cerebral dominance.

  7. Noise Radiation Measure-Sound Power and its Test Methods


    Zeng Xianren; Zuo Yanyan


    This study mainly aims to study the characteristics and theory of sound radiation of steady-state vibration. Study shows that sound radiation power of steady-state vibration is constant. And taking excavator for experimental object by hemisphere surface method, the radiated sound power of the excavator is the same as testing the sound pressure on various surfaces based on relevant international standard. Finally, a test method of radiated sound power for cylindrical vibration object is proposed.

  8. Test or toy? Materiality and the measurement of infant intelligence. (United States)

    Young, Jacy L


    Adopting a material culture perspective, this article interrogates the composition of the copy of the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale housed at the University of Toronto Scientific Instruments Collection. As a deliberately assembled collection of toys, the Cattell Scale makes clear the indefinite boundary between test and toy in 20th-century American psychology. Consideration of the current condition of some of the material constituents of this particular Cattell Scale provides valuable insight into some of the elusive practices of intelligence testers in situ and highlights the dynamic nature of the testing process. At the same time, attending to the materiality of this intelligence test reveals some of the more general assumptions about the nature of intelligence inherent in tests for young children. The scale and others like it, I argue, exposes psychologists' often-uncritical equation of childhood intelligence with appropriate play undertaken with an appropriate toy, an approach complicit in, and fostered by, midcentury efforts to cultivate particular forms of selfhood. This analysis serves as an example of the kind of work that may be done on the history of intelligence testing when the material objects that were (and are) inherently a part of the testing process are included in historical scholarship. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Lessons learned from measuring safety culture: an Australian case study. (United States)

    Allen, Suellen; Chiarella, Mary; Homer, Caroline S E


    adverse events in maternity care are relatively common but often avoidable. International patient safety strategies advocate measuring safety culture as a strategy to improve patient safety. Evidence suggests it is necessary to fully understand the safety culture of an organisation to make improvements to patient safety. this paper reports a case study examining the safety culture in one maternity service in Australia and considers the benefits of using surveys and interviews to understand safety culture as an approach to identify possible strategies to improve patient safety in this setting. the study took place in one maternity service in two public hospitals in NSW, Australia. Concurrently, both hospitals were undergoing an organisational restructure which was part of a major health reform agenda. The priorities of the reform included improving the quality of care and patient safety; and, creating a more efficient health system by reducing administration inefficiencies and duplication. a descriptive case study using three approaches: the safety culture was identified to warrant improvement across all six safety culture domains. There was reduced infrastructure and capacity to support incident management activities required to improve safety, which was influenced by instability from the organisational restructure. There was a perceived lack of leadership at all levels to drive safety and quality and improving the safety culture was neither a key priority nor was it valued by the organisation. the safety culture was complex as was undertaking this study. We were unable to achieve a desired 60% response rate highlighting the limitations of using safety culture surveys in isolation as a strategy to improve safety culture. Qualitative interviews provided greater insight into the factors influencing the safety culture. The findings of this study provide evidence of the benefits of including qualitative methods with quantitative surveys when examining safety culture

  10. Bending Under Tension Test with Direct Friction Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam; Chodnikiewicz, K.


    A special BUT-transducer has been developed in which friction around the tool radius can be directly measured when drawing a plane sheet strip around a cylindrical tool-pin under constant back tension. The front tension, back tension and torque on the tool-pin are all measured directly, thus...... enabling accurate measurement of friction and direct determination of lubricant film breakdown for varying normal pressure, sliding speed, tool radius and tool preheat temperature. The transducer is applied in an experimental investigation focusing on limits of lubrication in drawing of stainless steel...

  11. Comparison of measured and calculated temperatures for a Mach 8 hypersonic wing test structure (United States)

    Quinn, R. D.; Fields, R. A.


    Structural temperatures were measured on a hypersonic wing test structure during a heating test that simulated a Mach 8 thermal environment. Measured data are compared to design calculations and temperature predictions obtained from a finite-difference thermal analysis.

  12. Twenty Years On!: Updating the IEA BESTEST Building Thermal Fabric Test Cases for ASHRAE Standard 140

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neymark, J. [J. Neymark & Associates, Golden, CO (United States)


    ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 140, Standard Method of Test for the Evaluation of Building Energy Analysis Computer Programs applies the IEA BESTEST building thermal fabric test cases and example simulation results originally published in 1995. These software accuracy test cases and their example simulation results, which comprise the first test suite adapted for the initial 2001 version of Standard 140, are approaching their 20th anniversary. In response to the evolution of the state of the art in building thermal fabric modeling since the test cases and example simulation results were developed, work is commencing to update the normative test specification and the informative example results.

  13. Method for independent strain and temperature measurement in polymeric tensile test specimen using embedded FBG sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Gilmar Ferreira; McGugan, Malcolm; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard


    A novel method to obtain independent strain and temperature measurements using embedded Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) in polymeric tensile test specimens is presented in this paper. The FBG strain and temperature cross-sensitivity was decoupled using two single mode FBG sensors, which were embedded...... in the specimen material with a certain angle between them. It is demonstrated that, during temperature variation, both FBG sensors show the same signal response. However, for any applied load the signal response is different, which is caused by the different levels of strain acting in each sensor. Equations...... calibration procedure (temperature and strain) was performed to this material-sensor pair, where a calibration error temperature test case, where multiple two loading/strain stages of ε = 0.30% and ε = 0.50% were applied during a continuous variation...

  14. Verifiable Measurement-Only Blind Quantum Computing with Stabilizer Testing. (United States)

    Hayashi, Masahito; Morimae, Tomoyuki


    We introduce a simple protocol for verifiable measurement-only blind quantum computing. Alice, a client, can perform only single-qubit measurements, whereas Bob, a server, can generate and store entangled many-qubit states. Bob generates copies of a graph state, which is a universal resource state for measurement-based quantum computing, and sends Alice each qubit of them one by one. Alice adaptively measures each qubit according to her program. If Bob is honest, he generates the correct graph state, and, therefore, Alice can obtain the correct computation result. Regarding the security, whatever Bob does, Bob cannot get any information about Alice's computation because of the no-signaling principle. Furthermore, malicious Bob does not necessarily send the copies of the correct graph state, but Alice can check the correctness of Bob's state by directly verifying the stabilizers of some copies.

  15. Testing Equation Method Modification for Demanding Energy Measurements Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kochneva


    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the mathematical approaches of the measurements received from Automatic Meter Reading Systems verification. Reliability of metering data can be improved by application of the new issue named Energy Flow Problem. The paper considers demanding energy measurements verification method based on verification expressions groups analysis. Bad data detection and estimates accuracy calculation is presented using the Automatic Meter Reading system data from the Russian power system fragment.

  16. Comparing automated visual GUI testing tools: an industrial case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garousi, V.; Afzal, Wasif; Caglar, Adem; Berk Isik, Ihsan; Baydan, Berker; Caylak, Seckin; Zeki Boyraz, Ahmet; Yolacan, Burak; Herkiloglu, Kadir


    Visual GUI testing (VGT) is a tool-driven technique, which uses image recognition for interaction and assertion of the behaviour of system under test. Motivated by a real industrial need, in the context of a large Turkish software and systems company providing solutions in the areas of defense and

  17. Evaluation of Test-Driven Development : An Industrial Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wasmus, H.; Gross, H.G.


    Test-driven development is a novel software development practice and part of the Extreme Programming paradigm. It is based on the principle that tests should be designed and written for a module iteratively, while the code of the module is devised. This is the opposite of what is usual in current

  18. Measuring Dysgraphia: A Graded-Difficulty Spelling Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Baxter


    Full Text Available In this paper we describe the construction of a graded-difficulty spelling test for adults consisting of two alternative forms each containing 30 words (GDST, Forms A and B. The spelling test, together with background tests of verbal and non-verbal skills, was administered to 100 control patients with orthopaedic injuries. The two forms of the spelling test were highly correlated (0.92. Spelling was highly correlated with reading (0.75, 0.77 and moderately correlated with vocabulary (0.57 and naming (0.39, 0.40. There was no correlation between spelling skills and non-verbal reasoning. The test was validated in a group of 26 patients with left hemisphere and 20 patients with right hemisphere lesions. Spelling was shown to be lateralized to the left hemisphere and there appeared to be a shift in scores of the left hemisphere group towards the lower quartile, with 65% of the left hemisphere group falling within this band. The most severe spelling impairments were invariably associated with other language disorders but a number of dissociations were documented at spelling levels falling between the 5th and 25th percentile band. Two patients with left hemisphere lesions (8% were identified as having selective dysgraphias. The lack of overlap between the anatomical sites of the two patients with specific lexical dysgraphia argues against a single site for this type of dysgraphia and argues for further refinement of this classification of spelling disorder.

  19. Measurement of Low Level Explosives Reaction in the Two-Dimensional Steven Impact Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, J.W.; Tarver, C.M.; Chidester, S.K.; Garcia, F.; Greenwood, D.W.; Garza, R.


    The two-dimensional Steven impact test has been developed to be reproducible and amenable to computer modeling. This test has a hemispherical projectile traveling at tens of m/s impacting a metal cased explosive target. To assist in the understanding of this safety test, two-dimensional shock wave gauge techniques were used to measure the pressures of a few kilobars and times of reactions less than a millisecond. This work is in accord with a long-term goal to develop two-dimensional shock diagnostic techniques that are more than just time of arrival indicators. Experiments were performed where explosives were impacted at levels below shock initiation levels but caused low level reactions. Carbon foil and carbon resistor pressure gauges were used to measure pressures and time of events. The carbon resistor gauges indicate a late time low level reaction at 350 {micro}s after impact of the hemispherical projectile creating 0.5-6 kb peak shocks at the center of PBX 9501 (HMX/Estane/BDNPA-F; 95/2.5/2.5 wt %) explosive discs. The Steven test calculations are based on an ignition and growth criteria and found that the low level reaction occurs at 335 {micro}s, which is in good agreement with the experimental data. Some additional experiments simulating the Steven impact test were done on a gas gun with carbon foil and constantan strain gauges in a PMMA target. Hydrodynamic calculations can be used to evaluate the gauge performance in these experiments and check the lateral strain measurements.

  20. Integrating non-animal test information into an adaptive testing strategy - skin sensitization proof of concept case. (United States)

    Jaworska, Joanna; Harol, Artsiom; Kern, Petra S; Gerberick, G Frank


    There is an urgent need to develop data integration and testing strategy frameworks allowing interpretation of results from animal alternative test batteries. To this end, we developed a Bayesian Network Integrated Testing Strategy (BN ITS) with the goal to estimate skin sensitization hazard as a test case of previously developed concepts (Jaworska et al., 2010). The BN ITS combines in silico, in chemico, and in vitro data related to skin penetration, peptide reactivity, and dendritic cell activation, and guides testing strategy by Value of Information (VoI). The approach offers novel insights into testing strategies: there is no one best testing strategy, but the optimal sequence of tests depends on information at hand, and is chemical-specific. Thus, a single generic set of tests as a replacement strategy is unlikely to be most effective. BN ITS offers the possibility of evaluating the impact of generating additional data on the target information uncertainty reduction before testing is commenced.

  1. CASE, the computer-automated structure evaluation system, as an alternative to extensive animal testing. (United States)

    Rosenkranz, H S; Klopman, G


    CASE, an artificial intelligence system with demonstrated ability to predict biological activity based on structural considerations, correctly predicts animal carcinogenicity. It can, therefore, play a pivotal role in classifying chemicals as carcinogens and prioritizing them for further testing. Additionally, CASE shows promise in the design of pharmacologically active agents by reducing the number of drugs that need to be synthesized and tested. For both of these applications, CASE provides a mechanism to conserve animal and other testing resources.

  2. Laboratory Testing of Silica Sol Grout in Coal Measure Mudstones. (United States)

    Pan, Dongjiang; Zhang, Nong; Xie, Zhengzheng; Feng, Xiaowei; Kong, Yong


    The effectiveness of silica sol grout on mudstones is reported in this paper. Using X-ray diffraction (XRD), the study investigates how the silica sol grout modifies mudstone mineralogy. Micropore sizes and mechanical properties of the mudstone before and after grouting with four different materials were determined with a surface area/porosity analyser and by uniaxial compression. Tests show that, after grouting, up to 50% of the mesopore volumes can be filled with grout, the dominant pore diameter decreases from 100 nm to 10 nm, and the sealing capacity is increased. Uniaxial compression tests of silica sol grouted samples shows that their elastic modulus is 21%-38% and their uniaxial compressive strength is 16%-54% of the non-grouted samples. Peak strain, however, is greater by 150%-270%. After grouting, the sample failure mode changes from brittle to ductile. This paper provides an experimental test of anti-seepage and strengthening properties of silica sol.

  3. Fingertip rapid point-of-care test in adult case-finding in coeliac disease. (United States)

    Popp, Alina; Jinga, Mariana; Jurcut, Ciprian; Balaban, Vasile; Bardas, Catalina; Laurila, Kaija; Vasilescu, Florina; Ene, Adina; Anca, Ioana; Mäki, Markku


    Coeliac disease (CD), due to its protean clinical manifestation, is still very under diagnosed in adults and delays in diagnosis may take years and even decades. Simple tools to find cases in primary care may help to identify patients for further diagnostic tests. We have evaluated the usefulness of an on site rapid fingertip whole blood point-of-care test (POCT) for such a purpose. As CD is known to run within families, we tested 148 healthy relatives of 70 Romanian index cases with biopsy-proven CD (87% of all first-degree family members, median age 36 years) for the presence of circulating autoantibodies. In addition to performing the POCT (which measures blood erythrocyte self-TG2-autoantibody complexes) on site, blood was drawn for later evaluations of serum IgA-class endomysial antibodies (EMA). EMA-positive sera were further tested for transglutaminase 2 antibodies (TG2-IgA). All serological parameters were analyzed blindly in a centralized laboratory that had no knowledge of the on site POCT result. Endoscopic small intestinal biopsies was recommended for all POCT- or EMA-test positive subjects. In on site testing the POCT was positive in 12/148 first-degree relatives (8%) and all these subjects were also serum EMA-positive. A positive EMA test was found only in one other subject. All remaining 135 healthy first-degree relatives were negative for both POCT and EMA. Four subjects positive for both POCT and EMA were negative for TG2-IgA. Ten out of thirteen of the antibody-positive subjects agreed to undergo endoscopy. The POCT was found to be positive in 8/9 first-degree relatives having coeliac-type mucosal lesions of grade Marsh 2 (n = 3) or Marsh 3 (n = 6). The three POCT-positive subjects not agreeing to undergo endoscopy were also both EMA- and TG2-IgA-positive. The fingertip whole blood rapid POCT might fulfill the unmet need for a simple and cheap case-finding biomarker for early detection and presumptive diagnosis of CD. Confirmatory studies

  4. An Instrument to Assess Beliefs about Standardized Testing: Measuring the Influence of Epistemology on the Endorsement of Standardized Testing (United States)

    Magee, Robert G.; Jones, Brett D.


    This article describes the development of an instrument to assess beliefs about standardized testing in schools, a topic of much heated debate. The Beliefs About Standardized Testing scale was developed to measure the extent to which individuals support high-stakes standardized testing. The 9-item scale comprises three subscales which measure…

  5. Testing Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium using mother-child case-control samples. (United States)

    Chen, Jinbo; Zheng, Haitao; Wilson, Melissa L; Kraft, Peter


    Genetic association studies of obstetric complications may genotype case and control mothers, or their respective newborns, or both case-control mothers and their children. The relatively high prevalence of many obstetric complications and the availability of both maternal and offspring's genotype data have provided motivation to study new methods for testing for deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE). We propose four novel test statistics, each of which uses a different type of data as follows: (1) a test using maternal case-control genotype data, (2) a test using offspring genotype data, (3) a combination of the first and second tests, and (4) a test based on the joint classification of case-control maternal-child genotype data. The selection of case and control mothers (and thus their children) is accounted for by weighting both maternal and child contributions to the test statistics with sampling probabilities. Our tests thus do not require that the phenotype be rare as is the case for HWE tests using only controls, and are particularly suitable for genetic association studies of relatively common complications such as premature birth. The third and fourth tests described above utilize both maternal and child genotype data and appropriately account for the correlation between maternal and child genotypes. On the basis of extensive simulation studies to compare the type-I error and power for proposed tests, we recommend the third combined test statistic for routine use in the analysis of case-control studies of mother-child pairs.

  6. Using Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis to Test Measurement Invariance in Raters: A Clinical Skills Examination Application (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilufer; Brown, Crystal B.


    Psychometric models based on structural equation modeling framework are commonly used in many multiple-choice test settings to assess measurement invariance of test items across examinee subpopulations. The premise of the current article is that they may also be useful in the context of performance assessment tests to test measurement invariance…

  7. Modeling Asteroid Dynamics using AMUSE: First Test Cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frantseva, Kateryna; Mueller, Michael; van der Tak, Floris; Helmich, Frank P.


    We are creating a dynamic model of the current asteroid population. The goal is to reproduce measured impact rates in the current Solar System, from which we'll derive delivery rates of water and organic material by tracing low-albedo C-class asteroids (using the measured albedo distribution from

  8. Robust Tests for Additive Gene-Environment Interaction in Case-Control Studies Using Gene-Environment Independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Gang; Lee, Seunggeun; Lee, Alice W


    There have been recent proposals advocating the use of additive gene-environment interaction instead of the widely used multiplicative scale, as a more relevant public health measure. Using gene-environment independence enhances the power for testing multiplicative interaction in case-control stu...

  9. Simple Additivity of Stochastic Psychological Processes: Tests and Measures. (United States)

    Balakrishnan, J. D.


    Methods of testing relatively complete (distributional) models of internal psychological processes are described. It is shown that there is a sufficient condition for additive models to imply this property of the likelihood ratio. Also discussed are the examination of hazard rate functions of component processes and change in cumulative…

  10. Direct current testing to measure corrosiveness of wood preservatives (United States)

    Samuel L. Zelinka; Douglas R. Rammer; Donald S. Stone; James T. Gilbertson


    A qualitative test that mimics the corrosion behaviour of metals in contact with treated wood without using wood specimens would be of great value in rapidly evaluating the corrosiveness of new wood preservatives. The objective of this study was to determine whether the linear polarisation resistance of metals immersed in a solution of preservative chemicals is related...

  11. Prevalence of diabetic autonomic neuropathy measured by simple bedside tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrberg, Torben Bech; Benn, Jette; Christiansen, J S


    To investigate the prevalence of diabetic autonomic neuropathy, five simple bedside tests, beat-to-beat variation during quiet respiration, beat-to-beat variation during forced respiration, heart rate and blood pressure response to standing, heart rate response to exercise, and heart rate respons...

  12. A note on measurement scales and statistical testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; Oosterloo, Sebe J.


    In elementary books on applied statistics (e.g., Siegel, 1988; Agresti, 1990) and books on research methodology in psychology and personality assessment (e.g., Aiken, 1999), it is often suggested that the choice of a statistical test and the choice of statistical operations should be determined by

  13. The GAMMA ® nursing measure: Its development and testing for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the second study, the utility of the GAMMA was studied by training and testing the application of the GAMMA within a group of registered nurses (n = 5) working in three retirement villages. After four months, focus group interviews were conducted with the registered nurses in order to explore the GAMMA's nursing utility.

  14. Test method for measuring insulation values of cryogenic pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, J.F.M.; Blokland, H.; Klaver, B.W.; Beld, C. van de


    In this paper a large-area heat flux and temperature sensor (HFT) is used for the evaluation of the insulation value of cryogenic pipes. The HFT is flexible and clamp-on. The test method is relatively simple and can be used in-situ. The HFT makes it possible to monitor insulation performance over

  15. Measuring damage in physical model tests of rubble mounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofland, B.; Rosa-Santos, Paulo; Taveira-Pinto, Francisco; Lemos, Rute; Mendonça, A.; Juana Fortes, C


    This paper studies novel ways to evaluate armour damage in physical models of coastal structures. High-resolution damage data for reference rubble mound breakwaters obtained under the HYDRALAB+ joint-research project are analysed and discussed. These tests are used to analyse the way to describe

  16. Development and Testing of Emergency Department Patient Transfer Communication Measures (United States)

    Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira


    Purpose: Communication problems are a major contributing factor to adverse events in hospitals. The contextual environment in small rural hospitals increases the importance of emergency department (ED) patient transfer communication quality. This study addresses the communication problems through the development and testing of ED quality…

  17. Net ZEB case study buildings, measures and solution sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aelenei, Laura; Waldren, David; Aelenei, Daniel


    The chapter summarises techniques - combined in solution sets - used in the case studied buildings to achieve buildings with net zero energy or energy neutral standard.......The chapter summarises techniques - combined in solution sets - used in the case studied buildings to achieve buildings with net zero energy or energy neutral standard....

  18. Flight test diagnostics using radar cross-section measurements (United States)

    Kao, P. S. S.; Anderson, W. F.


    An automated radar cross-section (RCS) measurement system is described, which features windband coverage, coherent step-frequency measurement, polarization diversity, waveform flexibility, and on-site digital processing. A computer-aided diagnostic technique to facilitate preflight planning and post-mission analyses is also discussed, and applications of the combined capabilities of both systems are considered. It is demonstrated that interactive RCS tailoring of a vehicle's backscatter cross-section improves the collection of radar data, allows post-flight motion extraction on small instrument vehicles, and makes possible the diagnosis of a vehicles endo-atmospheric dynamics to check the aerodynamic coefficient.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Damjanić


    Full Text Available Drill stem testing of the exploration well consisted of two flow and two pressure build-up periods. Gas was obtained. Modified isochronal test was used during testing the well after completion. Except gas, small quantity of condensate and traces of oil and water were obtained. Both pressure build-up analyses showed that formation permeability is low. DST pressure build-up analysis showed that wellbore damage is present. This was proved later, when acid treatment was performed, by which skin was removed and production increased significantly. Data obtained by well testing are very important for future productivity prediction and determination of optimal well completion and surface facility construction (the paper is published in Croatian.

  20. Test case generation for On Board Computer Software Major Components


    Dinesha H A; V.K Agrawal


    PES Institute of Technology along with five other institutions is developing a student imaging satellite. In imaging satellite development, software implementation plays an important role. On Board Computer (OBC) is one which runs the satellite software. Satellite software has its sub components like telemetry, control modes, data processing, actuator, tele command and etc. Design, development and testing of these components are done successfully. Testing plays very important role to assure i...

  1. Intelligence is what the intelligence test measures. Seriously

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Maas, H.L.J.; Kan, K.-J.; Borsboom, D.


    The mutualism model, an alternative for the g-factor model of intelligence, implies a formative measurement model in which "g" is an index variable without a causal role. If this model is accurate, the search for a genetic of brain instantiation of "g" is deemed useless. This also implies that the

  2. The GAMMA® nursing measure: Its development and testing for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Mar 3, 2014 ... home-based care where people live with permanent or temporary disabilities, nurses are unable to perform routine and empirical scoring of their patients' abilities to live independently, because of the lack of valid nursing measures indicating patients' frailty or vulnerability. These independent living abilities ...

  3. Improving Measurement Precision of Hierarchical Latent Traits Using Adaptive Testing (United States)

    Wang, Chun


    Many latent traits in social sciences display a hierarchical structure, such as intelligence, cognitive ability, or personality. Usually a second-order factor is linearly related to a group of first-order factors (also called domain abilities in cognitive ability measures), and the first-order factors directly govern the actual item responses.…

  4. Evaluating Goodness-of-Fit Indexes for Testing Measurement Invariance. (United States)

    Cheung, Gordon W.; Rensvold, Roger B.


    Examined 20 goodness-of-fit indexes based on the minimum fit function using a simulation under the 2-group situation. Results support the use of the delta comparative fit index, delta Gamma hat, and delta McDonald's Noncentrality Index to evaluation measurement invariance. These three approaches are independent of model complexity and sample size.…

  5. Test-retest reliability of knee kinematics measurement during gait ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACLR) is crucial to minimize the risk of joint degeneration. To achieve this, it is essential that the chosen measurement method can accurately assess knee kinematics and detect the changes in multi-planes of motion. However to date, limited ...

  6. 49 CFR 325.57 - Location and operation of sound level measurement systems; stationary test. (United States)


    ... vehicle being measured. (c) The microphone of the sound level measurement system shall be oriented toward... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location and operation of sound level measurement...; Stationary Test § 325.57 Location and operation of sound level measurement systems; stationary test. (a) The...

  7. Applied Linguistics and Language Testing: A Case-Study of the ELTS Test. (United States)

    Alderson, J. Charles; Clapham, Caroline


    Reports on an international test development project in which a revision team worked with experts in applied linguistics, and their varied opinions on language theory, test design and validation, and needs analyses, to identify the appropriate construct for the English Language Testing Service (ELTS) test. (52 references) (CB)

  8. Electromagnetic Interference/Compatibility (EMI/EMC) Control Test and Measurement Facility: User Test Planning Guide (United States)

    Scully, Robert C.


    Test process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the EMI/EMC Test Facility. The User Test Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their test engineering personnel in test planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the test process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, test article interfaces, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.


    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Powers, Donald E


    ... on other sections of the GRE General Test. The results suggested little, if any, difference among subgroups of examinees with respect to their response to the particular kind of test preparation considered in the study...

  10. Measuring organizational learning. Model testing in two Romanian universities


    Alexandra Luciana Guţă


    The scientific literature associates organizational learning with superior organization performance. If we refer to the academic environment, we appreciate that it can develop and reach better levels of performance through changes driven from the inside. Thus, through this paper we elaborate on a conceptual model of organizational learning and we test the model on a sample of employees (university teachers and researchers) from two Romanian universities. The model comprises the process of org...

  11. Influence of PBL with open-book tests on knowledge retention measured with progress tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijne-Penninga, M.; Kuks, J. B. M.; Hofman, W. H. A.; Muijtjens, A. M. M.; Cohen-Schotanus, J.

    The influence of problem-based learning (PBL) and open-book tests on long-term knowledge retention is unclear and subject of discussion. Hypotheses were that PBL as well as open-book tests positively affect long-term knowledge retention. Four progress test results of fifth and sixth-year medical

  12. Findings concerning testis, vas deference, and epididymis in adult cases with nonpalpable testes. (United States)

    Sahin, Coskun; Kalkan, Mehmet; Yalcinkaya, Soner


    In this study, we aimed to state the relationship between testis, epididymis and vas deference, in adult cases with nonpalpable testis. Between January 1996 and December 2009, we evaluated 154 adult cases with nonpalpable testes. Mean age was 23 years (20-27 years). Explorations were performed by open inguinal incision, laparoscopy, and by inguinal incision and laparoscopy together on 22, 131 and 1 patient, respectively. Of all the unilateral cases, 32 were accepted as vanishing testis. In five of these cases, vas deference was ending inside the abdomen, and in the others, it was ending inside the scrotum. In the remaining 99 unilateral and 22 bilateral cases, 143 testes were found in total. Testes were found in the inguinal canal as atrophic in one case, at the right renal pedicle level with dysmorphic testis in one case, and anterior to the internal ring between the bladder and the common iliac vessels at a smaller than normal size in 119 cases. One (0.69%) case did not have epididymis. While epididymis was attached to the testis only at the head and tail locations in 88 (61.53%) cases, it was totally attached to the testis in 54 (37.76%) cases. There is an obviously high incidence rate of testis and vas deference anomalies, where epididymis is the most frequent one. In cases with abdominal testes, this rate is highest for high localised abdominal testes.

  13. Site testing study based on weather balloons measurements (United States)

    Aristidi, E.; Agabi, A.; Azouit, M.; Fossat, E.; Vernin, J.; Sadibekova, T.; Travouillon, T.; Lawrence, J. S.; Halter, B.; Roth, W. L.; Walden, V. P.

    We present wind and temperature profiles at Dome C measured during the polar summer by balloon born sonds. Data from 197 flights have been processed for 4 campaigns between 2000 and 2004. We show the exceptionnal wind conditions at Dome C: averaged ground wind speed is 3.6 m s-1. We noticed in mid-november the presence of high altitude strong winds (40 m s-1) probably due to the polar vortex which disappear in summer. These winds seem to have no effect on seeing measurements made with a DIMM at the same period. Temperature profiles exhibit a minimum at height 5500 m (over the snow surface) that defines the tropopause. Surface layer temperature profile has negative gradient in the first 50 m above ground in the afternoon and a strong inversion layer (5°C over 50 m) around midnight. Wind profiles are compared with other astronomical sites, and with a meteorological model from Meteo France.

  14. Spectroscopy Measurements on Ablation Testing in High Enthalpy Plasma Flows (United States)


    two-colour Raytek Marathon MR1S-C pyrometer (0.75 − 1.1μm), with a temperature range from 1000°C to 3000°C. It measures the infrared radiation of a...18 3.5.2 PYROMETER ...might undergo additional chemical reactions, creating highly radiating species which can increase the radiative heat flux. Figure 1-2: Process of

  15. Bending Under Tension Test with Direct Friction Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; Olsson, David Dam; Chodnikiewicz, K.


    A special Bending-Under-Tension (BUT) transducer has been developed in which friction around the tool radius can be directly measured when drawing a plane sheet strip around a cylindrical tool-pin under constant back tension. The front tension, back tension and torque on the tool-pin are all...... in drawing of stainless steel showing the influence of varying process conditions and the performance of different lubricants....

  16. Efficiency of color vision tests in hereditary dyschromatopsia: case report


    Fernandes, Luciene Chaves; Urbano, Lúcia Carvalho de Ventura


    As autoras relatam dois casos de discromatopsia hereditária e discutem a eficiência dos testes cromáticos no diagnóstico de uma discromatopsia. Os pacientes foram reprovados em diferentes concursos públicos federais por apresentarem diagnóstico de discromatopsia hereditária pelo teste de Ishihara. Submeteram-se a exame oftalmológico, com resultados dentro da normalidade. Procuraram novo parecer para melhor caracterização da sua discromatopsia. Não havia sintomas relacionados à deficiência. Os...

  17. Worst case risk measurement: back to the future?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goovaerts, M.J.; Kaas, R.; Laeven, R.J.A.


    This paper studies the problem of finding best-possible upper bounds on a rich class of risk measures, expressible as integrals with respect to measures, under incomplete probabilistic information. Both univariate and multivariate risk measurement problems are considered. The extremal probability

  18. Tests of Measurement Invariance without Subgroups: A Generalization of Classical Methods (United States)

    Merkle, Edgar C.; Zeileis, Achim


    The issue of measurement invariance commonly arises in factor-analytic contexts, with methods for assessment including likelihood ratio tests, Lagrange multiplier tests, and Wald tests. These tests all require advance definition of the number of groups, group membership, and offending model parameters. In this paper, we study tests of measurement…

  19. The Pareidolia Test: A Simple Neuropsychological Test Measuring Visual Hallucination-Like Illusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Mamiya

    Full Text Available Visual hallucinations are a core clinical feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, and this symptom is important in the differential diagnosis and prediction of treatment response. The pareidolia test is a tool that evokes visual hallucination-like illusions, and these illusions may be a surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB. We created a simplified version of the pareidolia test and examined its validity and reliability to establish the clinical utility of this test.The pareidolia test was administered to 52 patients with DLB, 52 patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD and 20 healthy controls (HCs. We assessed the test-retest/inter-rater reliability using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC and the concurrent validity using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI hallucinations score as a reference. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis was used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the pareidolia test to differentiate DLB from AD and HCs.The pareidolia test required approximately 15 minutes to administer, exhibited good test-retest/inter-rater reliability (ICC of 0.82, and moderately correlated with the NPI hallucinations score (rs = 0.42. Using an optimal cut-off score set according to the ROC analysis, and the pareidolia test differentiated DLB from AD with a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 92%.Our study suggests that the simplified version of the pareidolia test is a valid and reliable surrogate marker of visual hallucinations in DLB.

  20. Influence of PBL with open-book tests on knowledge retention measured with progress tests. (United States)

    Heijne-Penninga, M; Kuks, J B M; Hofman, W H A; Muijtjens, A M M; Cohen-Schotanus, J


    The influence of problem-based learning (PBL) and open-book tests on long-term knowledge retention is unclear and subject of discussion. Hypotheses were that PBL as well as open-book tests positively affect long-term knowledge retention. Four progress test results of fifth and sixth-year medical students (n = 1,648) of three medical schools were analyzed. Two schools had PBL driven curricula, and the third one had a traditional curriculum (TC). One of the PBL schools (PBLob) used a combination of open-book (assessing backup knowledge) and closed-book tests (assessing core knowledge); the other two schools (TC and PBLcb) only used closed-book tests. The items of the progress tests were divided into core and backup knowledge. T tests (with Bonferroni correction) were used to analyze differences between curricula. PBL students performed significantly better than TC students on core knowledge (average effect size (av ES) = 0.37-0.74) and PBL students tested with open-book tests scored somewhat higher than PBL students tested without such tests (av ES = 0.23-0.30). Concerning backup knowledge, no differences were found between the scores of the three curricula. Students of the two PBL curricula showed a substantially better long-term knowledge retention than TC students. PBLob students performed somewhat better on core knowledge than PBLcb students. These outcomes suggest that a problem-based instructional approach in particular can stimulate long-term knowledge retention. Distinguishing knowledge into core and backup knowledge and using open-book tests alongside closed-book tests could enhance long-term core knowledge retention.

  1. Development and initial testing of a pulse oximetry prototype for measuring dental pulp vitality (United States)

    Cerqueira, M.; Ferreira, M.; Caramelo, F.


    The guiding principle of endodontic treatment is to preserve teeth while maintaining its aesthetic and functional roles. To accomplish this goal the assessment of teeth pulp vitality is very important since it will determine the procedures that should be adopted and define the therapy strategy. Currently, the most commonly tests for determining dental pulp state are the thermal and the electrical tests, which are based on nerve response and, because of that, have a relatively high rate of false positives and false negatives cases. In this work we present a simple test to be used in the clinical setting for evaluating noninvasively the existence of blood perfusion in dental pulp. This test is based on pulse oximetry principle that was devised to indirectly measure the amount of oxygen in blood. Although pulse oximetry has already demonstrated its usefulness in clinical environment its usage for the determination of dental pulp vitality has been frustrated by several factors, notably the absence of a suitable sensor to the complex shape of the various coronary teeth. We developed a suitable sensor and present the first trials with promising results, regarding the ability for distinguish teeth with and without blood perfusion.

  2. Kernel machine testing for risk prediction with stratified case cohort studies. (United States)

    Payne, Rebecca; Neykov, Matey; Jensen, Majken Karoline; Cai, Tianxi


    Large assembled cohorts with banked biospecimens offer valuable opportunities to identify novel markers for risk prediction. When the outcome of interest is rare, an effective strategy to conserve limited biological resources while maintaining reasonable statistical power is the case cohort (CCH) sampling design, in which expensive markers are measured on a subset of cases and controls. However, the CCH design introduces significant analytical complexity due to outcome-dependent, finite-population sampling. Current methods for analyzing CCH studies focus primarily on the estimation of simple survival models with linear effects; testing and estimation procedures that can efficiently capture complex non-linear marker effects for CCH data remain elusive. In this article, we propose inverse probability weighted (IPW) variance component type tests for identifying important marker sets through a Cox proportional hazards kernel machine (CoxKM) regression framework previously considered for full cohort studies (Cai et al., 2011). The optimal choice of kernel, while vitally important to attain high power, is typically unknown for a given dataset. Thus, we also develop robust testing procedures that adaptively combine information from multiple kernels. The proposed IPW test statistics have complex null distributions that cannot easily be approximated explicitly. Furthermore, due to the correlation induced by CCH sampling, standard resampling methods such as the bootstrap fail to approximate the distribution correctly. We, therefore, propose a novel perturbation resampling scheme that can effectively recover the induced correlation structure. Results from extensive simulation studies suggest that the proposed IPW CoxKM testing procedures work well in finite samples. The proposed methods are further illustrated by application to a Danish CCH study of Apolipoprotein C-III markers on the risk of coronary heart disease. © 2015, The International Biometric Society.

  3. Gonorrhea and Chlamydia Case Detection Increased When Testing Increased in a Multisite US HIV Cohort, 2004-2014. (United States)

    Raifman, Julia R; Gebo, Kelly A; Mathews, William Christopher; Korthuis, Philip Todd; Ghanem, Khalil G; Aberg, Judith A; Moore, Richard D; Nijhawan, Ank E; Monroe, Anne K; Berry, Stephen A


    Annual screening for gonorrhea [Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG)] and chlamydia [Chlamydia trachomatis (CT)] is recommended for all sexually active persons living with HIV but is poorly implemented. Studies demonstrating no increases in NG and/or CT (NG/CT) case detection in clinics that successfully expanded NG/CT screening raise questions about this broad screening approach. We evaluated NG/CT case detection in the HIV Research Network during 2004-2014, a period of expanding testing. We analyzed linear time trends in annual testing (patients tested divided by all patients in care), test positivity (patients positive divided by all tested), and case detection (the number of patients with a positive result divided by all patients in care) using multivariate repeated measures logistic regression. We determined trends overall and stratified by men who have sex with men (MSM), men who have sex exclusively with women, and women. Among 15,614 patients (50% MSM, 26% men who have sex exclusively with women, and 24% women), annual NG/CT testing increased from 22% in 2004 to 60% in 2014 [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) per year 1.22 (1.21-1.22)]. Despite the increase in testing, test positivity also increased [AOR per year 1.10 (1.07-1.12)], and overall case detection increased from 0.8% in 2004 to 3.9% in 2014 [AOR per year 1.20 (1.17-1.22)]. Case detection was highest among MSM but increased over time among all 3 groups. NG/CT case detection increased as testing expanded in the population. This supports a broad approach to NG/CT screening among persons living with HIV to decrease transmission and complications of NG/CT and of HIV.

  4. Ceftriaxone Induced Hypersensitivity Reactions Following Intradermal Skin Test: Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sereen Rose Thomson


    Full Text Available The incidence of cephalosporin induced hypersensitivity reactions in non-penicillin allergic patients is about 1.7% and in penicillin allergic patients it is about 3-5%. Infact, cephalosporins are considered as the first choice in penicillin allergic patients who need antibiotic therapy intraoperatively. Prompt identification of patients with beta-lactam allergy would lead to an improved utilization of antibiotics and reduced occurrence of resistant strains. We hereby attempt to present a series of cases where ceftriaxone has been implicated in the manifestation of various hypersensitivity reactions. We have also tried to highlight some of the errors, risk factors and other drugs that precipitate a hypersensitivity reaction.

  5. The case for bilingual language tests: a study of test adaptation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The justification for the use of language tests in education in multilingual and multicultural societies needs to include both the aims of bilingual education, and evidence that the international standards for tests that are available in two or more languages are being met. In multilingual and multicultural societies, language tests ...

  6. Proficiency test for radioactivity measurements in nuclear medicine


    Iwahara, Akira; Tauhata, Luiz; Oliveira, Antonio Eduardo de; Nícoli, Ieda Gomes; Alabarse, Frederico Gil; Xavier, Ana Maria


    OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desempenho dos calibradores de radionuclídeos de 55 serviços de medicina nuclear brasileiros em medição de atividade de radiofármaco contendo 99Tc m. Testes de proficiência foram aplicados em 63 resultados originados do programa de comparação promovido pelo Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes do Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: O desempenho foi avaliado em relação ao critério de aceitação de ±10% de exatidão exigido pela...

  7. Simulation of Simple Test Case 2D1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, M.; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The turbulent flow pattern is calculated with a low Re number version of the k-∈ model in a room with two-dimensional isothermal flow. The results are compared both to LDA measurements obtained in a scale model and to other data obtained by numerical simulation. The overall performance is good an...

  8. Composite Case Development for Weapons Applications and Testing (United States)


    pressure to which the gas is compressed, and is measured typically by a magnetic pickup [19]. This impact produces a compression pulse which travels...nanotube-filled epoxy resin under high strain rates,” Textile Research Journal, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 36–50, Jan. 2015. [7] S. Thiruppukuzhi and C

  9. Measuring Graph Literacy without a Test: A Brief Subjective Assessment. (United States)

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Cokely, Edward T; Ghazal, Saima; Joeris, Alexander


    Visual aids tend to help diverse and vulnerable individuals understand risk communications, as long as these individuals have a basic understanding of graphs (i.e., graph literacy). Tests of objective graph literacy (OGL) can effectively identify individuals with limited skills, highlighting vulnerabilities and facilitating custom-tailored risk communication. However, the administration of these tests can be time-consuming and may evoke negative emotional reactions (e.g., anxiety). To evaluate a brief and easy-to-use assessment of subjective graph literacy (SGL) (i.e., self-reported ability to process and use graphically presented information) and to estimate the robustness and validity of the SGL scale and compare it with the leading OGL scale in diverse samples from different cultures. Demographically diverse residents (n = 470) of the United States, young adults (n = 172) and patients (n = 175) from Spain, and surgeons (n = 175) from 48 countries. A focus group and 4 studies for instrument development and initial validation (study 1), reliability and convergent and discriminant validity evaluation (study 2), and predictive validity estimation (studies 3 and 4). Psychometric properties of the scale. In about 1 minute, the SGL scale provides a reliable, robust, and valid assessment of skills and risk communication preferences and evokes fewer negative emotional reactions than the OGL scale. The SGL scale can be suitable for use in clinical research and may be useful as a communication aid in clinical practice. Theoretical mechanisms involved in SGL, emerging applications, limitations, and open questions are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. AVNG as a Test Case for Cooperative Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, S J


    Designing a measurement system that might be used in a nuclear facility is a challenging, if not daunting, proposition. The situation is made more complicated when the system needs to be designed to satisfy the disparate requirements of a monitoring and a host party - a relationship that could prove to be adversarial. The cooperative design of the elements of the AVNG (Attribute Verification with Neutrons and Gamma Rays) system served as a crucible that exercised the possible pitfalls in the design and implementation of a measurement system that could be used in a host party nuclear facility that satisfied the constraints of operation for both the host and monitoring parties. Some of the issues that needed to be addressed in the joint design were certification requirements of the host party and the authentication requirements of the monitoring party. In this paper the nature of the problem of cooperative design will be introduced. The details of cooperative design revolve around the idiosyncratic nature of the adversarial relationship between the parties involved in a possible measurement regime, particularly if measurements on items that may contain sensitive information are being pursued. The possibility of an adversarial interaction is more likely if an information barrier is required for the measurement system. The origin of the antagonistic elements of the host party and hosted party relationship will be considered. In addition, some of the conclusions will be presented that make cooperative design (and development) proceed more efficiently. Finally, some lessons learned will be presented as a result of this expedition into cooperative design.

  11. A test for genetic association that incorporates information about deviation from Hardy-Weinberg proportions in cases. (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Shete, Sanjay


    For assessment of genetic association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and disease status, the logistic-regression model or generalized linear model is typically employed. However, testing for deviation from Hardy-Weinberg proportion in a patient group could be another approach for genetic-association studies. The Hardy-Weinberg proportion is one of the most important principles in population genetics. Deviation from Hardy-Weinberg proportion among cases (patients) could provide additional evidence for the association between SNPs and diseases. To develop a more powerful statistical test for genetic-association studies, we combined evidence about deviation from Hardy-Weinberg proportion in case subjects and standard regression approaches that use case and control subjects. In this paper, we propose two approaches for combining such information: the mean-based tail-strength measure and the median-based tail-strength measure. These measures integrate logistic regression and Hardy-Weinberg-proportion tests for the study of the association between a binary disease outcome and an SNP on the basis of case- and control-subject data. For both mean-based and median-based tail-strength measures, we derived exact formulas to compute p values. We also developed an approach for obtaining empirical p values with the use of a resampling procedure. Results from simulation studies and real-disease studies demonstrate that the proposed approach is more powerful than the traditional logistic-regression model. The type I error probabilities of our approach were also well controlled.

  12. Proposing and testing SOA governance process: A case study approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koumaditis, Konstantinos; Themistocleous, Marinos


    Longstanding Healthcare Information Systems (HIS) integration challenges drove healthcare organisations to invest in new paradigms like Service Oriented Architecture (SOA). Yet, SOA holds challenges of its own, with SOA Governance surfacing on the top. This research depicts the development......, grounded in the normative literature and further developed to include healthcare aspects. The proposition is tested in a large Greek hospital utilising qualitative methods and the findings presented herein. This proposal aims to pinpoint attributes and guidelines for SOA Governance Process, required...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Jobbágy


    Full Text Available During the cultivation of crops, irrigation is included in necessary working operations like tillage, fertilization and sowing. For irrigation, we require the highest quality of work. Therefore, in this contribution, we focused on monitoring the quality of work of a hose reel irrigation machine. For determining the longitudinal uniformity of winding a hose on a reel, the development of a digital device was necessary. During the development, we had to design its two basic parts – the hardware and software. After construction of the device, its function was tested directly in working conditions of the particular reel hose irrigation machine. The results of our developed device were compared with the results of the Ecostar 4000 (Bauer, Austria microcomputer, both with the same hose winding speed. On the microcomputer, we set the hose winding speed to +2.1 m*h-1. The average measured value of speed using the first device Speedmeter SM1 (2000, KSVS was 11.7 m*h-1. The difference between the set and measured speed was 0.4 m*h-1 (absolute error of measurement, the relative error of measurement was 3.42 %. In the second case, the measurement was performed using a more modern device – Speedmeter SM2, which allows saving of results into its internal memory (2012, KSVS. The average measured value of winding speed was 12.26 m*h-1, which represents the relative error of measurement 2.77 % compared to the set value of 12.6 m*h-1. Based on the results obtained, we recommend the maintenance of the irrigation machine.

  14. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibration and Test Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, P. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)


    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count rate data expressed in counts per second (cps) needs to be converted to the terrestrial component of the exposure rate 1 m above ground, or surface activity of isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, as the production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish very early into the event a common calibration line. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements. This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  15. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibrations and Test Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, Piotr T. [National Security Technologies, LLC


    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima NPP accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination, a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count data, expressed in counts per second (cps), need to be converted to a terrestrial component of the exposure rate at 1 meter (m) above ground, or surface activity of the isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large-scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, because production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish a common calibration line very early into the event. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and that are potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  16. The universe of ANA testing: a case for point-of-care ANA testing. (United States)

    Konstantinov, Konstantin N; Rubin, Robert L


    Testing for total antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is a critical tool for diagnosis and management of autoimmune diseases at both the primary care and subspecialty settings. Repurposing of ANA from a test for lupus to a test for any autoimmune condition has driven the increase in ANA requests. Changes in ANA referral patterns include early or subclinical autoimmune disease detection in patients with low pre-test probability and use of negative ANA results to rule out underlying autoimmune disease. A positive result can lead to further diagnostic considerations. Currently, ANA tests are performed in centralized laboratories; an alternative would be ANA testing at the clinical point-of-care (POC). By virtue of its near real-time data collection capability, low cost, and ease of use, we believe the POC ANA has the potential to enable a new paradigm shift in autoimmune serology testing.

  17. Measurement of Dam Deformations: Case Study of Obruk Dam (Turkey) (United States)

    Gulal, V. Engin; Alkan, R. Metin; Alkan, M. Nurullah; İlci, Veli; Ozulu, I. Murat; Tombus, F. Engin; Kose, Zafer; Aladogan, Kayhan; Sahin, Murat; Yavasoglu, Hakan; Oku, Guldane


    In the literature, there is information regarding the first deformation and displacement measurements in dams that were conducted in 1920s Switzerland. Todays, deformation measurements in the dams have gained very different functions with improvements in both measurement equipment and evaluation of measurements. Deformation measurements and analysis are among the main topics studied by scientists who take interest in the engineering measurement sciences. The Working group of Deformation Measurements and Analysis, which was established under the International Federation of Surveyors (FIG), carries out its studies and activities with regard to this subject. At the end of the 1970s, the subject of the determination of fixed points in the deformation monitoring network was one of the main subjects extensively studied. Many theories arose from this inquiry, as different institutes came to differing conclusions. In 1978, a special commission with representatives of universities has been established within the FIG 6.1 working group; this commission worked on the issue of determining a general approach to geometric deformation analysis. The results gleaned from the commission were discussed at symposiums organized by the FIG. In accordance with these studies, scientists interested in the subject have begun to work on models that investigate cause and effect relations between the effects that cause deformation and deformation. As of the scientist who interest with the issue focused on different deformation methods, another special commission was established within the FIG engineering measurements commission in order to classify deformation models and study terminology. After studying this material for a long time, the official commission report was published in 2001. In this prepared report, studies have been carried out by considering the FIG Engineering Surveying Commission's report entitled, 'MODELS AND TERMINOLOGY FOR THE ANALYSIS OF GEODETIC MONITORING OBSERVATIONS

  18. Modeling Asteroid Dynamics using AMUSE: First Test Cases (United States)

    Frantseva, Kateryna; Mueller, Michael; van der Tak, Floris; Helmich, Frank P.


    We are creating a dynamic model of the current asteroid population. The goal is to reproduce measured impact rates in the current Solar System, from which we'll derive delivery rates of water and organic material by tracing low-albedo C-class asteroids (using the measured albedo distribution from WISE catalog), the parent bodies of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. Ultimately, we aim at studying the role of "exo-asteroids" in the delivery of water to exoplanets.Our model is set up using the Astrophysical Multipurpose Software Environment (AMUSE; AMUSE provides a common Python wrapper around numerous astrophysical codes including N-body gravity codes such as Mercury and Huayno.We report first results towards a validation of our model: long-term integrations of the planets alone as well as studies of the depletion of the Kirkwood gaps in the asteroid belt. Further model developments will be discussed.

  19. Combining situated Cognitive Engineering with a novel testing method in a case study comparing two infusion pump interfaces. (United States)

    Schnittker, R; Schmettow, M; Verhoeven, F; Schraagen, J M C


    We validated the usability of a new infusion pump interface designed with a situated Cognitive Engineering approach by comparing it to a reference interface using a novel testing method employing repeated measurements and process measures, in addition to traditional outcome measures. The sample consisted of 25 nurses who performed eight critical tasks three times. Performance measures consisted of number and type of errors, deviations from a pre-established normative path solution, task completion times, number of keystrokes, mental effort and preferences in use. Results showed that interaction with the new interface resulted in 18% fewer errors, 90% fewer normative path deviations, 42% lower task completion times, 40% fewer keystrokes, 39% lower mental effort and 76% more subjective preferences in use. These outcomes suggest that within the scope of this case study, combining the situated Cognitive Engineering approach with a novel testing method addresses various shortcomings of earlier testing methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Digital Measuring Devices Used for Injector Hydraulic Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leontiev


    Full Text Available To ensure a high specific impulse of the LRE (liquid-propellant engine chamber it is necessary to have optimally organized combustion of the fuel components. This can be ensured by choosing the optimum geometry of gas-dynamic contour of the LRE combustor, as well as by improving the sputtering processes and mixing the fuel components, for example, by selection of the optimum type, characteristics, and location of injectors on the mixing unit of the chamber.These particular reasons arise the interest in the injector characteristics in terms of science, and technological aspects determine the need for control of underlying design parameters in their manufacture.The objective of this work is to give an experimental justification on used digital measurement instrumentation and research the hydraulic characteristics of injectors.To determine injector parameters most widely were used the units with sectional collectors. A technique to control injector parameters using the sectional collectors involves spraying the liquid by injector at a given pressure drop on it for a certain time (the longer, the higher the accuracy and reliability of the results and then determining the amount of liquid in each section to calculate the required parameters of injector.In this work the liquid flow through the injector was determined by high-precision flowmeters FLONET FN2024.1 of electromagnetic type, which have very high metrological characteristics, in particular a flow rate error does not exceed 0.5% in a range of water flow from Qmin= 0.0028 l/s to Qmax Qmax = 0.28 l/s. To determine the coefficient of uneven spray were used differential pressure sensors DMD 331-ASLX of company "DB Sensors RUS", which have an error of 0.075% with a range of differential pressure 0 ... 5 kPa. Measuring complex MIC-200 of company "NPP Measure" and WinPos software for processing array information provided entry, recording, and processing of all the data of the experiment.In this

  1. Should Test Anxiety Be Measured Differently for Males and Females? Examination of Measurement Bias across Gender on Measures of Test Anxiety for Middle and High School, and College Students (United States)

    Lowe, Patricia A.


    The present study examined measurement invariance across gender and gender differences on two measures of test anxiety developed for U.S. middle and high school, and college students. It was hypothesized that measurement invariance and gender differences would be found on the two measures of test anxiety, suggesting no separate scoring system is…

  2. Situation testing: the case of health care refusal. (United States)

    Després, C; Couralet, P-E


    Situation testing to assess physicians' refusal to provide healthcare is increasingly used in research studies. This paper aims to explain the relevance and limits of this method. Conducted in 2008-2009, this study was designed to assess the rate of healthcare refusal among several categories of private practitioners toward patients covered by the French public means-tested complementary health insurance (CMUc) when they requested a first appointment by phone. The other objectives were to study the determinants of healthcare refusal and assess the method. The study was conducted on a representative sample of Paris-based dentists and physicians in five categories: general practitioners, medical gynecologists, ophthalmologists, radiologists, and dentists. The method was based on two protocols. In the first scenario, an actor pretended to be a CMUc beneficiary and, in the second one, he did not give information about his health coverage but hinted at a low socioeconomic status. The two protocols were compared and procedures checking the relation between refusal and CMUc coverage were implemented in each of them. In the scenario in which the patient declared being a CMUc beneficiary, the results showed different refusal rates depending on the type of practitioner, physician, or dentist, their specialty, and whether or not, they charge more than the standard set fee. In the second scenario, refusal rates were much lower. The comparison of the two protocols seems to confirm the existence of discrimination based on CMUc affiliation rather than patients' socioeconomic status. The discussion presents the limits of situation testing, which remains an experimental instrument because it does not observe reality but reveals behaviors in situation. The findings cannot be extrapolated and are limited in time. The statistical analysis is only valid if the procedure followed is precise and applied consistently using a preset scenario. In addition, the discriminatory nature of the

  3. Test gear and measurements a collection of useful and tested circuit design ideas'

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart OBE DLitthc, David


    This book provides a clear introduction to test gear in the field of electronics. As well as being a first guide to test gear and its use, the book includes much practical information and reference material for the more experienced electronics enthusiast or student.Based on a collection of feature articles originally published in Electronics - the Maplin Magazine, this work by Danny Stewart is sure to be useful to electronics constructors, students and experimenters alike. Details of all the common (and some not-so-common) items of test gear are included, alongside information regarding its us

  4. Applying Multiple Computerized Text-Analytic Measures to Single Psychotherapy Cases (United States)



    The authors applied five different computer-assisted measures for the analysis of textual data to the transcripts of two brief psychotherapies. The five measures involved different computational procedures and were derived from different theoretical backgrounds. The two cases when compared did not show uniform results in their trends over time for any one method. However, examination and comparison of the five measurements for each case yielded convergent phenomena, which could then be validated by other data available for these cases. PMID:22700302

  5. Accuracy of soil heat flux plate measurements in coarse substrates - Field measurements versus a laboratory test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weber, S.; Graf, A.; Heusinkveld, B.G.


    The in-situ performance of heat flux plates within coarse porous substrates might be limited due to poor contact between plate and substrate. We tested this behaviour with a simple laboratory set-up. Two test substrates were placed above a reference material of known thermal conductivity between a

  6. Comparison between ankle proprioception measurements and postural sway test for evaluating ankle instability in subjects with functional ankle instability. (United States)

    Kim, Chang-Yong; Choi, Jong-Duk


    It is important to establish the effective evaluation approaches that are appropriate for measuring ankle proprioception. But, only a few studies used more than one test procedure simultaneously to identify proprioceptive deficits. Further, no data are available on the correlations between the measures of ankle proprioception and postural sway (PS) test in subjects with functional ankle instability (FAI). The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between ankle proprioception measurements and PS test in subjects with FAI. Of the 79 subjects enrolled in the case-control study, 40 had FAI and 39 were control subjects. Ankle proprioception was evaluated by the angle reproduction (AR), force matching (FM), and the muscle reaction (MR) to sudden ankle inversion tests. For the AR and FM tests, absolute errors (AE) of ankle plantarflexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, and eversion directions were calculated. For the MR test, reaction times and activation of tibialis anterior (TA), peroneus longus (PL), and peroneus brevis (PB) muscles were measured during sudden ankle inversion with a 30° tilting angle. The PS test was investigated by using a force platform during single-limb standing test. Three trials were performed and averaged in each test. Reaction time of the PL (p = 0.006), a variable of MR test, and plantarflexion (p = 0.001, p = 0.009) and eversion (p = 0.016, p = 0.039) error variables of the AR and FM tests differed significantly between the control and FAI groups. Moreover, these variables (r = -0.381 ∼ 0.788, p proprioception measurements were more sensitive and discriminative than others, and could be useful to assess ankle instability, particularly if the method is to be applied in clinical studies and laboratory settings.

  7. Field Tested Service Oriented Robotic Architecture: Case Study (United States)

    Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Utz, Hanz


    This paper presents the lessons learned from six years of experiments with planetary rover prototypes running the Service Oriented Robotic Architecture (SORA) developed by the Intelligent Robotics Group (IRG) at NASA Ames Research Center. SORA relies on proven software methods and technologies applied to the robotic world. Based on a Service Oriented Architecture and robust middleware, SORA extends its reach beyond the on-board robot controller and supports the full suite of software tools used during mission scenarios from ground control to remote robotic sites. SORA has been field tested in numerous scenarios of robotic lunar and planetary exploration. The results of these high fidelity experiments are illustrated through concrete examples that have shown the benefits of using SORA as well as its limitations.

  8. Putting the Alzheimer's cognitive test to the test II: Rasch Measurement Theory. (United States)

    Hobart, Jeremy; Cano, Stefan; Posner, Holly; Selnes, Ola; Stern, Yaakov; Thomas, Ronald; Zajicek, John


    The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Behavior section (ADAS-Cog) is the most widely used measure of cognitive performance in AD clinical trials. This key role has rightly brought its performance under increased scrutiny with recent research using traditional psychometric methods, questioning the ADAS-Cog's ability to adequately measure early-stage disease. However, given the limitations of traditional psychometric approaches, herein we use the more sophisticated Rasch Measurement Theory (RMT) methods to fully examine the strengths and weaknesses of the ADAS-Cog, and identify potential paths toward its improvement. We analyzed AD Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) ADAS-Cog data (675 measurements across four time-points over 2 years) from the AD participants. RMT analysis was undertaken to examine three broad areas: adequacy of scale-to-sample targeting; degree to which, taken together, the ADAS-Cog items adequately perform as a measuring instrument; and how well the scale measured the subjects in the current sample. The 11 ADAS-Cog components mapped-out a measurement continuum, worked together adequately, and were stable across different time-points and samples. However, the scale did not prove to be a good match to the patient sample supporting previous research. RMT analysis also identified problematic "gaps" and "bunching" of the components across the continuum. Although the ADAS-Cog has the building blocks of a good measurement instrument, this sophisticated analysis confirms limitations with potentially serious implications for clinical trials. Importantly, and unlike traditional psychometric methods, our RMT analysis has provided important clues aimed at solving the measurement problems of the ADAS-Cog. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Design of an Axisymmetric Afterbody Test Case for CFD Validation (United States)

    Disotell, Kevin J.; Rumsey, Christopher L.


    As identified in the CFD Vision 2030 Study commissioned by NASA, validation of advanced RANS models and scale-resolving methods for computing turbulent flow fields must be supported by continuous improvements in fundamental, high-fidelity experiments designed specifically for CFD implementation. In accordance with this effort, the underpinnings of a new test platform referred to herein as the NASA Axisymmetric Afterbody are presented. The devised body-of-revolution is a modular platform consisting of a forebody section and afterbody section, allowing for a range of flow behaviors to be studied on interchangeable afterbody geometries. A body-of-revolution offers advantages in shape definition and fabrication, in avoiding direct contact with wind tunnel sidewalls, and in tail-sting integration to facilitate access to higher Reynolds number tunnels. The current work is focused on validation of smooth-body turbulent flow separation, for which a six-parameter body has been developed. A priori RANS computations are reported for a risk-reduction test configuration in order to demonstrate critical variation among turbulence model results for a given afterbody, ranging from barely-attached to mild separated flow. RANS studies of the effects of forebody nose (with/without) and wind tunnel boundary (slip/no-slip) on the selected afterbody are presented. Representative modeling issues that can be explored with this configuration are the effect of higher Reynolds number on separation behavior, flow physics of the progression from attached to increasingly-separated afterbody flows, and the effect of embedded longitudinal vortices on turbulence structure.

  10. [Dexmedetomidine for neurocognitive testing in awake craniotomy: case report.]. (United States)

    Santos, Marcelo Cursino Pinto Dos; Vinagre, Ronaldo Contreras Oliveira


    Tumor resections in the speech areas of the brain are more safely done using cognitive tests to determine their exact location. Patients must be awake, comfortable, and cooperative for the precise identification of the areas to be preserved. The objective of this report is to present a surgical procedure done with the patient awake, without endotracheal intubation, using sevofluorane initially, followed by dexmedetomidine. This technique allowed the realization of motor and speech evaluation tests. Twenty-seven years old male patient, physical status ASA I, with a brain tumor. In the operating room, without pre-anesthetic medication, midazolam (1 mg) was administered, and general anesthesia was induced with propofol (80 mg). Maintenance was done with O2, N2O, and sevofluorane, with a mask, for catheterization of the right radial artery, introduction of a vesical catheter, and infiltration of the surgical site. This phase lasted around 20 minutes, and the infusion of dexmedetomidine was initiated in the last 10 minutes to maintain a level of sedation Ramsay score 2. Cortical mapping followed (75 minutes). Afterwards, tumor resection was done while the patient remained sedated with higher doses of dexmedetomidine. Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters remained stable, and the procedure was performed without complications, lasting a total of five hours. After the surgical procedure the patient was transferred to the ICU. He did not develop any neurological changes, being discharged to a regular ward the following day. Awake craniotomy with the proper mapping of speech and motor cortical areas was successfully done with the continuous infusion of dexmedetomidine. Both the patient and the surgical team were pleased with the technique.

  11. Measuring Metrics for Social Media Marketing : Case: Marsaana Communications


    Yli-Pietilä, Heidi


    This thesis looks into social media marketing, what relationship public relations has with social media marketing and brand equity. The challenge with utilizing social media marketing is identifying the right tools to use in measuring the success or effectiveness of it. In this thesis I investigate a set of tools a Finnish PR agency could utilize in measuring the effects of their social media marketing efforts on their client’s brand equity. This thesis topics include new media in specifi...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Cristian GRIGORE


    Full Text Available For modeling the reliability, there are used specifically designed computing programs, two situations being possible: complete tests and incomplete tests. However, it is found that in the cases of incomplete tests it is not made distinguish between the censored type testing (which ends when a preset number of products of considered batch failed and the truncated type testing (which ends at a predetermined time moment. In the case of the incomplete type testing, there is not taken into consideration the time interval between the moment of the last failure and the moment of the end of the experiment (the case of truncated type testing. Therefore, based on the realized study, there is proposed a computing algorithm for modeling the reliability through the usual mathematical laws (Weibull, exponential, normal when trying truncated type. The results obtained confirm the usefulness of theoretical and practical computational algorithms proposed

  13. Sequence Diagram Test Case Specification and Virtual Integration Analysis using Timed-Arc Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Sieverding


    Full Text Available In this paper, we formally define Test Case Sequence Diagrams (TCSD as an easy-to-use means to specify test cases for components including timing constraints. These test cases are modeled using the UML2 syntax and can be specified by standard UML-modeling-tools. In a component-based design an early identification of errors can be achieved by a virtual integration of components before the actual system is build. We define such a procedure which integrates the individual test cases of the components according to the interconnections of a given architecture and checks if all specified communication sequences are consistent. Therefore, we formally define the transformation of TCSD into timed-arc Petri nets and a process for the combination of these nets. The applicability of our approach is demonstrated on an avionic use case from the ARP4761 standard.

  14. Front-end Electronics for Unattended Measurement (FEUM). Prototype Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Ryan C.; Morris, Scott J.; Smith, Leon E.; Keller, Daniel T.


    The IAEA has requested that PNNL perform an initial set of tests on front-end electronics for unattended measurement (FEUM) prototypes. The FEUM prototype test plan details the tests to be performed, the criteria for evaluation, and the procedures used to execute the tests.

  15. Using Achievement Tests to Measure Language Assimilation and Language Bias among the Children of Immigrants (United States)

    Akresh, Richard; Akresh, Ilana Redstone


    We measure the extent of language assimilation among children of Hispanic immigrants. Our identification strategy exploits test language randomization (English or Spanish) of Woodcock Johnson achievement tests in the New Immigrant Survey and lets us attribute test score differences solely to test language. Students scoring poorly may be tracked…

  16. Partial discharge measurements on 110kV current transformers. Setting the control value. Case study (United States)

    Dan, C.; Morar, R.


    The case study presents a series of partial discharge measurements, reflecting the state of insulation of 110kV CURRENT TRANSFORMERS located in Sibiu county substations. Measurements were performed based on electrical method, using MPD600: an acquisition and analysis toolkit for detecting, recording, and analyzing partial discharges. MPD600 consists of one acquisition unit, an optical interface and a computer with dedicated software. The system allows measurements of partial discharge on site, even in presence of strong electromagnetic interferences because it provides synchronous acquisition from all measurement points. Therefore, measurements, with the ability to be calibrated, do render: - a value subject to interpretation according to IEC 61869-1:2007 + IEC 61869-2:2012 + IEC 61869-3:2011 + IEC 61869-5:2011 and IEC 60270: 2000; - the possibility to determine the quantitative limit of PD (a certain control value) to which the equipment can be operated safely and repaired with minimal costs (relative to the high costs implied by eliminating the consequences of a failure) identified empirically (process in which the instrument transformer subjected to the tests was completely destroyed).

  17. Towards Measuring the Abstractness of State Machines based on Mutation Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Baar


    Full Text Available Abstract. The notation of state machines is widely adopted as a formalism to describe the behaviour of systems. Usually, multiple state machine models can be developed for the very same software system. Some of these models might turn out to be equivalent, but, in many cases, different state machines describing the same system also differ in their level of abstraction. In this paper, we present an approach to actually measure the abstractness level of state machines w.r.t. a given implemented software system. A state machine is considered to be less abstract when it is conceptionally closer to the implemented system. In our approach, this distance between state machine and implementation is measured by applying coverage criteria known from software mutation testing. Abstractness of state machines can be considered as a new metric. As for other metrics as well, a known value for the abstractness of a given state machine allows to assess its quality in terms of a simple number. In model-based software development projects, the abstract metric can help to prevent model degradation since it can actually measure the semantic distance from the behavioural specification of a system in form of a state machine to the current implementation of the system. In contrast to other metrics for state machines, the abstractness cannot be statically computed based on the state machine’s structure, but requires to execute both state machine and corresponding system implementation. The article is published in the author’s wording. 

  18. Probing virginity testing on girl child: the case of KwaZulu-Natal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probing virginity testing on girl child: the case of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Tsetselelani Decide Mdhluli, Kugara Stewart Lee, P Matshidze. Abstract. Virginity testing is defined as “a practice and process of inspecting the genitalia of unmarried girls and women to determine if they are sexually active. Virginity testing is a ...

  19. JPL field measurements at the Finney County, Kansas, test site, October 1976: Ground-based microwave radiometric measurements (United States)

    Njoku, E. G.; Yamane, N. I.


    Microwave brightness temperature measurements were made as part of the Joint Soil Moisture Experiment. These measurements are reported with a description of the JPL microwave radiometry van facility. The data will be used with ground truth data from the test site and microwave data from aircraft overflights to investigate the potential of microwave radiometry for soil moisture remote sensing under field conditions.

  20. Library performance measurement : the case of academic libraries (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melita Ambrožič


    Full Text Available The article discusses theoretical and practical approaches to the problems of assessing performance of academic libraries and library performance indicators in general. The author emphasises the importance of a systematic evaluation of library's activities and the use of modern management methods, of which the process of library performance measurement is an integral part. The role of library statistics as a method of quantitative representation of the library's activities is presented and the meaning of professional standards and accreditation procedures in the evaluation process is assessed. The article also presents some projects and actual examples of library performance measurement globally and in Slovenia, as well as some suggestions for performance indicators.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Living in a society where knowledge is the main factor that ensures success, the education is vital in the formation of human resources. The present paper aims to illustrate the main issues that create a linkage between human capital and the overall development of both enterprises and society, on the purpose to attract o little more attention for this category of resources. We try to highlight the importance of the human development index and also its representativeness in the case of Romania

  2. Standard test method for measuring waste glass or glass ceramic durability by vapor hydration test

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 The vapor hydration test method can be used to study the corrosion of a waste forms such as glasses and glass ceramics upon exposure to water vapor at elevated temperatures. In addition, the alteration phases that form can be used as indicators of those phases that may form under repository conditions. These tests; which allow altering of glass at high surface area to solution volume ratio; provide useful information regarding the alteration phases that are formed, the disposition of radioactive and hazardous components, and the alteration kinetics under the specific test conditions. This information may be used in performance assessment (McGrail et al, 2002 (1) for example). 1.2 This test method must be performed in accordance with all quality assurance requirements for acceptance of the data. 1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practice...

  3. Testing Measurement Invariance Using MIMIC: Likelihood Ratio Test with a Critical Value Adjustment (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sook; Yoon, Myeongsun; Lee, Taehun


    Multiple-indicators multiple-causes (MIMIC) modeling is often used to test a latent group mean difference while assuming the equivalence of factor loadings and intercepts over groups. However, this study demonstrated that MIMIC was insensitive to the presence of factor loading noninvariance, which implies that factor loading invariance should be…

  4. Test, measurement and evaluation with the mine boot test and evaluation system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramaloko, PM


    Full Text Available Protective footwear that mitigates the shock transferred to the victim’s leg during an antipersonnel landmine blast need to be evaluated to verify their protection levels. The Mine Boot Test and Evaluation System which include a surrogate lower leg...

  5. Measuring and Benchmarking Public Service Organizations : Case studies of back office measurement in Pakistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maheshwari, D.


    Most measurement instruments in e-government focus on easily visible aspects and do not measure deep within organizations. In contrast the measurement instrument presented in this thesis focused on measuring elements within organizations. This requires different type of methods which goes beyond

  6. Test-Cost-Sensitive Attribute Reduction of Data with Normal Distribution Measurement Errors


    Hong Zhao; Fan Min; William Zhu


    The measurement error with normal distribution is universal in applications. Generally, smaller measurement error requires better instrument and higher test cost. In decision making based on attribute values of objects, we shall select an attribute subset with appropriate measurement error to minimize the total test cost. Recently, error-range-based covering rough set with uniform distribution error was proposed to investigate this issue. However, the measurement errors satisfy normal distrib...

  7. Measuring Business Skills Cognition:The Case of Informal Sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major concerns has been the cognitive abilities of the participants of this sector, especially in view of the liberalised and highly competitive nature of business operations today. This paper presents and discusses findings of a study on measuring Business Skills Cognition among informal sector business owners.

  8. Molecular heterogeneity at the network level: high-dimensional testing, clustering and a TCGA case study. (United States)

    Städler, Nicolas; Dondelinger, Frank; Hill, Steven M; Akbani, Rehan; Lu, Yiling; Mills, Gordon B; Mukherjee, Sach


    Molecular pathways and networks play a key role in basic and disease biology. An emerging notion is that networks encoding patterns of molecular interplay may themselves differ between contexts, such as cell type, tissue or disease (sub)type. However, while statistical testing of differences in mean expression levels has been extensively studied, testing of network differences remains challenging. Furthermore, since network differences could provide important and biologically interpretable information to identify molecular subgroups, there is a need to consider the unsupervised task of learning subgroups and networks that define them. This is a nontrivial clustering problem, with neither subgroups nor subgroup-specific networks known at the outset. We leverage recent ideas from high-dimensional statistics for testing and clustering in the network biology setting. The methods we describe can be applied directly to most continuous molecular measurements and networks do not need to be specified beforehand. We illustrate the ideas and methods in a case study using protein data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). This provides evidence that patterns of interplay between signalling proteins differ significantly between cancer types. Furthermore, we show how the proposed approaches can be used to learn subtypes and the molecular networks that define them. As the Bioconductor package nethet. or Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  9. A framework for assessing health system resilience in an economic crisis: Ireland as a test case. (United States)

    Thomas, Steve; Keegan, Conor; Barry, Sarah; Layte, Richard; Jowett, Matt; Normand, Charles


    The financial crisis that hit the global economy in 2007 was unprecedented in the post war era. In general the crisis has created a difficult environment for health systems globally. The purpose of this paper is to develop a framework for assessing the resilience of health systems in terms of how they have adjusted to economic crisis. Resilience can be understood as the capacity of a system to absorb change but continue to retain essentially the same identity and function. The Irish health system is used as a case study to assess the usefulness of this framework. The authors identify three forms of resilience: financial, adaptive and transformatory. Indicators of performance are presented to allow for testing of the framework and measurement of system performance. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used to yield data for the Irish case study. Quantitative data were collected from government documents and sources to understand the depth of the recession and the different dimensions of the response. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key decision makers to understand the reasons for decisions made. In the Irish case there is mixed evidence on resilience. Health funding was initially protected but was then followed by deep cuts as the crisis deepened. There is strong evidence for adaptive resilience, with the health system showing efficiency gains from the recession. Nevertheless, easy efficiencies have been made and continued austerity will mean cuts in entitlements and services. The prospects for building and maintaining transformatory resilience are unsure. While the direction of reform is clear, and has been preserved to date, it is not certain whether it will remain manageable given continued austerity, some loss of sovereignty and capacity limitations. The three aspects of resilience proved a useful categorisation of performance measurement though there is overlap between them. Transformatory resilience may be more difficult to assess

  10. Measuring language attitudes. The case of Trasianka in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sender, Natallia


    Full Text Available In contemporary Belarus there are currently two languages being predominantly used: Russian and Belarusian. Besides dialects and other varieties there is to be found a variety called Trasianka, which is widespread throughout the country. Trasianka can be considered as a variety built of elements from other varieties in Belarus, but mainly from Russian and Belarusian. Originally the term Trasianka stems from agriculture describing a 'mixed fodder of poor quality'. Language attitudes towards this variety have hardly been examined thus far. In a recent study based on the matched-guise technique, 227 Belarusian adolescents listened to and evaluated a female speaker reading the same text in Russian, Belarusian and Trasianka. When the speaker used Trasianka, she was given low ratings by test participants in matters of socio-structural issues such as profession and education. Regarding competence, the test participants assumed that the Trasianka speaker was less qualified, as shown by answers to a question on competencies in foreign languages. Finally, the test participants were more reluctant to accept the Trasianka speaker as a neighbor. With this responsiveness, they performed a bigger social distance. By these findings, there is ample reason to conclude that there are negative attitudes existing amongst today's population in Belarus regarding speakers of Trasianka.

  11. Field Measurements of PCB emissions from Building Surfaces Using a New Portable Emission Test Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Haven, Rune; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo


    Danish elementary school. The emission test cell was capable of measuring widely varying specific emission rates of PCBtotal (8-3357 ng/(m2·h)). Remediated measures were found to reduce the emission rates by more than 96% compared with similar untreated surfaces. Emission rates may be affected......The purpose of the study was to measure PCB-emission rates from indoor surfaces on-site in contaminated buildings using a newly developed portable emission test cell. Emission rates were measured from six different surfaces; three untreated surfaces and three remediated surfaces in a contaminated...... by the conditions in the test cell (such as clean air and increased air velocity) and thereby potentially be different without the test cell attached to the surface. Still the measured emission rates obtained by using the test cell are valuable for determination of mitigation strategies. Additionally the test cell...

  12. The case test-negative design for studies of the effectiveness of influenza vaccine. (United States)

    Foppa, Ivo M; Haber, Michael; Ferdinands, Jill M; Shay, David K


    A modification to the case-control study design has become popular to assess vaccine effectiveness (VE) against viral infections. Subjects with symptomatic illness seeking medical care are tested by a highly specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of the infection of interest. Cases are subjects testing positive for the virus; those testing negative represent the comparison group. Influenza and rotavirus VE studies using this design are often termed "test-negative case-control" studies, but this design has not been formally described or evaluated. We explicitly state several assumptions of the design and examine the conditions under which VE estimates derived with it are valid and unbiased. We derived mathematical expressions for VE estimators obtained using this design and examined their statistical properties. We used simulation methods to test the validity of the estimators and illustrate their performance using an influenza VE study as an example. Because the marginal ratio of cases to non-cases is unknown during enrollment, this design is not a traditional case-control study; we suggest the name "case test-negative" design. Under sets of increasingly general assumptions, we found that the case test-negative design can provide unbiased VE estimates. However, differences in health care-seeking behavior among cases and non-cases by vaccine status, strong viral interference, or modification of the probability of symptomatic illness by vaccine status can bias VE estimates. Vaccine effectiveness estimates derived from case test-negative studies are valid and unbiased under a wide range of assumptions. However, if vaccinated cases are less severely ill and seek care less frequently than unvaccinated cases, then an appropriate adjustment for illness severity is required to avoid bias in effectiveness estimates. Viral interference will lead to a non-trivial bias in the vaccine effectiveness estimate from case test-negative studies only when

  13. Local and omnibus goodness-of-fit tests in classical measurement error models

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan


    We consider functional measurement error models, i.e. models where covariates are measured with error and yet no distributional assumptions are made about the mismeasured variable. We propose and study a score-type local test and an orthogonal series-based, omnibus goodness-of-fit test in this context, where no likelihood function is available or calculated-i.e. all the tests are proposed in the semiparametric model framework. We demonstrate that our tests have optimality properties and computational advantages that are similar to those of the classical score tests in the parametric model framework. The test procedures are applicable to several semiparametric extensions of measurement error models, including when the measurement error distribution is estimated non-parametrically as well as for generalized partially linear models. The performance of the local score-type and omnibus goodness-of-fit tests is demonstrated through simulation studies and analysis of a nutrition data set.

  14. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Tests Instrumentation for Acoustic and Pressure Measurements (United States)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Counter, Douglas D.


    The Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) was a development test performed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) East Test Area (ETA) Test Stand 116. The test article included a 5% scale Ares I vehicle model and tower mounted on the Mobile Launcher. Acoustic and pressure data were measured by approximately 200 instruments located throughout the test article. There were four primary ASMAT instrument suites: ignition overpressure (IOP), lift-off acoustics (LOA), ground acoustics (GA), and spatial correlation (SC). Each instrumentation suite incorporated different sensor models which were selected based upon measurement requirements. These requirements included the type of measurement, exposure to the environment, instrumentation check-outs and data acquisition. The sensors were attached to the test article using different mounts and brackets dependent upon the location of the sensor. This presentation addresses the observed effect of the sensors and mounts on the acoustic and pressure measurements.

  15. Testing for homogeneity in meta-analysis I. The one-parameter case: standardized mean difference. (United States)

    Kulinskaya, Elena; Dollinger, Michael B; Bjørkestøl, Kirsten


    Meta-analysis seeks to combine the results of several experiments in order to improve the accuracy of decisions. It is common to use a test for homogeneity to determine if the results of the several experiments are sufficiently similar to warrant their combination into an overall result. Cochran's Q statistic is frequently used for this homogeneity test. It is often assumed that Q follows a chi-square distribution under the null hypothesis of homogeneity, but it has long been known that this asymptotic distribution for Q is not accurate for moderate sample sizes. Here, we present an expansion for the mean of Q under the null hypothesis that is valid when the effect and the weight for each study depend on a single parameter, but for which neither normality nor independence of the effect and weight estimators is needed. This expansion represents an order O(1/n) correction to the usual chi-square moment in the one-parameter case. We apply the result to the homogeneity test for meta-analyses in which the effects are measured by the standardized mean difference (Cohen's d-statistic). In this situation, we recommend approximating the null distribution of Q by a chi-square distribution with fractional degrees of freedom that are estimated from the data using our expansion for the mean of Q. The resulting homogeneity test is substantially more accurate than the currently used test. We provide a program available at the Paper Information link at the Biometrics website for making the necessary calculations. © 2010, The International Biometric Society.

  16. Combining Blink, Pupil, and Response Time Measures in a Concealed Knowledge Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis eSeymour


    Full Text Available The response time (RT based Concealed Knowledge Test (CKT has been shown to accurately detect participants’ knowledge of mock-crime related information. Tests based on ocular measures such as pupil size and blink rate have sometimes resulted in poor classification, or lacked detailed classification analyses. The present study examines the fitness of multiple pupil and blink related responses in the CKT paradigm. To maximize classification efficiency, participants’ concealed knowledge was assessed using both individual test measures and combinations of test measures. Results show that individual pupil-size, pupil-slope, and pre-response blink-rate measures produce efficient classifications. Combining pupil and blink measures yielded more accuracy classifications than individual ocular measures. Although RT-based tests proved efficient, combining RT with ocular measures had little incremental benefit. It is argued that covertly assessing ocular measures during RT-based tests may guard against effective countermeasure use in applied settings. A compound classification procedure was used to categorize individual participants and yielded high hit rates and low false-alarm rates without the need for adjustments between test paradigms or subject populations. We conclude that with appropriate test paradigms and classification analyses, ocular measures may prove as effective as other indices, though additional research is needed.

  17. Measurement equivalence of neuropsychological tests across education levels in older adults. (United States)

    Brewster, Paul W H; Tuokko, Holly; MacDonald, Stuart W S


    The objective was to determine whether neuropsychological tests provide an equivalent measure of the same psychological constructs in older adults with low versus higher levels of education. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate the fit of a three-factor model (Verbal Ability, Visuospatial Ability, Long-Term Retention) to scores from the neuropsychological battery of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA). Measurement equivalence of the model across lower educated (LE; ≤8 years) and higher educated (HE; ≥9 years) participants was evaluated using invariance testing. The measurement model demonstrated adequate fit across LE and HE samples but the loadings of the 11 tests onto the three factors could not be constrained equally across groups. Animal Fluency and the Token Test were identified as noninvariant tests of Verbal Ability that, when freed from constraints, produced a partial metric invariance model. Scalar invariance testing identified the Buschke Cued Recall Test and Block Design as measures with invariant factor loadings but noninvariant intercepts. Analyses were replicated in age- and sex-matched subsamples. Metric and scalar invariance across HE and LE samples was achieved for seven of the 11 tests in the CSHA battery. Animal Fluency and the Token Test were noninvariant measures of Verbal Ability, suggesting that cognitive processes underlying performance on these tests may vary as a function of education. In addition, scores from Block Design and the Buschke Cued Recall Test were observed to differ in their scale of measurement between HE and LE examinees.

  18. Inferring Firn Permeability from Pneumatic Testing: A Case Study on the Greenland Ice Sheet (United States)

    Sommers, Aleah N.; Rajaram, Harihar; Weber, Eliezer P.; MacFerrin, Michael J.; Colgan, William T.; Stevens, C. Max


    Across the accumulation zone of the Greenland ice sheet, summer temperatures can be sufficiently warm to cause widespread melting, as was the case in July 2012 when the entire ice sheet experienced a brief episode of enhanced surface ablation. The resulting meltwater percolates into the firn and refreezes, to create ice lenses and layers within the firn column. This is an important process to consider when estimating the surface mass balance of the ice sheet. The rate of meltwater percolation depends on the permeability of the firn, a property that is not well constrained in the presence of refrozen ice layers and lenses. We present a novel, inexpensive method for measuring in-situ firn permeability using pneumatic testing, a well-established technique used in environmental engineering and hydrology. To illustrate the capabilities of this method, we estimate both horizontal and vertical permeability from pilot tests at six sites on the Greenland ice sheet: KAN-U, DYE-2, EKT, NASA-SE, Saddle, and EastGRIP. These sites cover a range of conditions from mostly dry firn (EastGRIP), to firn with several ice layers and lenses from refrozen meltwater (Saddle, NASA-SE, EKT), to firn with extensive ice layers (DYE-2 and KAN-U). The estimated permeability in firn without refrozen ice layers at EastGRIP agrees well with the range previously reported using an air permeameter to measure permeability through firn core samples at Summit, Greenland. At sites with ice lenses or layers, we find high degrees of anisotropy, with vertical permeability much lower than horizontal permeability. Pneumatic testing is a promising and low-cost technique for measuring firn permeability, particularly as meltwater production increases in the accumulation zone and ice layers and lenses from refrozen melt layers become more prevalent. In these initial proof-of-concept tests, the estimated permeabilities represent effective permeability at the meter scale. With appropriately higher vacuum pressures

  19. Measurement of the Resistance of Treated Metal Foils to Scrubbing Abrasion Using a Modified Reciprocating Wear Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jun [ORNL; Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Sikka, Vinod K [ORNL


    A reciprocating wear test method has been developed to evaluate the resistance of metal foils to scrubbing abrasion. Development included the definition of a quantitative measure of the scrubbing resistance. In order to test the ability of the new method to differentiate between surface treatments, four versions of Type 316 stainless steel foils were tested: annealed (A-NT), cold-worked (C-NT), annealed plus a case-hardened (A-T), and cold-worked plus case-hardened (C-T). Measurements were made of their scrubbing resistance using commercial kitchen scrub pads as the counterface material. Results showed that the case-hardening process significantly increased the scrubbing resistance both under dry conditions and with cleaning solutions to lubricate the contact. While this linearly-reciprocating method does not simulate the circular, overlapping motion commonly occurring in service, results indicated that the new test method could sufficiently discriminate levels of two-body abrasion behavior, and therefore can be useful for studying the effects of surface treatments on abrasion resistance.

  20. 10 CFR 431.16 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.16 Section 431.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR... Methods of Determining Efficiency § 431.16 Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. For...

  1. Relationships Between the Gesell School Readiness Test and Standardized Achievement and Intelligence Measures. (United States)

    May, Deborah


    The relationships between the Gesell School Readiness Test and standarized achievement and intelligence measures were examined. Children were tested before kindergarten, at the end of kindergarten, and at the end of first grade. Correlation coefficients varied from grade to grade, but did not show a higher correlation between related measures.…

  2. Writing Multiple-Choice Test Items that Promote and Measure Critical Thinking. (United States)

    Morrison, Susan; Free, Kathleen Walsh


    Presents guidelines for developing multiple-choice tests to measure critical thinking in nursing. Explains the rationale for test items and describes item criteria, including measurement of cognition at the application level and above, multilogical thinking, and high level of discrimination. (Contains 38 references.) (SK)

  3. Electric vehicles in urban areas: test cases using a scenario simulator


    Soares, João; Lobo, Cristina; Morais, H.; Vale, Zita


    Electric vehicles introduction will affect cities environment and urban mobility policies. Network system operators will have to consider the electric vehicles in planning and operation activities due to electric vehicles’ dependency on the electricity grid. The present paper presents test cases using an Electric Vehicle Scenario Simulator (EVeSSi) being developed by the authors. The test cases include two scenarios considering a 33 bus network with up to 2000 electric vehicles in the urba...

  4. Validity evidence for the situational judgment test paradigm in emotional intelligence measurement. (United States)

    Libbrecht, Nele; Lievens, Filip


    To date, various measurement approaches have been proposed to assess emotional intelligence (EI). Recently, two new EI tests have been developed based on the situational judgment test (SJT) paradigm: the Situational Test of Emotional Understanding (STEU) and the Situational Test of Emotion Management (STEM). Initial attempts have been made to examine the construct-related validity of these new tests; we extend these findings by placing the tests in a broad nomological network. To this end, 850 undergraduate students completed a personality inventory, a cognitive ability test, a self-report EI test, a performance-based EI measure, the STEU, and the STEM. The SJT-based EI tests were not strongly correlated with personality and fluid cognitive ability. Regarding their relation with existing EI measures, the tests did not capture the same construct as self-report EI measures, but corresponded rather to performance-based EI measures. Overall, these results lend support for the SJT paradigm for measuring EI as an ability.

  5. Incidence of tuberculosis and the predictive value of ELISPOT and Mantoux tests in Gambian case contacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C Hill


    Full Text Available Studies of Tuberculosis (TB case contacts are increasingly being utilised for understanding the relationship between M. tuberculosis and the human host and for assessing new interventions and diagnostic tests. We aimed to identify the incidence rate of new TB cases among TB contacts and to relate this to their initial Mantoux and ELISPOT test results.After initial Mantoux and ELISPOT tests and exclusion of co-prevalent TB cases, we followed 2348 household contacts of sputum smear positive TB cases. We visited them at 3 months, 6 months, 12 months, 18 months and 24 months, and investigated those with symptoms consistent with TB. Those who were diagnosed separately at a government clinic had a chest x-ray. Twenty six contacts were diagnosed with definite TB over 4312 person years of follow-up (Incidence rate 603/100,000 person years; 95% Confidence Interval, 370-830. Nine index and secondary case pairs had cultured isolates available for genotyping. Of these, 6 pairs were concordant and 3 were discordant. 2.5% of non-progressors were HIV positive compared to 12% of progressors (HR 6.2; 95% CI 1.7-22.5; p = 0.010. 25 secondary cases had initial Mantoux results, 14 (56% were positive ; 21 had initial ELISPOT results, 11 (52% were positive; 15 (71% of 21 tested were positive by one or the other test. Of the 6 contacts who had concordant isolates with their respective index case, 4 (67% were Mantoux positive at recruitment, 3 (50% were ELISPOT positive; 5 (83% were positive by one or other of the two tests. ELISPOT positive contacts, and those with discordant results, had a similar rate of progression to those who were Mantoux positive. Those negative on either or both tests had the lowest rate of progression.The incidence rate of TB disease in Gambian TB case contacts, after screening for co-prevalent cases, was 603/100,000 person years. Since initial ELISPOT test and Mantoux tests were each positive in only just over half of cases, but 71% were

  6. Different haemodynamic patterns in head-up tilt test on 400 paediatric cases with unexplained syncope. (United States)

    Yozgat, Yilmaz; Karadeniz, Cem; Ozdemir, Rahmi; Doksoz, Onder; Kucuk, Mehmet; Karaarslan, Utku; Mese, Timur; Unal, Nurettin


    To assess haemodynamic patterns in head-up tilt testing on 400 paediatric cases with unexplained syncope. Medical records of 520 children who underwent head-up tilt testing in the preceding year were retrospectively evaluated, and 400 children, 264 (66%) girls and 136 (34%) boys, aged 12.6±2.6 years (median 13; range 5-18), with unexplained syncope were enrolled in the study. Age, sex, baseline heart rate, baseline blood pressure, frequency of symptoms, and/or fainting attacks were recorded. The test protocol consisted of 25 minutes of supine resting followed by 20 minutes of 70° upright positioning. Subjects were divided into nine groups according to their differing haemodynamic patterns. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups with regard to age, gender, baseline blood pressure, and frequency of syncope (p>0.05). The response was compatible with orthostatic intolerance in 28 cases (7.0%), postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in 24 cases (6.0%), asymptomatic postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome in 26 cases (6.5%), orthostatic hypotension in seven cases (1.7%), vasovagal syncope in 38 cases (9.5%), and negative in 274 cases (69.2%). Vasovagal syncope response patterns were of type 3 in nine cases (2.2%), type 2A in 10 cases (2.5%), type 2B in two cases (0.5%), and type 1 (mixed) in 17 cases (4.25%). In the 400 paediatric cases with unexplained syncope, nine different haemodynamic response patterns to head-up tilt testing were discerned. Children with orthostatic intolerance syndromes are increasingly referred to hospitals because of difficulty in daily activities. Therefore, there is need for further clinical trials in these patient groups.

  7. Effectiveness of test driven development and continuous integration - a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrit, Chintan; Meijberg, Yoni


    In this article we describe the implementation of hybrid agile practices, namely Test Driven Development (TDD) and Continuous Integration (CI) at a Dutch SME. The quality and productivity outcomes of the case study were compared to a performance baseline set by a reference case, a preceding

  8. High School Economics, Cooperative Learning, and the End-of-Course-Test--A Case Study (United States)

    Beavers, Sharon


    The primary purpose of this twelve-week case study was to explore the use of a cooperative learning strategy with small groups of students in a 12th-grade economics class as diverse learners prepared for tests. The complete case study was based on observations of students, student surveys, focus group interviews, and interviews with educators at…

  9. Mothers Who Kill Their Offspring: Testing Evolutionary Hypothesis in a 110-Case Italian Sample (United States)

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea S.; Fontanesi, Lilybeth


    Objectives: This research aimed to identify incidents of mothers in Italy killing their own children and to test an adaptive evolutionary hypothesis to explain their occurrence. Methods: 110 cases of mothers killing 123 of their own offspring from 1976 to 2010 were analyzed. Each case was classified using 13 dichotomic variables. Descriptive…

  10. The utility of pre-operative haemoglobin testing in adult day-case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective review of the results of preoperative haemoglobin tests of adult day-case surgical patients over a 2-year period was used as tool. Results shows that during the study period, 500 patients underwent day-case surgical procedures under general anaesthesia. Thirty (6%) out of the 500 patients had abnormal ...

  11. [Testing the comparability of free-field and HDA200 headphone measurements for the Freiburg speech test]. (United States)

    Thiele, C; Wardenga, N; Lenarz, T; Büchner, A


    In clinical practice, the standardized Freiburg speech test is presented via headphones as well as via loudspeakers. To achieve comparable results with both presentation modes, the headphone measurements are equated to the free-field situation. The free-field correction is determined by subjective loudness balance measurements and realized by a free-field equalizer network and a broadband frequency correction value during headphone calibration. Using the Freiburg speech test, this study tested the comparability of free-field and HDA200 headphone measurements. In 15 normal hearing subjects, the Freiburg speech intelligibility test was performed using both loudspeakers and HDA200 headphones. The 50% speech reception threshold measured using HDA200 headphones was on average 5.1 dB lower than for loudspeakers and lay below the standardized reference values. The desired comparability to free-field measurements could not be shown for the HDA200 headphones. The improved intelligibility via HDA200 is probably caused by the fact that the calibration correction factor of 4 dB is too high. This should be checked by the PTB.

  12. Calculation of measurement uncertainty for plastic (ABS material in flexural testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunay A.


    Full Text Available In order to determine mechanical properties of materials various kind of tests can be applied by means of using their tensile strength, lower yield stress, proof stress, impact strength, Brinell, Rockwell and surface hardness, elongation after fracture properties. Among these tests, three point flexural testing method has some advantages such as easy preparation (production of samples and no gripping problems comparing to tension test. Flexural tests results should be obtained accurately to provide expected testing performance. The measurement uncertainty of flexural tests should be calculated by conducting all effective uncertainty parameters during the test procedure. In this study, the measurement uncertainty of the flexural test of ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene material was investigated, which is widely used as industrial plastic material in many applications.

  13. Measurement and compensation of horizontal crabbing at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Ehrlichman


    Full Text Available In storage rings, horizontal dispersion in the rf cavities introduces horizontal-longitudinal (xz coupling, contributing to beam tilt in the xz plane. This coupling can be characterized by a “crabbing” dispersion term ζ_{a} that appears in the normal mode decomposition of the 1-turn transfer matrix. ζ_{a} is proportional to the rf cavity voltage and the horizontal dispersion in the cavity. We report experiments at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring Test Accelerator where xz coupling was explored using three lattices with distinct crabbing properties. We characterize the xz coupling for each case by measuring the horizontal projection of the beam with a beam size monitor. The three lattice configurations correspond to (i 16 mrad xz tilt at the beam size monitor source point, (ii compensation of the ζ_{a} introduced by one of two pairs of rf cavities with the second, and (iii zero dispersion in rf cavities, eliminating ζ_{a} entirely. Additionally, intrabeam scattering is evident in our measurements of beam size vs rf voltage.

  14. A Step Towards Electric Propulsion Testing Standards: Pressure Measurements and Effective Pumping Speeds (United States)

    Dankanich, John W.; Swiatek, Michael W.; Yim, John T.


    The electric propulsion community has been implored to establish and implement a set of universally applicable test standards during the research, development, and qualification of electric propulsion systems. Existing practices are fallible and result in testing variations which leads to suspicious results, large margins in application, or aversion to mission infusion. Performance measurements and life testing under appropriate conditions can be costly and lengthy. Measurement practices must be consistent, accurate, and repeatable. Additionally, the measurements must be universally transportable across facilities throughout the development, qualification, spacecraft integration and on-orbit performance. A preliminary step to progress towards universally applicable testing standards is outlined for facility pressure measurements and effective pumping speed calculations. The standard has been applied to multiple facilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Test results and analyses of universality of measurements are presented herein.

  15. Optical Measurement Techniques for Rocket Engine Testing and Component Applications: Digital Image Correlation and Dynamic Photogrammetry (United States)

    Gradl, Paul


    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been advancing dynamic optical measurement systems, primarily Digital Image Correlation, for extreme environment rocket engine test applications. The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technology is used to track local and full field deformations, displacement vectors and local and global strain measurements. This technology has been evaluated at MSFC through lab testing to full scale hotfire engine testing of the J-2X Upper Stage engine at Stennis Space Center. It has been shown to provide reliable measurement data and has replaced many traditional measurement techniques for NASA applications. NASA and AMRDEC have recently signed agreements for NASA to train and transition the technology to applications for missile and helicopter testing. This presentation will provide an overview and progression of the technology, various testing applications at NASA MSFC, overview of Army-NASA test collaborations and application lessons learned about Digital Image Correlation.

  16. The Synthesis of Structural Responses Using Experimentally Measured Frequency Response Functions and Field Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This paper presents an analysis technique used to generate the structural response at locations not measured during the ejection of a captive-carried store. The ejection shock event is complicated by the fact that forces may be imparted to the store at eight distinct locations. The technique derives forcing functions by combining the initial field test data for a limited number of measurement locations with Frequency Response Functions (FRFs) measured using a traditional modal-type impact (tap) test at the same locations. The derived forcing functions were then used with tap test FRFs measured at additional locations of interest to produce the desired response data.

  17. Public hearings as a transparency measure: The Valproate case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllebæk, Mathias


    In line with increasing calls of transparency initiatives across European institutions, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) will on September 26th 2017 host its first public hearing on the regulatory of a drug, namely Valproate. According to the EMA website, the public hearing is intended...... to “increase transparency by opening up the scientific evaluation process” and “[give citizens] a voice in the evaluation of medicines.” This conference paper will present the preliminary results from a rhetorical analysis of the public hearing as a transparency measure. What kind transparency does a public...... hearing provide? How are citizens’ accounts positioned vis-à-vis expert testimonies? Does the public hearing achieve sufficient “hybridity” of its heterogeneous stakeholder group?...

  18. Flexible test automation a software framework for easily developing measurement applications

    CERN Document Server

    Arpaia, Pasquale; De Matteis, Ernesto


    In laboratory management of an industrial test division, a test laboratory, or a research center, one of the main activities is producing suitable software for automatic benches by satisfying a given set of requirements. This activity is particularly costly and burdensome when test requirements are variable over time. If the batches of objects have small size and frequent occurrence, the activity of measurement automation becomes predominating with respect to the test execution. Flexible Test Automation shows the development of a software framework as a useful solution to satisfy this exigency. The framework supports the user in producing measurement applications for a wide range of requirements with low effort and development time.

  19. A generalized Jonckheere test against ordered alternatives for repeated measures in randomized blocks. (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Cabilio, Paul


    Focusing on statistical methods in patient-reported outcomes, we propose and develop a generalized Jonckheere test against ordered alternatives for repeated measures in a randomized block design. We derive its asymptotic null distribution properties and describe methods for estimating the null distribution for testing the hypothesis. We present a numerical example to illustrate the test procedure. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Testing and Measurement Potentials of Microcomputers for Cognitive Style Research and Individualized Instruction. (United States)

    Burroway, Robert L.

    Microcomputer versions of three commonly used cognitive style measurement instruments are described and demonstrated: the Leveling-Sharpening House Test (LSHT) (Santostefano, 1964); Lowenfeld's Successive Impressions Test I (SIT-I) (1945); and the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT) (Witkin, Oltman, Ruskin, and Karp, 1971). At present, many…

  1. A case study for measuring Informal Learning in PLEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. García-Peñalvo


    Full Text Available The technological support for learning and teaching processes is constantly changing. Information and Communication Technologies (ICT applied to education, cause changes that affect the way in which people learn. This application introduces new software systems and solutions to carry out teaching and learning activities. Connected to ICT application, the emergence of Web 2.0 and its use in learning contexts enables an online implementation of the student-centred learning paradigm. In addition, 2.0 trends provide “new” ways to exchange, making easier for informal learning to become patent. Given this context, open and user-centered learning environments are needed to integrate such kinds of tools and trends and are commonly described as Personal Learning Environments. Such environments coexist with the institutional learning management systems and they should interact and exchange information between them. This interaction would allow the assessment of what happens in the personal environment from the institutional side. This article describes a solution to make the interoperability possible between these systems. It is based on a set of interoperability scenarios and some components and communication channels. In order to test the solution it is implemented as a proof of concept and the scenarios are validated through several pilot experiences. In this article one of such scenarios and its evaluation experiment is described to conclude that functionalities from the institutional environments and the personal ones can be combined and it is possible to assess what happens in the activities based on them.

  2. Using the implicit association test to measure self-esteem and self-concept. (United States)

    Greenwald, A G; Farnham, S D


    Experiment 1 used the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. K. Schwartz, 1998) to measure self-esteem by assessing automatic associations of self with positive or negative valence. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that two IAT measures defined a factor that was distinct from, but weakly correlated with, a factor defined by standard explicit (self-report) measures of self-esteem. Experiment 2 tested known-groups validity of two IAT gender self-concept measures. Compared with well-established explicit measures, the IAT measures revealed triple the difference in measured masculinity-femininity between men and women. Again, CFA revealed construct divergence between implicit and explicit measures. Experiment 3 assessed the self-esteem IAT's validity in predicting cognitive reactions to success and failure. High implicit self-esteem was associated in the predicted fashion with buffering against adverse effects of failure on two of four measures.

  3. Testing Measurement Invariance: A Comparison of Multiple-Group Categorical CFA and IRT (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sook; Yoon, Myeongsun


    This study investigated two major approaches in testing measurement invariance for ordinal measures: multiple-group categorical confirmatory factor analysis (MCCFA) and item response theory (IRT). Unlike the ordinary linear factor analysis, MCCFA can appropriately model the ordered-categorical measures with a threshold structure. A simulation…

  4. Museum Exhibition on Testing and Measurement: Scientific Principles, Social Impact of Testing, and Dialogue with the Public (United States)

    Allalouf, Avi; Alderoqui-Pinus, Diana


    This article deals with a pioneering project currently being developed, namely, the Exhibition on Testing and Measurement. This interactive traveling exhibition will be presented in science museums in Israel, the United States, and other countries. It has been conceived as an innovative means of familiarizing the public with educational…

  5. Diagnostic value of a psychological test in cases of suspected child abuse. (United States)

    Geddis, D C; Turner, I F; Eardley, J


    The use of the Bene-Anthony Family Relations Test is described and illustrated by three examples of child abuse. This test should be considered in the investigation of definite or suspected cases of abuse and as part of the preparation of court evidence. PMID:921320

  6. Water and Sediment Output Evaluation Using Cellular Automata on Alpine Catchment: Soana, Italy - Test Case (United States)

    Pasculli, Antonio; Audisio, Chiara; Sciarra, Nicola


    In the alpine contest, the estimation of the rainfall (inflow) and the discharge (outflow) data are very important in order to, at least, analyse historical time series at catchment scale; determine the hydrological maximum and minimum estimate flood and drought frequency. Hydrological researches become a precious source of information for various human activities, in particular for land use management and planning. Many rainfall- runoff models have been proposed to reflect steady, gradually-varied flow condition inside a catchment. In these last years, the application of Reduced Complexity Models (RCM) has been representing an excellent alternative resource for evaluating the hydrological response of catchments, within a period of time up to decades. Hence, this paper is aimed at the discussion of the application of the research code CAESAR, based on cellular automaton (CA) approach, in order to evaluate the water and the sediment outputs from an alpine catchment (Soana, Italy), selected as test case. The comparison between the predicted numerical results, developed through parametric analysis, and the available measured data are discussed. Finally, the analysis of a numerical estimate of the sediment budget over ten years is presented. The necessity of a fast, but reliable numerical support when the measured data are not so easily accessible, as in Alpine catchments, is highlighted.

  7. Metamorphic Testing Integer Overflow Faults of Mission Critical Program: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanwei Hui


    Full Text Available For mission critical programs, integer overflow is one of the most dangerous faults. Different testing methods provide several effective ways to detect the defect. However, it is hard to validate the testing outputs, because the oracle of testing is not always available or too expensive to get, unless the program throws an exception obviously. In the present study, the authors conduct a case study, where the authors apply a metamorphic testing (MT method to detect the integer overflow defect and alleviate the oracle problem in testing critical program of Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS. Experimental results show that, in revealing typical integer mutations, compared with traditional safety property testing method, MT with a novel symbolic metamorphic relation is more effective than the traditional method in some cases.

  8. A case of localized adrenergic urticaria mimicking an allergic reaction to a sweat chloride test. (United States)

    Klebanova, Y; LeGrys, V; Cooper, D; Levy, D; Santora, D; Schwindt, C


    Adrenergic urticaria (AU) is a rare type of physical urticaria triggered by stress. It is frequently confused with IgE-mediated urticaria or other physical urticarias. This report describes a case of localized adrenergic urticaria triggered by a sweat chloride test in an adolescent male with multiple atopic disorders. A pruritic papular rash at the site of a sweat chloride test prompted an evaluation for allergic and physical urticarias using multiple skin test methods. A positive intradermal skin test to noradrenaline, which reproduced the rash observed during the sweat test, lead to the diagnosis of adrenergic urticaria. This is the first case report describing an immediate adrenergic urticarial reaction to sweat chloride testing in a patient with other atopic disorders. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. The value of ultrasonographic measurement in carpal tunnel syndrome in patients with negative electrodiagnostic tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyuncuoglu, Hasan Rifat [Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey); Kutluhan, Suleyman [Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey)]. E-mail:; Yesildag, Ahmet [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey); Oyar, Orhan [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey); Guler, Kezban [Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey); Ozden, Ahmet [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Suleyman Demirel University, Isparta (Turkey)


    The diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is mainly based on clinical findings and electrodiagnostic tests (EDT). However, EDT results do not support clinical findings in some cases. It has been recently suggested that ultrasonography (US) can be used to diagnose CTS. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether US has a diagnostic value for CTS in patients with negative EDT findings or not. EDT was performed on 319 wrists with clinical CTS findings in electrophysiology laboratory. Median and ulnar nerve conduction velocities were measured in all cases and electromyography was performed in patient with tenar atrophy and having suspicion involvement of brachial plexus as EDT. Fifty-nine wrists with negative EDT (study group) and 30 wrists from 15 healthy individuals (control group) were examined using US. The mean of cross-sectional areas (CSAs) measurements were found 8.83 {+-} 3.05 mm{sup 2} by tracing method (TM) and 8.51 {+-} 3.13 mm{sup 2} by ellipsoid formula (EF) in study group, and 7.63 {+-} 1.52 mm{sup 2} by TM and 7.66 {+-} 1.42 mm{sup 2} by EF in control group. The differences between study group and control group according to both TM and EF were significant (t-test p = 0.0079, p = 0.0460, respectively). In study group, CSAs were larger than 10.5 mm{sup 2} in 18 (30.51%) and 16 (27.12%) wrists according to TM and EF findings, respectively, and in only one wrist (3.33%) in control group by both TM and EF. The differences of ultrasonographic CTS numbers between study group and control group were significant (p = 0.0024 by TM, p = 0.0086 by EF). We confirmed the usefulness of quantitative US assessment in the diagnosis of CTS in the patients with negative EDT findings. If EDT findings are inadequate to confirm the CTS in the patients with clinical CTS, US studies may be helpful to diagnose.

  10. Detection of nuclear testing from surface concentration measurements: Analysis of radioxenon from the February 2013 underground test in North Korea (United States)

    Kurzeja, R. J.; Buckley, R. L.; Werth, D. W.; Chiswell, S. R.


    A method is outlined and tested to detect low level nuclear or chemical sources from time series of concentration measurements. The method uses a mesoscale atmospheric model to simulate the concentration signature from a known or suspected source at a receptor which is then regressed successively against segments of the measurement series to create time series of metrics that measure the goodness of fit between the signatures and the measurement segments. The method was applied to radioxenon data from the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) collection site in Ussuriysk, Russia (RN58) after the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) underground nuclear test on February 12, 2013 near Punggye. The metrics were found to be a good screening tool to locate data segments with a strong likelihood of origin from Punggye, especially when multiplied together to a determine the joint probability. Metrics from RN58 were also used to find the probability that activity measured in February and April of 2013 originated from the Feb 12 test. A detailed analysis of an RN58 data segment from April 3/4, 2013 was also carried out for a grid of source locations around Punggye and identified Punggye as the most likely point of origin. Thus, the results support the strong possibility that radioxenon was emitted from the test site at various times in April and was detected intermittently at RN58, depending on the wind direction. The method does not locate unsuspected sources, but instead, evaluates the probability of a source at a specified location. However, it can be extended to include a set of suspected sources. Extension of the method to higher resolution data sets, arbitrary sampling, and time-varying sources is discussed along with a path to evaluate uncertainty in the calculated probabilities.

  11. Investigating the Needs for Measurement and Evaluation Course: A Case Study on English Language Teaching Program (United States)

    Karakus, Memet; Türkkan, Buket Turhan


    This study aims at investigating the needs related to the attainments, content, processes of teaching-learning and measurement-evaluation aspect of Measurement and Evaluation course. This research was designed as a case study which is one of the qualitative research designs. The most common problem in Measurement and Evaluation courses was found…

  12. [*C]octanoic acid breath test to measure gastric emptying rate of solids. (United States)

    Maes, B D; Ghoos, Y F; Rutgeerts, P J; Hiele, M I; Geypens, B; Vantrappen, G


    We have developed a breath test to measure solid gastric emptying using a standardized scrambled egg test meal (250 kcal) labeled with [14C]octanoic acid or [13C]octanoic acid. In vitro incubation studies showed that octanoic acid is a reliable marker of the solid phase. The breath test was validated in 36 subjects by simultaneous radioscintigraphic and breath test measurements. Nine healthy volunteers were studied after intravenous administration of 200 mg erythromycin and peroral administration of 30 mg propantheline, respectively. Erythromycin significantly enhanced gastric emptying, while propantheline significantly reduced gastric emptying rates. We conclude that the [*C]octanoic breath test is a promising and reliable test for measuring the gastric emptying rate of solids.

  13. A systematic review investigating measurement properties of physiological tests in rugby. (United States)

    Chiwaridzo, Matthew; Oorschot, Sander; Dambi, Jermaine M; Ferguson, Gillian D; Bonney, Emmanuel; Mudawarima, Tapfuma; Tadyanemhandu, Cathrine; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M


    This systematic review was conducted with the first objective aimed at providing an overview of the physiological characteristics commonly evaluated in rugby and the corresponding tests used to measure each construct. Secondly, the measurement properties of all identified tests per physiological construct were evaluated with the ultimate purpose of identifying tests with strongest level of evidence per construct. The review was conducted in two stages. In all stages, electronic databases of EBSCOhost, Medline and Scopus were searched for full-text articles. Stage 1 included studies examining physiological characteristics in rugby. Stage 2 included studies evaluating measurement properties of all tests identified in Stage 1 either in rugby or related sports such as Australian Rules football and Soccer. Two independent reviewers screened relevant articles from titles and abstracts for both stages. Seventy studies met the inclusion criteria for Stage 1. The studies described 63 tests assessing speed (8), agility/change of direction speed (7), upper-body muscular endurance (8), upper-body muscular power (6), upper-body muscular strength (5), anaerobic endurance (4), maximal aerobic power (4), lower-body muscular power (3), prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability/endurance (5), lower-body muscular strength (5), repeated high-intensity exercise performance (3), repeated-sprint ability (2), repeated-effort ability (1), maximal aerobic speed (1) and abdominal endurance (1). Stage 2 identified 20 studies describing measurement properties of 21 different tests. Only moderate evidence was found for the reliability of the 30-15 Intermittent Fitness. There was limited evidence found for the reliability and/or validity of 5 m, 10 m, 20 m speed tests, 505 test, modified 505 test, L run test, Sergeant Jump test and bench press repetitions-to-fatigue tests. There was no information from high-quality studies on the measurement properties of all the other tests

  14. The EORTC computer-adaptive tests measuring physical functioning and fatigue exhibited high levels of measurement precision and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, M.A.; Aaronson, N.K.; Arraras, J.I.; Chie, W.C.; Conroy, T.; Costantini, A.; Giesinger, J.M.; Holzner, B.; King, M.T.; Singer, S.; Velikova, G.; de Leeuw, I.M.; Young, T.; Groenvold, M.


    Objectives: The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is developing a computer-adaptive test (CAT) version of the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). We evaluated the measurement properties of the CAT versions of physical functioning (PF)

  15. The EORTC computer-adaptive tests measuring physical functioning and fatigue exhibited high levels of measurement precision and efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, M.A.; Aaronson, N.K.; Arraras, J.I.; Chie, W.C.; Conroy, T.; Constantini, A.; Giesinger, J.M.; Holzner, B.; King, M.T.; Singer, S.; Velikova, G.; Verdonck-de Leeuw, I.M.; Young, T.; Groenvold, M.


    Objectives The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is developing a computer-adaptive test (CAT) version of the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). We evaluated the measurement properties of the CAT versions of physical functioning (PF)

  16. The EORTC computer-adaptive tests measuring physical functioning and fatigue exhibited high levels of measurement precision and efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Aa; Aaronson, Neil K; Arraras, Juan I


    The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is developing a computer-adaptive test (CAT) version of the EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30). We evaluated the measurement properties of the CAT versions of physical functioning (PF) and fati...

  17. Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of Computerized Adaptive Testing: Application to Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (United States)

    Wang, Shudong; McCall, Marty; Jiao, Hong; Harris, Gregg


    The purposes of this study are twofold. First, to investigate the construct or factorial structure of a set of Reading and Mathematics computerized adaptive tests (CAT), "Measures of Academic Progress" (MAP), given in different states at different grades and academic terms. The second purpose is to investigate the invariance of test…

  18. Institutionalizing provider-initiated HIV testing and counselling for children: an observational case study from Zambia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane N Mutanga

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Provider-initiated testing and counselling (PITC is a priority strategy for increasing access for HIV-exposed children to prevention measures, and infected children to treatment and care interventions. This article examines efforts to scale-up paediatric PITC at a second-level hospital located in Zambia's Southern Province, and serving a catchment area of 1.2 million people. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our retrospective case study examined best practices and enabling factors for rapid institutionalization of PITC in Livingstone General Hospital. Methods included clinical observations, key informant interviews with programme management, and a desk review of hospital management information systems (HMIS uptake data following the introduction of PITC. After PITC roll-out, the hospital experienced considerably higher testing uptake. In a 36-month period following PITC institutionalization, of total inpatient children eligible for PITC (n = 5074, 98.5% of children were counselled, and 98.2% were tested. Of children tested (n = 4983, 15.5% were determined HIV-infected; 77.6% of these results were determined by DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR testing in children under the age of 18 months. Of children identified as HIV-infected in the hospital's inpatient and outpatient departments (n = 1342, 99.3% were enrolled in HIV care, including initiation on co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. A number of good operational practices and enabling factors in the Livingstone General Hospital experience can inform rapid PITC institutionalization for inpatient and outpatient children. These include the placement of full-time nurse counsellors at key areas of paediatric intake, who interface with patients immediately and conduct testing and counselling. They are reinforced through task-shifting to peer counsellors in the wards. Nurse counsellor capacity to draw specimen for DNA PCR for children under 18 months has significantly enhanced early


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Carey


    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of measuring both aerobic and anaerobic power in a 60-second, maximal effort test. It was hypothesized that oxygen consumption increases rapidly during maximal effort and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max may be reached in one minute. Fifteen United States Cycling Federation competitive cyclists performed the following tests: 1 practice 60-second maximal exertion test; 2 standard incremental workload VO2 max test; 3 Wingate anaerobic power test (WAT; 4 VO2 measured during 60-second maximal exertion test (60-SEC; and 5 VO2 measured during 75-second maximal exertion test (75-SEC. All tests were performed on an electrically-braked cycle ergometer. Hydrostatic weighing was performed to determine percent body fat. Peak oxygen consumption values for the 60-SEC (53.4 ml·kg-1·min-1, 92% VO2 max, and 75-SEC (52.6 ml·kg-1·min-1, 91% VO2 max tests were significantly lower than VO2 max (58.1 ml·kg-1·min-1. During the 75-SEC test, there was no significant difference in percentage VO2max from 30 seconds to 75 seconds, demonstrating a plateau effect. There were no significant differences in peak power or relative peak power between the Wingate, 60-SEC, and 75 SEC tests while, as expected, mean power, relative mean power, and fatigue index were significantly different between these tests. Power measures were highly correlated among all three tests. It was concluded that VO2 max was not attained during either the 60-SEC nor 75-SEC tests. Furthermore, high correlations in power output for WAT, 60-SEC, and 75-SEC precludes the necessity for anaerobic tests longer than the 30-second WAT.

  20. Well test: production analysis and allocation measurement; Teste de poco: analise da producao e medicao de apropriacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geron, Luis Carlos [Smar Equipamentos Industriais Ltda., Sertaozinho, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Aplicacoes; Tateishi, Sergio Hideki [Smar Equipamentos Industriais Ltda, Sertaozinho, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento


    The well test is an instrument frequently used to evaluate the production capacity of wells and it usually has specific requirements in the flow measurement, that are not necessary in the flow measurement system for custody transfer applications. Starting with the requirement to measure the injected product in the well when it is in the recuperation phase and it also includes compliance to specific standards for allocation measurement, because these hydrocarbon products are not treated as well as that ones in the production streams. Other important issue associated to the well test is the employment of new technologies, that helps to reduce the uncertainty of measurement as digital communication between the field devices and the flow computer through an open protocol as the Foundation Field bus. Another indication of technology evolution in the flow measurement focusing a lower uncertainty is the new version of API MPMS 11.1:2004, that requires calculation with double precision floating point, as well the correction factors with 5 decimal digits. (author)

  1. [Modern testing theory and its application in the field of health measurement]. (United States)

    Wu, Da-rong


    This paper briefly introduces item response theory (IRT) as a typical representation of modern testing theory (MTT), and systematically reviews the processes and contents of the application of IRT in the area of health measurement, including, for example, item bank development, scale revision and computerized adaptive testing. The author presents the potential benefits and the notable problems during health measuring by IRT. Then, the author asserts the need for thorough assessment of feasibility when using the IRT in patient-reported outcome research. Further research based on IRT and computerized adaptive testing in health measurement will be carried out in the field of medical care including traditional Chinese medicine and integrative medicine.

  2. Advanced Failure Determination Measurement Techniques Used in Thermal Fatigue Life Testing of Electronic Packaging (United States)

    Wallace, A. P.; Cornford, S. L.; Gross, M. A.


    Thermal fatigue life testing of various electronic packaging technologies is being performed by the Reliability Technology Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. These testing efforts are in progress to improve uderstanding of the reliability issues associated with low volume packaging technologies for space applications and to develop qualification and acceptance approaches for these technologies. The work described here outlines the electrical failure detection techniques used during testing by documenting the circuits and components used to make these measurements, the sensitivity of the measurements, and the applicability of each specific measurement.

  3. Software Sub-system in Loading Automatic Test System for the Measurement of Power Line Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bo


    Full Text Available The loading automatic test system for measurement of power line filters are in urgent demand. So the software sub-system of the whole test system was proposed. Methods: structured the test system based on the virtual instrument framework, which consisted of lower and up computer and adopted the top down approach of design to perform the system and its modules, according to the measurement principle of the test system. Results: The software sub-system including human machine interface, data analysis and process software, expert system, communication software, control software in lower computer, etc. had been designed. Furthermore, it had been integrated into the entire test system. Conclusion: This sub-system provided a fiendly software platform for the whole test system, and had many advantages such as strong functions, high performances, low prices. It not only raises the test efficiency of EMI filters, but also renders some creativities.

  4. Comparison of a Micro-Neutralization Test with the Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test for Measuring Rabies Virus Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd G. Smith


    Full Text Available The rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT is routinely used in the United States to measure rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (rVNA. RFFIT has a long history of reproducible and reliable results. The test has been modified over the years to use smaller volumes of reagents and samples, but requires a 50 μL minimum volume of test serum. To conduct pathogenesis studies, small laboratory animals such as mice are regularly tested for rVNA, but the minimum volume for a standard RFFIT may be impossible to obtain, particularly in scenarios of repeated sampling. To address this problem, a micro-neutralization test was developed previously. In the current study, the micro-neutralization test was compared to the RFFIT using 129 mouse serum samples from rabies vaccine studies. Using a cut-off value of 0.1 IU/mL, the sensitivity, specificity, and concordance of the micro-neutralization test were 100%, 97.5%, and 98%, respectively. The geometric mean titer of all samples above the cut-off was 2.0 IU/mL using RFFIT and 3.4 IU/mL using the micro-neutralization test, indicating that titers determined using the micro-neutralization test are not equivalent to RFFIT titers. Based on four rVNA-positive hamster serum samples, the intra-assay coefficient of variability was 24% and inter-assay coefficient of variability was 30.4%. These results support continued use of the micro-neutralization test to determine rabies virus neutralizing antibody titers for low-volume serum samples.

  5. Code cases for implementing risk-based inservice testing in the ASME OM code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, C.W.


    Historically inservice testing has been reasonably effective, but quite costly. Recent applications of plant PRAs to the scope of the IST program have demonstrated that of the 30 pumps and 500 valves in the typical plant IST program, less than half of the pumps and ten percent of the valves are risk significant. The way the ASME plans to tackle this overly-conservative scope for IST components is to use the PRA and plant expert panels to create a two tier IST component categorization scheme. The PRA provides the quantitative risk information and the plant expert panel blends the quantitative and deterministic information to place the IST component into one of two categories: More Safety Significant Component (MSSC) or Less Safety Significant Component (LSSC). With all the pumps and valves in the IST program placed in MSSC or LSSC categories, two different testing strategies will be applied. The testing strategies will be unique for the type of component, such as centrifugal pump, positive displacement pump, MOV, AOV, SOV, SRV, PORV, HOV, CV, and MV. A series of OM Code Cases are being developed to capture this process for a plant to use. One Code Case will be for Component Importance Ranking. The remaining Code Cases will develop the MSSC and LSSC testing strategy for type of component. These Code Cases are planned for publication in early 1997. Later, after some industry application of the Code Cases, the alternative Code Case requirements will gravitate to the ASME OM Code as appendices.

  6. Concurrent criterion-related validity and reliability of a clinical test to measure femoral anteversion. (United States)

    Souza, Richard B; Powers, Christopher M


    Clinical measurement, criterion standard. To determine if the clinical measure of femoral anteversion is comparable to measures obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An additional purpose of this study was to assess the intertester and intratester reliability of the clinical test. Femoral anteversion is commonly assessed as part of the physical examination; however, limited and inconsistent data exist on the validity and reliability of the clinical test. Eighteen healthy adults (9 males, 9 females; mean +/- SD age, 25.4 +/- 3.3 years; body mass index, 22.9 +/- 3.4 kg/m2) participated. Each underwent 3 data collection sessions: (1) MRI to measure femoral anteversion, (2) clinical testing of femoral anteversion, measured independently by 2 physical therapists, and (3) repeated clinical testing. Validity and reliability were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,3) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Moderate agreement was found between the clinical test and MRI measures of femoral anteversion (ICCs of 0.69 and 0.67 for examiners 1 and 2, respectively). The SEM was similar for both examiners (5.8 degrees and 6.0 degrees ). Both intra tester (ICCs of 0.88 and 0.90 for examiners 1 and 2, respectively) and intertester (ICC = 0.83) reliability was found to be substantial. In persons with a low body mass index, the clinical test to assess femoral anteversion was shown to exhibit substantial reliability, but only moderate agreement with MRI measurements. When performing the clinical test, one can be 95% confident that the true value of femoral anteversion will fall within 11.8 degrees of the clinically measured value. This relatively wide confidence interval calls into question the clinical utility of the clinical test for assessing femoral anteversion.

  7. The role of test-retest reliability in measuring individual and group differences in executive functioning. (United States)

    Paap, Kenneth R; Sawi, Oliver


    Studies testing for individual or group differences in executive functioning can be compromised by unknown test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliabilities across an interval of about one week were obtained from performance in the antisaccade, flanker, Simon, and color-shape switching tasks. There is a general trade-off between the greater reliability of single mean RT measures, and the greater process purity of measures based on contrasts between mean RTs in two conditions. The individual differences in RT model recently developed by Miller and Ulrich was used to evaluate the trade-off. Test-retest reliability was statistically significant for 11 of the 12 measures, but was of moderate size, at best, for the difference scores. The test-retest reliabilities for the Simon and flanker interference scores were lower than those for switching costs. Standard practice evaluates the reliability of executive-functioning measures using split-half methods based on data obtained in a single day. Our test-retest measures of reliability are lower, especially for difference scores. These reliability measures must also take into account possible day effects that classical test theory assumes do not occur. Measures based on single mean RTs tend to have acceptable levels of reliability and convergent validity, but are "impure" measures of specific executive functions. The individual differences in RT model shows that the impurity problem is worse than typically assumed. However, the "purer" measures based on difference scores have low convergent validity that is partly caused by deficiencies in test-retest reliability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Using a Bedside Video-assisted Test Tube Test to Assess Stoma Viability: A Report of 4 Cases. (United States)

    Ahmad, Sarwat; Turner, Keli; Shah, Paulesh; Diaz, Jose


    Mucosal discoloration of an intestinal stoma may indicate self-limited venous congestion or necrosis necessitating operative revision. A common bedside technique to assess stoma viability is the "test tube test". A clear tube is inserted into the stoma and a hand-held light is used to assess the color of the stoma. A technique (video-assisted test tube test [VATTT]) developed by the authors utilizes a standard video bronchoscope inserted into a clear plastic blood collection tube to visually inspect and assess the mucosa. This technique was evaluated in 4 patients (age range 49-72 years, all critically ill) with a discolored stoma after emergency surgery. In each case, physical exam revealed ischemic mucosa at the surface either immediately after surgery or after worsening hypotension weeks later. Serial test tube test assessments were ambiguous when trying to assess deeper mucosa. The VATTT assessment showed viable pink mucosa beneath the surface and until the fascia was revealed in 3 patients. One (1) patient had mucosal ischemia down to the fascia, which prompted operative revision of the stoma. The new stoma was assessed with a VATTT and was viable for the entire length of the stoma. VATTT provided an enhanced, magnified, and clearer way to visually assess stoma viability in the postoperative period that can be performed at the bedside with no adverse events. It may prevent unnecessary relaparotomy or enable earlier diagnosis of deep ostomy necrosis. Validity and reliability studies are warranted.

  9. A New Position Measurement System Using a Motion-Capture Camera for Wind Tunnel Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousok Kim


    Full Text Available Considering the characteristics of wind tunnel tests, a position measurement system that can minimize the effects on the flow of simulated wind must be established. In this study, a motion-capture camera was used to measure the displacement responses of structures in a wind tunnel test, and the applicability of the system was tested. A motion-capture system (MCS could output 3D coordinates using two-dimensional image coordinates obtained from the camera. Furthermore, this remote sensing system had some flexibility regarding lab installation because of its ability to measure at relatively long distances from the target structures. In this study, we performed wind tunnel tests on a pylon specimen and compared the measured responses of the MCS with the displacements measured with a laser displacement sensor (LDS. The results of the comparison revealed that the time-history displacement measurements from the MCS slightly exceeded those of the LDS. In addition, we confirmed the measuring reliability of the MCS by identifying the dynamic properties (natural frequency, damping ratio, and mode shape of the test specimen using system identification methods (frequency domain decomposition, FDD. By comparing the mode shape obtained using the aforementioned methods with that obtained using the LDS, we also confirmed that the MCS could construct a more accurate mode shape (bending-deflection mode shape with the 3D measurements.

  10. A new position measurement system using a motion-capture camera for wind tunnel tests. (United States)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Jin Gi; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok


    Considering the characteristics of wind tunnel tests, a position measurement system that can minimize the effects on the flow of simulated wind must be established. In this study, a motion-capture camera was used to measure the displacement responses of structures in a wind tunnel test, and the applicability of the system was tested. A motion-capture system (MCS) could output 3D coordinates using two-dimensional image coordinates obtained from the camera. Furthermore, this remote sensing system had some flexibility regarding lab installation because of its ability to measure at relatively long distances from the target structures. In this study, we performed wind tunnel tests on a pylon specimen and compared the measured responses of the MCS with the displacements measured with a laser displacement sensor (LDS). The results of the comparison revealed that the time-history displacement measurements from the MCS slightly exceeded those of the LDS. In addition, we confirmed the measuring reliability of the MCS by identifying the dynamic properties (natural frequency, damping ratio, and mode shape) of the test specimen using system identification methods (frequency domain decomposition, FDD). By comparing the mode shape obtained using the aforementioned methods with that obtained using the LDS, we also confirmed that the MCS could construct a more accurate mode shape (bending-deflection mode shape) with the 3D measurements.

  11. Force measurement using strain-gauge balance in a shock tunnel with long test duration. (United States)

    Wang, Yunpeng; Liu, Yunfeng; Luo, Changtong; Jiang, Zonglin


    Force tests were conducted at the long-duration-test shock tunnel JF12, which has been designed and built in the Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The performance tests demonstrated that this facility is capable of reproducing a flow of dry air at Mach numbers from 5 to 9 at more than 100 ms test duration. Therefore, the traditional internal strain-gauge balance was considered for the force tests use in this large impulse facility. However, when the force tests are conducted in a shock tunnel, the inertial forces lead to low-frequency vibrations of the test model and its motion cannot be addressed through digital filtering because a sufficient number of cycles cannot be found during a shock tunnel run. The post-processing of the balance signal thus becomes extremely difficult when an averaging method is employed. Therefore, the force measurement encounters many problems in an impulse facility, particularly for large and heavy models. The objective of the present study is to develop pulse-type sting balance by using a strain-gauge sensor that can be applied in the force measurement of 100 ms test time, especially for the force test of the large-scale model. Different structures of the S-series (i.e., sting shaped balances) strain-gauge balance are proposed and designed, and the measuring elements are further optimized to overcome the difficulties encountered during the measurement of aerodynamic force in a shock tunnel. In addition, the force tests were conducted using two large-scale test models in JF12 and the S-series strain-gauge balances show good performance in the force measurements during the 100 ms test time.

  12. Identifying and measuring individual engagement in critical thinking in online discussions: An exploratory case study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheryl Perkins; Elizabeth Murphy


      This paper reports on an exploratory case study involving the development of a model for identifying and measuring individual engagement in critical thinking in an online asynchronous discussion (OAD...

  13. Optimization of the excitation and measurement procedures in nondestructive testing using shearography. (United States)

    Hofmann, Daniel; Pandarese, Giuseppe; Revel, Gian Marco; Tomasini, Enrico Primo; Pezzoni, Roberto


    This paper deals with the development of optimal procedures for nondestructive testing (NDT) inspections using shearography. In the new proposed method a parameter is adopted, the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), which allows the quantification of the contrast of the defect to the background in the image. During the calibration of the technique, on samples with known defects, the CNR also takes into account the size and location of the identified defects, compared to those expected. The optimal measurement and loading conditions (e.g., excitation temperature level, time between image acquisitions) are determined by experimental parametric analyses aimed at maximizing the CNR on specimens with known defects. In the present work the developed methodology is described and applied to the definition of best practices for the NDT analysis of aeronautical sandwich composites structures (used in the production of helicopters) by shearography inspection with thermal excitation. In this case the attention is focused on optimizing the thermal loading procedures, but it can be clearly extended to other types of excitation methods.

  14. A Comparison of Cormeck-Lehane and Mallampati Tests with Mandibular and Neck Measurements for Predicting Difficult Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Acer


    Full Text Available Objective: Various prediction tests were formulated to forecast difficult intubation. The Mallampati test, Wilson score, Cormack-Lehane test and thyromental distance are the most commonly used tests pre-operatively to assess the airway. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether a combination of the Mallampati and Cormack-Lehane’s classification to predict difficult intubation compared with sternomental and thyromental distances, mandibular length, width and neck length and circumference. Material and Methods: Two hundred twenty seven cases between 17 and 70 years old undergoing elective surgery were included in the study. Age, gender, body weight, body height and BMI were noted preoperatively. The pharyngeal structures were examined before the operation. At the time of intubation, laryngoscopic evaluation was performed according to the Cormack-Lehane’s laryngoscopic classification.Results: For analysis, Mallampati and Cormack-Lehane’s laryngoscopic classification were grouped as difficult (grades III and IV or easy (grades I and II. Whereas Mallampati scoring were class 1 and 2 (easy in 72.7% cases, Cormack-Lehane’s laryngoscopic scoring 90.7% of the cases were in class 1 and 2. The combination of the Cormeck-Lehane classification with neck circumference had the highest sensitivity (94.74%, but this combination decreased the positive predictive value. The combination of the Mallampati classification with neck length had the highest sensitivity (67.86%, but this combination decreased the positive predictive value.Conclusion: The findings suggest that the Mallampati and Cormeck-Lehane classification by itself is insufficient for predicting difficult intubation so should be used in conjunction with measurement of neck circumference and Cormeck-lehane test. Mallampati test with sternomental and thyromental distances in addition with neck length may be useful in routine test for preoperative prediction of difficult

  15. A test program to measure fluid mechanical whirl-excitation forces in centrifugal pumps (United States)

    Brennen, C. E.; Acosta, A. J.; Caughey, T. K.


    The details of a test program for the measurement of the unsteady forces on centrifugal impellers are discussed. Various hydrodynamic flows are identified as possible contributors to these destabilizing forces.

  16. Five year results of an international proficiency testing programme for measurement of antifungal drug concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lempers, V.J.C.; Alffenaar, J.W.C.; Touw, D.J.; Burger, D.M.; Uges, D.R.A.; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Brüggemann, R.J.M.


    OBJECTIVES: Since 2007 the Dutch Association for Quality Assessment in Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (KKGT) has organized an international interlaboratory proficiency testing (PT) programme for measurement of antifungal drugs in plasma. We describe the 5 year results of the laboratories' performance.

  17. Measuring student learning using initial and final concept test in an STEM course (United States)

    Kaw, Autar; Yalcin, Ali


    Effective assessment is a cornerstone in measuring student learning in higher education. For a course in Numerical Methods, a concept test was used as an assessment tool to measure student learning and its improvement during the course. The concept test comprised 16 multiple choice questions and was given in the beginning and end of the class for three semesters. Hake's gain index, a measure of learning gains from pre- to post-tests, of 0.36 to 0.41 were recorded. The validity and reliability of the concept test was checked via standard measures such as Cronbach's alpha, content and criterion-related validity, item characteristic curves and difficulty and discrimination indices. The performance of various subgroups such as pre-requisite grades, transfer students, gender and age were also studied.

  18. Field Measurements of Perceived Air Quality in the Test-Bed for Innovative Climate Conditioning Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Toftum, Jørn; Kabrhel, Michal

    Field measurements of perceived air quality were conducted in an experimental test bed for innovative building technologies situated at the Czech Technical University in Prague. The technologies included photocatalytically active paint, vacuum porous insulation and wall plaster containing phase...... change material. Technologies were installed in eight offices as part of the research project Clear-up. The offices were primarily used to carry out comparative tests for individual technologies. The present paper describes measurements done in parallel to the comparative tests to investigate...... the potential influence of aforementioned technologies on the perceived air quality. Additionally, the effect of Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) on the perceived air quality was tested. Measurements comprised of the assessments of perceived air quality and objective measurements of operative temperature...

  19. Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test Instrumentation for Acoustic and Pressure Measurements (United States)

    Vargas, Magda B.; Counter, Douglas


    Ares I Scale Model Acoustic Test (ASMAT) is a 5% scale model test of the Ares I vehicle, launch pad and support structures conducted at MSFC to verify acoustic and ignition environments and evaluate water suppression systems Test design considerations 5% measurements must be scaled to full scale requiring high frequency measurements Users had different frequencies of interest Acoustics: 200 - 2,000 Hz full scale equals 4,000 - 40,000 Hz model scale Ignition Transient: 0 - 100 Hz full scale equals 0 - 2,000 Hz model scale Environment exposure Weather exposure: heat, humidity, thunderstorms, rain, cold and snow Test environments: Plume impingement heat and pressure, and water deluge impingement Several types of sensors were used to measure the environments Different instrument mounts were used according to the location and exposure to the environment This presentation addresses the observed effects of the selected sensors and mount design on the acoustic and pressure measurements

  20. Design and Development of a Testing Device for Experimental Measurements of Foundation Slabs on the Subsoil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Čajka, Radim; Křivý, Vít; Sekanina, David


    The paper deals with technical solutions and construction of a testing stand designed for experimental measurements of deformations and state of stress of foundation structures placed on the subsoil...

  1. On a Use Case Points Measurement Tool for Effective Project Management


    Inoue, Katsuro; Kusumoto, Shinji; Tsuda, Michio


    Use case point (UCP) method has been proposed to estimate software development effort in early phase of software project and used in a lot of software organizations. This paper briefly describes an automatic use case measurement tool, called U-EST.

  2. NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB): list sorting test to measure working memory. (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Kisala, Pamela A; Mungas, Dan; Conway, Kevin; Gershon, Richard


    The List Sorting Working Memory Test was designed to assess working memory (WM) as part of the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery. List Sorting is a sequencing task requiring children and adults to sort and sequence stimuli that are presented visually and auditorily. Validation data are presented for 268 participants ages 20 to 85 years. A subset of participants (N=89) was retested 7 to 21 days later. As expected, the List Sorting Test had moderately high correlations with other measures of working memory and executive functioning (convergent validity) but a low correlation with a test of receptive vocabulary (discriminant validity). Furthermore, List Sorting demonstrates expected changes over the age span and has excellent test-retest reliability. Collectively, these results provide initial support for the construct validity of the List Sorting Working Memory Measure as a measure of working memory. However, the relationship between the List Sorting Test and general executive function has yet to be determined.

  3. Diagnostic yield of hair and urine toxicology testing in potential child abuse cases. (United States)

    Stauffer, Stephanie L; Wood, Stephanie M; Krasowski, Matthew D


    Detection of drugs in a child may be the first objective finding that can be reported in cases of suspected child abuse. Hair and urine toxicology testing, when performed as part of the initial clinical evaluation for suspected child abuse or maltreatment, may serve to facilitate the identification of at-risk children. Furthermore, significant environmental exposure to a drug (considered by law to constitute child abuse in some states) may be identified by toxicology testing of unwashed hair specimens. In order to determine the clinical utility of hair and urine toxicology testing in this population we performed a retrospective chart review on all children for whom hair toxicology testing was ordered at our academic medical center between January 2004 and April 2014. The medical records of 616 children aged 0-17.5 years were reviewed for injury history, previous medication and illicit drug use by caregiver(s), urine drug screen result (if performed), hair toxicology result, medication list, and outcome of any child abuse evaluation. Hair toxicology testing was positive for at least one compound in 106 cases (17.2%), with unexplained drugs in 82 cases (13.3%). Of these, there were 48 cases in which multiple compounds (including combination of parent drugs and/or metabolites within the same drug class) were identified in the sample of one patient. The compounds most frequently identified in the hair of our study population included cocaine, benzoylecgonine, native (unmetabolized) tetrahydrocannabinol, and methamphetamine. There were 68 instances in which a parent drug was identified in the hair without any of its potential metabolites, suggesting environmental exposure. Among the 82 cases in which hair toxicology testing was positive for unexplained drugs, a change in clinical outcome was noted in 71 cases (86.5%). Urine drug screens (UDS) were performed in 457 of the 616 reviewed cases. Of these, over 95% of positive UDS results could be explained by iatrogenic drug

  4. Utility of third trimester sonographic measurements for predicting SGA in cases of fetal gastroschisis. (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Y J; Do, S; Girsen, A I; Davis, A S; Hintz, S R; Desai, A K; Mansour, T; Merritt, T A; Oshiro, B T; El-Sayed, Y Y; Shamshirsaz, A A; Lee, H C


    To assess the accuracy of different sonographic estimated fetal weight (EFW) cutoffs, and combinations of EFW and biometric measurements for predicting small for gestational age (SGA) in fetal gastroschisis. Gastroschisis cases from two centers were included. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were calculated for different EFW cutoffs, as well as EFW and biometric measurement combinations. Seventy gastroschisis cases were analyzed. An EFWSGA at delivery. Using an EFW cutoff of SGA.

  5. A matrix formulation for noise transduction as a general case of noise measure


    Hallgren, Robert B.


    Conventional noise characteristics of an active device or circuit are given by the minimum noise figure, the optimum source reflection coefficient, and a noise resistance. The noise measure proposed extends the noise figure to include the available gain of the network, for the case of a conjugate output match, and gives values that minimize the noise power available from the network consistent with maximum available gain. Noise transduction follows as a general case of the noise measure by us...

  6. Evaluation of load case ``switch-off of the high pressure pump of the emergency core cooling system``, measures of verification and in situ-test; Einstufung des Lastfalls ``Ausfall der TH-Hochdruckeinspeisepumpe``, Massnahmen zur Verifikation bis hin zum Grossversuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trobitz, M.; Mattheis, A. [Kernkraftwerke Gundremmingen Betriebsgesellschaft m.b.H. (Germany); Kerkhof, K.; Hippelein, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt; Gurr-Beyer, C. [Buero fuer Baudynamik, Stuttgart (Germany); Hofstoetter, P. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Rheinland e.V., Koeln (Germany)


    Within the framework of periodic safety inspection of the Gundremmingen power station (RWE-Bayernwerk - KRB II), the load collectives used for the design of safety-relevant systems and components were checked for their consistency with latest updates of the design basis. It was found that there was no analytical information or study available describing a particular process and its effects, namely switch-off of the high-pressure feedwater pump of the emergency core cooling system. The paper reports the work performed for closing the gap, including preparatory analyses, accompanying measures such as vibration measurements during plant shut-down, as well as the preparation and performance of the in-situ test. The experimental results and the comparative evaluation of calculated and experimental data are presented. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Im Rahmen der periodischen Sicherheitsueberpruefung des Kernkraftwerkes Gundremmingen (Kernkraftwerke RWE-Bayernwerk - KRB II) wurden u.a. die Lastkollektive, die zur Auslegung sicherheitstechnisch relevanter Systeme und Komponenten herangezogen wurden, auf Aktualitaet ueberprueft. Dabei zeigte sich, dass bislang fuer eine Betriebsweise - naemlich das Abschalten der Hochdruckeinspeisepumpe des nuklearen Not- und Nachkuehlsystems (TH-HD-Pumpe) - keine analytischen Untersuchungen vorliegen. Vorbetrachtungen fuer analytische Untersuchungen, begleitende Massnahmen wie Schwingungsmessungen waehrend des Anlagenstillstandes, sowie der Versuchsaufbau und die Versuchsdurchfuehrung des Anlagenversuches werden hier dargestellt. Die Ergebnisse und der Vergleich Rechnung-Messung zum Grossversuch werden in diesem Beitrag vorgestellt. (orig.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Leininger


    Reliable measurement of gasifier reaction chamber temperature is important for the proper operation of slagging, entrained-flow gasification processes. Historically, thermocouples have been used as the main measurement technique, with the temperature inferred from syngas methane concentration being used as a backup measurement. While these have been sufficient for plant operation in many cases, both techniques suffer from limitations. The response time of methane measurements is too slow to detect rapid upset conditions, and thermocouples are subject to long-term drift, as well as slag attack, which eventually leads to failure of the thermocouple. Texaco's Montebello Technology Center (MTC) has developed an infrared ratio pyrometer system for measuring gasifier reaction chamber temperature. This system has a faster response time than both methane and thermocouples, and has been demonstrated to provide reliable temperature measurements for longer periods of time when compared to thermocouples installed in the same MTC gasifier. In addition, the system can be applied to commercial gasifiers without any significant scale-up issues. The major equipment items, the purge system, and the safety shutdown system in a commercial plant are essentially identical to the prototypes at MTC. The desired result of this DOE program is ''a bench-scale prototype, either assembled or with critical components (laboratory) tested in a convincing manner.'' The prototype of the pyrometer system (including gasifier optical access port) that was designed, assembled and tested for this program, has had previous prototypes that have been built and successfully tested under actual coal and coke gasification conditions in three pilot units at MTC. It was the intent of the work performed under the auspices of this program to review and update the existing design, and to fabricate and bench test an updated system that can be field tested in one or more commercial gasifiers

  8. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-546 Teleoperated Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) Latency Measurements (United States)


    minimum of three times for comparison purposes and to establish consistency of system performance. 4.2.2 LOS Measurement. a. Perform this test ...times for comparison purposes and to establish consistency of system performance. 4.2.3 NLOS Measurement. a. Perform this test in a NLOS...REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1

  9. The effect of menstrual cycle phase on exercise capacity measured by treadmill exercise test


    YAZAR, Sadan; Yazici, Mehmet


    The aim of this study was to explore the impact of the menstrual phases on exercise capacity parameters measured by a treadmill exercise test in sedentary premenaupausal women. Exercise capacity expressed in terms of metabolic equivalents (MET) and exercise duration was measured by performing treadmill exercise tests in 30 women (mean age: 29 ± 5.8 years) with regular menstrual cycles at two points during their menstrual cycles: the late-follicular (LF) phase and the mid-luteal (ML) phase. Th...

  10. Mutations of short tandem repeat loci in cases of paternity testing in Chinese. (United States)

    Sun, Mao; Zhang, XiaoNan; Wu, Dan; Shen, Qi; Wu, YuanMing; Fu, ShanMin


    In order to find out the characteristics of genetic mutations in 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci, 3734 parentage cases were analyzed using AmpFlSTR Sinofiler kit. The allele source, mutation rate, and mutation rule of the STR loci were determined. Seventy mutations were observed in all cases for paternity testing. Among 15 STR loci, the highest mutation rate was observed in D12S391 (0.21 %), but the D5S818 gene mutation rate was relatively low (0.02 %). One-step mutation cases accounted for 95.7 % of all of the cases monitored. And the mutations in this study mainly showed paternal mutation (64/70). The research results are of great significance for identification and paternity tests and for the improvement of genetic studies on Chinese population in the future.

  11. [The phenol turbidity test for measurement of pulmonary surfactants in amniotic fluid--rapid test for fetal lung maturity (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Tatsumi, H; Shimada, N; Kuramoto, R; Mochizuki, Y; Nishizima, M; Arai, M; Osanai, K; Ishihara, K; Goso, K; Hotta, K


    A simple and sensitive procedure for the quantitative estimation of pulmonary surfactants in the amniotic fluid is described. The method is based on the formation of turbidity from the amniotic fluid surfactants with phenol. Amniotic fluid drawn through an intrauterine catheter was centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 5 min. One ml of 5% aqueous phenol solution was added to 1.0 ml of the diluted supernatant. Control solution was prepared by addition of 1.0 ml of distilled water to the supernatant, instead of phenol solution. The turbidity was measured spectrophotometrically against control at 340 nm 5 to 10 min after agitation on a Vortex mixer for 5 sec. The turbidity obtained from amniotic fluid with phenol was proportional to the increase in total phospholipids in the fluid measured enzymatically. Moreover, only lecithin in the phospholipids was related to the turbidity formation. Sphyngomyelin, lysolecithin, phosphatidylethanolamin did not produce any turbidity with phenol. The spectrophotometric reading of 87 cases (31-41 weeks) was ranged at 0.18-3.52. Four cases with lower value (0.40) showed neonatal respiratory problem. The phenol turbidity test is more useful for the detection of fetal lung maturity comparing with the generally used shake test.

  12. "Giant R wave" electrocardiogram pattern during exercise treadmill test: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puebla-Rojo Victor


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The exercise treadmill test is widely used in the evaluation of patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease. The typical ischemic response used to be ST-segment depression. Case presentation We describe a case of a 51-year-old Caucasian man with an unusual ischemic response during the exercise treadmill test: a "giant R wave" electrocardiogram pattern as a manifestation of hyperacute ischemia that resolved with sublingual nitroglycerin. Coronary catheterization showed a severe stenosis in a proximal dominant circumflex coronary artery. We hypothesize that, in this case, the "giant R wave" pattern was related to severe hyperacute ischemia due to coronary spasm superimposed on the atherosclerotic lesion, which probably caused complete occlusion of the artery. The patient was successfully treated with coronary percutaneous revascularization. Conclusions This is a dramatic and rare ischemic response during the exercise treadmill test, in which, a rapid administration of nitroglycerin can prevent life-threatening events.

  13. Virtual test: A student-centered software to measure student's critical thinking on human disease (United States)

    Rusyati, Lilit; Firman, Harry


    The study "Virtual Test: A Student-Centered Software to Measure Student's Critical Thinking on Human Disease" is descriptive research. The background is importance of computer-based test that use element and sub element of critical thinking. Aim of this study is development of multiple choices to measure critical thinking that made by student-centered software. Instruments to collect data are (1) construct validity sheet by expert judge (lecturer and medical doctor) and professional judge (science teacher); and (2) test legibility sheet by science teacher and junior high school student. Participants consisted of science teacher, lecturer, and medical doctor as validator; and the students as respondent. Result of this study are describe about characteristic of virtual test that use to measure student's critical thinking on human disease, analyze result of legibility test by students and science teachers, analyze result of expert judgment by science teachers and medical doctor, and analyze result of trial test of virtual test at junior high school. Generally, result analysis shown characteristic of multiple choices to measure critical thinking was made by eight elements and 26 sub elements that developed by Inch et al.; complete by relevant information; and have validity and reliability more than "enough". Furthermore, specific characteristic of multiple choices to measure critical thinking are information in form science comic, table, figure, article, and video; correct structure of language; add source of citation; and question can guide student to critical thinking logically.

  14. Test re-test reliability of centre of pressure measures during standing balance in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Takacs, Judit; Carpenter, Mark G; Garland, S Jayne; Hunt, Michael A


    Assessment of changes in standing balance following an intervention requires accurate measurement of balance parameters. The reliability of centre of pressure measures of balance during single-leg standing has not been reported in individuals with knee osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to assess the test re-test reliability of force platform centre of pressure measures during single-leg standing in older adults with knee osteoarthritis. Twenty-five adults with radiographic evidence of knee osteoarthritis performed single-leg standing balance trials on a laboratory-grade force platform on two occasions, no more than 14 days apart. Participants were asked to stand on their more symptomatic limb for three, ten second trials. Centre of pressure measures collected included: standard deviation in the mediolateral and anteroposterior directions, mean path length, velocity, and area. The mean of the three trials was calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients, standard error of measurement, Bland and Altman plots and the minimum detectable change were calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.54 to 0.87, suggesting mixed reliability of measures. Reliability was lowest for the centre of pressure area (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.54), and highest for centre of pressure velocity and path length (intraclass correlation coefficient=0.87 for both). Standard error of measurement values were low for standard deviation in the mediolateral direction and high for centre of pressure area. These results suggest that centre of pressure values, in particular path length and velocity, are appropriate for assessment of standing balance in people with medial knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. What One Intelligence Test Measures: A Theoretical Account of the Processing in the Raven Progressive Matrices Test (United States)


    4428017.---0: 11. TITLE (include Security Clasification ) What One Intelligence Test Measures: A Theoretical Account of the Processing in the Raven...that is widely used for adults of higher ability, the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices. Sets I and II. Set I. consisting of 12 problems, is often...them in their difficulty. The magnitude of the variation is apparent from the error rates (shown in Figure 3) of 2256 British adults . including

  16. A Test-Bench for Measurement of Electrical Static Parameters of Strip Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Golutvin, I A; Danilevich, V G; Dmitriev, A Yu; Elsha, V V; Zamiatin, Y I; Zubarev, E V; Ziaziulia, F E; Kozus, V I; Lomako, V M; Stepankov, D V; Khomich, A P; Shumeiko, N M; Cheremuhin, A E


    An automated test-bench for electrical parameters input control of the strip silicon detectors, used in the End-Cap Preshower detector of the CMS experiment, is described. The test-bench application allows one to solve a problem of silicon detectors input control in conditions of mass production - 1800 detectors over 2 years. The test-bench software is realized in Delphi environment and contains a user-friendly operator interface for measurement data processing and visualization as well as up-to-date facilities for MS-Windows used for the network database. High operating characteristics and reliability of the test-bench were confirmed while more than 800 detectors were tested. Some technical solutions applied to the test-bench could be useful for design and construction of automated facilities for electrical parameters measurements of the microstrip detectors input control.

  17. Transverse strength of railway tracks: part 2. Test system for ballast resistance in line measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio De Iorio


    Full Text Available In the present paper, testing methods currently adopted to measure the in service ballast resistance are synthetically reviewed to identify the main sources of uncertainty influencing the test loads and to define an experimental methodology allowing the optimal control of the testing parameters without the introduction of spurious or parasitic actions on the track sample. An alternative testing system, which allows applying on a fullscale sample of a railway track testing loads very close the real ones, is presented. Of the new system, both the ways of use for measuring the transversal and axial ballast strength, the general procedure to carry out the experimentation and its application to a real scenario are described, highlighting its main advantages in terms both of modalities for applying the loads and of testing parameter control.

  18. Determining Damping Trends from a Range of Cable Harness Assemblies on a Launch Vehicle Panel from Test Measurements (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Davis, R. Ben; LaVerde, Bruce; Jones, Douglas


    The team of authors at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been investigating estimating techniques for the vibration response of launch vehicle panels excited by acoustics and/or aero-fluctuating pressures. Validation of the approaches used to estimate these environments based on ground tests of flight like hardware is of major importance to new vehicle programs. The team at MSFC has recently expanded upon the first series of ground test cases completed in December 2010. The follow on tests recently completed are intended to illustrate differences in damping that might be expected when cable harnesses are added to the configurations under test. This validation study examines the effect on vibroacoustic response resulting from the installation of cable bundles on a curved orthogrid panel. Of interest is the level of damping provided by the installation of the cable bundles and whether this damping could be potentially leveraged in launch vehicle design. The results of this test are compared with baseline acoustic response tests without cables. Damping estimates from the measured response data are made using a new software tool that employs a finite element model (FEM) of the panel in conjunction with advanced optimization techniques. This paper will report on the \\damping trend differences. observed from response measurements for several different configurations of cable harnesses. The data should assist vibroacoustics engineers to make more informed damping assumptions when calculating vibration response estimates when using model based analysis approach. Achieving conservative estimates that have more flight like accuracy is desired. The paper may also assist analysts in determining how ground test data may relate to expected flight response levels. Empirical response estimates may also need to be adjusted if the measured response used as an input to the study came from a test article without flight like cable harnesses.

  19. Reliability of case definitions for public health surveillance assessed by Round-Robin test methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Hermann


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Case definitions have been recognized to be important elements of public health surveillance systems. They are to assure comparability and consistency of surveillance data and have crucial impact on the sensitivity and the positive predictive value of a surveillance system. The reliability of case definitions has rarely been investigated systematically. Methods We conducted a Round-Robin test by asking all 425 local health departments (LHD and the 16 state health departments (SHD in Germany to classify a selection of 68 case examples using case definitions. By multivariate analysis we investigated factors linked to classification agreement with a gold standard, which was defined by an expert panel. Results A total of 7870 classifications were done by 396 LHD (93% and all SHD. Reporting sensitivity was 90.0%, positive predictive value 76.6%. Polio case examples had the lowest reporting precision, salmonellosis case examples the highest (OR = 0.008; CI: 0.005–0.013. Case definitions with a check-list format of clinical criteria resulted in higher reporting precision than case definitions with a narrative description (OR = 3.08; CI: 2.47–3.83. Reporting precision was higher among SHD compared to LHD (OR = 1.52; CI: 1.14–2.02. Conclusion Our findings led to a systematic revision of the German case definitions and build the basis for general recommendations for the creation of case definitions. These include, among others, that testable yes/no criteria in a check-list format is likely to improve reliability, and that software used for data transmission should be designed in strict accordance with the case definitions. The findings of this study are largely applicable to case definitions in many other countries or international networks as they share the same structural and editorial characteristics of the case definitions evaluated in this study before their revision.

  20. Measurement of 9 mm cartridge case external temperatures and its forensic application. (United States)

    Gashi, B; Edwards, M R; Sermon, P A; Courtney, L; Harrison, D; Xu, Y


    The external temperature of the cartridge cases of 9 mm parabellum ammunition during the firing sequence was measured by a series of methods. Using a thermal imaging camera was the most successful method and showed that aluminium alloy cases reached higher temperatures than did brass cases. Peak temperatures for brass cases were 336 K at the case mouth after 1.2 ms and 331 K at the case base after 2 ms. Corresponding temperatures for aluminium alloy cases were 363 K at the mouth after 0.8 ms and 372 K at the base after 1.2 ms. These times at temperature would not be sufficient to destroy any DNA residues left on the case. Measurement of the DNA of fired cartridges showed that DNA deposited on the cartridge case before firing was not affected by the temperatures reached during the firing sequence. Estimates of temperatures to be found in pure aluminium and mild steel cases were made, these indicating that pure aluminium would give higher temperatures than aluminium alloy and steel a lower temperature than for brass. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Data Coaching: Measuring the Effects of Feedback on Low-Stakes Test Motivation (United States)

    Snyder, Nancy


    This study examines the relationships between students' academic motivation, evidence of achievement as measured by assessments and the effects of feedback in mediating effort. Policy makers currently view student achievement is as synonymous with proficiency on standardized tests. Testing students as a means of determining educational…

  2. Standardized measures of critical thinking. Experience with the California Critical Thinking Tests. (United States)

    Leppa, C J


    Standardized measures of student critical thinking are an attractive option for nursing educators under pressure to demonstrate student higher order thinking skills. One program's experience using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test and the California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory illustrates some of the problems of using standardized test and potential solutions.

  3. Testing a Comprehensive Model for Measuring Problem Solving and Problem Posing Skills of Primary Pupils (United States)

    Charalambous, Charalambos; Kyriakides, Leonidas; Philippou, George


    The study reported in this paper is an attempt to develop a comprehensive model of measuring problem solving and posing (PSP) skills based on Marshall's schema theory (ST). A battery of tests on PSP skills was administered to 5th and 6th grade Cypriot students (n=2519). The Rasch model was used and a scale was created for the battery of tests and…

  4. A case study testing the cavity mode model of the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Sarafopoulos


    Full Text Available Based on a case study we test the cavity mode model of the magnetosphere, looking for eigenfrequencies via multi-satellite and multi-instrument measurements. Geotail and ACE provide information on the interplanetary medium that dictates the input parameters of the system; the four Cluster satellites monitor the magnetopause surface waves; the POLAR (L=9.4 and LANL 97A (L=6.6 satellites reveal two in-situ monochromatic field line resonances (FLRs with T=6 and 2.5 min, respectively; and the IMAGE ground magnetometers demonstrate latitude dependent delays in signature arrival times, as inferred by Sarafopoulos (2004b. Similar dispersive structures showing systematic delays are also extensively scrutinized by Sarafopoulos (2005 and interpreted as tightly associated with the so-called pseudo-FLRs, which show almost the same observational characteristics with an authentic FLR. In particular for this episode, successive solar wind pressure pulses produce recurring ionosphere twin vortex Hall currents which are identified on the ground as pseudo-FLRs. The BJN ground magnetometer records the pseudo-FLR (alike with the other IMAGE station responses associated with an intense power spectral density ranging from 8 to 12 min and, in addition, two discrete resonant lines with T=3.5 and 7 min. In this case study, even though the magnetosphere is evidently affected by a broad-band compressional wave originated upstream of the bow shock, nevertheless, we do not identify any cavity mode oscillation within the magnetosphere. We fail, also, to identify any of the cavity mode frequencies proposed by Samson (1992.

    Keywords. Magnetospheric physics (Magnetosphereionosphere interactions; Solar wind-magnetosphere interactions; MHD waves and instabilities

  5. Special test results evaluation features as development of “Innovations management” program - NEFU testing area as case-study (United States)

    Ermakov, A. V.; Bessmertnyy, A. M.


    This article gives an overview on the problems of precision in the results evaluation of the tests carried out in the Northern testing areas. One of the significant features of the facilities under study is that they are limited in quantity. In cases when a facility is taken down, that quantity is normally equal to one. The complexity of modern technological equipment and other circumstances require researchers to take into account and evaluate the potential risks. In order to make the sought-for estimations more precise, ways of improving the test result evaluations algorithms are suggested. In particular, one of the productive methods is the Data Mining technology, which presupposes implementing an intellectual analysis of the data with the aim of extracting useful information from the available database which was attained during the tests and other types of activities. Applying the Data Mining technology is becoming more productive when the scenario analysis is carried out, i.e., the analysis of possible alternative solutions. Another perspective trend is an implementation of an interdisciplinary approach. As a result, researchers are able to carry out a complex evaluation of the test results, which will noticeably increase the value of the given results.

  6. [Test-retest reliability of the Implicit Association Test for measuring shyness: Inclusion of malleability of implicit shyness]. (United States)

    Fujii, Tsutomu; Sawaumi, Takafumi; Aikawa, Atsushi


    The Implicit Association Test of Shyness (Shyness IAT: Aikawa & Fujii, 2011) provides an indirect assessment of shyness by measuring associations of self (vs. other) with shyness-related (vs sociability-related) words. In this study we examined the test-retest reliability of the Shyness IAT. Thirty-five participants responded twice to the Shyness IAT with a time lag of one month. The correlation coefficient between the two time points was .54 (p = .001), confirming an adequate level of test-retest reliability. Indeed, changes in explicit and implicit shyness between the two time points were not related to sociable behavior during the one month period. Implications of the results for the assessment of personalities using IATs as well as relevant future directions are discussed.

  7. Stimulus and correlation matching measurement technique in computer based characterization testing


    Dorman, A M


    Constructive theory of characterization test is considered. The theory is applicable to a nano devices characterization: current-voltage, Auger current dependence. Generally small response of device under test on an applied stimulus is masked by an unknown deterministic background and a random noise. Characterization test in this signal corruption scenario should be based on correlation measurement technique of device response on applied optimal stimulus with optimal reference signal. Co-synt...

  8. Mathematical Basis and Test Cases for Colloid-Facilitated Radionuclide Transport Modeling in GDSA-PFLOTRAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimus, Paul William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    This report provides documentation of the mathematical basis for a colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport modeling capability that can be incorporated into GDSA-PFLOTRAN. It also provides numerous test cases against which the modeling capability can be benchmarked once the model is implemented numerically in GDSA-PFLOTRAN. The test cases were run using a 1-D numerical model developed by the author, and the inputs and outputs from the 1-D model are provided in an electronic spreadsheet supplement to this report so that all cases can be reproduced in GDSA-PFLOTRAN, and the outputs can be directly compared with the 1-D model. The cases include examples of all potential scenarios in which colloid-facilitated transport could result in the accelerated transport of a radionuclide relative to its transport in the absence of colloids. Although it cannot be claimed that all the model features that are described in the mathematical basis were rigorously exercised in the test cases, the goal was to test the features that matter the most for colloid-facilitated transport; i.e., slow desorption of radionuclides from colloids, slow filtration of colloids, and equilibrium radionuclide partitioning to colloids that is strongly favored over partitioning to immobile surfaces, resulting in a substantial fraction of radionuclide mass being associated with mobile colloids.

  9. The case for an international patient-reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS®) initiative. (United States)

    Alonso, Jordi; Bartlett, Susan J; Rose, Matthias; Aaronson, Neil K; Chaplin, John E; Efficace, Fabio; Leplège, Alain; Lu, Aiping; Tulsky, David S; Raat, Hein; Ravens-Sieberer, Ulrike; Revicki, Dennis; Terwee, Caroline B; Valderas, Jose M; Cella, David; Forrest, Christopher B


    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) play an increasingly important role in clinical practice and research. Modern psychometric methods such as item response theory (IRT) enable the creation of item banks that support fixed-length forms as well as computerized adaptive testing (CAT), often resulting in improved measurement precision and responsiveness. Here we describe and discuss the case for developing an international core set of PROs building from the US PROMIS® network.PROMIS is a U.S.-based cooperative group of research sites and centers of excellence convened to develop and standardize PRO measures across studies and settings. If extended to a global collaboration, PROMIS has the potential to transform PRO measurement by creating a shared, unifying terminology and metric for reporting of common symptoms and functional life domains. Extending a common set of standardized PRO measures to the international community offers great potential for improving patient-centered research, clinical trials reporting, population monitoring, and health care worldwide. Benefits of such standardization include the possibility of: international syntheses (such as meta-analyses) of research findings; international population monitoring and policy development; health services administrators and planners access to relevant information on the populations they serve; better assessment and monitoring of patients by providers; and improved shared decision making.The goal of the current PROMIS International initiative is to ensure that item banks are translated and culturally adapted for use in adults and children in as many countries as possible. The process includes 3 key steps: translation/cultural adaptation, calibration, and validation. A universal translation, an approach focusing on commonalities, rather than differences across versions developed in regions or countries speaking the same language, is proposed to ensure conceptual equivalence for all items. International item

  10. Spatial measurement accuracy tests of the laser ball bar. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardue, R.M.; Zurcher, N.E. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mize, C.D.; Ziegert, J.C. [Tetra Precision, Inc., Gainesville, FL (United States)


    A series of tests were performed to evaluate the spatial and length measurement accuracy of the LBB. The length measurement accuracy tests consisted of using the initialized LBB to measure the distance between two magnetic sockets. While the LBB was installed in the sockets, the M-60 probed the spheres at the LBB ends and computed their coordinates. The deviations between the LBB predicted length and the M-60 predicted length ranged from +56 to {minus}21.5 {mu}in. The mean value of the length measurement errors was +21.5{mu}in. with a standard deviation of 10.5{mu}in. The spatial measurement accuracy test consisted of commanding the M-60 to move to selected points in its workspace. and using the LBB to measure the coordinates of these points. The LBB measurement error is defined as the difference between the LBB predicted coordinates and the commanded coordinates. The data were normalized to a point which was in the center of the measurement zone (i.e. the LBB coordinate system is assumed to be coincident with the M-60 coordinate system at this point). Three complete sets of measurements were taken. The range of LBB measured coordinate errors over the three data sets was +32 to {minus}47{mu}in. in X, +59 to {minus}21{mu}in. in Y, and +36 to {minus}47/{mu}in. in Z.

  11. Development of multiple choice pictorial test for measuring the dimensions of knowledge (United States)

    Nahadi, Siswaningsih, Wiwi; Erna


    This study aims to develop a multiple choice pictorial test as a tool to measure dimension of knowledge in chemical equilibrium subject. The method used is Research and Development and validation that was conducted in the preliminary studies and model development. The product is multiple choice pictorial test. The test was developed by 22 items and tested to 64 high school students in XII grade. The quality of test was determined by value of validity, reliability, difficulty index, discrimination power, and distractor effectiveness. The validity of test was determined by CVR calculation using 8 validators (4 university teachers and 4 high school teachers) with average CVR value 0,89. The reliability of test has very high category with value 0,87. Discrimination power of items with a very good category is 32%, 59% as good category, and 20% as sufficient category. This test has a varying level of difficulty, item with difficult category is 23%, the medium category is 50%, and the easy category is 27%. The distractor effectiveness of items with a very poor category is 1%, poor category is 1%, medium category is 4%, good category is 39%, and very good category is 55%. The dimension of knowledge that was measured consist of factual knowledge, conceptual knowledge, and procedural knowledge. Based on the questionnaire, students responded quite well to the developed test and most of the students like this kind of multiple choice pictorial test that include picture as evaluation tool compared to the naration tests was dominated by text.

  12. Skin prick test: the only predictive tool of anaphylaxis? A case report. (United States)

    Giannetti, A; Meglio, P; Ricci, G


    Currently, in the literature there is a lack of definite predictive values parameters to identify patients with the risk to develop anaphylaxis. The controlled oral food challenge remains the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. We report a case of a girl allergic to cow's milk with low levels of specific IgE and large skin prick test wheal sizes for cow's milk. In some cases the high diameter of skin prick test wheal may be more reliable than specific IgE levels in predicting an anaphylactic reaction.

  13. 10 CFR 431.444 - Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. 431.444 Section 431.444 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR... procedures for the measurement of energy efficiency. (a) Scope. Pursuant to section 346(b)(1) of EPCA, this...

  14. Measurement properties of maximal cardiopulmonary exercise tests protocols in persons after stroke: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittink, H.; Verschuren, O.; Terwee, C.; Groot, J. de; Kwakkel, G.; Port, I. van de


    Objective: To systematically review and critically appraise the literature on measurement properties of cardiopulmonary exercise test protocols for measuring aerobic capacity, VO2max, in persons after stroke. Data sources: PubMed, Embase and Cinahl were searched from inception up to 15 June 2016. A

  15. Accuracy of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension measurements during cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stege, G.; Elshout, F.J.J. van den; Heijdra, Y.F.; Ven, M.J.T. van de; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Vos, P.J.E.


    BACKGROUND: Measurements of transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension (PtcCO(2)) with current devices are proven to provide clinically acceptable agreement with measurements of partial arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO(2)) in several settings but not during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET).

  16. Development of an item bank for computerized adaptive test (CAT) measurement of pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petersen, M.A.; Aaronson, N.K.; Chie, W.C.; Conroy, T.; Constantini, A.; Hammerlid, E.; Hjermsted, M.J.; Kaasa, S.; Loge, J.H.; Velikova, G.; Young, T.; Groenvold, M.


    Purpose: Patient-reported outcomes should ideally be adapted to the individual patient while maintaining comparability of scores across patients. This is achievable using computerized adaptive testing (CAT). The aim here was to develop an item bank for CAT measurement of the pain domain as measured

  17. Comparing Graphical and Verbal Representations of Measurement Error in Test Score Reports (United States)

    Zwick, Rebecca; Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Hegarty, Mary


    Research has shown that many educators do not understand the terminology or displays used in test score reports and that measurement error is a particularly challenging concept. We investigated graphical and verbal methods of representing measurement error associated with individual student scores. We created four alternative score reports, each…

  18. Testing Multidimensional Models of Youth Civic Engagement: Model Comparisons, Measurement Invariance, and Age Differences (United States)

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Metzger, Aaron; Syvertsen, Amy K.


    Despite recognition that youth civic engagement is multidimensional, different modeling approaches are rarely compared or tested for measurement invariance. Using a diverse sample of 2,467 elementary, middle, and high school-aged youth, we measured eight dimensions of civic engagement: social responsibility values, informal helping, political…

  19. Field Measurements of PCB emissions from Building Surfaces Using a New Portable Emission Test Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyng, Nadja; Haven, Rune; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo


    The purpose of the study was to measure PCB-emission rates from indoor surfaces on-site in contaminated buildings using a newly developed portable emission test cell. Emission rates were measured from six different surfaces; three untreated surfaces and three remediated surfaces in a contaminated...

  20. Validation of a wind tunnel testing facility for blade surface pressure measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglsang, P.; Antoniou, I.; Soerensen, N.N.; Madsen, H.A.


    This report concerns development and validation of a 2d testing facility for airfoil pressure measurements. The VELUX open jet wind tunnel was used with a test stand inserted. Reynolds numbers until 1.3 million were achieved with an airfoil chord of 0.45 m. The aerodynamic load coefficients were found from pressure distribution measurements and the total drag coefficient was calculated from wake rake measurements. Stationary inflow as well as dynamic inflow through pitching motion was possible. Wind tunnel corrections were applied for streamline curvature and down-wash. Even though the wind tunnel is not ideal for 2d testing, the overall quality of the flow was acceptable with a uniform flow field at the test stand position and a turbulence intensity of 1 % at the inlet of the test section. Reference values for free stream static and total pressure were found upstream of the test stand. The NACA 63-215 airfoil was tested and the results were compared with measurements from FFA and NACA. The measurements agreed well except for lift coefficient values at high angles of attack and the drag coefficient values at low angles of attack, that were slightly high. Comparisons of the measured results with numerical predictions from the XFOIL code and the EllipSys2D code showed good agreement. Measurements with the airfoil in pitching motion were carried out to study the dynamic aerodynamic coefficients. Steady inflow measurements at high angles of attack were used to investigate the double stall phenomenon. (au) EFP-94; EFP-95; EFP-97. 8 tabs., 82 ills., 16 refs.

  1. Does an emotional intelligence test correlate with traditional measures used to determine medical school admission? (United States)

    Leddy, John J; Moineau, Geneviève; Puddester, Derek; Wood, Timothy J; Humphrey-Murto, Susan


    As medical school admission committees are giving increased consideration to noncognitive measures, this study sought to determine how emotional intelligence (EI) scores relate to other traditional measures used in the admissions process. EI was measured using an ability-based test (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, or MSCEIT) in two consecutive cohorts of medical school applicants (2006 and 2007) qualifying for the admission interview. Pearson correlations between EI scores and traditional measures (i.e., weighted grade point average [wGPA], autobiographical sketch scores, and interview scores) were calculated. Of 659 applicants, 68% participated. MSCEIT scores did not correlate with traditional measures (r = -0.06 to 0.09, P > .05), with the exception of a small correlation with wGPA in the 2007 cohort (r = -0.13, P school admission measures suggests that EI evaluates a construct fundamentally different from traits captured in our admission process.

  2. Testing the Validity of Campaign Ad Exposure Measures: A Family Planning Media Campaign in Pakistan. (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christopher E; Stephenson, Michael T; Agha, Sohail


    Although prior research has tested the nomological validity of media campaign exposure, including the related comparative validity of some measures, it has not well studied predictive validity or made extensions to other types of media campaign exposure. To help build on research in this area, the current study tested the nomological and predictive validity of 5 ad recall and recognition measures specific to the Touch condom media campaign in Pakistan. Between-effects regression of panel survey data confirmed the nomological validity of each of the 5 measures of Touch ad exposure. In addition, 2 sets of panel regression models (i.e., fixed-effects models and fixed-effects with lag models) confirmed the predictive validity of each of the 5 ad exposure measures. Results on comparative validity were quite similar for nomological and predictive validity, indicating that confirmed ad recall and recognition measures tend to have greater validity than unconfirmed measures.

  3. The Lorca Earthquake observed by GPS: a Test Case for GPS Seismology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, L.; Kehm, A.; Koppert, A.; Martin Dvaila, J.; Garate, J.; Becker, M.


    1 Hz GPS data recorded by the GNSS network of the Consejeria de Agricultura y Agua of the Murcia Region during the Mw 5.1 Lorca earthquake on May 11th 2011 is used as a test case. A Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach is applied to analyse the earthquake-induced motion of the station LORC, located close to the epicenter. The results are validated using a conventional Double Differences (DD) processing. After applying sidereal and regional filters, the detected transient motion is about 20 millimeters in each component and clearly above noise level. The results from the two different processings are compared in view of the accuracy and applicability. The PPP approach described here can potentially be used for real-time analysis e.g. based on NTRIP streaming data. It may be used to set up an early warning system, as well as to gain real-time knowledge of ongoing earthquakes, extending the already-existing seismic information obtained from classical measurements. (Author) 33 refs.

  4. Objective Tests and Their Discriminating Power in Business Courses: a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgard B. Cornachione Jr.


    Full Text Available Evaluating students’ learning experiences outcomes cannot be considered a simple task. This paper aims at investigating students’ overall performance and the discriminating power of particular tests’ items in the context of business courses. The purpose of this paper is to contribute with this issue while analyzing it, with scientific approach, from an accounting information systems standpoint: two experiments based on a database management system (DBMS undergraduate course, involving 66 and 62 students (experiments E1 and E2, respectively. The discriminant analysis generated discriminant functions with high canonical correlations (E1=0.898 and E2= 0.789. As a result, high percentages of original grouped cases were correctly classified (E1=98.5% and E2= 95.2% based on a relatively small number of items: 7 out of 22 items from E1 (multiple-choice, and 3 out of 6 from E2 (short-answer. So, with only a few items from the analyzed instruments it is possible todiscriminate “good” or “bad” academic performance, and this is a measure of quality of the observed testing instruments. According to these findings, especially in business area, instructors and institutions, together, are able to analyze and act towards improving their assessment methods, to be of minimum influence whileevaluating students’ performance.

  5. Reliability of a test measuring transversus abdominis muscle recruitment with a pressure biofeedback unit. (United States)

    von Garnier, Katharina; Köveker, Kirstin; Rackwitz, Berid; Kober, Ulrike; Wilke, Sabine; Ewert, Thomas; Stucki, Gerold


    There are indications that segmental stabilising exercises (SSEs) are effective in the treatment of low back pain. The evaluation of successful training in SSE performance in patients requires a reliable outcome measure. The PRONE test gives an indication of the activity of the transversus abdominis muscle. Performed in prone lying using a pressure biofeedback unit, it has been used as an aid to training and to assess the subject's ability to perform SSEs correctly. To evaluate inter-observer and test-retest reliability of the PRONE test. Repeated measures by three observers on 2 days. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich, Germany. Forty nurses (39 females and one male), aged between 24 and 62 years, with at least one episode of low back pain. During the test, movement of the abdominal wall was monitored by measuring a change in pressure during muscle contraction termed 'abdominal hollowing'. Defined observation and palpation criteria were verified by the observers to ensure correct execution of the test. Participants were tested on two separate days. On the first day, Observer A performed two similar test sets, each with four exercises. On the second test day, Observers B and C conducted one test set each. This study found an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20 to 0.67] for inter-observer reliability, and an ICC of 0.81 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.90) for test-retest reliability. Kappa values and the limits of agreement were also calculated with similar results. For this subject group, the PRONE test had relatively low inter-observer reliability but, as may be expected, higher test-retest reliability. It is suggested that by providing visual feedback, the PRONE test may enhance patients' insight into their deep abdominal muscle recruitment and thereby increase their motivation to exercise.

  6. The utility of the Kohlman Evaluation of Living Skills test is associated with substantiated cases of elder self-neglect. (United States)

    Pickens, Sabrina; Naik, Aanand D; Burnett, Jason; Kelly, P A; Gleason, Mary; Dyer, Carmel B


    Self-neglect is the most prevalent finding among cases reported to Adult Protective Services (APS) and is characterized by an inability to meet one's own basic needs. The Kohlman evaluation of living skills (KELS) has been validated in geriatric populations to assess performance with both instrumental and basic activities of daily living and as an assessment tool for the capacity to live independently; therefore, the purpose of this analysis was to compare the scores of the KELS between substantiated cases of self-neglect and matched community-dwelling elders. This is a cross-sectional pilot study of 50 adults aged 65 years and older who were recruited from APS as documented cases of self-neglect and 50 control participants recruited from Harris County Hospital District outpatient clinics. Control participants were matched for age, race, gender, and ZIP code. A geriatric nurse practitioner (NP)-led team administered a comprehensive geriatric assessment in homes of all study participants. The assessment included the KELS and mini-mental state examination (MMSE) tests. Chi-square analyses were used to determine if cases of self-neglect were significantly more likely to fail the KELS test than matched controls. The analyses revealed that self-neglectors were significantly more likely to fail the KELS than non-self-neglectors (50% vs. 30%, p = .025). When stratified by MMSE scores, self-neglectors with intact cognitive function remained significantly more likely to fail the KELS compared to matched, cognitively intact controls (45% vs. 17%, p = .013). Abnormal results using an in-home KELS test were significantly associated with substantiated cases of self-neglect. There is currently no gold-standard measure for identifying capacity with self-care behaviors among cases of self-neglect. As a result, self-neglect may remain unidentified in many clinical settings. The KELS provides clinicians with an objective measure of an individual's capacity and performance with

  7. Investigating different similarity measures for a case-based reasoning classifier to predict breast cancer (United States)

    Bilska-Wolak, Anna O.; Floyd, Carey E., Jr.


    This paper investigates the effects of using different similarity measures for a case-based reasoning (CBR) classifier to predict breast cancer. The CBR classifier used a mammographer's BI-RADSTM description of a lesion to predict breast biopsy outcome. The classifier compared the case to be examined to a reference collection of cases and identified those that were similar. The decision variable was formed as the ratio of similar cases that were malignant to all similar cases. A reference collection of 1027 biopsy-proven cases from Duke University Medical Center was used as input. Both Euclidean and Hamming distance measures were compared using all possible combinations of nine BI-RADSTM features and age. Performance was evaluated using jackknife sampling and ROC analysis. For all combinations of features, it was found that Euclidean distance measure produced greater ROC areas and partial ROC areas than Hamming. The differences were significant at an alpha level of 0.05. The greatest ROC area of 0.82 +/- 0.01 was generated using six of the features and Euclidean distance measure. The results of both distance measures yielded greater ROC areas than previously reported values and were similar to results generated with an Artificial Neural Network using 10 features.

  8. GNSS tomography and assimilation test cases during the 2013 Central Europe floods (United States)

    Moeller, Gregor; Wittmann, Christoph; Yan, Xin; Weber, Robert


    GNSS tomography is a technique which allows to reconstruct refractivity fields of atmospheric water vapor from observations of a dense ground-network of GNSS receivers. Dependent on the network and the observation geometry (station density, satellites in view, …) a more or less detailed picture of the current distribution of water vapor in the atmosphere can be retrieved. In order to identify the potential of the tomography technique two study areas in the mountainous and the rather flat region of Austria have been selected and the observations of existing GNSS reference stations in these areas were preprocessed. Different reconstruction methods (least squares, multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique), a priori refractivity fields and weights have been tested to identify a precise and robust setting. A first validation has been carried out by comparing the tomography refractivity fields with refractivities derived from passive radiometer measurements in the Inn Valley, Austria. The reconstructed wet refractivity fields were assimilated into the numerical weather prediction (NWP) model AROME - operated at the Central Institution for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG) - using a combined 1DVAR/3DVAR approach. By comparing different model runs with and without considering these additional observations a significant impact on the forecast field was identified. To get a more detailed picture the changes in the distribution of specific humidity, temperature and accumulated precipitation were analyzed to see whether these parameters can be predicted more reliable by assimilating GNSS derived wet refractivity fields. In this presentation we will highlight some test cases in May and June 2013. Thereby we will focus on settings which have been defined to derive the improved refractivity fields, the quality of the tomography results and its potential for assimilation into NWP models.

  9. Helium mass flow measurement in the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baylor, L.R.


    The measurement of helium mass flow in the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility (IFSMTF) is an important aspect in the operation of the facility's cryogenic system. Data interpretation methods that lead to inaccurate results can cause severe difficulty in controlling the experimental superconducting coils being tested in the facility. This technical memorandum documents the methods of helium mass flow measurement used in the IFSMTF for all participants of the Large Coil Program and for other cryogenic experimentalists needing information on mass flow measurements. Examples of experimental data taken and calculations made are included to illustrate the applicability of the methods used.

  10. The Errors Caused by Test Site Configuration at the Radiated Emission Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Bittera


    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is very important to know and to keep uncertainty of EMC measurements at low value to ensure the comparability of measurement results from different laboratories. This paper deals with analysis of uncertainties caused by improper test site configuration - especially by receiving antenna positioning. The analysis is performed at frequency range witch biconical broadband antenna works in and it is based on measurements. Nevertheless, it can be more simple to get results using theoretical analysis, but is does not include the test site properties.

  11. Comparative study of Widal test against stool culture for typhoid fever suspected cases in southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameya G


    Full Text Available Gemechu Ameya,1 Edemew Atalel,2 Berhanu Kebede,3 Bethel Yohannes4 1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Arba Minch, 2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Durbetie Primary Hospital, Amahara, 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Dalifage Primary Hospital, Afar, 4Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Hayilemariyam Hospital, Adama, Ethiopia Introduction: Infection caused by Salmonella enterica subsp. serotype Typhi remains an important public health problem in developing countries. Culture is an effective diagnostic method of confirming this infection. Diagnosis in developing countries is mostly done by Widal test, which is nonreliable. The aim of this study was to compare the Widal test against stool culture in typhoid-suspected cases and to evaluate the agreement between test methods.Methodology: A cross-sectional study design was conducted on typhoid-suspected cases in southern Ethiopia. Collected data were entered into Epi-Info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20.0 for further analysis. Kappa test was used to assess the agreement between the tests. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV were calculated to compare the Widal test against stool culture.Results: A total of 95 patients participated in the study, of whom 49 (51.6% were females and 46 (48.4% were males. The age range of the suspected cases were between 10 and 62 years, with mean age of 27.9 years. Of the examined cases, 65 (68.4% were positive for slide agglutination Widal test, whereas only 19 (20.0% were positive for S. enterica serotype Typhi by stool culture. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of slide agglutination test against stool culture were 84.2%, 35.5%, 24.6%, and 90.0%, respectively. Slide agglutination test has a poor agreement with the stool culture (kappa = 0.103, but tube titration test has a fair agreement with the

  12. Economic and environmental analysis of energy efficiency measures in agriculture, Case Studies and trade offs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Voort, van der M.P.J.; Stanghellini, C.; Ellen, H.H.; Klop, A.; Wemmenhove, H.


    This report illustrates case studies with an in-depth analysis of the interactions of energy efficiency measures with farm economics and the environmental impact (GHG) of the measures across Europe. The analyses followed a common methodology considering the farm gate as the system boundary.

  13. Measures of progress for collaboration: case study of the Applegate Partnership. (United States)

    Su. Rolle


    Using the Applegate Partnership as a case study, this paper proposes a number of ways to measure the success of collaborative groups. These measures allow for providing evaluation and feedback, engaging needed participants, and responding to groups critical of the collaborative process. Arguing for the concept of progress in place of success, this paper points out that...

  14. Idealized tropical cyclone simulations of intermediate complexity: A test case for AGCMs


    Kevin Reed; Christiane Jablonowski


    The paper introduces a moist, deterministic test case of intermediate complexity for Atmospheric General Circulation Models (AGCMs). We suggest pairing an AGCM dynamical core with simple physical parameterizations to test the evolution of a single, idealized, initially weak vortex into a tropical cyclone. The initial conditions are based on an initial vortex seed that is in gradient-wind and hydrostatic balance. The suggested ``simple-physics'' package consists of parameterizations of bulk ae...

  15. Standard test method for calibration of surface/stress measuring devices

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    Return to Contents page 1.1 This test method covers calibration or verification of calibration, or both, of surface-stress measuring devices used to measure stress in annealed and heat-strengthened or tempered glass using polariscopic or refractometry based principles. 1.2 This test method is nondestructive. 1.3 This test method uses transmitted light, and therefore, is applicable to light-transmitting glasses. 1.4 This test method is not applicable to chemically tempered glass. 1.5 Using the procedure described, surface stresses can be measured only on the “tin” side of float glass. 1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  16. Correlation between stated and measured concentrations of acrylate and methacrylate allergens in patch-test preparations. (United States)

    Goon, Anthony Teik-Jin; Bruze, Magnus; Zimerson, Erik; Sörensen, Osten; Goh, Chee-Leok; Koh, David Soo-Quee; Isaksson, Marléne


    Contact allergy to acrylates and methacrylates is not uncommon. The allergy is confirmed by patch-testing patients with commercial patch-test preparations. To investigate acrylate and methacrylate allergens used for patch testing in nine different dermatology departments from Europe, America, Asia, and Australia. The acrylate and methacrylate (methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxypropyl acrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, and triethylene glycol diacrylate) allergen samples were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography to measure the allergen content. Variation in measured versus stated concentrations was seen in these samples. The ratio of measured to stated concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 1.1. Only 22 (63%) of 35 samples were within the arbitrary acceptable limits of 80 to 120% of the stated concentrations. The results may have implications for individual diagnosis and prevention and when test results from various centers are compared.

  17. Phasor Measurement Unit Test and Applications for Small Signal Stability Assessment and Improvement of Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiga, Radu

    to be less predictable. Therefore, the methods used for stability and security assessment will most likely use information from the wide-area measurements systems (WAMS). The work presented in this thesis deals on one hand with the development of test methods and validation of phasor measurement units (PMUs......) which are considered to be one of the key technologies in WAMS, and on the other hand with the possibility of using PMU measurements together with large wind power plants (WPPs) to help improve the damping of inter area oscillations. To validate the PMUs, a laboratory test setup is assembled....... The hardware components are capable of generating, with the required accuracy, the test signals injected in the PMUs. The signals are created according to the requirements defined in the current IEEE C37.118.1-2011 standard, to test the steady-state and dynamic compliance of the PMUs. The performance...

  18. Catheter-based flow measurements in hemodialysis fistulas - Bench testing and clinical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Søren T; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to perform bench and clinical testing of a catheter-based intravascular system capable of measuring blood flow in hemodialysis vascular accesses during endovascular procedures. Methods: We tested the Transonic ReoCath Flow Catheter System which uses...... the thermodilution method. A simulated vascular access model was constructed for the bench test. In total, 1960 measurements were conducted and the results were used to determine the accuracy and precision of the catheters, the effects of external factors (e.g., catheter placement, injection duration), and to test....... Blood flow measurements provide unique information on the hemodynamic status of a vascular access and have the potential to optimize results of interventions....

  19. A New Design of the Test Rig to Measure the Transmission Error of Automobile Gearbox (United States)

    Hou, Yixuan; Zhou, Xiaoqin; He, Xiuzhi; Liu, Zufei; Liu, Qiang


    Noise and vibration affect the performance of automobile gearbox. And transmission error has been regarded as an important excitation source in gear system. Most of current research is focused on the measurement and analysis of single gear drive, and few investigations on the transmission error measurement in complete gearbox were conducted. In order to measure transmission error in a complete automobile gearbox, a kind of electrically closed test rig is developed. Based on the principle of modular design, the test rig can be used to test different types of gearbox by adding necessary modules. The test rig for front engine, rear-wheel-drive gearbox is constructed. And static and modal analysis methods are taken to verify the performance of a key component.

  20. Measured maximal oxygen uptake in a multi-stage shuttle test and treadmill-run test in trained athletes. (United States)

    Aziz, A R; Chia, M Y H; Teh, K C


    The aims of the study were: i) to compare the measured maximal oxygen uptake (MVO2max) during the 20 m multi-stage shuttle test (MST) with MVO2max during an incremental treadmill-run test (TRT), and ii) to establish the reliability of MVO2max during MST, in trained athletes. 8 well-trained endurance-athletes (END) and 8 athletes involved in team games (GAM) performed the MST twice (i.e. MST1 and MST2) and the TRT once, in 3 separate sessions. MVO2maxx attained in the MST and TRT was measured using a portable respiratory analyser (model K4 RQ, Cosmed). MVO2max attained in the MST and TRT were significantly different for the END athletes (4.1+/-0.28 vs 4.45+/-0.31 Lxmin-1, P0.05). The 95% limits of agreement for MVO2max in the MST in Lxmin-1 were -0.67 to 0.27. MVO2max in MST1 and MST2 were not significantly different for END athletes (4.18+/-0.39 vs 4.1+/-0.28 Lxmin-1, P>0.05) and GAM athletes (4.01+/-0.55 vs 4.01+/-0.51 Lxmin-1, P>0.05). Reliability indicators for MVO2max in Lxmin-1 for MST test-retest were: typical error (TE)=0.14, coefficient of variation (CV)=3.5 and intra-class correlation (ICC)=0.90. MVO2max in the MST was lower than that measured in the TRT for the END athletes but not for the GAM athletes. Sport-specificity was an important consideration, especially when testing END athletes for VO2max. MVO2max in the MST showed acceptable levels of reproducibility.

  1. Optoelectronic measurement system for testing the optical parameters of infrared seeker (United States)

    He, Wenjun; Liu, Zhiying; Fu, Yuegang


    We propose an optoelectronic measurement system for testing the optical parameters of infrared seeker, such as the position of the image plane, the size of the diffused spot, and the diameter of the scanning circle. The measurement method and operating principle of the optoelectronic measurement system have been introduced. The source of the stray light in the optoelectronic measurement system have been analyzed by using FRED software, and the stray light have been restricted effectively by a co-centered mica plate which closes to the substrate of pinhole. Experimental results show that the test error for the size of the diffused spot is less than +/-0.01 mm, the test errors for the position of the image plane and the diameter of the scanning circle are less than +/-0.02 mm.

  2. Comparing entropy with tests for randomness as a measure of complexity in time series

    CERN Document Server

    Gan, Chee Chun


    Entropy measures have become increasingly popular as an evaluation metric for complexity in the analysis of time series data, especially in physiology and medicine. Entropy measures the rate of information gain, or degree of regularity in a time series e.g. heartbeat. Ideally, entropy should be able to quantify the complexity of any underlying structure in the series, as well as determine if the variation arises from a random process. Unfortunately current entropy measures mostly are unable to perform the latter differentiation. Thus, a high entropy score indicates a random or chaotic series, whereas a low score indicates a high degree of regularity. This leads to the observation that current entropy measures are equivalent to evaluating how random a series is, or conversely the degree of regularity in a time series. This raises the possibility that existing tests for randomness, such as the runs test or permutation test, may have similar utility in diagnosing certain conditions. This paper compares various t...

  3. Efficiency of Switch-Mode Power Audio Amplifiers - Test Signals and Measurement Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    Switch-mode technology is greatly used for audio amplification. This is mainly due to the great efficiency this technology offers. Normally the efficiency of a switch-mode audio amplifier is measured using a sine wave input. However this paper shows that sine waves represent real audio very poorly....... An alternative signal is proposed for test purposes. The efficiency of a switch-mode power audio amplifier is modelled and measured with both sine wave and the proposed test signal as inputs. The results show that the choice of switching devices with low on resistances are unfairly favored when measuring...... the efficiency with sine waves. A 10% efficiency improvement was found for low power outputs. It is therefore of great importance to use proper test signals when measuring the efficiency....

  4. Tests examining skill outcomes in sport: a systematic review of measurement properties and feasibility. (United States)

    Robertson, Samuel J; Burnett, Angus F; Cochrane, Jodie


    A high level of participant skill is influential in determining the outcome of many sports. Thus, tests assessing skill outcomes in sport are commonly used by coaches and researchers to estimate an athlete's ability level, to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions or for the purpose of talent identification. The objective of this systematic review was to examine the methodological quality, measurement properties and feasibility characteristics of sporting skill outcome tests reported in the peer-reviewed literature. A search of both SPORTDiscus and MEDLINE databases was undertaken. Studies that examined tests of sporting skill outcomes were reviewed. Only studies that investigated measurement properties of the test (reliability or validity) were included. A total of 22 studies met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. A customised checklist of assessment criteria, based on previous research, was utilised for the purpose of this review. A range of sports were the subject of the 22 studies included in this review, with considerations relating to methodological quality being generally well addressed by authors. A range of methods and statistical procedures were used by researchers to determine the measurement properties of their skill outcome tests. The majority (95%) of the reviewed studies investigated test-retest reliability, and where relevant, inter and intra-rater reliability was also determined. Content validity was examined in 68% of the studies, with most tests investigating multiple skill domains relevant to the sport. Only 18% of studies assessed all three reviewed forms of validity (content, construct and criterion), with just 14% investigating the predictive validity of the test. Test responsiveness was reported in only 9% of studies, whilst feasibility received varying levels of attention. In organised sport, further tests may exist which have not been investigated in this review. This could be due to such tests firstly not being published in the peer

  5. A score test for determining sample size in matched case-control studies with categorical exposure. (United States)

    Sinha, Samiran; Mukherjee, Bhramar


    The paper considers the problem of determining the number of matched sets in 1 : M matched case-control studies with a categorical exposure having k + 1 categories, k > or = 1. The basic interest lies in constructing a test statistic to test whether the exposure is associated with the disease. Estimates of the k odds ratios for 1 : M matched case-control studies with dichotomous exposure and for 1 : 1 matched case-control studies with exposure at several levels are presented in Breslow and Day (1980), but results holding in full generality were not available so far. We propose a score test for testing the hypothesis of no association between disease and the polychotomous exposure. We exploit the power function of this test statistic to calculate the required number of matched sets to detect specific departures from the null hypothesis of no association. We also consider the situation when there is a natural ordering among the levels of the exposure variable. For ordinal exposure variables, we propose a test for detecting trend in disease risk with increasing levels of the exposure variable. Our methods are illustrated with two datasets, one is a real dataset on colorectal cancer in rats and the other a simulated dataset for studying disease-gene association.

  6. Coverage criteria for test case generation using UML state chart diagram (United States)

    Salman, Yasir Dawood; Hashim, Nor Laily; Rejab, Mawarny Md; Romli, Rohaida; Mohd, Haslina


    To improve the effectiveness of test data generation during the software test, many studies have focused on the automation of test data generation from UML diagrams. One of these diagrams is the UML state chart diagram. Test cases are generally evaluated according to coverage criteria. However, combinations of multiple criteria are required to achieve better coverage. Different studies used various number and types of coverage criteria in their methods and approaches. The objective of this paper to propose suitable coverage criteria for test case generation using UML state chart diagram especially in handling loops. In order to achieve this objective, this work reviewed previous studies to present the most practical coverage criteria combinations, including all-states, all-transitions, all-transition-pairs, and all-loop-free-paths coverage. Calculation to determine the coverage percentage of the proposed coverage criteria were presented together with an example has they are applied on a UML state chart diagram. This finding would be beneficial in the area of test case generating especially in handling loops in UML state chart diagram.

  7. Patch test responses to rockwool of different diameters evaluated by cutaneous blood flow measurement. (United States)

    Eun, H C; Lee, H G; Paik, N W


    Rockwool is a man-made mineral fiber used mainly for insulation, which can cause mechanical skin irritation. This study was performed to evaluate the irritant potential of rockwools of different diameters and to compare the change of blood flow, measured by laser Doppler flowmetry, at different patch test occlusion times with rockwools. Rockwool A (mean diameter 4.20 +/- 1.96 mu) was more irritating than rockwool B (mean diameter 3.20 +/- 1.5 mu). The difference was more clearly observed in a 48-h patch test than in an 8-h or 24-h test. We concluded that laser Doppler blood flow measurement was a useful experimental tool for the evaluation of irritant patch test responses to mechanical irritants like rockwool, and that 48 h or more of occlusion time was necessary to produce irritant patch test responses to certain types of rockwool.

  8. A shrinkage method for testing the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in case-control studies. (United States)

    Zang, Yong; Yuan, Ying


    Testing for the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) is often used as an initial step for checking the quality of genotyping. When testing the HWE for case-control data, the impact of a potential genetic association between the marker and the disease must be controlled for otherwise the results may be biased. Li and Li [2008] proposed a likelihood ratio test (LRT) that accounts for this potential genetic association and it is more powerful than the commonly used control-only χ² test. However, the LRT is not efficient when the marker is independent of the disease, and also requires numerical optimization to calculate the test statistic. In this article, we propose a novel shrinkage test for assessing the HWE. The proposed shrinkage test yields higher statistical power than the LRT when the marker is independent of or weakly associated with the disease, and converges to the LRT when the marker is strongly associated with the disease. In addition, the proposed shrinkage test has a closed form and can be easily used to test the HWE for large datasets that result from genome-wide association studies. We compare the performance of the shrinkage test with existing methods using simulation studies, and apply the shrinkage test to a genome-wide association dataset for Alzheimer's disease. © 2013 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  9. Design and Testing of Braided Composite Fan Case Materials and Components (United States)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Pereira, J. Michael; Braley, Michael S.; Arnold, William a.; Dorer, James D.; Watson, William R/.


    Triaxial braid composite materials are beginning to be used in fan cases for commercial gas turbine engines. The primary benefit for the use of composite materials is reduced weight and the associated reduction in fuel consumption. However, there are also cost benefits in some applications. This paper presents a description of the braided composite materials and discusses aspects of the braiding process that can be utilized for efficient fabrication of composite cases. The paper also presents an approach that was developed for evaluating the braided composite materials and composite fan cases in a ballistic impact laboratory. Impact of composite panels with a soft projectile is used for materials evaluation. Impact of composite fan cases with fan blades or blade-like projectiles is used to evaluate containment capability. A post-impact structural load test is used to evaluate the capability of the impacted fan case to survive dynamic loads during engine spool down. Validation of these new test methods is demonstrated by comparison with results of engine blade-out tests.

  10. [Three cases of perioperative anaphylaxis identified by using skin-prick tests]. (United States)

    Inoue, Kazuyoshi; Kawanishi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Hitoshi; Yatsu, Yuichi; Takebe, Sawako; Nagai, Akihiro; Matsuda, Rikiya; Hirasaki, Akihito


    We encountered three cases of perioperative anaphylaxis identified by using skin-prick tests. [Case 1] A 43-year-old woman was scheduled to undergo elective laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy under general anesthesia for gastric tumor. However, the procedure was cancelled because of anaphylaxis that was noted at the beginning of the surgery. We performed a skin-prick test and observed a positive reaction with ro- curonium. [Case 2] A 79-year-old man underwent laparoscopic colon resection under general anesthesia for colon cancer. Anaphylaxis was noted at the end of surgery. We performed a skin-prick test and observed a positive reaction with sugammadex. [Case 3] A 44-year-old woman underwent myomectomy under general anesthesia for a uterine fibroid. Anaphylaxis was noted approximately 10 minutes after the beginning of surgery. We performed a skin-prick test and noted a positive reaction with latex. It is difficult to identify the reason for anaphylaxis during surgery under general anesthesia because various agents may be responsible for the anaphylactic reaction. Anaphylaxis during surgery is a rare but life-threatening event and it is important to identify the causative agent for anaphylaxis.

  11. Skin prick test: the only predictive tool of anaphylaxis? A case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Giannetti, A; Meglio, P; Ricci, G


    .... The controlled oral food challenge remains the gold standard for food allergy diagnosis. We report a case of a girl allergic to cow's milk with low levels of specific IgE and large skin prick test wheal sizes for cow's milk...

  12. A selection of experimental test cases for the validation of CFD codes, volume 1 (United States)


    This report presents the results of a study by Working Group 14 of the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel. This group was formed to establish an accessible, detailed experimental data base for the validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. The thirty nine test cases that are documented cover the subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flow regimes and five classes of geometries. Included in the five classes of geometries are: two dimensional airfoils; three dimensional wings, designed for predominantly attached flow conditions; slender bodies, typical of missile type configurations; delta wings, characterized by a conical type of vortex flow; and complex configurations, either in a geometrical sense or because of complicated flow interactions. The report is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 provides a review of the theoretical and experimental requirements, a general introduction and summary of the test cases, and recommendations for the future. Volume 2 contains detailed information on the test cases. The relevant data of all test cases has been compiled on floppy disks, which can be obtained through National Centers.

  13. Technology Solutions Case Study: Field Testing an Unvented Roof with Fibrous Insulation and Tiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This case study by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Building Science Corporation is a test implementation of an unvented tile roof assembly in a hot-humid climate (Orlando, Florida; zone 2A), insulated with air-permeable insulation (netted and blown fiberglass).

  14. Examples of Item Banks to Support Local Test Development: Two Case Studies With Reactions. (United States)

    Estes, Gary D., Ed.

    This report and compilation of papers summarizes information collected by an Assessment Development and Use Project, initiated by the Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory (NWREL) to assist test development efforts by state and local agencies. Specific item banking applications are reported in two case studies, selected because they represent…

  15. The impact of introducing malaria rapid diagnostic tests on fever case management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruxvoort, Katia J; Leurent, Baptiste; Chandler, Clare I R


    Since 2010, the World Health Organization has been recommending that all suspected cases of malaria be confirmed with parasite-based diagnosis before treatment. These guidelines represent a paradigm shift away from presumptive antimalarial treatment of fever. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs...

  16. A test of market integration: the case of Nigerian staple foodstuffs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A test of market integration: the case of Nigerian staple foodstuffs. Rosemary N Okoh, PC Egbon. Abstract. This study attempts to obtain conclusions about the integration of the Nigerian foodstuff market system. The major pre-occupation of this study is to determine the presence and level of integration in Nigeria's foodstuff ...

  17. In situ measurement of solvent-mediated phase transformations during dissolution testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaltonen, Jaakko; Heinänen, Paula; Peltonen, Leena


    ) and measurement of the solid-state form of the dissolving solid (in situ with Raman spectroscopy). The solid phase transformations were also investigated off-line with scanning electron microscopy. TP anhydrate underwent a transformation to TP monohydrate, and NF anhydrate (form beta) to NF monohydrate (form II......In this study, solvent-mediated phase transformations of theophylline (TP) and nitrofurantoin (NF) were measured in a channel flow intrinsic dissolution test system. The test set-up comprised simultaneous measurement of drug concentration in the dissolution medium (with UV-Vis spectrophotometry...... that of NF. The presence of a water absorbing excipient, microcrystalline cellulose, was found to delay the onset of the transformation of TP anhydrate. Combining the measurement of drug concentration in the dissolution medium with the solid phase measurement offers a deeper understanding of the solvent...

  18. Development and testing of highway storm-sewer flow measurement and recording system (United States)

    Kilpatrick, F.A.; Kaehrle, W.R.; Hardee, Jack; Cordes, E.H.; Landers, M.N.


    A comprehensive study and development of measuring instruments and techniques for measuring all components of flow in a storm-sewer drainage system was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey under the sponsorship of the Federal Highway Administration. The study involved laboratory and field calibration and testing of measuring flumes, pipe insert meters, weirs, electromagnetic velocity meters as well as the development and calibration of pneumatic-bubbler pressure transducer head measuring systems. Tracer-dilution and acoustic flow meter measurements were used in field verification tests. A single micrologger was used to record data from all the above instruments as well as from a tipping-bucket rain gage and also to activate on command the electromagnetic velocity meter and tracer-dilution systems. (Author 's abstract)

  19. A temperature compensated dielectric test cell for accurately measuring the complex permittivity of liquids (United States)

    Risos, Alex; Long, Nicholas; Gouws, Gideon


    A measurement of the complex permittivity, ɛr, of a liquid can give valuable information about the molecular polarizability and dielectric losses. This can be obtained by means of an impedance measurement using a parallel plate test cell. However, highly accurate and precise measurements are challenging, in particular when measuring as a function of temperature. Thermal expansion affects the geometry of a test cell and thus the measured capacitance from which ɛr is calculated. In this paper, a broadband four-terminal dielectric test cell is presented that is insensitive to temperature fluctuations. This was achieved by means of a cell geometry exploiting the thermal expansion coefficient of different materials. Experimental measurements on the manufactured cell yielded a stable capacitance of 35.322 ± 0.001 pF across 20 °C-90 °C. The capacitance stayed within ±0.01 pF over multiple experimental cycles of cleaning and assembly. A finite element modeling showed a theoretical accuracy in measuring ɛr better than 99.995%. The measured ɛr values for a number of standard liquids showed an agreement of 99.7% compared to literature values.

  20. Discussions On Worst-Case Test Condition For Single Event Burnout (United States)

    Liu, Sandra; Zafrani, Max; Sherman, Phillip


    This paper discusses the failure characteristics of single- event burnout (SEB) on power MOSFETs based on analyzing the quasi-stationary avalanche simulation curves. The analyses show the worst-case test condition for SEB would be using the ion that has the highest mass that would result in the highest transient current due to charge deposition and displacement damage. The analyses also show it is possible to build power MOSFETs that will not exhibit SEB even when tested with the heaviest ion, which have been verified by heavy ion test data on SEB sensitive and SEB immune devices.